Masonic Research Society
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
belongs to the soul as much as to the body, and therefore, like Olympus
in the Homeric
poems, is rightly found in the geography of the spiritual world. It
would be better,
perhaps, if we learned to think of it in this wise oftener than we do ‒
America as well as for ourselves, and that in ways the most practical.
At any rate
such is the theme of the author of this beautiful essay, and he has won
as an interpreter of the religious implications of the American ideas
as gives his
words great weight. Readers of THE BUILDER will he interested to know
Newton has recently produced a brilliant book entitled "Preaching in
[Lib 1922]; it is published by The
Doran Company, 244 Madison Avenue, New York. In due time it will be
the Library Department.
is a universal and elemental power in human life, and to limit its
scope by restrictive
adjectives would seem, at first glance, to be self-contradictory. For
the idea of an American religion borders on inconsistency. Since all
souls are alike
genetically, and the divine life flows into all similarly; since human
to the same great needs, the same great faiths, the same great hopes,
of the religion of one nation as if it were unique? Is not the
a supreme revelation of the essential unity of humanity, and the
but the very fact that religion is the creative impulse of humanity
of form, of accent and expression. While humanity is one, in the
economy of progress
a distinctive mission and message is assigned to each great race, for
of which it is held accountable before the bar of history. Naturally,
in the working
out of that destiny the impulse common to the race is given form, color
expression by the social, political and intellectual environment in
which it develops.
Thus the religion of Greece with its myriad gods, albeit springing from
impulse as that of Egypt, is yet different. And the modern man looks
with a new
wonder upon the various costumes in which the religious sentiment has
different ages and nations, and rejoices in its variegated life as
to its picturesque reality and philosophic interest.
By the same
token, no one can read the story of mankind aright unless he sees that
life has its basis and inspiration in the primary intuition of kinship
The state, not less than the church, science equally with theology,
have their roots
in this fundamental reality. At the center of human life is the altar
of faith and
prayer, and from it the arts and sciences spread out, fan-wise, along
all the avenues
of culture. The temples which crowned the hills of Athens were works of
come true in stone; but they were primarily tributes to the gods ‒ the
genius finding its inspiration and motif in religious faith. Until we
lay firm hold
of the truth of the essential religiousness of human life, we have no
clue to its
meaning and evolution. So and only so may anyone ever hope to interpret
aspiring, prophetic life of America, whose ruling ideas and
have their authority and appeal by virtue of an underlying religious
of life and the world.
For, it becomes
increasingly manifest that this republic of ours ‒ this melting-pot of
and races ‒ has its own unique and animating spirit, its mission, and
to fulfill. Just as to the Greeks we owe art and philosophy, to the
profoundest religion, to the Romans law and organization, and to the
laws that are self-created from the sense of justice in the people;
just so this
nation has a distinct contribution to make to the wealth of human
is not an accident. It is not a fortuitous agglomeration of exiles and
Nor is it a mere experiment to test an abstract dogma of state. It is
development of a distinct life ‒ an inward life of visions, passions,
embodying itself in outward laws, customs, institution ways of thinking
of doing things ‒ a mighty spiritual fact which may well detain us to
its meaning. Because we are carving a new image in the pantheon of
history it behooves
us to ask whether or not from this teeming, multitudinous life there is
an interpretation of religion distinctively and characteristically
a passage of singular elevation both of language and of thought, Hegel
why he did not consider America in his Philosophy of History, written
"America is the land of the
in the ages that lie before us, the burden of the world's history shall
It is the land of desire for all those who are weary of the historical
of old Europe. It is for America to abandon the ground on which
hitherto the history
of the world has developed itself. What has taken place in the new
world up to the
present time is only an echo of the old world ‒ the expression of a
and as a land of the future, it has no interest for us here, for, as
our concern must be with that which has been and that which is."
a great thinker who studied the history of the world as an unfolding of
life of man, and who searched every age for the footprints of God,
those words are
truly memorable. They are a recognition of the unique and important
mission of our
republic, and its unescapable responsibility in the arena of universal
Much has happened since Hegel wrote, and the drama of our national
destiny, as so
far unfolded, is a fulfilment of his prophecy, as witness these words
also of our own poets has set that history to music:
is the new world's Gospel: Be ye men!
Try well the legends of the children's time;
Ye are a chosen people, God has led
Your steps across the desert of the deep
As now across the desert of the shore;
Mountains are cleft before you as the sea
Before the wandering tribes of Israel's sons;
Still onward rolls the thunderous caravan,
Its coming printed on the western sky
A cloud by day, by night a pillar of flame;
Your prophets are a hundred to one
Of them of old who cried, 'Thus saith the Lord';
They told of cities that should fall in heaps,
But yours of mightier cities that shall rise
Where yet the lowly fishers spread their nets
The tree of knowledge in your garden grows,
Not single, but at every humble door."
The Religious Quality of
is the quality of the religious America as it has revealed itself in
life? Socrates was right when he said that the real religion of Greece
was not to
be found in its temples. Emerson made a like remark with respect to the
of England. Just so, much of the theology taught among us, even today,
to our shores from lands and times alien to our own, and, if taken
would be incompatible with our fundamental national principles. It was
of minds whose only idea of the state was that of an absolute monarchy,
of vanished empires, a reminiscence of ages when the serfdom of the
people and the
despotism of constituted authorities were established conditions. Its
idea of God,
of man, of salvation are such as would naturally occur to the subjects
of a monarchy,
and this may be one reason why they hardly touch the actual life of men
in our land.
Fortunately our fathers kept their theology and their politics apart,
unaware of the conflict between them. If Puritanism crystallized in
about the idea of conscience, the genius of the Cavaliers was
of these apparently antagonistic ideals, nurtured each upon its own
our national domain, has come that life which is destined to embody the
spirit in a form peculiar to America. So that, if we would know the
America, to say nothing of its religion, we must go further than to the
our churches, and find it in the life of the people, their temper,
spirit and character.
if we are to know the religion of America we must seek it in the Spirit
and what may that spirit be? Here we find an unusual diversity of
among native and foreign students, but they fall into two general
are those who tell us that we are a crude, sordid folk, sodden in
others who are equally sure that we are a race of incurable idealists.
Let us hasten
to admit that both classes of our critics are right, and that it is
blending of self-interest with other-selfness, this robust realism
working on a
basis of the ideal, seeking to make tangible the unbrought grace of
life and its
finer values, which constitutes the chief glory of our nation. What
leads to and ends in, India shows us. What its opposite results in,
some think they
see in the unimaginative, scientific efficiency of Germany. These two
must be held
together, that so our materialism may incarnate our idealism, and our
and transfigure our materialism.
is so, because our national spirit has this dual aspect, it is a
blunder to leave
either element out of account in the interpretation of our history.
apt to emphasize the purely material causes of our national growth,
it as a matter of chance, of geographical environment, or, as is now
of economic necessity. Thus we find the grand traits of New England
to the harsh climate, to sterile soil, to hostile conditions, while the
and the Anti-Slavery movements are held to have been primarily
commercial in their
motives. It is not true. While no one can deny the influence of
geography and industries,
it is little short of blasphemy to overlook those deeper causes those
that have touched the hearts and fired the souls of our people. America
is a land
of commercial opportunity, but our hearts are not in our ledgers and
are not expressed in profits. What really rules this nation is a
to the ideals of freedom and fraternity; and the soul of our people
not in the record of bank clearings, but in the far-flung visions of
poets and heroes.
having followed the Russian pilgrimage to the Holy City, came with the
to America, and tells us that it was a journey from the most mystical
of all lands
to the most material. And yet, if we take Tolstoy as the typical man of
of its strength and gentleness, and its strange lights and shadows, and
alongside Lincoln, the most typical man of America, who will say that
not also a land of mysticism? Indeed, when Lincoln fell fifty years
ago, it was
Tolstoy who said, "He was a Christ in miniature." To say that America
is idealistic is only another way of saying that it is instinctively
religious; that our national life is rooted in spiritual reality; and
religiousness has touched our history to finer issues, turning an
almanac of prices
into an Epic of Humanity ‒ nay, into a chapter in the very biography of
now the religious meaning of the basic ideas and aspirations of our
Before there was an American republic, thinkers in other lands had
wrought out the
gospel of liberty, equality, and fraternity as a speculative thesis;
but our fathers
proceeded from theory to practice, and that, too, with an unshakable
faith in human
nature. Holding that government must be by the people and of the
people, they ceased
theorizing and brought forth on this continent a nation dedicated to
the truth that
man has as inalienable right to be free-trusting the free man to guard
and to find in his freedom the solution of whatever problems may arise.
to say, they reversed the theological teaching of ages, and risked the
fate of our
nation on faith in the essential goodness of human nature and its
kinship with God!
Surely he is blind who does not see how radical is the religious
meaning of this
first principle of our American theology. America is a symbol of
confidence in human
nature; it assumes the inherent divinity and sacredness of man, and our
has justified that faith.
A Hideous Dogma
is a government of the people, the hideous dogma of the state as an
a collective fiction, leading a life of its own, above and beyond that
of the men
who compose it ‒ the frightful dogma which makes the state a kind of
who can do no wrong, an irresponsible Moloch whose necessity is law,
and to which
liberty and right are to be sacrificed ‒ has no place in America! Thank
God we know
nothing of the atheism that the state must do what it has to do, law or
right or no right, and that reasons of state justify anything, no
matter how infernal!
No, we are the state, and if our nation is guilty of a crime, each of
us is guilty,
in his degree, of that crime. America, by the very genius of its
repudiates the political infamy of Machiavelli and all his ilk, holding
law to be as binding upon the state as it is upon the life of the
In other words, our fathers took God into account and had respect for
moral order, when they founded this republic, basing it, as they did,
upon a religious
conception of life and the world.
have often pointed out how visionary and unworkable such a principle
it works. To be sure, it has its inconveniences at times. As Gerrit
Smith used to
say, living in an autocracy is like taking a voyage on a great ocean
sailing smoothly over the sea. Its appointments are perfect, its
but we have nothing to do with the running of it. Whereas, living in a
is like riding on a raft. It is less comfortable, our feet are wet half
and we have a lot of trouble ‒ but we run the raft! Carl Schurz, in his
Bismarck, put it in another way. In a monarchy, he said, details are
but the general tendency is wrong. In a republic the details may be
the general trend and direction are right, and he thought it better to
in great matters even if we handle the details of national life
to be efficient in minor matters and wrong fundamentally.
new idea of man implies and involves a new conception of God. It was
the men who bowed low when the glittering chariot of Caesar swept along
of Rome to think of God as an omnipotent Emperor, ruling the world with
and irresponsible almightiness. For men who live in this land of the
free such a
conception of God is a caricature. The citizens of a republic do not
God is an infinite autocrat, nor do they bow down to divine despotism;
in the presence of an Eternal Father, who is always and everywhere
the humblest man who lifts his heart in prayer. Republican principles
involve faith in the Fatherhood of God. The logic of the American idea
faith in a Divine Love universal and impartial, all-encompassing and
Mayhap we find here a hint why so many men, like Lincoln and Hay, have
the church, not because they were irreligious, but because the theology
of the church
is not in accord with the theology of the republic.
itself a realized vision, is another name for Brotherhood. By a process
we have admitted men from all the nations of the earth into our
extending to them the right of equal suffrage and citizenship. They
walk with us
along our avenues of trade; they sit with us in our legislative halls;
with us in our temples. Americans all, each race brings some rich gift
idealism, and tradition, and all are loyal to our genius of liberty
under wise and
just laws many races without rancor, many faiths without feud. How many
of us here
today could repeat the words of John Hay:
I look to the springs from which my blood descends, the first ancestors
I ever heard
of were a Scotchman who was half English and a German woman who was
Of my more immediate progenitors, my mother was from New England and my
the South. In this bewilderment of origin and experience, I can only
put on the
aspect of deep humility in any gathering of favorite sons, and confess
that I am
nothing but an American."
Thus we are
giving an actual illustration of the Brotherhood of Man ‒ an
illustration that is
also a prophecy. Here the genius of America is one with the teachings
of all true
religion, since the spirit of fraternity is the essence of both ‒
having its springs
in Love, its attainment in Sacrifice, and its mission in Service. May
grow and flourish to the confounding of all inhumanity! America knows
a Slavic race, nothing of a Teutonic race, nothing of a Saxon race, but
Human race, one in origin and destiny, as it must be one in a great
sympathy and service. No wonder the religious spirit of America is
optimistic. As James Bryce said, American patriotism is itself a
religion, in its
confidence in the ultimate triumph of its principle, and in its
this nation has a mission as an evangelist of liberty and fraternity
among men ‒
as truly as the Hebrew had a mission of righteousness to the ends of
Of the influence of this spirit upon theology, a great Frenchman has
"In a country where everything
where at the feast of life there is room for all, where every man sits
by his fireside
in peace, believes what seems true to him, and worships God in every
way his heart
loves best, it must be difficult to conceive of a heaven with a narrow
a salvation limited to a few. The American is therefore naturally an
Such is the
religious spirit as it has revealed itself in this land, colored by the
republic, and the social, industrial and political conditions under
which our nation
has grown ‒ a faith profound and fruitful, hearty, wholesome, joyous,
future with a soul of adventure, often beshadowed but never eclipsed,
retarded but never defeated. If it is revolutionary, it is also
humanity out of despotism into liberty, demanding the right of every
man to stretch
his arms and his soul, to seek that truth by which no man was ever
to look up from the lap of Mother Earth into the face of God the
Father, and climb
"upward through law and faith to Love." It is a great and simple faith
in God and man, in the law of right and the golden rule of love; it is
of the future, vital with the vitality of the universe, the spirit of
in the heart of a great people ‒ Emmanuel!
in dumb resignation
We lift our hands on high;
Not like the nerveless fatalist
Content to trust and die.
Our faith springs like the Eagle
Who soars to meet the sun,
And cries exulting unto Thee,
O Lord, Thy will be done.
Thy will! It bids the weak be strong,
It bids the strong be just;
No lip to fawn, no hand to beg,
No brow to seek the dust.
Wherever man oppresses man
Beneath Thy liberal sun,
O Lord, be there Thine arm made bare,
Thy righteous will be done!"
Who Is Swinging The Axe
In Your District?
Dr. L. P. Jacks, Oxford
education a profession or a mission?' If any of you have any axes to
had better leave them outside before you enter the hall.
progress of education is,' Dr. Jacks states, 'being seriously retarded
at the present
time by a number of ax-grinding interests with which it has somehow got
First of all there is the political ax, then the economic ax, and a
difficult to name, called the religious ax....
as it is now beginning to be understood, includes the whole culture of
his character as well as his intellect, his ideals in life as well as
aptitude. A certain effect of giving education its proper place in
public life will
be to raise the personnel of public life all round…
will they get the best teachers in the elementary schools so long as
remains, which reduces teaching to one of the most dismal and
pursued by man.' …
are beginning to wake up to the fact that education is co-extensive
with the whole
of a man's life and that fact is causing a tremendous revolution. The
of continuation schools and the movement for adult education, which is
with a rapidity we do not realize, are significant of the profound
change in the
public mind as to the whole meaning and scope of education. In other
truth is beginning to dawn that unless education is kept up, it is not
at all. Therefore the education to begin with must be one that can be
kept up, or
it is not education. From the very beginning the eye of the teacher
must be fixed
on the whole life which he is beginning to teach....
all vocations,' said Dr. Jacks, 'it seemed to him that that of the
to be the most delightful, the most inspiring and the most romantic,
and it would
come the most delightful when its true significance had been grasped by
M.S.A. Bulletin No. 8.
* * *
In Hoc Signo Vinces -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Douglas D. Martin.
Editor The Detroit Masonic
the tramp of feet to the drums' dull beat
And the flash of plume and steel,
As with martial tread, 'neath a Cross of Red
The ranks of the Templars wheel.
See the ancient sign of an honored line,
Half white ‒ half black as hate,
That de Bouillon reared and the Moslem feared
At the old Damascus gate.
Hear the battle song of a day long gone
When the Templars drew their steel,
That the Cross might stand in the Holy Land ‒
Though they died for their high ideal.
As in days of old when their fraters bold
Went forth in faith to die,
So they march today in their brave array,
The Cross of their creed held high.
In knightly endeavor, striving forever
To merit their frater's fame;
Oh, honor their pride, who have never denied
Their love for their Captain's name.
Masonic Federation and Its Claims to Higher Degrees
By Bro. Charles C. Hunt,
BUILDER for September, Brother Hunt furnished an account of the claims
of the American
Masonic Federation, of which Mathew McBlain Thomson was head, to its
titles, along with a very clear exposition of the groundlessness of
He now presents a second article to deal in a similar manner with that
organization's claims to the Higher Degrees. In THE BUILDER for
November will appear
a third article to give an account of the trial held at Salt Lake City
at which Thomson and two of his fellow conspirators were convicted of
use of the mails, fined, and sentenced to a federal penitentiary. The
together will constitute an exceedingly interesting study of the moot
Masonic history and jurisprudence, as well as tell the story of one of
famous cases in American Masonic history.
Charles C. Hunt was born in Cleveland, Ohio, November 9, 1856. He moved
Iowa, and there lived until 1888 when he left to attend Grinnell
College from which
he graduated in 1892. After teaching school for a few years he became
of Poweshiek County, Iowa; after twelve years in that office, he became
for six years, and State Examiner for four years. He was raised in
No. 52, A.F. and A.M., July 24, 1900; was Worshipful Master, 1904-1908
was exalted in Hyssop Chapter, No. 52, R.A.M., Malcom, Iowa; Knighted
in De Paynes
Commandery No. 6, Oskaloosa, Iowa; and received the 32 degree,
Des Moines Consistory No. 4. He was Grand High Priest of the Grand
Chapter of Iowa,
1919-1920. Since 1917 he has been Deputy Grand Secretary of the Grand
Lodge of Iowa.
Brother Hunt's numerous Masonic writings, many times reprinted, have
made his name
familiar to Masons the country over.
IN MY former
article I considered the case of Thomson's so-called American Masonic
principally from the standpoint of the Craft degrees. Mathew McBlain
in 1900, before the organization of the American Masonic Federation,
a Council to work what he called the Scottish Rite degrees, from the
He claimed to have authority to do this by virtue of a charter issued
to him on
the second day of April, 1898, by the "Scottish Grand Council of
and which reads as follows:
all Free and Accepted Masons of whatever degree, Greeting: Know that
we, the Most
E. and R. Sovereign Grand Master and High Priest of the Scottish Grand
Rites authorize and empower our trusted and well beloved Frater, Cousin
in the Bond, Matthew McBlain Thomson, xlvii, 3,3, 90, 96, to confer on
Mason any degree recognized and wrought under our Grand Council, and to
Councils, Conclaves or Tabernacles for working the same, in any country
is not already a Grand Body working such degrees, and this shall be his
for so doing.
witness our hand and the seal of Grand Council, at Airdrie, Scotland,
day of April, A. D. 1898.
and R., S.G.M. and H.P."
Spence who signed this patent was a member of the Grand Lodge of
Scotland, and thus
a semblance of authority was given to Thomson by this instrument.
Later, Peter Spence
withdrew from the so-called Grand Council of Rites, that body having
to be clandestine by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and thus Thomson lost
color of title he may have had to these degrees. For it must be
this so-called patent was the only authority he had or claimed to have
with this patent, Thomson traces his Chain of Title to the higher
degrees as follows:
of Title of the Higher Degrees or the Early Grand National Scottish
and Accepted, from time immemorial in Scotland to the 'Confederated
Incorporated into the American Masonic Federation in the United States
together with a few brief explanatory notes.
Craft Degrees known as 'Blue' and the Higher Degrees as 'Red,' 'Green,'
'Second Black,' 'White' and 'Purple.'
will be understood that 'Mother Kilwinning' was the great chartering or
of Scotland, having granted many charters for working the Craft degrees
of which was worked the higher degrees.
higher degrees were divided into two classes known as 'Charter
Degrees', 'Side Steps';
the former were conferred only at stated assemblies and with a required
the latter could be conferred by individual Fraters, and this system
to the year 1800, when the degrees were worked, not under shelter of
the Craft Charters,
but under shelter of a Templar authority obtained from the Early Grand
Templars of Ireland.
the Charter of Renunciation granted by the Early Grand Encampment of
the Scottish Encampments only provided for the government and working
of the Royal
Arch and Templar Degrees, the other degrees of the system were given a
government under control of Patriarchs, entitled 'The Grand Council of
governed the Green, White and Purple degrees, the Templars still being
in a sense
in control, as the Grand Commander of the Encampment was invariably the
of the Council.
Grand Council of Rites worked all the degrees which it had previously
Times Immemorial, and also as worked under shelter of the Templars,
with this exception,
that it no longer worked the Templar Degrees. The full title of the
as worked by the Grand Council of Rites, are known as 'The Early Grand
Scottish Rite, Ancient and Accepted.'
Kilwinning of Time Immemorial."
granted by Mother Kilwinning to the Craft lodge designated 'High Knight
of Ireland, dated October 8, 1779, from which eventually was formed the
of Knights Templar of Ireland."
or Council of Patriarchs who conferred the high degrees and 'Side
Steps' under shelter
of the Craft charters and in the Craft lodges."
Early Grand Encampment of High Knights Templars of Ireland claiming a
for more than a century, grants charter to the Fraters of Scotland in
to a law passed in Scotland and by virtue of that law, the Grand Lodge
forbade her daughter lodges from working any degrees but those of E.A.,
Mark, Master Mason and the Installed Degree; therefore, the Fraters in
applied in 1800 to the Early Grand Encampment of Ireland and received
under which the Patriarchs worked them under shelter of the Craft
1822 the Fraters of Scotland applied for and received their
Independence from Ireland's
Early Encampment, and Robert Martin became their first Grand Commander."
1822 the Tabernacle or Council of Patriarchs, becoming tired of
other wings, with the consent of the Early Grand Encampment, branched
off and changed
their name to that of the Grand Council of Rites of Scotland."
the 20th day of April, 1898, the Grand Council of Rites of Scotland,
Spence, Grand Commander and High Priest, granted a patent to M. McB.
the Representative in the United States of America, to form Councils,
by virtue of that Patent Fratre M. McB. Thomson, through the assistance
of the Supreme
Council of Louisiana (of which M. McB. Thomson was also a member), the
Supreme Councils of the United States were formed, and on the 23rd day
in the year 1907, the said aforementioned Confederated Councils
recognition from the Grand Council of Rites of Scotland."
on the 9th of January, 1912, M. McB. Thomson, by virtue of his Patent
and by Consent
of the Grand Council of Rites of Scotland, the Confederated Supreme
incorporated as an incorporation within a corporation; that is to say,
in the American Masonic Federation, and the Grand Council of Rites
recognized the same and thus we are members of the Imperial
Confederation of the
World, receiving our Charters and Diplomas from the Grand Council of
Rites of Scotland,
and each member being registered of Scotland."
Supreme Councils of the Early Grand National Scottish Rite, Ancient and
in the A.M.F."
Thomson's Templar Theory
De Payenne and eight others in 1118 banded themselves together by vows
the Palmers or Pilgrims on their way to Jerusalem."
this small beginning the Templars grew in power and favor until they
throughout Europe more than 9,000 Manors."
Templars were established on the South Esk in Scotland in the twelfth
the reign of David I (1121-53), and further grants were given by his
IV, William the Lion, and by Alexander II."
the Fair of France, and Clement V, Pope of Rome in 1309, caused the
the Templars everywhere excepting in Portugal and in Scotland. In
Portugal by Dispensation
of the Pope of Rome they took the name of the Order of Christ."
Scotland it continued its existence side by side with the Knights of
St. John until
1560, when Sir James Sandilands, Preceptor of Torphican, surrendered to
Parliament all of the Priory lands. In the meantime the Templars had
into the Order of Masonry, as may be seen by old records in the Scotch
Templar degrees were conferred by the Tabernacle or Council of
Patriarchs as related
heretofore in connection with 'Side Steps.'"
Kilwinning being the Custodian of such degrees, the brethren in Ireland
for and received a Charter to confer Craft degrees under shelter of
which they also
conferred the high degrees, the charter being of date October 8th,
virtue of Charter from Mother Kilwinning was formed the Grand
Encampment of Ireland."
of Patriarchs conferred the Templar degrees in Craft lodges under
shelter of Craft
charters until the year 1800, when they applied for and received
Charters from the
Early Grand Encampment of Ireland."
1800 to 1822 there were 59 Encampments chartered in Scotland from
Ireland and two
more, No. 60 and No. 61, unchartered."
June, 1822, Frater Robert Martin was made Provisional Grand Master of
Grand Encampment, and in July of the same year, after Encampments No.
60 and No.
61 had received their Charters, Robert Martin was made the first Early
of the Early Grand Encampment of the Temple and Malta of Scotland with
independence of the Early Grand of Ireland."
Early Grand Encampment of Ireland having ceased to exist as such, the
both by time immemorial and by virtue of the Irish charters, is thus
of all such degrees. The oldest in existence."
Early Grand Encampment of Scotland gave to M. McB. Thomson power and
their representative to form Encampments, etc., in the United States of
and elsewhere. Therefore there is not a link missing.
strange that one with Thomson's intelligence could have called this a
Chain of Title.
Even as it stands it is very vague and the inferences drawn from it are
by no means
sound, even if the statements made are accepted as true, which we
It is true
that Mother Kilwinning lodge was the great chartering lodge of
Scotland, and that
in 1779 she chartered a lodge in Dublin. But this charter granted
authority to confer
the Craft degrees only, and although this Dublin lodge did as a matter
confer the Templar degrees, the authority to do so, if it existed at
all, came from
other sources. In fact, on at least three occasions, that is in 1811,
1813 and 1827,
being applied to in regard to the Templar degrees, Mother Kilwinning
that "The brethren of Kilwinning Lodge have never gone further in
than three step Masonry."
His Templar Claims Fall
be noted that while Thomson traces the Templar degrees through Mother
by way of Ireland, back to Scotland, he does not make a consistent
chain. He states
that through Mother Kilwinning was formed the Grand Encampment of
of Ireland, but he traces the Scotch Templars from the Early Grand
Ireland, whose source he does not trace, nor does he show any
the two Encampments he mentions.
Lyon, whom Thomson recognizes as an authority on Masonry in Scotland,
the Order of Knights Templar "was introduced into Edinburgh in 1798 by
serving in a regiment of English Militia, then quartered in that city,
under a warrant
emanating from Dublin. In all probability it was in virtue of a
this Military Encampment that the first Grand Assembly of Knights
Templar was set
up in the Scottish metropolis. It was constituted in 1906 under an
and in 1810 it originated a scheme for instituting a Supreme Court of
in this country."
He does not
trace it to Mother Kilwinning or to the Dublin lodge chartered by
nor is the Templar body referred to by him the same body from which
is that prior to 1909 there were two bodies claiming to control the
in Scotland. It is not necessary to consider the question as to which
had the best
claim to regularity, because the two united on April 3, 1909. It is,
fact that the one mentioned by Lyon was generally recognized throughout
world while the one to which Thomson belonged was not.
after the union of these two bodies some of Thomson's associates
brought suit in
the Supreme Court of Scotland to have the amalgamation set aside. The
held the union valid, and in rendering opinion, among other things,
going further back in the history of Masonry than 1900 it appears that
in that year
there were two governing bodies of Templar Masons in Scotland, Grand
and the Great Priory called the Chapter General up to 1906. Into the
earlier history of these respective bodies it is not necessary to
that it was in the interests of Templar Masonry that these bodies
should unite began
to take definite shape certainly not later than 1904.
amalgamation was effected on 3rd April 1909."
satisfied that amalgamation was desired and in the end eagerly desired
by the vast
majority of Grand Encampment Templar Masons. One of the moving causes
the failure on the part of those associated with Grand Encampment to
from similar bodies, not only in Scotland, England and Ireland, but in
of the world, and notably in America. The fact of this non-recognition
the reason for it is not so clear, although it is impossible to ignore
working of spurious degrees by a body called the Scottish Council of
of whose officers were members of Grand Encampment, was to some extent
prior to the close of 1906, the cause of it."
to have power and authority from the Grand Encampment of Scotland to
in the United States and elsewhere. This was not the case since as
the only authority from Scotland which Thomson was able to produce was
from the so-called Grand Council of Rites, and this Grand Council did
or claim to have, any authority over the Templar degrees.
in his magazine, "The Universal Freemason," in 1911, the report of the
Grand Commander to the Council of Rites at its meeting held in Glasgow,
in 1910. In this report it was stated that the Grand Lodge of Scotland,
Royal Arch of Scotland, and the Grand Encampment of Scotland had each
degrees over which it had control, and that there was no conflict
between them and
the Grand Council of Rites. The statement continues: "These Supreme
jurisdictions, like our own Council, are all separate and distinct
bodies and do
not cross or conflict with each other." This being so, the patent from
Grand Council of Rites, even if it were recognized as a regular body,
grant authority to confer the Templar degrees.
Scottish Grand Council of
to the Grand Council of Rites from which he claimed authority, Thomson
has the following
Scottish Grand Council of Rites occupies a unique position among
Masonic high grade
bodies, claiming as it does to be self-existing, the parent of many,
of none. It is the custodian and preserver of those legendary and
degrees so dear to bygone generations of earnest and enthusiastic
little known to their present day successors, if we except the noble
band of Masonic students who prize knowledge more than ribbons and
jewels. It embraces
within its bosom all Rites and Systems which have in the course of time
on, or gathered around, the parent stem of Scottish Masonry, excepting
Craft, Royal Arch and Knight Templar degrees, controlled by Grand
Grand Chapter and Grand Encampment, and which, by its constitution, it
to be the property of these Grand Bodies, and with which it has neither
nor inclination to interfere. That the principal degrees embraced in
Rites (these Rites themselves being but modern methods of arranging or
ancient degrees) were known to our Ancient Brethren and practiced by
them in Scottish
Craft lodges in the eighteenth century, is admitted by all Masonic
can be amply proved by old diplomas and documents still existing, and
forbidden by Grand Lodge to work other than the Craft degrees in the
they transferred their knowledge and continued their work in the then
Templar Encampments, of which they became the leading spirits, is
equally well known.
Here, however, after a time the spirit of change and reconstruction
and the possessors of the higher grades becoming tired of sheltering
under the shadow
of other wings, sought at last an abiding place of their own, where
which had enriched the Masonic systems of the world, could be governed
in the land
of its birth by Scottish Masons in a worthy and fitting manner, without
aid or interference, and the result was the Scottish Grand Council of
the years which have passed since the force of circumstances compelled
Council to withdraw from the shelter of Grand Encampment, numerous
have been worked by Grand Chapter and Grand Encampment have been placed
control and many other degrees and orders which had been introduced
from foreign sources, such as the Sat Bhai, the Mystic Shrine, the
etc., have there found a shelter also."
it will be seen that even in his own account he admits that the Grand
Rites had no authority over the Craft, Royal Arch or Knight Templar
that with the bodies working these degrees "it had neither the right
to interfere." It will be noted however that the Grand Council of Rites
claim jurisdiction over practically all Masonic degrees except those of
Royal Arch and the Temple. It will, therefore, be well to consider
briefly the nature
of this organization and its claims to recognition.
all we know about it is information furnished by Thomson himself or men
with him. D. Murray, Lyon does not mention it in any of his writings.
to it, but is careful to say that his information comes from Mathew
Waite mentions it, but questions the source of his information and says
it is "frankly
partisan." If it had any standing at all in Scotland, some reference to
would have been found in the writings of D. Murray Lyon, as nothing of
to Masonry in that country seems to have escaped his observation.
Personnel of Grand Council
as Chairman of the Jurisprudence Committee of the Grand Lodge of
an investigation of this body and found that it had no building of any
any office in Scotland except the living rooms of its Secretary, Robert
a time-keeper to a firm of engineers. The membership of this body is
consisting principally of enginemen and miners in and around Ayrshire,
quite decent fellows, according to Brother Inglis, but easily deceived
Masonic. It would seem that if this body was not organized by Thomson
had fallen under his influence to such an extent as to grant him
anything he desired.
It is true,
as stated by Thomson, that originally the degrees of the Chapter and
were conferred under a lodge warrant. It is probably true that other
also so conferred, but this practice did not long continue. At no time
was it held
that the Craft lodges had control of these degrees. The control was
vested in those
who had the degrees and the Craft charter authorizing them to meet as
was also used by them as authority to meet as Royal Arch Masons,
etc. Possibly this was because there was no general head over such
it may have been because these degrees were considered an outgrowth of
degrees, or it may have been because of numerical weakness. At any
rate, as these
degrees grew in favor the sentiment that each should have an
organization of its
own became so strong that Grand Chapters, Commanderies and Encampments
and after the formation of such bodies, the degrees ceased to be
lodge charters, it being generally recognized that the bodies formed by
of the degrees alone had such control. It should be noted that such
formed by the Masons who had certain definite degrees meeting and
forming the organization
to control those degrees. They were not formed by virtue of a charter
from any other
Such an organization,
after being regularly formed, was generally conceded to be the only
body from which a charter to confer the degrees embraced in the
issue. The result was a multiplicity of organizations in addition to
the Craft lodges,
variously known as Lodges, Chapters, Commanderies, Priories, Councils,
Conclaves, Preceptories, Encampments, etc., of different kinds and
of these had control of its own set of degrees, and each to a large
extent was independent
of the others.
This is one
explanation of the growth of Masonic rites, in fact some writers define
rite as the arrangement of a number of Masonic degrees into a single
we have the Capitular Rite, the Cryptic Rite, the Scottish Rite, etc.
A Union Suggested
about the middle of the nineteenth century a few Masons in England,
among whom were
Hughan and Gould, advocated the union of all these rites into a single
the wing of a "Grand Council of Rites." This suggestion, however, was
not seriously considered by the Masons of England, and there seems to
no results from it, but these suggestions may have been the origin of
the plan which
Thomson later worked out.
1870 referred to a "Council of Rites" as working well in Ireland and
but the organization he described was very different from the body
used in these later years. According to Hughan the Council of Rites of
was simply a working agreement by which each Grand Body recognized the
of the others, and that the degrees of each rite should follow each
other in regular
and recognized order. He says that in Scotland, "the Grand Lodge
the three Craft degrees alone, including the Mark. The Grand Chapter
its wing the degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, and Excellent Master,
them to be taken before the Royal Arch degree, which in turn is a
Knight Templary. This same Grand Chapter issues warrants to work the
Mariner and the Red Cross degrees. The 'Royal Order' must be joined
before a candidate
can be received into the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, and
is a gradation acknowledged throughout, and all the degrees, excepting
are kept apart from the Craft.
Ireland, the Grand Lodge displays much more system, and has developed,
last few years, a most excellent method whereby to regulate and control
degrees beyond the third. The Constitutions provide for the members not
to wear any jewel, medal or device belonging to any order or degree
of Master Mason (in which, however, the jewel of a Past Master of a
lodge is included)
in the Grand Lodge, and strictly prohibit as unlawful all assemblies of
in Ireland, under any title whatever purporting to be Masonic, not held
of a warrant or constitution from Grand Lodge, or from one of the other
bodies recognized by and acting in unison with it."
named by Hughan as recognized by the Grand Lodge of Ireland are: 1 ‒
The Grand Lodge;
2 ‒ Grand Royal Arch Chapter; 3 ‒ Grand Encampment of Knights Templar;
4 ‒ The Supreme
Council, Ancient and Accepted Rite. The degrees of Masonry must be
taken in the
order named. Thus, the degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Rite could
not be taken
until the petitioner had received all the degrees of the Lodge,
Chapter, and Commandery.
There is also a system by which reports are made between the different
that brethren suspended, expelled or restored in one body can be
in the others.
It will be
thus seen that the Council of Rites described by Hughan was an
the various Masonic bodies and not an independent organization
bodies. Such an organization as Thomson described the Scottish Grand
Rites to be could only be formed by the virtually unanimous agreement
of all the
Masonic bodies concerned throughout the world. It certainly could not
by any organization, Masonic or otherwise, assuming control of Masonic
It was because of the fact that the Scottish Grand Council of Rites did
to assume control over Masonic degrees that it was declared clandestine
by the Grand
Lodge of Scotland.
As to the
Scottish Rite degrees proper Thomson claims that they originated in
were afterwards introduced into France by the Chevalier Michael Andrew
they were worked over into various rites, among them that of
Perfection, which later
grew into what he calls the clandestine branch of the Scottish Rite in
It is impossible in this short article fully to state and answer his
in regard to this, and I can only briefly say that his claim is that
Scottish Rite came from France, not Scotland, while his authority came
Scotland and is the only regular branch of Scottish Rite Masonry.
Scottish rite Did Not Originate
to this, it is perhaps enough to say, as was proved at Thomson's trial,
one of the so-called higher degrees originated in Scotland, and that
the only recognized
branch of the Scottish Rite in Scotland, as in the rest of the world,
from the Charleston body, and this branch entered Scotland by way of
in "The Universal Free Mason," [Lib*] Volume 2, Page 100, says in
to the various rites of Masonry:
Grand Council of Rites of Scotland controls all the supplementary
degrees not controlled
by Grand Lodge, Supreme Grand Royal Arch Chapter and Grand Encampment
Templars: it will be interesting to trace how the several Rites and
it controls came into its possession.
primitive Early Grand Scottish Rite is the oldest practiced by the
it consists nominally of XLVII degrees; as, however, three of those are
of Grand Lodge, two of the Royal Arch Chapter and seven of the Grand
the actual degrees of the E.G.S.R. controlled by Grand Council is thus
These are all degrees of work and while some of them are peculiar to
others are common to all the Rites, they having been taken from
as we have shown above. The Rite of Misraim came into possession of
from Ireland in 1820: the Rite of Memphis from England in 1852.
Grand Council in 1822 after its formal separation from the Grand
establishment as a separate body authorized the segregation of the 30
the Ancient and Accepted Rite which had before worked as part of the
and since then has issued a separate diploma for them thus arranged.
Eastern Star was given to Coila Council Ayr by the author of the
degree, Rob. Morris,
while on his route to the Holy Land in 1860-1, and by it to Grand
Council. The Mystic
Shrine was given by Bro. Florence, its founder, to the brethren of
Sat Bhai was brought to it by Scottish brethren from the East Indies:
and the Order
of St. Lawrence reached it by way of Canada."
Of the most
of this it is sufficient to say that there is no evidence to support
here made, and even if they were true, it would give no authority for
bodies in any country where there were similar bodies already in
control. As a matter
of fact, the Grand Council of Rites assumed an authority it did not
have even in
Scotland, to say nothing of the other countries. Therefore, as stated
fell under the condemnation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland; and Masons
jurisdiction of that Grand Lodge were forbidden to affiliate with it.
Jamieson held membership in lodges under the Grand Lodge of Scotland,
and for continuing
to be concerned in conferring clandestine Masonic degrees, were tried,
and expelled from Masonry by that Grand body.
High Spots in Education
The Christian Science Monitor,
one of the features of the national conference of school
superintendents, now in
session in Chicago, the Institute for Public Service is staging its
of what it calls 'high spots in education.' The schools of the entire
been combed for material with the result that there is established a
house of information and suggestion. Whatever is novel or important
illustrated by chart or model. Doubting Thomases who contend that
in education is practically nil will find, for example, a series of
cities and even countries in which every school has its parent-teachers
and one city school where 1400 fathers regularly attend 'fathers
Other late developments to which the attention of educators is directed
systems of vocational guidance and training, the best methods of school
adaption of radio equipment to school purposes, and the progress of the
away from the little red schoolhouse and toward the central building to
pupils are brought in busses. Special mention is also made of one
which pays its elementary teachers $4500 a year and looks upon this
salary as a sound investment."
M.S.A. Bulletin No. 8.
"Not Made With Hands” -- [A Poem]
George Benson Hewetson
dream I saw the very House of God,
Eternal in the heavens, not made with hands;
Its living stones souls gathered from all lands;
League on celestial league, and rod on rod
With everlasting joy the wonder glowed.
Impregnable to all assaults it stands;
Above the sea, above its shifting sands;
Nor resting on cold earth's reluctant sod.
Myriads of angels, each with heavenly span,
According to the measure of a Man,
Laid to the line stone on translucent stone.
Rapt in song's glory the seraphic choir,
To harp and cymbal, trumpet, lute and lyre,
Haloed with music the One Timeless Throne.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird. P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
Sir William Johnson
JOHNSON was the first Master of St. Patrick's Lodge in New York. He was
County Down, Ireland, in 1715 or thereabouts; and died in Johnstown, N.
11th, 1774. Johnson was a brigadier general, a colonial officer,
baronet, and one
of the most picturesque figures in a colorful and exciting time. He
came to this
country at the behest of his uncle, Admiral Sir Peter Warren, who owned
in the valley of the Mohawk, and who was anxious to have his brilliant
take charge of his holdings. Accordingly the young Johnson established
the Mohawk valley at a place which Sir Peter called Warrensburg, and
which was about
twenty-four miles from Schenectady.
who was a trader by instinct, and who seemed to have a sixth sense with
soon learned many dialects and won the respect and esteem of the tribes
by his fair
treatment and good faith. The Mohawk Indians adopted him with the title
and they gave him as his name Wariaghejaghe, which means in English,
has charge of affairs." When bickerings arose among the various Indian
Governor Clinton of the colony appointed Johnson justice of the peace,
colonel, and put him in military charge of the Six Nations.
In 1748 Johnson
was given command of all colonial troops for the defense of the
frontier, and proved
to be an excellent organizer. In 1750 he was appointed a member of the
Council. One of his most famous exploits as a leader among the Indians
was in quieting
their disturbances at Onondaga, at which time he acted under commission
a home on the North side of the Mohawk River that became famous in the
colonial times: it was a great stone mansion built like a fortress:
indeed it was
fortified and it came to be called Fort Johnson.
a delegate to the celebrated Congress at Albany in 1754; and he was a
in the grand council held with the Indians on that occasion. General
him "sole superintendent of the affairs of the Six Nations, their
dependents": later on he was created a major general. As major general
made commander-in-chief of the Provincial forces in the famous
expedition to Crown
Point: and he was in command of the forces that defeated Baron Dieskau
at Lake George
(Johnson gave its name to that lake), which victory saved the colonies
ravages of the French, prevented an attack on Oswego, and went far to
undo the disastrous
consequences of Braddock's defeat at Monongahela. Historians are of the
that the honors of the battle at Lake George were, in strict right, due
Lyman, but Johnson was commander-in-chief and to him was accorded the
glory of winning
a conflict of strategic importance: the British Parliament created him
and voted him 5,000 pounds in order to uphold the dignity of his new
In 1756 Baron
Johnson received from George II a commission as "Colonial Agent and
of the Affairs of the Six Nations and Other Northern Indians," which
he held as long as he lived. It was at this same period that he and his
took part in the abortive attempt to relieve Oswego and Fort William
Henry. A year
later he was with Abercrombie at the repulse of Ticonderoga. After
killed Johnson succeeded to the command and routed the French under
He was in command of the Indian forces in the defense of Amherst, and
at the capitulation and surrender of Canada to the British. All this,
in a way that
I have not space here to describe, had much to do with the securing of
political and religious liberty in what later became the United States.
gave Sir William a tract of one hundred thousand acres of land north of
this was a Royal Grant, and came to be called "Kingsland." It is
that the Six Nations would have joined Pontiac in his rebellion in 1763
if it had
not been for Johnson's influence.
is to us Masons an interesting figure because he was a member of the
at a time when Masonic lodges reflected the crudeness and roughness of
days. He was, as I have already said, a very picturesque figure and in
his career was one of the most remarkable in our history. He was
and bold as a buccaneer, afraid of nothing, and a lover of action; he
conventions of polite society and went his own way regardless of
opinion. This is
shown in his alliance with the famous Molly Brant, sister of the Indian
Brant who became a member of a Masonic lodge, so it is supposed, in
W. Gage has given an account of this in "The Journal of Masonic
(vol. 3, page 429) which I shall quote: "In early boyhood he (Joseph
became a favorite with Sir William Johnson and the laughing black eyes
of his handsome
sister, Molly Brant, so fascinated the rough baronet that he took her
Hall, as his wife. Sir William believed that Indians could be tamed and
arts of civilized life, and he labored with great energy, and not
without some success
in this difficult task."
In the battle
at the head of Lake George, already mentioned, which occurred in 1755,
who had command of the French, was wounded and captured. Sir William
the distinguished captive into his own home and nursed him back to
Baron Dieskau returned to France he sent Johnson an elegant sword: the
had become fast friends. In one of the skirmishes that led up to this
Ephraim Williams was killed. After his death it was discovered that he
his property to be used as an endowment fund for establishing a
college. This was
the way in which Williams College began. These incidents serve to show
was life in those early days.
Johnson gave great attention to agriculture and was the first to
and blooded horses into the valley of the Mohawk. He lived like a lord
and was hospitable
to the limit. His grave is in St. John's Episcopal Church Yard, in the
city of Johnstown,
N. Y., and is marked by a very modest slab of marble on which his name
Chief Joseph Brant's Masonic
By a singularly
happy coincidence three letters discussing the Masonic career of Chief
were sent to THE BUILDER at the time Brother Baird's article, printed
preparing for the press. They dovetail so interestingly into the story
of Sir William
Johnson that we insert them here as a kind of codicil to that story in
to printing them in The Correspondence Department, for which columns
authors prepared them.
Was Brant Made A Mason In
By Bro. A. D. Gibbs New
I have read
with interest the story in the March BUILDER, page 71, by Brother
Arthur C. Parker
of New York on "American Indians in Freemasonry." He states that Chief
Joseph Brant was a Mason and a member of St. Patrick's Lodge, of which
Johnson was Worshipful Master.
Lodge, No. 4 (originally No. 8), was chartered in 1766 by the
Provincial Grand Lodge
of New York, with Sir William Johnson as its Master. In Johnson Hall,
N. Y., which still stands, is a room equipped with ancient lodge
the caretaker informs us is the original furniture of the lodge. It
every evidence of antiquity.
Johnson occupied this home until his death in the spring or summer of
William was married "by Indian custom" to Molly Brant, a sister of
Joseph Brant. Brant was, of course, a frequent visitor at the Johnson
home and for
a time acted as secretary to Sir William. It is well known that Brant
was a Freemason
and one would easily and naturally be led to believe that he was made a
the lodge over which his "brother-in-law" presided as Master.
if we are to believe Masonic history, such is not the case. We are told
in the Encyclopedia
of Freemasonry, Revised Edition (Mackey & McClenachan), that
Brant was made
a Mason in London in 1776. Stone's "Life of Brant" [Lib 1851; Vol 1, Vol 2] informs us that Brant went to
in 1775, and returned early in March, 1776. England, at that time, was
of securing the active support and assistance of the Indians of the Six
and Brant was their leading chief. His support was necessary. While in
was shown every attention and treated like royalty. His portrait was
a famous artist. If it is true that he was initiated in London, it is
to suppose that his initiation formed a part of the honors extended to
him by the
British people. In any event, he returned to America thoroughly won
over to the
British cause. He was landed secretly near New York City and found his
hostile country to Canada.
At this time,
March 1776, Sir John Johnson, a son of Sir William, resided in Johnson
St. Patrick's Lodge is said to have held its meetings. Whether Sir John
was an officer
in this lodge I cannot say, but he was at that very time Provincial
of New York State, or Colony. Sir John was from the first an active
Tory, and was
at this time under parole to general Schuyler. In May, 1776, he broke
and fled to Canada, where he became Brant's superior officer and with
Captain Brant, conducted many raids on the Mohawk Valley. From May,
1776, to the
close of the Revolutionary War Brant and Johnson entered the valley
only as enemies
of the patriots who remained. From this time on St. Patrick's Lodge
must have been
under the control of the supporters of the American cause, and Brant
and Sir John
would have hardly dared to try to meet on the level with the brethren
of Masonic ties.
circumstances or facts, if they are facts, is it possible that Brant
was ever a
member of St. Patrick's Lodge at Johnstown? Brant resided in Canada
after the war,
outside of the jurisdiction of our Grand Lodge.
several instances where Brant heeded the sign of distress. There is no
that Rt. W.’.G.’.M.’. Sir John Johnson ever heeded any sign of
or otherwise. He waged ruthless and barbarous warfare against old
and Masonic brothers, many of whom must have been members of his own
It is, of
course, possible that Brant may have taken some degree of Masonry in
Lodge before the war with England, and that further degrees were
conferred in England.
Unless this is the case, I don't see how he could have been a member of
and the history of St. Patrick's and other Mohawk Valley lodges are
worthy of study
and research, and I for one would appreciate more light on the subject.
* * *
Accounts of Brant
By Bro. Arthur C. Parker,
I have been
much interested in the letter from Brother Archie D. Gibbs, of Norwich,
to the Masonic affiliations of Captain Joseph Brant, the noted Mohawk
Gibbs mentions my "article" in the March number of THE BUILDER and
my statement that Brant was a member of St. Patrick's Lodge of
Johnstown, N. Y.
to state that the article quoted was sent to THE BUILDER merely as a
to the questions raised by Brother Slane regarding American Indians who
or were Masons. The subject of the letter was not especially concerning
I must confess that in my hurried writing, I accepted the popular
Brant was a member of his brother-in-law's lodge, the current belief in
suggests that Brant may have been a Mason in England. Upon looking over
I fail to find any direct evidence of this, though the inferential and
evidence seems to point out that this is the fact.
over "The Freemasons' Library and General Ahiman Rezon," by Samuel
(Baltimore, 1826 [Lib*]), I find the following quotation from the
Hudson Whig, (N.
"The following interesting
illustrate the important influence of Freemasonry in the most
distressing and eventful
scenes of military life. At the battle of the Cedars, thirty miles
on the St. Lawrence, Capt. M'Kinsty, of Col. Patterson's regiment of
troops, was twice wounded, and taken prisoner by the Indians. His
a partisan officer, had excited the fears and unforgiving resentment of
They determined to put him to death. Already had the victim been bound
to a tree
and surrounded by the faggots intended for his immolation. Hope had
fled; and in
the agony of despair he uttered the mystic appeal which the brotherhood
never disregarded; when, as if heaven had interposed for his
preservation, the warrior
Brandt interposed and saved him. The Indian Warrior had been educated
and had there been initiated in the mysteries of Freemasonry. Feeling
of his obligation, he immediately preserved his brother's life, and
his ransom. Captain M'Kinsty died in June 1822."
Hudson Whig. (Undated).
M'Kinsty is a mispelling for McKinstry, and the spelling "Brandt" is
for Brant. To continue this story, I quote from the handbook of Hudson
Y.), No. 7, and from a footnote on page 20:
"The history of Brother John
wonderful escape from a horrible death has often been told. He was a
the continental army and being wounded at the Battle of Cedar, was
captured by the
Indians and carried away for torture by fire. He was bound to a stake
and fire applied,
when the Captain, in his extremity, although surrounded only by
savages, made the
grand hailing sign of distress of a Master Mason. This was seen and
Thayendanagea, chief of the Mohawks, also known as Joseph Brant, who
was a Mason.
Brant instantly rushed to his assistance, rescued him from the flames
(he is said
to have ransomed him from his captors with an ox), took him to his
wigwam and cared
for him. Later he sent him to his home in safety. After the bitterness
by the war had passed away, Brother McKinstry was visited by Brant at
his home in
Greendale, opposite Catskill-on-the-Hudson. In 1805 he had the pleasure
in this lodge (Hudson No. 7) with his red brother, on the spot still
the lodge. (See minutes of communication, Dec. 16th, 1908)."
of early Hudson and Mohawk valley lodges, cited by Brother Gibbs as
worthy of further
expansion, is an interesting one and should be treated in a special
article. I have
some notes along this line but feel that it is best not to treat of
this in a letter.
say, in conclusion, that Brother McKinstry remained an ardent Mason
during the remainder
of his life. He was one of the founders of Hudson Lodge. This lodge was
March 7, 1787, the charter being a copy of the famous "Athol Charter,"
devised by Prince John, Duke of Athol, Grand Master of Masons of
England, of the
Ancient York Grand Lodge.
of Joseph Brant, Indian warrior, British collegian, Tory raider,
Anglican lay reader,
Chief of the Mohawks, founder of a church and school, at once a savage
and a gentleman,
should be written for THE BUILDER. There is a splendid monument to
Brant at Brantford,
Ontario, and his grave closely hugs the walls of the church which he
and which Queen Anne endowed.
* * *
Brant's Assistance to Masons
By Bro. Alanson Skinner,
that I cannot add very much to the able discussion of the Masonic
career of Brother
Joseph Brant given by Brothers Gibbs and Parker. I distinctly recall
across a statement in some contemporary document to the effect that
was made a Mason in England, and that, if I am not mistaken he visited
a lodge on
Staten Island, New York City, when the boat upon which he was returning
lying off the Narrows. But I am unable to have access to any of the
documents which may contain this data, and I hate to trust my memory.
is said to have saved worthy distressed Brother Masons from his own
their more savage Tory instigators at the famous Cherry Valley
massacre, and it
is further said, and generally credited, that when Lieutenant Boyd was
by the Seneca during Sullivan's punitive expedition into the Iroquois
1778, Brant rescued him on hearing Boyd give the grand hailing sign of
and tried to save his life. However, during Brant's absence, the
infamous Tory Colonel
Butler ordered or permitted the Seneca to torture Boyd to death.
to me that Brother Parker is of all Masons in the best position to
on Brother Brant, for Brother Parker has at his command the resources
of the New
York State Museum and its library, besides the most intimate knowledge
of the Iroquois,
their history and customs of any man in America, unless it be Brother
Wm. M. Beauchamp
of Syracuse, N. Y. If either of these brethren can be persuaded to
write the story
of Brant for us, the Craft will be the richer in light and knowledge.
At the Boro Boedor -- [A Poem]
Ella Wheeler Wilcox
the dawn upon its turrets break
(New beauties leaping to each ray of light),
Methought I heard Christ calling (as one might
Call to an older brother): "Buddha, wake!
Come toil with me. From thy calm eyelids shake
The dreams of ages; and behold the sight
Of earth still sunk in ignorance and night.
I took thy labor ‒ now thy portion take.
Too vast the effort for one Avatar.
My brave disciples are not overwise,
Our kindred creeds they also not understand;
My cross they worship, yet thy temples mar.
Dear brother Buddha, from Nirvana rise,
And let us work together, hand in hand."
Influence on Our Masonic Ceremonial and Ritual
By Bro. Thomas Ross, P.G.M.,
leading from one of the degrees is said to take its rise from a
in the Book of Judges that occurred in the early history of Israel.
meaning of the word is in Hebrew, synonymous with an ear of corn or a
the episode from whence the word arose gives no reason for using it, as
we do, to
denote plenty. If on the other hand, we turn to the characteristics
the Egyptian goddess Isis, we find that she fills the conditions
exactly. Isis was
the Great Mother Goddess, she was also the goddess of Agriculture, of
of Maternity; she represented fruitfulness on land and sea and in the
air, as the
mother goddess she is shown full-breasted, the mother and nourisher of
she was the tutelary deity of the husband-man and the sailor. Her
sufferings, when nursing the child Horus, appealed to every Egyptian
Fig. 17). Not only was she the mater dolorosa of Egypt, but she
enlisted the sympathies
of the Roman mothers and Italian painters delighted to do her honor
though under a totally different name (see Figs. 18 and 18a).
best known in Asia and Europe, as a corn goddess, under the names of
and Demeter, and always we find her portrayed with the ear of corn, the
plenty. In the Vatican there is a statue of Isis, with the child Horus
by her side. You will observe the sculptor has departed considerably
from the Egyptian
model (see Figs. 19 and 19a). Isis is now the Roman Matron and Horus is
the Roman God of Silence. In her right hand she holds the sistrum, in
the left a
jar of water, the sun and the crescent moon is on her head and her robe
with ears of corn.
In a mural
painting in Pompeii we find her as Demeter, seated, a basket of corn on
while with her left hand she supports a torch, emblem of the heat that
fruitfulness (see Fig. 20). As Ceres we have her standing with a sheaf
of corn on
her right arm, supporting a torch in her left hand, while her headdress
is a coronet
made from ears of corn. A relief from Athens shows her seated on a
the disk in her left hand, while in her right there is a basket of
corn. At her
side is a lion, symbol in Egypt of the sun's heat and strength (Figs.
21 and 22).
When we consider
the universality of the worship of Isis, as the mother goddess and
goddess of fruitfulness,
is it not a fair assumption to make that Isis, who was believed to
cause the waters
of the Nile to rise and thus bring abundant harvest, would be the
away by our Hebrew brethren when they departed from Egypt? Any of the
Isis, Ceres, Cybele (and you must note the similarity of sound with the
be in exact accord with an ear of corn near to water ‒ meaning plenty.
In the Book
of the Dead there are many passages referring to the penalties meted
out to those
who fail in their obligation to the Great Architect. The fear of
mutilation of the
body and its several parts made the Egyptians exceedingly attentive to
and preserving, not only of the body itself but also of the bowels.
They were taken
out of the body and after being mummified, were put into four jars and
the tomb alongside the mummy. These vessels were called Canopic jars:
they had as
lids the distinguishing emblems of the four sons of Horus ‒ the head of
a man, a jackal and a hawk ‒ and represented the four cardinal points,
N. S. E.
W. (Fig. 23).
When we read
that the goddess Sekhet "tears out the bowels and kicks them into the
we can readily understand the care and caution the Egyptians would
the calamity of having the bowels burnt to ashes, and these ashes
scattered to the
four cardinal points by having them deposited in these receptacles.
quotations are from the Book of the Dead: "Let not my head be cut off,
not my brow be slit."-Chap. xe. "Let not my head be taken off or my
torn out ‒ Chap. xc. "Take ye not this heart into your grasp." ‒ Chap.
xxvii. "Let not my heart be torn away from me, let it not be wounded,
neither wounds, nor gashes, be dealt upon me." ‒ Chap. xxix. B. Many
could be given, but these are sufficient to show the close connection
Egyptian religion and our ritual.
referred to in the religious texts are all in one direction and follow
of the sun in the northern hemisphere from E. to S., S. to W. and W. to
N. The Book
of the Am Tuat, or underworld, a companion work to the Book of the
that the sun god died every day at sunset, that he was carried in the
through an underground river or passageway during the twelve hours of
the twelfth hour he was reborn when he emerged in the eastern horizon
to take up
his daily round in the firmament. During these twelve hours he went
regions, each of which was guarded by doors. At every door wardens were
described as "the gods who open the gates to the great soul." On
the gate the word was given, when these wardens were commanded to "open
doors and unfold the portals of the hidden place."
division is the domain of Osiris (Fig. 24), where may be seen the outer
doors guarded by wardens. The corridors are swept by fire, and in the
Osiris, judge of the dead and "Lord of Hades, Earth and Heaven."
In each large
city and town there was a circular lake called the Sacred Lake, and
round its shores
the divine bark was towed, where these rites, merged with those of
practiced on initiates to the mysteries.
was the badge of authority in Egypt, and was worn by the king as head
of the priesthood
when performing the religious ceremonies in the temple, and as Grand
assisting at the initiatory rites in the mysteries. On these occasions
it was looked
upon as the distinctive badge of his office. In the temples and tombs
quite a number of drawings of the Grand Master's apron, all bearing
Fig. 25 shows Seti I being brought before Osiris. You will observe that
in addition to the apron, wears a collar denoting his rank. Fig. 26
different aprons indicating the high rank of the wearer.
In the apron
of Rameses the Great, the sun, instead of being placed in the center,
is at both
lower corners, while the rays converge towards the center. If the apron
and Rameses denote the higher offices in the craft, surely the humble
lambskin shown in Fig. 27 must represent the Egyptian Entered
Apprentice. Well might
it be said that "a Freemason's apron denotes an Order more ancient than
Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle."
Sprig of Acacia
In a temple
dedicated to Osiris, we have a relief of the tomb of Osiris, over which
the acacia tree (Fig. 28), in its branches sits the Bennu bird or
of immortality and symbol of the soul of Osiris, while in the left hand
the all-seeing eye, the hieroglyph for Osiris. A singular circumstance
with the Acacia is the fact that it is never pictured except near to
the tomb or
bier of Osiris.
familiar of Masonic emblems, next to the square and compasses, is the
star, called in our ritual "the blazing star of glory in the center."
In the Egyptian writings the stars are always five-pointed, never six
or seven or
important star in Egypt was the brightest in the heavens, Sirius,
called by them
Sothis. On the 21st July, when Sirius arose immediately before the sun,
the sidereal New Year; it also heralded the rise of the Nile. The
overflowing its banks, broke up the drought, brought fertility to the
thus provided food in abundance for man and beast.
In a chart
of the stars (Fig. 29), found on the walls of the tomb of Seti I (B.C.
stars are five-pointed. Here Isis is identified with Sothis, as it was
that the tears of Isis, shed over the misfortunes of Osiris, caused the
rise. The constellations in the chart are difficult to identify, as the
and names are different from those in use today. Alongside of Isis is
whom Orion was sacred, and to the left are two of the planets, these
being led round
the heavens by Isis and Osiris.
for God is always written as a short-handled axe, and the word it
stands for is
Neter, or NTR (see Fig. 30). In one of the tombs we have Anubis, the
god who attended
the dead, bending over the mummy of the deceased, while the soul,
winged and in
the shape of a bird, hovers over the body, in one hand the crux ansata,
eternal life, in the other the breath represented by a reel (see Fig.
31). The first
and second lines of hieroglyphs in this scene simply spell the name of
ANPU, while the third line reads ANPU, God, son of Osiris Ra the Great
each time the word God is used the hieroglyph of the axe is written.
In the Book
of the Dead we have two goddesses adoring the sacred disk of the sun
god Ra on an
axe (see Fig. 32). Now the question arises, why should the axe be
selected to represent
divinity with its might and its power of authority? And to get a
solution to that
question we must go back to the earliest civilizations of prehistoric
when men worshipped objects of nature, such as trees and stones and
in process of time mankind began to use tools and used an axe to cut
break stones and slay animals, they had at last found an instrument
that was more
powerful and mightier than the spirits that dwelt in the trees and the
the animals. This weapon would therefore eventually become an object of
Not only that, but the strong man who would wield the axe most
be looked upon as a demigod, and would in time be worshipped as the
Be that as
it may, the fact remains that from the earliest times the axe was
as the hieroglyph and symbol for God, while the word NTR and variants
of the spelling
of this word, were employed to mean strength and power and authority,
as may be
seen in this extract from the Book of the Dead.
In one of
the oldest writings we have an illustration of an early king of the
King Ten, dancing before the god Osiris and carrying, in addition to
of royalty, the axe, the emblem of power and authority.
masons in Egypt never used the gavel to knock off superfluous knobs and
but always a chisel, which was struck by a wooden mallet.
Many of the
mallets have been found in the tombs and may be seen today in a few of
of Europe (Fig. 33).
In the tombs
at Thebes there are numerous illustrations of operative masons dressing
with the mallet and chisel (Fig. 34).
In a tomb
at Amada Colonel Villiers Stuart found a very fine scene of Amunoph II
1550 B. C. (about the time of the incident of Joseph and his brethren).
shows the king seated on his throne attended by courtiers waving a fan
up a standard representing a sun. In his hand the king holds the axe,
similar to the gavel which is placed in the hands of the Worshipful
Master as an
emblem of power and authority when installed in the chair of King
The Hiramic Legend
to the Bible the story of Hiram Abif is extremely meagre, while the
the immortality of the soul, so clearly laid down as a landmark in
is, to say the least hazy and ambiguous. "The dead know not anything,
have they any more a reward. (Ecc. ix. 5). "As the cloud is consumed
away so he that goeth down to the grave shall come up no more." ‒ (Joh.
9). "All flesh shall perish together, and man shall turn again into
‒ (Joh. xxxiv. 15).
dead praise not the Lord, neither any that go down into silence." ‒
17). These and many other passages that might be quoted appear to point
as being the end of all things.
prototype of Hiram Abif was Osiris, the Egyptian god-man. When Osiris
was born a
voice was heard to come from heaven: "The lord of all the world has
Plutarch, in his "Osiris and Isis," [Lib 1850] tells us that when he
he became King of Egypt, and applied himself towards civilizing his
He taught them useful industries, gave them laws, and instructed them
Set, his brother, being apparently jealous of Osiris, entered into a
to take his life, "and leaving previously taken the measure of Osiris'
he caused a chest to be made exactly of the same size with it."
At a banquet
Set, by a stratagem, got Osiris to lie down in this coffin, "upon which
conspirators immediately ran together, clapped the cover upon it, and
it down on the outside with nails, pouring likewise melted lead over
it. After this
they carried it away to the riverside and conveyed it to the sea."
sister wife of Osiris, searched for the coffin, and in finding it she,
by her magical
powers, brought back to life the dead body of Osiris, who then became
God of the
Dead, King of the Underworld and Mediator between the Supreme Ruler of
dawn of Egyptian civilization until several centuries after the birth
the story of the god-man who suffered and died and rose again was
rehearsed in every
temple in Egypt, while the initiates into the Egyptian mysteries
underwent a symbolic
death and raising as the humble representatives of Osiris. In some of
we see Osiris depicted in different aspects. Fig. 36 shows him first,
as King of
Egypt, with the scepter of sovereignty in one hand and the crux ansata
in the other;
second, swathed in mummy form as Lord of the Underworld; third, as
Judge of the
Dead, wearing the cap of the underworld with the two ostrich plumes,
in his hands the scepter and flail; fourth, similar in figure, but with
of the Phoenix, emblem of the soul of Osiris; fifth, Osiris draped, and
a disk symbol of Ra, the sun god, with whom he is often identified; he
the ram's horns, with the Uraeus serpents, surrounded with disks,
emblems of royalty;
under the horns we have the tet, the emblem of stability, and one of
of Osiris. The four horizontal lines in the tet represent the four
read: "Osiris, eternal ruler, lord of Abydos, lord of the ages, mighty
of the Elysian fields (heaven), and resident of the West": that is, of
dead, as in Egypt, from time immemorial, when a man died he went West.
the right read: "Osiris, son of Nut (the sky goddess), begotten by Set"
(the earth god), or son of heaven and earth, showing that he was both
called Lord of the Underworld because all who died had to appear before
him to be
judged for the deeds done in the body ‒ and note that just as in a
all are equal meeting on the level ‒ so in the judgment hall of Osiris
a man was
judged only according to his good or evil deeds, his birth, high or
low, being the
gift of the Creator, was unnoticed.
innumerable varieties of the portrayal of the judgment scene in the
Book of the
Dead, each artist giving his own conception of how it should be
our picture (Fig. 37) the suppliant soul had been a doorkeeper in the
Amun Ra. Osiris is seated on a throne within a shrine, upheld by
pillars, where he is attended by his sister goddesses, Isis and
Nepthys, while before
him, standing on a lotus, are the four children of Horus already
scribe of the gods, records the judgment on a pallet with a pen, the
"His heart has come out of the balance sound, no defect has been found
Anubis, the jackal-headed god, who watches over the dead, says: "I
the weighing." In one of the scales is the heart of the deceased in a
vessel (the hieroglyph for heart), while in the other is the emblem of
goddess of truth and uprightness. Seated on a phylon is the devourer or
the dead, who watches ever ready to destroy those who are weighed in
and found wanting. Behind all is Horus bringing in the deceased, this
by his wife.
Along a frieze
at the top there are generally shown seated the forty-two assessors of
who are each one a representative judge of the forty-two cardinal sins
a good Egyptian
was expected to avoid. This part is called the negative confession, and
was supposed to address each one of these assessors by name and deny
the particular sin of which he was the judge.
were after this style: "Hail thou from Annu, I have not done iniquity.
thou from Kher Aha, I have not robbed with violence. I have not
I have not made light the bushel. I have not uttered falsehood. I have
the wife of any man. I have not committed any sin against purity." And
throughout the whole forty-two. If the soul was found pure in heart he
to a material heaven, where, as we have already seen, he was entitled
every comfort dear to the heart of an Egyptian.
not only judge of the dead, he was also identified with the Sun God Ra;
he was the
god of agriculture and the personification of the vivifying powers of
Isis, as his divine consort, was the universal Mother Goddess, the Corn
and the type of reproduction and generation. On these two great
were founded the whole system of the Egyptian mysteries. The search
for, the finding,
and the rating of the body of Osiris, was the heart and kernel of the
On the 25th
December every year there was an important festival of Isis, when the
whole of Egypt
was plunged into deepest distress and despair. The ceremonies commenced
impassioned lamentation over the death of Osiris, and the search for
his body, and
on the third day, the finding of the body by Isis was celebrated with
In the temples
we have pictures of the raising of Osiris (Figs. 38, 38a and 38b),
which are undoubtedly
part of this great ceremony. In one we have Osiris lying in his bier,
at the head
kneels Isis, while at the foot is a frog, signifying the resurrection.
Christians seem to have adopted the frog as this symbol, a lamp being
found in a
Christian church with the figure of a frog and the Greek words, "I am
There also hovers over Osiris, two hawks or eagles. The bier of Osiris
in the form of a lion, so that we have here the eagle's claw and the
In the next
scene we have Osiris being attended to by Anubis, the guardian of the
Isis at the foot and Nepthys at the head. Behind Anubis stands a
figuratively the deity who presided over the resurrection or raising.
In the third
scene we have the ceremony of the raising completed ‒ the officiating
the newly-raised Osiris to Isis and Nepthys. In this picture there is
also the tet,
or emblem of stability, representing the four cardinal points
signifying that Osiris
is now established to stand firm for ever throughout the four quarters
of the globe.
Roman and Grecian writers, who visited Egypt from the fourth century
B.C. to the
third century A.D., were initiated into the Egyptian mysteries, but so
were they bound by the penalty of their obligation that little of the
be gleaned from their writings. Herodotus, who visited Egypt about 360
"They have also at Sais the tomb of a certain personage, whom I do not
myself permitted to name. Near this there is a lake, upon which there
by night the accident which happened to him whom I dare not name. The
call them their mysteries. Concerning these, at the same time that I
sufficiently informed, I feel myself compelled to be silent." [Lib 1831; (see Euterpe,
We see from this that even the name
Osiris was forbidden to be uttered to the profane, it being apparently
one of the
states again and again that the Grecian mysteries were borrowed from
Egypt. It is
a sufficient testimony to this that these religious ceremonies are in
of modern date, whereas in Egypt they have been in use from the
mysteries appear to have been favorably received in Italy, a college of
of Isis having been founded in Rome about 80 B.C., and in 44 B. C. a
erected to the same worship.
In the year
105 B.C., at Puteoli, a temple was built for the worship of Serapis, a
of the Osiris and Apis bull-worship. About the same time a temple was
set up in
Pompeii for the worship of Osiris-Isis (see Fig. 38c). This temple was
by an earthquake, but was rebuilt, and was in use until the eruption of
when it was overwhelmed in the catastrophe that overtook Pompeii. The
the visitor sees it today, shows the altar, pedestals, hall of
initiation and hall
of mysteries. In excavating this temple there were found two skulls
mortality), a marble hand and candlesticks, all of which had been used
in the ceremonies
attending initiations into the mysteries, which were performed with
(see pp 237)] a Latin writer of the second century A.D., and who was an
says: "The initiation is conducted under the image of a voluntary death
the renewing of life as a gift from the deity." Speaking of his own
he says: "I came to the borders of death, I trod the threshold of Isis
underworld), then came back through all the stages to life; in the
middle of the
night I saw the sun shine brightly."
In 380 A.D.
the Emperor Theodosius decreed that Christianity should be the state
the Roman Empire, and in 390 A.D. he ordered the destruction of the
statue of Serapis
worshipped in the Serapeum at Alexandria; yet in the year 457 A.D. Isis
in her temple at Philae on the Nile. And when in 577 A.D. this temple
into a Christian Church, the worshippers of the Isis cult petitioned
of Egypt to leave them unmolested in their ancient rites and
ceremonies. As this
is the last we read of the Isis worship the question for us at this
stage will be
‒ granted that the Osiris-Isis cult and the rest of the Egyptian
mysteries had much
in common with the ceremonies of Freemasonry ‒ how came they into the
practiced in England, Scotland and Ireland some centuries ago? In reply
let us bear
in mind that during the first four centuries of the Christian era there
was a constant
communication between Rome and Britain, and there can be no doubt that
of Isis and Osiris and the worship of Serapis would be practiced by the
who settled in Britain. Druidism, an earlier off-shoot of the Osiris Ra
had been in use from an early age, and to-day, in England, Scotland and
are found remains of those circular enclosures, proving that the Druids
the sun's course in their processions.
fall of the Roman Empire there came into the south and east coast of
of Scandinavians, Saxons and Norman-French, the latter bringing with
them the new
and better religion, so that today we have to seek in the highlands of
Wales for survivals of the old sun-worship.
the harbinger of summer, when the sun; is beginning to warm the earth,
in England and Scotland for centuries. Many of us reared in the
homeland will remember
the rites of bathing in May dew, the ceremonies of the Maypole and its
rites. In Scotland the commencement of winter was observed with the
last century the Beltane or Baals fire was celebrated on 1st May, when
prominent hilltop bonfires were lighted, while the people joined hands
in procession round the fire.
In the northeast
coast of Scotland, in a town called Burghead, there was unearthed some
ago a Roman bath in an excellent state of preservation. From time
inhabitants of this town on New Year's Eve (old style), with almost
burn the clavie. The clavie, a barrelful of combustibles, is carried
town, the glowing embers being thrown at every door to keep evil
spirits away. When
the clavie arrives at the harbour where old Roman galleys sheltered
nearly two thousand
years ago, a handful of corn is thrown into each ship to ensure
the coming year. The object of the custom and its meaning is lost in
of bygone ages ‒ even the name clavie is a puzzle to archaeologists.
Might not clavie
come from the Latin clavis (a key), the unlocking of the mysteries of
Roman colonists? The clavie was finally consumed on a freestone altar,
this altar was discovered a freestone slab with the figure of a bull in
39). When we compare this drawing with the Apis bull (Fig. 40),
worshipped by the
Egyptians and Romans, we cannot fail but to be impressed with the
there is between the two, nor can we get away from the idea that the
artist of the
Burghead bull was acquainted with the rites of Serapis, and was trying
the Apis bull of Egypt. I think we may fairly deduce from these old
in spite of the powerful influence of Christianity, the ceremonies of
and the rites of Isis had got so deeply interwoven with the life and
the people that it held until a few years ago a strong place in their
(See article on Burghead in Wikipedia
with picture of bull and Clavie) - rhm
and Scotland, for centuries previous to the formation of the three
there were Masons' lodges where the sun's course, its position of
and setting, were duly observed, where the vital parts of the
were performed and where many of the penalties, signs, passwords and
observed were almost identical with those in use in the Book of the
Dead and other
works revealed to us by the Egyptian hieroglyphics.
I venture to say that from the little I have placed before you we are
in repeating the words laid down in our lecture: "The usages and
Freemasonry, our signs and symbols, our rites and ceremonies,
correspond in a great
degree with the mysteries of Ancient Egypt."
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H.L. Haywood. Iowa
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs. From the questions following each section of
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
IN ALL the
lore of Freemasonry nothing more appeals to the imagination of the
than the story of how travelers have found Freemasons among the wilds,
and how our
mysteries have been discovered amid the most ancient peoples, in old
China, in Central
America, "in Egypt 40,000 years ago." These stories are as romantic as
Kipling's bloody tale, "The Man Who Would be King," which is itself a
hint of the universal existence of the Craft, because they appeal to
and conjure up the picture of a Fraternity which has always existed,
and now exists
everywhere. One must be on his guard against these stories, for it is
to fabricate them; if a man sets out to prove a theory he usually can
dig up something
somewhere to serve as evidence, like those
… "Learn'd philologists, who
A panting syllable through time and space,
Start it at home, and hunt it in the dark
To Gaul, to Greece, and into Noah's Ark."
so, many of the accounts of the universal diffusion of Masonic secrets
are as well authenticated as anything we have, and are not to be
a man be ever so high-brow a critic. And though they are to have each
one a question mark placed after them, they nevertheless serve to give
mind a kind of composite picture of the Universality of Freemasonry,
there is no nobler theme inside the pale of the Great Teachings which
it is now
our province to be studying.
that it is safe to say that now, at this present moment, and as a
matter of fact,
Freemasonry is Universal, ‒ and that for many reasons.
It may be
that the body of Freemasonry, as we know it, came into existence only
years ago; but the soul of Freemasonry, its spirit, many of its
principles and its
symbols, have been among men from a time since which the memory of man
to the contrary. In China, in the ruins of ancient Latin-American
(I have just seen the carving of a Masonic apron ‒ so it is interpreted
by the authorities
‒ on a plaque taken from a city of the Mayas that is several thousand
how many thousands I can't recall), throughout medieval Europe, among
Dark Ages, in Ancient Rome, Greece, Egypt, and even in India, one may
here and there
encounter organizations, teachings, emblems, and symbols that are
our own. Some things in our Fraternity have evidently existed
everywhere and always.
through past times is only equaled by the cosmopolitanism of Masonry as
it now is.
If one travels in the far north, in Siberia or in Alaska, he may
encounter a Masonic
lodge. If he goes into the Sandwich Islands (as at Papeete) or to the
of southern Australia, he may come upon a building bearing the square
There are lodges in China and Japan, in the Malay Archipelago, in
India, in the
Balkans, and in the midst of Africa. Masonry has its center everywhere:
of the Craft reveals a steady progress from an institution that once
to one church and to one task to an institution that now over-reaches
all the creeds
as the sky over-arches the earth, and accepts the responsibility of a
In that history one encounters an event which stands as a high light in
of the human spirit, ‒ the utterance "Concerning God and Religion" in
the Constitutions of 1723 ‒ and which is the noblest expression of the
universality of the Order that we know.
"A Mason is obliged by his
tenure, to obey
the moral law; and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be
Atheist or irreligious Libertine. But though in ancient times Masons
in every country to be of the religion of that country or nation,
whatever it was,
yet it is now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that
religion in which
all men agree, leaving their particular opinions to themselves: that is
to be Good
men and True, or men of Honor and Honesty, by whatever Denomination or
they may be distinguished; whereby Masonry becomes the Centre of Union
and the Means
of conciliating true Friendship among persons that must have remained
at a perpetual
Of this it
has been well said that if "that statement had been written yesterday,
be remarkable enough. But when we consider that it was set forth in
bitter sectarian rancor and intolerance unimaginable, it rises up as
in the history of men! The man who wrote that document, did we know his
entitled to be held till the end of time in the grateful and venerative
the race. The temper of the times was all for relentless partisanship,
both in religion
and in politics." In that famous Article the prophetic soul of Masonry,
over years to come," anticipated the highest triumphs of the genius of
which was yet to be, so that Crawley could well say that "in the eyes
philosophical historian, the proudest boast of our society must always
in the Revival of our Craft A. D. 1717, we distinctively adopted the
found expression two generations later, in the Philanthropy of Howard
and the humanity
of a Wilberforce."
Of a piece
with this famous pronouncement was the Act of Union in 1813. During the
through which the Fraternity was achieving its unity out of the
the old days of transition it was inevitable that there should be
schisms, feuds, and jealousies: all these came to a head in 1750 or
in the open warfare between the rival Grand Lodges, the so-called
and the so-called "Ancient." For long it appeared that the Order, like
the religious, political, and social institutions of the time, was
about a unity and a universality that it had neither the will nor the
power to bring
into existence: but at last Freemasonry overcame its own internal feud,
been as bitter as the rivalry between two churches, and thus
demonstrated that men
can do such things, if they but have the mind.
outstanding events, the Act of Union, and the adopting of the great
God and Religion, remain unto this day to inspire every Mason to
believe that union
is possible among men, however diverse they may be in interest and
they cheer and encourage because they demonstrate that it can be
such a demonstration is worth more than many homilies. So long as we
two outstanding triumphs to look back to we need never lose hope for
unity of the whole Masonic world, and the whole non-Masonic world.
Union and universality,
such things are not mere visions, dreamed by poets in solitary cells.
- Give as many examples as you
can to show the antiquity of Masonry.
- Do you believe that Freemasonry
has everywhere and always existed?
- Who were the Mayas?
- Did the ancient Chinese have
- Do the American Indians? Is it
the same as ours, if so?
- How do you account for it?
- We have Masonic documents
written more than 500 years ago: how widespread
was Freemasonry then?
- Where and in what shape did it
exist in the ancient world?
- In what countries now existing
would you fail to find Freemasonry?
- Why is it shut out of Hungary
- How long will it remain shut
- Why was it abolished in Poland?
- Do they have it in Bulgaria?
- in Serbia?
the Fraternity as it now exists, with all its faults upon it, is, as I
like to think,
itself the great argument for the coming of unity among men. For
consider. Men of
all races, of all colors, of almost every creed, tongue, nation, and
now, as an actual fact, Masons, and therefore bound to all the rest of
far away we may be in all those particulars, by a tie that is growing
year. Not always does that tie hold ‒ the Great War broke it ‒ but it
is a tie nevertheless,
and there will come a time when no war will be able to snap it in
twain. If each
one of us could see the world as God is able to see it, not at one
point, and for
a moment, and then in a most faulty fashion, but as a whole, calmly,
I am sure that we should see the Masonic Fraternity standing there
among men as
one of the noblest of all the noble things in that vision; like the
through the clouds on a stormy night would be its tender brotherhood
and its constant
yearning and striving for more brotherhood; and its refusal to be
defeated or balked
when brotherhood, for a time, fails or is broken.
We need not
hesitate to acknowledge the many defeats which the ideal of
Universality has suffered
even in the house of its friends but every such fact, if we are to be
true to things
as they really are, must be confronted by this further fact, ‒ That
in Masonry, for all its failures, is a living and therefore a shaping
wishes that he might write those last words in some new way to make
them dig deep
into a reader's mind in order to avoid the pitfall of a too easy
thinking of them.
An ideal is a force to be reckoned with, and not a dream hanging
helpless in the
void. Masons believe in Universality; they strive for it; they shape
things to bring
it about; they make sacrifices in its behalf; they are always, in
they truly understand their art, eager to let differences lie if so be
can bring men closer to men. That being true there is no need ever to
because the perfect day has not yet come; if we were all doing mere lip
to our ideal, pessimism might be justifiable, but not as long as we
strive for universal
it is wise for us, even when confronted by some apparent failure of
to see that failure as it actually is, and not as it is hurriedly
reported to be.
There is in point, for example, the long disagreement between the Grand
France and the Grand Lodge of England, and other Grand Lodges in the
break in Masonic fellowship is made use of by our enemies more than any
to heap sarcasm upon Masonic aspirations towards unity. Well, that
rupture is an
unfortunate thing for all sides, view it how we may, but just what does
to? It amounts to this, that the Masons living under these two Grand
cannot visit in each other's lodges, or approve one or two of each
But there is no enmity. Masons under the Grand Orient do not make war
Masons. They do not hate each other. In all ways now possible they aid
each other. In all ways, save in those ways controlled by the lack of
French Masons and other Masons live in amity and brotherhood. Someday
will be healed, just as will the still wider breach existing between
of Germany and lodges among the Allied Nations.
out their ideal there is no reason why Masons may not make free use of
all the agencies
now employed generally to further internationalism, understanding among
and mutual intercourse. The scientists have their congresses, business
their conventions, statesmen their conferences: one may hope to see
Lodges use these same instrumentalities in behalf of a better
nations. The Trowel is the working tool of the Master Mason; we must
make use of
it now more than ever, while a discordant and broken world lies about
us. It is
unfortunate that certain of our leaders hesitate to use the Trowel lest
its shining surface, forgetting the while that it is to be used and not
- In what way does
the evolution of Masonry prove it to be universal in character?
- Can you describe the early part
of the eighteenth century in England?
- Whom do you believe to have
been responsible for the Article concerning God
and Religion? Can you give an example of the bitter partisanship of
- What was the religious
character of Operative Masonry?
- Why did it cut itself loose
from any one religion?
- How did the "Ancient" Grand
- Describe its feud with the
- How was the Union brought about?
- If those two bodies were able
to unite, could not churches unite?
- Do you believe that our Grand
Lodges should resume fraternal relations with
- Does the tie now hold between
English and Irish Masonry?
- How many races are there?
- Are they all represented in the
- Does the fact that Masonry can
unite all prove anything as regards political
relations, churches, etc.? If so, what?
- What is an ideal?
- What is the relation between
ideal and fact?
- Is a true ideal a "fact on the
- In what way does Universality
remain an ideal?
- Do you agree with the
interpretation of the relations between the Grand Orient
of France and of the English Grand Lodge given by Brother Haywood?
- Are you in favor of recognizing
the Grand Orient? If not, why not?
- Do you hate French Masons
because you do not agree with them?
- How can Masonry use the Trowel?
- What agencies are at hand which
we might use to bring about better international
Masonry assist to bring about better political relations between
How and why?
implications of Universality, so it seems to me, are not enough
being a fact and a living ideal, certain things follow, and these it is
It is evident
that an Order which speaks a message to a world has found something
that the world
can understand and needs. Its acts, its principles, and its symbols are
a kind of
great Esperanto which perpetually translates itself into the languages
of all men
everywhere. Diverse as are the conditions under which men live,
economic, and religious, men have certain common needs. Just as it has
one of the great desiderata of statecraft to discover a common ground
might meet politically, so has it ever been one of the great hopes of
men to find
such a ground in morality, and in the human things of life. It is
evident that Freemasonry
has made that discovery. What it has to give is what men everywhere
feel the need
of, else it would remain, as almost all institutions do, a merely local
thing. The things that Freemasonry has to give are simple enough, and
to us may
be commonplace, but just as it required a great social genius to
discover an alphabet,
which children can learn and all men can use, so has it necessitated an
to discover just those things, and their right combination, to meet the
men everywhere. The fact that Masonry is everywhere welcomed as soon as
it is discovered
and its nature understood, gives us each one a heightened confidence in
Universality of Masonry implies that human nature is everywhere the
fact, though it may be familiar enough to most of us, is not by any
by many of a different faith. Socrates counted it a great day when he
that behind the varying languages and dialects and nodes of thought and
all men had the same kind of mind: Spencer found himself in a new world
when he at last saw that "humanity is an organism." "Men change,"
said the wise Goethe, "but man remains the same." Racial distinctions,
sex, color, language, creeds, governments, these have broken our human
diverse and often quarrelling groups: but while men change in language,
and in customs from generation to generation, there is that in man
which does not
change, either in time or place, a common humanity which ever remains
and stretches under the world, as the earth retains her unbroken
the many inequalities of her surface. From the mist-hung distance of
times down unto our own hour man has thought, loved, labored, dreamed,
fought the while he has walked "the dim and perilous way of life." His
spirit has sought goodness, truth, and beauty, and he has evermore
craved the companionship
of his fellows. It is the misfortune of too many creeds, moralities and
they political, social, or religious, that they cater to the accidental
needs of men, and too often divide rather than unite our hard-driven
race. It is the glory of Freemasonry that it speaks the revealing word
to that in
each of us which is universal, thereby helping to build in the midst of
"an institution of the dear love of comrades" in which the mind is free
to think, the hand to do, and the heart to love. William Penn believed
would remove our masks and that we would all then discover ourselves to
be of one
religion. The Universality of Freemasonry lifts the masks of all
proves that we are now all united in our humanity, that God has made of
all nations that dwell upon the face of the earth.
to morality and religion this seems especially true. There is much in
of every people that cannot help being local and therefore temporary;
and this is
not to be held against it because a morality, if it function at all,
itself to the details of life; but if an institution tie itself too
rigidly to those
local things in morality it cannot possibly function among another
conditions are so different. Some men believe that all morality is
made up of prejudices and accidents, and that there is no ethic
Masonry contradicts this. Masonry proves itself wiser than many other
because it, in the words of Albert Pike, "is the universal morality,
to the inhabitants of every clime, to the man of every creed."
makes no attempts to adjudicate the religious quarrels of the race. It
take the position that there is one true religion among a great many
false, nor does it take the opposite position that all religions are
Its position is entirely its own. It takes the position that, letting
be as they are, they one and all possess certain fundamentals
and it is on these fundamentals that Masonry takes its stand. In a
a Deputy District Grand Master once wrote to George William Speth there
"I have just initiated Moung
Ban Ahm, a
Burman, who has so far modified his religious beliefs as to acknowledge
of a personal God. The Worshipful Master was a Parsi, one Warden a
Hindu, or Brahmin,
the other an English Christian, and the Deacon a Mohammedan"
Mr. Ahm believed
in the existence of God, in the immortality of the soul, and in the
of man: that was sufficient. He was not disturbed in whatever other
beliefs he had
because if a man holds to the three mentioned his religion can function
Masonic Fraternity. And once in the Fraternity he could find no reason
with his brother the Brahmin, or his other brother the Christian, or
the Mohammedan, because in every case the doctrines peculiar to each
were not called
for in Masonic workings, and therefore such doctrines could have no
chance to come
into conflict. Inasmuch as the only religious doctrines that operate in
are belief in a personal God, in immortality, and in brotherhood, the
man who holds
them is, for Masonry, sufficiently equipped, and Masonry has no reason
to find fault
with whatever he may further believe: and because nearly all men in the
they ever so far removed from us in America, believe in those three
and because Masonry builds upon them, Masonry may be said to have a
Universality. And this, if you will consider a moment, is a very great
prophets and leaders and teachers and religions without number have
ever been searching
for just such a foundation.
if early Masons had hit upon so universal a foundation for a Fraternity
have availed little had they not at the same time devised a form of
equally universal. It is worthwhile to consider this a moment, because
it is almost
never discussed. History furnishes us with an illustration whereby it
can be quickly
considered for our present purposes. Why was it that the Reformation,
by Luther, soon grew stagnant, and became a merely local German affair?
It was because
in Germany it was suffered to flow into the mold of German social life,
mold not existing elsewhere, the Reformation was unable to function
The spirit and doctrines of the Reformation were there but Luther and
were notable to give them a vehicle wherein to travel into other
it was the peculiar glory of Calvin that he was able to give the
such an organization as enabled him and his followers to take it
devised for it a vehicle that would serve as well in France as in
Germany, and in
Scotland as in France, and it was therefore owing to Calvin that the
became, so far as the Western world is concerned, a universal thing.
might have been as true in principle and spirit as it now is and yet,
for lack of
vehicular means, have remained a local English sect, or club.
Fortunately it was
not so, and that because our forebears possessed a genius for
to that for thinking.
is not the only great institution in society, nor is it responsible for
over all the divisions of the world, be they religious, political,
racial, or what not: but it has found a way to surmount those barriers
to penetrate into every land, and that is sufficient for its purpose.
this it has an unlimited future.
are works yet left for Freemasonry to accomplish greater than the
of Hercules." Many of these labors lie inside the Craft itself where
still remain many obstacles to internal Unity, and therefore to
There are many Masonic rites in the field and these are not always
as smoothly as they should. There are Masonic bodies of the same rite
that do not
always agree, as is the case now among a few of the Grand Lodges of
as already mentioned, the sundering of peoples by the late War has
broken the unity
of the Order. It is a part of our task to heal over these divisions. It
is a part
of our task to make Masonic unity prevail.
- What does Masonry have to give
that all men need?
- Do other institutions have it
- In what sense is it true that
men are everywhere the same?
- Do you agree with Spencer that
"humanity is an organism"?
- What is Masonic morality?
- Why is it more universal in
character than other moralities?
- What is the religion of Masonry?
- Why is it that the Masonic
organization can everywhere function?
you think of other organizations of which this is true?
* * *
Vol. I (1915)
Masonry and World Peace, p. 27;
and the Mystic Tie, p. 210;
Relation of Masonry to the Liberation
of Spanish America, p. 259. Vol. II (1916)
Sectarianism and Freemasonry, p. 109;
Markham ‒ Poet of Brotherhood, p.
Political Pseudo-Masonry of South America,
pp. 147, 233;
Masonry, Its Philosophy and Influence in
War Time, p. 181;
Discussing the Previous Question, p. 242;
Toleration, p. 265;
Non-Christian Candidates, p. 302;
Empire of Freemasonry, p. 306;
Evidences of Symbolism in the Land of the
Incas, p. 361;
Freemasonry p. 371.
Masonry Among Primitive Peoples, p. 18;
Fellowship of Masonry p. 41;
Societies of Islam, p. 84;
Masonic World Unity, p. 87;
Aboriginal Races and Freemasonry, p. 96;
Brotherhood, p. 141;
Masonry ‒ Its Patriotic Opportunity, p.
Freedom and Fraternity, p. 167;
Religion and Philosophy, p. 234;
Reception of the Flags, p. 198;
Freemasonry in the Far East, p. 305;
Masonry in Panama, p. 327.
Vol. IV (1918)
Internationalism and Freemasonry, pp. 43,
Military Lodges in Cuba, p. 54;
‒ Can We
Build a Real Universal Masonry?
Freemasonry in France, p. 106;
Unification in the Philippines, p. 179;
English and American Brotherhood ‒ A League
of Masons, p. 192;
League of Masons," p. 214;
Masonry in Greece, p. 218;
"Jerusalem Delivered," p. 301.
Vol. V (1919)
California's Recognition of French Masonry,
Alabama Grants Full Recognition to Grand
Lodge and Grand Orient of France, and Swiss Grand Lodge "Alpina," p. 79;
Plan of Masonry, p. 266.
Vol. VI (1920)
Impressions of the Masonic Service Association
Meeting, p. 22;
Common Good, p. 93;
Mystic Tie, p. 153;
Viewpoint of World Freemasonry, p.
Bird's-eye View of Masonic History, p.
Survey of Masonry in Foreign Countries,
Masonry in Mexico, p. 264;
Freemasonry Among the American Indians,
Vol. VII (1921)
Religious Teachings of Freemasonry,
Came Freemasonry, p. 90;
Practical Brotherhood, p. 102;
Travelling In Foreign Parts, p. 190;
Toleration and Freethinking, p. 196;
Wolf Joins the Mitawin, p. 281.
Masonic World Unity, p. 55;
American Indians in Freemasonry, p. 71;
Masonic international Association, p. 99;
Masonry and the World's Work, p. 131;
Masonic Toleration, p. 137;
Toleration and Freemasonry, p. 160.
Almighty, p. 408;
Ancient Masons and Their Controversy with
the Moderns, p. 55;
Antiquity of Freemasonry, p. 66;
Atheist, p. 84; El, p. 235;
Freemasonry in France, p. 276;
Freemasonry in Hungary, p. 342;
Freemasonry in Poland, p. 574;
Freemasonry in Russia, p. 655;
Freemasonry in War, p. 836;
p. 301 (The reader may also note to
advantage the reference, on page 301, to the initials of the Hebrew
words for Wisdom,
Strength and Beauty, forming, when combined, the English name for
Orient of France and the Grand Lodge
of England, p. 278;
‒ "I am
that I am" (Eheyeh asher
Eheyeh), p. 234;
Jehovah, p. 363;
Religion of Masonry, p. 617;
Religious Qualifications, p. 619;
Universality of Masonry, p. 817.
* * *
Study Club Course, of which the foregoing paper by Brother Haywood is a
begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to the beginning of the
on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings of Masonry," as
we have titled it, were published some forty-three papers covering in
Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under the following several
"The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge and the Candidate," "First
Steps," "Second Steps," and "Third Steps." A complete set
of these papers up to January 1st, 1922, are obtainable in the bound
THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919, 1920 and 1921.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Haywood:
The Teachings Of Masonry
- General Introduction.
- The Masonic Conception of Human
- The Idea of Truth in
- The Masonic Conception of
- Ritualism and Symbolism.
- Initiation and Secrecy.
- Masonic Ethics.
- Masonry and Industry.
- The Brotherhood of Man.
- Freemasonry and Religion.
- The Fatherhood of God.
- Endless Life.
- Brotherly Aid.
of Masonic Philosophy.
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
How to Organize and Conduct
Study Club Meetings
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted, all possible time to
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
Program for Study Club Meetings
1. Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
2. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
3. Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
4. The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
5. Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
A Mediating Theory
able article by R.’.W.’. Brother Thomas Ross on "The Egyptian Influence
our Masonic Ceremonial and Ritual," the second and concluding half of
appears in this issue, was originally delivered as a lecture in
Dunedin, New Zealand,
and should have appeared in our pages long ere this. But we first wrote
to ask permission
of Brother Ross to publish his lecture, and this, owing to a delay in
was the cause of a long postponement: and then, the permission
received, we believed
it wise to publish with his article his own original illustrations, and
delayed us much.
It so happened
that the mail which brought the final revision of Brother Ross's
also an article from another very scholarly Mason who argued throughout
sprang originally from the Eleusinian Mysteries of Greece. It also
about the same time the writer was discussing the origin of Freemasonry
with a Masonic
journalist of exceptionally wide reading, who averred with great
emphasis that Freemasonry
came from the Roman cult of Mithraism. Others, so the reader will
recall, have argued
that our Order came from the Roman Collegia, from the Essenes, etc.,
multitudes of counsellors who would lead us this way and that what is a
to do? Is there any mediating theory along which he can Travel without
falling aside into the tangle of some one of the conflicting (though
we believe that Freemasonry has had many origins? Why may it not be
likened to the
Gulf of Mexico into which so many river systems empty themselves?
Brother Ross is
undoubtedly right in believing that something has come into Freemasonry
Egyptian cults. Brother Haydon is right in believing that we owe many
Eleusis. The writer's friend is right in thinking that we have received
must be recalled that ancient religions and philosophies did not exist
each other but rather lived in a fluid society where each and all
interchanged their ideas and symbolisms. What was more common than the
use of pillars?
or than the worship, or symbolic use, of the sun, moon, and stars? The
of ancient Babylon made use of the ‘Point within a Circle’ even as did
and to them it meant both gold and the sun. Hundreds of cults employed
and made use of secret initiations. The ideas of a dying and a rising
of a redemptive death, were common to all five or six of the great
the early Roman Empire. And what is true of the cults and philosophies
of the ancient
world is also, and equally, true of the cults and philosophies of the
All of them made use of symbols, ideas, and often words, borrowed from
a wide field
of anterior or contemporary bodies.
May not the
same thing be said of Freemasonry? It is a piece of syncretism. It is
like a noble
building erected of stones brought from many older buildings, some of
since fallen into decay. If this be true then it is possible that many
of the rival
theories of Masonic origin may all be sound in part: it is only
necessary that the
various champions do not each one claim too much for their own
* * *
Law is not
the harsh forbidding thing it is often imagined to be, but something
human and kindly,
and full of beneficent influence. It protects us during the day and
us at night, and the hearth-side of every home is kept inviolate
through its power.
If its existence is often made manifest through a court proceedings, or
a day in
jail, or a tax notice, that is an unfortunate accident of
circumstances, and is
not to distort our imaginations into the belief that lex tarrae, the
law of the
land, is a despotic and cruel monster that loves the sound of clanking
from it, and that for many reasons! The whole purpose of law is humane;
it is the
giver and the guarantor of liberty; and apart from it life becomes
harsh and cruel.
Let it be
supposed that a certain man, Mr. A. B., purchases a home for himself
He pays five thousand dollars for the residence. How is he to know but
other man will come by some day and take the place away from him? The
law will protect
him. How does he know that if he were called to prove his right of
would be able to do so? The law has provided the means. Suppose he
sells the place
to a stranger and the stranger's check proves to be worthless; how is
he to recover
his own? The law will give it back. Suppose Mr. A.B. quarrels with his
over the property line; how is this to be settled and a chronic family
The law will draw the line.
A. B.'s wife goes upon the public highway does some wild fellow leap
upon her or
beat her to the ground in order to take away her purse? the law
preserves the safety
of the public street so that even little children are safe thereon.
Mr. A. B.'s little son is made the heir of some wealthy relative: how
is the lad
to prove his right to the inheritance? the law furnishes a birth
if some enemy seeks to traduce Mr. A. B.'s name so as to ruin his
the law will give him safety for his reputation.
And so it
goes on, as an endless series of examples, equally simple, might prove.
will of the law is built in about our lives at every point, so that
we turn, or wherever we may be, or whatever we may be doing, it is
there to protect,
to guide, to support us. One is able to lay his head upon an untroubled
night because its arms are about him. One can live at peace with his
a long and happy life because it maintains order, and binds us all up
a kindly comity of good fellowship or neighborly love. Fully to know
to understand it, reveals to us how that like Duty in the Wordsworth
poem, the lex
terrae is the "daughter of the voice of God." It is often stern? yes,
but so is love itself, so is tenderness, so is sympathy, so is every
thing in our human world.
if at times men of ill will evade the law, or twist it to their own
ends? what if
unjust and unwise laws are often laid upon the statute books? Not for
will a sensible man turn upon law itself as an evil and a tyranny.
Those who say,
Let us do away with laws and with law-makers know not what spirit they
are of. And
as for those that make light of it with cynical persiflage, and openly
they are children of the Evil One, which is only another name for
The Splendor of Geometry
Philosophy: A study of Fate and Freedom. Lectures for Educated Laymen,"
by Cassius J. Keyser, Adrain Professor of Mathematics in Columbia
P. Dutton & Co., 681 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. Price $4.70.
“The clerk Euclide in this wyse
Thys craft of gemetry yn Egypte londe
In Egypte he tawghte hyt ful wyde,
In dyvers londe on every syde,
Mony erys afterwarde y understonde
Yer that the craft com ynto thys londe
Thys craft com into England, as y you say,
Yn tyme of good Kvng Adelstone's day."
lines, printed on page 43 of this remarkable book, put a Mason
immediately at his
ease, for they are quoted from the Regius Ms., written in 1390 or
oldest of all known Ancient Charges, and the most precious document
inside the entire
orbit of Masonic literature. It is entirely in consonance with the
fitness of things
that Professor Keyser should quote from a Masonic document, because his
is written to celebrate the glories of Geometry, which is the Masonic
excellence, and the one intellectual art most cherished by the Masons
of the long
ago, who dreamed of curves and angles by night, and wrought them in
stone and mortar
by day. The men who built Europe's abbeys and cathedrals were
nature who wrought in great fabrics the divine mysteries of number.
Could they return
to earth today they would find the delight of their souls in such books
Philosophy," and among all the symbols now employed in Blue Lodges they
give their heartiest assent to the Letter "G" which hangs in the East
to perpetually remind us that the key to Masonry is in the Geometry of
letter is the initial. Like Professor Keyser himself they would join
with the choir
of those great thinkers who have possessed what Plato defined as
of mind" in ascribing to Mathematics honor and glory as being man's
approach in this life to that which is eternal. "What is the hovering
wooing our loyalty to what is best in thinking? What is the muse of
life in the
world of ideas? An austere goddess, high, pure, serene, cold towards
demanding perfect precision of ideas, perfect clarity of expression,
allegiance to the eternal laws of thought. In mathematics the name of
the muse is
familiar: it is Rigor Logical Rigor, which signifies a kind of silent
still harmony of ideas, the intellect's dream of logical perfection."
dream, we might add, of the application of the Square and the Compasses
to all the
processes of the human mind.
As I have
said in a review of "Manhood of Humanity" [Lib 1921] by Count Alfred Korzybski,
book should be read in connection with "Mathematical Philosophy," and
which is very ably summarized in Lecture XX, the most influential group
now in the world is composed of a number of men who are bringing about
I came near saying merger between mathematics, philosophy, and logic.
are showing that when the processes of mathematical demonstration are
enough they yield logical and philosophical principles; when logic is
it inevitably adopts the language of mathematics and employs
and that when philosophy is rescued from the playboys of thought in
order to be
made to serve a sober and useful purpose in real life it inevitably
a working arrangement with mathematics and logic. Professor Keyser and
believe that all the arts and disciplines will be drawn in, sooner or
this new League of Science in order that all of man's activities shall
be held under
the inflexible but benignant sway of the Muse of Rigorous Thinking. To
prejudice, gush, sentimentality, party spirit, moonshine, taboo, and an
for tradition in order to make way for loyalty to facts, exact
research, and a calm but daring surrender to Truth as Truth is known to
thought, that, so these men believe, is the hope of the world, and it
is what they
are aiming at when they try to being all thinking into vital touch with
which is itself the very soul of Rigorous Thinking.
To read ''Mathematical
Philosophy" with pleasure and understanding one must possess the
of at least one college year of mathematics: if one is blessed with
equipment he will discover the book to be as refreshing as a cold
plunge, and as
fascinating as music. The volume is arranged in twenty-one lectures,
as far as has been possible, have been made to preserve the freshness
of oral speech.
Postulates, infinity (of the mathematical variety), non-Euclidean
mathematical psychology, the psychology of mathematics, Korzybski's
concept of man,
and human engineering, such are a few of the themes which move through
procession of these chapters. Throughout the 465 pages one hears, like
tones, the notes of Professor Keyser's own voice, and feels the impact
of his powerful
* * *
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
(The books here
not included as ‘works cited’ – rhm)
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from readers as to where they may obtain
publications on Freemasonry
and kindred subjects not offered in our Monthly Book List. Most of the
sought are out of print, but it may happen that other readers, owning
be willing to dispose of the same. Therefore this column is set aside
for such a service. And it is also hoped and expected that readers
old or rare Masonic works will communicate the fact to THE BUILDER in
addresses are here given in order that those buying and selling may
directly with each other. Brethren are asked to cancel notices as soon
wants are supplied.
In no case
does THE BUILDER assume any responsibility whatsoever for publications
sold, exchanged or borrowed.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake, 1879;
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873;
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Bro. G.
Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.:
Proceedings of the Scottish Rite Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New
in 1808, of which De Witt Clinton was the first Grand Commander, and
became united, in 1867, with the Supreme Council of the Northern
A. & A. S. R.
Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in New York by De La
Motta, in 1813,
by authority of the Southern Supreme Council, of which he was Grand
these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860.
By Bro. Frank
R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"The Year Book," published by the Masonic Constellations, containing
History of the Grand Council, R. & S. M., of Missouri.
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel Lawrence";
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry";
"The Source of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second edition
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes I to XI, inclusive;
"Masonic Facts and Fictions," by Henry Sadler;
"The Kabbalah Unveiled," by S. L. MacGregor Mathers.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California:
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards,
also St. John's
Cards for volumes 4 and 5;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
"Voice of Masonry," early volumes;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1882
Original Proceedings of The General Grand Encampment Knights Templar
for the years
1826 and 1835.
By Bro. George
A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile:
All kinds of Masonic literature in Spanish. Write first quoting prices.
L. Rask, 14 Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.:
"Remarks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists," by E. A. Hitchcock,
N. Y., about 1865;
"Secret Societies of all Ages," Heckethorn;
"Lost Language of Symbology," by Harold Bayley, published by Lippincott;
"Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson, Edinburgh, 1843;
"Solar System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson, published by
Longmans Co., London, 18S6;
"The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor, Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co.,
or the edition of 1899 published by Scribners, New York;
"Anacalypsis," by Geodfrey Higgins, 1836, published by Green &
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," any volume or volumes.
By Bro. J.
H. Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.:
Fascilus 2, "Cementaria Hibernica," by Chetwode Crawley;
Volumes 1, 2, 5 and 8, Quatuor Coronati Antigrapha;
"Some Memorials of Globe Lodge No. 23," Henry Sadler;
"Constitutions of the Freemasons," Hughan, 1869;
"Numerical and Medallic Register of Lodges," Hughan, 1878;
"History of the Appolo Lodge and the R. A., York," Hughan, 1894;
Any items on Anti-Masonry, especially tracts, handbills, posters, old
almanacs, etc., relating to Morgan incident, 1826-1840, and recurrence
of same from
1870 to 1885.
N. W. J. Haydon, 664 Pape Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada:
"The Beautiful Necessity," and
"Architecture and Democracy," by Claude Bragdon.
By the National
Masonic Research Society, Anamosa, Iowa:
"Discourses upon Architecture," by Dallaway, published in 1833;
any or all volumes of "The American Freemasons' Magazine," published by
J. F. Brennan about 1860.
By Bro. J.H.
Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.:
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 6 to 26, in parts as issued, with St.
"Masonic Reprints and Revelations," Sadler;
"The Natural History of Staffordshire," Dr. Robert Plot, 1686, folio;
"The History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, Yorston edition, 4
"History of Freemasonry in Europe," Emmanuel Rebold, 1867;
"Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literatur," August Wolfsteig,
two volumes and register, paper, as issued;
"History of Freemasonry," Mackey, 7 volumes;
"History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders," Hughan and Stillson;
Facsimile engraving Picard's "Les Francmassons," 1735, fine copy.
A. A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California: Various
publications including such as a complete set of "Ars Quatuor
"History of Freemasonry in Scotland," by D. Murray Lyon, (original
Thomas Dunckerley, Laurence Dermott, etc.
Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"History of Freemasonry," Mitchell, 2 volumes, sheep;
"History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, 4 volumes, cloth, in good
"History of Freemasonry," Albert G. Mackey, 7 volumes, linen cloth, new;
Addison's "Knights Templar," Macoy, 1 volume, cloth;
"Museum of Antiquity," Yaggy, 1 volume, morocco;
"History and Cyclopaedia of Freemasonry," Macoy and Oliver, new, full
Also miscellaneous books.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
Study Club course. When requested, questions will be answered promptly
by mail before
publication in this department.
Origin of St. Patrick's
please inform me of the (origin of St. Patrick's Day and why the Roman
celebrate on that day?
was made a saint by the Church of Rome, and therefore a day was
officially set aside
for him in the Calendar of Saints. St. Patrick was a great and noble
man whose personality
and career appealed to the Irish people and this popularity caused the
of his day to become a popular holiday. This may appear to be a very
reply but it is difficult to know how else to frame it, seeing that the
of St. Patrick's Day" cannot be referred to any one individual or act.
care to know something about St. Patrick himself who, though his own
became almost entirely hidden behind a great smoke-screen of legends
was really a hero worthy of every man's reverence. Patrick, whose
British name was
Sucat, was born in Britain some think it may have been in Scotland
about 390 to
400, therefore this famous Irish Saint was not himself an Irishman,
which is a kind
of Irish bull that history has played on us. He was the son of a deacon
in the church
and the grandson of a priest in those days the clergy married like
other human beings
nevertheless he was not, as a youth, particularly religious. When about
or fifteen years of age he was captured by a gang of Irish pirates and
to slavery in Ireland, where he resided for six years, when he made his
Some historians believe he went to Gaul, others that he returned home;
be that as
it may we know that he became very devout and determined to return to
heathen as a missionary. This he did in 432. He was so successful that
when he died
in 461 he had established an everlasting fame, and had made that appeal
to the popular
imagination which inspired such a wealth of legends.
a Roman Catholic? The evidence goes to show to a fair and candid mind
that he was
not a follower of the pope. Space does not permit here an exhibition of
evidences on this famous question so I shall content myself with two:
evidence from the history of early British Christianity; second, the
by Patrick himself.
was planted in Britain at an early date so early, that British bishops
sat in the
Synod of Arles in 314. The faith was very probably introduced by the
That army withdrew in 410 or thereabouts, after which time there was
little or no
intercourse between the British churches and Rome. The Angles, Saxons,
came in and drove the British Christians into Wales where gradually
there grew up
a powerful British Church, owing no allegiance whatsoever to the Roman
popes made overtures to this Church in the sixth century 100 years
time but to no avail. On this point two historians may be quoted.
that "the union was close between the British and Irish churches; they
many old arrangements. That the Britons acknowledged no ecclesiastical
the pope over them is proved by their opposition to the Roman
regulations, an opposition
which continued in Ireland down to the twelfth century." Lappenberg
same point, and as clearly: "The points of difference between the Roman
British Churches (established probably on the oldest direct tradition
were, the time of celebrating Easter, the form of tonsure, the
baptism, the ecclesiastical benediction of matrimony, the manner of
but above all, the refusal to acknowledge the supremacy of the pope."
Patrick was a British Christian and since the British Church owed no
to Rome it is very probable that Patrick himself was not a Romanist.
old age Patrick wrote an account of his own career and his religious
historians this work, named "Confessions," is very generally held to be
genuine. In this autobiographical account Patrick not only says
about any connection with Rome but sets forth a creed very different
from that officially
promulgated by Rome at that period. Here is what Neander has to say on
2 (see pp 146…)] "If Patrick came to Ireland
as a deputy from Rome, it might have been expected that in the Irish
Church a certain
sense of dependence would always have been preserved towards the mother
Rome. But we find, on the contrary, in the Irish Church afterwards, a
Church freedom similar to that shown by the ancient British Church,
against the yoke of Romish ordinances.
find subsequently among the Irish, a much greater agreement with the
than with Roman Ecclesiastical usages. This goes to prove that the
origin of the
Irish Church was independent of Rome.
no indication of his connection with the Roman Church is to be found in
Confession; rather everything seems to favor the supposition that he
Bishop in Britain itself, in his forty-fifth year."
this it would appear that, strange as it may sound, Patrick was neither
nor a Roman Catholic.
* * *
Christianity and the Mystery
Being a pastor
as well as a more-or-less (less, I fear) Masonic student I have long
had it in mind
to make a study of the relationship between early Christianity and the
Can you furnish me with a few titles of books that may help me to get a
I shall get something together some day to send to THE BUILDER.
hit upon a subject that continues to fascinate the best theological
minds of the
day, and you should therefore, once you have worked your way a bit into
have no difficulties with securing adequate literature. But it will
first be well
to divest your mind of all your previous opinions about the Mysteries
if you will
permit a stranger to speak thus for on nothing have men thought and
inordinate nonsense. If many of our writers and these number, alas, a
scribes among them were to come suddenly upon one of the old Mystery
cults in full
blast, they would not recognize the thing, so widely have they been
But to the books, of which only a few titles need to be given: "The
Religions and the New Testament," [Lib 1918] by Henry C. Sheldon, and
by The Abingdon Press of Cincinnati and New York, is a beginner's
from the orthodox Christian point of view. It is most elementary, and
in many ways
unreliable, but good as a primer. Next in order, because a bit more
come "The Evolution of Early Christianity," [Lib 1914] by Shirley Jackson Case, an
advanced and well equipped scholar of the faculty
of the University of Chicago; the work is published by the University
Press. Beginning on page 287 of that book, and following, you will
discover a very
extended bibliography in several languages. Turn next to the article on
in Vol. IX of Hasting's "Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics." [Lib
9] That done you will be ready
"St. Paul and the Mystery-Religions" [Lib 1913] by H.A.A. Kennedy, and
similar works. Nor must you overlook Lecture X in
"The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church"
1897] by Edwin Hatch, published by
and Norgate, 14, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, 1907, as The
for 1883. It is a very important book. Once you have accumulated and
this material write up your conclusions for THE BUILDER; in all the
world one will
not find a more fascinating subject, and there is much in it of
to us Masons.
* * *
The Scottish Rite Dramas
And The Morality Plays
In 1891 I
was initiated in Masonry in Denmark. Later on I was promoted as it is
Scandinavia to the Scottish degrees, and then in 1908 to the Knight
It looks to me that the main difference between the rites which you
here and the Swedish rites is that the candidate in the Swedish rites
is the principal
actor, while over here he is more of an onlooker. A little while ago I
a Scottish Rite Reunion here and while watching it the idea came to me
dramas performed in the various degrees very impressive dramas they are
way must have descended from the medieval Morality Plays performed
first by the
Roman Catholic church outside the church buildings when the old
dramatic art, long
buried under the wreckage of the Roman Empire, first began to revive.
also, in some countries, taken up by Protestant churches and performed
in the same
way. I have seen these plays in Scandinavia, and only the other day I
"Jedermann" had been performed in Salzburg, Tyrol. How can I examine
this question? has any one attempted it? Is there any book that teaches
us the meaning
of the Scottish Rite?
B. OLivarius, Michigan.
is a most interesting and important one, and has long attracted the
Masonic students as see Brother David E. W. Williamson's letter in THE
December but to date nobody has yet given any satisfactory proof of the
Play origin of any of the orthodox Masonic rites. In the Correspondence
for November 1916 you will find an instructive article on the matter by
Robert I. Clegg who has had the subject in mind these many years past.
Clegg and Brother Williamson would doubtless be very glad to exchange
you: if you care to get in touch with them write them care THE BUILDER.
the one book that deals at large with the Scottish Rite degrees is
and Dogma" [Lib 1871]; it is not always an easy
read, and there are many gaps, and the whole volume needs badly to be
to date, but even so there is no other interpretation of the degrees
approaches it. If you have any luck in your researches in this
Olivarius, put them into a paper and send them to THE BUILDER.
* * *
How Many Masonic Bodies
please give me a list of all the Masonic organizations there are? It
there are a great number of them.
frater, you ask an impossible question if you have in mind all bodies,
male or female,
that require Masonic membership as a condition of affiliation, for they
are as countless
as the leaves of Valambrosa, and their number, even so, it appears,
waxes more and
more. The only Masonic bodies in existence are those which comprise the
and the York and Scottish Rites: the others, worthy as they may
doubtless be, are
not entitled to that name. Can any reader supply us with a list of all
If so, the same will be welcomed to these columns. It is not necessary
not possible that the list include every one: nor would a few omissions
seeing that all of them, save a half dozen or so, might pass utterly
out of existence
without loss to the Masonic Fraternity.
and Early Masonic Periodicals
two inquirers in the June number whom I may be able to help: W.J.J.
Bibliography, page 191. I obtained a copy of this (in 3 vols.) uncut,
as published, from Quaritch, the great London book dealer on May 27,
1921 at 3-10-6
which at the present rate of exchange is $15.86 (1-$4.51). W.R.M. Early
Periodicals, page 190. As this is a New York brother, if he will write
me, I will
help him locate what he wants.
of all Masonic periodicals are published in:
E. F. Carson's
Masonic Bibliography, 1876.
T. C. Lawrence: Catalog of Masonic Library, 1891.
G. Kloss: Bibliographie der Freimaurerei, 1844.
T. S. Parvin: Catalog of the Library, Grand Lodge of Iowa, 1873 and
H. Wolfstieg: Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literature, 1911-13.
Grand Lodge of New York, Catalog of the Grand Lodge Library in
Proceedings as follows
in reports of Grand Librarians:
1879 pp. 66-76; 1883 pp. 34-50; 1884 pp. 42-51; 1885 pp. 7690; 1886 pp.
1887 pp. 88-101; 1888 pp. 110-124; 1889 pp. 76-85; 1890 pp. 105-115;
1891 pp. 153-162;
1892 pp. 60-67; 1893 pp. 92-97; 1894 pp. 87-92; 1895 pp. 90-96; 1898
D. Berolzhheimer, New York.
* * *
A Further Note on Wolfstieg's
THE BUILDER, June issue, has a few paragraphs on a German book by
on the Bibliographie der Freimaurerishen Literatur. Brother Eisenlohr
the question in the text indicates that there are two volumes. Please
let me point
out that the work is published by the Verein Deutscher Freimaurer and
to the Jahrbuch for 1921-1922, page 135, I note there are three volumes
respectively the following pages: 990; 1041, and 536, the last volume
the index. Mention is made that the price will be quoted on request. I
the original inquirer be kindly referred to Dr. J. C. Schwabe,
Deutscher Freimaurer, Leipzig, Fichtestrasse 43, Germany.
I. Clegg, Illinois.
* * *
The Broken Column
to the question of "T. H. F., Florida" in the March issue of THE
regarding The Broken Column would you refer this Brother to page 42 of
edition of Brother Newton's "The Builders," [Lib 1914] which throws further light on
B. Arlidge, Ontario.
* * *
Thomas Jefferson Not A Mason
having been given the task of writing a history of Masonry in Virginia
to try to settle the question of whether or not Thomas Jefferson was a
correspondence covering all the places in which it was thought there
might be some
indication of his having had some Masonic relations, or in which there
some indication that he was a Mason, shows a negative result both in
America. His own letters would not suggest that he was, even though he
Masons as such. The fact that the Declaration of Independence reads as
if it could
not have been the work of a profane adds weight to the argument of
those who have
for years doubted as to the real authorship of that document. He
claimed to be the
author but how could he have been and not have been a Mason? Let
the question if casuists can settle anything.
W. Eggleston, P. G. M., Virginia.
* * *
Rabbi Ben Leon's Model of
my question and the reply from D.E.W.W., which was published in THE
1922, page 124, you will be interested in view of his statement "There
evidence. The story is absurd," etc., to read the following from a
received from Rt. Wor. Bro. Lionel Vibert, to whom I addressed the same
me: "Your query you will find dealt with very fully in A.Q.C. xii
another note in xiii [Lib 1900]. The party you refer to was a
Jehudah Ben Leon, who went about with a model of the Temple on which he
There was a good deal of contemporary interest shown in the Temple, but
that there was therefore some contemporary change made in the Craft
ritual is one
for which there is no evidence. The Temple is clearly referred to in
long before Charles II. It is in the Cooke text, the very earliest form
of the story,
of date 1400 or thereabouts. But what the nature of the reference to it
in the lodge
ritual may have been we do not know. We can be fairly certain there was
of the death of a builder, but what exactly that was is quite uncertain.
Race's paper on the Third Degree published by the Manchester
Association, and the
Leicester Research, in their Transactions shows very convincingly that
was originally a private play, like the mediaeval Mysteries, performed
Masons; again, there is strong evidence from what is preserved of the
at Bristol, that the original Installed Master was put in the place
because of the death of H. A. This is now quite lost to Craft Masonry
and only appears
in a later degree. It is a remarkable gap in the narrative, as we have
nothing is stated to be done about a successor to H. A. But there is
that will help us to date the ritual or any possible redrafting or
* * *
Young Worshipful Masters
I have read
with interest several items appearing in THE BUILDER citing instances
who have served long and faithfully in Masonic offices. How about some
of the young brothers who have established records of unusual merit?
I wish to
mention one case for Montana. Brother Claude W. Patterson, born May 25,
elected Worshipful Master of Corinthian Lodge No. 72, A. F. &
A. M., in December,
1919, at the age of 26 years. He served as Master during the year of
May 25th, at that age, and for the rest of the year at the age of 26.
have been similar cases, but I have never heard of another brother
serving as Master
at the age of 25.
Earl V. Cline,
* * *
M. Payne, born August 31, 1891, served as Worshipful Master of Euclid
64, A. F. & A. M., La Junta, Colorado, for the year 1917,
having been installed
December 14, 1916 at the age of 25 years.
I was Master
of a lodge in Wisconsin when 26 years of age.
H. Winchell, Colorado.
* * *
of the youngest Worshipful Master is claimed by his friends for Brother
Slye, a student at St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York. Brother
Slye was born
at Dover, Ky., on September 25, 1898. In March, 1920, Brother Slye
joined St. Lawrence
Lodge No. 111, at Canton, N. Y. In the following December he was
elected as Junior
Warden, and in December, 1921, as Worshipful Master, being 23 years of
age at the
time of his installation.
C. Parker. New York.
* * *
Concerning Brother W. N.
In the article
"Another Oldest Secretary" appearing in the April copy of THE BUILDER
I notice that Brother Lloyd Steinberg, Virginia, has made a slight
I would like, with apologies to him, to correct.
He says that
Brother Grubb was made a Mason January 1, 1879 in Ruth Lodge No. 64. To
Brother William Newton Grubb was Raised February 15, 1878 and made
Ruth Lodge No. 89, June 24, 1879 and in December 1921 he began his
as Secretary of Ruth Lodge.
this little difference is of no consequence but as a member of Ruth
Lodge No. 89
I would appreciate it if you would make the proper corrections. We in
are proud of our true and faithful Secretary and hope that he will be
with us for
many more years.
I would like
to say right now that I think that THE BUILDER is a wonderful Journal,
wish that every brother were a subscriber. Thanking you for the
pleasure that I
have derived from THE BUILDER and wishing you all the success possible
in the coming
years, I am,
J. A. Bassett, Virginia.
* * *
Uncle Dan the Mason
On the night
of March 31st, 1922, the Masons of San Antonio and vicinity assembled
at the Scottish
Rite Cathedral and celebrated the 75th birthday anniversary of one of
most beloved Masons, "Uncle" Dan Ludlow, Secretary of Anchor Lodge No.
years Uncle Dan has labored indefatigably in the interest of Anchor
Lodge and its
membership. When he was elected Secretary the membership was only
today we are proud to say Anchor Lodge is the second largest Blue Lodge
in the state,
with a membership of 1300. Uncle Dan has not only witnessed this
growth, he is directly
responsible for much of it, he has labored faithfully, and oftentimes
he has discharged
his duties at the cost of personal sacrifice. Anchor lodge is his pride
and Uncle Dan is San Antonio Masons' pride and joy.
was first made a Mason in Embro, Canada, in Thistle Lodge No. 250, on
1874. Later he demitted to Speed Lodge No. 180, at Guelph, Canada. On
June 2, 1886,
he became a member of Anchor Lodge No. 424: he was elected Junior
Warden June 24,
1887, and became Worshipful Master June 22, 1888: he was made secretary
in 1889 and in 1890 was elected Secretary, which office he has held up
* * *
A Note as To the Cardinal
to the cardinal virtues, about which a paragraph appeared on page 124
of THE BUILDER,
April, 1922, I should like to refer you to "Wisdom of Solomon," chapter
8, verse 7.
A. Rosen, Texas.
to the book above mentioned, chapter 8, verse 7, we find this excellent
"And if a man loveth righteousness, the fruits of Wisdom's labor are
for she teacheth soberness and understanding, righteousness and
courage; and there
is nothing in life for man more profitable than these."
* * *
Does Masonry Exclude the
I note with
interest your definitions of various religious theories in the February
THE BUILDER. There is one point made by you, however, to which I must
and that is your definition of Agnosticism. The latter part of your
is correct, but the word does not properly denote nor even connote a
the existence of God. Agnosticism is equally oposed to Theism (or
Deism) and to
Atheism. The agnostic merely denies the ability of the finite to
infinite. The term was formulated by Huxley to distinguish his position
of a rejection of belief in a Deity.
I cite the
following definitions from dictionaries of recognized authority as
"The doctrine that neither the
existence of God, nor the ultimate character of the Universe (i.e.,
whether it is
material or ideal) is knowable."
"Any doctrine which, while
in God's existence, denies the knowableness of His nature."
and Spencer, as well as Huxley, were Agnostics.
it may also fairly be said that the exponents of Pantheism are
which I have made is, I believe, vital, for whereas no man may be made
a Mason without
expressing a belief in a Deity, there is nothing in Masonry to exclude
Indeed, to my own personal knowledge, many members of the Craft are
Theist, and more particularly the Deist, not only believes but insists
that he knows
of the existence of a personal God. The atheist expresses equally
of the non-existence of any controlling power, personal or
non-personal. The agnostic
regards both extremes as equally absurd, and while he may believe in a
Deity, or in several Gods, or merely in the pantheistic doctrine of the
of which all earthly expressions are but integral phenomena he at the
recognizes the fact that this belief is nothing more than a personal
and a guess, a more or less futile attempt to comprehend the
that so long as he is confined to finite form and finite limitations,
hope nor expect to understand or explain the infinite.
A. Embury, New York.
was that Agnosticism is un-belief, not dis-belief. Are you right in
the finite cannot comprehend the infinite? in higher mathematics we are
all the time.
* * *
“The City Of Saints"
the articles "Mormonism and Masonry" by Bro. Sam H. Goodwin in your
of February and March, 1921, also the one in the issue of February,
1922, I thought
the following excerpt from "The City of the Saints" [Lib 1862] by Sir Richard F. Burton
your readers. This is from the second edition, London, 1862, p. 462.
"Mr. Little also recounted to
us his experiences
among the Indians, whom he, like all the Mormons, firmly believed to be
of Israel under a cloud. He compared the Medicine lodge to a Masonic
hall, and declared
that the so-called Red men had signs and grips like ourselves; and he
an old chief, when certain symbolic actions were made to him, wept and
how he and his had neglected their observances. The Saints were at one
Masons; unhappily they wanted to be better. The angel of the Lord
brought to Mr.
Joseph Smith the lost key-words of several degrees, which caused him,
when he appeared
amongst the brotherhood of Illinois, to 'work right ahead' of the
highest, and to
show them their ignorance of the greatest truths and benefits of
Masonry. The natural
result was that their diploma was taken from them by the Grand Lodge,
and they are
not admitted to a Gentile gathering. Now heathens without the gate,
they still cling
to their heresy, and declare that the other Masonry is, like the
founded upon truth, and originally of the eternal church, but fallen
away and far
gone in error. There is no race, except perhaps antiquaries, more
the brethren of the Mystic Craft. I have been told, by one who may have
himself, but would not have deceived me, that the Royal Arch,
notoriously a corruption
of the Royal Arras, is known to the Bedouins of Arabia; whilst the
dairy of the
Neilgherry Todas, with its exclusion of women, and its rude
ornamentation of crescents,
circles, and triangles, was at once identified with the 'old religion
of the world
whose vestiges survive amongst all people.' But these are themes unfit
for an 'entered
S. Brown, South Carolina.
will note that it is a Mormon, not Sir Richard Burton, who is
in this paragraph. The reference to the Todas is interesting. How their
has ever escaped our argus-eyed symbologists is a mystery. By a happy
ye editor is now engaged in reviewing a book on the Today It will soon
* * *
Another Book on the Lost
In the reply
to R.E.M., Texas, on the "Lost Word," in THE BUILDER, July, page 219,
one of the most important and best monographs on this subject was
"The Lost Word" by Garrison, published in Geo. F. Fort's "Early History
and Antiquities of Freemasonry." [Lib 1881] I do not know whether this is
in all editions but my copy (1875) has it.
D. Berolzheimer. New York.
* * *
How Are Masonic Sick Cared
For? An Urgent Request for Information
I have been
asked to gather information as to what individual lodges, and also all
in concert in other cities, have done or are doing to provide for local
brothers who need surgical and medical attention, either in hospitals
or at their
are needed as to who pays the bills, where the cases are handled, who
details, what discounts are made, whether the beds are in wards, rooms,
buildings, under Masonic name, auspices, control, etc. Please send all
no matter how trivial, it may be just what I need. We have a number of
to take care of, and wish to know how others have done the work.
T. Holden, 623 Ochsner Bldg., Sacramento, Cal.
Col17 / auth. Cole Samuel / ed. Cole Samuel. - Baltimore : Benjamin
Eder, 1817. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 444. - 22.5 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 013 - 1900
Ars00 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - 18.4 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
General History of the
Christian Church Vol 1
Nea71CC1 / auth. Neander August / trans. Torrey Joseph. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1871. - Vol. 1 : 5 : p. 812. - 57.7 MB.
General History of the
Christian Church Vol 2
Nea71CC2 / auth. Neander August / trans. Torrey Joseph. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1871. - Vol. 2 : 5 : p. 845. - 62.5 MB.
General History of the
Christian Church Vol 3
Nea71CC3 / auth. Neander August / trans. Torrey Joseph. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1871. - Vol. 3 : 5 : p. 671. - 50.2 MB.
General History of the
Christian Church Vol 4
Nea71CC4 / auth. Neander August / trans. Torrey Joseph. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Comapny, 1871. - Vol. 4 : 5 : p. 697. - 50.1 MB.
General History of the
Christian Church Vol 5
Nea71CC5 / auth. Neander August / trans. Torrey Joseph. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1871. - Vol. 5 : 5 : p. 452. - 31.1 MB.
Isis and Osiris
Plu50 / auth. Plutarch
/ ed. Parthay Gustav. - Berlin : Nicolaische Buchhandlung, 1850. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 325. - German - 24.5 MB.
Life of Joseph Brant Vol 1
Sto51JB1 / auth. Stone William L. - Buffalo : Phinney & Co,
1851. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 538. - 40.0 MB.
Life of Joseph Brant Vol 2
Sto51JB2 / auth. Stone William L. - Buffalo : Phinney & Co,
1851. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 623. - 45.6 MB.
Manhood of Humanity
Kor21 / auth. Korzybski Alfred. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 278. - 13.7 MB.
Key22 / auth. Keyser Cassius J. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 482. - 9.5 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Preaching in London
New22 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - New York : George H Doran Company,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 126. - 6.5 MB.
St Paul and the Mystery
Ken13 / auth. Kennedy Harry A A. - New York : Hodder &
Stoughton, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 329. - 13.6 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The City of the Saints
Bur62 / auth. Burton Richard F. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1862. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 584. - 35.8 MB.
The Early History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry
For81 / auth. Fort George F.. - Philadelphia : Bradley & Co.,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 514. - 21.2 MB.
The Evolution of Early
Cas14 / auth. Case Shirley J. - Chicago : University of Chicago Press,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 393. - 12.9 MB.
The Influence of Greek Ideas
and Usages upon the Christian Church
Hat97 / auth. Hatch Edwin. - London : [s.n.], 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
392. - 17.1 MB.
The Mystery Religions
She18 / auth. Sheldon Henry C. - New York : The Abingdon Press, 1918. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 153. - 3.8 MB.
The Works of Apuleius
Tig78 / auth. Tighe Mary B. - London : George Bell and Sons, 1878. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 546. - 27.0 MB.