Masonic Research Society
of the American Masonic Federation in the United States Court
By Bro. Charles C. Hunt,
Deputy Grand Secretary. Iowa
BUILDER for September Brother Hunt gave a general statement of the
Federation Case: in the issue for October he made a critical
examination of the
claims of that body to the higher degrees: he now furnishes an account
of the manner
in which the affairs of that organization, masquerading as Masonic,
to the attention of Federal authorities, and of the action taken in
A careful study of this series of articles, the fourth and last of
which will be
published next month, will give a reader a clear insight into some of
the most important
principles of Masonic jurisprudence.
THOMSON, head of the self-styled American Masonic Federation, sent out
all over the country whose duty it was to organize lodges and confer
The charge for the Craft degrees ranged from $35.00 up to $50.00 or
more, the usual
charge being about $50.00. For the Scottish Rite degrees from the
Fourth to the
Thirty-Third the charge was from $135.0 to $200.00. Sometimes the
Shrine and Templar
degrees were given for this amount, sometimes not.
these organizers in different cities would be arrested by the police on
of obtaining money under false pretenses. Sometimes convictions were
had, but usually
these convictions were hard to obtain, for the reason that it was
difficult to disprove
statements made by Thomson and his organizers. This difficulty existed
a lack of knowledge on the part of Masons called to testify in such
In 1915 one
of these organizers by the name of Ranson was arrested in St. Louis.
The Post Office
Inspector in charge in St. Louis learned of the case, and concluded
that it was
a matter for the United States Government to take up since it involved
use of the mails. He therefore assigned one of his inspectors, Brother
Price, to investigate the matter. Brother Price was not able to enter
this work until 1919; from that time until the trial last May he spent
much of his
time making an investigation in various parts of this country, and even
Scotland and to France.
As a result
of his investigations, an indictment was found in the District Court of
States against Matthew McBlain Thomson, Thomas Perrot, Dominic Bergera
Jamieson, and the case was brought to trial in the United States
at Salt Lake City, Utah. As the regular judge in this district is a
Wade of Iowa was assigned to try the case and he impressed all who
trial with his absolute fairness to both the prosecution and the
of this article attended this trial, and procured a stenographic copy
of the proceedings.
Therefore, in what follows, he is speaking from his own knowledge as
well as from
the official report.
charged the defendants, Matthew McBlain Thomson, Thomas Perrot, Dominic
and Robert Jamieson, with entering into a conspiracy and using the
mails in furthering
and carrying out that conspiracy. Said defendants were officers of the
Masonic Federation and the Confederated Supreme Council, organizations
to control the Craft and higher degrees of Masonry, respectively.
charged was that of devising a scheme to defraud, in that, as set forth
in the indictment:
"Said defendants would make
verbal, fraudulent and deceptive representations regarding the
of title, power and history of said two corporations; that said
represent to the public generally throughout the United States of
America, and to
the persons so to be defrauded as aforesaid, for the purpose of
inducing such persons
to join said corporations, among other things, the following: that
and is an ancient, exclusive and honorable Fraternity of great merit
that all true and regular Freemasonry in Europe and America traces its
authority and power to the ancient lodges of England and Scotland; and
defendants would falsely and fraudulently represent, pretend and claim
American Masonic Federation and said The Confederated Supreme Councils
of the American
Masonic Federation were and are the only regular, legitimate and true
Freemason bodies in America, and that they trace their history through
true charters to legitimate Scottish Rite bodies in Scotland, which
Rite bodies themselves were and are of unimpeachable authority,
reputation and responsibility
and which reckoned their existence from time immemorial; that said
Federation had full power and authority within itself to confer what
known as the three Craft or Blue Lodge degrees and to create and
charter Craft and
Blue Lodges and Grand Lodges superimposed thereupon throughout the
of America, by virtue of the right and power contained in a charter of
from the Supreme Council A.&A.S.R. of Freemasonry for the
Sovereign and Independent
State of Louisiana, a corporation of said State of Louisiana
(hereinafter in this
indictment referred to simply as the Supreme Council of Louisiana), to
and thereafter surrendered and transferred to said American Masonic
that said Supreme Council of Louisiana itself traced its Masonic
authority and power
to Mother Lodge Kilwinning No. 0 of Scotland, represented to be the
source from which Masonic power flowed; that said American Masonic
said The Confederated Supreme Councils of the American Masonic
Federation had authority
to confer within the United States of America what are commonly called
degrees in Masonry and to create and charter consistories, councils,
tabernacles by virtue of a patent granted said Thomson by the Grand
Council of Rites
of Scotland, under date of the twentieth day of April, in the year
and ninety-eight, which said patent said Thomson had surrendered and
to said The Confederated Supreme Councils of the American Masonic
a part of and within said American Masonic Federation; that said Grand
Rites of Scotland had recognized said The Confederated Supreme Councils
of the American
Masonic Federation; that said Grand Council of Rites of Scotland was
Masonic high degree body in the world, was self-existing, the parent of
offspring of none, embracing within its bosom all rites and systems
in the course of time, been gathered around the parent stem of Scottish
and that it was a regular, legitimate and true Masonic high degree body
reputation and unquestioned authority; that said patent given by the
of Rites of Scotland to said Thomson was the first charter granted by
authority to work the Scottish Rite in America and that by virtue of
charter of authority from the Supreme Council of Louisiana and of said
the Grand Council of Rites of Scotland, heretofore described, said
Federation and said The Confederated Supreme Councils of the American
had the only legitimate and direct chain of title and authority of any
Rite Masons in America, that they alone in America were in regular
the Scottish Rite degrees, and that, because of their power and
upon the alleged charter and the patent aforesaid, they alone in
America could confer
true, genuine and regular Scottish Rite degrees from the First to the
inclusive; that said defendants, by themselves and their agents and
names of said agents and employees being to the Grand Jurors unknown,
their names are omitted from this indictment, in the name of and by
from, said American Masonic Federation, would pretend to grant charters
legitimate, regular and authoritative origin, and to create
groups and organizations of supposedly regular Masonry, and would
pretend to confer
legitimate Scottish Rite Masonic degrees upon all such persons as
might, by means
of said false and fraudulent representations, pretensions and claims,
to apply for and purchase the same and to transfer to said defendants,
or employees sums of money therefor; and to aid and assist in
conferring said pretended
and fraudulent degrees, and as a part of said scheme and artifice to
defendants would make and print, and cause to be made and printed
certificates and commissions purporting to give to the holders and
true and genuine Masonic degrees, rites, powers and authority; that
a part of said scheme and artifice to defraud, and to aid in executing
and to convey and communicate to persons so to be defrauded the
herein alleged, the said defendants would print and cause to be printed
throughout the United States, books, pamphlets and statements which
would be artfully
and carefully prepared, containing pictures of alleged true charters of
and affiliation to said Thomson and said corporations so as to mislead
the persons who might read them and induce such persons to join said
Federation or The Confederated Supreme Councils of the American Masonic
or any of their several branches, subdivisions, lodges or chapters, in
and with the understanding that they were joining institutions having
genuine and legitimate history, power and authority, which, as
said defendants would claim and represent them to have; that further,
as a part
of said scheme and artifice to defraud, said defendants would publish
and cause to be published and printed, at Salt Lake City aforesaid, in
of said corporations a monthly journal or magazine entitled, "The
Freemason," which said journal or magazine should be published every
throughout said period of time at Salt Lake City aforesaid and should
by means of the post-office establishment of the United States
throughout the United
States of America and should be sold to the persons to be defrauded as
that said magazine should contain cunningly and carefully prepared
statements in support of the claims and pretensions of said defendants,
stated, and should be made by said defendants with the hope and
credulous and uninformed persons, to whom said magazine or some of the
might come, would be attracted by their alluring and misleading
statements and thereby
induced to join said corporations, or their subdivisions, lodges,
chapters or branches,
and to pay said defendant or said corporations, the fees required as a
for so joining; and that all said printed charters, diplomas,
books, pamphlets, and magazines are too numerous, voluminous and
lengthy to be set
out in this indictment in full and are for that reason omitted by this
"That said defendants and each
of them throughout
the period of time hereinbefore alleged, well knew of the falsity and
and misleading character of said representations, claims and pretenses
and of the
falsity and fraudulent character and purpose of said artifice, scheme
and that all and regular of the false and fraudulent statements,
and pretenses hereinbefore set forth, would be and were intended by
to be made, done and practiced for the fraudulent purpose on the part
of said defendants
and each and all of them to deceive the said persons so to be
defrauded, and fraudulently
to induce said persons, and each of them, to pay sums of money to said
their agents or employees, or to said The American Masonic Federation
and said The
Confederated Supreme Councils of the American Masonic Federation in
return for membership
or degrees in either or both of said corporations, and to cheat and
persons so to be defrauded as aforesaid, with the intent then and there
on the part
of said defendants fraudulently obtained, in whole or in part, to the
and benefit of said defendants and each of them, and of said other
persons to the
Grand Jury unknown, with whom said defendants conspired, as aforesaid.
conspiracy of defendants was continuous in nature and in purpose and
in existence and in the process of execution by said defendants
throughout all the
time from and after the said first day of May, in the year nineteen
eighteen, until and including the day of the finding and presentation
of this indictment,
three named defendants only were on trial. Robert Jamieson did his part
of the work
in Scotland and could not be reached by the courts in this country. He
a member of a regular Masonic lodge under the Grand Lodge of Scotland.
In 1914 he
was expelled by that Grand Lodge for his part in this scheme. However,
to sign diplomas and certificates issued by this organization, thus
giving the Impression
that the authority claimed from Scotland was genuine.
The First Witness
witness called by the Government was Brother Monte G. Price, the Post
residing at St. Louis, Mo. He testified that he had been assigned to
this case by his superior officer in 1915, but had not been able to do
on it until four years later. On August 6, 1919, he interviewed the
obtained from them a written statement of the source of their claimed
which was substantially similar to that stated above. He found that the
from the Grand Council of Rites, which was quoted in the preceding
the only authority Thomson had or claimed to have for conferring the
from the Fourth to the Thirty-Third inclusive. He also found that the
he had or claimed to have for conferring the Craft degrees was the
on the back of the Scotch patent:
Jos. N. Cheri, M.P.S.G. C. of the Supreme Council of the State of
heartily endorse the purposes on the reverse hereof.
M.P.S.G.C. of the S. C. of La,
Honourary Member of the G. C. of Rites of Scotland."
In May 1920
this patent was photographed by the Post Office Department, in New York
the following additional endorsement appeared on the back:
Sovereign Grand Commander of S. C. of La."
this Patent by the Grand Council of Rites of Scotland, extended to
cover the Craft
degrees by indorsation of the Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme
Louisiana, as given above, the Grand Lodge Inter-Montana was instituted
7th, 1907, and the Confederated Supreme Council of the Early Grand
Rite for the United States of America, on the 23rd of April, 1907."
It was proved
by two witnesses and by Thomson's own admission that Maury's signature
for the sole purpose of authenticating Cheri’s signature. Maury, who
was the successor
to Cheri as Sovereign Grand Commander, testified that the date "Dec.
1918" and the words beginning "Under this patent . . ." were not
there at the time he, Maury, signed it. Therefore, Thomson's claim that
him a charter to confer the Craft degrees had no foundation in fact
if the patent itself had been valid, and even if Cheri had the power to
charter to confer such degrees. It was shown that under the laws of the
Council of Louisiana no charter was valid unless signed by the first
and the Secretary of that body.
Maury, Sovereign Grand Commander, and Rene C. Metayer, Secretary
that the only authority given to Thomson was to heal some clandestine
and around Boston, Mass.
It is evident
that Thomson realized that he did not have the authority he claimed,
for on October
31st, 1919, he wrote to Maury asking him to sign and send to him the
so that he could have it photographed to prove his authority:
ALL WHOM THIS MAY CONCERN,
This is to
certify that I, George U. Maury, have seen and recognized the
indorsement made by
the late Illustrious Bro. Joseph M. Cheri, Sovereign Grand Commander of
Council of Louisiana on the Patent granted by the Grand Council of
Rites of Scotland
to the Illustrious Bro. Matthew McBlain Thomson confirming and
extending the powers
of said patent to cover the Symbolic degrees and that the American
created thereby is in fraternal relation with the Supreme Council of
witness my hand and seal of the Supreme Council of Louisiana
this....... day of
Sovereign Grand Commander."
he asked for this certificate so that it could be photographed. If his
given the authority he claimed, why could it not have been
photographed, as well
as a certificate, is the question that naturally arises and to which
give no satisfactory reply. As a matter of fact, it was photographed
later by the
United States Post Office authorities.
Separates From the Supreme
proposed were for the Supreme Council of Louisiana to become a
subordinate of the
American Masonic Federation and to revive Polar Star Lodge and remove
it to Salt
Lake City. The Supreme Council of Louisiana did not accede to any of
and after promises and flattery failed to bring them to terms, Thomson
In a letter
to Maury, Commander of that Supreme Council, dated December 2, 1919, he
that complaints have come to him regarding the regularity of the
Council of Louisiana. He then goes on to recite the history of the
their two bodies, but his recitation is somewhat different from the
claims he had
previously made. He virtually admits that the only authority he
received from Louisiana
was a personal endorsement of Mr. Cheri, that his connection with the
of Louisiana had given him nothing in the way of authority, and he
withdraw recognition from Maury's organization, unless he, Maury, can
the said Supreme Council is regular. Maury asked him what proof he
wanted, and Thomson
replied that the best proof he could offer would be to sign the
He goes on
to say that unless he receives a prompt reply acknowledging that
on his Patent was for the purpose of allowing him to organize lodges
and that Cheri
had power to grant such authority, he would sever all connections with
Council of Louisiana.
to write the letter demanded, and Thomson then severed relations with
Council of Louisiana; thereupon disregarding claims previously made on
he asserted that he had never claimed authority from Louisiana to
confer the Craft
degrees, but that on the contrary, he had received such authority from
Council of Rites, through the Rites of Mizraim and Memphis.
1921 he published, under the title of "Is it Ignorance or Malice?" a
that some people, including certain of his own members, were making
and unauthorized claims, which, being incapable of historical support
are maliciously seized upon by our enemies, refuted, and claimed as
whole claim to regularity of descent and Masonic standing. Among these
claims is that the Supreme Lodge works by authority of a charter
granted to it by
the Supreme Council of Louisiana. A variation of this story claims that
was granted by the Lodge Polar Star of New Orleans, La. Needless to
say, both these
stories are erroneous, and whether the result of well-meant zeal on the
ill-informed brethren or malicious perversion on the part of our local
the effect is the same, equally hurtful. Following we give the official
of our origin taken from a pamphlet circulated by the Supreme Lodge
ago, that should leave no room for misconception."
version he then gives goes on to say that his authority to confer the
came through the Scottish Grand Council of Rites having control over
Masonic rites, including those of Memphis and Mizraim, but this was
from his previous claims.
referred to as published "twelve years ago" is "Who is Who in Masonry,
and Why I am a Scottish Rite Mason," but it did not contain the
quoted until republished in 1920, when this explanation was
any intimation that it was something entirely new. On the witness stand
was asked to produce this, or any other pamphlet, published "twelve
which contained this explanation of his authority, but he could not do
it, nor could
he produce a pamphlet in which he had said substantially the same thing
the investigation by the United States Government. On the contrary, he
contended that his authority from the Grand Council of Rites was for
degrees only, and that for the Craft degrees he had been compelled to
go to the
Supreme Council of Louisiana. It was not until the officers of that
refused to confirm his claim that he repudiated them as clandestine and
other claims to authority over the Craft degrees. Witness after witness
that it was on the basis of claims made for authority over the Craft
the Supreme Council of Louisiana, behind which they believed to stand
of Mother Kilwinning Lodge of Scotland, that they had been induced to
organization. In all these representations he never intimated the fact
Supreme Council of Louisiana was an organization composed of colored
men, but gave
them the impression that it was composed of Frenchmen. Maury testified
were only two or three white men in his entire organization.
Thomson Tries To Explain
On the witness
stand Thomson attempted to explain the statements made in his writings
to the effect
that he had a charter from Louisiana by saying: "Charter is used in the
sense, as authority, a permission, a sanction, or a word of similar
in all my writings I denied receiving a charter in the sense of a
I always said it was an endorsement upon my Patent. That is the sense
in which I
used the word. The general sense of an authority." On cross examination
was asked to produce any writings prior to this investigation where he
this explanation, but he could not.
quotation from the cross examination is interesting:
You explained that is not accurate language
and that in all your writings
you have denied that you have a charter from the Supreme Council of
you please refer us to these writings?
Would I be allowed to say that I always said
that it was an indorsation
on my patent?
Will you show me any place where you had said
"I deny that we
have a charter from the Supreme Council of Louisiana.' Show me any
place where you
have ever written that until this late controversy?
I don't know where I have written it.
You don't know where you have written it?
I have written it, but I can't produce it. I
have always affirmed
the other way.
The volumes of your magazine are on the desk
there. Can you turn to
any volume where you said 'I deny that we have a charter from the
of Louisiana' until the time of this controversy?
I don't know that I could."
has been made to a pamphlet "Who is Who in Masonry, and Why I am a
Rite Mason." It was the great text-book of Thomson's organization. Many
testified that Thomson always referred to it as the answer to every
was asked him regarding his authority and as the final argument in
The preface to this pamphlet is signed by all three of the defendants,
and is as
booklet is intended for the exclusive use of members in the obedience
of the American
Masonic Federation, Inc., of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of
so that each member may be in a position to have on hand a brief
of title of our system of Masonry as descended to us by proper Masonic
from the oldest lodge of Masons known to the living world, viz., MOTHER
incidentally giving the origin of the Grand Lodges of the State or
from the cold facts of history, thus placing our members in a position
false statements that may be made to them by any person or persons, and
them to distinguish as to 'Who is Who' in Masonry.
is published by authority of the Supreme Lodge of the American Masonic
M. McB. Thomson
On the witness
stand Thomson was asked if he had read the preface to the pamphlet
it. He replied: "I can't say that I did."
You see your name there at the preface?
Quite possible. It might have been written
with a stamp. That is not
my writing. I don't see anything wrong with it.
Well, you put that out. You were publishing it
as being under your
approval, weren't you?
I am willing to accept that as stated therein.
I am willing to accept
that, because there is nothing wrong in it. It is not very lucid in its
Had you read page 8 before this magazine was
sent out to the public?
I don't remember reading, but I am willing to
accept the statements
Did you read it after it was put out to the
I read it, I think yesterday.
Have you ever read it before, Mr. Thomson?
I don't believe I did before."
sons of fair Science, impatient to learn,
What’s meant by a Mason you here may discern;
He strengthens the weak, he gives light to the blind,
And the naked he clothes ‒ is a friend to mankind.
He walks on the level of honor and truth,
And spurns the trite passions of folly and youth;
The compass and square all his frailities reprove,
And his ultimate object is brotherly love.
of capacity is the measure of sphere to either man or woman.
Elizabeth Oakes Smith
of the Middle Ages an International Society
By Bro. Cyrus Field Willard,
"Travelling Craftsmen" written for THE BUILDER by Bro. E. Ellison, the
wise Master of Balder Lodge of San Francisco, contains statements which
there are some things in Freemasonry which have escaped his notice.
nods" was a proverb among the Greeks and Brother Ellison's article
even he is unaware of recent developments in Masonry. "Balder is dead"
wailed the old Norse Saga, which lamentation Longfellow repeated, but
lives in the lodge of descendants of the sturdy Vikings at the Golden
Gate who now
plow the Pacific as their ancestors roamed the stormy Atlantic, and of
Brother Ellison is the helmsman. In his article he says:
have been gravely assured by the writers . . . that Freemasonry in
was an international association of church builders, incorporated under
issued by the Pope, granting to the society a complete monopoly in the
of religious edifices. It was said that the mysteries of Gothic
operative and speculative, were the particular secrets of the
corporation and whenever
a new cathedral or other religious house was contemplated, requisitions
and specifications must he made to the headquarters of the body," etc.
this further statement which seems to be contradicted by the fact:
alas, the belief in the existence of an international corporation of
been shattered and swept into the dust heap by Robert F. Gould, the
together with many other venerable cobwebs which had gathered around
and arches of the Masonic edifice and thus prevented us from viewing
in the light of true history.
demonstrates conclusively that 'International Freemasonry' in the
Middle Ages is
a fiction. Careful search in the archives of the Vatican has failed to
light the slightest evidence that the Masonic Craft has ever received
honors or favors from the pope; and the only basis for the belief in
seems to be that at various times popes' and prelates (?) issued bulls
indulgences to persons who should make liberal donations of money,
lands or labor,
to churches in course of construction. Nor has anyone been successful
the headquarters of this 'international society'."
the German Steinmetzen (Freemasons) were along more than local lines.
In 1549 they
It is evident
from the above statements that Brother Ellison is not in touch with
in Masonic research. There is no question in the minds of those
qualified to judge
that "The Builders" by Brother Joseph Fort Newton, the first editor of
this Journal, is a book which represents ripe scholarship and his
summation of the
most careful research up to the present time. He locates the
headquarters of this
international society on the island of Comacina of Lake Como, in
lies in the northern part of Italy on the borders of Switzerland. He
to the great work, "The Cathedral Builders," by Leader Scott [Lib 1899], and "Further Notes on the
Comacine Masters," [Lib*] by Brother W. Ravenscroft.
fault with Robert Freke Gould is that he is unwilling to accept
evidence that would be conclusive in a court of law. In the very nature
in dealing with Masonic subjects, our obligation prevents us from
and fully with such matters and the prohibition against "cutting,
writing or printing any of the arts, parts or points" was more strictly
in olden days than now. This difficulty of supplying openly the
by such natures as Gould's occurred to my mind recently while listening
to an address
by Brother H. L. Haywood before a meeting of members of our lodges in
I said to him afterwards, jokingly, that if he had not been talking to
of Masons, it was a question whether he would have been understood and
which he submitted then in elaboration of the many points in his
lecture would have been regarded as having no evidential value.
Ellison makes this sweeping statement that anything in Masonry is a
him remember that Troy was a myth until Schliemann came. It is
surprising that he
should bring in such negative evidence as that because the desired
evidence in favor
was not found in the "archives of the Vatican," hence the organization
never had the powers attributed. The fallacy of such argument can be
shown by a
question: "Supposing such evidence had existed in the archives of the
down to the time of the issuance of the bull by Pope Clement in 1738,
have been allowed to exist after that time?" Then again, there having
two and even three popes at the same time and the records having been
Avignon and elsewhere and burned by the many captors of Rome, would it
been possible for such powers to have been in existence at one time and
But let me
give some positive evidence. I find in Clavel the following:
colleges (of Rome) enlisted up to the time of the fall of the empire in
vigor. The invasion of the barbarians reduced them to a small number;
and they continued
to decline so much that it was these ignorant and ferocious men who
the cult of their gods. But when they were converted to Christianity,
flourished anew. The (Christian) priests who caused themselves to be
as honorary members and as patrons, impressed a useful impulse on them
them actively in building churches and convents in Italy. They appeared
time under the name of 'free corporations' and 'fraternities.'
"The most celebrated were those
and on in Muratori, that they had acquired such a superiority that the
'magistri comacini', 'masters of Como,' had become a generic name for
all the members
of the corporations of architects. Their primitive organization had
up to then. They had always their secret instruction and their
mysteries, that they
called 'Kabala'; they had their jurisdictions and their private judges;
and their franchises.
"Very soon their number was
and Lombardy, which they had covered with religious edifices, sufficed
no more to
contain them all. Some among them were united and this constituted one
association or fraternity with the purpose of going to exercise their
the Alps in all the countries where Christianity, recently established,
churches and monasteries. The popes seconded this design; it suited
them to aid
in the propagation of the faith by the majestic spectacle of vast
by all the prestige of the arts, with which they surrounded the new
cult. They conferred
then on the new corporation, and on those which were formed afterwards
same object, a monopoly which embraced the whole of Christendom and
which they supported
with all the guarantees and all the inviolability which their spiritual
permitted them to impress on it. The diplomas which they delivered to
to the corporations accorded to them protection and exclusive privilege
religious edifices; they conceded to them 'the right to erect (or
and uniquely from the popes,' and freed them 'from all the local laws
royal edicts, and municipal regulations concerning either the taxes or
imposition obligatory on the inhabitants of the country.' The members
of the corporations
had the privilege 'to fix, themselves, the amount of their salaries (or
to regulate exclusively in their general chapters, all that which
their interior government.' It was forbidden 'to any artist who was not
into the society to establish any competition to its prejudice, and to
to sustain his subjects in such a rebellion against the Church.' And it
enjoined on all 'to respect these letters of creation and to obey these
under penalty of excommunication.' The pontiffs sanctioned such
by 'the example of Hiram, king of Tyre, when he sent the architects to
in order to build the temple of Jerusalem.'"
I have given
this quotation from Clavel so amply because it shows he was better
a historian in some respects than R. Freke Gould, inasmuch as he
possibilities of the Comacine Masters and gave them their due emphasis
at that period
of architectural knowledge long before modern scholars had appreciated
Also, he gives in quotation marks certain rights and privileges and
which he is evidently quoting from the diploma he refers to, and it is
had certain sources of information before him which he could not name
some reason now not known to us.
Now let us
refer to Rebold, another French historian, in his work, "Histoire des Trois Grand Lodges de
Francs-Maçons en France," [Lib 1864 (French)] (History of the Three Grand
Lodges of Free
Masons in France), Paris, 1864, page 28, from which I translate the
"After the terrors of the year
was a superstition then that the world was coming to an end at the end
of the year
1000) society emerged from its long lethargy and suffered a veritable
They renewed nearly everywhere the religious edifices of the Christian
great number were demolished in order to be rebuilt. It is then that
of Lombardy (Lake Como is in Lombardy) demanded from the pope the
renewal of their
ancient privileges [Note: King Rotharius of Lombardy in 643, issued a
giving the Comacine Masters certain rights and privileges as a
corporate body. See
"The Builders," [Lib 1914] J. F. Newton] which the Roman
enjoyed and the pope accorded these to them with the exclusive monopoly
religious monuments in all Christendom; it is then also that they
expanded in all
the Christian countries of the south.
a part of the members of these corporations belonged to a communion
opposed to the
popes, these monopolies, of which the first was decreed to them by
Boniface IV in
614, have nevertheless been confirmed to them and preserved since
Nicholas III (1277)
up to Benedict XII (1334)."
quotes all the special wording given by Clavel without mentioning the
name of Clavel,
showing he had been all over the same ground and in addition gives the
cited. He is much quoted by Gould as a reliable historian except where
sides with one of the Grand Lodges of France of which he was a violent
In his chapter
on the Stonemasons of Germany page 176, vol. 1, History of Freemasonry
Vol 1], Robert Freke Gould says:
"A remarkable tradition appears
been prevalent from the earliest times, viz, that the stonemasons had
privileges from the popes. Heideloff gives, amongst the confirmation of
already cited, two papal bulls, viz., from Pope Alexander VI, Rome,
1502; Pope Leo X, pridie calendarium Januarii 1517.
Die Bauhütte des Mittelalters [Lib 1844 (German)] also says that they received
indulgence from Pope Nicholas III, which was renewed by all his
successors up to
Benedict XIII, covering the period from 1277 to 1334."
Gould then goes on to describe the various
efforts of Moss and Krause to find copies, and
how Governor Pownall obtained permission to search the archives of the
The latter was politely assisted by one of the Vatican attendants.
does not tell his readers that Governor Pownall after his unsuccessful
the Vatican still asserted his beliefs that these bulls were issued and
be in existence somewhere.
Now let us
examine Gould's great iconoclastic efforts so eloquently described by
Personally I have not much use for iconoclasts. They were the ones who
the beautiful statues of Grecian art and got their name from that
pursuit of destroying
images which apparently (judging by present day art) can never be
iconoclastic effort is contained in the following mild and innocuous
which the "great iconoclast" does, in the words of Nick Bottom, the
"roar as gently as any sucking dove" by saying on page 177, vol. 1,
"But whether or not the
on any solid foundation it is certain that the Church, by holding out
to time special inducements, sought to attract both funds and labour
for the erection
of its special cathedrals and some of these tempting offers were not
with strict morality."
He was not
even able to find a copy of the bull issued by Pope Innocent IV on May
was reason for all this. Apparently, for some reason, Gould did not
want to acknowledge
that these bulls were issued and thus lay the foundation for the reason
Freemasons, relying on the prerogatives granted by the popes, had
opposed the statutes
of England which tried to regulate their wages in opposition to the
them by the popes to fix the amount of their own wages. This they did
was Roman Catholic and it may be that Gould, now that English
Freemasonry is Protestant
and ruled by the royal family, did not want to show that the Masons
against the royal authority. What Gould thinks of such an action is
shown in his
description of a French lodge which admitted "the notorious Paul Jones"
as he terms one who is regarded in America as a national hero.
What is his
comment on the statement made by Heideloff, whom he acknowledges a
worthy and accurate
historian, when Hiedeloff tells about Herr Osterrieth, one of the last
of the Steinmetzen
of Strassburg, being initiated into a lodge of Freemasons in Germany
assisted in the initiatory ceremonies? Heideloff says that Osterrieth
told him after
he had been initiated that the grip of the entered apprentice and that
of the Steinmetzen
was identical. Gould says in view of these facts (which if inquired
into might have
shown that the Steinmetzen originated from the freemasons who were
from the York Cathedral in 782 by Alcuin after the cathedral had been
such a thing was impossible and if it were true he had no right to tell
Gould Not Accurate
In the very
beginning; of his chapter on the Steinmetzen, Gould says:
"Fallou gives a long list of
convents erected by the devout men from the British Isles and other
holy men. Then
came Charlemagne and taught the German tribes to build cities and
Chapelle, Ildesheim, etc.)."
This is just
about as accurate as Gould is about many things. He gathers a great
heap of materials
but makes no accurate deductions from what he has gathered and misses
of a revealing nature among the great mass of citations he has heaped
up with an
evident purpose of impressing his readers with his scholarship.
could not teach anyone. He was so ignorant that Alcuin, the mason-monk
Cathedral School of York, England, was obliged to teach him to write
his own name
and there is an amusing word picture in the life of Alcuin of
his features up while he tried to make the stiff fingers which were
used to handling
the sword encompass the pen and make it trace the regular pothooks and
It was Alcuin
who was brought up for forty years or more first as pupil and then
master in the
Cathedral School of York while the Comacine Masters brought from Rome
were rebuilding the Cathedral which had been destroyed by fire in 741
and who brought
over to France the torch of knowledge in 782 which then burned only in
introduced civilization anew into Europe among the Germanic tribes. He
the palace school at Aix-la-Chapelle and then was instrumental in
"seven sciences" which the Old Charges speak of through the monasteries
at Tours, Fulda, and even as far east as Salzburg. The workmen, and
the masons whom he brought over from England, at that time spread all
building monasteries, churches, convents, palaces, etc. Heideloff, who
was an architect,
writing in 1844, said that "during the time of the Anglo-Saxons, [that
during Alcuin's time,] building operations continued and their
monuments of architecture
are the finest example of the state of building during those ages. They
the science into Germany and understood building, erecting convents
In a footnote
of Gould's History, page 318, vol. 1, is a statement that in an old
life of King
Offa, which was written by Matthew Paris, who was Alcuin's king and
from whom he
obtained permission to go over to France and enter the service of
is a miniature showing King Offa giving orders to the master of the
St. Alban's cathedral is being erected and the Master holds the square
in his left hand while a perpendicular arch is being tried by a plumb
others are hewing the rough ashlar and still others are raising stones
by a windlass
and setting them in place.
words given above describe Alcuin's activities under Charlemagne and it
was he who
was responsible for the edict which Charlemagne signed which gave the
liberty to travel everywhere and erect churches and other buildings
while the other
workers were tied to the soil under the laws of the feudal system.
Alcuin was the
intellectual prime minister of Charlemagne, according to Guizot, and it
is not an
improbable conception to attribute to him the introduction of York
Germany, and thus the identity of the entered apprentice's grip of
and the grip of the Steinmetzen of Germany would be explained. Gould in
to the dead letter "which killeth" missed this as he did the inner
of Governor Pownall's words. The latter says, on page 258, "The pope
had formed them into a corporation," etc. He also is quoted on the same
of Gould's history as saying after his search in the Vatican as
recorded in Pownall's
"Archoelogia"; "I cannot however yet be persuaded but that some record
or copy of the diploma must be somewhere buried at Rome amidst some
unknown bundles or rolls."
This is the
authority on whom Gould depended and Gould is the authority on whom
depends and it is easy to see that instead of the "great iconoclast"
the belief in the existence of a bull or diploma giving certain rights
to the Freemasons
of that time that the very authority on whom Gould depended asserted
in the existence of same.
in the case warrant the belief in the existence of such grants of
rights and privileges
from the time of the Quatuor Coronate down to the time of the
completion of the
great cathedrals of the Middle Ages.
naturally would grant such privileges in order to have such edifices
recorded testimony as to the existence of diplomas or bulls granting
and privileges are so common and universal that there must be a
substratum of fact
beneath it all.
We can understand
how such diplomas or bulls would disappear after the masons had been
against by Pope Clement in 1738. But the common knowledge of their
to that time cannot be destroyed by Gould or anyone else while such
cloud of testimony
as to their previous existence persists.
of Brother Ellison's article in relation to the journeyman carpenters
Craftsmen" is interesting.
I was brought into relationship with the journeymen hatters and then
they too had a system of recognition which evidently came down from the
of France. In going into a strange hat shop, the traveler approached
journeyman (who was one who worked by the "journee," French for "day")
and said "How's trade?" who then nodded his head to or pointed toward
the shop-steward to whom the traveler went and repeated the same query
answered "Good" or "Bad" or "Fair" as the case might
be, and then asked; "Who wants to know?"
then replied: "A gentleman hatter on turn."
came back to me all through the years at times as I could not see the
and the hatters could not explain it as it was something that had come
down to them
in their association or union.
over a history of the Compagnonnage, I saw the expression used
travelling or trips after they had finished their apprenticeship as
tournee de compagnonnage" which would be pronounced "on turn-ay"
etc. Leaving off the "ay" sound as would be dropped down the years, it
would be seen that the expression "on turn," which means nothing in
would be descriptive as meaning "on tour" if taken from the French
The Knights of Labour
of Labour, an American organization which was founded in 1869 by Uriah
who was a Mason, had its signs of recognition and hailing signs, grips
with obligations and oaths taken on the Bible with due solemnity.
V. Powderly, a Roman Catholic, became its head, he submitted its ritual
work to the approval or disapproval of the dignitaries of that church
with the result
that all such secret work was eliminated. It was probably thought it
was too dangerous
to give the great mass of the working people ideas and rituals so close
As a result
the nativistic and Protestant American element withdrew and set to work
the American Federation of Labour with such success that the Knights of
now practically extinct. Now that the American Federation of Labour has
strong the clerical element in the United States is seeking at all
times to secure
control of that body by the election of a Roman Catholic as its
an occult strain about the ritual which was very appealing to those who
taken the Masonic degrees, especially in that pertaining to opening and
the general assembly, as the highest body was called. This part of the
drawn up by Stephens and modified by Victor Drury and Charles Sotheran
of New York,
the latter of whom had taken all the degrees in Masonry and was well
known to the
writer. He is quoted at great length by Madame Blavatsky in "Isis
[Lib 1891; Vol 1, Vol 2] in a long letter on Masonry.
Had it been
allowed to continue as Stephens designed with its system of recognition
craftsmen and assistance provided for them, it would undoubtedly have
grown to a
membership of five millions or more, as it did reach a membership of
over a million.
In that case,
the half-baked and undigested economic provisions that constituted its
principles would undoubtedly have been put into practical operation to
extent than they were with even greater damage to our constitutional
has opened up a very interesting subject and there is no doubt but what
much to be gleaned from members of old trade unions which have brought
and methods of recognition from past centuries. There was a journeymen
cutters' union in Boston at one time which might yield interesting
material as it
has been alleged that the Free Masons took their name from "masonne de
per," as Gould quotes it, which meant "mason of free stone." The
shipbuilders of East Boston and of Maine had also interesting
traditions and organizations
which came down the centuries from England and elsewhere.
Lewis and Louveteau, which, in their original meaning, import two very
things, have in Masonry an equivalent signification ‒ the former being
used in English,
the latter in French, to designate the son of a Mason.
word Lewis" is a term belonging to operative Masonry, and signifies an
cramp, which is inserted in a cavity prepared for the purpose in a
so as to give attachment to a pulley and hook, whereby the stone may be
raised to any height, and deposited in its proper position. In this
lewis has not been adopted as a symbol in Freemasonry, but in the
it is found among the emblems placed upon the tracing board of the
and is used in that degree as a symbol of strength, because, by its
the operative Mason is enabled to lift the heaviest stones with a
trifling exertion of physical power. Extending the symbolic allusion
the son of a Mason is in England called a Lewis," because it is his
support the sinking powers and aid the failing strength of his father,
or, as Oliver
has expressed it, "to bear the burden and heat of the day, that his
may rest in their old age, thus rendering the evening of their lives
By the Constitutions
of England, a lewis or son of a Mason may be initiated at the age of
it is required of all other candidates that they shall have arrived at
age of twenty-one. The Book of Constitutions had prescribed that no
make "any man under the age of twenty-one years, unless by a
the Grand Master or his Deputy." The Grand Lodge of England, in its
regulations, has availed itself of the license allowed by this
to confer the right of an earlier initiation on the sons of Masons.
"louveteau" signifies in French a young wolf. The application of the
to the son of a Mason is derived from a peculiarity in some of the
the Ancient Mysteries. In the mysteries of Isis, which were practiced
the candidate was made to wear the mask of a wolf's head. Hence, a wolf
and a candidate
in these mysteries were often used as synonymous terms. Macrobius, in
says, in reference to this custom, that the ancients perceived a
the sun, the great symbol in these mysteries, and a wolf, which the
at his initiation. For, he remarks, as the flocks of sheep and cattle
fly and disperse
at the sight of the wolf, so the flocks of stars disappear at the
approach of the
sun's light. The learned reader will also recollect that in the Greek
signifies both the sun and a wolf.
the candidate in the Isiac Mysteries was called a wolf, the son of a
the French lodges is called a young wolf, or a "louveteau." The
in France, like the lewis in England, is invested with peculiar
privileges. He is
also permitted to unite himself with the Order at the early age of
The baptism of a louveteau is sometimes performed by the lodge of which
is a member, with impressive ceremonies. The infant, soon after birth,
to the lodge room, where he receives a Masonic name, differing from
that which he
bears in the world; he is formally adopted by the lodge as one of its
and should he become an orphan, requiring assistance, he is supported
by the Fraternity, and finally established in life.
In this country,
these rights of a lewis or a louveteau are not recognized, and the very
until lately, scarcely known, except to a few Masonic scholars.
* * *
To the interesting
paragraphs printed above, which appeared in The American Freemasons'
November 1860, it may be added that the custom of conferring special
the sons of Master Masons in France became in time a source of trouble.
and uninitiated rough-laborer employed by Master Masons organized
bodies that became affiliated with the Compagnnonage. As time went on
laborers, jealous of the privileges enjoyed by Masters and their sons,
in bloody combats over differences, and finally were able, owing to
preponderance, to gain control of industry in general. It is probable
that the custom
of granting special privileges to their sons was one method employed by
to retain their privileges for their own families and in as small a
circle as possible.
But it is
now a time long gone in which the “lewis" thus figured in organized
conditions have so changed, and Masonry likewise, that the Fraternity
revive the “lewis" customs without in the least endangering the
the Order. And the custom would have this advantage, that it would make
for a more
compact solidarity and continuity a Freemasonry. We should in all ways
young men to follow in the footsteps of their Masonic fathers.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., District of Columbia
Richard W. Thompson
THOMPSON, patriot, protestant, and Mason was one of those stalwart
leaders of the
Republic whose memory we have too early let die. He was born in
Virginia, June 9, 1809, of English ancestry; he died in 1900 at the
great age of
ninety-one, known the country over as "Uncle Dick," and loved dearly by
all his friends, his whims and idiosyncrasies to the contrary
having received "an excellent education" he moved to Louisville,
where for a time he clerked in a store, after which he moved to Indiana
studied law at odd times and with such success that he was soon
admitted to the
bar at Bedford, Indiana. His habits, his industry, and his thrift were
soon he forged ahead, and was able, in the Yankee vernacular, "to take
of himself," which qualities made a leader of him in those early
to 1838 he was in the state legislature; and from 1841 to 1843 he was a
Representative, being a colleague of Lincoln. He again served in the
Congress from 1847 to 1849, but refused another nomination. He also
Austrian Mission, tendered by President Taylor, likewise a position as
in the Land Office, a place offered to him by President Fillmore. While
to a Republican National Convention he had the distinction of
P. Morton for the presidency.
12, 1877, he became Secretary of the Navy under President Hayes which
held until 1881 when he resigned to become chairman of the American
the Panama Canal Company. So thorough was Judge Thompson's knowledge of
(he was judge on the eighteenth circuit district of the state of
Indiana in 1867-8-9)
that he was given the task of writing several party platforms. As
Secretary of the
Navy he had few peers, even if the public did good-naturedly twit him
never having seen a ship before accepting the office; he proved that it
capacity, not maritime knowledge, that fits a man for that position,
which is a
civil office rather than military in its nature.
wrote several treatises on financial and political subjects. One of his
"Personal Recollections of Sixteen Presidents," has of late years been
republished in de luxe form by Bobbs Merrill of Indianapolis; it is a
work in two volumes, and of value to the student of history in that its
the absolutely unique privilege of having known personally so many
said himself that he had seen with his own eyes every President since
and Adams. From the days of the campaign of 1840, when the slogan was
and Tyler Too," until his death in 1900, he was a picturesque and
in politics. His most distinctive work was "The Papacy and the Civil
published in New York in 1876; it is still a live and vivid book, and
widely read. His "History of the Tariff," published in Chicago in 1888,
may also be mentioned. These books, and this political record, however,
a meagre idea of the abounding vitality and far-spreading influence of
man, who was, as well as being a writer and scholar, a public speaker
with a golden
tongue, remembered to this day for the telling stump speeches delivered
of the famous old time campaigns.
W. Thomson was one of the founders of the Masonic Veterans Association
and attended its meetings whenever possible, and delivered many
it. He was a close personal friend of the Sovereign Grand Commander,
The records show him to have been a member of Terre Haute Lodge No. 19
in the State
* * *
W. THOMPSON MEMORIAL
can rehearse the praise
In soft poetic lays,
Or solid prose, of Masons true,
Whose art transcends the common view?
Their secrets, ne'er to strangers yet expos'd,
Preserved shall be
By Masons Free,
And only to the Ancient Lodge disclos'd.
By Prof. Emory S. Bogardus,
Head of the Department of
of Southern California
Stephen Bogardus was born near Beludere, Illinois, February 21, 1882.
He took his
A.M. Degree in Northwestern University in 1909, and did his
post-graduate work in
the University of Chicago in 1910-1911. In 1911-13 he was assistant
sociology in the University of Southern California; since then he has
and head of department. Aside from his work on various boards and his
in several learned societies, he is the author of “The Relation of
Fatigue to Industrial
Accidents"; "Introduction to Sociology"; "Essentials of Social
Psychology"; “The Technique of Writing Social Science Papers";
of Americanization"; "A History of Social Thought"; and also various
papers in sociological and other magazines. He is editor of The Journal
Sociology. His address is 3557 University Avenue, Los Angeles,
Bogardus has established himself in the esteem of thinking people up
and down the
Pacific Coast as an apostle of common sense in the storm-harried domain
His books and lectures prove that a man may be original and untrammeled
with sociological problems without selling himself out to extremists,
into an unthinking jingoism; and that it is possible for a clear-headed
man to think
out social problems in the terms of fact, instead of in the terms of
is so often the case.
Americanization movement began in 1914 when the European War was
Day had its beginning on July 4, 1914, in Cleveland, Ohio; it was
fathered by "the
sane Fourth Committee" of that city. In 1915 at least 150 cities
Day; the idea was to lessen the emphasis on "spread eagle oratory" and
on trite boasting about the greatness of the United States, as well as
celebrations and the use of dangerous explosives. The emphasis was laid
considerations of the nation's need, on making the Fourth of July a day
stock-taking, and particularly on making the newly naturalized
immigrants feel in
new ways the deep significance of their recently pledged national
also, the National Americanization Committee was organized by citizens
unselfishly in the welfare of our nation. The purpose of this committee
was to further
a nationalization movement that would unify the various peoples of the
in behalf of the principles of democracy. In 1918, the Federal
specific Americanization work through six different governmental
activities were coordinated in January, 1919, and were centered upon
problem "of the assimilation of the races and the general education of
foreign born," and upon the problem of naturalization.
eight years since the Americanization movement began significant
been established as a result of practical experience. These principles
the basis of the new Americanization, which is by no means generally
or practiced. Certain of these essentials will be presented here.
Americanization applies to the
native born first. If native Americans do
not express in their lives the best American principles, the immigrants
expected to do better. If natives violate the speed laws jauntily and
boast of their
ability to buy freedom from punishment in the courts, immigrants will
feel no necessity
of respecting the laws of the land and the Constitution.
Every native must go through
the process of becoming Americanized. He is
not born with his head full of American patriotism. He has to acquire
through a long educational process. Twenty-one years is the ordinary
length of time
required of a native before he is considered fit to vote. Not all
having been born on American soil and living amidst American
traditions, have become
worthy citizens. To the extent that many persons are bigots, men of
profiteers, labor shirkers, exploiters, and selfishly inclined they are
Americanized. Americanization therefore begins at home.
Americanization is a process.
It is not a big stick, nor a complacent, easy-going
attitude that all will turn out well. You cannot compel a person to
love a country.
You can force obedience, but not love. The matter of creating loyalty
is an exceedingly
delicate psychological process. It is easy to crush the tender sprouts
loyalty between the upper and nether millstones of force. No one ever
loyalty for a nation suddenly.
understanding what American ideals really signify.
If one were to ask fifty native Americans today what Americanism is, he
met with no unanimity of opinion. If he mentioned "liberty," he would
get a medley of interpretations. If he suggested "democracy," he would
receive contradictory definitions, ranging from platitudinous phrases
to a denial
that the United States is a democracy at all. If he were to say that
is "brotherhood," he would be challenged even by many native Americans.
In other words, Americanization
the acceptance of a common interpretation of American ideals. How can
when we are not agreed as to the object of Americanism? The solution
rests in patient,
thoughtful, open forum, and scientific educational programs.
The term, Americanization,
cannot be used directly, in dealing with the newcomers.
The average immigrant on arrival is not keen about being
He has come ordinarily to seek new economic opportunities. His attitude
can be appreciated
if the reader will imagine himself arriving in Italy because of own
chance to make money, and being informed that an Italianization program
is in effect,
and that he, the immigrant from America, is about to be Italianized.
the response be? Quick as a flash it would come, "I don't want to be
I love America; I have come to Italy to make money."
The Americanization of the
immigrants must take place indirectly. It is not
the programs that we promulgate and expose or subject the immigrants
to, that count,
but rather the attitude we manifest toward them. Too many Americans
take a snobbish
attitude toward or "look down upon" the foreigners. We do not realize
that these same foreigners see our faults and look down upon us because
of our unattractive ways. This point is especially true of those
come from civilization and cultures that are five, ten, or twenty
The immigrant is often chagrined by American thoughtlessness. Everybody
about his own business, but very few persons seem to be really
interested in an
ordinary, strange foreigner, except to cast side glances at him, and
to make him feel miserable.
The indirect influence of a
constructive social environment cannot be overestimated.
If we protect the immigrant from exploitation and insist on better
living, of sanitation, of recreation, of education, he will almost
in due season become an American. The public must see the need of
giving the honest
but unlearned immigrant a social handshake, sympathetic glances of the
full opportunities for a self-expression that is in harmony with the
principles. If we will give the immigrant a cordial welcome, a
and democratic opportunities in our work-day world, he as a class will
all to America. As a class, the immigrants are teachable and patriotic.
appreciate better than we the meaning of freedom. When they learn about
at its best, they repudiate autocracy and enlist in the cause of
denationalization for the immigrants. Before an immigrant
can become an American he must give up his loyalty to his native soil.
for his place of birth remains with him persistently. Notice how the
Buckeyes, and the Hoosiers constitute to hold state picnics in Southern
long after they have emigrated from their native states. The place
where one was
born and has spent the years of his childhood tend to remain dear. They
memories. They often represent loved ones whose voices have been silent
The deepest loyalties of life cannot be entirely foresworn. Americans
need to remember
how hard it would be for them to swear away their loyalty to Illinois,
or Virginia, if they were in a foreign land. Americanization thus means
of loyalties for the immigrant. He must renounce something dear, which
is not always
The immigrant must assume
responsibility. Too often he comes from a country
with traditions and cultural viewpoints so different from ours that he
understand America. He seeks one kind of democracy, and we offer
another. He may
even come as a propagandist, seeking to make over our country. This of
an erroneous attitude, although it is similar to that which
missionaries and other
religious leaders, commonly manifest. The constructive results of
justify, however, that we require of immigrants an attitude, first of
to learn as far as possible the meaning of American principles, and
second, an attitude
of trying to contribute constructively to the development of these
education, beginning with the teaching of the English
language. Without the language of the country the immigrant is
to all forms of exploitation and prejudices, and unable to become
As a condition of entrance we may require of immigrants that they
assent to learning
the English language within a reasonable length of time after entrance.
Such a requirement
puts upon us the responsibility of making possible such a process.
Our night schools are doing
wonderfully well in teaching English to immigrants,
but they cannot meet the need. American adult laborers in a foreign
working during the day time would not as a class do well in mastering
language in the hours of the evening. Adult minds trying to master a
tongue cannot uniformly succeed when the mental processes are slowed up
by habit but by overfatigue.
Carrying the school to the factories where the
immigrants are employed is a plan that has met with a surprising degree
when given a fair trial. At its best it works as follows. The employer
employee one-half hour on pay to attend a class in English providing
will give one-half hour without pay. The classes meet from four-thirty
or at some other convenient time. The employer gives the use of a room
in the factory
and furnishes heating and lighting; while the public school system
services of special teachers. As a result the employees become better
they are also of greater economic value to the employer.
- Americanization includes the
foreign-born mothers. It has been the custom
in our country to neglect immigrant women, especially the mothers who,
residing in the United States, continue to think in European terms,
language newspapers, and have almost no contacts with American life.
While the children
are being Americanized by the public schools and the men are coming in
America in the factories and mines and mills, the immigrant mothers
at home and scarcely know America at all.
The visiting teachers or home teachers of the
public schools are doing a superb type of Americanization work. They go
immigrant homes, carrying modern ideas of child caring, sanitation, and
but most important of all, they carry the American spirit and the
democracy into the habitations of the foreign-born, and by their
new ambitions. They also conduct cottage classes in English, sewing,
at places and hours convenient for immigrant mothers.
- Americanization is not a
process to be left in the hands of Americanization
workers as a class, or even in the hands of public educators.
and their agents, may render, if they will, tremendous and fundamental
aid to the
cause of Americanization, or they may through the use of exploitation,
and hypocrisy offset the good that nearly all other persons can do in
is a responsibility and an opportunity which comes to everyone who is a
of the United States. The best principle of procedure is to, begin, not
weaknesses, but with the good will and intelligence of immigrants. The
also must bear a part of the responsibility and share in.the
opportunity of becoming
true Americans ‒ they must will to become good Americans. The process
then depends upon good will, social attitudes, and the spirit of
patient and understanding effort upon the part of all who live in the
By Bro. H.L. Haywood
to the artist, poetry, which is the finest of all the fine arts, most
of all! therefore
is it that we of the laity are ever shy about permitting others to read
The writer of these pieces confesses to a more than usual reticence,
and that for
obvious reasons. "The Visitant" was written to preserve the memories of
an experience of ineffable things ‒ an experience as unsought as it was
and mystifying: therefore the poems were not intended for other eyes;
and through accident and often in secret, they made their way about
among a circle
of friends, several of whom have since urged their publication. In
them, and with many misgivings, the pieces are here exhibited in print.
they will not be without meaning or interest it is hoped, seeing that
in simple wise, and after a fashion of their own, that which the
in its own Holy Places.
H. L. H.
The Visitant. -- [A Poem]
the eventime which Thou lovest
There was no notice of Thy approach,
There was no knock upon the door or footfall upon the stair;
I was not thinking of Thee, when suddenly Thou wert here!
Thou wert not visible yet I saw Thee
And the walls were turned to mist in Thy presence.
There was no sound made, yet Thy words passed through my ears as never
a voice has,
Heart felt Thy words;
They said that which never had any speech said.
Thou didst surround me as the air,
And I felt myself standing in the center of Thee,
Seeing and hearing all things through Thee,
Seeing and hearing them as they are.
Thou art the Answer to all my questions;
Thou art the Solution of all my problems;
In Thee I found that which is really myself,
And there has come that Great Peace
When the labors of hand and mind fall into the rhythms of the soul.
Thou art here and now I know not if anything beside is here;
The familiar things are strange and uncertain.
When Thou comest a second time bring back my human world to me,
Lest when I go among my fellows they consider me mad.
What can a human being do without his human world?
Yes, let my human world be in Thee as Thou comest,
For not otherwise shall I possess it forever!
* * *
The Great Love. -- [A Poem]
I was wondering to what purpose I had been
granted this great gift of life:
While I was puzzled as to what it was I had been brought here to do,
Suddenly Thou wert with me to ask for my love!
To love Thee I must gather into my nature all that is beautiful and
good in the
To love Thee I must make continual war on whatever is the enemy of life;
To love Thee I must have eyes to see Thy face shaping itself behind the
faces of my fellows;
I must learn to recognize Thy words as they come to me over the tumults
Ah, my Lord, Thou must give me all the keys that open Thy resources of
If I am to carry on this great work of loving Thee!
* * *
Thy Heaven. -- [A Poem]
midnight I saw Thee coming through the heavens:
All the stars were jangled by Thy feet like ten thousand thousands of
The breast of Space rose and sank like the bosom of a girl in love;
Thy laughter went up into the heavens as in the beginning of Creation;
And it was as if perpetual sunrises broke from Thy smiles,
When lo! Thou wert knocking quietly at my door.
"Hast Thou come to this poor destination after such a journey," I
"I am coming into thy soul," Thou saidst, "for breathing space and
* * *
The Willow Tree. -- [A Poem]
willow stands by the dark water in the dusk
stretching down its hands toward the shadow of itself;
It bends low as if a great weight were pressing on its soul;
It gathers the dark to itself as if it were fain to hide a sorrow at
The winds come very soft through its pendulous branches lest it wound
spirit of the willow.
I stand pensive beside it thinking of many things!
Old memories of my race hover about me and sad echoes trouble my heart
shadows which lie upon graves.
As I stand thus brooding, Thy stars come up and gaze at me through the
In a time like this, when so many sighs are going up from the lips of
It reassures me to see Thy stars shining through the branches of the
* * *
A Prayer for Blindness. -- [A Poem]
my eyes I prayed, open my eyes,
Give me to see, O Lord, as Thou dost see.
Thus as I prayed Thou liftedst up a grain of dust and bade me look.
I saw world behind world wheeling for ever,
World beyond world, and each world moved with the swiftness of light,
So that I turned and rested my eyes upon Thee.
I looked again and saw skies behind skies and every sky full of planets
Far as I could look into the infinitude of the dust I saw sky beyond
And again I sought Thy face, as a bird, wearied of flight, rests upon a
I looked again and lo! in the uttermost depths of the dust
Were angels, angels and cherubim and seraphim, and God, raised above
Sick with dizziness and awe, I turned to Thee and cried,
"O Lord, restore my blindness!"
* * *
Be Not Too Near. -- [A Poem]
I was sitting bewildered by the strangeness
Overcome by the complexity of all my problems,
While I could not think my way in thought or learn what it was that I
While I sat helpless, like a child that has been lost in the wilderness,
I prayed earnestly that Thou mightst drawn near to relieve me,
And behold, Thou wert here so that I felt Thy presence as one may lay
his hand on
But ah, what could my poor nature do while overborne by Thy
How could my poor mind dare to think while Thy all-knowing mind lay
How could my weak will dare to act while Thy resistless will was there
In the great light of Thy presence all my own lights flickered and died:
The music which I had been drawing from my spirit became as a noisome
sound in the
fullness of Thy voice:
What were ail my pictures and dreams with Thy face there before me,
awing me into
silence and dumbness?
Then it was that I prayed,
O Lord, become my secret God again;
Surround me with Thy hints and whispers, let me have glimpses of Thy
But be Thou my hidden God for ever!
* * *
“It Is I!" -- [A Poem]
sat down by the roadside to gaze at a ragweed;
It laid hold of a clod and lifted itself toward the skies;
It drew forces from the sun ninety-five million miles away
Nor had any fear of that cauldron of heat;
The dumb virtues of the soil it transformed into most marvelous
miracles of life;
The orbit of the earth and the circles of the stars were laid hold of
by it and
twisted into the patterns of petal and leaf;
When I saw this tiny creature overcoming the authority of Nothingness,
When I noticed how it bent the universe to its will,
While I was almost overborne with fear to witness such miraculous
Thy voice came from its roots saying ‒
"Be not afraid, it is I!"
* * *
Thy Happiness. -- [A Poem]
I was wishing that I was in places where
I should like to be,
While I was desiring many things which I should wish to possess,
In the midst of my discontent and my unhappiness
There came from Thee a great joy into my nature:
How, or for what purpose, or for how long it comes this I cannot know:
The small vessel of my heart runs over into silent amazement and
Like drops falling from fountains it breaks into little songs which I
It runs away in streams everywhere gladdening my small world:
It enriches the roots of my thoughts so that each one becomes beautiful
like a flower:
My emotions have wings and fly back to Thee with a thousand bird-notes
Ah, my Lord, can it be that Thy own happiness comes from thus
witnessing my joy?
* * *
The Old Lady in the Kitchen. -- [A Poem]
the twilights thicken the old lady is working
alone in her kitchen;
Wearied of toil her husband sits on the porch steps, asleep over his
Already the children are upstairs tucked away in bed, but she does not
Thoughtful for them she prepares for the school lunches of tomorrow;
She puts the dishes away, seeing that everyone is in its proper place;
The pans she makes to shine brightly where they hang on the wall;
When she has finished, the floor is spotless;
She works on and on in the dusk but does not murmur a tune.
Ah, my Lord, canst Thou not give her to see herself one hour as Thou
dost see her?
If she could know that the eyes of the angels are blinded by the
shining of her
Could she but learn that each dawn the seraphim dance across her
If she could understand that the shuffling of her steps is sweeter
music to Thee
than the singing of any choir,
Would she not sing to herself as she works alone in the night?
* * *
The Lady Beauty. -- [A Poem]
like purple wraiths, bow and sigh by
A field of corn, ripened and husked, stretches up to the hill crests
Where a strip of plowed ground lies darkly at the feet of a thin line
All this lifts itself up to the sky in a continuous prayer,
And the sky is blue-black and profound, with ghosts of cloud skirting
A smoke mist is over it all,
So that my gaze clutches it lest it fade to a shadowy dream.
The haze-yellow stretch of the field and the blue-black depths of the
And ah! how few are the eyes that may see it!
What a waste of beauty is this!
What are the words Thou art saying, my Lord?
"And is it so strange to thee that I also should love the Lady Beauty?"
* * *
The Field. -- [A Poem]
is shining around the edges of the
The wind is leaving glad footprints among the tassels and leaves;
Who has spilled all that purple wine over the heads of the asters?
All day they look down into the stream where the clouds are hiding
All day the sunflowers spurn their reflections to look up at the clouds
The sunflowers are too intent on their visions to notice the birds that
The field is enamored of its own beauty and rises into a hill to gaze
Last night I saw Thee standing on that hill to look at Thy garden:
The stars crowded around to peer over Thy shoulder;
They had never seen anywhere so lovely a poem.
* * *
Thy Dreaming. -- [A Poem]
this afternoon when the leaves play like
children along the ground,
When the trees are uttering their visions at last,
Surprising us with all the beautiful secrets they have hidden from
I had not learned, my Lord, how lovely, how lovely Thou art!
I did not know of Thy music till the breezes drew Thy breath through
A few flowers remain like afterthoughts of Thy heart.
The gossamers draw me along:
Will they bind me fast to Thy feet?
Are all Thy dreams as lovely as this?
Dream on, my Lord, for ever!
Perhaps Thou canst some day make me as beautiful as this leaf which
seeking for Thee.
* * *
Thy Quietness. -- [A Poem]
I was praying, suddenly Thou wast with
And my words died away, smitten by the great sound of Thy silence.
The sweet bells of Thy speech go through the house, but nobody can hear
Hast Thou been abroad in the great noisy places?
What did the streets have to say to Thy silence?
Would that all my words in the future could say as much as that single
look of Thine!
While the factories are thundering what do men think of Thy
Are they afraid to listen for Thee under the great guns of the War?
The world is upheld by the secret might of Thy breath;
Thy silence speaks beyond the power of our ears to listen;
Speak not aloud lest the earth split to fragments;
Utter no words lest the souls of men be paralyzed;
The silent indication of Thy glance is almost more than we can bear:
How could we endure to listen shouldst Thou speak the loud words of Thy
* * *
The Atheist. -- [A Poem]
sat upon the doorstep talking to his cronies;
With angry gesticulations he was saying blasphemous things:
Between the puffs of his pipe he was exclaiming that there is no God.
Those who listened laughed as if he were telling a pleasant jest.
I sat by, hardly restraining myself, hurt by his talk, ready to engage
him in argument,
When I saw Thee standing above him with a patient and kindly smile
Giving him the breath wherewith he was denying Thee!
* * *
Thy Transfiguring Presence. -- [A Poem]
Thou camest I have gone about like one
in a dream:
I feel my body with reverent hands;
I gaze with tenderness on the earth, remembering how Thy touch is on
It amazes me to hear Thy speech sounding through the ten thousand
Above the rain I hear the ceaseless comings of Thy feet:
When it is night I cannot see the darkness for the shining of Thy face;
I hate nothing except veils which blind our eyes to Thy presence:
I dare not despise the meanest thing lest I find myself despising Thee:
Whatever I approach melts away into Thy form:
in all the countless mirrors there is but one Face reflected:
Living and dying does not perplex me anymore than my breathing
Everything comes and goes with the pulsing of Thy breath.
I am no longer anxious about heaven:
There can be no more heaven than this.
* * *
The Shore Line. -- [A Poem]
waters raise themselves up before the wind
And fly to the shore with many invocations:
The rocks do not open their arms:
The rocks throw them back with cries of derision.
What is the Wind, O my Lord, which drives Thee ceaselessly against me?
I am no rock to withstand these endless assaultings.
Should I dissolve myself into dust and be washed away into Thy Being
What were the gain to Thee?
O leave me this my self for ever!
The flowers that bloom on the shore line will gladden us both:
Thy waves breaking on me will become a thousand poems to fill my world
* * *
What Was All That Beauty? -- [A Poem]
I stood by the river while the sunset
was staining each tree and shrub with wonderful dyes;
The water was like a mirror in which a thousand angels might look at
After a little a pearl-gray mist settled over the stream and long
stretches of trees
and the far-off town:
Everything seemed to float in the air like an apparition.
When the lights of the city came out they were like timid stars,
And it seemed to me that the stars themselves were as timid as the eyes
But I turned from all this loveliness because thou, my Lord, wert with
Who could look at the stars when he might be gazing upon Thy face?
The river's murmur was forgotten because Thy voice was in my ear:
The haunting scene could no more hold me because Thy dear strong hands
What was all that beauty while Thou wert there with me!
* * *
The Wee Brown House. -- [A Poem]
wee brown house is happy among the hollyhocks:
The old man, wearied by toil, rests on the steps, reading his paper:
Grandmother is about, slipping dead leaves from the rose stems;
Two children play with a swing, and sweet is their unconscious laughter;
A quiet woman, with soft yearnings in her eyes, prepares the table
where soon they
will enjoy the communion of food:
The curtains are spotless, the carpets are clean, and brightly shine
along their shelves.
O pleasant this home of thine, my Lord,
This one of Thy countless homes!
* * *
My Life. -- [A Poem]
when I sit in passiveness to muse awhile,
Behold! thou comest along my thought's frequented paths;
I cannot see Thy face and yet I see Thee, or hear Thy voice and yet I
The hated distance vanishes before this strange magic of Thine.
When Thou comest like inward day to gladden all my world
All things precious seem to be about Thee in living presences
As when birds cloud about a tree in blossom.
I look upon that which is lovely, or hear
melodious sounds, or find myself visited by beautiful thoughts and
The heart within me cries,
" 'Tis He, 'tis He!"
* * *
loves from whole to parts, but human soul
Must rise from individual to the whole;
Self-love but serves the virtuous mind to wake,
As the small pebble stirs the peaceful lake.
The center moved, a circle straight succeeds,
Another still, and still another spreads;
Friend, parent, neighbor first it will embrace,
His country next, and next all human race.
the Dromore Medallion
By Bro. R.J. Meekren, Quebec
of its brevity the little article that appeared on page 107 of THE
BUILDER for April
of this year has aroused more discussion than any other item for many
only one or two. Through an unfortunate inadvertency the title was made
"A Masonic Medallion of 1516," thus conveying the impression that ye
accepted that date, whereas the title should have read "A Masonic
Supposedly of 1516." Ye editor does not accept that date, neither is he
that the numbers 15 and 16 were intended to serve as a date, as is
one question in the editorial note that prefaced the article. Of the
received by way of discussion it has been possible to publish only a
very few: one
appeared on page 260 of the August issue, and another on page 292 of
number. Another appears in the Correspondence Department in this issue.
IN THE April
number of THE BUILDER, page 107, the material of which this Masonic
relic is made
is said to be petrified oak. Presumably by that is meant what is
usually known as
"bog oak." This is found in the form of logs and trunks of trees of
age, preserved in the peat bogs. It is not in any real sense petrified,
has lost to a very large extent the grain, or fibrous nature of wood,
so that it
must be cut or carved more as jet or alabaster. It is very dark, almost
cases a true black, and the color is the same all through. This is an
consideration, as a fresh cut on a piece of this material is
to distinguish from an old one. It is used to a limited extent from
which to make
curios of various kinds. The writer has in his possession a brooch of
the same shape
as the medallion but somewhat smaller in size that is about fifty years
has a relief view of Killarney castle and church surrounded by a rather
carved border of foliage. Though this article is evidently a stock
design of no
particular merit from an artistic point of view, yet compared with it
of the medallion is rough, not to say crude. Judging by the cuts in the
is no attempt at relief, and the various emblems are merely delineated
outlines. Of the two sides the one marked B in the cuts, is by far the
done. One might almost suppose that it was the most important in the
mind of the
maker, and should therefore be called the obverse. Indeed one might
that the two sides were done at different times, and even that they
were done by
a different hand.
The Obverse Side
At the top
is a crudely cut object that appears to be intended for an irradiated
eye. The pupil
is lacking, and the rays rather ludicrously resemble an attempt to
lower eyelashes. The want of the pupil makes it possible to question
is really intended for an eye. But other indications of incompleteness
on this side
of the medallion might account for this.
are the sun and crescent moon. The sun's rays are very badly spaced. In
are shown. The one pointing directly to the crescent is cut as one of a
series. Two others at the right and left respectively of the one at the
almost as if they might have been also intended as secondary rays. It
therefore to suppose that the designer intended to give the sun seven
seven more appearing from behind these, and in between their intervals;
up the attempt because of the bad spacing of the primary seven.
On the left
of the sun is a cross-shaped object of the simplest character. It might
to represent two chisels or "Points." In an old design, referring to
original undigested, inchoate, Royal Arch, reproduced by Oliver in his
Landmarks," (it is also reproduced by Macoy in his Cyclopaedia [Lib 1870] under "Arch of Enoch"
apparently copying from Oliver). There is an emblem consisting of three
each other, representing probably the three nails of the Cross of our
form of the nails in this design is very similar in outline to the two
the cross-shaped object on the medallion. As these appear to be very
it is perhaps possible the emblem was unfinished, and that a third nail
was to have
crossed the other two. However this is pure conjecture.
To the right
of the moon is a very crudely marked object which however appears to be
a sword with a triangular shaped guard. Or is it a badly executed
circular one in
perspective? If it is not intended for sword or dagger or like warlike
it would be difficult to say what it is.
The two pillars
(of no imaginable order of architecture!) have a difference in their
this is intended or not would be hard to say in view of the nondescript
but in the old drawing referred to above are two pillars that are
intentionally different, and not only in style and proportions, but the
seems intended to represent different material. In this is probably
intended a reference
to the two pillars of the children of Seth, upon which they engraved
discoveries they had made, and one of which was made of a many named
would not burn in fire and the other of another as uncertainly
that would not drown in water; as is related in the Legend of the Craft.
bases of the pillars in the medallion are some indistinct markings. The
one on the
right seems to be meant for the square and compass. The other is so
faint that it
is hardly worthwhile to guess about it. Something might be obtained
a close examination of the medallion itself.
pillars are the square and compass superposed upon a quadrilateral
figure that may
be intended to represent an open book, or it may be it is meant for the
the lodge. Unless it be regarded as unfinished it is strange that the
representing the juncture of the pages was omitted, which the merest
hardly forget, while that it is intended for a book would seem to
follow from the
little indentation visible in the middle of the bottom line just above
and a slightly curved outline to the upper side. The supposition that
of the medallion was not fully finished would account for a good many
square are the figures 15 and 16 which are supposed to be the date. Of
will be said later. Below these again is an object that may be intended
for a three-branched
chandelier. If this is what it is meant for it is very unusual, and if
it is not
so intended it is hard to conjecture what it might be. In all the old
and diagrams known to the writer the three lesser lights are always
by three separate candlesticks. In looking closely at the left-hand
does appear a faint outline of a flame above a very short candle-end.
As this is
in shading and not distinct lines it is hard to say whether it really
the original. Above the central branch there is the still fainter
a flame in the corresponding position. The one to the right offers
To the left
of the pillars is an object than can hardly be anything else than a
rule, rather faintly outlined and with the divisions very roughly
first sight it almost appears from the alternation of short and long
that inches and half inches were intended. But this is not carried
and counting the total number of divisions would make it seem as if
intended to be indicated on each half, which makes it correspond with
On the right
of the pillars is a plumb rule, which does not call for any special
lines are more deeply cut than on the gauge, and the plumb bob is
stand at the top of what undoubtedly represents a flight of steps. This
follows the oldest tracing boards very closely. Most of these old
designs show seven
or eleven steps. Whether there are any examples with five the writer is
not having made any notes on this point. But he remembers to have seen
the three which are customary at the present time. A somewhat distant
view of the
steps on the medallion gives the impression, in spite of the roughness
of the cutting,
of an intentional alternation of broad and narrow spaces. It could be
taken as a
crude attempt to represent three steps in perspective, the two broad
the treads and the three narrow ones the risers. But in view of the
the rest of the design this hardly seems very likely, unless one should
to be of comparitively recent origin.
at the foot of the steps is probably meant for a coffin. This emblem of
appears at the foot of the three steps in many of the "Master's
in use early in the last century, and in some tracing boards of earlier
most of the earliest show the coffin in the form now used in the
‒ what French call the "Cercueil" or "Sepulchre."
The Reverse Side
design of this side of the medallion is so much better conceived and so
carefully executed that it might almost give rise to the suspicion that
it was not
by the same hand as the other. At least it is hard to suppose that it
was done at
the same time and under the same conditions. Compare for instance the
of the two pillars with the quite graceful if simple foliage tracery
below the triangle.
The letters, too, with the exception of the G and S. are all well
spaced and excellently cut. The curves of the other two letters make
them of course
very much more difficult to cut, and their defect is another indication
work is not by a professional hand. The whole appearance of this side
to indicate greater care if not greater skill than the other, aside
from the introduction
of pure ornament, as the tracery in the apex of the triangle, and above
H.M.D.D., and that at the base of the triangle too, in all probability.
of the letters till the last, there is first the ladder to the left
inside the triangle.
It is of three rounds, as has become customary in our modern designs.
So far as
the writer is aware, the ladder when appearing in ancient Masonic and
designs invariably has six or seven or more rungs. This may have some
the question of date.
ladder is an unmistakable branch of some plant. Of what species the
not show, of course, but it is natural to suppose that it represents
the Sprig of
Acacia, though very likely the designer thought of it as Cassia.
On the right
is a trowel, of a shape intermediate between the rhomboid form now
ourselves, and the medieval form with an equilateral triangular blade,
still used in Germany and Belgium and parts, at least, of France.
trowel is a stirrup-shaped object that is probably meant for the head
of a stone-cutter's
or carver's mallet, often, though not very accurately, called a gavel
Masons. Close examination will show below the curve a short but clearly
in the right place to represent the end of the handle. And there
appears also the
faintest trace of the outline of the handle itself. But reference to
would be necessary to determine whether this appearance is intended.
the object is not a mallet-head it is hard to assign any meaning to it.
In the center
of the triangle is the compass extended upon an arc, with the letter G.
the initial this is now the jewel of a Grand Master. But there is some
suppose that at the emergence of Masonry into its historical period,
that is, since
1717, some lines of tradition assigned this emblem to the Master of the
is certain that in the older forms of Masonry, what is commonly known
the compass distinguished the Master, and in his hands this instrument
put in all ancient drawings and sculptures representing Masons and
their work. To
pass from the square to the compass in old Scotch phrase was equivalent
to our modern
"raising," and alluded to a ceremony still in use in the English type
of work. In the earliest form extant of the so-called York work the
square is assigned
to the Entered Apprentice as a working tool in addition to gavel and
gauge. On the
other hand the present-day assignment of the three immovable jewels to
principal officers of the lodge appears to have also been in vogue at
the dawn of
the historical period. In Hogarth's "Night" the incapacitated Mason
helped home is wearing a collar from which the square is suspended: but
we do not know that Hogarth meant to represent the Master of a lodge.
old engraving a man clothed as a Mason and undoubtedly intended for the
seems to have all the implements of Masonry hanging to his collar.
compass and arc is the very crude delineation of a winged figure. The
almost heraldic in style and the face is represented in most primitive
The whole irresistibly reminds one of the cherubs so frequently
eighteenth century headstones, or even of the winged death's heads
seen. As this side of the medallion certainly refers mainly to the
Royal Arch, the
former is the most likely interpretation of the two. The cherubim and
of the burning bush played a great part apparently in the symbolism of
forms of this degree, of which traces are still left even in the
American type of
below the base of the triangle seems more ornamental than significant.
quite naturally be referred to the sprig of Acacia, were it not that
already appears in a more important position.
and level call for little comment, except to note that their form is
one so familiar today. Of this more will be said later in discussing
arches are of course most naturally referable to the Royal Arch, though
to the degree as we know it today. In the design reproduced by Oliver,
above there are nine arches in rows of three superposed upon each
other. In the
older rituals three arches are mentioned, as one below the other.
American and English
work has simplified these to one, while the corresponding degree in the
A. S. R. has amplified them to nine. But possibly nine was the original
the inception of the Royal Arch. It is not at all easy to decide in our
state of knowledge.
and compass below the arches do not seem to require remark, unless it
be to point
out that the device seems to be more carefully drawn than the
on the other side of the medallion. The square has ornamental curved
ends, the compasses
are more slender and the joint better proportioned, more like a real
We now come
to the letters. The K. S. hardly requires explication, or the letter G
in the center
of the triangle. The J. H. and Z. which might be puzzling to Companions
in the U.
S. A. are perfectly familiar to those exalted in the English form of
are the initials of the three personages represented by the three
of the chapter ‒ Jeshua the high priest, Haggai the prophet, and
prince of the people, of whom the latter is first in rank. The monogram
to the right
is probably a simpler form of the "triple-tau," and referable to Hiram
Abif, though other recondite meanings are attached to it. The W is
thinks naturally of the W. S., but it seems very unlikely that the S
been dropped if that were intended.
To the letters
above the two sides of the triangle there seems at present no key, or
conjecture. It is difficult even to guess whether each group represents
or whether they are a group of initials, or partly both. As, to take
O.B., K.S.T., and H.A.B. Nor do we know whether they represent English
words, or are of some other language. A good many Latin phrases were in
use by the
Masons of the early eighteenth century: the diagram already alluded to
the phrase "we have found" in three languages. The H.M.D.D. is
of H.R.D.M., but the resemblance is doubtless adventitious. On the
other side, the
A.A.A. is evidently separated from the W.P. If there are any extant
remains of the
Royal Arch ritual as worked in Ireland in the eighteenth century some
be found therein, but failing that or some similar help there seems to
possible but conjecture, which must always remain inconclusive.
Date of the Medallion
It has been
stated in a previous publication of the medallion that the members of
Lodge of Research were of the opinion that "it is undoubtedly one of
emblems in Ireland, genuine in every respect, even to the date 1516."
be their considered conclusion it must be given due weight as they have
benefit of examining the object itself. But it is necessary to remember
is a long time ago. Martin Luther had not nailed his theses to the
church door in
Wittenburg, and Henry VIII of England had not been so very long upon
There is of course nothing inherently impossible in the existence of a
of this or greater age, eve have indeed examples of such, but much
water has run
under all bridges since then. It must be remembered that Gothic
still a living tradition. Men were doubtless still alive who had
wrought on that
masterpiece of the style in England, the Chapel of Henry VII at
were in all probability still alive who could design and execute that
marvel of Gothic work, the so-called "fan vaulting!" Operative Masonry
was still fully alive, though on the verge of that decline which was to
to decay and nearly to complete extinction, had it not re-arisen
Speculative Masonry. It is necessary to grasp the circumstances at the
time of the
putative date of this relic in order to appreciate the indications we
have as to
all there is the general appearance of the designs. This is an argument
only be made conclusive by comparison of similar designs at different
even then it would require some knowledge of such matters to appreciate
writer's own feeling, whatever it may be worth, is that the medallion
is of eighteenth
century work, or at the earliest of the end of the seventeenth century,
its style would have been utterly impossible in the beginning of the
this general impression there is the form of the working tools. The
level and plumb
seem to the writer almost conclusive in themselves. In any really old
of mason's tools known to him, it always has the proportions of the
tool, which is still used in its primitive form by bricklayers and
England. It is about four feet long and three inches wide. Not until
had become completely divorced from all operative connection could the
tend towards the shortened conventional form, so much more convenient
as an emblem,
though useless as a tool. The level is still more striking. Its oldest
to have been an equilateral triangle, and under this form it still
in continental Masonic designs. Sometimes a perpendicular member is
the apex of the triangle to the base. A form intermediate between this
and our modern
emblem has the upright member supported by two braces, thus preserving
though reduced in size. Such a tool the writer as a boy has seen
actually in use.
To this must
be added the indications afforded by the ladder, trowel, and folding
rule. The first
two are not very conclusive by themselves, but they increase each
by all tending in the same direction. The writer has never seen in any
ancient or modern, except catalogs of Masonic furnishers, the folding
rule as equivalent
to the twenty-four inch gauge. It is in any case probably a modern
there is no available information on the point. What then do the
figures 15 and
16 represent? They certainly look as if intended for a date. On the
other hand though
Arabic numerals were known before the sixteenth century, they were very
Account books were kept in Roman figures, and dates were almost
universally so written
for long afterwards, indeed down to the beginning of the nineteenth
cannot well advance the theory of forgery after the careful
investigation made by
responsible members of the Craft, unless one supposes the forger lived
years ago or so, hid his work and forgot all about it.
15 has some significance in our work even yet, and this was more
in the work of the eighteenth century. The "Masons Confession" speaks
of nineteen Fellow Crafts and thirteen Entered Apprentices as
a lodge, and the Sloan MS. 3329 speaks of six Masons being necessary,
or if so many
cannot be found, "that five will serve." Whether the two numbers in
could have had some such significance is hard to say. If one took the
figure above as a symbol of the lodge this might seem plausible. On the
if it be taken as intended for a book it is an added indication of the
century origin of the medallion, as in the earlier arrangements of the
Bible, or Book of the Gospels, was not closely associated with the
square and compass,
and seems indeed to have been originally introduced to give an added
the O. B. of the entrants: the present symbolic use of the Bible being
the book or roll of the Ancient Constitutions. Perhaps the Trinity
which is supposed to be of Irish origin, might throw some light upon
if it were ever published and so made accessible to Masonic students.
Would Your Community Sell
Public School System for
are authorized to offer for sale the Ardmore public school system,
which has buildings
and grounds and equipment worth $750,000, 100 teachers,
a Department of Educational Research and Guidance which has attracted
all over the country because of its efficiency, a supervisor of music,
of drawing, a supervisor of penmanship and a supervisor of grades; that
and Senior High Schools organized in such a way as to give every child
of work for which he or she is particularly fitted; that has a modern
that has a sheet metal department; mechanical drawing, benchwork, lathe
work; domestic science, domestic arts, home decoration, a complete
a fully equipped printing plant, a coach of athletics and physical
devotes all his time to the work and a football team which is one of
the best in
this school system is costing the taxpayers of Ardmore more than
$200,000 a year.
Possibly it is better to leave this $11.00 in each individual's pocket
in the city,
and dispose of the school system. Therefore, we are authorized to offer
system for sale to the highest and best bidder, so that Ardmore may
have the opportunity
of ascertaining which way she would be better off, with or without a
system. There are 3,700 children being educated in these schools every
Supt. C.W. Richards, Ardmore, Oklahoma
Journal of Education, p. 172, Febr. 16,1922.
Bulletin No. 8.
Herein Is Love -- [A Poem]
is love: to strip the shoulders bare
If need be, that a frailer one may wear
A mantle to protect him from the storm;
To bear the frost king's breath so he be warm;
To crush the tears it would be sweet to shed,
And smile so others may have joy instead.
Herein is love: to daily sacrifice
The hope that to the bosom closest lies;
To mutely bear reproach and suffer wrong:
Nor lift the voice to show where these belong ‒
Nay, more, nor tell it even to God above;
Herein is love ‒ indeed herein is love.
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H.L. Haywood
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs. From the questions following each section of
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
* * *
‒ The Fatherhood Of God
have been made to expound Freemasonry's teaching concerning God by
recourse to the
peculiar phraseology that is employed in the ritual, but these attempts
broken down because the ritualistic language has been fashioned, not
for the purposes
of exact theological thinking, but for symbolical and ritualistic
is not in fact an architect; such a term is very misleading. It
suggests a great
artificer who made the worlds out of nothing, or else out of crude
who went about it as a carpenter might frame a house. Such a Being
exist apart from the thing He has made, as a machinist is apart from
he contrives. The modern mind will have nothing to do with such ideas
have learned that God cannot be conceived of as living and working
apart from the
universe, but must somehow be involved in that universe. The Masonic
escape from these difficulties by remembering that in the ritual God is
as T.S.G.A.O.T.U., not because such words describe His nature as
it, but because such an appellation is in harmony with the
of the ceremonies.
nowhere offers a definition of the nature and attributes of God, but
matters to each individual to fashion as best he can. It asks of a man
he believe that God is. It does not even try to prove the existence of
the fashion of the dogmatic theologians, but assumes that its
have that belief in their hearts.
it appears that while Freemasonry does not define its conception of God
attributes are assumed by the Masonic system as a whole, and taken for
it, so that while these attributes are nowhere insisted upon
explicitly, they are
a necessary postulate of Masonic teachings as a whole. I may be wrong
in this; if
I am, it will not greatly matter, because this paper, like the others
in this series,
is designed to be not exhaustive but suggestive, and prepared as a
paper for discussion,
rather than as an official treatise.
- What is the "peculiar
phraseology" referred to?
- Have you considered that such a
name truly describes God?
- Did you gain any conception of
God while taking the work?
- What are the objections to the
theory that God exists apart from the universe?
- In what way can God be involved
in the universe?
- What is the nature of the
theological language employed in the ritual?
- Does Freemasonry anywhere
define or describe the attributes of God?
- What is meant by "attributes"?
- How would you prove the
existence of God?
- What is an atheist?
- What is meant by the phrase
In its most
fundamental sense ‒ the only sense in which Freemasonry teaches it ‒
of God means that when a human being comes into existence there is
somewhat in him
(let us not try to define it) that derives immediately from God's own
that through all his existence ‒ which we believe to be endless ‒ this
remains rooted in God's own being, so that if God Himself were to cease
to be he
would also, and at the same instant, cease to be. In the language of
the relation between God and man is ontological. It exists in the
nature of things,
so that neither God nor man could cause it not to be; and it does not
a man's religious beliefs, or upon any other belief or opinion. All
be their faith or fortune, from Plato down to the African dwarf, have
with God. What God is to any one He is to every other one, and all that
be to or do for any man, He is to and does for all men equally, and
This eternal and universal Fatherhood in Him does not come into
existence when we
begin to believe it; it is already a fact before we believe it, and
remains a fact
whether we believe it or not.
of God is more than a symbol it is a fact, albeit of a very different
human fatherhood. By God's love is meant that our being is rooted in
Him, and that
He is ever doing for us all that a God can do. His relation to us is
nor given but holds in the very structure of life itself. It does not
rest on sentiment
or emotion but in the nature of things, so that it is a great blunder
that because God is our Father therefore He can, at will, reverse the
of the universe or set aside the everlasting laws of things. He remains
through all our experiences, but not for that reason are we shielded
from loss, and from the extreme horrors into which our own or the
or the vicissitudes of fortune may bring us. Nevertheless, whatever be
it is the great secret of our courage to know that the show and scheme
is not swirling about us in the wind of chance, but that our lives are
One who thoroughly understands us; and that, whatever betide the inner
our nature cannot dissolve away into dust, or our beings be brought to
Our belief in God's Fatherhood ‒ so this is to say ‒ does not create
the fact, but
it makes the fact a power in our conscious thought, and that is a
doctrine of Fatherhood in God is a doctrine of faith. It is a belief
about the interior
mystery of the Infinite supported by much, and opposed by much, in the
of mankind. It is a belief about the universe, in behalf of our human
by all that is best in that world; it is fitted to elevate, energize,
console human beings; it is the belief that generates and justifies all
beliefs. If God is the Absolute goodness and compassion, our human
world is his
concern, all righteousness has his approval, all efforts at
righteousness are followed
by his sympathy, all sin must reckon with his endless enmity, all
count upon his pity, all strivings at reform may be sure of his
union in the endeavor to cleanse the earth of moral evil may move in
the tides of
his Spirit, all grief may find consolation in his infinite love, all
loss may hope
to become, in the courses of the ages, eternal gain in Him. If
Fatherhood in God
is the ultimate reality in the Infinite, as the Infinite is related to
world, that world is glorious with meaning and with hope."
- What is your own conception of
the Fatherhood of God?
- How do we know that God exists?
- How do we know that He is a
Father in the sense described?
- How is his Fatherhood to be
reconciled with the evil and the suffering of
- What does belief in God's
Fatherhood do for a man?
- Is such a belief required of a
- In what way does Freemasonry
teach the Fatherhood of God?
- What is taught concerning this
subject in the Old and the New Testaments?
of God is not anywhere explicitly taught by Freemasonry but it is
so that the great doctrines peculiar to the Craft demand it for their
and make inevitably toward it The Brotherhood of Man could never come
to pass if
the peoples of the world were by their very nature different from each
would be as impossible to bridge over such chasms as it is now
impossible to bring
our race into an equal brotherhood with beasts or trees.
So also is
it with Equality. It is impossible for us ever to be, as I have already
show in this series, of the same fortune or ability, because the
conditions in which
we necessarily live make for endless variety, and that is of itself a
kind of inequality:
but there is a region beneath all such differences in which we find
one. God is to the most ignorant wretch all that a God can be, and does
possible for him, so that in such matters that wretch is the equal of
of Democracy is linked up with the Fatherhood of God. "Always, a new
man implies and involves a new conception of God. It was natural for
the men who
bowed low when the glittering chariot of Caesar swept along the streets
to think of God as an omnipotent Emperor, ruling the world with an
irresponsible almightiness. For men who live in this land of the free
such a conception
of God is a caricature. The citizens of a republic do not believe that
God is an
infinite autocrat, nor do they bow down to divine despotism; they
worship in the
presence of an Eternal Father, who is always and everywhere accessible
to the humblest
man who lifts his heart in prayer. Republican principles necessarily
in the Fatherhood of God. The logic of the American idea leads to faith
in a Divine
Love universal and impartial, all-encompassing and everlasting."
- What is meant by saying that
the doctrine of the Fatherhood of God is everywhere
implied in Freemasonry?
- In what way does the
Brotherhood of Man depend on the Fatherhood of God?
- What is taught in the V.S.L.
concerning the Brotherhood of Man?
- What is meant by Equality?
- In what way does God's
Fatherhood make all men equal?
- What does the Declaration of
Independence teach concerning Equality?
- What does the V.S.L. have to
say about Equality?
- What is meant by Democracy?
- How is the Doctrine of
Democracy related to the Doctrine of the Fatherhood
- Could Democracy exist among a
people who worship a despotic God?
* * *
‒ Toleration, p. 265;
Non-Christian Candidates, p. 302.
Chapter ‒ What It Stands For, p. 85;
Spirit of Masonry, p. 93;
Masonic Jurisprudence, P. 211.
Wells' Conception of Deity, p. 63.
Vol. V, 1919.
California's Recognition of French Masonry,
and Realities, p. 19;
Triangle, p. 45;
Studies in Blue Lodge Symbolism, P. 135.
letter G, February C.C.B. p. 3;
Lost Word, May C.C.B. p. 3.
Fatherhood of God, p. 21;
T.G.A.O.T.U., p. 169;
‒ God in
Prison, p. 192.
Encyclopedia ‒ (Revised Edition):
Atheist, p. 84;
Dispensations of Religion, p. 217;
Equality, p. 247;
of Freemasonry, p. 252;
Architect of the Universe, p. 310;
I.T.N.O.T.G.A.O.T.U., p. 3;
Word, p. 453;
Scriptures, Belief in the, p. 672;
Theism, p. 782; Theurgy, p. 783;
T.G.A.O.T.U., pp. 3 and 782;
of God, p. 816; Word, p. 856.
* * *
Our Study Club Plan
Study Club Course, of which the foregoing paper by Brother Haywood is a
begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to the beginning of the
on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings of Masonry," as
we have titled it, were published some forty-three papers covering in
Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under the following several
"The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge and the Candidate," "First
Steps," "Second Steps," and "Third Steps." A complete set
of these papers up to January 1st, 1922, are obtainable in the bound
THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920 and 1921.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Haywood:
The Teachings of Masonry
- General Introduction.
- The Masonic Conception of Human
- The Idea of Truth in
- The Masonic Conception of
- Ritualism and Symbolism.
- Initiation and Secrecy.
- Masonic Ethics.
- Masonry and Industry.
- The Brotherhood of Man.
- Freemasonry and Religion.
- The Fatherhood of God.
- Endless Life.
- Brotherly Aid.
- Schools of Masonic Philosophy.
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
* * *
How to Organize and Conduct
Study Club Meetings
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted, all possible time to
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
Program for Study Club Meetings
Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
"We Are Two Brothers" -- [A Poem]
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
me your hand: You are rich; I am poor:
Your wealth is your power, and by it you tread
A wide open path: where for me is a door
That is locked: and before it are worry and dread.
We are sundered, are we,
As two men can be
But we are two brothers in Freemasonry
So give me your hand.
Give me your hand:
You are great: I'm unknown:
You travel abroad with a permanent fame;
I go on a way unlauded, alone,
With hardly a man to hear of my name:
We are sundered, are we,
As two men can be,
But we are two brothers in Freemasonry
So give me your hand.
me your hand:
You are old; I am young;
The years in your heart their wisdom have sown;
But knowledge speaks not by my faltering tongue
And small is the wisdom I claim as my own:
We are sundered, are we,
As two men can be,
But we are two brothers in Freemasonry
give me your hand.
Our Government Not an Experiment
days when every reformer, small and large, runs hither and yon with all
schemes for changing our government: when the air is full of criticism
of the work
that our forefathers did when they constructed the Constitution and
machinery to going; and when the Reds are driving against its very
all their might, it is wise for us to recall the fact that the
of the United States did not come into existence as an experiment:
neither was it
devised merely in order to prove the truth of some political theory.
grew up out of the sod like some natural thing, and its mechanism was
perform very practical services. The kind of democracy built into the
was not a brand new thing on this continent: the Colonists had had
it for more than a century, save in regard to some political phases of
economic conditions of the new country had made that kind of democracy
And the kind of nation ours was, and was designed to be, made it
necessary to build
just such a governmental system in order to serve the useful functions
maintenance of order, and the successful carrying on of interstate and
affairs. The fathers were not a set of visionaries dreaming of some
it is true that they had a strain of Utopianism in them: they were men
(Professor Beard has shown that they were men of affairs in our present
of that phrase) who had before them certain very practical conditions
to meet, and
who met them with common sense and sagacity.
Red is a man sworn to a theory. He has in some abstract manner thought
he would consider to be an ideal commonwealth, and he believes that a
should be in harmony with such an abstract scheme. He says to himself:
profess to be a democracy. In a real democracy there would be no
would be no poverty, there would be no clique of politicians running
capital; there would be no panics, no unemployment, no child labor, no
of the masses by the capitalists; and all men, women, and children
would enjoy a
full measure of equality." "But in our land it is not so," he goes
onto say; "we have political, social and economic classes, just as they
in the old world; a cabal of politicians runs Washington; the cities
slums; the south is full of child labor; millions are unemployed, etc.,
is therefore not a democracy, consequently the government is a failure,
we should destroy the government we have and put a new one in its
that vitiates the arguments of this amiable person is found in his
premise. He says,
"a democracy should be so and so" and then he finds fault with the
nation for not harmonizing with that picture. Successful governments
are not, never
have been, and never will be, built in such wise. A group of people
live in a certain
land; this land has certain geographical peculiarities of its own;
are of such and such a race and have a certain bent of mind; they are
in such and
such a relation with neighboring people: when these people come to
devise a government
they must make it out of such materials as they have, and shape it to
as they are in need of. The institution conforms to the way things
really are with
that people and not to a picture imagined in the brain of some Utopian.
This is not
to connive in political chicanery or to exculpate those who are guilty
and political corruption: far from it, and quite the contrary. It is
merely a statement
about realities. And as for that, it seems self-evident that political
will not be abated, child labor will not be extirpated, slums will not
and wars will not be made to cease by pulling everything up by the
the governmental machinery that we now have, and bringing chaos upon
us. The very
persons for whose sake the reformer is most worried would be the first
from such a regime. The man who is a real friend of the people will not
upon the head of that people their own government in ruins. If
political and social
affairs in our land were universally corrupt, if our machinery were
and if it were utterly hopeless to expect any relief from a more
of the present governmental system, then a revolution might be
necessary. But such
is far from the case in this land. The government provided for by our
is infinitely susceptible to popular control, and quite capable, if the
will properly use it, of securing for us all the fullest possible
measure of democracy,
equality, and social justice.
Church Membership Grows
during the last five years an average of 2,173 persons joined the
of America, and three congregations were organized daily.
religious constituency of the country is 95,868,096. The Protestants
Roman Catholics, 17,885,846; Jews, 1,120,000; Eastern Orthodox (Greek
411,054; Latter Day Saints (Mormons), 1,646,170.
active membership is 45,997,199, an increase of 4,070,345 over the 1916
The several religious bodies report 233,104 congregations manned by
For the first time in history the Baptists have passed the Methodists
in total membership.
The Baptists, showing their greatest increase in the south, now have
against a Methodist membership of 7,797,991.
Capital News Service.
of Americanization," [Lib 1919] by Professor Emory S.
Ph. D., Head of Department of Sociology, University of Southern
by the University of Southern California Press, Los Angeles,
Revised Edition, December 1920. Price $2.00.
AS LONG as
the great mass of immigration to this nation was composed largely of
in breeding, culture, and political faith to native-born Americans the
problem was very largely a mere question of accommodation; the
newcomers were found
places and given jobs. But after the cessation, or near cessation, of
of incomers, there began a new immigration composed of Southeastern
Asiatics, as alien in breed and political ideals as they were in
language. How to
Americanize the Bohemian, the Pole, the Hungarian, the Hindu and the
Jap, that is
not the same problem as that which confronted our grandfathers in the
the majority of aliens were from Ireland, Germany and Holland. It is a
problem, and more difficult.
patriot ‒ may his tribe increase, too often leaps to the conclusion
that all these
outlanders must at once be assimilated to us in every particular. They
and write English; they must not resort to colonies in order to
maintain their old
world customs; they must steep themselves in our native social life;
they must not
be permitted to maintain their own newspapers and churches. But the
efforts to jam
the immigrant into this process usually end in worse than failure, for
is as human as ourselves, and cannot any faster change his own skin.
patriot might, if he were to consider the matter more closely, come to
something of a gain for us to have these exotic elements of culture in
they help to enrich American life. He would at least cease to demand
of the immigrant, for we should either not permit the immigrant to come
or we should cease demanding him to do the unhuman and impossible thing
over his own nature to fit a new pattern.
does not demand such an impossible thing. What it does demand, however,
once here, the immigrant shall as soon as possible get himself geared
up to the
economic and political machinery of the nation so that he can function
in those connections as the native-born. The immigrant must be made to
laws, give a day's work for a day's pay, keep the peace, and stand
ready to do his
public duty like all other citizens. Merely because he is a stranger he
is not entitled
to immunity from any of these duties. If he will not learn how to make
and elementary adjustments he must be taught how; if he cannot be
taught how, he
must be removed from the land. To preserve in our midst great colonies
of men and
women for whom separate laws must be maintained, and separate moral
But it has
come to pass in these last days that a still different task confronts
and, it may be, an even more difficult task. There have grown up in our
of citizens who demand, not a mere modification or improvement of this
or that in
the American system, but a complete destruction of that system in
behalf of something
entirely different. These men and women have ceased either to
understand or to believe
the ideals and principles of America. How to convert them, or
re-convert them, to
the American program is a task for Americanization. All such matters
have a peculiar
interest for us Masons. From the beginning, yes even before the
had as yet any beginning at all, it has been apparent to all that the
of the new nation and the principles of our ancient Fraternity are
and that the governmental system, a democracy in the form of a
by the founders of the United States, is essentially the same as that
for centuries obtained in Freemasonry. Masons are per se upholders of
system. They helped to create it; they continue to believe in it; and
will. It would be in keeping with the nature of things if lodges the
were to fall into step with the Americanization movement, as the
Association is doing, and other organized efforts besides, and devote
of their activity to making Americans out of Americans. If they do so
find waiting to their hand an excellent text-book for their study,
of Americanization" by Professor Emory Bogardus, of the University of
Bogardus began with making the whole field of Sociology his own;
led by a keen sense for the practical, he came to specialize in
which naturally falls inside the scope of general sociology. As an
Americanization Professor Bogardus has built up a solid reputation on
the west coast,
and he is gradually winning a similar recognition among sociologists in
He is the author of an "Introduction to Sociology" and to "Essentials
of Social Psychology" the latter of which is one of the pioneer works
own department. Of these three volumes it is possible that the
of Americanization" is the most widely useful.
Bogardus has crowded a great mass of matter into 375 pages. In his Part
I he has
five chapters on "Americanization and American Ideals"; in Part II,
chapters on "The Native-Born and American Ideals"; in Part III, six
on "The Foreign-Born and American Ideals," and in Part IV, five
on "Methods of Americanization." In Appendix A ‒ this would be most
to M.S.A. speakers, are collected a number of interpretations of
illustrious Americans from John Smith to Woodrow Wilson. Appendix B
a most exhaustive bibliography ‒ it would be next to impossible to make
complete ‒ covering every imaginable phase of the subject as it has
in magazines and books, all of which are accessible to the American
index makes all the condensed matter of the volume instantly available.
Bogardus, as one will discover upon reading his article that appears
this issue, has no hobbies to ride, or theories to propose; his
standpoint is that
of common sense and knowledge, than which nothing can be safer.
* * *
Masonry and the Founding
as Makers of America," [Lib 1921] by Madison C. Peters. Fourth
edition, published by the Trowel Publications, Yonkers, New York, 1921.
be had through the N.M.R.S. at $1.00, postpaid.
late Rev. Madison C. Peters first published his "Masons as Makers of
in 1917 he struck a popular chord that gave his little volume of some
an instant success. Many copies were sold. Two more editions were
called for before
the author's death and now, in 1921, a fourth edition is placed on the
the Trowel Publications. It has been edited by Louis H. Perocheau, of
It is easy
to understand why this work has made its way everywhere. It gives in
language a rapid account of the part played by Masonry during the
War, and in the organization of our Federal Government: it tells who
in those stirring days; and what part Masonry took in the great drama.
sets forth an account of President Washington, his Masonic connections
Chapter II covers the part taken by Masons in the Continental Congress.
III furnishes a list of Washington's "Masonic Major-Generals"; while
IV follows closely with a similar account of "Washington's Brigadier
In chapter V is given a list of "Masons as Organizers of our
and in an appendix is given "A Masonic Anecdote of the Revolutionary
editions of this little book were met by many criticisms concerning
matters of fact;
it was found that in certain of his statements the author was wide of
and many other statements were based on hearsay, and often very
at that: but such a thing was inevitable in the nature of things,
because the early
records are pitiably incomplete, and in many cases, where exact records
it is next to impossible to get at them, as many Masonic writers know
only too well.
Considering the conditions under which he did his work, and the fact
that he was
carving out a new path, Brother Peters did not go any wider from the
mark than most
others would have done under similar circumstances.
But in this
last edition, which has naturally profited much by the criticisms of
editions, and which has had the advantage of subsequent research, there
statements that must be received with caution. For example, page 16
statement that though it is now impossible to name the Masons among the
of the Declaration of Independence, "it is, however, safe to say that
of fifty were Masons." If by "safe to say" the editor means that
such a figure is not a wild guess, he is in bounds; but if he means
that there is
tangible evidence to support the statement, a reader may safely doubt.
ever know how many of the signers were Masons. Also, we may read on
page 26 that
Lafayette was made a Mason by Washington himself at Morristown, N.J. As
of fact it is not yet known with certainty where Lafayette was made a
George W. Baird, with whom it is dangerous to disagree in this field,
Lafayette was made a Mason at Valley Forge. In such a work as "Masons
of America" it would seem wise to give the various accounts, rather
leave the reader with the impression that the version furnished is to
be taken as
it stands. On page 47 it is asserted that of the fifty-five members of
Convention "at least fifty were Masons." This is almost certainly an
Such cracks in the wall, however, do not seriously endanger the
building. The reader
who bears in mind how difficult it is to get at the facts in the
premises, and who
exercises reasonable caution, will not be led astray. The publishers
are first to warn readers against these dangers, as we may read in the
book in its fourth revised edition is still incomplete. It is the
to carry on the work of the late Rev. Madison C. Peters. With that end
in view criticisms,
corrections, suggestions and additional information are invited for
Particular care has been taken not to overstate the facts. All
statements are made
in good faith, based upon the best information available by wide
correspondence, and research among the oldest records of Masonic labors
To my own
mind the most curious oversight in this outlay of data is the total
the prominent part played by Jewish Masons in the Revolution, and in
of the nation. If the publishers wish for "additional information for
editions" let them turn to "The Jews and Masonry in the U.S. Before
by Samuel Oppenheim, and published among the Publications of the Jewish
Society as No. 19, for 1910. To ignore the Masonic financiers of the
is like leaving Hamlet out of the play.
Also ‒ and
may this be printed in red ‒ it is to be hoped that the next edition
will be furnished
with an index. A book made up of bare facts, names, and dates is next
without some guide wherewith to locate such a fact as one is in search
of such a work as this for the careful Masonic student, especially if
he be a beginner
in the trade, lies in the fact that it is a trestle board on which is
out a fascinating field for research. The student does not need to
begin at the
beginning; his paths are cut for him, and the list of names is
furnished. He can
take his point of departure from each name supplied by these pages and
own researches as far afield as he wishes. Some of these days, it may
a competent Masonic scholar will furnish us with a complete and
of the Fraternity's role in the making of America. To such a work as
that the present
little book would be as a table of contents to a thick volume, but even
even as things now are, it is of value, and is to be "well recommended."
* * *
Information About The Stars
Flag and Our Songs," [Lib 1917] compiled and illustrated by
Ogden. Published by Edward J. Clode, 156 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y.
Story of Old Glory," [Lib 1919] by Samuel Abbott, with a
by James M. Beck. Published by Boni and Liveright, 105 West 40th St.,
N. Y. Price $1.60.
"Our Flag and Our Songs" contains sixty-nine pages, pleases the eye
its clear print and its excellent designs, and there are many things
it. There is a graphic chart of the stars showing all the states for
stand and the order and date of the admittance of these states to the
is a brief sketch of the history of the flag; a chapter on flag
of all the various insignia of the army and navy with explanations of
all the familiar patriotic songs (without music) from Yankee Doodle to
with some interesting historical notes, and similar items of
Dramatic Story of Old Glory" is, as its accurate title indicates, a
description of the flag's own history, than which, if it be set against
of our national beginnings, nothing could be more romantic. "This
as the author himself described it, "is concerned wholly with the
the Flag of the United States from the days of its existence as the
of an infant state confined to a narrow fringe of sea-board backed by a
of hills, to the hours of a mighty people whose gates are on two oceans
will for liberty has been impressed upon the world.... It is curious
the record of our Flag is one of the thrilling, dramatic episodes, no
grasped the idea of a book that would give these episodes in their true
exaggerated, and linked together in a running narrative.... The reader
matter in 'The Dramatic Story of Old Glory' that has not hitherto been
any history of the Flag. The explanation of Trumbull's errors in his
the complete account and the significance, of the raising of Old Glory
Stanwix; the proof of the Flag's being unfurled over the camp of the
Army on the eve of the battle of the Brandywine: the interesting theory
as to Benjamin
Franklin's being the originator of the Stars and Stripes; the grandly
of the Flag through the Civil War; and the story of Old Glory at the
front in France
at the close of the late war; all this is new and important material."
To a Mason
one of the most interesting chapters of the book sets forth the theory
Benjamin Franklin conceived of the first design of the Stars and
Stripes. Many pages
are devoted to Brother Paul Jones to whom the flag was a religion; and
a critical study of the Betsy Ross tradition that leaves very little
that story. Pages and pages are filled up with narratives of famous
of the great wars, from 1777 to 1918. There is a good chapter on
and the Flag," and the book concludes with a chapter on the uses of the
in the school house.
To the sophisticated
Mr. Abbott's style will seem over-colored and overwrought, after the
a perspiring Fourth of July oration, but even so there is much leniency
to be shown
a man in these days who grows enthusiastic about our government. It has
habit to make sport of Washington, D.C., and to grow sarcastic about
the old hopes
and ideals of our land; but it would appear to some who are not without
discernment that this prevalent habit of constant heckling and
gone as far as is necessary. After all, the United States as a nation
is not an
experiment but an accomplished fact, so that at present writing we have
accomplished the feat of becoming a teeming, prosperous, intelligent
at peace among our forty-eight states, and, all our failings to the
destined to a yet greater future, all of the which is not a thing at
which any mall
this side of insanity can possibly sneer.
* * *
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from readers as to where they may obtain
publications on Freemasonry
and kindred subjects not offered in our Monthly Book List. Most of the
sought are out of print, but it may happen that other readers, owning
be willing to dispose of the same. Therefore this column is set aside
for such a service. And it is also hoped ‒ and expected ‒ that readers
very old or rare Masonic works will communicate the fact to THE BUILDER
of general information.
addresses are here given in order that those buying and selling may
directly with each other. Brethren are asked to cancel notices as soon
wants are supplied.
In no case
does THE BUILDER assume any responsibility whatsoever for publications
sold, exchanged or borrowed.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake, 1879;
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873;
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Bro. G.
Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.:
Proceedings of the Scottish Rite Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New
in 1808, of which De Witt Clinton was the first Grand Commander, and
became united, in 1867, with the Supreme Council of the Northern
A. & A. S. R.
Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in New York by De La
Motta, in 1813,
by authority of the Southern Supreme Council, of which he was Grand
these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860.
By Bro. Frank
R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"The Year Book," published by the Masonic Constellations, containing
History of the Grand Council, R. & S. M., of Missouri.
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel Lawrence";
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry";
"The Source of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second edition
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes I to XI, inclusive;
"Masonic Facts and Fictions," by Henry Sadler;
"The Kabbalah Unveiled," by S. L. MacGregor Mathers.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California:
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards,
also St. John's
Cards for volumes 4 and 5;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
"Voice of Masonry," early volumes;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1882
Original Proceedings of The General Grand Encampment Knights Templar
for the years
1826 and 1835.
By Bro. George
A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile:
All kinds of Masonic literature in Spanish. Write first quoting prices.
L. Rask, 14 Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.:
"Remarks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists," by E. A. Hitchcock,
N. Y., about 1865;
"Secret Societies of all Ages," Heckethorn;
"Lost Language of Symbology," by Harold Bayley, published by Lippincott;
"Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson, Edinburgh, 1843;
"Solar System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson, published by
Longmans Co., London, 18S6;
"The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor, Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co.,
or the edition of 1899 published by Scribners, New York;
"Anacalypsis," by Geodfrey Higgins, 1836, published by Green &
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," any volume or volumes.
By Bro. J.
H. Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.:
Fascilus 2, "Cementaria Hibernica," by Chetwode Crawley;
Volumes 1, 2, 5 and 8, Quatuor Coronati Antigrapha;
"Some Memorials of Globe Lodge No. 23," Henry Sadler;
"Constitutions of the Freemasons," Hughan, 1869;
"Numerical and Medallic Register of Lodges," Hughan, 1878;
"History of the Appolo Lodge and the R. A., York," Hughan, 1894;
Any items on Anti-Masonry, especially tracts, handbills, posters, old
almanacs, etc., relating to Morgan incident, 1826-1840, and recurrence
of same from
1870 to 1885.
A. A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California: Various
publications including such as a complete set of "Ars Quatuor
"History of Freemasonry in Scotland," by D. Murray Lyon, (original
Thomas Dunckerley, Laurence Dermott, etc.
Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"History of Freemasonry," Mitchell, 2 volumes, sheep;
"History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, 4 volumes, cloth, in good
"History of Freemasonry," Albert G. Mackey, 7 volumes, linen cloth, new;
Addison's "Knights Templar," Macoy, 1 volume, cloth;
"Museum of Antiquity," Yaggy, 1 volume, morocco;
"History and Cyclopaedia of Freemasonry," Macoy and Oliver, new, full
Also miscellaneous books.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
Study Club course. When requested, questions will be answered promptly
by mail before
publication in this department.
Light on the Baldwyn Encampment
S.C. Warner of Colorado give us some light on the Baldwyn Encampment?"
E. C., Ohio.
somewhat in doubt whether the brother really wishes "light" on the
or whether he desires to provoke a discussion upon the statement made
by us in our
1921 address to the Grand Commandery of Colorado, a portion of which
published in THE BUILDER, that modern Templarism is not the lineal
the Ancient Order.
former, we would answer that the Baldwyn Encampment was located at
and claimed direct succession from the Ancient Order, as having been
from "time immemorial." It is included in our article among the
formed in England during the middle part of the eighteenth century, and
to Hughan, the first authentic records of its conferring the Order must
after 1769. Its claims to succession, antiquity, and exclusive
authority were well
set forth by Brother David W. Nash, a prominent frater of the
Encampment, just prior
to 1860, when it surrendered its independence and was recognized as a
by the Grand Conclave of England and Wales. Its history, its claims,
and its position
in the Order have been fully considered by nearly every prominent
historian, and very many interesting articles regarding it appear in
volumes of "The Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati," to which
we would refer Brother Coblentz for further information on the subject.
the other hand, he wishes to enter into a discussion with us, we
We in our address expressly repudiated any knowledge or personal
research upon the
subject, and are quite willing to accept the conclusion of English
the claims of Baldwyn Encampment are so nebulous and inconclusive as
not to warrant
their admission. Some of its apologists even go via France to Canada
as to its genuineness and antiquity. There is ample warrant for the
H.R.H. the Duke of Essex, who was elected its Grand Master in 1812,
took no interest
in the Encampment, and never communicated with it during the
twenty-four years he
was its nominal head.
not know, but are inclined in this as in many other of the extravagant
regarding Masonry, to claim relationship with Missouri. The burden of
proof is surely
not on us.
S.C. Warner, Colorado.
* * *
important articles on the Knights Templar in the Transactions of the
Coronati to which Brother Warner refers in his reply will be found as
Origin and Progress of Chivalric Masonry in the British Isles, XIII,
The Reception of a Templar, XV, page 163.
Origin of the Knights Templar in the United Kingdom XVIII, page 91.
Knights Templar, XV1, page 203.
The Early Grand Encampment of Ireland, XXIV, page 68.
The "Charta Transmissionis" of Larmenius, XXIV, page 186; XXV, page 69.
On the Templars and Gnosticism, XXIV, page 216.
The Earliest Baldwyn Knight Templar Certificate, XXIV, page 285.
Introduction of Enight Templarism into the United States, XXVI, pages
57, 146, 221.
Order of the Temple, XI, page 97.
The Templar Movement in Masonry, XII, page 178.
Order of the Temple at York, XIII, page 119.
The Chivalric Orders, XIV, page 56.
The Very Ancient Clermont Chapter, XVII, page 84.
Templaria Et Hospitallaria, XVII, page 204; XIX, page 73; XX, page 156.
Knights of Jerusalem,
XIX, page 137.
The Charge of Gnosticism Brought Against the Freemasons and Templars,
Proceedings Against the Templars in France and England: part one XX,
page 47; part
two, page 112; part three, page 269.
Templar Legends in Freemasonry, XXVI, page 45.
* * *
I write to
inquire what is a pavior-mason?
is one who lays floors and pavements. In medieval times he was an
of the Mason guild and, like his brethren in other branches of the
Craft, had a
penchant for symbolism. Often he would work designs and emblems into
a favorite device being something to represent the great age of the
earth, of which
the floor itself was deemed a symbol. Holbein, who was himself no mean
caught this spirit in his famous painting of the "Ambassadors" wherein
the figures are made to stand on a Mosaic pavement in which is an
give computation of the world's existence ‒ "containing a discourse of
world's continuance," as one old interpreter quaintly puts it. The
is one that calls loudly for investigation, especially by those
students who are
interested in the Masonic symbolism of the Mosaic pavement and the
For a beginning one may consult chapter fifteen of "Westminster Abbey
[Lib 1906] by W.R. Lethaby. See also any
Cyclopedia of Architecture, a thing that should be in every Masonic
histories of architecture, architectural encyclopaedias, etc., one will
find mosaic work listed as "cosmati" work.
* * *
Masonic Research Societies
A lodge literary
committee of which I am secretary has asked me to communicate with
and societies in England. Will you kindly furnish name of same, with
list given in response to your question we are indebted to Brother
Herbert F. Whyman,
whose address is given in connection with his name as secretary of Mid
Please notify THE BUILDER of any omissions or errors.
of Fortitude No. 64; meets at Queen's Hotel, Manchester; founded 1739;
C.D. Cheetham, care R. Verney Clayton, Esq., 2, Cooper St., Manchester.
Coronati" No. 2076; meets at Freemasons Hall, London; founded 1884;
W.J. Songhurst, Esq., 27, Great Queen St., London W.C. 2.
Lodge of Research No. 2429; meets at Freemasons Hall, Leicester;
founded 1892; Secretary,
H. J. Grace, Esq., Enderby, Nr. Leicester.
Installed Masters No. 2494; meets at Freemasons Hall, Hull; founded
J. G. Wallis, Esq., 33, Albion St., Hull.
Gough Lodge No. 2706; meets at Swan Hotel, Stafford; founded 1898;
Jackson, Esq., The "Hawthorns," Weston Road, Stafford.
Masters No. 2712; meets at Hotel Cecil, London; founded 1898;
Secretary, J. E. E.
Studd, Esq., O. B. E., 67, Harley St., London, W. 1.
Masters No. 3173; meets at Freemasons Hall, Chatham; founded 1906;
F. Whyman, Esq., "Hill Crest," Maidstone Road, Chatham.
Ionic Lodge No. 3248; meets at Freemasons Hall, Salford; founded 1907;
A. W. Sidebottom, Esq., 16, King St., W., Manchester.
Lodge No. 3260; meets at Freemasons Hall Cardiff; founded 1907;
Secretary, T. C.
Francis, Esq., 36 Clife Place, Penarth.
Masters No. 3266; meets at Freemasons Hall, Colchester; founded 1907;
H. A. Jager, Esq., 6, Upper East Smithfield, London, E. 1.
Masters No. 3306; meets at Freemasons Hall, Aylesbury; founded 190S;
Herbert E. Langridge, Esq., 8, Cecil Mansions, Balham, London, S. W. 17.
Masters No. 3324; meets at Freemasons Hall, Truro; founded 1908;
Secretary, T. A.
Webber, Esq., Trewethem Gyllyngvase Falmouth.
Masters No. 3366; meets at Freemasons Hall, Dorchester; founded 1909;
F. G. Hawes, Esq., Courthope Poole, Dorset.
Masters No. 3420; meets at Freemasons Eall, London; founded 1909;
Howell Evans, Esq., 26 Berkeley Square, London, W. 1.
and Hunts Masters No. 3422; meets at Freemasons Hall, Northampton;
Secretary, G. H. Nelson, Esq., "The Berries," Holly Road, Northampton.
Lodge No. 3456; meets at Cafe Monico, London; founded 1910; Secretary,
Rose, Esq., 2, Whitehall Court, London, S. W. 1.
Masters No. 3477; meets at Freemasons Hall, Newcastle-on-Tyne; founded
G. M. Clark, Esq., Oakwood Hexham, Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Installed Masters No. 3696; meets at Freemasons Hall, Nottingham;
Secretary, P. H. Kettley, Esq., Rudloe Red Cliff Road, Nottingham.
Masters No. 3672; meets at Royal Pavilion, Brighton; founded 1913;
F. London, Esq., 66, London Road, Brighton.
Masters No. 3684; meets at Freemasons Hall, Reading; founded 1913;
O. Farrer, Esq., "The Knowle," Tilehurst-on-Thames, Reading.
Lodge No. 3685; meets at Freemasons Hall, Douglas, Isle of Man; founded
A. J. Parkes, Esq., Tromode, Douglas, Isle of Man.
Lodge No. 3687; meets at College Hall, Hereford; founded 1913;
Secretary, Wm. Parlby,
Esq., Castle Cliffe, Hereford.
Masters No. 3746; meets at Freemasons Hall, Bath; founded 1915;
Norman, Esq., 12, Brock Street, Bath.
P. G. Officers Lodge No. 3747; meets at Midland Hotel, Manchester;
Secretary, E. B. Beesley, Esq., St. Ann's Passage, King Street,
Calami Lodge No. 3791; meets at Hotel Cecil, London; founded 1917;
C. E. Roberts, M. A., The Chilterns, Halter, N. Aylesbury.
Masters No. 3905; meets at Freemasons Hall, Norwich; founded 1919;
H. C. Pattin, King Street House, Norwich.
Masters No. 3913; meets at Freemasons Hall, Ipswich; founded 1919;
Hunt, Esq., Obe 102, Christchurch St., Ipswich.
Masters No. S930; meets at Freemasons Hall, Canterbury; founded 1919;
J. G. Sandiford, Esq., 2, Gordon Road. Canterbury.
Masters No. 4090; meets at Town Hall, St. Albans; founded 1920;
Secretary, Dr. J.
H. Gilbritson, Esq., Hitchin.
worthwhile to note that of the twenty-nine organizations here listed
have been in existence for seven years or more, some of them for a
quarter of a
century, thus showing that a research group, if it be well founded and
managed, can last as long as any other association of men. The reader
to own the bound volume of THE BUILDER for 1918 should turn to page 24
Brother Joseph Fort Newton's article about "Fratres Calasni,"
in the above list.
* * *
Is Freemasonry A Religion?
club was recently engaged in a long discussion over the question, "Is
a religion?" some arguing it is and many it isn't, and I was asked to
the question through THE BUILDER to see what members of the Society
L.D.S., New York.
an interesting question, certain aspects of which were pretty well
THE BUILDER for September. Meanwhile here is a letter from The Masonic
very beautiful Masonic monthly published in London, which contains some
it appeared in the issue for June, 1922, page 698:
TO THE EDITOR
and Brother: There has been much in the "Masonic Record" on the
as to whether Masonry is a religion. May I, as a Brother and a
Clergyman, call attention
to a point that seems to have been overlooked? Surely religion is of
such a nature
that it is impossible for any man to have two religions at the same
time. If we
assert that Masonry is a religion, we are asserting that this is not
Every religion teaches morality, but morality is not religion. Would it
not be better
to drop the claim that Masonry is a religion, and to recognize that
religion are mutually helpful? A man who is a worthy member of whatever
he professes will be a better Mason for it; and a good Mason will also
be an ornament
to whatever religion he belongs to because he is a good Mason.
(Rev.) A. J. DEXTER, Secretary, Albert Edward Lodge. 1557.
* * *
Orville Wright and John
I write to
ask if Orville Wright and John H. Patterson, the two famous Dayton,
Ohio, men were
Masons. Thank you.
who, with his brother, built the first successful aeroplane, is not a
neither was his brother Wilbur, now deceased. John H. Patterson, late
of the National Cash Register Company, was a Mason. His funeral
services were partly
in charge of the Scottish Rite bodies, of which he had been a very
* * *
Traces of Masonry among
Indians of North America
In a book
I was reading recently, I found what led me to believe that the
possessed Masonry. I read where places had been unearthed showing what
been lodge rooms. The east, west, and south had been occupied by
persons of rank,
but the north was vacant. I also read of graves being found, "dug due
and west" and crude implements found on the bodies. This has aroused my
Can you give
me more information of an authentic nature? If the American Indians did
Masonry, where did they obtain it? Kindly give me further light on this
in the Question Box of THE BUILDER.
that certain of our North American Indian tribes had, and still do
maintain, a society
or societies which are remarkably close to our own: and that these
originated before the coming of white colonists to America.
the Cree, Ojibway, Potawatomi, Menomini, Sauk, Winnebago, Iowa, Oto,
and the bands
of Sioux or Dakota Indians comprised under the name of Santee Sioux,
inhabited the state of Minnesota westward into South Dakota, there
a society called in the language of the first five by some variant of
Midewiwh; and among the last four tribes by a name which means
is found in its purest form among the Menomini, Ojibway, and
Potawatomi, and was
formerly well known to the Cree, Sauk, and perhaps to the Ottawa,
and other Central Western tribes of the Algonkian stock. Among those
of the Siouan tongue, such as the Winnebago, Iowa, Oto, and Santee, it
is more divergent,
and a scarcely recognizable form is found among the Omaha and Ponca.
being most familiar with the Menomini form of the ceremonies as
practiced on the
reservation of that tribe in north central Wisconsin, where he has
often been present
during the performance of the rites, and has obtained the ritual, etc.,
will herewith give a brief account of the ceremony and its origin, as
his instructors in its mysteries.
which is called in Menomini the "Mitawin," is considered to antedate
origin of mankind, having been secured as a gift of the gods to
the auspices of the mythical hero demigod Ma’nabus (The Great Dawn, son
of the four
winds of heaven and grandson of our Grandmother the Earth), who forced
manitous subordinate to the Great Spirit to yield to him their secret
of the healing roots and herbs, and the means of attaining immortality
negotiating the passage from this world to the hereafter. In order to
knowledge the Ancient Master had to submit himself to be slain, and was
to life once more, in full possession of the mysteries which he
to mankind in the same manner. These rites have been carefully
preserved and observed
to this day.
of initiating the candidate is as follows: After a long course of
when the final day arrives, a lodge is erected, oblong in shape and
and west. The final preparation of the candidate is completed in a room
curtaining off one end of the lodge. When all is in readiness, he
enters the lodge,
and in imitation of the ancient Master, whom he as the candidate now
he is placed in the western end of the lodge, facing the east. While in
he is successively attacked by four men, bearing bags formed of the
skins of animals
in their hands (usually otterskins are used, because of certain
in the story of the founding of the lodge, in which the otter figures).
contain certain medicines and charms, including a sacred shell, which
with the essence of all. As each approaches the candidate he raises the
the otterskin, which he holds in both hands, breast high, blows upon
it, and utters
the sacred cry of "We ho ho ho ho," which is said to mean "It must
be so!" At each of the first three attacks the candidate staggers, but
the fourth attack is made, he falls, and lies as though dead. Then
evolutions ("floor work") on the part of the four masters of ceremony,
who eventually raise the dead man to his feet, a full-fledged member,
all the light there is.
and grips they do not seem to have, but badges, symbols, and a lengthy
song, recitation, floor work, etc., which is passed on down the
generations by word
of mouth, there certainly are. The society is graded, having four
degrees ‒ among
the Indians everywhere four is apt to be regarded as a sacred number,
three. Four represents the points of the compass, and hence is often
used to symbolize
the cosmos. Among all Indians women are freely admitted as members.
as well as the similarities of these rites with our Freemasonry are of
yet the similarities are fundamental, and the differences, among an
people of very different culture or civilization, are to be expected.
remains "Whence did they obtain these unquestionably ancient rites?"
answer is, in my opinion, involved with the question of their origin.
It has been
proved by modem research that the ancestors of our Indians came from
Asia, ‒ Northern
Siberia, to be precise ‒ via a once-existent land bridge across Behring
I will not enter further into this phase of the question, but an
of speculation is thereby opened to the student.
Arthur C. Parker of Albany, N. Y., tells me of a society which is found
Seneca Iroquois of New York State, wherein the candidate, representing
founder of the order, is not only slain but is brought to life by the
grip of the
in years to come, we shall learn of further similarities among other
as yet we are decidedly in the dark on the subject. Lodge rooms of
stone with the
appropriate stations have been reported, and may no doubt exist,
especially in the
southwestern United States, but the field is yet almost untouched by
to conduct such research.
myself seen very suggestive things in the jungles of Costa Rica, where
I have personally
exhumed from the stonewalled tombs stone figures with their hands in
positions, and where I once found a long rectangular stone enclosure of
use save for ceremonies in the dense jungle. But these objects were
used by a prehistoric
people, wiped out or driven away by the Spanish Roman Catholic
conquerors, and we
can only guess as to their meaning.
up, I repeat that I believe that the American Indians do possess a
of Masonry, which is probably more nearly related to the ancient rites
of our Craft
than to what we practice today, although some similarities even to
are sufficiently obvious. So far, these similarities would not entitle
them to admission
to our lodges nor us to theirs, yet we cannot deny the relationship.
there are many Indians who are at this moment Master Masons in good
numerous of our white lodges, and there have been such since the first
Masonry in America, but I know of no exclusively Indian lodge
practicing our ceremonials
article entitled "Little Wolf Joins the Mitawin" in the 1921 volume of
THE BUILDER, page 281.
Alanson Skinner, Wisconsin.
* * *
Was Francis Scott Key A
please inform me if Francis Scott Key, author of The Star Spangled
Banner, was a
According to the Grand
Secretaries of Maryland
and of the District of Columbia there are no records extant to show
Scott Key was a Mason.
The Irish Masonic Medallion
I have read,
reread and read again your article in the April number of THE BUILDER
"A Masonic Medallion of 1516," and it may be that the following views
as to some of the questions asked may be of interest or shed a little
light on the
to the figure above the Sun in cut "A," I believe that it is supposed
to represent the "All-Seeing Eye," which is found in practically all
15 may allude to the "flight of winding stairs of King Solomon's
As to the
number 16 ‒ if you have ever visited a "Blue Lodge" of the jurisdiction
of Scotland, I think that you will find that this is the total number
of steps ‒
of the three degrees ‒ used in approaching the East.
steps may allude to a portion of the winding stairs mentioned above.
resembling a coffin at the foot of the stair is believed to represent a
shaped figure is believed to be crossed pencils, or a pencil and
scriber or scratch
awl, as under the Scottish Constitution the pencil is one of the
figure is believed to typify the spirit winging its flight "To that
mansion, the house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens."
Now I may
be altogether wrong, but I have visited "Blue Lodges" in the Philippine
Islands that still use the old Scottish Rite "Blue Lodge" work, as they
were originally chartered under the Grand Orients of Spain and
Portugal, and Spanish
is spoken almost entirely; for this reason the Grand Lodge of the
has permitted them to continue using it, but they are gradually
learning the York
Rite ‒ and the "Blue Lodge" Perla del Oriente, No. 1034, under the
Constitution of Scotland, and I have noticed that these emblems or
by them, except the winged figure. If you are familiar with the work
you know that the coffin and grave are significant symbols.
Is it possible
that these symbols have been retained in their work and handed down
immemorial?" Is it probable that speculative Masonry was practiced at
early period? Or was both speculative and operative Masonry practiced
with each other?
Clyde Whitlatch, New York.
* * *
Old Time Masons Organized
while making a study of the rise and progress of Sunday Schools in this
I found an item of peculiar interest for it appears from it that, at
one time, the
Masonic Fraternity was active in introducing and sponsoring Sunday
Schools in certain
parts of the country.
was a letter written in 1815 by one Miss S. Whitehead of Philadelphia
to a Mr. Davie
Bethune of New York. She says: "I had several extracts from Dr. Pole's
(on Sunday Schools) inserted in the 'Religious Remembrance' a weekly
paper of our
city, and the subject excited universal attention. The Freemasons have
up, and at a general meeting it was proposed and carried unanimously,
schools should be established, and held in the Grand Lodge, Chestnut
is no doubt that all the different lodges belonging to the fraternity
up this subject, and it will extend over the whole union; one of the
me this information."
did engage in the cause, but not sufficiently to extend it over the
F.C. Turner. Illinois.
* * *
Where Morris Conceived the
Idea of the Eastern Star
it would be of interest to Masons everywhere to read the following
account of a
Masonic celebration that was printed by a local paper:
11, 1922, will go down in local Masonic history as the date of the
ever held under the auspices of local Masonic bodies. The occasion was
a joint celebration
of Lexington Lodge, No. 24, F. & A. M., Lexington Commandery,
No. 3, and Lexington
Chapter, No. 30, Order of Eastern Star. Lexington is one of the oldest
in the state of Mississippi, having been chartered along the early '20s
as a Masonic
lodge; and many years prior to 1857 it received a charter from the
of Knights Templar of the United States of America, having received a
the General Grand Encampment as the third in the state of Mississippi.
has it been in the forefront in the above but also in the Eastern Star,
the thirtieth charter in this order. Lexington and Holmes County,
not beginning to shine upon the Masonic map during the year 1922, but
leaders many years.
1857 the Grand Commandery of the state was organized in the city of
Lexington was one of the towns to send representatives to aid in this
With the assistance of the Mississippi Commandery No. 1, and Magnolia
No. 2, of Vicksburg, the Grand Commandery was formed. Since this time
been five Grand Commanders from the Lexington Commandery No. 3, two of
now living, and one present Grand Commander.
who have served as Grand Commander are James T. Meade, Fleet C. Mercer,
J. K. Fulson,
deceased, and Robert A. Stigler, who is still active in the various
and W. Lonnie Jordan, who is to finish his tenure of office on April
only has Lexington been prominent in Templarism but also in the Order
of the Eastern
Star and the Grand Lodge F. & A. M., of Mississippi. In the
Grand Chapter of
the Eastern Star the humble Chapter of Lexington has had two of her
members to be
honored with the highest gift within the bounds of the Grand Chapter.
S. Eggleston was chosen in 1810 to carry on the work of the Eastern
Star in the
state, which was originated in the city of Lexington in 1850 by Robert
received the Royal Arch Degree in Lexington Royal Arch Chapter No. 9,
in 1849. It
was while he attended these meetings that the idea came to him that
should be found whereby the wives, mothers and daughters of Masons
the Masonic fraternity in carrying on the practice of fraternalism.
receiving the Royal Arch Degree he moved to Kentucky where he finished
and began the organization of the Order of the Eastern Star. It can be
however, that the foundation of the Eastern Star was made in Lexington,
Mississippi. Having finished his work he gave to Mississippi the
promulgate the teachings and principles of the Eastern Star which was
Lexington was among the first to take this in hand."
John Kyllingsted, Mississippi.
* * *
Will Brother McGuire Speak
summer of 1921 this community was visited by a Brother Gabriel McGuire,
Ruggles Street Baptist Church of Boston. Brother McGuire spoke before a
small lodges located in towns visited by the Chautauqua Company with
which he was
was very interesting and created quite a stir among the brethren who
heard it. He
told a very vivid story of having been made a brother in one of the
of Central Africa, and of having passed through ceremonies so nearly
the initiation, passing and raising that when he finally (years
afterward) was admitted
to the Craft he was able to tell the lodge what was coming.
of his talk bore largely on the Pyramids of Egypt.
He was able
to prove to the less informed brethren (and some that should have been
that the present system of Freemasonry extended back into the savage
tribes of Africa,
long before the building of the Pyramids, in fact before the
civilization of Egypt.
Society know this Brother McGuire?
H. H. Rezennitter. South Dakota.
* * *
Quakers and Freemasonry
I do know
that the Friends are not as a class opposed to Masonry. There used to
be a feeling
among them that nothing should be secret. "If a thing is good why not
the doors to all that all may profit by the good?" This sentiment is
to Friends as you know. I know there are radical Friends who are
opposed to all
so-called secret societies and actually believe there is something
with them all but this can be charged to ignorance and narrowness of
mind and certainly
not to fundamental teaching in the church.
have here a number of Friends who will not take an oath even on the
but will only "affirm." Personally I do not see that it makes any
since you merely agree to tell the truth and in either case one would
of perjury and could be dealt with accordingly should one misrepresent.
never came up in connection with our degree work. I know that the best
make our most enthusiastic Masons if they fully understood us just as I
the Friends' creed holds nothing antagonistic to Masonry or Masonry
that any Friend would object to. I believe I am in a fair position to
I am a pretty enthusiastic Mason having held all the chairs and have
for many years
been a district lecturer and am also a member of the Friend
denomination in fairly
good standing, I think.
we make some mistakes as Masons in our own belief that everything is
do not expect to explain anything and are charged not to argue: that is
but I truly believe that if Masons knew more Masonry they would see
there is not
so much secret after all and could explain some things to those who
would be conscientious
in knowing. Only the best informed would know where to begin and where
There is ignorance in all organizations. I have heard Friends say that
to read a brother into Heaven, that the lodge tried to take the place
of the church;
and on the other hand I have heard Masons say "The lodge is church
me." You and I know that both are founded on ignorance. The first knows
about Masonry and the second does not understand the meaning of what he
knows. A knowledge of Masonry comprises more than committing the ritual
no antagonism between the lodge and the church. One merely takes up the
of life and living and the great beyond where the other leaves off.
and Masons would only talk of things they know how much better we would
E. S. Day, Iowa.
* * *
Ye Editor's Corner
ye editor now has a corner of his own.
* * *
publishing their own bulletins or magazines favor us with a copy?
* * *
THE BUILDER because it is intelligent without being high-brow." Thus
a member. The compliment is acceptable, and the distinction is nicely
* * *
annual index carefully. You will encounter items of interest to
yourself that you
have overlooked during the year.
* * *
having books, clippings, or other data relating to Freemasonry among
are asked to lend such to Brother Alanson Skinner, Department of
Museum, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Associate Editor of THE BUILDER.
* * *
On page 235,
September, 1919, Milman was misspelled.
in one of my Study Club papers I misspelled "Carnarvon."
On page 233
of October, 1915, it is said that Franklin was the friend "of Louis
this should have been "Louis XVI." Transpositions will happen!
On page 59,
March, 1920, it is said that Alexander Hamilton was raised in 1757.
This is an error.
We are now trying to establish the correct date.
are always cheerfully received.
Mason's chief and only care,
Is how to live within the square.
Die Bauhütte des Mittelalters
Hei44 / auth. Heideloff Carl. - Nurnberg : Johann Adam Stein, 1844. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 140. - 10.7 MB - German.
Essentials of Americanization
Bog19 / auth. Bogardus Emory S. - Los Angeles : University of Southern
California Press, 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 301. - 5.5 MB.
General History, Cyclopedia
& Dictionary of Freemasonry
Mac701 / auth. Macoy Robert. - New York : Masonic Publishing Co., 1870.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 683. - 24.8 MB.
Histoire des Trois Grandes Loges
Reb64 / auth. Rebold Emmanuel. - Paris : Collignon Librairie-Editeurs,
1864. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 704. - French - 15.7 MB.
Isis Unveiled Vol 1
Bla91IU1 / auth. Blavatsky Helena P. - New York : J. W. Bouton, 1891. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 680. - 29.3 MB.
Isis Unveiled Vol 2
Bla91IU2 / auth. Blavatsky Helena P. - New York : J. W. Bouton, 1891. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 728. - 33.6 MB.
Masons as Makers of America
Pet21 / auth. Peters Madison C. - New York : Trowel Publications, 1921.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 65. - 1.8 MB.
Our Flag and Our Songs
Ogd17 / auth. Ogden Henry A. - New York : Edward Clode, 1917. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 72. - 3.1 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Cathedral Builders
Sco99 / auth. Scott Leader. - London : Sampson Low, Marston &
Co., 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 520. - 16.1 MB.
The Dramatic Story of Old Glory
Abb19 / auth. Abbott Samuel. - New York : Boni and Liveright, 1919. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 316. - 6.2 MB.
Let06 / auth. Lethaby W R. - London : Duckworth & Co, 1906. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 394. - 8.6 MB.