Masonic Research Society
Baird ‒ A Tribute
By The Editor
in the back of my mind there lives a little poem that a traveling-man
me more than twenty years ago. I am afraid I shall stray far from the
the simple little lines; but as I recall them now they run something
"A rose to the living is more
Ere the suffering spirit has fled,
A rose to the living is more
Than sumptuous wreaths to the dead."
not that the rendering may be far off the track, for the sentiment is
which in these connections is the principal thing, and it is this
has inspired me to write a little memorial to Brother George W. Baird
who has so
firmly established himself in THE BUILDER'S great family of readers by
on Memorials to Great Men Who Were Masons. This now famous series began
in the first
volume of THE BUILDER with an article on Masonic Memorials, which
appeared in the
July issue. It was followed by a second on Benjamin Franklin; and so it
discerning readers have long ere this discovered the inner importance
of this series
of articles. Oftentimes the greatest career transmits nothing of itself
save a gravestone; by that slender thread the living must keep hold of
dead. But what if some group of persons, for reasons of their own,
begin to cut
these threads? Confusion is introduced into history. It becomes
necessary to preserve
memorials in books which are more enduring than stones and brasses.
There are many
in our land who would like to forget that many of our forefathers were
men; they would like the world to forget it. Brother Baird has
Gravestones in New England graveyards may crumble into
indistinguishable dust; the
memorials preserved in THE BUILDER will be consulted by historians
To Brother Baird the Masonic Fraternity is heavily indebted for the
toil he has
bestowed, and with no thought of reward, upon this task of preserving
Baird (for portrait see frontispiece) was born in Washington, D.C. on
1843, which was a long while ago. John Tyler was president. It was the
year in which
Daniel O'Connell was arrested. It was one year after rubber first came
It was at the time when Dr. Long of Georgia first began to administer
ether as an
anaesthetic. For those who enjoy a bit of sly humor in their history it
may be also
said that it was one year before Ronge led his great defection from the
church and founded in Germany his new brand of it, the German Catholic
were stirring times, and he was a wise baby who chose such a year for
into this exciting world.
was Matthew Baird, a steamship engineer and machinist who, in 1829,
fitted and installed
the machine work on the first passenger locomotive that ever turned a
wheel on this
continent. His grandfather was also a Matthew Baird, born of Scotch
parents ‒ be
it noted ‒ in Ulster, which is one of the counties of Ireland. This
helped to draw the plans for the Executive Mansion, otherwise known as
House; and he modelled the first composite column of the Capitol; and
also did the
same for the City Hall at New York. It all goes to prove that once in a
may be inherited. On the mother's side the family came from Virginia
ten generations, they had taken part in the important political,
military and religious
activities of the Old Dominion.
his elementary education in public and private schools at Washington,
Baird was apprenticed to a printer, and later to a machinist. At
nineteen he entered
the Navy as an engineer. When the Civil War broke out he was ready to
take a man's
part. He served on the Mississippi, Calhoun, Kensington, and Pensacola,
under fire more than twenty times but escaped with a whole skin, thus
Wordsworth who said the good die young. Having a genius for mechanical
work he was
detailed for duty under the famous engineer B.F. Irishwood in the
Bureau of Steam
Engineering. He accompanied Irishwood to California in 1869 and served
at the Mare
Island Yard. While on the Pacific he also served on board the Saranac
and the Pensacola,
visiting the while almost every port from Sitka to Talcahuna. For three
worked on the designs of new vessels and left behind him many a
as will be described later. He was serving on board the Vandalia when
made his famous cruise to Cairo [Lib 1879; Vol 1, Vol 2], where he lived in the
palace. If you wish to learn more about this notable trip read the
by John Russell Young.
return to the United States Brother Baird was detailed to supervise the
of the deep-sea exploring ship, the Albatross, and designed most of the
machinery on that vessel which made such a name for itself in marine
Albatross brought out of the depths of the ocean more genera and
species of marine
life during her first year than all previous deep-sea explorations
was the first government vessel of any nation to utilize the
and scientific achievements to his credit may be noted the following:
distilling apparatus; the pneumatic tell-tale; the evaporator; and
His experiments on the mechanical ventilation of ships began in 1864
were published in the Journal of the Naval Institute; many of these
adopted. He was a member of the board that powered the gun shops at
He has written much for magazines: see the Franklin Institute for the
of gases by water; Science, on electric lighting, etc. The French
Academy gave him
the credit for being the first to prove, by mathematics, the actual
flight of the
flying fish, Exocetus Robustus. He designed the first anchor engine
used in the
He was a
charter member of the American Society of Naval Architects and Marine
and of the Washington Society of Engineers. He is a member of the
the Washington Academy of Sciences; and the National Geographic
Society. He is Past
President of the District of Columbia Society of the Sons of the
and Past Vice President of the general Society of the same: a member of
Andrews Society, which is Scotch; the John Paul Jones Club; the Cosmos
His Masonic Career
was made a Mason in a French lodge at Lisbon, Portugal, in 1867; he
Naval Lodge No. 87 in California, and later with Hope, in Washington,
D.C., of which
he is a past master. He was made Grand Master in 1896; and in recent
years has been
Chairman of the Committee on Correspondence, his reports of which are
full of information
and unexpected turns, and are read with delight by all the members of
Table of Reporters. He is past High Priest of Washington Chapter; was
Washington Commandery; is a member of all the Scottish Rite bodies; and
a 33rd degree man in Albert Pike Consistory in 1893. He has been a
member of the
National Masonic Research Society from the beginning, and was formerly
of the Correspondence Circle of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of London,
to say, he has also traversed the sands, which journey he made in Almas
Spanish-American War, when steam had succeeded sails as a propulsive
"Line" of the Navy and the officers of the Engineer Corps were
and Brother Baird was transferred to the Line as a commander but much
wishes. He served as commander and as captain, and when he retired was
to the rank of Rear Admiral, in honor of the services he performed
during the Civil
has the habit of illustrating his letters, of which he writes the most
specimens, with original cartoons done in colored ink. Upon writing
sketch to express to him the appreciation felt by the members of The
Research Society for his long continued services, I besought him to
furnish me with
a page of these cartoons illustrating himself; but he asked to be
excused on the
ground of advancing age, rheumatism, and a sick wife. To the sick wife
we send our
sympathies; for the rheumatism we extend our regrets; but as to the old
age we all
demur. Brother Baird, for all his 79 years, does not age, but, like his
colleague, Chauncey Depew, refuses to capitulate to Father Time. Active
eager in all good causes, he writes many little articles for the
general press on
Masonry and Patriotism, the two of which are fused together in his mind
should be in every mind, and sows these about the country. May he keep
at the good
work for years to come! Age cannot wither or custom stale his infinite
If you wish
to get on, you must do so as you would get through a crowd to a gate
all are equally
anxious to reach. Hold your ground and push hard.
Influence on our Masonic Ceremonial and Ritual
Thomas Ross, P.G.M., New Zealand
on my subject I think it would be as well if I made it quite clear that
antiquity may be urged for our ceremonies and ritual, our signs, words
there can be no question that shortly after the formation of the three
in the early part of the eighteenth century our ritual, with all that
to it, was much as we have it today. When I therefore enter on the
object of endeavoring
to prove that much of that ritual has an Egyptian origin I want the
know that it was not until the year 1820, or quite 100 years after the
of the three Grand Lodges, before there was anything like an earnest
to read the hieroglyphics or sacred Writings of Egypt, while it was
fifty years before the Book of the Dead was deciphered and given to the
Lepsius Wilkinson, Naville, Petrie, Wallace Budge and other
of the hieroglyphics or sacred writings was for centuries before the
confined to the priests of Egypt, and was called by themselves the
writing of the
priests, so that when Christianity became the dominant religion in
Egypt the old
worship became obsolete the priests died out, and the knowledge and
the priestly writings went completely out of use, was neglected,
for a period of 1500 years utterly unknown to the world.
or the science of studying the ancient language, history and religion
from the hieroglyphics,
is a thing of almost yesterday, and may be looked upon as one of the
episodes in the domain of literature.
Most of you
are conversant with the history of the finding of the Rosetta Stone by
officer of artillery in 1798 in Rosetta, on the coast of Egypt. This
stone is of
black basalt, and is one of the most treasured relics in the Egyptian
in the British Museum, being the key that unlocks the mysteries of the
Stone is a monumental slab or tablet set up as a record of the
benefactions of Ptolemy
V, a king of Egypt about 195 B.C.; it contains fourteen lines of
thirty-two lines of Demotic, and fifty-four of Greek, coming in that
the top. The Greek text was easily read, a translation being published
Since it stated that the monument was a bilingual one (the writing of
and the writing of the books being the Egyptian identical with the
writing of the
Greeks) men of letters set themselves the task of trying to decipher
In the years
1819 to 1822 Mr. Thomas Young, an Englishman, and M. Champollion, a
that these characters, which were generally looked upon as
letters of an alphabetic or phonetic value. Certain characters, as may
be seen in
the hieroglyphic part of the stone, were written in cartouches or
enclosures, and these cartouches recurred in the Greek text under the
name of Ptolemy.
Eventually such names as Ptolemy, Berenice and Cleopatra were spelt
out, and thus
a key was obtained, which enabled them to unlock the secret of reading
of the priests of Egypt.
In the latter
half of the last century Ernest Renan, the celebrated French writer,
"Egypt remains a lighthouse in the profound darkness of antiquity." One
would almost think the compilers of our ritual had these words in mind
when we read
in our lectures: "The usages and customs of Freemasonry, our signs and
our rites and ceremonies, correspond in a great degree with the
mysteries of ancient
Egypt." An assertion such as this would naturally lead one to expect in
the several degrees some reference or some allusion to the religion and
of Egypt as the origin of some part at any rate of our ritual.
On the contrary
however, nearly the whole of our ceremonial is attributed to episodes
in the life
of some member of the Jewish race as narrated in the Holy Scriptures,
all our words and passwords are given as being derived from the same
a single one of the signs, tokens or words are pointed out as
those used in the religion or mysteries of ancient Egypt. It will be my
to show the brethren wherein much of our ceremonies correspond with the
of Egypt, and that we can fairly claim the fundamentals of the Masonic
have had an origin hoary with antiquity compared with the religion of
Religion of Ancient Egypt
be as well before going further to glance briefly at the religion of
each of the Egyptian mysteries, like those practiced in Syria, Greece
was based on some circumstance in the life of their gods and goddesses.
of ancient Egypt is to be found in a vast collection of religious
in 190 chapters. They have been collected from the walls of tombs and
papyrus rolls enclosed in mummy cases along with their occupants, and
upon the mummy cases and sarcophagi themselves. A very fine example of
this is the
picture shown in Fig. 1, being The Alabaster Sarcophagus of Seti I, who
B. C. This very fine coffin has upon it extracts from nearly all the
many of them being illustrated, the illustrations make the text doubly
The part presented to us shows the divine bark of Ra, the Sun God,
through the fourth hour of the mysteries. The bottom of the sarcophagus
beautiful full-size painting of the Goddess of the Heavens (Fig. 2,)
with texts of the same religious litany.
Book of the Dead has been given to these writings, and as far back as
and traditions can go the Book of the Dead appears to have been an
of the religions of Egypt. No mere man was the author of this
The texts were dictated by God Himself at the creation of the world, to
Scribe of the Gods, who is shown as having the body of a man and the
head of a bird,
and is always depicted in the act of writing the decrees of the
deities. We might
style Thoth the Divine emanation of wisdom and learning, the
inspiration of God
to man, the first to fill the place ascribed by Plato to the Divine
Logos and by
St. John to "The Word." The picture in Fig. 3 represents Thoth in his
different attributes, "Lord of Writing," "Great God," "Scribe
of the Gods," and "establisher of millions of years."
of years before Moses wrote, "In the beginning God created the heaven
earth," the Egyptian story of the creation had been given to Egypt as
it here in Fig. 4, where the god Nu is rising out of the primeval water
on his outstretched arms the boat of the sun god Ra; this is being
received by the
goddess of the heavens Nut, who again stands on the head of Osiris,
whose body encloses
the region of the underworld. In the center of the picture we have the
symbol of the Creator raising himself out of the primeval void, and
firmament above from the waters beneath.
of the Dead contains (as we see here) a history of the creation, the
of God, the powers and functions of the attendant gods and goddesses,
as well as
the ceremonies required to enable a to live such a life on earth as
his soul from being cast into that pit of fire, where the doomed one
must not only
suffer eternal torment, but, as can be seen in Fig. 5, must undergo a
On the other
hand, a man who lives a good life and acts up to the teachings of the
will obtain from Osiris, the "Lord of Everlastingness," as his final
not only the crown of immortality, but a pleasant existence in the
There he will live in the company of the gods, there his crops will
his cattle be sleek and docile, and there he can have the company and
of those whom he loved and knew on earth. We find this belief borne out
in the prayer
of Sepa, as shown in Fig. 6.
exception of a few tales, the records of the wars, expeditions of their
detailed statements of the erection of their temples, tombs and
monuments, and some
hymns to the gods and goddesses, the chief and almost only literature
of the Egyptians
was the Book of the Dead. We can, therefore, realize how inseparably
with their formula of rubrics, litanies, ceremonies, passwords and
signs must have
entered into the minds and lives of the people.
To an outsider
the people of Egypt almost deserved the sneer of Juvenal: "Who knows
monsters mad Egypt can worship; whole towns worship a dog, nobody
that of Plutarch: "The Egyptians, by adoring the animals and
as gods, have ruled their religious worship with many ridiculous rites.
Origin, one of the Christian fathers, very pertinently replies, "Many,
to accounts they do not understand, relative to the sacred doctrines of
philosophers, fancy that they are acquainted with all the wisdom of
they have never conversed with any of their priests, nor received any
from persons initiated into their mysteries."
every province, city, town, and even household had its god or trinity
of gods, over
and above all there reigned the Supreme Ruler of heaven and earth ‒ the
Cause, Creator and Preserver of all, the Great Architect of the
Universe ‒ Ra, the
Sun God, called in Upper Egypt Amun Ra, "the hidden one." As proof of
this, we have, in the Book of the Dead, among the many hymns to Ra,
the one God who didst come into being in the beginning of time." "Thou
didst create the earth; thou didst fashion man; thou didst make the
abyss of the
sky; thou didst create the watery abyss; and thou didst give life to
all that therein
is." "O Thou One, Thou mighty One, of myriad forms and aspects."
So when we contemplate the group of prominent deities in Fig. 7 we see
Ra, the Great
Architect in some of his myriad forms and aspects.
Ra, or Amun
Ra, and the triad of Osiris, Isis and Horus were worshipped throughout
of Egypt from the earliest pre-dynastic times to the very end of its
under its native rulers, a period of anything from 7,000 to years. The
Isis and Horus and the ceremonial of Ra and Osiris have survived to the
day, though under different names; the former in a branch of the
and the latter, as I hope to show, in our Masonic cult.
forth this general claim for the close connection between our ancient
and that of Egypt, let me show briefly under separate headings how some
of our more
familiar symbols, traditions and ceremonies may be explained in the
light of Egyptology.
The Point Within A Circle
The God Ra
is written phonetically with the hieroglyphs R. and A., i.e., a mouth
and an arm,
followed by the two ideographs, a circle with a dot in the center and a
But on most occasions the name of Ra, the Sun God, is written with the
of a point within a circle, as though the name was of "too essential a
to be fully comprehended by human wisdom or clearly pronounced by the
of a point within a circle was used by the kings of Egypt for thousands
as their royal title to the throne, while they did not scruple to style
(as we see in Fig. 8), sons of Ra. The same sign is even today used by
in writing of the sun as the center of the heavenly bodies, and is
referred to in
our Masonic ritual.
Master and Wardens
being the visible emblem of the god Ra, had three names or aspects. In
he was Kheper Ra, or Ra Harmachis, the opener of the day. The Sphinx,
monument in the world, was called Ra Harmachis, the rising sun. This
with the face and head of a man and the body of a lion, is 140 feet
long and over
60 feet in height. As it sits there see (Fig. 9) facing "the east, to
and enliven the glorious day," it represents wisdom and strength. For
of years also it represented beauty, for in 1200 A. D. the learned
described the face as being very beautiful and the mouth as graceful
when the sun was at his meridian, he was Ra, the strong one: "When all
and cattle reposed in their pastures and the trees and green herbs put
At even he
was Atmu, or Temu, the closer of the day: "When thou settest in the
horizon the earth is in darkness and is like a being that is dead."
quotation is strikingly shown in the illustration to chap. xviii. of
the Book of
the Dead. The Sun God, in shape of the Sacred Eagle with disc on head
wings, is about to set in the mountains of the west. Isis and Nepthys,
are adoring two lions, representing the sun of yesterday and the sun of
‒ a fine allegory of past, present and future.
Thus we see
that Ra Harmachis, like our W.M. was placed in the east; Ra, like our
J. W., represented
the sun at its meridian; and Temu, like our S. W., is placed in the
west to close
the day, or, as the Egyptian ritual puts it: "I am Ra Harmachis in the
Ra in his noontide, Temu in the evening."
The Two Great Pillars
Next in importance
to the worship of Ra, the Sun God, was the cult of Osiris and Isis and
of Isis and
Horus. The adoration of these gods and this goddess was not only the
in Egypt from the very earliest until the latest times, but during
nearly a thousand
years it had spread into Phoenicia, Greece, Rome, and throughout the
whole of the
Roman Empire. In many cases Osiris is identified with Ra, the Sun God,
is most frequently shown wearing the disc of the moon or the crescent
moon on her
In the texts
Isis is the divine consort of Ra Osiris. She is the moon who rules the
the sun rules the day; and every month at New Moon she gathered the sun
lap to be impregnated anew. "That I may behold the face of the sun and
I may behold the moon for ever and ever," was the great wish of the
(Book of the Dead, chap. xviii).
Isis are often pictured as the two eyes of Ra, and in that capacity
into the mysteries of Ra. Now, when we consider how much the sun and
in the worship of the Egyptians and surrounding nations, let us see
this would be likely to have on those two great pillars placed by King
the porchway or entrance to his temple at Jerusalem. Before the temple
of the sun
at Heliopolis (the On of Genesis), Osertsen the First (of the twelfth
C. 2435) set up two obelisks. One of them remains there today, the only
of that gorgeous building where Joseph's father-in-law served as priest
to the Sun
God, where Moses, as the adopted son of Pharaoh, must have worshipped
the mysteries of the temple; and where, two thousand years later,
like Herodotus came to study. These two obelisks would undoubtedly
two most important objects in the worship of the heavenly bodies, the
sun and the
moon, Osiris Ra and Isis.
years later, or, to be exact, B.C. 1566, Queen Hatasoo, of the
set up two obelisks in front of the Temple of the Sun at Karnak. They
today, the one standing, the other fallen down, a memorial to the
worship of the
two heavenly bodies. Fig. 10 gives us this obelisk as it stands to-day.
I have a
work published in 1757, "Travels in Egypt [Lib*], by Frederick Lewis
Capt Danish Navy." Captain Norden visited Karnak on 11th December,
his book he has plates in the old copper engraving, and among them he
has this view
(Fig. 11), which I have copied from his book. Speaking of this plate,
he says: "I
drew magnificent antiquities in all the situations is was possible for
me and as
they offered themselves to my sight."
We can see
by Captain Norden's drawing that obelisks were standing at the entrance
to the temple
less than two hundred years ago. So that the artist who made for us the
of Karnak restored (which we have here in Fig. 12), placed the obelisks
in the position
they originally stood when set up by Queen Hatasoo nearly 3600 years
ago. The queen,
in an inscription on the walls of her temple, describes them as "two
obelisks of granite of the south, and the summit of each is covered
and gold, the very best which can be obtained; they shall be seen from
and they shall flood the land with their rays of light. I have done
because of the loving heart I possess towards my father, Amun Ra, the
later at Medinet Abu was placed a very fine pair of pillars at the
porchway or entrance
to the temple. We see by this that the obelisk has given place to a
an ornamental capital. These pillars (Fig. 13) were set up by Rameses
1200 B.C., or quite 200 years before King Solomon built the Holy Temple
seems to have been largely used in the religious thinking of the
as an emblem of the Deity or a thank-offering from the worshippers. In
many of the
temples to-day there are beautiful lotus and papyrus pillars, while in
vignettes in the Book of the Dead we have Osiris seated in a shrine
upheld by two
graceful pillars. Now, when we see that not only in Egypt, but in the
countries, the worship of the sun and the moon was not only the
prevailing but the
popular religion of the people, there is little to be wondered at that
Israelites left Egypt they not only carried away with them a very
strong bias in
favor of this worship, but had that propensity considerably
strengthened when they
settled down among the sun and moon worshippers of Palestine. So
rampant was this
prejudice in favor of sun and moon worship, that we find Moses
denouncing it in
no unmeasured terms, and threatening death on the "man or woman that
wickedness in the sight of the Lord thy God in transgressing His
covenant, and hath
gone and served other gods and worshipped them, either the sun or the
(Deut. xvii. 2, 3). In spite of these warnings, however we find years
"Josiah put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had
to burn incense to the sun and to the moon" (2 Kings xxiii. 5). Again
"At that time, saith the lord, they shall bring out the bones of the
of Judah, and the bones of his Princes, and the bones of the
inhabitants of Jerusalem
out of their graves, and they shall spread them before the sun and the
they have loved and whom they have worshipped" (Jer. viii. 1, 2).
"five and twenty men with their backs towards the temple of the Lord
faces towards the east, and they worshipped the sun towards the east"
viii. 16). The Jewish women told Jeremiah: "But we will certainly do
thing goeth forth out of our own mouth to burn incense unto the Queen
(the moon or Isis) and to pour out drink unto her as we have done, we
and our fathers
and our kings and our princes in the cities of Judah and in the streets
(Jer. xlix. 17). One more quotation, this time from the sorely
afflicted Man of
Uz: "If I beheld the sun when it shines or the moon walking in
and my heart hath been secretly enticed or my mouth hath kissed my
xxxi. 26, 27).
When we thus
see the influence that sun and moon worship had upon the children of
and when we consider that though settled in Palestine they were
surrounded by nations
who paid homage to the sun and moon under the names of Osiris Ra and
and Astarte, Milcom and Ashtoreth, and Adonis and Cybele, and when we
Solomon took to himself wives from Egypt, Moab, Ammon, Edmon and
Phoenicia we are
quite prepared for the information given in I Kings xi. 5 that "Solomon
after Ashtoreth, the Goddess of the Zidonians (the moon), and after
abomination of the Ammonites (the sun)."
us to still another consideration that, in view of these telling
Scripture, are we not justified in assuming when Solomon put up those
pillars at the porchway or entrance to the temple (as portrayed by R.'.
Haweridge in Fig. 14) they had an esoteric meaning entirely different
ascribed to them in holy writ and that only by adopting the view I
shall now put
before you as to the signification of those pillars can we bring in the
given to them in our ritual.
We are told
that the pillar on the left denoted strength, while that on the right
to establish. Let us suppose that these two pillars, no matter by what
were called, had also a hidden meaning, what more appropriate
conception for signifying
strength could be selected than the Sun God. The sun was all powerful,
daily observing all that transpired on earth, while the pillar on the
we put it down as representing the moon goddess, would answer as the
The phases of the moon marked out the weeks, each moon was a lunar
month, and with
unfailing regularity she indicated the Jewish festivals, marking them
to stand firm
forever, and when conjoined with the strength of the sun what better
could be applied than stability?
If we consider
the question carefully and reflect on all that the sun and the moon
stood for to
these people at this particular time, we can see that strength and
be a more apt interpretation for those bodies than could be deduced
from the great-grandfather
of David and the assistant high priest at the dedication of the temple.
certain passages of the Psalms helps to confirm us in this. "They shall
Thee as long as the sun and moon endure throughout all generations."
5.) "It shall be established forever as the moon." (Ps.lxxxix. 37). "He
appointed the moon for seasons, the sun knoweth his going down." (Ps.
(Fig. 15) is from an ancient Cyprian coin depicting the old temple of
at Paphos, built about 100 years before the temple at Jerusalem. In
the pillars at each side of the entrance to the temple, the sun and
moon are also
represented as adorning the top of the building. Let us bear in mind
intimate friend and adviser was Hiram, King of Tyre, that his Chief
was Hiram Abif, that his principal architect was Adoniram, all
this temple of Paphos, which was at the time the glory of the
and lay only a short distance from Tyre, would powerfully influence the
these in the immediate vicinity. Nor is it improbable that the
architecture of this
temple, with its pillars, would appeal to the Phoenician craftsmen and
guide them in suggesting to Solomon a similar style of sanctuary in the
was about to build for the Lord God of Israel. There is yet another
may have influenced Solomon in dedicating these pillars to solar
Sayee says that Hadad was the Supreme Baal or sun god of Babylonia and
worship was widespread in Palestine and Syria, also that the
abbreviated form of
the name of Hadad was Dad, Dadu, and the biblical David. If therefore
the Palestinian name for Baal, the sun god, what more likely than that
be ready to take this opportunity of perpetuating the memory of his
father. Fig. 16 shows Hadad, the Syrian sun god, in the form of a
pillar, with solar
emblems, a solar crown and grasping a fiery sword symbolic of the
Biblica, in treating of the two pillars, suggests that the names given
and that they must have a religious significance. That not improbably
the full name
of the pillar on the left hand is Baal-zebul (dwelling of the sun), and
times probably the name of the second pillar was literately mutilated
the new and inauspicious associations which had gathered round it.
Solomon, to have
been consistent with the teachings of Moses, should have erected only
as a symbol of that unity of the Divine Being, which was so integral a
part of the
worship of the Israelites.
up two pillars he was conforming to the belief of every one of the
i.e., A duality in the divine, the sun and moon representing the active
principle in nature, the male and female element. Coming down to later
find these two pillars prominent in Druidic enclosures used for the
rites of sun
worship, while the two steeples or towers at the front of our Christian
and churches look as if they were an unconscious survival of the votive
or pillars erected to the sun or moon before the temples of Egypt.
Masonic Federation Case
By Bro. Charles C. Hunt,
Deputy Grand Secretary, Iowa
first two weeks of last May a trial was held in the Federal Court at
Salt Lake City,
Utah, that attracted the attention of Masons in many lands. Mathew
Thomas Perrot and Dominic Bergera were haled into court as heads of the
American Masonic Federation, Inc., and indicted for fraudulent use of
The hearings showed that these men were crooks and robbers who had
seduced men into
spurious lodges for no other purpose than to mulct them out of their
were convicted and each one fined $5,000.00 and sentenced to Fort
two years, Judge Martin J. Wade saying that he would have given them
the limit of
the law had it not been for Thomson's advanced age. In the article
Brother C.C. Hunt, who was present throughout the trial as an expert
given a synopsis of Thomson's claims so far as the Craft degrees are
in a succeeding article he will deal with Thomson's Scottish Rite
fifteen years there has been a clandestine Masonic organization at work
country headed by one Mathew McBlain Thompson with headquarters at Salt
Utah. This man was born in Ayr, Scotland, in 1853 or 1854 and claims to
made a Mason in 1874 or 1875, in Glasgow, Melrose Sts. John Lodge, a
the Ancient Lodge of St. John of Melrose, Scotland. One of his own
papers says that
he went "into Newton-on-Ayr St. James No. 125, on the registry of the
Lodge of Scotland and Patna Bonnie Doon No. 565 on the same registry.
Of the latter,
Brother Thomson was Right Worshipful Master for several years. He was
First Principal of the Early Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland;
of the Grand Encampment of the Temple and Malta in Scotland; Sovereign
of the Scottish Grand Council of Rites, and later Grand Recorder of the
Thomson demitted from his Scottish membership in 1896, affiliating with
lodge No. 27, of the Locals [Thomson called regular Masonic lodges by
at Montpelier, Idaho, in 1998 (there being no Scottish Rite lodges
there), in which
he held office, and represented the lodge in the Grand Lodge of the
State of Idaho
for several terms. During the last term he sawed as Grand Orator."
1, 1906, Thomson demitted from King Solomon Lodge. He organized the
Lodge Inter-Montana, January 9, 1907.
In 1919 he
claimed to have ten thousand members in this country and that his
been recognized in practically every country in the world. His
Federation was organized
on the basis of a stock promotion scheme, with paid organizers armed
arguments which only those thoroughly posted in Masonic history and
could refute. He claimed that with the exception of Louisiana the
was unoccupied territory Masonically and that not a single one of the
in this country had a charter authorizing it to work; that each of the
colonies organized a Grand Lodge of its own, without the lodges therein
consent of the Grand Lodge from which their charters had originally
that the lodges in the colonies, by thus breaking away from the home
of Great Britain without first obtaining consent, became irregular and
organizations, and that therefore, the field in this country was open
to any regular
organization that chose to occupy it; that later recognition by the
of Great Britain did not make these self-formed Grand Lodges
legitimate. In support
of this argument he quotes as follows:
302, Volume IV, Gould's History of Freemasonry [Lib 1884 Vol 4]:
"'In the year 1777 application
of erection and constitution having been made by a number of Masons to
Grand Lodge, of which the late Joseph Warren, Esq, had been G. M., as
many of the
officers of that Grand Lodge as could be assembled, met in form of a
the Deputy Grand Master then in the chair. And after carefully
attending to the
constitutions and usages of Masons in all ages and the principles upon
Grand Lodge existed, they were unanimously of opinion that they could
grant charters, because the late G.M., Dr. Joseph Warren, held his
virtue of a commission given to him only as Provincial Grand Master,
and to be revoked
at the pleasure of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. Now the principal being
commission was of consequence vacated. They then assumed the powers of
a Grand Lodge.
"'From the foregoing, the
adopted by this Grand Lodge, upon which they have practiced and from
have never seen occasion to recede, may readily be collected."'
Volume IV, Gould's History of Freemasonry [Lib 1884 Vol 4]:
"'Since the beginning of the
seventeen Grand Lodges have been formed in the United States. In every
case it has
been assumed or expressly declared, that the proceeding was a matter OF
RIGHT, and in no case, so far as the printed record discloses, has the
the parent Grand Lodges been sought."'
Hughan and Stillson's History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders [Lib
"'The Grand Lodge of Tennessee
is the only
Independent Grand Lodge in the United States that was organized by
a warrant; for the instrument issued by the Grand Lodge of North
Carolina does not
simply permit the lodges to withdraw their allegiance from it, but it
conditions; in fact, it was almost identical in phraseology with the
deputations issued by the Grand Lodges of England for Provincial Grand
the Colonies and Provinces."'
Specimen of Thomson's Arguments
As an illustration
of Thomson's method of describing the organization of the state Grand
"Now, let us see where
"On the 24th day of September,
Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania closed its labours forever and
whatever authority it may have previously had, whether regular or
by that act its members became clandestine or irregular Masons. On the
day September 25, 1786, they assembled and formed a self-constituted
from and by no Masonic authority whatever. This is historically the
origin of Pennsylvania
"An unbiased and full
the methods in which these so-called Grand Lodges were formed will
to the reader just how irregularly they have been formed, and withal,
they one and
all prate considerably about regularity, and claim an other
organizations of Craft
Masonry to be irregular, when, as a matter of fact and of history, the
shoe is on
the other foot."
History [Lib 1904 pp 519], p. 338, gives the following
note which has
been quoted by Thomson as his authority for claiming the regular Grand
the United States illegitimate:
"The death of Joseph Warren
raised a constitutional
question of much complexity. What was the status of the Grand Lodge
after the death
of the Grand Master? It was disposed of by the election of Joseph Webb
to the position
of 'Grand Master of Antient Masonrys in the State of Massachusetts.
This, if we
leave out of consideration the Lodge (and Grand Lodge) of Pennsylvania
was the first sovereign and independent Grand Lodge in America, and the
the Grand Lodge of Virginia, which was established in the following
As a matter
of fact, these quotations prove the very opposite of Thomson's
are given by Gould and his co-laborers as showing the growth of a
principle of Masonic
law that has now become established, namely, that a Grand Lodge cannot
Grand Lodge; or in other words, that no Grand Lodge derives its
authority from a
charter granted by another Masonic Grand Body, but that such power or
is derived from the lodges which compose the Grand Lodge itself.
upon the discussion of this question, we must remember that a very
large part of
the law of Masonry is similar to the common law of a country: in other
is unwritten law which is the result of customs and usages that have
up and become generally recognized as law. Masonic laws may be divided
classes: first, written law; second, unwritten law; third, regulations;
rank in the order named. The unwritten laws consist of time-honored
usages of general recognition, adapted to the conditions and time in
live, and not repugnant to the written laws. In general, the rules
legitimacy of lodges and Grand Lodges are determined by the unwritten
laws of Masonry.
When we study Masonic authorities we find two general theories as to
first, that a lodge, to be legitimate, must be able to trace its
at least one of the Grand Lodges of Great Britain; second, that it may
its origin to Great Britain or to a Supreme Council of the Ancient and
remarks apply to the legitimacy of subordinate lodges. When one
considers the legitimacy
of Grand Lodges other principles are in effect. There are certain
such as that the Grand Lodge must be, first, organized by legitimate
organized in a governmental unit with a political government of its
it must be supreme in its authority over its own members in matters
Masonic, ‒ that
is, it must be subject to the laws of no other Masonic organization nor
powers from any other; fourth, it must be Masonic in its character. A
lodge to be
legitimate must have a charter from a legitimate Grand Lodge
authorizing and empowering
it to work. A Grand Lodge working under such a charter would not be
since it must derive its authority from the legitimate lodges of its
not from any other power, Masonic or otherwise. Charles T. Granger,
at one time a judge of the Supreme Court of Iowa, in a report to the
of Iowa in 1911, said:
"We may state, as an axiom of
law, that Symbolic Masonry, in its organizations and workings, is a law
in that it looks to no higher or foreign fraternal source for
or guidance, but is the creative power within itself of all needful
to this end the subordinate lodge is the primal source of authority and
source from which can spring a legitimate Grand Lodge, and hence the
of a Grand Lodge depends, in the first instance, on the legitimacy of
that gave it birth, and, of course, in addition thereto, it must meet
and requirements of the ancient landmarks of the order."
Descent from British Masonry
the most general theory is that to be legitimate descent must be traced
form from the Grand Lodge of Great Britain. Here I am speaking of the
only. Some Grand Lodges will, in addition to this, recognize a lodge
that has been
organized by a Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish
Rite in territory
not occupied by a regular Grand Lodge, but they will not recognize a
formed by such a Supreme Council. If the lodges formed by a Supreme
Council in unoccupied
territory declare their independence and organize themselves into a
for that territory, some legitimate Grand jurisdictions will recognize
will not, unless the lodges themselves can trace their origin from
formed in the first place by charter from one or more of the three
of Great Britain. After this country became independent of Great
Britain, the lodges
in each colony organized a Grand Lodge for themselves. This method of
has been recognized as legitimate by the Grand Lodges of England,
Scotland and Ireland,
and this is shown by the fact that in every case a Grand Lodge thus
formed has been
recognized as legitimate by the lodges of the mother country.
to form a Grand Lodge was inherent in the nature of the institution
under the principle
in the Old Charges that "Every Mason should be true to the government
country in which he lives." From this charge it became recognized that
country should have a Grand Lodge of its own which would be supreme
over its own
members. Otherwise, Masons in different countries owing Masonic
allegiance to a
foreign power might find themselves in a position where their
obligations to their
Grand Lodge and to their country would be antagonistic to each other.
was recognized in this country before the formation of the Federal
even after its formation the principle was adhered to; and it was
the several lodges of each state had a right to form themselves into an
Grand Lodge. All attempts to form a general Masonic government for the
failed. Hence, we have no General Grand Lodge. All legitimate Grand
Lodges of England,
Scotland, Ireland, and France as well as the colonies of Great Britain
of the United States, have been self-constituted, and no question of
has ever been raised, except by Thomson, because of that fact.
Grand Lodge Of Pennsylvania
to the formation of Grand Lodges in the United States, no better
be given of the recognition of the right of the lodges in a country to
form an independent
Grand Lodge than in the case of the formation of the Grand Lodge of
in 1786, and its prompt recognition by the Grand Lodge of England. The
of this occasion are set out very fully in the "Memorial Volume" issued
by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania in 1912. In page 57 of this volume
we find the
declaration of independence which was passed unanimously on Monday,
1786. It is as follows:
"Resolved that this Grand Lodge
is and ought
to be a Grand Lodge Independent of Great Britain or any other authority
and that they are not under any ties to any other Grand Lodge, except
those of Brotherly
Love and Affection, which they will always be happy to cultivate and
all Lodges throughout the Globe."
On the same
day, at a Grand Convention of thirteen different lodges
"it was unanimously resolved
that the Lodges;
under the Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania lately held
authority of the Grand Lodge of England will and now do form themselves
into a Grand
Lodge to be called the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania and Masonic
belonging to be held in Philadelphia and that the late Grand Officers
be the Grand Officers of Pennsylvania invested with all the Powers,
prominence and authority thereunto belonging 'till the usual time for
the next election,
and that the Grand Lodge and the particular Lodges govern themselves by
and Regulations heretofore established 'till other Rules and
Regulations shall be
was then written to the Grand lodge of England announcing the action
taken and the
reasons therefor. The reply of the Grand Lodge of England was as
"... We reflect with pleasure
that the Grand
Lodge of England has given birth to a Grand Lodge in the western world,
adherence to the ancient and immutable landmarks of our order reflects
its original founders. Here we must beg leave to state that we conceive
constituting your Grand Lodge we necessarily communicated to it the
sovereign Masonic authority within your jurisdiction which we ourselves
within ours, amenable to no superior jurisdiction under Heaven, and
to the immutable landmarks of the craft. All Grand Lodges in Masonry
Free, Independent and Equipollent within their respective
jurisdictions, which consequently
excludes the idea of subjection to a foreign authority of the
establishment of an
Imperium in Imperio."
be noted that in declaring their independence from the Grand Lodges of
the prevailing motive was loyalty to the government of the land in
which they lived.
Inasmuch as loyalty to the state is one of the cardinal principles of
this action has met with universal Masonic approval.
As a matter
of fact all that the statement of Gould with reference to Massachusetts
above) was intended to mean is that a Grand Lodge could not
legitimately be formed
from a Provincial Grand Lodge. The death of the Grand Master of the
Lodge of Massachusetts left that Grand Lodge with no executive officer
could be appointed by the home Grand Lodge, but this difficulty was
solved by the
formation of an independent Grand Lodge and the election of Joseph Webb
to the position
of "Grand Master of Antient Masonry." Gould nowhere states, either
or indirectly that this election or the action of the lodges of
other states in thus forming a Grand Lodge was illegal. In fact, he
"Within seven years after the
close of the
War of the Revolution, the system of Grand Lodges with Territorial
was firmly established. It became an accepted doctrine that the Lodges
in an independent
State had a right to organize a Grand Lodge; that a Lodge so created
jurisdiction within the State; and that it might constitute Lodges in
in which no Grand Lodge existed and maintain them until a Grand Lodge
established in such State." (Gould's Concise History, p. 339. [pp 521])
In this Gould
recognized the principle that the authority to form a Grand Lodge rests
in the lodges
themselves and does not come from some outside power.
Thomson's False Theory
for himself and his so-called American Masonic Federation that the
theory of territorial
exclusiveness is unmasonic and peculiar to America, in this he was
wrong: it is
also generally recognized in Great Britain, Canada and Australia. The
basis of this
theory is the same as the principle that accords to political
governments the right
of having exclusive jurisdiction over their own territory. Its
existence is established
by the fact that our right to exclusive jurisdiction is generally
the Masonic world, and the fact that when a recognized Grand Lodge is
in any of the British Colonies, no other Grand Lodge will issue a
charter for a
new lodge in that territory.
In the proceedings
of the Grand Lodge of England relative to the formation of the Grand
Lodge of Canada
the fact of recognition by the Grand Lodge of England was expressed in
of the Grand Master of England that he would issue no more charters for
in the territory covered by the Grand Lodge of Canada.
claimed that American Grand Lodges are clandestine because of the
alleged fact that
they are not universal, and refuse to recognize Masonry in other
of religion, race, or some other assumed reason which is contrary to
of universality. When at his trial he was asked to define Universal
used by him to distinguish himself from other Masons, he replied:
"Masonry that knows no creed
save the one
belief in the all Father who as we express it, is the Great Architect
of the Universe,
the Creator, and leaving to every man his own opinion after that; that
stock in what country a man may be born, what language he may speak, or
and things like that, or anything except that he be a good man and a
no one will object to Thomson's definition of universality, but we must
that it is an ideal to be striven for rather than a goal that has been
There is nothing in the law of Masonry that bars a man from being made
a Mason because
of race, polities or religion, providing that he is a "good man and a
one" who will exemplify in his life the teachings of Masonry; but if a
religion, polities or race causes him to act contrary to the principles
brotherhood he is not a "good man and true" and should not be admitted
to a fraternity with whose principles he is not in accord. In such a
case it is
his character which bars him and not the beliefs he may hold or the
race to which
We must also
remember that so long as man is fallible there will be men who will
prejudices to influence their decisions when they cast their ballots,
but this is
no more an argument against Masonry and its teachings than are the sins
an argument against the teachings of Christ.
Thomson's Own Chain of Titles
As for his
own organization, Thomson alleged, with reference to the Craft, or
"Mother Kilwinning, being one
of the thirty-three
lodges forming the Grand Lodge of Scotland, still retained her ancient
charter craft and high degree lodges.
"Mother Kilwinning, becoming
with the Grand Lodge of Scotland, withdrew therefrom and continued in
with her ancient custom to charter lodges until the 14th day of
October, 1807, when
she surrendered all her ancient privileges and took her present
position under the
Grand Lodge of Scotland as Mother Kilwinning No. 0
"Chevalier Michael Andrew
Ramsay, who was
initiated in Ayr-Kilwinning St. John's Lodge (a pendicle or daughter
lodge of Mother
Kilwinning), with other political refugees, reintroduced Scotch Masonry
about the years 1736-1737.
"In the year 1743, the Earl of
who was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland and also of Mother
by virtue of the authority in him vested, chartered three Mother Lodges
one of which was the Grand Mother Lodge of St. John at Marseilles,
"In the year 1794, the Mother
Lodge at Marseilles,
France, granted a charter to Polar Star Lodge in New Orleans,
Louisiana, and at
a later period other Scotch lodges were formed and chartered."
Lodge here mentioned was, according to Thomson, later merged with the
of Louisiana, referred to below:
"On the 19th day of June, 1813,
Rite in New Orleans, Louisiana, applied for and received a charter for
a Grand Consistory
from the Supreme Council located at New York, which was established by
of the Supreme Council of France, which also derived its origin through
Michael Andrew Ramsay, commencing in Scotland.
"On the 27th day of October,
1839 (the New
York Supreme Council having become dormant), the Marquis O. de San
Angelo, by virtue
of the authority in him vested, established and chartered a Supreme
Council in New
Orleans, Louisiana, which became heir to all the rights and dignities
of the New
York Supreme Council, and, in fact, was inaugurated into life as the
for the Western Hemisphere, and the charter was fully recognized and de
acts were ratified.
"On September 14, 1906, Joseph
Supreme Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Western
at New Orleans, Louisiana, granted a Charter of authority to M. McB.
being a member of the Supreme Council and also Grand Representative of
Council of Rites of Scotland) to form Craft or Symbolic Grand and
of Masons, and by virtue of that charter and also as a representative
of the Supreme
Council of Louisiana, he (Thomson) granted a charter to the Grand Lodge
"Thus on the 9th day of
January, 1907, the
Grand Lodge 'Inter-Montana' received its Masonic Charter.
"On the 30th day of March,
1907, the Grand
Lodge of Illinois, A.F. and A. M., Incorporated, applied for and was
membership in the A. A. S. Rite by taking the oath de fideli, and again
5, 1907, five lodges in Boston, Massachusetts, applied for admission
and were accepted
and afterwards they obtained a Grand Lodge charter from the American
of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
"On the 31st day of August,
1907, the Supreme
Lodge in the American Masonic Federation was formed and received its
the Grand Lodge Inter-Montana.
"On the 21st day of September,
American Masonic Federation was incorporated. The incorporation papers
are on file
in the State of Idaho. This is our Chain of Title."
refers to this Chain of Title as showing that, to quote himself, "the
Masonic Federation traces its descent back to the oldest Masonic Lodge
in the known
world, Mother Kilwinning of Scotland, coming to Louisiana by way of
by truly lawful and Masonic charters. Can any other rite of Masonry
show as clear
were put forth with reference to the so-called higher degrees, but in
I shall confine my attention to the three Symbolic degrees of Masonry.
The Chain Falls to Pieces
to the above statements, let us see how many are true and how many
false, or at
least, not proven. Mother Kilwinning Lodge has a strong claim to being
the oldest lodge in the world. She first united in forming the Grand
Lodge of Scotland
and later withdrew, until 1807, when she re-united with that Grand Body
all rights she might have had to charter other lodges, but she never
had or claimed
to have a right to charter lodges to confer any but the Craft degrees
and she never granted to her daughter lodges the power to charter other
In fact, Mother Kilwinning Lodge was the only lodge in Scotland that
ever had the
chartering power, and she never transferred this power to any other
lodge. She never
chartered a lodge in France, and, therefore, could not have chartered
Lodge, of Marseilles.
Ramsay, so far as known, never introduced Masonry anywhere. He is
to Masonry because of an oration he delivered before the Grand Lodge of
1847, in which he traced the origin of Masonry to the Crusaders. This
Ramsay's, though supported by no proof, was readily accepted at that
time, and was
probably responsible for the fact that many high degrees to which the
was given suddenly sprang up in France about this time. Ramsay himself
did not invent
these degrees, nor did they come from Scotland, but the fact that he
was a Scotchman
probably had something to do with the name given to them. Ramsay was
not a member
of Mother Kilwinning Lodge, nor is it known when or where he received
his "Secret Tradition in Freemasonry" [Lib 1911; Vol
2] vol. 1,
p. 117, says that the Mother Lodge of Marseilles was established in
there is little means of ascertaining the circumstances under which it
Clavel says it was established in 1751 by a travelling Scotchman. Be
that as it
may, it soon ceased, to exist, and it did not charter Polar Star Lodge,
in New Orleans.
Lodge, of Marseilles, France, was organized in 1767 by the Grand Lodge
It is now, and has been since 1806, a subordinate of the Grand Orient
It was this lodge, and not Sts. John Lodge of Marseilles, which in 1796
chartered Polar Star Lodge of New Orleans, an action which was later
that lodge to the Grand Orient of France and approved by that Grand
the brethren who organized Polar Star Lodge first petitioned the Grand
France for a charter (this was in 1794), but on account of the
troublous times incident
to the French Revolution, the officers of the Grand Orient were so
it could not then be acted upon. Therefore, the brethren applied to
Lodge, at Marseilles, and received a charter in 1798. In 1804 the Grand
France acted upon the first petition, granted a charter, and the lodge
under the charter from that Grand Body as Polar Star Lodge No. 4263.
of Freemasonry in Louisiana, by James B. Scott, pp. 14 and 15.)
Story of Polar Star Lodge
the organization of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, on account of some
been raised as to their regularity, Polar Star Lodge applied to and
received a charter
from the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, and was by that Grand Lodge
Polar Star Lodge No. 129, and as such it joined with the other lodges
the Grand Lodge of Louisiana. Prior to the reception of the charter
this lodge had worked the French Rite. After receiving the charter from
it worked according to the York Rite only, until November 20, 1820,
when Polar Star
Lodge began working three rites, but keeping each distinct. As Polar
No. 5 under the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, it worked the York Rite; as
No. 4263 under
the Grand Orient of France, the French Rite; and later it received a
the Grand Orient of France as Polar Star Lodge No. 7474, authorizing it
according to the Scottish Rite. (See History of Freemasonry in
pp. 5, 11, 13, 28 and 29.)
In 1836 the
Grand Orient of France demanded of Polar Star Lodge the surrender of
from that body, and the lodge petitioned the Grand Lodge of Louisiana
the French and Scottish Rites. This request was not granted at that
time. It then
surrendered its York Rite and French Rite charters and worked according
to the Scottish
Rite, as Polar Star Lodge No. 1 under the Grand Lodge of Louisiana.
15, 1840) the Grand Lodge of Louisiana permitted it to work according
the French, Scottish, or York Rite by endorsing on the Scottish Rite
so to work the other two rites. (See Scott's History, P. 49.) This
in 1857, part of its members voting to withdraw from the Grand Lodge of
and affiliate with Foulhouze's clandestine Supreme Council, and the
to remain under the Grand Lodge. Foulhouze's clandestine lodge then
laid claim to
the property and records of Polar Star Lodge but was overruled in favor
of the regular
lodge by the Supreme Court of Louisiana in 1861. (16 La. Ann. Rep. 53.)
of Polar Star Lodge, when brought into court, proved fatal to the
claims of the
Foulhouze lodge. Thus, it will be seen that Thomson could derive no
Polar Star Lodge.
Council of the Scottish Rite in Louisiana laid no claim to control over
degrees until 1850, when the Grand Lodge of Louisiana abolished its
These chambers were a device adopted in 1833 by means of which there
chambers or committees in that Grand Lodge, each having jurisdiction
over one of
the three rites; but charters in each case were granted by Grand Lodge
and not by
a symbolic chamber. The reason for abolishing these symbolic chambers
in 1850 was
to avoid the confusion incident to having three kinds of charters, but
Lodge of Louisiana did then, and still does now, permit its lodges to
to the rite they prefer.
It was not
until 1850 that letters purporting to establish a so-called concordat
Grand Lodge of Louisiana and the Grand Consistory in 1833 were brought
As a matter of fact, no such concordat was ever adopted by the Grand
Lodge of Louisiana,
and the so-called concordat was later proved to be a fraud. (See
pp. 47 and 48.) Thus no title to the Craft degrees could be derived
from this Supreme
Council even had it been a regular Masonic body. These degrees in
controlled by the Grand Lodge and by that body only.
Grand Lodge of Louisiana had always claimed jurisdiction over the Craft
is shown in Scott's History, pp. 23 and 24, taken from the records of
Lodge. That the Scottish Rite bodies recognized the right of Grand
Lodges to control
the Craft degrees is shown in Folger's History, appendix, p. 125. The
of Louisiana, however, after Foulhouze and his adherents had withdrawn
made overtures to and was united with the Southern Supreme Council of
South Carolina (Scott's History, p. 87). Two years later or
and two of his adherents formed a new Supreme Council which they
claimed was a continuation
of the one which had united with the Supreme Council of the Southern
For this unmasonic act Foulhouze was expelled from Masonry by the Grand
France, of which he was a member (Scott's History, p. 87). His Supreme
became dormant, but in the early part of 1867 an attempt was made to
Foulhouze had abdicated, and was succeeded by Eugene Chassaignac, who
clandestine lodges, and by opening their doors to all comers,
regardless of previous
condition, obtained recognition by the Grand Orient of France (see
p. 87). This caused the white members to drift away, and that body is
almost entirely of creoles and colored men. Thus it will be seen that
in Thomson's so-called "Chain of Title" is defective. Each contains
element of truth, but the truth is so expressed that to one who does
not know, it
seems to lend color to the false statements with which the true are
the truths which are stated are but partial, and should be supplemented
facts which Thomson did not state.
Schools Should Be Advertised
M.S.A. Bulletin No. 8.
must be 'sold,' to use an advertising expression, just as automobiles,
movies and the endless list of necessities and luxuries are 'sold.'
That is to say,
before a community or an individual will spend time, effort and money
the community or individual must be convinced that education is worth
must want to possess it.
a comparison is fully justified by the facts. A public school system is
a form of
public service co-operation. The owners of the schools are the
tax-payers; the directors
are the members of the board of education, elected by the people. The
the business of public education are represented in the learning power
of the tens
of thousands whose knowledge, training and preparation for the work and
life are supplied by the public schools.
must be made of what the schools have to offer, however, if the
community and individuals
are to get any good out of them. A public school system, the
and facilities of which are not being utilized by the people, is like a
company without subscribers or a department store without customers.
publicity or advertising is good business for a corporation privately
profits of which go to a few, why shouldn't it be good business for a
publicly owned, the profits of which go to all the people of the city?
why shouldn't the public school system of a city utilize publicity to
the largest possible use of the system's educational facilities? . . .
everybody in America doesn't believe in education....
only a small part of the people of the city have time to visit the
majority of parents, if they are to keep in touch with the activities
of the system, must get this information in other ways. Children carry
home to their
parents much information, to be sure, but too often this is given as
and not as the adult-mind sees the situation. It is the daily
all, that are depended upon for information of what is going on ‒ for
as well as other news. The newspapers, it might be said, visit the
schools for the
parents and tell them what is happening there. Therefore, every
it is the conviction of the division of publications, should have every
to see what the schools are doing. This conviction is shared by the
board of education
and the superintendents of schools." ‒ Clyde R. Miller, director of the
of Publicity, Cleveland Board of Education.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird. P.G.M..
District of Columbia
General John Peter Gabriel
friend of Thomas Jefferson and of James Monroe, came of a great family,
whom are known to history, and two of whom are listed among the great
leaders of America. General Muhlenberg's father, Henry Melchior
a German, born in 1711, who, after his university career at Gottingen
and pastoral experiences at Franckische Stiftung, came to this land in
1742 in response
to the call from a group of Lutherans at Philadelphia. Dr. Muhlenberg
of three Lutheran congregations and almost immediately stepped into the
Lutheranism in this nation. It is he, more than any other man, that may
be called the founder of Lutheranism as an organized body in the United
and it was he who, in 1748, organized the first Lutheran synod. He died
formerly known as New Providence, a village in Montgomery County,
It was at
this town that John Peter Gabriel, his oldest son, was born in 1746.
After an education
in Germany he entered the Lutheran ministry in New Jersey and later,
1772, in Virginia.
In 1775, while at Woodstock, Virginia, he raised the 8th Virginia
He was made a Colonel by General Washington, to whom, so it is said, he
bore a close
personal resemblance. Colonel Muhlenberg assisted in the relief of
part in the battle of Sullivan's Island, and was with Washington at
Monmouth, Stony Point and Yorktown. He was promoted first to Brigadier
to Major General for meritorious conduct. "He was a member of the
convention of 1776, was vice-president of the supreme-executive council
in 1787-1788, and was a representative in Congress in 1789-1791, in
in 1799-1801. In 1801 he was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the
Senate, but immediately resigned to become supervisor of revenue for
of Pennsylvania." He died in 1807.
memorial to General Muhlenberg which stands in Philadelphia was erected
by the state
of Pennsylvania. On the pedestal of the statue, which bears a striking
to a figure of Washington, is a record of some of the battles in which
he was engaged.
Washington was not more an idol to the people of Virginia than was
the sturdy folk of Pennsylvania. Like Washington he was a man without a
was one of those Christian soldiers whose faith in God was so well
he never feared danger, and he believed that God's providence protected
In our school
days we all learned by rote a thrilling poem about a minister in the
of the Revolution who, after an impassioned plea to his parishioners to
Great Britain, suddenly threw aside his clerical robes, stepped forth
in the uniform
of a Virginia colonel, and recruited almost three hundred men on the
man was General Muhlenberg. He used as a text the Scriptural phrase
is time for all things" and added, with a voice like a trumpet, "there
is a time to fight and that time has come now !" upon which he had
stationed at the church door, and a full recruiting outfit unlimbered.
but sincere deed sent a thrill through the community which was felt in
of Pennsylvania, and made a hero of the martial preacher. Once in
he more than fulfilled the expectations of his admirers by his skill
as a fighter, and by his sagacity as a commanding officer.
in which General Muhlenberg most distinguished himself perhaps was the
Stony Point in the Hudson Highlands. The attack on this position, the
recall, was led by General Anthony Wayne, one of the boldest soldiers
of the war.
When this enterprise was first planned Washington inquired of him, "Can
do it?" "I'll storm hell, if you'll only plan it, General," replied
Wayne. Storming hell, it proved to be, and Wayne himself was struck in
by a musket ball, and believed himself mortally wounded. "March on!" he
shouted to his men. "Carry me into the fort, for I will die at the head
my column." But he did not die.
At two o'clock
in the morning he sent to Washington this message: "The fort and
General Johnson are ours. Our officers and men behaved like men
determined to be
free." During this spectacular engagement General Muhlenberg was in
of the rear defenses, and proved himself quite as resourceful and
daring as Wayne
Of such stuff
were the Masons of Revolutionary days. General Muhlenberg was a member
No. 3, of Philadelphia. He was quite as earnest in lodge work as in
and though one of the most amiable of men he earnestly and vigorously
every fad, fancy, fiction and peck-sniffery that invaded the Craft.
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs. From the questions following each section of
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
‒ Freemasonry and Religion
operative builders of the Middle Ages were churchmen, if we may trust
the many histories
of architecture which deal with the subject. This was especially true
Gothic, or pointed arch, superseded the old Romanesque style with its
and its gloomy interiors, for the advent of the Gothic coincided with a
of interest in church architecture. This revival reached such
proportions of zeal
and devotion that bishops themselves studied to become architects (that
not in use then, but the function was) and raised such great sums of
money for the
purpose that many little towns erected cathedral structures that would
now be pointed
to with pride by our great rich modern cities. Needless to say, these
the bishop directors and overseers along with the men who did the toil,
and loyal sons of the Roman Catholic Church as it then existed.
After a while,
and through the inevitable operation of architectural evolution ‒ there
is no need
to narrate the story of all the changes in this connection ‒ the
and direction of building operations (I am still referring to church
and similar structures) passed gradually into the hands of laymen. Of
lay architects, especially those who worked in France where Gothic
reached its utmost
pinnacle of glory, we have many memorials and remains; in a large
number of cases
we have rather complete biographical sketches and even portraits. From
records we know that the builders of this particular period were also
of the Mother Church.
It was so
in England as well as in France, for we find in the Old Charges that
when he came to unite with the Fraternity, was required to swear to be
and true to the Holy Church as well as to the King. But after the
established itself in England ‒ which was quite a while after the death
VIII ‒ these operative masons, along with the rank and file of men in
walks of life, became Protestants, ‒ that is, they became members of
- When does the story of
Operative Masons begin?
- Give the dates of the "Middle
- What was the outstanding
feature, or characteristic, of Romanesque architecture?
- Of Gothic?
- Who were the first architects
- What, do you suppose, led the
bishops to take such an interest in building?
- To what church did masons then
- Did they all have to belong to
that church? If so, why?
- Why did laymen come to take the
place of bishops as architects, or masters
of the work?
- Where, do you suppose, may one
find the records of these old-time master
- Where did Gothic architecture
reach its highest development?
- What religion was enjoined by
the Old Charges? What is meant by "Old
- What was the Reformation?
- When did it occur?
- What did Luther have to do with
it? Henry VIII?
- What was the difference between
a Protestant church, as we now know it, and
the "Church of England"?
effect did Protestantism have on the religion of masons?
In many histories
of Freemasonry the account of the religious beginnings of the Craft
stops off short
at this place, but that is an error, a very misleading error, and one
be carefully avoided by the Masonic student. Freemasonry as it became
in 1717, and as we now know it, owed much, very much, to the operative
of the Middle Ages, but it also owed, much, perhaps quite as much, to
which had nothing whatever to do with operative building. I refer to
and associations, and to scattered sources out of which many streams of
gradually made their way into the main currents of Speculative
In the time
of Pope Innocent III (approximately in the year 1200) there began the
Crusades. The purpose of this immense military advance into southern
to stamp out flourishing communities of men and women who had come to
a Christianity very different from that represented by the pope. These
been described as "Protestants before the Reformation." In a strict
they were not Protestant, and their ideas were very far away from those
to us by our own great Protestant denominations, but these men
of mind, purity of conduct, and demanded for themselves liberty of
were the "heretics." I am myself convinced ‒ though there is not here
room to furnish the data on which my conviction rests ‒ that these
set loose in Europe a powerful stream of influence, some of which
its way into Freemasonry. (See "New Light on the Renaissance," [Lib 1909] by Harold Bayley, among
All our historians,
at least nearly all of them, agree that Freemasonry owes very much to
societies or groups that flourished ‒ often in secret ‒ during the late
and even into the after-Reformation times. Chief among these were the
and the Knights Templar. The Knights Templar had been in the East; they
into contact with Jewish, Greek, and Arabic lore, and they had imbibed
ideas from far-away types of Christianity. The authorities of the Roman
Church attacked these knightly orders on the ground that they had
‒ "Gnostics" was the exact word used. Those who have most carefully
the evidence (some Henry Charles Lea's great works on the period) are
believe that the charges were more or less well grounded. The Knights
become infected with heresy.
As for the
Rosicrucians, not much is known about them and it is doubtful if much
be known about them, but it is certain that during the seventeenth
were many powerful and original thinkers in Europe, especially in
Germany, the Low
Countries, and in England, who called themselves "Rosicrucians" and who
made wide use of a (now) strange system of symbols and esoteric means
It is believed by some that Francis Bacon was a Rosicrucian. I said
that not much
is known with certainty about them; of this one thing, however, we can
they were Protestants, when they were not altogether outside the bounds
Kabbalists more is known. The literature called the Kabbala came into
in Spain during the thirteenth century, or thereabouts, and won its way
Jews who had grown weary of the sterile rationalism of Maimonides and
The Kabbalistical literature was dramatically brought to the attention
of the intellectual
circles of Europe by Reuchlin when, in or about 1500, he caught it up
as a means
of preventing a terrible slaughter of Jews by the papists. The Kabbala
[Lib 1902] is a work of Jewish
it there came into Freemasonry, so there is good reason to believe, the
the Lost Word, the Tradition of Solomon's Temple, the Tradition of the
Word, the Great Pillars, etc.
- Can you name three Masonic
- Which one is supposed to be the
- What is meant by "occult"?
- Can you tell anything about
Pope Innocent III?
- What is meant by the word
- Can you tell anything about the
- Do you believe that Freemasonry
connects in any way with the Knights Templar?
- Are the Masonic Knights Templar
identical with the Order spoken of above?
- Why was the Order suppressed?
- Who was the last Grand Master
of the Knights?
- Have you ever heard of Jacques
- What can you tell about the
- Where were the Rosicrucians
- Describe the Kabbalists?
- Where did Kabbalism originate?
- When did Reuchlin live?
- What did he do?
- What does Freemasonry owe to
- Was the Kabbala Jewish or
- If Freemasonry descended from
the Kabbalists, and the other sources named
above, as well as from
Masons of the Middle Ages, what, would you say, was the first religion
be further noted that during the century immediately preceding the
(1717) many men came into the Fraternity who where ‒ to a certain
extent ‒ what
would now be called Free Thinkers. This is not to say that they were
anti-religious; it means that they chose to think for themselves, and
were not able
to accept many things officially taught by the churches. Quite a number
of the founders
and early champions of the Royal Society (this fact is overlooked so
active Freemasons, and so were many other learned men in different
in that period of rationalism, did not adhere to any religion at all,
Voltaire and the Deists, they believed in a Supreme Being. It is
certain that many
of these men found their way into the Fraternity at a period before the
and I have no doubt that they had something to do at the time with the
releasing of Freemasonry from adhesion to any one religion whatsoever.
paragraph "Concerning God and Religion" which Anderson (or whoever it
was) incorporated in the first Grand Lodge Constitutions, is a frank
the effect that whereas in ancient times Freemasons had been obliged to
be of the
religion of the country in which they lived, that now no religious
be made of them save that they were not to be stupid atheists or
The adoption of the paragraph marks an epoch in the evolution of
religion in the
English-speaking world. It was a great magna charta of spiritual
at a time when religious bigotry was more bigoted than ever, and when
men were suffering
all manner of persecution for daring to disagree with the official
dogmas of the
churches. The Masonic student should make the most careful study of
of Masonic history because it was at this time that the constitutions
were adopted (many of them, anyhow) that are still in force, and it is
to that period
that Grand Lodges almost always turn when seeking for precedents
whereon to establish
new laws or regulations or interpretations. Unless one clearly grasps
built into Speculative Freemasonry at that time, he will ever remain
in the dark about the underlying principles of Freemasonry as it now
- What is meant by a Free Thinker?
- Is he anti-religious?
- Who are some typical Free
- What was the Royal Society?
- When and by whom was it founded?
- Who were the Deists?
- What did they believe?
- What was the substance of the
famous paragraph "Concerning God and Religion"?
- Who wrote the Constitutions?
- Who was Anderson?
- In what sense was that
aforementioned paragraph a great religious magna charta?
- Why do Grand Lodges seek
precedents in the period of the Revival?
and what was this Revival?
As time went
on it came to pass that Freemasonry began to grow at a great rate, and
it was inevitable,
owing to the serious and religious character of the ritual, that many
of the men
drawn to it should be churchmen, or otherwise devout. A trend toward
of the Order set in. In 1760 the Holy Bible was made a Great Light. In
the time of the famous Union of the two Grand Lodges, the Antient and
Freemasonry was specifically declared to be consecrated to the glory of
this the tide toward Christianization set in with new power until it at
in the work of Dr. George Oliver, whose name should be held in
among Masons. To Oliver the whole Masonic system was essentially
biblical and wholly
Christian. He was so fruitful in influence, his books were so many, and
so numberless, that for decades men entirely lost sight of the original
of Speculative Masonry ‒ that Masonry, I mean, that is usually referred
its origin to 1717. Indeed, that impulse has not yet by any means spent
many brethren, misled by the predominantly Scriptural cast of the Work,
a few scattered references here and there, assume that in some sense
is specifically a Christian institution, and forget, the while, the
a great number of Jews in the Order, not to mention many who adhere to
no one religion
whatsoever. So late as 1887 Brother H.J. Whymper published a book since
"The Religion of Freemasonry," [Lib*] in which he boldly upheld the
that Freemasonry is a specifically Christian institution. The work was
by W.J. Hughan, and edited by G. W. Speth.
It is probable that Brother Whymper (I join
with all in honouring a name so illustrious
in our annals) forgot the great and epoch-making Proclamation issued by
Duke of Sussex, M.W. Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England,
from Kensington Palace, July 2, 1842, which Proclamation plainly
declared that Freemasonry
is not the property of any one religion, and that those subjects of the
India who were otherwise eligible and who could make a sincere
profession of faith
in one living God, be they Hindus or Mohammedans, might petition for
in Freemasonry. That Proclamation established a precedent of vast
that today the Fraternity flourishes in the Far East to an undreamed of
and it is quite impossible, in view of the fact of Masonic
universality, to claim
for any one religion, as against all others, the adhesion of this Order.
- When was the Holy Bible made a
- Why is it called The Volume of
the Sacred Law?
- Are there other Volumes of the
- What book is so used by Jews?
- By Mohammedans?
- By Hindus?
- When was the lodge formally
declared consecrated to God?
- Why do Masons speak of Him as
- What was the "Antient" Grand
- The "Modern"?
- What is the Grand Lodge of
England now called?
- What position did Dr. Oliver
- Do you agree with him?
- What book did Whymper publish?
- What was his position?
- When did H.R.H. the Duke of
Sussex publish his Proclamation? And where?
- What was the significance of it?
- What does that proclamation
mean for us?
the Grand Lodge of England recognize lodges that accept men other than
is the sacred book of Christians; the ritual of Freemasonry is steeped
in the Bible:
therefore Freemasonry must be considered a Christian institution; this
is the logic,
expressed or implied, by which men have been led to hold that the Craft
to that one religion as against all others. These brethren should be
made to understand
the facts in the case. It is true that the Holy Bible was the ultimate
much in the ritual but one needs only try to test the ritual by
to find that after all the ritual is not built on the text of the
Bible, for the
great major incidents in the ritual ‒ and this applies to all the
grades ‒ are not
found in the Book at all. To cite but one example; the tragedy of Hiram
is so central to all the mysteries of Masonry, is not met with in any
of the sacred
books. The explanation of this lies ready to hand. Traditions and
long ago by incidents in the Bible, were taken up here and there by
and worked over into new shapes and to new purposes. A luxuriant
legend and myth sprang up about the feet of the old Bible stories, of
the rich old tales of Arthur and his Table and of the Search for the
by Tennyson into the deeply-colored and mystical poems of The Idylls of
may serve as a familiar example. Medieval religion, art, and
architecture, as everybody
knows, are all steeped in these old traditions, many of which had
undergone an evolution
that led them to become completely cut away from their original sources
in the Sacred
traditions in Freemasonry did not come into it directly from the Bible,
these other and secondary sources, and in long round-about paths, so
that, by the
time they had come to be incorporated into the ritual, they had
undergone many profound
transformations, so that it is no longer possible to call them
biblical, save as
such traditions as the above mentioned Holy Grail may also be called
Legend of the Lost Word, of the Substitute Word, of the great Temple of
Abiff was Grand Master, etc., etc., all had, no doubt, their first
the biblical narratives, but they have since travelled so far away from
that they may be thought of, like the old myths of the Greeks, as
belonging to the
whole world, and to men of all religions.
it is true that Freemasonry cannot be claimed by any one religion ‒ no
Freemason will make such a claim, however devout he may be in his own
faith ‒ it
has a religious foundation that is all its own. Believing that there is
the creeds one universal religion, which may be described as a belief
in one God
as the Father of all, in the immortality of the soul, and in the
man, it demands of all its initiates adhesion to these root truths.
What other things
they may choose to believe, and how they may interpret or elaborate
is left wholly to their own private judgment. It is as if the
Fraternity said to
its children, "Here is the great substructure, the mother rock under
on which you must each one build your own house of religion; what
manner of temples
you build, and in what style, and where, and how high, that I shall
leave to you
individually; but on the substructure of belief in God, in brotherhood,
and in immortality,
you must build, else you do not belong to me.
- Give examples of biblical
references in the Work.
- Recite portions of it that are
drawn directly from the Bible.
- Have you ever sought for the
origin of the Hiram Abiff tragedy in the Old
- What did you find?
- Does our account of Solomon's
Temple agree with the account in the Book of
- How have you explained this to
- What do you think of the
explanations as given above?
- Have you ever read Tennyson's
Idylls of the King?
- Who was Tennyson?
- When did he live?
- Can you give the story of the
Holy Graal (sometimes spelled "Grail"?)
- Retell in your own words the
account of how traditions, originally from the
Bible, reached us by circuitous paths, and after they had become worked
- What is the religion of
will be men of several different religions in a Study Club; it would
be interesting to have them tell you how they have found their own
beliefs not to
conflict with Freemasonry and its teachings.
Vol I. ‒ The Two Paths, p. 37;
Spirit of Easter, p. 92;
Twentieth Century Masonic Philosophy,
in Masonry, p. 186;
Bible in Masonry, p. 254;
Spiritual Side of Masonry, p. 256;
Masonic Meditation, p. 298.
‒ The Religion of Robert Burns, p. 3;
Masonry and Religion, p. 50;
Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism,
107, 144, 175;
Sectarianism and Freemasonry, p. 109;
Johns Day, p. 185;
Church and the Craft, p. 191;
Toleration, p. 265;
Non-Christian Candidates, p. 302;
Church and Freemasonry, p. 318.
‒ The Fellowship of Masonry, p. 41;
Religion and Philosophy, p. 234;
Masonry's Great Book, p. 347.
‒ Prayer, Feb. C.C.B., p. 7;
Divine Geometry, p. 159;
Symbolism of the Master Mason Degree, p.
Vol. V. ‒
The Catholic Treatise on Masonry, pp. 180, 210, 247, 272.
‒ The Letter G, Feb. C.C.B., p. 3;
Lost Wod, May C.C.B., p. 3;
Symbol, p. 288.
‒ The Religious Teachings of Freemasonry, p. 82;
Emblematic Freemasonry, Building Guilds
and Hermetic Schools, p. 160; T.G.A.O.T.U., p. 169;
Toleration and Free Thinking, p. 196;
Masonic Prayers, p. 206; Material for Masonic
Sermons, p. 271.
‒ Religious Beliefs, p. 62;
Roman Catholic Articles, p. 94;
Masonic Toleration, p. 137;
Toleration and Freemasonry, p. 150;
Holy Sts. John, pp. 170, 202;
Religion and the Grand Orient of France,
Hughan's Introduction to "The Religion
of Freemasonry," p. 282.
Encyclopedia-(Revised Edition): [Lib 1914]
Antient, p. 55;
Francis, p. 89;
Builder, p. 123;
Christianization of Freemasonry, p. 148;
Church, Freemasons of the, p. 150;
Consecration, p. 175;
Craftsman, p. 184;
A Mason's, p. 184;
Gnostics, P. 300;
Architecture, p. 304;
Abiff, p. 329;
Hughan, William James, p. 338; Kabbala,
Knights Templar, p. 404;
Knights Templar, Masonic, p. 410;
Word, p. 453;
Modern, p. 488;
Corporal, p. 524;
of the Guild, p. 524;
Tyler's, p. 524;
Objections to Freemasonry, p. 525;
Obligation, p. 525;
Charges or Old Manuscripts, p. 527;
Oliver, George, p. 527;
Religion of Masonry, p. 617;
Resurrection, p. 621;
Revival, p. 622;
Colleges of Artificers, p 630;
Rosicrucianism, p 639;
Scriptures, Belief in the, p. 672;
Scriptures, Reading of the, p. 672;
Masons of the Middle Ages, p. 718;
Substitute Word, p. 734;
Travelling Freemason, p. 792.
* * *
Our Study Club Plan
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to
of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three
in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under
the following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge
and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and
"Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st, 1922,
are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918,
1919, 1920 and
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Haywood:
- General Introduction.
- The Masonic Conception of Human
- The Idea of Truth in
- The Masonic Conception of
- Ritualism and Symbolism.
- Initiation and Secrecy.
- Masonic Ethics.
- Masonry and Industry.
- The Brotherhood of Man.
- Freemasonry and Religion.
- The Fatherhood of God.
- Endless Life.
- Brotherly Aid.
of Masonic Philosophy.
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
* * *
How to Organize and Conduct
Study Club Meetings
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted,all possible time to be
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
Program for Study Club Meetings
1. Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
2. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
3. Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
4. The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
5. Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
Schools and Public Libraries
Should Work Together
M.S.A. Bulletin No. 8.
measure of success of a school or of a school system is the extent to
which it brings
about the true life success of the pupils. There is, therefore, no
matter of greater
importance to the public than the success of the schools.
has been found by careful investigation that it has been impressed on
visit many schools that schools are least successful in the upper
grades. This is
especially shown by the large number who drop out of these grades and
by the relatively
large proportion who must repeat them before passing on. The failure of
in the adolescent or upper grade period has recently been stressed by
his criticism of present educational methods. Since the pupils in the
are in the most critical period of life, it follows that schools are
for the very years when success is of the greatest concern.
of the principal reasons for this condition is not far to seek. As
from the lower to the upper grades they need more and more ability to
in their school work. The one most important source of self-help in
is the ability and opportunity to use books and libraries, including
newspapers. Children will not learn how to use books and libraries
a definite and carefully graded course of lessons on the subject, any
they would learn arithmetic without such a course in arithmetic.
schools do not yet offer a course in the use of books and libraries, we
be surprised that there is so much failure in the upper grades and high
Since the use of books and libraries is of vital concern for life
purposes, we have
here a matter of fundamental importance to true success in education.
We need to
prepare pupils for the wise use of leisure as well as for the active
duties of life.
school library cause presents to normal schools a duty and an
are exceeded in importance by none other of their functions. In their
they should give a definite, properly graded and comprehensive course
in the use
of books and libraries. They should exemplify in the model schools a
plan for pleasure reading which will produce a lasting taste for good
should provide a course, required of all prospective teachers, in which
feature of education is given adequate attention, including observation
teaching in the model school."
O.S. Rice, in address to Normal School Librarians,
American Library Association, Chicago.
Roosevelt -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald Nancarrow,
Brother whom death has translated
From this known to that mystical shore;
Great Soul you have won your awaited ‒
The realm only victors explore.
Great Brother, the life that you mastered
Gained you life on that Glorified Plane
Where the Truths that you tested and fostered
Now ring as your labor's refrain.
And there you shall raise a new building
On a firmer foundation than earth;
Assist in adorning and gilding
The sphere you attained by your worth
The Master of all life's servers, ‒
He who passed on your efforts below
Who filled you with patriot fervors, ‒
Will keep your bright beacons aglow.
Full lettered in Heavenly glory
That all mortals who follow may read,
Is written your immortal story ‒
Great Brother, in heart and in deed.
Introduction to "The Religion of Freemasonry"
One of the
most famous pronouncements on the subject ‒ a delicate one, and
susceptible of many
misunderstandings ‒ about which I have endeavored to write in this
Club was that contributed by Brother William James Hughan as an
a book written by his friend and colleague, Brother Henry Josiah
Whymper, and entitled
"The Religion of Freemasonry." [Lib*] In that now famous volume Brother
Whymper undertook to prove that Freemasonry should confine its
to the adherents of one religion. In taking friendly issue with this
Hughan gave expression to his own view of the subject in a statement of
which I am fain to reproduce here, not only because it brings the
weight of his
great authority to the support of my own position but because it is in
such intrinsic value, as deserves a much wider reading than is ever
the Introduction to a book. I may add to this the further fact that
book was edited by Brother George William Speth, the brilliant and
secretary of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, whose attainments
scholarship gave him a place not far behind that of Hughan himself. In
by the Editor" Brother Speth frankly expresses himself concerning
thesis as not being "in complete accord with him." It is good for us to
study carefully the opinions of all our leaders in Masonic thought on
because, though it is probable that ninety per cent of competent
is in agreement with Hughan's position rather than with Whymper's, the
still so acrimoniously debated in some quarters that it behaves a
to see to it that his own opinions are of light rather than heat. The
is one about which we must learn to disagree without being
Hughan's Introduction follows.
to write a short introduction to Brother Whymper's work, I had no idea
was to be of such an extensive character. As it is, however, nothing
be needed to ensure its careful perusal, for the volume tells its own
tale in unmistakable
language, and requires no sponsor. This is fortunate, as it is rather
my part to be done when not quite in full sympathy with the author on
It is quite
clear that my friend has every confidence in the stand he has taken and
opposition, so that my task is certainly the easier under such happy
and the more so, when it is noted how thoroughly Brother Whymper has
confessedly difficult subject. His industry and perseverance have been
and no researches or enquiries appear to have been spared to make the
comprehensive and authentic. The result is an invaluable repertory of
constitute an excellent and trustworthy foundation on which to build
and opinions, whether favorable or otherwise to the views propounded by
and distinguished author, besides furnishing us with the matured
convictions of a zealous Masonic student.
One of the
chief objects of the work is to illustrate "the circumstance that the
principles of Freemasonry were based on Christian Catholicity," as
by the premier "Constitutions" of 1723, and more distinctly by the 2nd
edition of 1738; several portions of which, submitted for that purpose,
in parallel columns, with some later variations, to 1884. To my mind,
all tend in the direction of cosmopolitanism and religious
universality, save the
copy of 1722 (which is scarcely suitable for comparison with the Modern
Regulations), that of 1723 particularly, being indicative of the
of the Society of that period.
Freemasonry was Christian prior to the organization of the premier
Grand Lodge cannot
be doubted by those who are familiar with the "Old Charges" used by the
Craft during the preceding centuries. In this respect, as in several
others, I entirely
concur with Brother Whymper, and am, moreover, bound to admit that no
of any express agreement to change the Fraternity from an exclusively
to a religious or theistic organization.
Original Masonry Was Trinitarian
But if the
original Christian basis of the Society should be continued, because
altered by the "Revivalists," it appears to me that logically such a
could not be observed by favoring the platform of Catholicity, inasmuch
until the era of Grand Lodge was distinctly Trinitarian, and hence
but little more suitable as members under the old system than Jews or
men of other
faiths. Precisely when other candidates than Jews were admitted into
with professed Christians it is not easy to determine, but as respects
members, we shall not be far wrong if we date their first welcome into
as far back as one hundred and fifty years, or even more.
W.'. Brother McIntyre, Q.C., P.G.W. (as Grand Registrar), declared in
(5th Dec., 1877) that "up to 1813, the two Grand Lodges of England were
Grand Lodges. In 1813 we became a Universal Grand Lodge, and Jews were
amongst us." I am not aware of any facts to corroborate such an
the simple truth being that they are all in the opposite direction, the
Constitution having been in force before the "Union."
Lord Tenterden, K.C.B. (Prov. G.W. Essex), declared at the same
"when Freemasonry was introduced into Germany last century, it was
on the Christian system of St. John.... The Three Globes Lodge was
1740 as a Christian lodge." According to Brother Gould, P.G.D. (and
no better guide), this lodge was started by the sole authority of
Great, so that we are not much concerned with what was done under those
but in reference to the introduction of Freemasonry into that country
we may be
assured that, so far as England was concerned, there was no departure
from the ordinary
usage of that period, and that no Warrants of Constitution were granted
of a different
character to those authorized for other countries by the premier Grand
It must be
conceded that even now Freemasonry is "simply and purely Christian"
some Grand Lodges, but so long as such organizations are willing to
from England and other countries, where the Craft is established on
it is not for us to object to their narrower system. The late Earl of
Grand Master, obtained all necessary concessions from such Grand Lodges
fifth decade of this century by securing the recognition of all regular
as visitors, without regard to their religious faith and creed. More
than this we
cannot fairly require; though it leaves much to be desired.
It was distinctly
announced by authority of the M.'. W.'. Grand Master in 1865 that there
to prevent anyone "who believes in the Omnipotent, Omniscient, and
God, and who in private life practices the sacred duties of morality,
initiated into the secrets and mysteries of our Order." This decision
communicated, because the then District Grand Master of Bengal objected
being proposed as candidates for initiation, notwithstanding one of
had offered to make a declaration that "he was not a Pantheist or
and did not identify the Creator with any of his creatures, but
believed in T.G.A.O.T.U."
but followed in the steps of his illustrious predecessor, H.R.H. the
Duke. of Sussex,
M.'. W.'. Grand Master, who aided in the arrangements for the
initiation of a Mohammedan
in 1836, and was in full sympathy with those who desired to extend
rather than curtail
the foundation on which Freemasonry rests.
It is clear,
however that such authoritative decisions presuppose that candidates
have adopted some particular form of religious faith, and are not
because the obligation to secrecy and fidelity is to be taken on those
Writings" which to them are binding on their consciences.
The Christian Flavor Remains
all the predilections for a comprehensive and cosmopolitan basis,
nothing can obliterate
the evidences of the Christian origin of our Fraternity, and hence,
to the fullest extent possible to accept worthy neophytes without
respect to their
creed, color, or clime, one cannot but feel that those brethren who are
professed Christens, nor Jews, will meet with numerous references in
founded on the Old and New Testament Scriptures, which will not favor
notions of theology.
should always be "the Great Light of the Craft," and never be closed in
open lodge, whatever volumes else may be at times essential for the
reception. I have never heard of any objections to such a rule, and
trust that none
will ever be urged, for unless other religionists are prepared to
practice as well
as expect toleration by thus maintaining the actual and obligatory
the Society, the continuity and identity of the Institution cannot be
and uniformly preserved.
evidently favors separate Jewish, Parsee, Hindoo, and Mahommedan
lodges, but would
such a plan really meet his objections to the present regime? He
that "It is impossible for any man, no matter what his former religion
have been, to become a Fellow Craft Mason in English Masonry and refuse
both the Old and the New Testaments." How, then, would those
provide for such a contingency? If we cannot do with these religionists
in our lodges,
I do not see how we can do without them ‒ i.e., in separate lodges. We
meet on the
Level or not at all, and therefore, if we cannot as votaries of various
members together in lodge, and thus illustrate the "Brotherhood of
better far to refrain from all attempts at universality, and revert to
Christian Constitution, as in the olden time.
I am anxious
to look at the question in all its aspects, and do not mention
of any fondness for them, but simply to suggest that if a return to the
is to be recommended, and primarily because it prevailed prior to the
of Grand Lodges, it is well we should understand what is involved in
such a course.
At all events,
it seems to me that we are at the present time observing the old rule
of 1723, in
promoting the "Religion in which all men agree, leaving their
to themselves," as well as respecting some of the usages and customs of
Grand Lodge. Besides which, by thus extending the scope of our Ancient
Society, we are adding immensely to its beneficial influence and
view, and bearing in mind the esteemed brethren who hold and advocate
I am prepared to accept the opinion and advice of the revered Brother,
A.F.A. Woodford, M.A., P.G. Chap., who maintained that "the Christian
and the Universal School can coexist in Freemasonry. Though their views
antagonistic, yet they need not be made the subject of contention; they
can be held
in peace and consideration, and all fraternal goodwill. Indeed, we
think, upon the
whole, that Freemasonry has, curiously enough, a two-fold teaching in
to Brother Whymper's convictions, the spread of the Craft in India
Hindoos, and Mahommedans calls for serious consideration, and
increasingly so when
brethren of each of those faiths become sufficiently numerous to
composed mainly of members of their own persuasion.
arise in consequence, we may yet have to try the ingenious suggestion
lodges for each particular faith, subject to the rights of mutual
I confess to the feeling that, should ever such be deemed requisite, an
of religious distinction and classification will be of necessity
will considerably modify or weaken the unsectarian character of the
then, this important subject deserves ‒ fact, demands ‒ our earnest
careful consideration, and our hearty thanks are due to Brother Whymper
so fraternally introduced the matter to our notice in the following
Recognition and Cooperation
is anything dear to the mind of a Freemason it is the ideal of a great
Fraternity, a deep-based, all inclusive Order of lofty purposes and
that might house under its one roof picked men from all the peoples of
Freemasonry itself, in its ritual, its landmarks, and its laws, holds
ideal evermore before itself and its children, and inspires them to
strive to bring
it someday to fulfillment.
those same children, many of them, find themselves in an impasse, so
far as the
universality of the Masonic Order is concerned. For if there is
about the laws of Freemasonry it is that one Grand Lodge cannot extend
to another Grand Lodge the Masonry of which it deems to have departed
from the landmarks.
And if there is anything certain about Grand Lodges as they now exist,
it is that
there are several which cannot therefore recognize each other, because
technical definitions of Freemasonry they are widely sundered.
On the other
hand, and to the contrary, it is also a certainty that members of two
that cannot recognize each other may be at the same time members of the
as a whole, and in a large sense fellow Masons, in that they believe in
noble beliefs, and work for the same high ends. And if the universality
is ever to be anything more than a tantalizing phantom of the brain,
of all Grand Lodges must somehow find a way to get together.
Here is the
impasse in which a Mason finds himself. He desires a world-wide
all the bodies of Freemasonry acting together. But he knows it to be
for his own Grand Lodge to extend formal recognition to certain other
It is a painful dilemma!
a way out of that dilemma?
and it consists in fashioning in ourselves a new understanding of what
in recognition. To refuse recognition to a Grand Body asking for it may
read that body out of the Order, but it doesn't often mean that.
Usually it means
that one Grand Lodge refuses to place its stamp of approval upon some
taken by another Grand Lodge, as when certain states withdrew
recognition from the
Grand Lodge of Washington on account of Negro Masonry. But the refusal
on the part
of those Grand Lodges to recognize Washington did not imply that all
Masons had ceased to be Masons! Far from it!
belongs to the technical side of Masonry, and that is a most important
after all there are other and equally important sides.
A Grand Lodge
might very well take the position that in a case where, for technical
is unable to extend formal recognition to another Grand Lodge, it
that other Grand Lodge to be a part of the great family of Masonry, and
to cooperate with it in whatever way remains possible. In this wise the
would be duly preserved as each Grand Body understands those landmarks,
and a due
regard would be had for all technical matters, but at the same time the
of the Fraternity would be preserved. Cooperation is often possible
so it would appear, might very well be put into practice by American
now in their dealings with Grand Lodges in Europe. European Freemasonry
much to contend with that has never seriously troubled us. Freemasonry
came into existence already formed, like Athena from the temple of
Zeus; but in
Europe it came to birth after many throes and passions, and on the
many of those passions and divisions have naturally a long while
more important still is the fact that in Europe Freemasonry has been at
an enemy which has sought to divide it and to keep it divided in order
it; whereas in this more favored land that enemy has been far less
to these two causes of the divisions that inevitably have existed from
the divisions that were caused by enemies from without, European
are, as compared with the rigidly defined Grand Lodges of this land, in
of chaos. It is almost impossible to apply to them the straight test of
which are (comparatively) so easy to apply to our own Grand Lodges.
But at the
same time Europeans are Masons after all, and are recognized as such by
we speak of them unofficially, even at the very time that our Grand
Lodge (it may
be) do not recognize them as such officially. And these brothers of
the sea, who are children of the same great mother as ourselves, were
never so badly
in need of our help and sympathetic encouragement as now, when the
world in which
they exist is a wrecked world, and when their enemies are enjoying such
as never before, and when they are confronted by obstacles almost
must carry burdens almost impossible to bear.
we cannot recognize many of them! grant that it is as much for their
good as for
ours that Freemasonry be kept pure! Cannot we at the same time hail
them as brethren
of the Mystic Tie, who, by virtue of having assumed that Tie, are
members of our
Fraternity, and deserving of all the relief, aid and succor that we can
Cannot we learn to co-operate with them, even when we cannot recognize
Encyclopedia of Freemasonry" [Lib*] by A.E. Waite. Published in two
by William Rider, Cathedral House, Paternoster Row, London, England,
IT WILL conduce
to a clearer understanding of this work of 977 pages if I give the
title in all
Encyclopedia of Freemasonry (Ars Magna Latomorum), And of Cognate
Their Rites, Literature, and History."
The two volumes
are well made; bound in blue cloth; lettered and decorated in gold; and
and paper are alike excellent.
The key to
a proper understanding of this work is to be found in the fact that the
and ends with a well-defined thesis of his own, about which he is
careful to see
that we have no misunderstandings. The preface to every book deserves
the present case it is absolutely necessary that it be read, unless one
is to blunder
about through the dark for endless pages. After a brief description of
and scope of the undertaking Brother Waite goes on to write, on page
six, this most
thing remains to be said, for ‒ although it lies within the region of
‒ it is a matter of justice alike to readers and myself ‒ to readers,
may be under no misapprehension as to the motives by which I am
actuated in my several
contributions to Masonic subjects; to myself, that I may bear witness
at need to
the knowledge that has reached me from various cardinal quarters of
life and experience. I have undertaken this work, a very large part of
involved anxious research, with its concomitants of reference and
the sifting of authorities and the search after some kind of mean
not because I am drawn naturally into archeological paths but because
an opportunity to put forward what I am very certain is the true view
Were it [Freemasonry] merely ‒ as so many believe ‒ an ethical and
the only issue concerning it would be whether it fulfills that role in
present: origin and past history could be matters of no moment, or at
which ‒ from my point of view ‒ would warrant such a book as this. BUT
MY OWN UNDERSTANDING, IS PART OF A DIVINE QUEST; IT COMMUNICATES
KNOWLEDGE OF THAT
QUEST AND ITS TERM IN SYMBOLISM; WHILE THOSE WHO ARE WILLING TO TAKE
INTO THEIR HEART ‒ THEIR INMOST HEART ‒ OR IN OTHER WORDS TO TRANSLATE
IT INTO LIFE,
MAY FIND THAT IT BECOMES AN OPEN GATE INTO A REAL WORLD OF KNOWLEDGE,
DIVINE QUEST ENDS IN DIVINE ATTAINMENT."
be no possibility of misunderstanding about these words, especially
that I have capitalized; Brother Waite believes that the heart of
a system or way of life, which if a man follow, will lead him to a
of God. It is ‒ behind all its veils ‒ a life of religion. Nay, more!
he makes it
plain, here and there throughout the two volumes, that for him it is a
the Christian religion, as "Catholic Mystics" have understood that
He developed the same idea several years ago in his "Studies in
wherein, on page 346, we may read to this end.
I have described Masonry as the mirror of instituted initiation, it has
no idea of transcendence, to which it is indeed without a title. It is
proximate and available of the illustrations, and its reflection is
as of great things by little. In its development it has never succeeded
the house which it set out to build, and it is only as something very
far away that
it recalls ‒ in part by antithesis ‒ that which is the mystery of all
the nearest indeed of all, but the least comprehended. I suppose it is
to say that I speak of the one Master who was neither Hiram nor
another; those who
enter into the comprehension of this mystery and, in fine, of all that
veiled by the symbolic resurrection of the first Easter morning, will
have no need
of Masonry or the other instituted systems...." (Hodder and Stoughton,
is a Christian in the manner in which any Mystic can be a Christian;
and he believes
that the Soul of Masonry is just that in it which, in its own manner,
leads a man
into the path of the Christian Mystic, or does in him and for him that
Mysticism does. This is the thesis of the New Encyclopedia.
It is a most
difficult thesis to understand and to follow, especially if a reader
has not already
made himself somewhat at home with mysticism in general and Christian
in particular; and the language in which it is expressed will confuse a
unless he has mastered its patois. I recommend that before the
undertakes these two volumes he first try a course in reading Waite. He
with the articles that have appeared in THE BUILDER, especially those
been published in pamphlet form and are now in our Monthly Book List.
he can undertake "Studies in Mysticism," the latter chapters of which
present in connected form that which is the main contention sustained
various articles of the Encyclopedia Next might come "The Hidden Church
the Holy Graal," and after that the two thick volumes of "The Secret
in Freemasonry." At the last one should read and retread "The Way of
Union," which is the author's greatest work, and his original
to the rapidly growing literature on Mysticism. Having become thus
Brother Waite's ideas and with some understanding of his vocabulary ‒
which is of
an extremely symbolical character ‒ one may approach the Encyclopedia
read and to understand it and its thesis. Who is equal to these things?
and this fact is the principal handicap under which the Encyclopedia
will have to
make its way. It is an encyclopedia for the few, which is almost a
thus equipped, reads through the interesting pages of these two
volumes, he will
discover the Encyclopedia to be a controversial treatise designed to
uphold a thesis
by means of a series of articles arranged alphabetically. To my own way
the thesis is not proved, and in the nature of things cannot be, but
that is neither
here nor there; the thesis is the key to the compilations and the
it must be kept firmly in hand lest one misconstrue the work altogether.
believes that Freemasonry, save in its more external and less important
not originate with medieval building guilds. Under the influence of
in the West there became established a Secret Tradition, which
consisted of a knowledge
of the Way of Union with God held in custody by certain groups who
others from time to time and from generation to generation their living
This was the "Church behind the Church," the power of the spirit that
gave life to all churchly forms and ordinances, and preserved alive in
world the clue of Christian living, and Christian knowledge of things
Ineffable. At one place in its development this Tradition gathered into
form of Mysticism which had first developed among the Spanish Jews,
known as Kabbalism.
Some group or groups, or perhaps outstanding personalities, caught up
operative lodges and transformed them into vehicles whereby the Secret
might be preserved and propagated.
“I know that
the Secret Tradition in Israel has its vital side, that it came into
the hands of
Christian scholars, who adopted it to their Christian Purpose; and I
round about the year 1725 it was from the records of this scholarship
other or several of Masonic literati drew material for ritual
have been even in touch with one or two, who knew more than they on the
subject.... If ever we can take the Craft Legend behind the year 1717,
it is my
hope that we can reach a fuller light on Secret Doctrine in Masonry and
with that of Israel reviewed in the Light of Christ." (Vol. II, page
with the Third Degree he remarks (Vol. I, page 383): "As it stands
and is worked now among us, after many processes of editing, it bears
of Christianity." On page 33 of the same volume he writes on a cognate
and to the same effect: "The Catholic scheme of Masonry in its
and in its upward growth from that root, as this will unfold in the
with the help of those forces which are now at work in the world, is
one at the
root with the Church behind the Church, and will yet ‒ as I hold ‒
enter into one
consciousness therewith." In other words, Masonry is essentially a
Christian Mysticism, as understood in the sense of a Secret Tradition,
and it consequently
must be understood as having been created by such mystics in the
for reasons of their own, concealed their identity; or else, having
these were lost, and remain so.
serves as a criterion whereby the author evaluated subjects and
persons, and it
explains why many things have been omitted, or quickly passed over,
less familiar to the Masonic student, are dwelt on at great length. One
to find no articles on Gould, Speth, Crawley, Sadler, et al, whereas
pages and pages
are devoted to St. Martin and to Martinism, a subject not at all within
of important Masonic research, as that term is usually understood. The
is simple; St. Martin has a high value from the point of view of the
of the thesis; the other literati ‒ those usually considered among the
are deemed of little value. In Volume I (on page 279 ff.) there is an
"First and Third Degrees"; when one inquires the reason for the very
omission of the Fellow Craft rite the answer is forthcoming, and stands
the all-dominating thesis: "I have headed this note with a reference to
First and Third Degrees, because the Second is after all nothing and
leads of itself
nowhere, neither to the Mysteries of Nature and Science nor yet to the
as by any natural path or in virtue of any evidential development."
are omitted on which one naturally expects light in a Masonic
apron is lacking altogether: it is not even mentioned in the Index:
one find anything about the square or the compasses. On Anti-Masonry ‒
one of the
themes of major importance to an American reader ‒ there is nothing,
and there a brief reference to such matters as the Leo Taxil fiasco.
There is no
article on the Ashlars. If one is looking for light on the interesting
Cerneau or Cerneauism he must seek elsewhere. On Albert Pike there is a
Krause there is a paragraph: on Albert G. Mackey there is nothing. In a
comprehensive reference the many omissions of which the few named are
be a distinct loss, and hard to explain: in the present work one may
they have no value to the central purpose. The same explanation,
for the editorial character of the articles, and the abeyance of facts
most confidently expects them.
I have hinted
above that Brother Waite is often hard to read. He himself has made a
in his "Studies in Mysticism," where, on page 337, one may find this
"The gift of speaking or writing in unknown tongues used to be regarded
exceptional, but it seems rather common with the specialist, and he has
habit of lapsing into it unawares." Alas and alack ! the prophecy has
back to plague the prophet! The style of writing in The New
be imitated by nobody, not even by Brother Waite himself. It is an
manner with scores of obsolete words trailing after it: it stumbles
constructions; and it lends itself very easily to sarcasm.
If a reader
has a love for American Masonry and an admiration for the great names
of its history
he will often wince while reading these two volumes. "The unholy
is met with from time to time in Masonic periodicals ‒ those of America
‒ is only a degree less stultifying than the Anti-Masonic gutter-press
of the Continent
until it was swamped by the War. I do not wish to be invidious, but the
vaporings and ravings of writers like J.D. Buck ‒ who has the plaudits
of the Southern
Jurisdiction per saeculas et aionas ‒ is one case in point." Those
‒ they occur on page 37, of volume I, ‒ are a little rougher than the
in which we (American Masons) are otherwise dealt with, but they may
a large way the general tone adopted by the author toward us and our
admit our shortcomings ‒ Dr. Buck, perhaps, used to be one of them,
though his is
a rapidly fading name ‒ but this is too summary a manner of disposing
I may be
permitted to state in this connection, and without interruption to a
holds such matters as a part of its business, that we American Masonic
have a deeply-rooted reverence for the great men of English Masonic
living and dead: but I submit ‒ and this is informally addressed to
those now living,
among whom are personal friends who will read the words in the spirit
in which they
are written ‒ that little, very little indeed, is known across the
the Masonic institutions on this side, or ever has been known.
Of all the
Masonic institutions here flourishing the least understood among these
friends is, I believe, the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Why do
they so often
shy away from it as if it were something dangerous? I believe that
himself would appraise it in an altogether different manner were he to
live in the
Rite for a year or two as we know it over here. The rituals revised by
are one thing on paper: they are another thing in breathing and acting
flashing about the ears and eyes of a candidate; and he who has thus
will experience a start of painful surprise to read on page 278, of
volume II, these
words: "No man had a greater opportunity and no one a freer hand when
undertook to revise the rituals of the Scottish Rite, and he scored
It would be hard and unnecessary to say that he never improved the
case against him is that he reconstructed and did not change.... [He]
spirit and the fire, the informing fire and the shaping spirit: the
result is therefore
that he has bequeathed us Pike's revision.
The New Encyclopedia,
as I said in the beginning, is a controversial work to be read from
first to last
like any other treatise: there are references back and forth to weave
articles together, and there are hints and directions here and there to
that the author has expected the volumes to be thus read. But there are
also a number
of features of great value for reference purposes that reflect only
credit on the
author, whose immense erudition is everywhere in evidence. There are
page plates, and thirty illustrations in the text, all of fresh
interest, an uncommon
quality in Masonic illustrations, and all of these are carefully
explained by the
author, after the fashion employed in his "Secret Tradition in
There is a Technology of Rites and Grades, very useful to the novice; a
Masonic chronology; and an Index that borrows much value from the fact
articles are neither titled nor arranged in a familiar manner.
This is a
magnum opus to have been performed by one man, and reflects great
credit on a name
already illustrious, whatever may be chalked against it by way of
and however groundless may prove the thesis that binds it all together:
of the book is sound, and its spirit is salutary. Brother Waite has no
for the fables of Freemasonry than for any other fables, and shouldn't
is militantly impatient with the mummeries of the Masonic pedantry that
mountain to prove the date of a manuscript, but stands helpless to
breathe one breath
of life into men, and he should be. Masonry is that which goes on in a
under the influence of Masonic rites and practices: if the man have not
or if nothing go on therein, all the rest is a mere fritinancy,
nothing, save self-deception and fraud.
* * *
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from readers as to where they may obtain
publications on Freemasonry
and kindred subjects not offered in our Monthly Book List. Most of the
sought are out of print, but it may happen that other readers, owning
be willing to dispose of the same. Therefore this column is set aside
for such a service. And it is also hoped ‒ and expected ‒ that readers
very old or rare Masonic works will communicate the fact to TUE BUILDER
of general information.
addresses are here given in order that those buying and selling may
directly with each other. Brethren are asked to cancel notices as soon
wants are supplied.
In no case
does TUE BUILDER assume any responsibility whatsoever for publications
sold, exchanged or borrowed.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake, 1879;
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873;
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Bro. G.
Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.:
Proceedings of the Scottish Rite Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New
in 1808, of which De Witt Clinton was the first Grand Commander, and
became united, in 1867, with the Supreme Council of the Northern
A. & A. S. R.
Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in New York by De La
Motta, in 1813,
by authority of the Southern Supreme Council, of which he was Grand
these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860.
By Bro. Frank
R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"The Year Book," published by the Masonic Constellations, containing
History of the Grand Council, R. & S. M., of Missouri.
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel Lawrence";
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry";
"The Source of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second edition
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes I to XI, inclusive;
"Masonic Facts and Fictions," by Henry Sadler;
"The Kabbalah Unveiled," by S. L. MacGregor Mathers.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California:
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards,
also St. John's
Cards for volumes 4 and 5;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
"Voice of Masonry," early volumes;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1882
Original Proceedings of The General Grand Encampment Knights Templar
for the years
1826 and 1835.
By Bro. George
A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile:
All kinds of Masonic literature in Spanish. Write first quoting prices.
L. Rask, 14 Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.:
"Remarks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists," by E. A. Hitchcock,
N. Y., about
"Secret Societies of all Ages," Heckethorn;
"Lost Language of Symbology," by Harold Bayley, published by Lippincott;
"Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson, Edinburgh, 1843;
"Solar System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson, published by
Longmans Co., London, 18S6;
"The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor, Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co.,
or the edition of 1899 published by Scribners, New York;
"Anacalypsis," by Geodfrey Higgins, 1836, published by Green &
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," any volume or volumes.
By Bro. J.
H. Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.:
Fascilus 2, "Cementaria Hibernica," by Chetwode Crawley;
Volumes 1, 2, 5 and 8, Quatuor Coronati Antigrapha;
"Some Memorials of Globe Lodge No. 23," Henry Sadler;
"Constitutions of the Freemasons," Hughan, 1869;
"Numerical and Medallic Register of Lodges," Hughan, 1878;
"History of the Appolo Lodge and the R. A., York," Hughan, 1894;
Any items on Anti-Masonry, especially tracts, handbills, posters, old
almanacs, etc., relating to Morgan incident, 1826-1840, and recurrence
of same from
1870 to 1885.
By Bro. J.H.
Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.:
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 6 to 26, in parts as issued, with St.
"Masonic Reprints and Revelations," Sadler;
"The Natural History of Staffordshire," Dr. Robert Plot, 1686, folio;
"The History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, Yorston edition, 4
"History of Freemasonry in Europe," Emmanuel Rebold, 1867;
"Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literatur," August Wolfsteig,
two volumes and register, paper, as issued;
"History of Freemasonry," Mackey, 7 volumes;
"History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders," Hughan and Stillson;
Facsimile engraving Picard's "Les Francmassons," 1735, fine copy.
A. A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California:
Various Masonic publications including such as a complete set of "Ars
"History of Freemasonry in Scotland," by D. Murray Lyon, (original
Thomas Dunckerley, Laurence Dermott, etc.
Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"History of Freemasonry," Mitchell, 2 volumes, sheep;
"History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, 4 volumes, cloth, in good
"History of Freemasonry," Albert G. Mackey, 7 volumes, linen cloth, new;
Addison's "Knights Templar," Macoy, 1 volume, cloth;
"Museum of Antiquity," Yaggy, 1 volume, morocco;
"History and Cyclopaedia of Freemasonry," Macoy and Oliver, new, full
Also miscellaneous books.
How Can We Bring Back The
M.S.A. Bulletin No. 8
are other reasons why men shy at any suggestions that tend to influence
reason for the lack of response in this matter is due to the popular
of the teacher's job. Business men, particularly, seem to think that
well educated man can teach. Many of these gentlemen go back to earlier
remember that they earned money for college expenses by teaching. They
to get away with it. If those whom they taught learned much they were
too. Of course some of these men were fairly good teachers.
the mere fact that the opinion does prevail ‒ that anyone can teach ‒
the profession. What real live man wants to tackle as a life job
anyone can do? We are, unfortunately, inclined to accept such general
representative. Men must be made to realize that teaching is a man size
Popular opinion expressed broadcast is the only way to bring this
business man would resent having a public school teacher come into his
tell him how to run his business. Teaching is a skilled profession. A
resents incompetent suggestions from those who advise and comment
merely as their
opinion dictates. Men are needed as teachers who know their job and who
well enough to protest against interference from those who have not
won't come back until they know they can be let alone to work out their
and ideas. They do not care to be obliged to follow the dictates of
boys and girls
and their parents....
must be generally regarded as a high-class and honorable profession if
men are to
be attracted by it....
and girls of high school age and beyond, need contact with real men.
This can be
obtained only as public opinion desires. Public opinion can accomplish
often, before its accomplishment, seems impossible. Public opinion can
back into the teaching profession.’ “
A Massachusetts Educator
* * *
God's Dreams -- [A Poem]
Thomas Curtis Clark
are they ‒ but they are God's dreams,
Shall we decry them and scorn them?
That men shall love another,
That white shall call black man brother,
That greed shall pass from the market place,
That lust shall yield to love for the race
That man shall meet with God face to face ‒
Dreams are they all;
But shall we despise them ‒ God’s dreams?
Dreams are they ‒ to become man's dreams;
Can we say nay as they claim us?
That men shall cease from their hating
That war shall soon be abating,
That the glory of kings and lords shall pale,
That pride of dominion and power shall fail,
That love of humanity shall prevail ‒
Dreams are they all;
But shall we despise them ‒ God's dreams?
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
Study Club course. When requested, questions will be answered promptly
by mail before
publication in this department.
I had an
old uncle from Scotland who told me that he could remember that in
they sold a drink called "freemason's-drink." Perhaps somebody can
me through your columns about this curious old beverage.
M.K.T., New Jersey.
such matters now belong to a vanishing time and all ye editors have
in vain for any information about what must have been a very appetizing
‒ and apparently
hypnotizing ‒ concoction. To judge from one of our dictionaries, the
for your uncle's drink was "freemason's-cup": what it was like you can
judge yourself from the prescription as given in the aforesaid
drink made of ale, especially Scotch ale, and sherry in equal parts,
with the addition
of some brandy, sugar and nutmeg."
* * *
A Popular Use of the Word
I am inclosing
a clipping from the "Cincinnati Enquirer" which gives a description of
an organization of London crooks in which you will note the following
"The secret of their appearance is the freemasonry which exists among
crooks of London." The question has arisen, are these crooks Masons or
the writer of the article wish to impress the reader of the mysterious
which a crook secures aid?
In the "Literary
Digest" for April 1,1922, page 36, you will find an article on "The
Program" in which occurs this sentence: "Pius XI belongs to the
of scholars and that is always a band of union." Is the present Pope a
Mason? if so, in what lodge?
of the above quotations, the word "freemasonry" is used in a sense that
has no reference whatsoever to our fraternity. The Century Dictionary
gives as one
of its definitions of the word, "secret or tacit brotherhood"; and in
illustration of this use of the word gives the following quotation from
a book by
A. Rhodes: "There is a freemasonry extending through all branches of
in the quick comprehension of significant words." In connection with
one is reminded of the famous couplet from Alexanders Pope's Dunciad,"
deep freemasons, join the silent race,
Worthy to fill Pythagoras's place."
is not a Mason.
* * *
Why Is Jephthah’s Daughter
you find authority for giving the name "Adah" to Jephthah's Daughter?
T.E. McM., Arkansas.
"History of the Order of the Eastern Star," [Lib 1917] published by The Torch Press,
1917, has this to say on page 47: "The
portion of the Bible upon which the theory of the first degree is
to Judges XI: 29-40. The impressive history of that excellent woman
in obedience, the virtue of which is particularly cultivated in this
being the degree of obedience or Jephthah's Daughter ‒ called for want
of any special
name, Adah." So far as we are able to learn this is a true account of
The name "Adah" was arbitrarily chosen for Jephtha’s daughter, and has
no special significance at all.
* * *
Information Wanted About
Cable Tow, Temple Rubbish, Etc.
I am very
much interested in Masonic symbolism and would appreciate receiving
brethren and through your columns some instructions regarding the
meaning of Cable
Tow, the Seafaring Man, The Embargo, Burial in Rubbish of Temple,
Burial on Mt.
Moriah, and of the reason for the dimensions of a certain grave.
Answers to the
above will be of interest to young Masonic students of which I am one.
readers as have thought about these matters come forth with their
ideas? THE BUILDER
has published a number of articles about the Cable Tow, as follows:
Vol 1, Cor. Dept., page 276, Q. B. Dept., pages
Vol. 2, Library Dept., page 155; Vol. 3, page 341,
April CCB., page 6,
December CCB., pages 4 and 5;
Vol. 4, pages 238, 354,
June CCB., page 4,
Cor. Dept., page
Q. B. Dept., page 62.
* * *
The Dionysian Artificers
Is it possible
to secure a copy of The Dionysian Artificers [Lib 1820] by Da Costa? I see so many
to the work that I am curious to read it.
F. P., Washington.
itself is rare and next to impossible to buy. Fortunately for the Craft
has been republished in monthly sections by The Montana Mason, of which
R. J. Lemert is editor. The series began with the issue of last
The Montana Mason. Box 1572. Great Falls. Montana.
* * *
Books on Ancient Mysteries
please give me a list of modern books in English on the Ancient
Mysteries? I should
like such titles as one may easily find in any fairly complete public
here given is not at all complete but it is representative and
reliable. Any volume
not in your public library can be obtained for you by your librarian
from the Congressional
Library at Washington, D. C.
Paul and the Mystery-Religions, [Lib 1913] H.A.A. Kennedy;
Kings and Gods, [Lib 1912] Moret; Mysteries, [Lib*]
Paul and His Interpreters, [Lib 1912] A. Schweitzer;
Religious Development Between the Old and New Testaments,[Lib 1914] R. H. Charles:
The Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman Empire, [Lib 1909] T. R. Glover;
Religious Experience of the Roman People, [Lib 1911] W. W. Fowler;
Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, [Lib 1904] Sir Samuel Dill;
The Mysteries of Mithraism, [Lib 1903] Franz Cumont;
Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion, [Lib 1903] E. Jane Harrison;
Oriental Religions, [Lib 1911] Franz Cumont;
The Mysteries, Pagan and Christian, [Lib 1897] Cheetham;
Cults of the Greek States, [Lib 1896; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] Farnell;
The Great Mother of the Gods, [Lib 1901] Showerman;
Adonis, Attis, Osiris, [Lib 1906] J. G. Frazer;
Isis and Osiris, [Lib 1850 (German)] Plutarch;
The Burden of Isis, [Lib 1910] Dennis;
The Realms of Egyptian Dead, [Lib 1902] Wiedemann;
Light from the Ancient East, [Lib 1910] Deissmann;
Thrice Greatest Hermes, Mead; [Lib 1906; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]
Introduction to the Study of Religion, [Lib 1908] Jevons;
Psyche, [Lib 1894 (German)] Rohde;
The Gods in Greece, [Lib 1891] Dyer;
Myth, Ritual and Religion, Andrew Lang; [Lib 1887/1901; Vol 1, Vol 2]
The Mystery Religions and the New Testament, Henry C. Sheldon; [Lib 1918]
Astrology and Religion Among the Greeks and Romans, [Lib 1912] Cumont;
The Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity, [Lib 1915; Vol 1, Vol 2] F. Legge;
The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries,
1, Vol 2] Harnack;
Studies in Mysticism, A. E. Waite; [Lib*]
Christian Mysticism, [Lib 1899] Inge;
Mithraism, Adams; [Lib*]
Eleusinian and Bacchic Mysteries, [Lib 1891] Thomas Taylor;
Eleusinian Mysteries and Rites, Dudley Wright; [Lib 1917]
Morals and Dogma, [Lib 1871] Albert Pike.
* * *
Why No Hammer Was Heard
In the Building of the Temple
Why was not
the sound of a hammer, ax, or anything of iron heard during the
building of King
on which your query is based is found in I Kings 6:7. "And the house,
it was in building, was built of stone made ready at the quarry and
there was neither
hammer nor ax nor any tool of iron heard in the house while it was in
The usual explanation is taken to be the statement in the early part of
to the effect that the Temple was built of stones "made ready at the
The Hebrew itself reads instead of quarry, "when it was brought away";
that is, at the place where the workmen were assembled, and
consequently could apply
to woodwork as well as to stone. Like every other statement concerning
of the Temple this has been fertile in producing legends and myths,
some of them
of singular and great suggestiveness. Examples of such may be found on
page 44 of
Brother Dudley Wright's "Masonic Legends and Traditions," [Lib*] a book
that may be heartily recommended to the student.
stones for the Temple were hewn in the quarry, and there carved,
marked, and numbered.
The timber was felled and prepared in the forests of Lebanon, and
conveyed by floats
from Tyre to Joppa. The metals were fused and cast in the clay ground
and Zeredatha. The whole was then conveyed to Jerusalem; and when put
Mount Moriah each part fitted with such perfect exactness as to make it
a work of the Supreme, rather than an exertion of human skill.
tradition says that the stones had been prepared with such perfect
when fitted together the joints could not be discovered:-
If on the outside I do cast my
The stones are joined so artificially,
That if the mason had not chequered fine
Tyre's alabaster with hard serpentine,
An hundred marbles no less fair than firm,
The whole, a whole quar one might rightly term.
is a Jewish tradition that the stones were not so framed and polished
by human art
and industry, but by a worm called Samir, which God created for the
also state that the stones came to the Temple of their own accord, and
together by angels. The word Samir (known in Masonic lore as the insect
signifies a very hard stone that can be cut and polished to great
is asserted by the Rabbins that King Solomon received a secret from
evil spirit, mentioned in the Book of Tobit, who had usurped his throne
became his prisoner. By the utilization of this he was enabled to
finish the Temple
without the use of axe, hammer, or metal tool; for the stone schamir,
been presented to him by a demon, possessed the property of cutting any
as a diamond cuts glass."
* * *
Freemasonry in Russia
ever had a foothold in Russia? If so, will it be possible for you to
give me a little
history of it? I am often wondering if Masonry will not grow there
after the present
unsettled conditions have passed away. My brother went to Russia as a Y
remained there in business. He thinks the country has a wonderful
existed in Russia early in the eighteenth century, Christopher Wren,
a groundless tradition, having been one of its founders when he
the Great into the Craft. It was in 1777, however, that Russian Masonry
first great advance, for it was in that year that the Great Duke of
who had accompanied Gustavus III, his brother, on a mission to
Petrograd, lent his
powerful influence to the movement. The English Grand Lodge chartered
Russia early in the same century, only a few years after the Revival.
In 1721 a
Provincial Grand Lodge of Russia was founded, under the English
Captain John Phillips was made Provincial Grand Master. In 1776 the
Lodge of Russia was formed, and in 1779 a rival grand body, propagating
Masonry, also made its advent. When the anti-secret-society law was
passed in 1782
Freemasonry was exempted, but in 1797 this same law was revised, and
Paul I closed
up all Masonic lodges. However, after the accession of Alexander in
1801 legal rigors
were relaxed and many lodges resumed operations. But in 1822 the Czar
issued a ukase
forbidding all lodges to open at any time or anywhere. According to
the ban has not yet been removed, but such a step appears likely.
Masonic Furnishings Borrowed
for a Roman Catholic Church Service
I am translating
a truly remarkable letter that is due to the researches of our good
Wirth, editor of "Symbolisme" of Paris. I do not doubt that the mention
of the word "church" to a Frenchman has necessarily a more Roman
implication than it has to us and in that attitude I suggest it be
read. The letter
is unearthed from La Legitimite, No. 11, page 216, of November 1907,
but the original
is dated January 16, 1816, and was addressed by the Mayor of
Marseilles, the Marquis
de Montgraud, to Mr. John, the keeper of a restaurant on Vacon Street,
and in English
runs about as follows:
"I am informed, Sir, that you
some black tapestries or hangings which formed a part of the ornaments
of the Scottish Lodge of this city.
"I shall be obliged to you for
to the city of these hangings that they may serve for the decoration of
of St. Martin, the twentieth of this month, the day fixed for the
ceremony of the
funeral service in commemoration of the death of Louis XVI.
"If, as I hope, you agree to my
I beg of you to entrust these objects to Mr. Dufey, bearer of the
"Accept, Sir, my thanks in
advance for your
as a Scottish Rite Freemason, but be interested in this appropriation
of the symbolical
draperies of a Lodge of Perfection for use in a Roman Catholic Church
during a Service
of Sorrow. What a curious mixture from our present point of view is
there of the
apt and the inept of this certainly very peculiar instance!
Robt. I. Clegg, Illinois.
* * *
Masons Persecuted In Ireland
I think it
would only be in justice to our brothers in Ireland for you through THE
to give some publicity to conditions as they exist over there at the
and also the cause of the trouble. A large number of the Masons in
America do not
know how conditions are in Ireland, neither do they know the real cause
it all, and I think they should know.
George A. Anderson, Pennsylvania.
was accompanied by a letter from a personal friend of Brother Anderson
in Belfast. Except for the omission of two or three personal items it
is here printed
of things over here has not improved very much of late, except that
there are not
so many shootings in our own city. The last new order issued which
liable to arrest who is not staying in his own home has done a great
deal of good.
All the shootings in Belfast are carried out by "gunmen" from the South
and West. The difficulty was that the authorities would not put their
hands on these
men. When a raid was made on a house that was suspected and strangers
these strangers posed as friends or relatives up from the country on a
they can be arrested for identification. Genuine visitors can always
by notifying the police beforehand. The result has been that most of
have left for fear of arrest.
have only changed their locality and still carry on in the South where
are being murdered every day in one place or another. The Masonic Halls
raided, and in many cases destroyed. The Grand Lodge premises in Dublin
are at present
in the occupation of the I. R. A. There was a curious result of that
the other day.
We were starting a new Preceptory in Belfast in connection with our
lodge and had
applied for a warrant. Before the warrant could be issued the premises
had been seized, and all the forms were kept there. The Masonic
to get a copy of the latest warrant issued, and from this they made a
all in the writing of the Grand officer. This warrant was used last
is in the possession of our Registrar.
authorities here, for some reason or other, do not want to appeal to
outside or to make "political capital" of the seizure, but I think that
it would be well if the Freemasons of America were freely told of the
is going on against the Order in Ireland. Perhaps you could help a
little in this
in a quiet way among your own associates. There was one man, whom I
who had a narrow escape in the recent murders in County Cork. He is a
clergyman, and was in one of the houses that were visited. He escaped
from bed in
his night shirt and got away into the fields. It was the middle of
April and the
weather was very cold at the time. Three or four others were shot dead
night. His brother is a member of my lodge, is Registrar of my chapter,
Preceptor of the new Preceptory. He is a past Provincial Senior Grand
the Province of Antrim. That is the Masonic province of course, which
the same as the ordinary County of Antrim.
W. J. Allen.
Anderson enclosed a clipping from a Belfast paper of May 18th. It
contains the description
of a deplorable condition:
one of the South of Ireland gun clubs issued a statement boasting that
going to compel all Freemasons and Unionists in the "Free State" to
food, clothing, and housing accommodation to Roman Catholic unemployed.
ruffians had for a long time been burning down Masonic and Orange Halls
Freemasons, along with other Protestants. The continuance of these
there is no evidence to show the Free State forces now responsible for
law and order
ever tried to stop, has caused the Earl of Donoughmore, Most Worshipful
of Irish Freemasonry, to issue an order suspending all meetings of
in Southern Ireland. Extensive cattle drives have taken place on lands
held by Protestants
in parts of Counties Kildare and Mayo, and threatening notices have
Heathfield, a large property in Ballyeastle, County Mayo, has been
seized by a number
of the Southern unemployable. The owner is a Protestant lady. She was
hours to clear out. Other gunmen have seized business premises and land
also in County Mayo. The owner in this case is a Protestant, too.
* * *
brethren and members of the National Masonic Research Society have sent
to THE BUILDER
many newspaper clippings and letters similar to the above. Owing to
of space it is impossible to publish many of these communications, but
go to these thoughtful brothers nevertheless. Meanwhile, there are
of the story, one of the most authentic of which is the following, and
itself. It was published in the LONDON FREEMASON, June 3rd, 1922.
Editor of The Freemason: Dear Sir and Brother ‒ I am glad to be able to
that Freemasons' Hall, Dublin, was yesterday handed back to me by the
the Irish Republican Army, which has been in occupation since 24th
April. I am also
glad to say that the damage done has been very much less than we
structural damage is very slight, and our lodge and chapter rooms, with
have been respected. For instance, the magnificent Grand Lodge Room,
with its splendid
furniture and historic portraits, seems practically intact. Of course
you will understand
that it will be some time before the whole extent of the damage can be
only right that I should say that during the whole period of the
up to the evacuation I was treated with the greatest courtesy and
sympathy by the
Provisional Government, especially by Mr. Michael Collins, who was
to see me and do all in his power to help. I believe that if the
were only firmly established, Irish Freemasons have nothing to fear in
The outrages have, in my opinion, been entirely the work of those
which always spring into existence when a disturbed state of affairs
exists in any
I do not
believe there is any general hostility to the Order in Southern
Ireland, nor do
I believe that any feeling of the sort is encouraged by the Roman
which fully appreciates the difference between Irish Freemasonry and
on by the so-called Continental Grand Lodges, which reject our first
great Landmark, and consequently are not recognized by us. I must also
the officers who were charged with the duty of handling over to me,
treated me and
my staff most courteously.
Claude Lane, Deputy Grand Master of Ireland.
Grand Lodge of Freemasons of Ireland,
Dublin, 30th May, 1922.
* * *
The Greek Church and the
Church of England
a statement on page 187 of the June BUILDER which is not quite correct:
There is as much difference between the Church of England and the Greek
between the latter and the Roman Church." I have seen an Episcopal
assist in the service of the Russian Church and the Russian priest
assist in the
Episcopal service. When the last Bishop of New York was consecrated the
Patriarch and several other clergy formed in the procession in their
Such an interchange between the Roman and the Anglican churches would
I am enclosing
a letter from the Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of New
Oscar C. Taylor, New Hampshire.
referred to in the above is from Edward M. Parker, Concord, New
of New Hampshire. It is in full as follows:
not true to say that we are in full communion with the Orthodox
Churches, for as
yet nothing official has developed to make the statement entirely
correct, but between
the Anglican and Orthodox Churchs there is the most cordial feeling of
and fellowship, and there have been many acts of courtesy and
recognition on both
sides, and the move towards unity is growing on both sides. In many
places in this
country, where there are Orthodox Christians with none of their own
clergy at hand,
the people have been told by their Church authorities to look to the
for such ministrations as they need and cannot obtain from their own
have an occasional wedding or funeral, or even baptism performed by one
of our clergy
for some of the Greek or Russian Christians. The matter of full
that is, freely receiving Orthodox Christians at our altars or the
the Blessed Sacrament by Anglicans at an Orthodox altar is a different
both Churches have made official proclamation of some sort, this cannot
recently elected Patriarch of Constantinople, Meletius, left this
country to assume
his high position full of the thought that it might be within his new
power to promote
full union between Anglican and Orthodox.
of Rome has set herself like adamant against any thought of unity with
Churches and it unless they would accept in their fullness the papal
the East will not do and we cannot do.
Edward M. Parker, Bishop of New Hampshire.
made in paragraph numbered three on page 187 of THE BUILDER of last
June is based
on the very best authorities, and was carefully considered. By
was meant unlikeness, not that the two communions are in a feud.
* * *
John S. Wise Not a Governor
In the June
issue, page 186, you speak of John S. Wise, author of "Recollections of
Presidents," to the effect that "unless you are off the track," he
was one time governor of Virginia. It was Henry A. Wise, the father of
who was governor of Virginia, to which office he was elected in 1855 on
Nothing" platform. If you will turn to page 56 of the above work you
an account of the bitter juvenile warfare that waged in Richmond
between John and
the young Whig and Know Nothing hopefuls during his father's term as
Wise was, like his son, a writer of some ability and published in 1872
of reminiscences under the title "Seven Decades of the Union." This
also is of some Masonic interest in that it gives some interesting side
the life and character of Brother Andrew Jackson, although Masonry is
I wonder if Brother Baird can tell us if either of the Wises was a
B. W. Bryant, California.
Baird, it is your turn. To the above items of information may be added
that it was during Governor Wise's term in office that John Brown made
and that the Governors refused to reprieve the old enthusiast, though a
of pressure was brought to bear upon him. Governor Wise was opposed to
but nevertheless voted in favor of making Virginia a part of the
was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate army and was in more or
service throughout the Civil War.
* * *
The Irish Masonic Medallion
I was very
much interested in the cuts of a Masonic Medallion found in Ireland,
Brother Carson in the April number of THE BUILDER.
side of the medallion has the symbols of the Rose Croix and Royal Arch.
these orders did not form part of organized Freemasonry till along
about 1747, how
can the medallion possibly be of the sixteenth century?
If the figures
on the obverse are really 1516, with which I do not agree, they are
either a date
or the number of a lodge. I have shown that they cannot possibly be the
medallion was carved. If they are a lodge number they must represent
of the English Constitution. But lodge 1516 of England was warranted in
removed from the roster in 1878, so bang goes the sixteenth century
If you will
examine the print in your issue thru a magnifying glass you will come
to the conclusion
that the figure 1 before the contended figure 6 is not carved but is a
Remove this 1516 idea for a moment and examine it again having in mind
two columns are represented and I think you will come nearer the truth
that what is intended are the letters B and J carved in a fancy style,
of which I do not know. We know what those letters mean.
above the sun and moon is doubtless intended for the all-seeing eye.
The X shaped
figure at the immediate left of the sun is very possibly a rough
attempt at a representation
of two skirrets which are the working tools of a Master Mason in
at the foot of the steps is undoubtedly intended to represent a coffin
with a sprig
of acacia at the head which is to be found on all tracing boards of the
steps? Those who know the English working recognize this as pertaining
to the second
degree. Maybe it is evidence that at that time the lodge to which the
of the medallion belonged worked but two degrees, or more likely there
is no particular
significance to the five steps.
the reverse side we have in the triangle all the symbols of the Rose
winged figure is a rude attempt at a pelican. At the apex of the
triangle we have
an attempt at portraying a rose. Then there is the ladder, spear-head
all significant in English Rose Croix work which, unlike that of the A.
S. R., is decidedly orthodox Christianity. The "H" at the right hand
I take to stand for Heredom. What the "I" stands for I cannot guess.
triangle we have the letter "Z" within a square which we can guess
for Zerubbabel. At the left is a defective attempt at the triple tau.
To the right
the "W" is possibly not a W at all but two triangles. The arch is the
old one of the early days of the Royal Arch and is more like the arches
than the Royal Arch of Solomon.
Ramsey is credited with introducing the Royal Arch degree, which many
the idea from France where he became acquainted with the degree which
is now the
thirteenth of the A. & A. S. R. This depiction may be taken by
some as evidence
in that direction.
As to the
letters round the triangle I guess these to be the name and title of
the owner written
in Latin. It matters little anyway.
It is stated
the medallion is made of petrified oak. I would hazard a guess without
that it is made of black bog oak, which is very hard, almost like
ebony. It has
probably lost much of its color through being buried.
facts, too lengthy to go into here I would put the age of the medallion
been made around 1820.
Murray later sent a postscript to the above, which is given herewith.)
It may be
that the figures are 156, representing a lodge number. Lodge 156 in the
Constitution is holden at Plymouth and was warranted in 1778. It has a
Chapter attached to it. If this is the lodge, my guess as to the date
was made would not be far out.
As to Lodge
No. 156 in the Irish Constitution my records show it was stricken off
the list a
good many years ago, while such a number appears in recent list of
lodges as being
held at Belfast. Maybe a new lodge has been given a vacant number some
Ernest E. Murray, Montana.
* * *
Help Locate This Man
I have been
advised to write you by the Grand Secretary of Montana, and by Brother
of Lodge No. 29, Billings, Montana. I am trying to locate my father,
He was made a Mason in Fall River, Kansas, in 1886. Soon afterwards he
to Oklahoma. If any brother knows of his whereabouts please notify me.
Matt Collins, 607 North 26th Street, Billings,
of little account without opportunity.
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Around the World with Gen Grant
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Astrology among the Greeks and
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Jev08 / auth. Jevons Frank B. - New York : The Macmillan Compnay, 1908.
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Cults of the Greek States Vol 1
Far96CG1 / auth. Farnell Lewis R. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1896. -
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Cults of the Greek States Vol 2
Far96CG2 / auth. Farnell Lewis R. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1896. -
Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 392. - 19.2 MB.
Cults of the Greek States Vol 3
Far96CG3 / auth. Farnell Lewis R. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1896. -
Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 449. - 13.0 MB.
Eleusian & Bachic
Tay91 / auth. Taylor Thomas. - New York : J W Boulon, 1891. - Vol. 1 :
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Expansion of Christianity Vol 1
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Forerunners of Christianity Vol
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History of the Order of the
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Idylls of the King
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Isis and Osiris
Plu50 / auth. Plutarch
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Kings and Gods in Egypt
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Knickerbocker Press, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 328. - 13.6 MB.
Light from the Ancient East
Dei10 / auth. Deissmann Adolf / trans. Strachan Lionel R M. - London :
Hodder and Stroughton, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 621. - Illustrated -
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Myth, Ritual, and Religion Vol 1
Lan01 / auth. Lang Andrew. - London : Longmans, Green, and Company,
1901. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 380. - 15.3 MB.
Myth, Ritual, and Religion Vol 2
Lan011 / auth. Lang Andrew. - London : Longmans, Green, and Company,
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New Light on the Renaissance
Bay09 / auth. Bayley Harold. - London : J M Dent & Sons, 1909.
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Oriental Religions in Roman
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Paul and his Interpreters
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Prolegomena to the Study of
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Religious Experience of the
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Fow11 / auth. Fowler W. Warde. - London : Macmillan & Co. Ltd,
1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 527. - 22.0 MB.
Roman Society from Nero to
Dil04 / auth. Dill Sir Samuel. - London : Macmillan and Co, Ltd, 1904.
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St Paul and the Mystery
Ken13 / auth. Kennedy Harry A A. - New York : Hodder &
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The Burden of Isis
Den10 / auth. Dennis James T / trans. Dennis James Teackle. - New York
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The Conflict of Religions in
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Glo09 / auth. Glover Terrot R. - London : Methuen & Co, 1909. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 369. - 17.7 MB.
The Doctrine and Literature of
Wai02 / auth. Waite Arthur E. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Company, 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 528. - 30.2 MB.
The Egyptian Dead
Wie02 / auth. Wiedemann Alfred / trans. Hutchison J. - London : David
Nutt, 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 69. - 1.3 MB.
The Eleusian Mysteries
Wri17 / auth. Wright Dudley. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
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The Gods in Greece
Dye91 / auth. Dyer Louis. - London : Macmillan and Co, 1891. - Vol. 1 :
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The Great Mother of the Gods
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The Mysteries of Mithra
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The Mysteries Pagen and
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The Mystery Religions
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The Secret Traditions in
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Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
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The Secret Traditions in
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Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 1
Mea061 / auth. Mead George S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 497. - 15.8 MB.
Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 2
Mea062 / auth. Mead George S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 411. - 16.5 MB.
Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 3
Mea063 / auth. Mead George S. - London : The Theosophicl Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 390. - 16.4 MB.