Masonic Research Society
Aid to Education, Its Justification, Degree and Method
By Brother Horace M. Towner,
M. Towner, Representative from Iowa, is Chairman of the Committee on
of the House of Representatives at Washington, D.C., and is sponsor in
for the Towner-Sterling Bill. This address was delivered before the
Illinois at the recent inauguration of President Finley.
I AM NOT
quite sure that President Kinley expected me to discuss the creation of
of Education in connection with the subject of Federal Aid to
Education. But as
the subjects are both included in the legislation to which I am
committed, and as
they are so closely connected in creation and application, I shall
venture to consider
them both in my remarks.
was not created by the Constitution. It is an institution of government
solely by legislative enactment. New executive departments are created
and new members
of the Cabinet added whenever Congress considers it wise that such
be taken. The first three of the ten now in existence were established
administration; the last one was created in 1913.
are not created, nor members of the Cabinet appointed, to control the
them. If the general government has the Constitutional power to control
such measure of control may be given the Secretary as Congress deems
For example, the general government is given control of military
affairs and the
Secretary of War is granted certain powers of control. The general
given control of postal affairs, and the Postmaster General is given
over such matters. The Constitution wives no power to the general
control agriculture or labor. Hence, the Secretary of Agriculture is
the duty of "promoting agriculture." He is not given power to control
agriculture. The Secretary of Labor is charged with the duty of
promoting, and developing the welfare of the wage earners of the United
He is given no power in any manner to control labor. In like manner, if
of Education is created, its Secretary will be given no power to
but he may be charged with the duty of conducting studies and
investigation in the
field of education, he may call educational conferences, and encourage
and aid the
States in their educational work without exercising any measure of
for creating a Department of Education lies primarily in the fact that
is of supreme importance under our system of government, and should
recognition its importance merits. It has been a source of wonder to
of our institutions that the United States has so far failed to give
recognition. It is almost alone among the nations in that respect. As
the Bureau of Efficiency, the National Government expended over
the year 1920 for educational purposes. The educational activities thus
on are scattered among the numerous bureaus, divisions, and commissions
any coordination and with numerous duplications of work. The Bureau of
occupying a subordinate place in the Department of the Interior, and
only a small appropriation, has no control or even knowledge of these
It is apparent that in order to secure efficiency and economy in the
assumed of this character a directing and coordinating head is required.
is needed to coordinate and integrate the scattered educational forces
States. It is proposed to create and organize a National Council of
consult and advice with the Secretary of Education on subjects relating
to the promotion
and development of education throughout the nation. This Council is to
the chief educational authority of each State, twenty-five educators,
different interests in education, and twenty-five eminent persons, not
interested in education from the standpoint of the public. Annual
to be called, at which the entire scope of the educational interests of
will be considered.
It is manifest
that in order to carry on such work a Secretary of Education is
required. Both in
the councils of the Cabinet and in leadership and influence with the
forces throughout the land, such an educational head is necessary to
unify the educational work of the nation. This does not imply nor is it
if it were possible to take from the States the control of their
nor does it mean the adoption of a national system of education. It is
only to aid
and encourage the States to greater educational endeavor, and by mutual
and discussion to bring to the States most backward the stimulus that
their standards to the level of the more forward and advanced.
It is believed
that the creation of a Department of Education with its chief a
Secretary in the
President's Cabinet, will express for the first time in our history the
real interest in education; that it will promote by research,
reports the practical operation of our public school system throughout
States; that it will by leadership and service stir the States and the
a greater interest in educational work and to a more comprehensive
educational needs; and that it will mark the commencement of a new era
progress throughout the whole country.
It is further
proposed that provisions shall be made to authorize appropriations from
Treasury to encourage the States in the promotion and support of
education. In order
to do this effectively certain specific educational needs are
considered as being
the most important and pressing. Thus, appropriations are to be
authorized to encourage
the States for the removal of illiteracy, for the Americanization of
for the preparation of teachers, to promote physical education, and to
educational opportunities. It is believed that this selection of
in large measures the most pressing educational needs in which there is
national interest. A State may accept the provisions of any one or more
of the respective
apportionments by meeting the prescribed requirements and by providing
for the expenditures
from State or local funds of a sum at least equally as large as the
for the particular apportionment authorized.
It is provided
that these grants from the National Treasury are not dependent upon
or favor, but are compulsory when the States meet the conditions
in the Act.
are minimum requirements, and there can be no reasonable dissent as to
and fairness. The National Government cannot make a grant without
stating the purpose
for which the grant is made, and in making a contingent grant it must
the conditions necessary to be met in order to secure the grant. On the
the State is entitled to know just what the requirements necessary to
part of the apportionment are, so that it can be assured that if it
requirements, and those only, it will not have to appeal for executive
order to receive its grant, and will not be required to surrender
control of its
educational system to a centralized authority.
that these propositions are familiar to you. I presume, also, that most
of you are
familiar with the arguments that have been advanced in its favor. Let
briefly some of the objections that are urged against this proposed
It is said
that the legislation is unnecessary. This objection is urged both
against the creation
of a Department of Education, and against the proposal to aid the
States by subventions
from the National Treasury. There is always reluctance about creating a
Originally there were but three, State, Treasury, and War. An advisory
was selected, and afterward he became a member of the Cabinet. Then
came at intervals,
Navy, Post Office, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce and Labor, and then,
Labor. Now we have ten departments, and our Cabinet is one of the
the nations. The purpose of the creation of all of these executive
to give recognition to and secure a more effective realization of our
essential National interests. Because the National Government was not
of education, and because the States have exercised that power does not
the fact that education has been throughout our history a primary,
almost a paramount
interest, of the Nation. In 1785 the National Government made grants of
lands for the "maintenance of public schools." The Ordinance of 1787
the Northwest Territory provided that "Schools and the means of
be forever encouraged." From that time down to the present the National
has recognized education as an important interest of the Nation, and
has aided it
with grants both of lands and money. If it has been and is a primary
the Nation, why should not full recognition be given it by the National
It certainly is of equal importance with Commerce, or Agriculture, or
National Control of Schools
It is asserted
by some objectors that merely to create a Department of Education and
select a Secretary
will transfer the control of the schools from the States to the Nation;
some mysterious manner there will thus be created an autocracy that
will reach out
and absorb all the educational activities of the Nation; that for some
and malevolent purpose a conspiracy has been formed of the educators of
to subvert the Constitution and destroy the liberties of the people. It
to say in this presence that there is no effort being made anywhere or
to transfer the control of the schools from the States to the Nation.
On the contrary,
and in most explicit terms the Secretary is forbidden to exercise any
the schools within the States, and that power is expressly reserved to
is also urged that merely to grant appropriations from the National
upon conditions, in and of itself transfers control from the States to
that the States in order to secure the funds from the National
Government will surrender
their Constitutional rights; in short, that the Nation offers to buy
from the States
the control of the schools and assume the power of directing and
managing the education
of the people.
strange as it may appear, is the argument most strongly urged by the
the legislation for National aid. It must appear indeed remarkable that
such a purpose
could have actuated the educators of the country in the formation of
It has not generally been supposed that the school men of the Nation
in a conspiracy to subvert the Constitution and secure control of the
It must appear to every reasonable man that there is no desire nor can
any purpose on the part of the representatives of the Government to
take over the
control of the schools. It must also be apparent that the people of the
not so stupid and submissive as to sell their right to control the
their children for a money bribe.
is advocated because conditions are urgent and demand action, and
because the States
are in some cases unable, and in others unwilling, to meet the
help. It is to stimulate the States to greater activity in the
education of their
own people; it is to aid them in reducing the burden and danger because
of the ignorance
of their people, that this legislation is urged. The Government has an
with the States in the character of its citizens. The Government has no
nor interests within its territory outside the States. Their people are
and their citizens are its citizens. If the people of the States are
are the people of the Nation. If the peace, prosperity and security of
must depend upon the intelligence of its citizens, so is it with the
this community of interest there is a common obligation. So it is
proposed to aid
the States by granting them funds from the National Treasury, and in
effect to say
to the States: "The National Government will help you to remove this
and danger from your people, because your people are my people, and
are my interests." In effect, also, the Government declares to the
this proposed legislation: "This aid is granted you upon the condition
you use it only for the purpose stated in the grant, and that you use
it in your
own way without dictation or control by the Government."
It may be
again stated that all the conditions upon which aid is granted are
are specifically stated in the Act. These requirements may be changed
but they cannot be changed by the Secretary or any other executive
officer. No additional
requirements can be added, and no autocratic, bureaucratic, or
be further stated that before any State can receive the benefits of the
State must by legislative enactment accept its provisions. So that
there must be
an agreement of the representatives of the people of the Nation with
of the people of the State before the legislation can become effective.
circumstances it is not probable, it is not possible, that the State
its rights, or that the Nation will transcend its powers.
is called to the fact that by the provisions of the bill the
application and distribution of the funds within the State are
to the State authorities. I think I am justified in saying that in no
of this character ever enacted have the rights of the States been so
Let me call your attention to this provision of the bill, found in
That courses of study, plans and methods for carrying out the purposes
of this Act within a State, shall be determined by the State and local
authorities of said State, and this Act shall not be construed to
of courses of study, plans, and methods in the several States in order
the benefits herein provided: AND PROVIDED FURTHER, That all the
encouraged by the provisions of this Act and accepted by a State shall
supervised, and administered exclusively by the legally constituted
State and local
educational authorities of said State, and the Secretary of Education
no authority in relation thereto except as herein provided to insure
that all funds
apportioned to said State shall be used for the purposes for which they
If any stronger
or more explicit statement can be made to save to the States their
right to control
their own schools in their own way and to prohibit any interference on
of the General Government, the friends of the measure would be glad to
It is said
that contributions from the National Treasury are unnecessary, for the
meet the emergency and provide the necessary means. If that were true,
would be good. But is it true?
as an example, and consider conditions. The census of 1910 showed that
in the United
States there were 5,500,000 over ten years of age who could not read or
language. In addition there were 3,500,00 who could not speak, or read,
English. This placed us below the standard of most of the civilized
nations of the
world. But that was not the worst. The examination of the draft
service in the late war showed that of the men called between the ages
of 21 and
31, nearly 25 per cent could not read a newspaper, could not write a
and could not read the posted orders about the camps.
defense is thus doubly impaired; first, because one-fourth of the sons
called to the colors are incapacitated for efficient service because of
and, second, because the safety of a free country is jeopardized when a
portion of its voters cannot read the ballots they cast and can only
vote as they
the economic loss which Secretary Lane estimates as at least
$825,000,000 each year!
The Director of the Bureau of Mines states that of the 1,000,000 men
mining in the United States 620,000 are foreigners, and that of these
speak English. He states that the removal of illiteracy among the
miners would save
annually 1,000 lives and 150,000 injuries. Investigation has shown that
the industrial accidents are the result of ignorance, because the
read the danger warnings or understand the orders given.
It has been
said that illiteracy is a Southern problem. The facts do not warrant
Georgia has 389,000 illiterates, but New York has 406,000. Alabama has
while Pennsylvania has 354,000. Louisiana has 352,000, Mississippi
Texas 282,000; but Illinois has 168,000, Ohio 124,000, and even
It is thought
that illiteracy is a race problem. But it is much more than that. There
1,000,000 more white illiterates in the United States than illiterate
Is not this
clearly a National problem? If the Nation's safety is imperiled, if the
its citizens are being lost, and if the States are not able or not
help to remove this reproach and danger, is not National aid justified
the condition of our immigrant population. We now have over 15,000,000
people in the United States. More than 5,000,000 cannot speak, read, or
More than 2,000,000 cannot read or write any language. Unfortunately,
often group themselves into alien settlements or colonies, where our
not spoken, where our journals are not read, and where the whole
alien and non-American. These masses of alien ignorance constitute a
rich soil for
sowing the seeds of unrest and revolt. Revolutionary agitators who come
country to advocate the destruction of our Government find here their
To make the
immigrant understand America is the only way to make him love America.
love a country he does not understand. Education is the first requisite
Education, first in our language, and then in the nature of our
the best defense against the Bolshevik and the anarchist.
is not being met. When great States like Massachusetts and New York and
actually increased both their percentage and total of illiteracy within
from 1900 to 1910 because of their failure to educate their foreign
born, we realize
that even these enlightened commonwealths need stimulation and aid.
disclosure of the draft examinations carries more reproach to our
the fact that out of about 2,400,000 young men examined for service
nearly one-third, were found disqualified because of physical
per cent of these disabilities could have been prevented by a knowledge
of the simplest
rules of hygiene and health. It was ignorance, gross ignorance, that in
majority of cases was the cause of their incompetence.
but one adequate remedy for this disgraceful and distressing condition,
- to put
into all our schools a system of physical education. Unfortunately,
this has not
been done. The additional cost deprives thousands of schools and tens
of children of this essential element of education. Here again is the
and help of the Nation needed to remedy the existing unfortunate
Equalizing Educational Opportunities
inequalities in educational opportunities exist within and among the
States is well
known. In the South almost one-half of the negro children never see the
a school room. In the North there is hardly a city that has adequate
for all its children. In some rural communities and factory districts
of the property is so small that local taxation cannot support the
schools. On an
average the country boy has two months less school than the city boy.
it is found that where the educational needs are greatest the schools
are most inadequate.
All over our land the poorest schools are in the poorest communities -
the best schools are most needed. To equalize educational opportunities
is a task
that the Nation is especially qualified to undertake. To encourage and
aid the backward
States to bring their deficiencies up to a reasonable measure of
service is apparently a National duty. By such stimulation and
cooperation we may
be able to give to every child in America the advantage of at a least a
Preparation and Pay of Teachers
pressing educational problem confronting the people of the United
States at the
present time is to obtain competent teachers for our schools. Thousands
have been closed because teachers of any kind could not be secured.
Tens of thousands
of schools are now being taught by incompetent teachers. Three hundred
are teaching who have no professional training whatever.
imperative duty is that of providing means for the better preparation
We need about 700,000 teachers to teach our schools, and this requires
new teachers each year to keep the quota full. Our schools and colleges
for teaching are turning out but 24,000 each year. Nearly 100,000 must
profession each year inadequately prepared. This condition is alarming
be remedied. In some way we must bring States and the people to a
this danger. Unless conditions can be bettered we will have in the
even a larger proportion of near-illiterates than was disclosed by the
Indifference as to the character of our schools and their teachers will
lead to a deterioration of our citizenship. We must see to it that
in the land is taught by a competent teacher. Nothing less than that is
either State or Nation.
is a National peril, if ignorance of our language and institutions is a
danger, if unjustifiable inequalities exist in educational
opportunities in our
land, if our young men called to the service of their country are
because of ignorance of the ordinary rules of health, if schools are
for want of teachers, and almost one-half are being taught by
then it can fairly be claimed that National aid for education is
justified and necessary.
It is urged
as an objection that it is unjust to call upon the stronger States to
aid the weaker
to educate their children; that the money derived from the general
would fall heaviest on the richer States should not be used to help the
that each State should bear the burden and responsibility of educating
its own people.
was urged from the beginning against the whole system of public
schools. It was
argued that parents should have the burden of educating their own
children and that
taxation to support common schools was unconstitutional and unjust. It
the rich man was under no obligation to help educate the children of
the poor. It
was especially urged that those having no children to educate must not
to help educate the children of others. It was still more strenuously
it was especially iniquitous to tax the properly of a bachelor to carry
for others' children.
But all those
objections were disregarded, and now no one claims that it is unjust to
rich man to educate the poor man's children, and the bachelor must pay
to support the schools, whether he wants to or not. It is recognized
that the welfare
of a community or State depends upon the character of its citizens;
that the city
or State is concerned for its own safety and peace in the intelligence
of all its
citizens, and that each must contribute his share to the common good.
So with the
Nation. We have seen how its safety may be jeopardized because of the
and physical incapacity of so many of its young men. We have seen how
in a free
Government its security and prosperity depend on the intelligence of
electorate. Neither illiterates nor alien malcontents can be confined
to any one
State. And so it is a National problem as well as a State and local
it needs the cooperation of all these to find and apply the remedy.
The Nation Cannot Afford
to the Government is urged as an objection to the legislation. To place
burden on the Government at this time of extraordinary expenditures
would be unwise,
it is said. Our people already groaning under the weight of Federal
taxes will not
approve this addition to the load, it is argued. Granting the full
weight of this
objection, it must be admitted that the Nation must make choice as to
Wise action depends on selecting those objects for National
are most needed and most important. There is nothing in our scheme of
more important than the education of the people. Whatever else may be
education cannot safely be excluded. And this may be said to the credit
of our people,
that the one thing that justifies a tax in their judgment is that which
and supports our public schools. There are many millions annually
in their opinion have much less justification than the appropriations
by this bill. We might cut off a hundred million from either the Army
or the Navy
bills with less danger and more profit than to omit this appropriation.
seventy-five millions the other day to the States for good roads. Are
of more importance than good schools? We are still spending millions to
from our harbors and snags from our rivers; to remove hog cholera in
Iowa, and cattle
ticks in Texas; to remove boll weevil in Alabama, and wheat rust in
- are we justified in refusing to spend anything to remove illiteracy
from our own
American citizens? It is not that the things mentioned are not worthy
but certainly they are not more worthy of consideration than is the
our children. Those things are after all but economic ills, while
the safety and endangers the perpetuity of the Nation itself.
some outstanding facts regarding the relations of the Nation and the
education which it is wise to recognize. There has never been proposed
any legislation which has even suggested that the Nation should take
from the States
the control of education. No one has ever advocated it, no one now
no one in or out of Congress desires it. The proposition has no support
by anyone. There is no legal authority for such legislation if anyone
it. If a bill carrying such a proposal were introduced, it would
recognized as without Constitutional warrant, and would never even
reach the calendar
of either Senate or House.
that anyone, sponsor or supporter of the pending educational bill,
desires or expects
National control of education to follow the enactment of the
legislation under consideration
is without the slightest sanction. To state that the emphatic and
expressed in the strongest language that can be used which are
incorporated in the
very terms of the proposed law mean nothing and will not be effective,
is to say
that no law can be made effective by its terms.
Congress has no desire nor purpose nor Constitutional power to take
from the States
the control of education, the General Government has the right to aid
the States in the education of their and its citizens, and this right
it has exercised
repeatedly from the beginning of our history to the passage of the last
Act. It granted sections of the public lands to the States for schools.
townships of land for the creation and support of universities. Lands
as long as they lasted, and then money was given. Congress gives
annually over two
and a half million dollars from the National Treasury for the "support
further endowment of colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts." Every
we give tens of millions of dollars from the National Treasury in
support of almost
every form of education. Why is it that these grants are not opposed?
Why is it
that where education is so much needed, at the very bottom of our
social structure, where it enters into the very texture of the fabric
of our American
citizenship ‒ in form about which there is no controversy and in
substance the acknowledged
essential ‒ why is it that when it is proposed to strengthen our common
the proposition is condemned and opposed?
It must be
that such opposition is based upon a misconception of the proposed
To think otherwise would be to believe that there were in our country
really desired the destruction of our common school system. Such a
belief no loyal
American would desire to entertain.
It is characteristic
of the American people to be intensely interested and enthusiastic in
and establishment of a particular public service, and then when they
and have placed it in what they believe competent hands, to go off and
it. In a degree that has been true of our common school system. We have
absorbed in building cities, making railways, plowing prairies,
and subduing a continent that we have had little time to give to the
of the district school. Lately all our minds and hearts, all our energy
have been given to save our country and the world from a savage
onslaught of outlaw
nations. And as a consequence we have allowed twenty-five out of every
of our sons and daughters to sink into deplorable depths of illiteracy
We must rescue them. We must see that their successors shall not suffer
and misfortune. We are compelled to realize that an intolerable
which must not be allowed longer to continue. This calls for each of us
a part in the work set before us. By the memory of those who throughout
years of our National life have given so much of thought and service to
of the Republic; by the memory of the thousands who by the sacrifice of
have rescued the Nation from dishonor and destruction, we are called to
will fulfill the responsibilities which now are ours!
* * *
Education Must be Continued
Into Adult Life
necessity for continuing education from the schoolroom into daily life
more and more emphasized in New South Wales and Labor idealists are
on the value of a thorough training which will fit the workers for a
in the control and direction of industry. New South Wales is doubling
for technical education: "The East Sydney College, which will cover
four acres and be practically a series of separate colleges, will
students in drawing, art metal work (including the making of jewelry
and watch making)
modeling, sculpture, pottery, sanitary engineering and plumbing. One
be devoted to bread making and pastry with a special laboratory and
ovens and machinery. In another building instruction will be given in
relating to transit by road, rail, sea and air, including the building
and the construction of motor cars and motors. Special attention will
be given to
the sheep and wool trade. An important portion of the college will be
women's handicrafts, including dressmaking, millinery and costume
the conference on the control of industry, Prof. R.F. Irvine of Sydney
declared that the whole educational program would have to be modified
if men were
to be fitted for making wise choices and initiating great changes, and
and women would have to be made to realize that education did not end
or college, but was a life process. Two things seemed to him to be
fit men for increasing their part in the control of industry and for
choices: (1) A revised program of education for young people and adults
of all classes;
(2) An institution for the collection of data relating to experiments
and for the stimulation of such experiments. "While the bursary system
state is giving a university training every year to a large number of
boys, Mr. W. Davies, a member of the Legislative Assembly, declared at
that the boys were being made over into 'snobs,' this showing the
a new atmosphere in that institution. He favored the compelling of
every boy to
attend continuation classes in order that he might be trained for the
industry and that a spirit of responsibility might be inculcated in
him. The necessity
for the latter was shown by the large number of disputes in the mining
caused by irresponsible boys who had never been made conscious of their
the rest of the community."
The Christian Science Monitor, 1921
Bulletin No. 8.
Freemasonry and the Public
Schools ‒ A Grand Masters' Symposium
Why is it
that Freemasons have ever been so interested in the public schools? The
not far to seek. Free masonry itself is chiefly in existence to foster
of democracy and equality among men: other aims it has, but none more
than this, or more vital to itself and to the world. If this ideal is
ever to be
realized in this land it will be realized very largely through the
system, because the wit of man has never devised, nor could devise, an
more ideally fitted to organize the lives of men according to the
spirit and principles
of democracy and equality. Moreover, our Fraternity has very much at
stake in the
American government, and this government, as everybody knows, has in
school system one of its principal bulwarks. There are other reasons
as Masons, are always eager to foster and protect general education but
are sufficient here. In order to do its bit in this worthful cause the
Masonic Research Society has prepared this special public school number
of THE BUILDER,
and to the end that its account of Freemasonry and the public schools
be as representative
as possible it has asked the Grand Masters of the country to speak each
his own jurisdiction, a thing they have done with prompt courtesy, and
to good effect,
as these communications show.
Let Schools Teach Love of
be no grander theme to engross the attention of the Master Mason than
which has to do with the public school education of the children of our
This is a subject of deepest interest to every citizen, inasmuch as the
of all classes is bound up in the common interest of education.
We have come
to regard our public schools as the very backbone of our civilization.
who believes it is impossible for him to obtain an education is deemed
in courage and energy in this enlightened age, and ignorance is
considered a voluntary
schools offer to our boys and girls the training that is necessary to
for the common duties of life, and, if they wish, they may delve into
of classic lore and polite literature.
most humble has within his reach the opportunity to obtain sufficient
to enable him to appear advantageously in the theatre of life.
schools have made rapid strides in the years that have passed but there
is yet much
that could be done that would add to their usefulness and efficiency if
we are to
keep pace with modern civilization.
It is our
duty as Masons and citizens to keep in close touch with school affairs
in our own
community, as well as to inform ourselves on educational matters in
should consider it a privilege to aid in any possible way the cause of
to the end that our schools may be brought up to the highest possible
efficiency, and the standard of the teaching profession be upheld upon
plane, realizing that there is no interest above that of the children
In our educational
plan we must insist upon the education of the whole man, the body, the
the heart, that he may be a complete creature of his kind. Classic lore
place in education, but is valuable only when linked with a vast amount
intelligence that can be fitted for every-day use. Our public schools
only insofar as they train all the faculties in the right direction.
teaching of the proverbial three R's we must not forget the many
in Patriotism; love of country, respect for all the laws of our land,
for things holy and kindred subjects. It is in our public schools that
we must depend
largely for the study of the psychology of our foreigner, consider his
win his loyalty if he is to become a citizen in any real sense.
Is not this
work of public education one of inestimable importance, and one which
is worth the
careful and thoughtful consideration of every Master Mason?
Let us not
neglect our duty in so important a matter.
Henry C. Smith, Grand Master, Montana.
* * *
Rich as Well as Poor Should
be Educated in Public Schools.
of civilization has been marked by the progress of education. The
height to which
any people have been able to attain has been in direct proportion to
of learning among them. Every means of teaching the young the
principles of sterling
worth and the knowledge that gives an understanding of the problems of
be fostered among all right thinking people.
schools of America afford the one great channel through which men can
aid in preparing the young for useful, patriotic citizenship. Other
means of teaching
will not reach the masses and, therefore, cannot render the great
service that comes
through the public schools.
Bureau of Education provides the following figures: Of 31,981
only 31 were limited to an elementary education and only 3,110 received
high school education; whereas, 28,840 were college graduates. There
can be no college
graduates without training in grades. Consequently, all of these
academic teaching. If we would raise the standard of our citizenship,
Americans of real distinction, we must place before the masses of the
opportunities. Every man who is committed to this high purpose must
move that will lend broader extension and greater efficiency to our
the question of providing educational advantages to the young of
I am impressed with the belief that children of wealthier families
should also be
given training in public schools. It is here that they are brought into
with the representatives of homes of all classes and are given that
with others of strange environment which will develop the
characteristics that have
made Americans democratic. Other countries may support the private
the so-called aristocracy are trained in manners, culture, dress and
but practical America must maintain and develop to the uttermost that
which, by teaching and association, will best cultivate in the
Americans of tomorrow
the democratic principles of justice, fairness and tolerance.
Julian F. Spearman, Grand Master, Alabama.
* * *
Competent Teachers Essential
to Good Citizenship
Brother Theodore Roosevelt, while addressing a vast assemblage of
at Ocean Grove, N. J., once said: "Teachers, in your hands lies the
of our nation!" How clearly he saw the truth!
of our government and the welfare of our free institutions developed
under it depend
entirely upon the character of our citizenship. Our schools impress
the youth of the land. This work is in large part actually in the hands
of our public
school teachers. If they do their work well, the future of the nation
If they are unable to do it well, the nation is in danger.
From a purely
patriotic standpoint, therefore, it is clearly our duty to see to it
that we have
the best school teachers we can obtain, and place at their disposal the
equipment to enable them to do their work well. To do this more money
must be appropriated
for the maintenance of our public schools than is now available. This
not be forthcoming unless there is an irresistible public demand for
it. The public
will demand it when it becomes clearly conscious of the necessity for
it. This public
consciousness can only be aroused by a proper presentation of facts and
and by intelligent effort on the part of those who are entirely
familiar with the
various aspects of the problem.
for good citizenship. Every Mason is under an obligation to consider
of his country at all times.
as an institution should undertake to bring its individual members to a
of the necessities confronting our various public school systems, and
familiarize them with the facts, it would furnish the country a group
men who can and will arouse public opinion. Shall Masonry undertake
Charles C. Coombs, Grand Master, Dist. of Columbia.
* * *
Freemasons Were Active in
Founding Iowa Public Schools
school system of education has ever had the full interest and support
of the Masonic
fraternity in this commonwealth. The settlement of Iowa and the
development of its
educational facilities (even during its pioneer days) are a story of
and in the annals of that time we find the leaders of our Craft in the
of the movement for general education through public schools maintained
of Iowa schools proves the extent and success of those efforts.
I have no
doubt that I speak for all Masons of Iowa as well as for myself when I
we are emphatically in favor of a state and national system that shall
child in each commonwealth to have at least an elementary and secondary
in free public schools maintained by general taxation and affording an
that it be mandatory that the English language be used with a uniform
instruction in these grades; that the ideals and principles of
government be taught throughout all the grades; and that training in
schools be made a necessary qualification for teachers in the same.
that the hygienic, physical and moral welfare of the child should have
as the intellectual development, so that the future citizens of our
be fully equal to their responsibilities.
A. N. Alberson, Grand Master, Iowa.
* * *
Masons Must Support the
Public School System in its Present Crisis
two years of reaction from the emotional intensity of the World War
have given us
a breathing space in which to appraise, in some measure, the magnitude
of the task
of adjusting ourselves to new world conditions.
of peace is not to complacent repose, but to still more strenuous
endeavor for enduring
good. The task that now confronts us is the conquest of the allied
forces of ignorance,
selfishness and prejudice. For victory we must look to the armies of
teachers and pupils of the public schools. The forces of the whole
nation must be
mobilized in their support. Everywhere the Craft is seeking
opportunities for service
and everywhere instances are multiplying which point to the existing
crisis as the logical field for Masonic devotion and endeavor.
of public education has ever been close to the hearts of our greatest
men and Masons.
Our Brother Washington founded at Alexandria and endowed one of the
first free schools
in Virginia. Our Brother Franklin founded the first free public school
Indeed, one of Franklin's opponents there has left on record the
"the people who are promoting the free schools are the Grand Masters
among the Freemasons, their very pillars." Our Brother Dewitt Clinton
the free public school system of our own great Commonwealth, and our
gave the first New York free school generous patronage and support.
of children of every race, creed and degree in common schools, publicly
tends to bind together the whole population with the strong ties of
and a common tongue and to make this a thoroughly united nation. In the
of Brother Washington "the more homogenous our citizens can be made in
opinions and manners, the greater will be our prospects of permanent
These ideas are truly Masonic. The public schools are the only means
prosperity, nay, the very survival, of our beloved Fraternity can be
and the perpetuity of the institutions that underlie our civil and
everywhere rally unitedly to their support.
Robert H. Robinson, Grand Master, New York.
* * *
Education Must be Represented
in the President's Cabinet
Of all the
important public questions of interest to the people of the United
is none more vital to the future welfare of our country than that of
schools. It is imperatively necessary that the boys and girls of today,
to be the citizens of tomorrow, shall acquire in the public schools
such a common
stock of ideas and ideals that the stability of our government and the
of our institutions will be assured.
A real democracy
can exist with success only if there is true democracy in education,
that is, equal
educational opportunity for all. It has been clearly demonstrated by
of the past that if this equality of educational opportunity is to
the states by themselves are unable to provide this, financial aid from
government is necessary. If a reasonable amount of financial assistance
to the several states, each child in the entire country can be assured
amount of education; illiteracy will gradually disappear, and the great
Americanization can be more vigorously carried on. It will be possible
with greater success other educational activities, such as health
and dignity of education in this country demand that this important
work be represented
in our national government, not by a subordinate bureau but by one of
departments, with a Secretary at its head, who should be a member of
of the President. If all these measures outlined above be adopted,
great care should
be taken that each state of our Union retain complete control of its
policy and procedure. All of these provisions are, I understand,
in the Towner-Sterling bill which is now before Congress; if this bill
into law, the beneficial effect upon education in this country will be
Warren S. Seipp, Grand Master, Maryland.
* * *
Thou Shalt Exalt the Public
the question of public schools, there are certain facts that stand out
(1) Public schools are consistent
and necessary to the maintenance of that liberty and pursuit of
in the fundamental utterances of our laws. The untutored mind may know
it cannot have the highest sense of real liberty.
(2) Public schools are necessary to
the principles and verify the eternal truth proclaimed in the American
of Independence "that all men are created equal" (as to privileges and
immunities under the law); and without a system of free schooling
supported by the
state and so regulated as to perform the most efficient service, the
of the people born unequal as to environments, wealth and opportunity
in ignorance and thus become a prey to the unscrupulous and the
(3) Without an efficient system of
schools, higher education can never become at all general. The free
feed the colleges and universities if, indeed, they are to be fed ‒ a
nourishment for their growth and usefulness.
constituting the fourth of ten "Home Town Commandments" which appeared
in The University of North Carolina News Letter of April 19, 1922, is
to be commended:
"Thou shalt exalt thy public
honor it all the days of thy life with the best of teachers, buildings
for the school is the cradle of the future. Thy children are here and
be the leaders of tomorrow. No training is too good for them and no
James H. Webb, Grand Master, North Carolina.
* * *
The Public School Serves
no Scheming Interest at Home or Abroad.
that the public school is the cornerstone of American liberty has
become a truism.
We reiterate the declaration at frequent intervals, but many of us fail
wherein lies the greatness of this typical American institution.
school is remarkable and successful for several reasons. It is the
of American ideals and life and development, a concrete expression of
spirit and of what we term Americanism. It is democracy in education,
much the same position with regard to the other educational systems of
as does the American theory and system of government to those of the
school in the United States is great because it is the school of all
It is confined to no region, sect, race, color or narrow selfish
interest. It is
the same in Maine, California, Louisiana or North Dakota. It places one
the boys and girls who pass through its courses and that mark is the
that makes an American from whatever state he comes. Unlike many
the stamp of the American public school is an evidence of broadening
narrowing; of stimulus to thought and initiative and achievement, not
of personal independence of thought and soul, not attachment to an
or system; of upward impulsion toward everything clean and wholesome
and pure and
of the public school lies largely in the fact that it is pure and
single in its
purpose. Its sole aims are to train the minds, develop the bodies, make
the hands, quicken the hearts and ennoble the souls of the youth it
one purpose is to make splendid men and women, ideal Americans and
It has no other purpose and it serves no selfish scheming interest at
home or abroad.
Henry E. Byorum, Grand Master, North Dakota.
* * *
The Schools Make for Democracy
no agency in our American life that is capable of doing more for the
of the common welfare of our people than our public school. In that
democracy our children of all classes meet, day after day, from the age
of six or
seven years, up to the age of from fifteen to eighteen that most
age when character is formed and when the men and women of the
tomorrows are shaping
their opinions of life, and determining the course they will take.
It is highly
important in a country like ours that every man and woman shall
understand and appreciate
every other man and woman, and recognize the fact that each of us is
of his own fortune." In America opportunity smiles upon all. The names
men and women prominent in American life today reveal the fact that it
and efficiency that count and not the accident of one's birth. The
brings the children of all races, of all creeds, of all political
and makes Americans of them all; and as American citizens they each and
the value in others, and come to appreciate that value.
school system of America is not perfect. It has perfection for its
and is moving rapidly in that direction; and therefore its permanency
As the objective of this great American institution is better
understood, it will
be more loyally supported by all good and true American people. Long
live the American
George C. Williams, Grand Master, Delaware.
* * *
South Dakota is Heartily
in Favor of the Towner-Sterling Bill.
I want to
say that I am heartily in accord with the movement that is under way to
the educational system in the United States. I believe that nearly all
of this jurisdiction are of the same mind. It would be a long step for
good if we
would have a law in every state requiring every child between the ages
of six and
sixteen inclusive to attend the public school. Of course, those who are
deficient or who are backward should have special attention and
all may have an equal chance to gain an education which will fit them
for the duties
of future citizenship.
in our public school system will come a higher standard of living,
and cleaner lives. As someone has pointed out, every child should have
to be cleanly bred, rightly fed, and clearly taught.
In this state
we have a very good set of school laws and with but little change we
the benefits provided for in the Towner-Sterling Bill should it pass
legislative body. Some objection has been made to this bill on account
of the appropriation
it carries. I do not know of a better use to which we can apply our
funds, and certainly
it is better to improve our children and make better citizens, stronger
women, than to spend all in the improvement of hogs, cattle, etc.
W.F.R. Whorton, Grand Master, South Dakota.
* * *
Masons Should Interest Themselves
in School Elections
in the American public school ‒ first, last, and all the time. I
believe that the
greatest influence in our American life today is the public school, and
it should be carefully guarded, continually improved and greatly
now that we have lacked the vision the founders of our government had
wrote the constitution of this country, and that we have not
consistently used our
energies to improve future generations. We have concerned ourselves
about the educational
system only insofar as it affected our immediate needs.
If we are
to remain united as a nation, it is necessary that American ideals be
in the youth of the land. The public school is the only agency that can
accomplish this. Make elementary education compulsory in the public
school and teach
the American language only. Compel the child to read, write and think
in the American
language. Only in proportion as he can think in this language can he
the American spirit, and the American government. The parochial school
draws a line
of division across the community, and should therefore be eliminated.
and women of the highest ideals can impart the spirit of the country
and the teaching
profession must be made attractive ‒ better salaries, better teachers,
should interest themselves in school elections, placing men on school
believe in the American public school system.
we hope that before another year has passed, we shall have had the
preach the gospel of the public school in every lodge room in the
speakers, with motion picture outfits, will be sent into every part of
and the needs and advantages of the public school will be demonstrated.
Bill will be explained and discussed.
that physical education, and instruction in the principles of health
should be taught to all children and through the public schools. The
future of our
country, mentally, morally and spiritually, will depend on the physical
of the coming generations.
Herman Held, Grand Master, Minnesota.
* * *
The Schools Should be Bulwarks
is the duty of every Mason to be interested in the public schools, it
the duty of those of our eastern states to be particularly vigilant,
for it is in
the east that the obnoxious red doctrines of continental Europe are
and in some places, publicly taught. Even in some of our standard
have been instances where professors, aided and abetted by parlor
on inherited wealth, have been making covert attacks on American
teaches us that the school and the lodge were the pioneers and outposts
of our civilization,
and that our present public school system originated with and was
flowered and protected
by Masons. Therefore, each of us should constitute himself a committee
of one to
see that the schools of his town are the best, or at least the equal of
the land; and that support and reverence for law and order, and love
for the flag,
are taught free from any foreign taint or continental influence of any
Frank L. Wilder, Grand Master, Connecticut.
* * *
Tennessee Stands for the
Development of Primary Schools.
school number of THE BUILDER just at this time is very essential and
make it unanimous! Especially so far as Masons are concerned. Every
at least should be closely in touch with the educational movement as to
in favor of public schools, and I am sure the only reason that every
Mason is not
in full sympathy with the course of education is due to the fact that
he has not
given much thought to this subject.
I am happy
to say that the Grand Jurisdiction of Tennessee is squarely behind the
idea of developing
the primary public schools to the end that every child may have equal
to secure an education. I am of the opinion that no greater movement
for good has
ever been launched by the Masonic Fraternity and wonderful progress has
many rural districts report decided improvement.
carries with it not only the endorsement of public schools, but the
our own members ‒ nay more ‒ the enlightenment of our members as to
what they owe
the world and humanity.
the success of the Masonic educational movement is assured in Tennessee
Joseph A. Fowler, our State Chairman, is very earnest in his efforts.
He is thoroughly
capable and a Mason of splendid ability.
schools! By all means ‒ that great democratic institution where
children, rich and
poor, may mingle together and learn the fact that they are all
Walker M. Taylor, Grand Master, Tennessee.
* * *
Free Institutions Cannot
Exist Without Schools
be no question of the vital importance to any free government of a
and effective system of free, public education. It is absolutely
free institutions should exist without the basis of an intelligent
citizen should be capable of reading as well as hearing the views and
may be set forth for or against proposed legislation or candidates for
far as possible he should be sufficiently educated to understand what
he hears and
reads, and to weigh and compare conflicting statements. This is a large
but all history shows that it is an irreducible minimum.
is the foe of ignorance, tyranny, and superstition. Education is the
by which these great foes of mankind can be conquered. It is the
Masonic duty of
every member of our Fraternity to do his best to forge this weapon and
the arms of those who wield it.
are bound by their obligations, and by loyalty to the principles of our
be good citizens. It is, therefore, their duty to do everything in
their power for
the promotion of good citizenship. Nothing is more essential to good
of the Great War has shown conclusively that our educational system is
as well as we expected. Discoveries which were made with regard to the
of the young men in our drafted army were not only surprising but
The immediate need of the time is the strengthening of our educational
to enable it to do what it should do, and what until 1917 we all
thought it was
It is the
duty of every Freemason to do everything that he can to help the cause
in his community, in the state, and in the nation. He should labor in
way to exert all the influence he has in all ways in which such
influence may be
exerted in this good work.
not mean that the Masonic Fraternity, as an organization, should put
any specific legislation, or attempt to adopt an educational
Such a course would do more harm than good both to education and to
It would distinctly lower the plane of discussion and bring into it
and antagonisms which would be harmful in the extreme.
If all the
members of our great Fraternity can be roused to the sense of personal
and made to feel that each one of them has a sacred duty to perform and
cannot rest until he has performed it, we need not worry as his right
methods and measures.
Frederick Hamilton, Grand Secretary, Massachusetts.
* * *
Nevada Masonry is Strong
for the Public Schools
dawn when man first realized that light and more light would make his
his life broader and his heart happier, he has as with tentacles
reached out for
truth and more truth. Our present-day public school system has been
that hungering for knowledge. Susceptible of improvement though it be,
school system is the best on God's footstool and every man and woman,
affiliation or creed, if he or she desires to realize a dream of yet
should be back of, and ready with instant support for, the public
To the forbears
of Masonry were entrusted the arts and sciences of their day. Upon them
the duty of pointing the way to larger intellectual life. Such through
has been the big objective, the star that held the compass by which the
of present-day Masonry sailed through the storms that would surely have
them long years ago had their purpose been selfish and the ends of
the impetus that comes from Masonic traditions and history, teaching as
that Masons of the past have been the pathfinders, the pioneers in
development, surely Masonry of today is recreant to its trust unless
is alert to defend and support the public schools.
be aligned with the forces that seek the up-building of our educational
for Masonry can only prosper in the sunlight of education: its enemies
when the black hoodwink of ignorance clouds the vision of men and
women. In this
jurisdiction Masonry is strong for the public school.
Louis G. Campbell, Grand Master, Nevada.
* * *
Selection of Teachers is
of Greatest Importance
school question in this country is a live one and every red-blooded
be vitally interested in it. But the public school is absolutely in no
its friends or its enemies. It is the basis upon which are founded our
and it will survive all opposition. True, the system occasionally needs
improving and directing. Of this there can be no doubt. In the present
day the tendency
to drift away from fundamentals is the result of over anxiety on the
part of its
friends. This, however, is only temporary. As a system it will soon
regain its equilibrium
and it will continue to go forward in its chosen field.
legislation for the benefit of the public schools should be undertaken
greatest care, and its only aim should be to improve the personnel of
force. After all is said and done the teacher is the school and stands
than expensive equipment and fine buildings. Guard well the entrance to
ranks, and you will accomplish a work of the utmost importance.
Our law making
bodies everywhere are opened with prayer. How much more important it is
public schools should open each morning with a proper recognition of
Being. The reading of the Bible should not be denied to the teacher who
worth and its usefulness in impressing upon pupils the highest standard
and upright living.
F. A. Jeter, Grand Master, Idaho.
* * *
Religion Cannot be Taught
in the Public Schools.
Man is a
gregarious animal. For self-preservation gregarious creatures have
the lower animals these leaders occupy their position by physical
force: the leadership
with man is on a different plane to that of the unthinking creature
instinct; his leadership is, or should be, based upon reason. The
out of reason are so varied and numerous that it becomes necessary in
order to bring
about the greatest success that not a few but all of society must in as
measure as possible be qualified to become leaders of at least one of
a time it was mainly the Church that took charge of preparing or
for leadership. That a sufficient number of people were not educated
system to carry on these activities past and present history confirms.
then for self-preservation instituted public schools. Individuals or
are loath to surrender what power they may possess, hence the
antagonism of the
Church to the public schools. Individuals recognizing their interest in
have as of yore aided in the work of educating. Since nations that
foster the public
schools are the most prosperous and efficient we must conclude such
beneficial and should be preserved.
is power." The best safeguard against the improper use of that power is
force. Some religions do not separate morals from religion. Our
grants no preference to any religion; therefore we cannot teach
religion in the
public schools. The morals of our country are as good as those of any
We therefore conclude the public schools are not destructive of morals.
L. Kirby, Grand Master, Arkansas.
* * *
The Public School is Confronted
by Three Ruffians.
It is needless
to affirm the statement that all Freemasons must of necessity do
everything in their
power to support and uphold the public school system. However, just at
time, our public school system is passing through the most serious
it has ever had to face. The present widespread complaint in regard to
brought this subject squarely before every right-thinking citizen.
three classes of people who are fighting the public school system; the
the penurious, and the ignorant. In our state, the Lutheran and the
churches have joined hands, after fighting each other for 400 years,
and are carrying
a case to the Supreme Court of the United States in an endeavor to
language law. The second class, almost as dangerous as the first, does
to furnish adequate school buildings and equipment and fight every move
the schools. They, together with the third class, who have very little
if any education
themselves, and do not care whether their children have an equal chance
in the world
with others or not, continually object to the payment of reasonable
teachers, to proper medical supervision of the children, and to all
forms of sanitation.
The whole question resolves itself, as I see it, as to whether we are
brother's keeper" or not. Are we willing that our brother's children
have the same advantage and opportunity in the world as ours? Who can
worth of a child in dollars and cents? It is a time, in my judgment,
for every red-blooded
American-loving Mason to endeavor to see that the public school system
in every manner in his community, keeping distinctly in mind the
thought that we
ought to be for America first and not America last.
Lewis E. Smith, Grand Master, Nebraska.
* * *
Masonry at Work in Oregon.
on the public school question are embodied in the following Official
I issued to the constituent lodges of this Grand Jurisdiction under
date of February
promotion and extension of our free public school system is a logical
Masonic activity. The progress of every initiate in Masonry is one of
from darkness to light. Light and knowledge are synonymous terms in
history of public school education is closely interwoven with the
history of Masonic
progress, and to these we owe in a great measure the wonderful progress
of our country.
Brother George Washington, among his many other great achievements,
of the first free schools in Virginia; Brother Franklin, the first free
Philadelphia; and Brother Dewitt Clinton, the free public school system
in the great
state of New York. All of these were and are revered as leaders in
have a strong and united nation everyone must assist in the promotion
education. This means the bringing of all children into the public
equality and fraternity will give us men and women who will maintain
a united nation.
Lodge, at its 70th Annual Communication, unanimously proclaimed this
the following unmistakable terms:
That we recognize
and proclaim our belief in the free and compulsory education of the
our nation in public primary schools supported by public taxation, upon
children shall attend and shall be instructed in the English language
regard to race or creed as the only sure foundation for the
perpetuation and preservation
of our free institutions, guaranteed by the Constitution of the United
we pledge the efforts of the membership of this body to promote by all
the organization, extension and development to the highest degree of
and to oppose any and all efforts of any and all who seek to limit,
or destroy the public school system of our land.
the 71st Annual Communication the Grand Lodge, by resolution,
recommended your Grand
Master to use his influence and authority in support of our free and
educational system, and unanimously approved the Towner-Sterling Bill
to the Smith-Towner Bill) providing for a Department of Education. Our
stands alone among the world's great nations as having no separate
in its national government.
that I am only expressing the views of every thoughtful Mason, I invite
each lodge in this Grand Jurisdiction to set apart and devote one
during the month of February as a Public School Night. I suggest that
speakers be secured to present to the lodges the great importance of
the qualifications of those who may be called to administer our school
also the merits of the Towner-Sterling Bill as a national program for
This should also include an opportunity for a discussion by the
brethren, of all
matters affecting our educational system in open lodge. I furthermore
that each lodge appoint a committee to investigate and report upon the
and needs of the schools in its particular district and also to serve
as a means
of communication between school authorities and the lodges.
compliance with the recommendations of the Grand Lodge your attention
to this most important matter, and you are directed to read this
at the first communication following its receipt and to file a report
of the action
taken with your District Deputy Grand Master.
Frank S. Baillie, Grand Master, Oregon.
* * *
Believes That the V. S.
L. Should be Taught in Every School.
school system of the different states in the Union is of the gravest
to the whole country. It is the place where, in large measure, the
and plans of our children are molded. If America is to remain a free
rising generation must be properly taught. When we look about us and
inroads that have been made by an insidious foe against the freedom of
it should arouse every man, woman and child to an earnest purpose to do
his or her
part to throttle this beast.
in the free and compulsory education of the children of the nation, and
public schools should be supported by taxation. I believe that the
Educational Bill should have the hearty support of every right thinking
woman in this country. I believe that the Holy Bible, that great light
should be taught in every public school in the whole nation, especially
in the state
colleges and universities. I believe that every public school teacher
required by law to qualify to teach the Bible. I believe that the
should be the only language taught in our public schools.
who seek our shores from foreign parts are not willing to adopt our
send them back from whence they came or let them go where they can find
a more congenial
people. We want one language, one people!
I am irrevocably
in favor of the separation of church and state.
P.H. Murphy, Grand Master, Mississippi.
* * *
Each State Should Adjust
its School System to its Own Resources
public school is of supreme importance throughout our country is, I
take it, generally
conceded. In a republic where government derives its powers from the
policies are determined and laws enacted by the representatives of the
is vitally important that the electorate should be educated. But just
how far the
state should go, how wide in scope the curriculum of the schools should
it appear to me, be left to the people in the several states to
determine. A populous
state with ample means at its command would naturally be expected to
on its school buildings, pay better salaries to its teachers, and
provide for a
greater number of schools of the higher grades than could a state
and with less means. The question then of the "public school" is one to
be determined primarily by the ability of the community to pay.
IN our state
we have a splendid school system. In the city in which I live the
School Board has
the taxing power and I believe that both the state and the city are,
the enormous burdens of taxation we are all bearing, doing all that
should be done
in the way of giving education to the masses. I do not believe that the
yet come when the state ought to attempt to give university education
to all the
boys and girls. A high school education is ample equipment for the
of the duties of citizenship and I think the every-day happenings of
that high school boys make as good a showing in business and in the
as do university graduates.
Abraham M. Beitler, Grand Master, Pennsylvania.
* * *
Sectarian Schools are a
Thing of the Past
To be tolerant
is a cardinal principle of Masonry and one of the most blessed virtues
especially in the matter of being considerate of the opinions of
others, but it
ceases to be a virtue the moment it fails to hold to principles that
will be of
the most benefit to the majority.
situation as we do, it seems incredible that the public school system,
such as we
have in the United States and parts of Central Europe, should have an
but the fact remains nevertheless that educational legislation, both
state and national,
meets with its share of opposition.
condition is attributed partly to the matter of economy, we believe
is negligible in comparison with other potent factors. The burden of
on those most able to pay, except in a minority of cases, which is a
and could not be otherwise; and while most tax payers believe it to be
prerogative to complain about the payment of taxes, it is the ignorant
who find fault with judicious expenditure of public funds for
It is gratifying
to know that those at the head of corporations employing large numbers
of men are
rapidly learning that the best results are not obtained by employing
the lowly and
ignorant from Southern Europe and the Orient, because it is through
this class of
workmen that the unscrupulous agitator gets his living and creates
strife and dissension
between the employer and employee and is detrimental to both. This
cannot be accomplished
among the more enlightened classes of workmen because they do their own
When the thinking is done by the masses, peace and harmony usually
prevail and employer
and employee are benefited thereby.
or sectarian schools should be given great credit for the excellent
work they have
done in the past. They made education possible at times when it could
not have otherwise
been obscure when there were no others. They pioneered in advance of
school, but we believe their period of usefulness is at an end,
our country. Humanity has always been benefited with conveniences
suitable to the
particular period, but conveniences of one period are often found to be
E.R. Gibson, Grand Master, Utah.
* * *
The American Public School
is the Greatest of all Educational Institutions.
In a republic
such as ours where the people are under a Constitution that is the
source of all
power, and where it was intended that through their chosen
should enact and administer all laws governing our civic relations both
and information in the masses are essential to our prosperity and to
as a national entity.
of intellect is a natural impossibility, but through education all
the class of feeble-mindedness may be brought to a point where they can
exercise the rights of citizens.
public school system was evolved for the purpose of giving to the youth
of our land
the opportunity to acquire the foundation at least for a superstructure
that would enable them to intelligently perform their duties as
It has been
improved by time and experience until it has reached the point where it
the head of all the basic educational systems in the world and it is
No one claims
that it is perfect ‒ being a human institution no one expects
perfection ‒ but those
who rail against it offer nothing in its stead that can compare with it
in the results
accomplished or in promises for the future.
public school system has been charged in some quarters with
inflexibility, and with
measuring all growing intellects with the same yardstick; but the
products of our
grammar and high schools have shown an adaptability to conditions, and
of talents, that compare most favorably with those from private and
It has also
been charged with being Godless in that neither the catechism nor the
saints are chanted as an opening exercise for the day; but here again
of our criminal courts show that the pupils and the graduates of the
school are less addicted to infractions of the decalogue than are those
opposition agencies which are loudest in their condemnations.
many charges against the public school system, one is conspicuous by
It has never been accused of inculcating disloyalty to our government,
to the emblem of our nationality, nor a divided allegiance between the
land in which
we live and any other government, power or potentate.
Lucius Dills, Grand Master, New Mexico.
* * *
Masonry Should Take an Active
Interest in the Public Schools.
of "Freemasonry's Attitude Toward the Public School System" might be
into two parts ‒ one being what the attitude actually is, and the other
I think that
Freemasonry's attitude toward our schools is in most ways quite similar
to the attitude
of the general public. It is to be hoped that Masons take a little more
in our schools than other people do, but neither Masons nor those who
are not Masons,
take the interest they should take.
have taken a special interest in our schools, and have carefully
studied our public
school system. Their attitude might be considered the attitude that
should take. In this probably the first point would be that Masons
should take a
more active interest in our school system, for the work our schools are
in accord with the ideas of Masonry. The schools spread knowledge,
truth and light.
The schools teach our children to be moral and upright, and to be good
Masonry teaches the higher things of life, and so do our public
schools. They help
fit our children for business, trades, and professions, but the right
kind of education
is also an education for better living and for culture.
teaching that is being done in our schools by giving extra help to
those who do
not learn readily should be commended by Masonry. This helps give an
in later life to those who would otherwise be under a handicap.
To put it
briefly I would say that Freemasonry should take an active and keen
our public schools. If we take this interest, we will learn what the
our schools are, and we will be able to help lead the way in solving
F. A. Holliday, Grand Master, Wyoming.
* * *
The Schools Should not be
Used for Propaganda Purposes.
I have been
a teacher in secondary schools for twenty-seven years. My opinion
way in which the public school system is functioning in this country
differ in viewpoint from most patrons of the public schools.
seems to have been gradually putting on the schools, or requiring of
them, the performance
of functions which a generation ago were well performed in the home. It
me that it is putting too heavy a task on the teacher to expect her to
child not only mental training but also moral and spiritual training as
omit physical training, which the school needs to give in order that
the child may
be trained mentally, in naming those activities the parent has
relegated to the
teacher. Personally I would hold the teacher to her task of providing
and a broad outlook on life ‒ a means of orientation by which the boy
or girl may
find himself when he enters his life work. And I would not consider it
to provide him with a code of good morals or with a practical religion,
expect the home to be responsible for these most necessary elements of
a stood education.
Just a word
regarding the use of the schools to promote this or that desirable end,
a use which
was very extensive during the great war and has not entirely ceased
even yet, and
which remains in the form of the various "weeks" that schools are
on to advertise. All this activity intrudes upon the real object of
school, and in addition to hindering this aim, it is most insidious in
for no teacher wishes to appear uninterested in these worthy movements.
I wish to
register a firm protest against using the school for propaganda
citizens are of course deeply interested in the progress of the public
They can do much to help this progress. They can insist on generous
for school purposes. No school unit in the country, probably, is at
liberally enough to its public school system. Masons can make it their
business to see that the school administration is efficient and that
the funds are
wisely expended. They can visit the schools and learn at first hand how
are doing their work, the work for which all the citizens are paying.
Why not have
a private committee of Masons who shall make it their business, as
citizens of course,
to see that the school system is what it ought to be?
have a statement. And I have relieved my mind for once of a few of the
A.S. Harriman, Grand Master, Vermont.
* * *
Us to Heed President Harding's Warning.
school question should be paramount in the minds of the American
people. It has
been truly said that "Education is a better safeguard to our liberties
a standing army."
are living in a commercial age. Everything seems to be weighed and
measured by the
"Gold Standard." We are prone to forget that the strength, support and
supremacy of our Democracy depends on the virtue, intelligence, and
its people. Governments may rise and flourish but will surely decay if
they do not
recognize this fact. Vice, crime, prejudice, ignorance and superstition
handmaids to anarchy and bolshevism.
school is the foundation stone of the liberties and the bulwark of our
Harding is quoted as saying, "The Education of the American child has
below the standard necessary for the protection of our future." If this
true, it is high time that we arouse ourselves from our lethargy and
to the needs of our educational system.
to maintain our high ideals as a nation, this government must take as
one of its
most pressing and serious problems the question of education. Our
not have done its full duty until every child in the United States
shall be guaranteed
not only Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness but an equal
develop mentally and physically to the highest possible degree.
Let us give
more freely of our thought, service, and substance in developing and
a higher, broader, better and more practical system of education.
‒ W. F. Weiler, Grand Master,
* * *
is the Uncompromising Foe of Ignorance and Superstition.
as the uncompromising foe of ignorance and superstition Masonry has
ever been a
consistent advocate of education and religious tolerance. Combatting
of darkness and bigotry with enlightened reason she early became the
schools for the diffusion of light and knowledge, and in the growth and
of these schools the resultant public school system of America today
stands as a
monument to Masonic patronage and influence. Our schools are, and must
be, a source
of pride to every Mason; but proud as we are of our schools, we cannot
sit back and view the work accomplished with a feeling of satisfaction
and let it
end there. Having made education possible to the humblest child in our
land we must
see to it that the opportunity is not wasted or the child robbed of its
While the doors of the schools are thrown open to rich and poor alike,
are who by reason of ill health, limited means, or living at a distance
to avail themselves of their educational opportunities. These
possible, must be removed and the child of the poor given every
facility to pursue
his studies on an equal footing with his more fortunate neighbor. If
are lacking let us supply them; if clothing is needed have the child
clad; and if undernourished provide good, wholesome food. Medical
also be maintained by the schools to keep the children physically fit
studies. Those living at a distance should have free transportation to
school, and for the sickly and crippled home study given commensurate
strength and ability. Where assistance from the child is required for
of the family pensions for the mothers, especially those who are
widowed, must remove
citizenship of our country is now in the making in our public schools
and if the
highest type is to be developed equality of opportunity must become an
fact and not a theory. In short, until the state is prepared to take
stand that the child not only belongs to the state but is its chief
asset and is
therefore entitled to be clothed and fed, if need be, as well as
educated at the
expense of the state, we must, as Masons, see to it that facilities for
are made available to every child in our land and that our schools are
at the highest efficiency, under the control and domination of the
state alone and
uninfluenced by sectarian or political interference.
To this end
we must scrutinize closely the personnel of the school board and elect
members as are in sympathy with these ideals; pay salaries adequate to
required in order to attract men and women of education, refinement and
to the teaching profession; and encourage intelligent cooperation
between the citizens,
school board and teachers.
some of the essential requirements if equality of opportunity is to be
in our public school system. To be sure it means greater expense and
but what Mason worthy the name will object to bearing his part of the
the money is intelligently spent for the welfare and development of our
‒ Louis G. Moyers, Grand Master,
* * *
is Pledged to Active Co-Operation with Public Schools
of the sympathetic feeling, and indeed active co-operation, of the
with the public schools of our country is evidenced by the physical
appearing in the cornerstones laid for practically every substantial
throughout the country.
buildings used for Masonic purposes, all classes of buildings for which
cornerstones may be grouped under buildings pertaining to the church,
and the public schools. The engraved emblem of our Fraternity appearing
on the public
school buildings and the public ceremony in connection therewith, ought
to be convincing
evidence to all people of the interest and concern which our Fraternity
that great institution. However, those who are not members of the Order
may be assured
that the ceremony and emblem is but the outward expression of the
feelings and conceptions, desires and wishes, of our Order toward the
and maintaining of our great public school system.
One of the
fundamental principles of our Order is education, and throughout our
words and impressive emblems, we strive to impress upon the candidates
of striving to acquire useful knowledge. It therefore may be
confidently said that
so long as our great Order continues, with the vigorous and fair-minded
of which it is now composed, the public schools of our land will not
only have a
friend and defender, but will have back of it a force which will
overcome all obstructions,
and insure the perpetuity and efficiency of our public schools.
Samuel T. Spears. Grand Master, West Virginia.
* * *
Carolina Is Solidly Behind The Public Schools.
Lodge of South Carolina, Ancient Free Masons, recognizes and proclaims
in the free and compulsory education of the children of our nation, in
schools, supported by public taxation, upon which all children shall
be instructed in the English language only, without respect to race or
the only sure agency for the perpetuation and preservation of the free
guaranteed by the Constitution of this great country.
I feel that
all Masons are ready to pledge their efforts to promote by all lawful
organization, extension and development of such schools, and to oppose
of any and all who seek to limit, curtail, hinder or destroy the public
of our land.
I feel that
the sentiments above are shared by every Mason.
J. Campbell Bissell, Grand Master, South Carolina.
* * *
of the Public Schools are the Enemies of the Nation.
In my opinion
Freemasonry has no attitude toward the public schools. Instead, we have
relationship with the public schools. An attitude is a state of mind,
while a relationship
implies duties. Freemasonry has the duty of protecting and preserving
of our government.
from time immemorial has laid stress upon the fact that Masons are
Masons everywhere are pointed to with pride mainly because of their
their country's welfare.
In my opinion
there is no greater patriotic duty incumbent upon Masons of today than
to see that
our public schools are preserved, increased, strengthened and protected.
of its citizens is the paramount duty of the government of a republic
or a democracy.
Each citizen is an integral part of the government itself, and as such
we must enlighten
and educate him so that he will be worthy of exercising those powers
which are the birthright of every American.
is the greatest bulwark the country possesses against radicalism,
in government, and the other great dangers that at this time are
institutions and our national unity.
of these facts it comes to my mind that there can be no greater field
to which the Masonic fraternity can lay its hand, than that great work
and Masons who have been asleep for the last quarter of a century, as
far as public
school matters are concerned, should be now awake. The enemies of the
system have thrown off the cowardly cloak of darkness under which they
for so many years, and now, confident in the strength of their
adherents, are openly
attacking the cause of free schools and free education in the halls of
legislatures, and, sorry to say, also in the halls of the United States
and the Senate.
Let the Doubting
Thomas read records of petitions and speeches made and presented to the
in relation to the Towner-Sterling Bill.
is time for each and every member of the Fraternity worthy of the name
to lay his
hand to the plow and dedicate his time and energies to the cause of
that the cardinal principles of free speech, free press, and separation
and state, which are the bedrock of our liberties, may be forever
of the public schools is an enemy of this nation. An enemy of this
nation is my
enemy and yours. We have evaded the issue long enough. Let us now take
up the fight.
Charles H. Ketchum, Grand Master, Florida.
* * *
Americanization Program our one Hope.
must always champion the public schools of America. As true American
to the Washingtons and McKinleys, we are bound to encourage that vital
peculiar to our country.
during the war that in spite of our boasted free schools there was far
illiteracy ‒ too many people not properly equipped for citizenship ‒
too many people
not acquainted with the literature that makes patriots. How can the man
not read for himself the history of our land have his heart thrill at
of our glorious emblem? True, he may have heard through spoken word and
to help, but this is not enough. We must try to have all our people
and the only available way is to see to it that our schools are more
and more better
equipped with proper buildings and well trained teachers. To this end
we must insist
that funds shall not be appropriated for educational institutions not
free to all;
and furthermore, these schools, our schools, should be open alike, as
accommodate the children of all without menacing in any way the
religious bent of
of the thousands who come to our shores ignorant of "The American
ignorant of our language and our law, our only hope is in the fact that
must go to school. Every foreign born person ought to go to our schools
for a greater
or less length of time. This refers not only to children, but to adults
attend schools for citizenship. Our only hope in a real Americanization
is that Freemasonry and other like institutions shall stand firmly by a
that shall reach every individual.
Freemasonry must insist on a high standard for teachers. We must have
men and women
in our schools of such high character ‒ character that is culture,
honor and high
ideals ‒ that they can inspire a manhood and womanhood of which America
Let us as
Freemasons always remember that we are at all times to be true to the
ideals that are destined to bless mankind forever.
F. W. Ransbottom, Grand Master, Ohio.
The Balsams of God -- [A Poem]
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
I go down into the house
Where pain sits sullen in the dark,
And near him, bent and dread and stark,
Lean misery sits, which is his spouse;
When these two tie me round with bands,
And wrap me round and round with pains,
And pour their poison through my veins,
And ashes throw on brows and hands;
When there I lie, alone and drear,
The many-hampered slave of ill,
'Tis then there comes that inward thrill
Which telleth me that Thou art near:
Then o'er me fall, around, above,
The many balsams of Thy love.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
General Thomas Nelson
figure, an unselfish man, and a patriot in the days of the Colonies was
Thomas Nelson, a signer of the Declaration, the friend of Washington
of John Marshall, La Fayette and the Randolphs. General Nelson was born
County, Virginia, in 1738, and died there in 1789; and his grave is
father was, for many years, president of the colonial council, and was
circumstances. Nelson was sent to England in his 14th year, and was
Trinity College, Cambridge. He was married at the age of twenty-four,
and made his
home at Yorktown, where he spent a good deal of his time in pleasure.
He was a member
of the provincial council in 1774-5-6 and was in the council which
framed the constitution
of Virginia; and it was Thomas Nelson who offered the resolution
Virginia delegates in Congress to propose a Declaration of Independence.
He was elected
a delegate to Congress, and he signed the Declaration of Independence
on the 4th
of July, 1776.
health obliged him to resign his seat in Congress in 1777. In the
however, when Admiral Howe of the Royal Navy came inside the capes of
Thomas Nelson was commissioned a general officer and was ordered to
Virginia forces. Later he raised a troop of cavalry which he took to
But still later he resumed his seat in the legislature.
much opposed to the sequestration of the property of the British on the
it would be unjust retaliation of public wrongs on private individuals.
In 1779 he
again took his seat in Congress, but soon broke down in health and had
resign. The following May he was suddenly called into active service
he organized a militia to repel the ravages occurring on the Virginia
called for contributions to provide for the French fleet and armament,
the Virginia Legislature borrowed $2,000,000; and to help meet this
Nelson pledged his fortune, as did others at the time. He never
recovered from the
losses he met then, and died poor.
Jefferson as Governor of the State in 1781, during which incumbency he
to assume dictatorial powers in order to repel the British invasion:
but he had
the satisfaction of living to see his drastic acts approved by the
in the siege of Yorktown as commander of militia, and directed that his
the largest in Yorktown, be bombarded.
1781, he resigned, and passed the rest of his life in retirement.
cornerstone of the Washington monument was laid in Richmond about the
the then Grand Master of Masons, Robert G. Scott, said:
campaign of this year is ever memorable for the capture of Cornwallis
In that village was lodge No. 9, where, after the siege was ended,
Fayette, Marshall and Nelson came together and by their union bore
to the beautiful tenets of Masonry."
no other records of the visit of Nelson to lodge No. 9 on that
occasion, but as
Grand Master Scott and hosts of other Masons were living at that time
a personal and intimate acquaintance with Nelson, there can be no
question of the
accuracy of the information.
statue was modeled by the great Crawford, and though it is called the
Statue, it is a memorial to Nelson, Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Mason and
It is mortifying
to think that the grave of Nelson is still unmarked. Two other signers
lie in unmarked
graves in Christ Church Yard, at Philadelphia; and they were Masons.
all winged expands,
Nor perches in a narrow place;
Her broad van seeks unplanted lands;
She loves a poor and virtuous race.
Clinging to a colder zone
Whose dark sky sheds the snow-flake down,
The snow-flake is her banner's star,
Her stripes the boreal streamers are.
Long she loved the Northman well;
Now the iron age is done,
She will not refuse to dwell
With the offspring of the Sun.
Federation of Labor and the Public School System
By Bro. Samuel Gompers,
President, American Federation of Labor
issue has been transformed into a forum of free opinion concerning the
to the end that readers may be enabled to view from many angles a
subject in which
Masons are peculiarly interested. In consonance with this aim we
Samuel Gompers, for many years now an active member of the Fraternity,
a statement from the point of view of organized labor. Brethren who may
in any way
wish to respond to any of his arguments, so refreshingly worded, may do
so in these
pages: if private correspondence is preferred letters may be forwarded
is well known and generally accepted that the public school system of
States was created because of the insistent demands of our pioneer
in the early part of last century."
from the report of the Executive Council of the St. Paul Convention in
the interest and the feeling of responsibility of American labor in the
system of the United States. Practically every convention of the
of Labor contains some resolution supporting extension of our
The pace was set in the first convention in 1881 with the following
"We are in favor of the passage
legislative enactments as will enforce, by compulsion, the education of
that if the state has the right to exact certain compliance with its
it is also the right of the state to educate its people to the proper
of such demands."
among the workers of this country will be found almost exclusively in
they have found no adequate means of expression because they have not
to effect economic organization. Wherever and whenever they become
organization, the workers have demanded and forwarded their hope for a
for the coming generations through access to educational facilities for
children of the country, as well as for adults who have been denied
them in their
read the proceedings of the American Federation of Labor from year to
find in them most interesting and conclusive evidence that the American
is abreast or perhaps in advance of similar efforts made by the working
any other country. I have on my desk now a pamphlet just compiled
for All," which is an official record of the American Federation of
the struggle to bring knowledge to the masses.
under which convention proceedings are grouped indicate the progress of
in education, a step in advance following each accomplishment. This
was not intentional, merely following chronological order, as follows:
Education, Free Textbooks, Character of Textbooks, Size of Classes,
Tenure of Position, Democracy in Education, Training for Citizenship,
Teaching of English, Special Classes, Adaptation to Modern Conditions,
Education, Wider Use of School Plant, Housing, A Department of
Education and Federal
Aid, Teachers as Citizens, Night Schools, Continuation Schools,
Vocational Guidance, Labor Representation on Board of Education,
Teachers, Reorganization of the Schools, School Revenues, Technical
by Unions, Labor Colleges.
this accomplishment I feel that we are, after all, only at the
threshold of education.
A great part of my life and energy has been devoted to combatting
about the attitude of organized labor with reference to every sort of
economic questions. These questions have increased in number and in
the development of industrial civilization. The need for efficient
for our boys and girls is now more urgent than ever before. Nor is the
need of educational
training for greater efficiency confined to the factory or the shops;
it is manifest
in home life and in demands for instruction in domestic economy.
It may be
helpful here to give expression to my personal philosophy of education:
runs along with the current of life. The goal of education may be
like this ‒ to make the individual conscious of his own resources, that
he may be
able to release and control the force that is his personality.
text does not mean that education of those who earn wages is a problem
to be considered
separately from the general field of education of other groups of
rather to get the complete scope of the whole from the point of view of
work in industry. Education ought not to separate the individual from
his neighborhood, or his nation, but ought to enable him to contribute
to life as
it goes on around him, to give him the feeling of "belonging" that
the alien from the associate.
or the period of formal education, seeks to give the individual the
tools or the
technique of finding and using himself. All too generally our schools
organized on the wholesale basis with wholesale results. They have
not individuals. Similar mechanistic methods prevail in shops or
the domination of machinery means the submergence and dwarfing of
the joy and purpose of work and life. This is all wrong, as we in the
know, and to correct these conditions is one of the objectives of our
The labor movement stands for opportunity for natural development of
It is not our function to work out the detailed plans to get that
result, but we
have an understanding of the fundamentals that must underlie any plan.
has taught us that through mutual associations we find opportunity to
utilize individuality. Association does not limit rights and
opportunities for individuals,
but establishes and assures them. Association develops responsibility.
of ours in life and work ought to find a place in the minds of those
school education, if that education is to help students to more
We Must Make Labor an Educative
of education upon which the labor movement can speak authoritatively
is that which comes through productive processes. Present day
production has come
under the mechanistic influences of the repetitive process and machine
Such influences do not lead to education. The management must devise
enable even those doing repetitive work to use their brains. Such
becomes an educational force. It brings opportunity and new desire into
Use of brains means skill ‒ creative activity, better quality of work.
this result which from one point of view is altruistic, is also sound
from the business
point of view. Management which releases human creative force, has
most important single factor in production. It brings the individual
into the production
purpose ‒ gives him the feeling of "belonging."
worker cannot secure for himself this educational work opportunity.
That can come
only through the understanding cooperation of management and the work
human side of production is only now being appreciated. Some of the
which are for the technical training of those who become managers in
included consideration of what is called "human engineering." Labor
that the day is not far distant when no technical man will assume
of directing work who is ignorant of the problems of cooperation with
beings who furnish the necessary labor power. Unfortunately, the great
of the experts with whom we come in contact know only machines and
‒ they do not know human beings.
we do and have is ultimately for the service of humans. Service is the
for existence. If educational institutions will help to establish this
purpose as the directing control in every activity, it will open the
way for immeasurable
increase in the power of every individual.
In this work
I have sometimes felt that the presumption is always against labor ‒
that it is
always assumed as a matter of course that labor is by a sort of
and strange blindness opposed to everything, including everything that
is for its
own best interests. Sometimes it is assumed that this opposition is due
to a pernicious
temperament on the part of labor leaders and sometimes that it is due
ignorance and incapacity to understand complex social conditions. The
essentially honest and sincere, and permit me to assure you that the
degree of their
ignorance is not so great as the presumptuous and supercilious often
assume it to
know that organized labor does not oppose the development of industrial
in the public schools. Indeed, that would not at all fairly indicate
of organized labor.
constituting the American Federation of Labor have been for years
engaged in the
work of systematically providing industrial education to their members.
has been given through the medium of the trade union journals and
and maintained by them.
labor has opposed and will continue to oppose some enterprises which
have been undertaken
in the name of industrial education. It has opposed and will continue
the exploitation of the laborer even when that exploitation is done
under the name
of industrial education. It may continue to regard with indifference,
if not with
suspicion, some private schemes of industrial education. With regard to
where they are instituted by employers, with a single eye to the profit
employers, organized labor is from Missouri ‒ it will have to be shown
given enterprise is not a means of exploiting labor ‒ a means of
by creating an oversupply of labor in certain narrow fields of
Organized Labor Is Opposed
To Lopsided Education
labor cannot favor any scheme of industrial education which is lopsided
‒ any scheme,
that is to say, which will bring trained men into any given trade
to the demand for labor in that trade. Industrial education must
maintain a fair
and proper apportionment of the supply of labor power to the demand for
in every line of work. Otherwise, its advantages will be entirely
for example, the result of industrial education is to produce in any
greater number of trained machinists than are needed in the community,
which have been trained cannot derive any benefit from their training
will not be able to find employment except at economic disadvantage.
conditions industrial education is of no advantage to those who have
and it is a distinct injury to the journeymen working at the trade who
to a keen competition artificially produced. Industrial education must
needs of the workers as well as the requirements of the employer.
I can see
that in some respects the most difficult task before industrial
education is that
of maintaining an equilibrium of supply and demand of efficient
artisans, an equilibrium
as nearly perfect as physically possible. How shall this most difficult
be solved? How shall such an equilibrium of labor supply and demand be
and industrial education entirely freed from any suspicion of working
labor by causing a maladjustment of supply to demand?
to these questions seems obvious. There is in my opinion only one way
in which to
avoid this difficulty ‒ only one way in which to avoid the danger of
injury to labor ‒ working injury in spite of the very best intentions
way to avoid working an injury to labor under the name of industrial
to find out what is the demand for labor. Industrial education should
be in every
instance based upon the survey of the industries ‒ upon an accumulation
regarding the employments. Upon such a basis the public schools may
to provide for the particular industrial needs and with such an
data in hand there can be no excuse if industrial education does not
prove to be
of undoubted benefit to labor and to the community.
We do not
wish to compete with Europe as the Chinese compete with the whole
world. We could
not do that and retain our standards and our self-respect. We could not
without adopting Chinese methods of work which would mean a minimum of
no recreation and a maximum of hours of labor. If we are not willing to
methods, we must adopt the weapon of industrial progress which has
nations to advance in material welfare in competition not only with the
but more specially in competition with the United States and with other
which have had available as a basis of industrial development vast
The period is almost past where the United States can depend upon cheap
obtained with comparatively little labor from its mines and virgin
fields. It is
entering upon a period when it must depend upon the qualities of human
these conditions industrial decline is the only alternative to
Do you think that organized labor is going to advocate a policy of
‒ a policy of competing on a basis of cheap labor, instead of trained
labor? Do you think it is going to advocate the adoption of Chinese
methods in its
competition with Europe? Let me assure you that the American workingman
accept any such solution of the problem. He will insist that
competition shall be
upon the basis not of cheap men but of intelligent, efficient, skilled,
which means that he will in the future, as he has done in the past,
instruction in our public schools be made democratic. In a word that
schools generally shall institute industrial education, and that that
shall be based upon an exhaustive study of industries to determine what
industrial training is required, and is most conducive to the physical,
material and social welfare of the workers, her citizenship, the
perpetuity of our
republic and the fulfillment of its mission as the leader in the
of the world.
"Friday Night Is 'Movie'
Night" At Logan, Utah, High School
aim in these weekly shows,' says Norman Hamilton, principal, 'is to
furnish to the
public good, clean motion pictures at a minimum cost; and to educate
to demand better films by teaching them visually what is good.' For the
a dime the visitor will be directed by a student-usher to a seat in an
up-to-date auditorium with a seating capacity of 700. First comes an
reel, then a comedy, and then the feature, often based on some
well-known book or
some historical period. The difference between this entertainment and
that of any
other 'movie' theatre lies in the attitude of the audience and the
the program. The financial side has been entirely successful. The
students are prepared
in the classroom for any film of the evening program that needs
such as a film based on a classic or having historical background."
Journal of Education, January 19, 1922, p. 61.
M.S.A. Bulletin No. 8.
Masonic Ideal of Equality May be Realized in Our Public Schools
By Bro. William F. Russell
Dean of the College of
earliest times it has been the hope of all good Masons that the time
come when all men would have an unfettered start and a free field in
the race of
life; when the station arrived at, the honors and dignities won, and
shouldered by man would be proportionate to the honest labor, the
and tried capabilities of the man himself, rather than to accidents of
wealth. Thus we look back with respect to the time when our three chief
were the great and wise King of Israel, the powerful and wealthy King
of Tyre, and
the humble son of a poor Phoenician widow who had won his high station
own great abilities, his high character, and his faithful breast. These
in power at the building of the temple, indicate the hopes and
ambitions of our
Fraternity: ‒ more light for the common man; relief for the poor
brother, his widow and orphans; downfall to the oppressor of whatever
liberty, equality and fraternity for all. We meet on the level. In
travel the same path. No royal roads lead the way, nor are favors
granted to the
powerful or prosperous. One must be a man, free-born, of lawful age and
and a believer in a Supreme Being.
Nor has Masonry
ever rested content only with its hopes. It is and has been a working
striving not only to teach its beliefs, but to put them into practice.
A man who
does not practice his Masonry deserves no reward. Albert Pike, in
referring to this
says: "It is because Masonry imposes upon us these duties that it is
and significantly styled work; and he who imagines that he becomes a
Mason, by merely
taking the first two or three degrees, and that he may, having
upon that small elevation, thenceforward worthily wear the honors of
labor or exertion, or self-denial or sacrifice, and that there is
nothing to be
done in Masonry, is strangely deceived." (1)
of our Country, most of them Masons, worked and acted as such. Thus
and the framers of the Declaration of Independence re-affirmed their
belief in the
self-evident fact that all men are created free and equal, and that all
rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. John Mason wrote
Bill of Rights, specifying and qualifying the equality of man before
the law, the
incorporation of which in our Constitution at a later date became a
factor in the ratification of that document by the various states.
Paul Revere, George Washington, and John Marshall in their acts and
the work of a Mason, striving to make our country a place where men
were to be equal,
where they were to have equal opportunities and equal justice, where
man should hold the reins of power, where our leaders should rise from
of life alike "whose genius and not their ancestry should ennoble
It was the work of men like these that kept our country from being one
virtue is persecuted and vice rewarded; where the righteous starve for
the wicked live sumptuously and dress in purple and fine linen; where
rules, and learning and genius serve; where King and Priest trample on
the rights of conscience; where freedom hides in caves and mountains,
and servility fawn and thrive; where the cry of the widow and the
for want of food, and shivering with cold, rises ever to heaven from a
hovels; where men willing to labor and starving, they and their
children and the
wives of their bosoms, beg plaintively for work when the pampered
his mills; where the law punishes her who, starving, steals a loaf, and
seducer go free; where the success of a party justifies murder, and
rapine go unpunished; and where he who with many years cheating and
faces of the poor grows rich, receives office and honor in life, and
brave funeral and a splendid mausoleum." (2)
We Must Earn Our Own Progress
of our Order is the conviction that no matter how bad things are, they
are not all
bad; and conversely, no matter how good they are, they are not all
good; that we
hope there is a gentle progression from the bad toward the good, that
is in prospect, but only by our own endeavors. We may not rest. We may
for complete satisfaction. We must strive onward and upward.
It is also
true that as time goes on, new opportunities for work present
themselves, and the
consummation of old ideals may take a new direction. Consider the
matter of education
and schooling. We Masons have long believed that men should have an
that positions of influence should be awarded on account of merit and
not on account of heredity or wealth. As was well said: "To diffuse
information, to further intellectual refinement, sure forerunner of
to hasten the coming of the great day, when the dawn of general
chase away the lazy, lingering mists of ignorance and error, even from
of the great social pyramid, is indeed a high calling, in which the
talents and consummate virtue may well press onward, eager to bear a
the Masonic ranks ought to go forth those whose genius and not their
them, to open to all ranks the temple of science, and by their own
example to make
the humblest men emulous to climb steps no longer inaccessible, and
enter the unfolded
gates burning in the sun." (3)
Only a half
century ago this idea was brought forth and urged on all good Masons as
a part of
their work. In Chapter Ten of his Morals and Dogma, [Lib 1871] Albert Pike urges upon us the
of giving education and the opportunities for education to all, to
to break down superstition, to quiet turbulence, to bring more light to
man. This is in accord with our belief. That is what we wish for today.
should take the lead," he says, "in the truly noble task of
his countrymen, and leaving his own name encircled, not with barbaric
or attached to courtly gewgaws, but illustrated by the honors most
worthy of our
rational nature; coupled with the diffusion of knowledge, and
by a few, at least, whom his wise benefit has rescued from ignorance
This being the case, we are told, "if a lodge cannot aid in founding a
or academy it can still do something. It can educate one boy or girl,
the child of some poor departed brother. And it never should be
in the poorest unregarded child that seems abandoned to ignorance and
vice may slumber
the virtues of a Socrates, the intellect of a Bacon or a Bossuet, the
a Shakespeare, the capacity to benefit mankind of a Washington; and
that in rescuing
him from the mire in which he is plunged, and giving him the means of
and development, the lodge that does it may be the direct and immediate
conferring upon the world as great a boon as that given it by John
Faust the boy
of Mentz; may perpetuate the liberties of a country and change the
nations, and write a new chapter in the history of the world. For we
the importance of the act we do. The daughter of Pharaoh little thought
was doing for the human race, and the vast unimaginable consequences
upon her charitable act, when she drew the child of the Hebrew woman
the rushes that grew along the bank of the Nile, and determined to rear
it as if
it were her own."
in the time of Albert Pike was merely to try to add a drop or two to
the empty bucket
by private enterprise or lodge initiative; to make in some small way
for differences in the prospects of children that were so prevalent. At
the public school system had not gotten a good start. Compulsory
education had not
been fully adopted. School terms were short. There were fewer than
in the public high schools. To secure a real chance for an education
a child had to be born of well-to-do parents who would help him out.
help was about the only means of assistance open to the man or Mason
in the welfare of all the People.
Times Have Changed
have changed. Today we have a well worked out system of schools,
than twenty-two million pupils. Nearly two million are in high school.
We have nearly
two hundred state supported normal schools. Nearly all the states, with
of a few in the East, have state universities. We have an educational
and open equally to all from the primary grades to the university. We
have a system
of education supported at public expense for the benefit of the
children of our
country, designed not for the wealthy, not for the privileged, but for
all of us
in proportion to our efforts and abilities.
considers that American public school system he is inclined to believe
at last one of Masonry's ideals has been achieved. The poor and rich
meet on equal
grounds. Everyone has a chance. All he needs is the ambition and the
stick to his task. He is apt to think that the promised day has come,
that the Word
hat been found, and that at last the king's child and the widow's son
are on equal
This is not
true. While we in America have made large strides toward a state of
affairs in which
all met are equal, where all children will have a free field and an
in the race of life, certain grave inequalities still remain, many of
which by public
effort and community interest we can eliminate.
opportunities are not equal from state to state. More than $59.00 was
pupil in Montana in 1918, while less than $8.00 was spent it
Mississippi. One state
for the support of schools raises more than $5.00 for every $1,000 of
market value of its wealth that was taxed, while another raises less
If New York were to tax itself for schools as heavily in proportion to
wealth as Tennessee it would raise five times as much per pupil and
raise ten times as much. Some states have twenty times as much invested
property per pupil as others; some pay their teachers five times as
much as others;
some have school terms three times as long; some care for the health of
some do not; some require regularly qualified teachers, others do not;
only one-room schools in rural districts, others consolidated schools;
and so on
through a long list of items. It remains a fact that today in the
of America many children are handicapped by being born in certain
others are favored. Some states remain poor educationally. No Mason
this condition to continue. No community should be allowed to give as
poor an education
as some school boards would desire. Some communities should not be
allowed to offer
as limited an education as the community can actually afford. Just as
in most of
our states we have come to a system of state subsidy for poor
districts, and certain
standardized state minimal requirements below which no community may
go; so we should
have national subsidy of education and certain national standards up to
must come. This is not a matter of politics. It is not a matter of
pride. It is
merely a guarantee by the nation that no child, on account of accidents
shall be deprived of his opportunity to serve his country and his
brother man in
the highest way of which he is capable. For this reason, every man
firmly for federal subsidy of education and federal control of
education up to the
point of aiding weaker sections of the country and setting certain
for all. We should agree to necessary amendment of the Towner-Sterling
long as the fundamental principles remain the same. But some form of
and resultant control should be secured. Here is work for all good
Nor can we
justly say that the American public school system entirely compensates
in wealth. The school is free, it is open to all; but so are the
mountains of Alaska
or the wonders of Honolulu. All we need is the money for
transportation, and food,
clothing and shelter after we get there. There are many children who,
poverty at home, are deprived of an education. Their parents cannot
afford to purchase
books; the work that they can do, especially those of high school age,
may be needed
at home. If the school is at some distance, transportation may be
beyond their means.
It costs a good deal to attend high school or college. A school system
free to all
may not be truly open equally to all. Here and there in our country we
toward the remedying of this condition. Many cities and a few rural
free text books. Payment of transportation is gradually being extended.
remits carfare to all state university students to and from school once
Scholarships are being provided. Correspondence courses are offered in
at nominal rates of tuition. Mother's pensions, widow's pensions and
the like are
found occasionally. Some schools give free lunches. Some require simple
inexpensive social events, so that poorer pupils may remain on even
funds, scholarships, and prizes are offered. Here is work for the good
man or Mason. We should use all our influence to see to it that no
poor, is deprived of a chance for schooling, of any grade to which his
and perseverance may entitle him. Encourage all efforts to compensate
of wealth at home. It may cost money, it may seem to be a fad or frill,
it may open the door of opportunity to some deserving soul, as Albert
Pike so eloquently
Study Courses for All
In a similar
way, we may say that the American school does not compensate for
the ambition of pupils. Just a few years ago, the boy or girl who could
with his hands was handicapped by being offered opportunity only to
languages or higher mathematics. Too often these pupils were condemned
the school that offered them no chance to display their talents or to
them the abilities that God had given. Today we find that most of our
offering wider opportunities, teaching homemaking and manual training,
music, art, commerce, and other vocational subjects. Students likely to
early are given special courses in the high school, far different from
college preparatory work. These subjects are being criticized. They
cost too much
money, say the critics. They are not well organized. Let us return to
the good old
days. Here is work for the good citizen, man or Mason. Keep a broad
are different. Pupils are not alike. You cannot give different people
an equal chance
if they are all treated alike. Only in differing courses can there be
in the original circumstances of pupils are being compensated for in
systems. We differ in ability. Some work quickly; others slowly. Why
have all kinds
in the same class, the bright develop habits of indolence and the dull
Thus we find varied systems of promotion, parallel classes, special
tests. Fad and frills they appear to some. Sources of expense they seem
to the over-burdened
taxpayer. In reality they are efforts to adjust educational
and as such they deserve our support.
also differences in health. Pupils go rapidly or slowly, progress or
fail, too often
as they are nourished or undernourished, as they can see or not, hear
or not, breathe
properly or not. Hookworm and trachoma in the mountain schools of the
closed the door of opportunity to many a noble soul. So we find medical
inspection and care in many school systems, all to give opportunity
it was denied.
of the public school system in the United States is a long story of
a condition where only the favored were given a chance toward an ideal
equally will have their chance. We are only part way on our way. Most
of the plan
is on the trestleboard. The masters are at work. The foundation has
been laid and
the superstructure is gradually taking form. But many columns and
lie about us. Many of the stones have not yet been taken from the
quarry. It is
for us to take up the unfinished work lying before us. It is for us to
the structure. If we will but weigh carefully our local situation,
advantages and disadvantages of proposals before our boards of
education, we may
at last achieve that which by our own endeavors and their assistance we
hopes to find.
So, to the
true Mason, the American public school system offers a tremendous field
It is one of the foundation stones of our liberty; it is dear to the
heart of the
American people. Today, while representing a distinct advance on our
system of former
years, and far in the lead of systems of other countries, nevertheless
it is only
partly doing its work. It is set about with indifferent patrons, with
control too often uneducated and unambitious, with short-sighted
watch-dogs of the
treasury. The advice given by Albert Pike half a century ago to support
and to assist in the foundation of schools and academies was splendid
in its day.
Our schools were then in the making. It had not then been determined
not a public high school could be a legal charge upon public funds. It
is for us
today rather to bend our efforts to assure these opportunities to all
of all the people, through the betterment of the American public school
lines suggested above.
Here is work
for all. Here is an opportunity for every good Mason. The organization
of our schools
is perfected. Few communities are without educational facilities. What
we need is
a guarantee that every boy or girl in our land shall have a chance to
education justified by his ability, his character, and his perseverance
of the state in which he lives, the financial circumstances of his
family, the type
of ability he has, whether he wants to work with his hands or head,
whether he is
quick or slow, sick or well. Let us assist the individual cases that
come to our
attention. Encourage our lodges to support pupils here and there. But
let us by
our public interest stand by our public schools so that in some future
education will be given that in a true sense will be open equally to
all. Then only
shall we be on the level. Then only in every instance will there be
help for the
widow's son. Thus by the "labor and exertion, self-denial and
of two and one-half million of us, may we worthily wear the honors of
(1) "Morals and
Dogma," p. 185.
(2) Idem, p. 288.
(3) Idem, p. 170.
* * *
Equip Pupils for Life in the Community
modern manner of life is due to the 'industrial revolution,' or in
other words the
establishment of human society on a basis of machine production, has
thought and habit of man more profoundly and universally than any
in his history since he first learned to use fire and make tools. The
of the continuation school is that of building up a type of education
the needs of the citizens in such an industrial democracy ‒ For the
first time in
history, a schism has arisen between culture and the crafts, with the
modern culture tends to be trivial, esoteric, dilettante, while the
which poet and artist turn away in disgust, are left mean, ugly and
the continuation schools of the future there is an opportunity of doing
to bring these natural allies together once more, and so of furthering
of modern civilization upon a sound basis ‒
is as broad as the sum of human thought, interests and endeavor. In
means the awakening and liberation of the individual child by cleansing
and increasing the flow of his self-expression, by making him conscious
of his heritage
and of his true function in society, and lastly, by teaching him to
flight upon the wings of imagination. It embraces, in other words, all
which deal with man as dedicated to the pursuit of beauty, truth and
as a social being with obligations to his immediate society, his
nation, and the
whole human race....
first duty of the continuation school teacher is to make his pupils
the world he is dealing with is their world, the actual world in which
To do this it is necessary to set out on the journey from the right
spot, the spot
from which all journeys start ‒ home. And this point of departure will
the whole character of the course, since it lends it purpose and
students set out from home in order to understand home better, and it
is the search
for that larger comprehension of their own lives and work which directs
Moreover, when the journey is over they will return home once more to
see what the
old place looks like in the light of their accumulated experience. The
course will be something in the nature of a grand tour.' With this
history and geography based on local lore but extending to remote times
may be studied, and associated with this course will be a study of
and economic problems. Literature is included with the aim of
developing a right
emotional attitude toward life as a whole.... By working at the problem
in the manner
above indicated, the industrial activities of the modern world may be
made at once
significant and joyous, and thus will be laid the foundations of a
J. Dover Wilson ‒ His Majesty's Inspector of
Bulletin No. 8.
of Our Public Schools
Bulletin No. 8, Masonic
"We owe it to the childhood of
and the childhood of the agricultural districts of our land to place at
the utmost in educational facilities."
Warren G. Harding.
"The supreme task of our
democracy is the
right training of its future citizens. On our success, in this great
undertaking depends the future of American civilization."
Henry Louis Smith.
"The public school is the
all American institutions."
Los Angeles Examiner
We are going to discuss, for a few moments, the greatest business
which you and I are jointly engaged. It is practically a new business,
in existence, in a nation-wide way, only about seventy-five years. The
nothing about this business a hundred years ago, and some of our
scoffed at it as something which, if it could be attained, was not
worth the having.
As a business, let us analyze it for ourselves, carefully.
analysis is justified. For this business is one which has a greater
than any other enterprise in America. Tremendous amounts of real estate
Great buildings house the shops. There are officers in every city and
town in the
country. An army of directors and workers is employed. Upon this
business is spent
the majority of our peace-time taxes. Into its factories goes the most
material that our nation yields. Out of it comes a product, the value
of which far
exceeds our production of foodstuffs and manufactures combined.
fellow stockholders, is the American public school system.
of this "factory" is the education of our children ‒ your boys and
and mine. Upon this product depends the future of America. We, as a
more money in it than in anything else in which we are interested. The
a corporation ‒ and you and I own and operate it. When we consider that
school enrollment jumped from 915,000 to 1,645,000 in eight years, and
a little more than seventy-five years ago there were no high schools in
world, we begin to understand how gigantic an enterprise it is, and how
it is growing.
that we are to make is not based upon sentiment in any way whatever.
Let us think
in l terms of invested capital, and dividends; yes, and wear and tear,
It is from
these points of view that we want to discuss the public school system.
enters the public school ‒ how does he come out? You pay in more actual
and cents for the maintenance and upbuilding of the public school than
you do for
any other peace work that you are interested in as a taxpayer ‒ what
you get back? Your child is graduated from your high school ‒ and what
sort of a
job does he get? More important still, what kind of a job does he hunt
We have the
light of any stockholder to see what we are getting for our money. We
to give credit for every bit of constructive work that enters into the
We are going to charge every item which properly belongs on the debit
side of the
ledger. We are not going to admit that our efforts have been in vain,
years. We are not going to indict the management, except as we shall
Let us begin
in which we live has invested thousands, hundreds of thousands, perhaps
of dollars, in our "plant." Yet that plant is idle more than
of the time. We admit that it should be idle a part of the time,
perhaps a little
more than half. But when the plant operates on a thirty hour a week
only thirty-six weeks, is it not just to say ‒ as stockholders ‒ that
the idle time
is out of all proportion to the working hours?
We are not
saying that the children and their teachers should put in eight hours a
months in the year. We are talking about our "plant" ‒ the buildings.
Are we using them efficiently? Someone may say that they are specially
that they are not adaptable to the production of other things. Are we
so sure? Could
they not be so adapted?
us consider the managers, superintendents and foremen. They are the
that they are efficient, how about the way we handle them? Would you
or more of your foremen and responsible officers to shift from one
plant to another
every year? Would you expect them to be satisfied and happy in an
which they were unable to become acquainted with their neighbors until
was up, or practically so? Would you care to have a business in which
all your skilled
operatives were changing every three years? Yet this is what happens to
A large percentage of them shift from place to place at the end of the
they know little of the community in which they teach until the school
year is ended.
Does this kind of organization develop efficiency?
war brought out the awful lack of even the most elementary education in
men of draft age. The percentage of illiteracy was found to be
Our government had to spend billions in training young men to
understand and obey
orders. We paid an awful price to give elementary education to these
it sound business sense to allow the next generation to come out of the
as ignorant as these adults?
Good as our
public school system is, we find that there is a tremendous economic
waste in its
administration. Viewed from a business standpoint, can we afford to let
on? The public school system ought in any balanced scheme of things to
link up very
definitely, not only with "higher education" but with the home,
and community life. Failing in this, there is an economic waste. The
of business and professional failures is an index of our school system.
of failures is too high.
citizen, no stockholder in this great corporation of ours, needs to be
the ideals of educated men and women must more and more be made the
ideals of all
our people. This is what we ought to mean when we speak of
No thinking man or woman owning a share in this "Company" can fail to
realize that the cost of education is a productive expenditure of
money, that it
will pay enormous dividends, and that in no sense of the word is it a
no argument to prove that the public school is not a place where
or educational "axes" are to be ground! There should be no argument to
prove that every one of us must understand and appreciate the value of
service rendered by teachers. They should know us, and mix with us, and
a practical knowledge of the problems of life we face, and which our
face. And it is infinitely more important that we know the teachers
into whose care
we intrust the minds of our children. It is worthwhile, from a dollar
standpoint, for us to cultivate them, entertain them in our homes and
feel that they are being relied upon, and that they can rely upon us!
We have spoken
of "Americanism." What does it mean? What should it mean to our
From this standpoint, what are the real needs of the public school?
means "Equality of Opportunity." We live in no feudal age. There are no
barons or lords of the manor who hold us as chattels. Each man and
woman is a human
soul, entitled to a fair chance. Inevitably we are bound to each other
by the ties
of brotherhood, and the future of our America depends upon every boy
and girl growing
into a healthy, happy, competent manhood and womanhood, able to cope
with the conditions
that a citizen must face. Our public school system should fit children
to take advantage
of their opportunities, and so make of themselves all that ambition and
character may hope to attain.
education, more than anything else, must be the goal of our Republic.
rest the foundations of government, for only through intelligent
citizens can our
government continue in the years to come.
of factory production is returned goods ‒ goods which have been
and are sent back to be worked over. Do we realize that there can be
in our schools? Have we ever stopped to think that it costs as much to
put a child
through the same grade twice as it does to put two children through
which helps the child to learn quickly is real economy. Only if a child
will he do the required work. Otherwise he will hold back his
classmates as well
as himself. Health becomes the greatest possible economy and if there
were no other
grounds for asking that supervision of health be exercised over all
would be enough.
schools can succeed only in proportion to the co-operation which they
the community. We have spoken of effective organization. If this is
the community, we shall get the worth of our money. If a community
who believe in public education at state expense, the demand will be
the people of a community are determined that American ideals shall be
into the minds of their children, rather than the vaporings of foreign
the schools in that community will have 100% American teachers.
for all this the community must do its part. We must give the teacher a
us. He must feel at home with us because he has come into our homes. It
for the teacher to know the home background of the child if intelligent
is to be given. We cannot expect wholehearted work without some measure
we have three ways in which we can become a constructive force for the
of the public schools. We can do it as voters, supporting those
measures which benefit
the public schools, and voting against the measures that are opposed to
We can do
it by making our lives touch the lives of those directly connected with
This does not mean working through a committee or an association. It
out for ourselves what the schools are doing. It means becoming
and learning to know, the aspirations and the abilities of the teacher
the destinies of our child during school hours.
we can give our support as parents. The child is a healthy animal as a
has very little natural desire for an education. We must show him that
the way to
success in the world lies down the long road of education. We must make
reasonably attractive. We must show him that education is his greatest
school which brings the children of the rich and of the poor together
is the one
great agency which makes for a responsible citizenship. Our children
must know that
the right to go to a public school has been fought for. They must know
what it costs
in terms of money and sacrifice. Do we realize that on the organization
of the public school system depends the perpetuity of our Republic?
The art of
using modern abilities to advantage wins praise, and often acquires
than actual brilliancy.
‒ La Rouchefoucauld.
"No People in a State
of Civilization Can Stay Ignorant and Free"
"Thou shalt teach them (your
words of the law, speaking of them when thou sittest in thine house and
walkest by the way, when thou liest down and when thou risest up. And
write them upon the doorposts of thine house and upon thy gates."
that choose to remain stationary and fear change or progress deliver
over, bound hand and foot, into the control of tradition. Boys and
girls are made
to learn verses from the Analects, Vedas, or the Koran with the
assiduity of young
animals set to a task for the understanding of which they have neither
nor capacity: it is deemed sufficient that they grow to maturity with
mind and habit
glued to the past, ‒ timid, fearful, conventional, inert, and with a
of change. The early peoples of the world were not wild and free, as
fancy has so
often ignorantly pictured them, but tame as horses in a treadmill: the
Taboo held them in charge for thousands of years, and they were as much
climbing out of the smooth grooves of custom as so many processionary
Their conception of education was based on a reverence for the past
and rendered sacred its most trivial accidents as well as its most
It is probable
that the gleaming-eyed Greeks, with their vivid sense of originality
and their love
for the rich surprises of personality, were the first people in the
world to discover
in education a power for progress, albeit the Spartans were an
exception and made
use of schooling merely as a means of Prussianizing the citizenship.
But the Greeks
‒ glorious as were their powers over the arts ‒ fell short in that they
of education solely in terms of the individual: it had its beginning,
its end, and
its justification in him. Education for the purpose of social control,
for the development of the nation as a nation, ‒ such an ideal never
in the Greek genius. For this reason is it that this same Greek genius,
continues to inspire and shape a few personalities, is helpless to
and nations: it has neither ideas nor disciplines for this purpose,
Greek culture is being absorbed into a larger synthesis by the
of present-day democratic education.
people never discovered the potency in education as a means of managing
of people, else they would have trusted the soldier less, and the
As it was, they put their faith in force rather than in culture, so
they built many
armies and few schools. Such education as they had was for the few and
not the many,
and it was imitative, timid, and fruitless, save in the genius of
for that one cannot say very much.
* * *
in the days of Charlemagne, the Middle Ages made feeble attempts at the
of schools and curricula. But everything was against education. There
were no nations
and consequently all political stability was lost amid the greed of
and the furor of factions. Such education as the Middle Ages did
attempt from Alcuin
down fell afoul of the division that ran like a bridgeless cleft
through the Europe
of those times, with the Church on the one side and the State on the
at logger heads with each other as to which was to rule. At last the
was made: since neither was able to overthrow the other, both made
terms by dividing
human life into two parts ‒ soul and body ‒ the former of which was
made over to
the Church, the latter to the State. This nonsensical arrangement
into the school systems, so that there were many institutions where a
become a monk, and many others where he could become an artisan, but
none in which
he could become a man. The control of education gradually fell to
pieces so that
at last even the trade guilds, down to their small subdivisions,
undertook the education
of youths, as witness the guild school at Stratford-on-Avon, where
the butcher lad of that village, got his "little Latin and less Greek."
was the starting point of a new educational movement, and that for a
reason. Until the sixteenth century the Church was the rule and guide
of faith for
nearly all men, and few had to look elsewhere for a chart of eternity
or a guarantee
of safety in that mysterious region: with the coming of Luther a change
was affected, so that the faith of man was transferred from a
complicated but quite
commonplace institution to a little known and very fearful Book. Men
had to believe
in order to be saved; they had to read the Bible to know what to
believe; and they
couldn't read the Bible unless they were taught, so schools came
existence for that purpose.
But the Reformation
brought blessings far beyond itself. By smashing the authority of both
State over the minds of men it made possible that which would have come
earlier had it not been for the paralyzing effects of the old Roman
‒ science arrived. There was nothing supernatural or mysterious in its
science is at bottom nothing other than common sense every day methods
things. It technologizes human labor and thereby increases to untold
wealth of the world. It needed no other passport to the hearty
acceptation of men
than that. But science makes it necessary that men rely on reason and
rather than on myth and magic, consequently it has, in the unconscious
of its own inner nature, trained men altogether away from the close
monkish atmosphere of the Middle Ages. In passing from Roger Bacon to
the world became a new world and made inevitable the coming of a new
science, and by virtue of the same logic of development, there arose
out of the
matrix period of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries
of mankind by man which we call democracy, and which shares with
for re-shaping a new civilization out of the old. When St. Bernard
Lake Lucerne, he pulled his hood over his eyes in order that the
of his surroundings might not tempt him away from his meditations upon
The act was a significant gesture of the whole genius of the Middle
that vast period of time men stood gazing into the heavens ‒ their eyes
hands folded, their heads empty. Democracy and science together
this fruitless otherworldliness, and taught man to turn his eyes, his
and his hands to realities.
* * *
It was in
keeping with the nature of things that education in this country began
with a timid
and halfhearted imitation of school methods of the Old World. In
Anglicanism held sway, society was graded upwards from the slave and
to the landlord and his lady, and schools were accordingly designed for
of the well-to-do. In the New Netherlands, where religion was split
into many parties,
the parochial system was devised. In Massachusetts, where Calvinism had
way, and later throughout New England, universal education under public
was attempted. In the beginning schools were for clergymen and
a while lawyers and doctors made their way in: then came the merchants:
was not opened for everybody until a group of heroic leaders and
the nation to see in education the most powerful of all means of
James G. Carter, "father of the normal schools"; Horace Mann, "father
of the public free school system"; and Henry Barnard, the first
of Education, are names to be held in everlasting remembrance. The time
come ‒ let us hope it will come soon ‒ when these little-known Makers
will be given their rightful place in the pantheons along with Lincoln,
and Jefferson. They were builders of the public mind. They were
statesmen of education,
and education will continue to thrive and to increase long after our
fabrics are completely forgotten. As the schools are, so are a people.
people in a state of civilization can stay ignorant and free." Of all
things said by Thomas Jefferson, this was one of the wisest. Ignorance
if people are superstitious the priests will rule. Ignorance means
poverty: if people
are poor, the rich will rule. Ignorance means weakness: if the people
the strong will rule. Ignorance means helplessness: a helpless people
are as clay
in the hands of a potter, to be thumped, molded, or discarded as the
will. Unless all the people are educated, a few of the people must run
it is only the educated who CAN run things. Democracy and education
belong to each
other like the roots and the branches of a tree: without the one the
survive. If there is no free public school system, democratic
go by the board. If there is no democracy, public schools will be
abolished by whatever
groups may chance to secure control of things.
* * *
A free people
organizing itself through a free public school, that is the ideal to
is committed. Our Fraternity has no educational program whatsoever, so
far as pedagogical
methods, theories, or experiments are concerned; neither is it
about the particular form into which the public school may at any time
It is concerned, and concerned very much, to see that the whole
is not quietly undermined by a swarm of separatist groups every one of
that it can never capture control of the nation so long as it leaves
free. The schools must never be permitted to fall under the control of
the politicians, the rich, the bolshevists, or any other divisive and
party, else the nation will awaken one day to discover that it has of
public school system nothing left save an empty shell. America does not
trust in armies, navies, in diplomats, or in gold: her faith is in
she knows that "no people in a state of civilization can stay ignorant
In the coming
of a national Department of Education ‒ it will come sooner or later
with the certainty
of fate, whatever befall the Towner-Sterling Bill, the dream of the
at last become true. Over and above all, the more visible and material
of that great political departure will stand its moral and symbolical
all time to come, for the seating of a Secretary of Education in the
the President will signify to all people the fact that in this land
nationalized forever, and that private parties everywhere had best keep
lies hid in a block of marble, and the art of the statuary only clears
superfluous matter and removes the rubbish. The figure is in the stone;
only finds it. What sculpture is to a block of marble, education is to
a human soul.
The philosopher, the saint, or the hero, ‒ the wise, the good, or the
very often lies hid and concealed in a plebian, which a proper
education might have
disinterred, and have brought to light.
Men who undertake
considerable things, even in a regular way, ought to give us ground to
"The Manhood of Humanity"
‒ A Mighty Book
Manhood of Humanity" [Lib 1921] by Count Alfred Korzybski;
in 1921 by E. P. Dutton & Co., 681 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y.
Cassius J. Keyser, Adrain Professor of Mathematics, Columbia
University, and a name
somewhat familiar to the readers of these pages, has to say about this
"Count Korzybski's book,
'Manhood of Humanity,'
is a momentous contribution to the best thought of these troubled
years. It is momentous
in what it contains, even more so in what it suggests, and most of all,
I dare say,
in the excellent things it will eventually help men and women to say
and do. Its
core is a great conception of man in terms of Time. Like all really
it is intelligible and is universal in its interest and appeal. It is,
destined to light the way in all the cardinal concerns of our
writer happens to know of a certainty that this letter, and one that
will be quoted
later, are genuine expressions and not mere bookselling puffs done to
potent of all present-day schools of thought is composed of a group of
philosophers of whom Professor Keyser is himself a distinguished
member, and to
which Count Korzybski's book immediately admitted him. Bertrand
N. Whitehead, Henri Poincare, Jacques Loeb, Charles P. Steinmetz,
Robert B. Wolf,
H. L. Gantt, Walter A. Polakov, etc., are among the other names
notable, or becoming
notable, through their connection with this crusade of rigorous
thinking in behalf
of a more substantial civilization than that on the wreckage of which
we are now
floundering about. If the reader is curious to learn something about
this new method
of thinking let him read "Principia Mathematica" [Lib 1927; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] by Whitehead and Russell
so "noble a monument to the critical spirit of science and to the
of our time," and which Count Korzybski himself describes as a
work" that "stands alone."
at the core of this new school of thought is mathematical; so also with
Manhood of Humanity," albeit in the latter case it is couched in what
at first to be non-mathematical language. "Time-binding" is the name
to it by the author, a new and a striking term that becomes luminous
as one peruses the book.
What is meant
by "time-binding"? Let us ask first what is meant by time. Since I
writing this review, some fifteen minutes, let us say, have elapsed.
What do we
mean by this phrase "fifteen minutes"? Since I began using this
I have been conscious of a series of sensations in my eyes and muscles;
I have had
a feeling of the pressure of the chair in which I have been sitting,
and this feeling
has continued. The crooked marks made on the page by the type have been
and so have the pages on which I have been making them. My three-year
old son has
twice run up and down the hall outside the door. I have been hearing
the while the
chug-a-chug of an electric washing machine somewhere in the rear of the
my window birds have been fluttering about among the rose bushes, and a
farther toward the front of the yard, has been weaving up and down in
and I have been noting it half-consciously out of the tail of my eye.
Also I have
been aware of certain bodily sensations attendant upon breathing and
the like, and
when I look about me I can see that the furniture of the room continues
This whole little world in the midst of which I have been sitting is
apart from me, nor am I something apart from it; I and it are a part of
and I and it, and all in it or in myself, have been changing and
has all been going on, and my own experience of that going-on is what I
The "fifteen minutes" of which I spoke is a familiar and easy way of
a certain quantum of that experience I have been having of the going-on
Clocks, watches, calendars, and our habits of marking time by daylight
are not in themselves time at all, but merely our way of managing this
of our experience of the going-on of things. Time is not something
empty and remote,
but something full and immediate; it is the very stuff of life itself.
that an animal makes very little use of this on-going of things and
for it apparently remains about the same, save for organic changes,
from one "moment"
of time to another. With man, however, ‒ and this is the point
important to remember
‒ it is different, for his very nature is so constructed this his life
an adjustment to this process, and therefore he is able to gather it up
it as it goes along, and anticipate it as it is yet to come. That is to
binds it up in himself, and that is why Korzybski calls man a
Our family cat, who has just excited the children by a gift of two
been eating her meals in exactly the same manner since she was born;
all the "times"
of her eating have left her apparently unchanged. Not so myself ‒ I
by "experience," which is another name for time, how better and better
to eat, until now, when I sit at a table, I eat by means of the
stored-up time that
is in my nature. To be able to bind up time this way is that which,
Korzybski, most differentiates myself from the cat, for, ‒ and this is
of the Korzybski philosophy, ‒ man is by essence (he will forgive me
for using this
abused term here) a time-binding being. Korzybski, it may be noted in
up and fights when anyone calls man an animal: one may be glad that at
thinkers are beginning to recover from the silly superstition that so
of nineteenth century thinkers! To call man an animal is to talk
of the time-binding conception is that it offers an understanding of
which is rigorously scientific and accurate and which may be dealt with
by the precise
methods of mathematical science. Therein lies its importance, for it
makes it possible
hereafter to deal with man in the accurate way in which science deals
and not in the botched and childish way in which ‒ let us say ‒
politics deals with
sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, engineering, etc.,
have been progressing
by rapid strides in geometric ratio, but not so politics and those
efforts which are beginning to be called the "human" or "social"
sciences. These latter are all in a snarl and don't know which way to
that is what is wrong with the world at the present moment. Why is
this? It is because
the exact sciences are what the name implies, they are exact and
precise, ‒ mathematical
by their nature, ‒ whereas the so-called social sciences are as yet
passions, prejudices, ignorances, party shibboleths, and superstitions.
hope out of the muddle of which the Great War was the horrible outcome
is by Human
Engineering. The social sciences must become exact and passionless like
not in order that man's own life may become hard and dry but for the
reason that human life may become joyous and spontaneous. The Great War
is the reply
to those who would say, Let us go on by the old methods of party
politics and all
that: Human Engineering ‒ the phrase explains itself ‒ is the reply of
say, Let us not, in the name of God, go on in the old way. It is
nor reaction but science, as benign as it is sure!
In the name
of all you hold dear you must read this book; and then you must reread
it, and after
that read it again and again, for it is not brewed in the vat of the
to be gulped down and forgotten, but it is hewn out of the granite, for
of new eras. Robert B. Wolf, Vice-President of the American Society of
Engineers, spoke soberly in a letter to the Vice President of E. P.
Co., when he wrote these words:
"I consider Count Korzybski's
of man's place in the great life movement as even more epoch making
discovery of the law of gravitation. It will have a far greater effect
development of the human race.
"His book, 'Manhood of
Humanity, The Science
and Art of Human Engineering,' is one of great power and originality,
and I believe
that no thinking man or woman can afford not to be familiar with it. It
an entirely new field of thought, and my own keen interest comes, not
the fact that Count Korzybski proves his theory mathematically, but
my own years of practical experience as an industrial manager have
a question of a doubt, that his theory of man's relationship to Time is
is the head of one of the oldest families in Poland. He was a General
during the Great War, and he knows Europe as do few. He is a man
apparently in his
fifties, with a close-cropped head, a square jaw, deep-set gray eyes,
with a cane; when he talks he does it with his whole nature. Words
cannot say how
much in earnest he is in helping pull the world out of the mudhole in
which it now
finds itself. He is not a Mason himself (as yet) but his family have
been for many
H. L. Haywood.
* * *
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In no case
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By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake, 1879;
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873;
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Bro. G.
Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.:
Proceedings of the Scottish Rite Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New
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Motta, in 1813,
by authority of the Southern Supreme Council, of which he was Grand
these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860.
By Bro. Frank
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"The Source of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second edition
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes I to XI, inclusive;
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"Solar System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson, published by
Longmans Co., London, 18S6;
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Facsimile engraving Picard's "Les Francmassons," 1735, fine copy.
A. A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California:
Various Masonic publications including such as a complete set of "Ars
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Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
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Also miscellaneous books.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
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of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
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Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
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Study Club course. When requested, questions will be answered promptly
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publication in this department.
Remissness of the Masonic
all the Ancient Mysteries none, perhaps, is of more interest to the
than those of Mithras, the "find" referred to in the enclosed clipping
from Littell's Living Age may be of general interest to the Craft.
I had intended
simply to mail you this clipping, but the spirit at present moving me
to the carrying
out of a resolution of long standing causes me to ask, through you, a
the Masonic press.
Not at all
infrequently are references, like this Mithraic one, met with in
and newspapers, but very rarely is there a follow up, much less a bare
to them, in the Masonic press. This possibly is not so surprising
regarding a subject
like the Mysteries of Mithras; or, to cite another instance which now
me, the semi-official pronouncement of Austria that Masonry was solely
for the Great War, then in progress. Not of general interest!
But how do you account for the following neglect by the American
section of the New York Times for Sunday, May 22, 1921, carried two
entitled "Screen Version of Laying of Cornerstone of University of
Reproduced as described in the Minutes of the Charlottesville Lodge of
and "Motion Pictures of the Founding of the University of Virginia
to be used in connection with the Celebration of the University's
The first of these shows the white gloves and aprons, the jewels of the
officers, the Master "trying" the stone, etc., also, among others,
Madison and Monroe.
I do not
pretend to possess a news-nose but certainly here the nose knows, yet
of the four
Masonic publications, regularly read by me, not one carried even a bare
of this historic event and its modern reproduction, an account of which
fail to have been of absorbing interest to every American Mason. And
now the question:
Frank S. Baker. New York.
mentioned by Brother Baker is brief, but interesting; it is taken from
Living Age" for May 28, 1921 and is as follows:
important archeological discoveries have recently been made on the
relating to the Mithraic Mysteries, the religious cult which during the
centuries after Christ was the chief rival of Christianity in all parts
of the ancient
world. While working on the foundations of a ruined house at Arlon,
uncovered vast bas-reliefs, representing a huge figure followed by a
dog and carrying
a bull on his shoulders, and a sacrificial scene."
the silence of the Masonic press on such subjects and incidents,
the reply can be immediately given. Masonic journals do not (because
employ staffs of representatives or news services as daily papers and
do. A great majority of Masonic magazines and papers are either
subsidized by Grand
Lodges and edited and managed by one or two men, or they are constantly
bankruptcy. Under such conditions it is quite out of the question for
them to carry
a news service, and the only "news" they can publish is such as the
may himself chance upon or his readers may send in. THE BUILDER is a
It is not a magazine in the strict sense of the word, but a journal,
edited by and
published by and in the interests of The National Masonic Research
Society. It has
its editor, its business manager, and its editorial staffs, but for the
it is dependent for its contributions and its knowledge of current
events of Masonic
interest on the members of the Society. Experience has proved this to
and satisfactory as is proved by an ever growing circulation. You
Baker, are one of the editors of THE BUILDER, as is every member of the
Whenever your "news-nose" leads you to an item of Masonic importance,
let it be on your conscience to send it in. As for the Mysteries of
are receiving an ever growing attention from Masonic students, and
now in preparation for THE BUILDER on that subject. The Open Court
of Chicago has published the best works on the subject; a little book
Adams, and the complete works by the greatest authority of all, Dr.
[Lib 1903], who was in this country last
* * *
Concerning the Comacini
E. Waite in his "Secret Tradition in Freemasonry," [Lib 1911; Vol
II, page 80, mentions a "trading association of architects" which
during the dark ages under the special authority of the Holy See. He
they were the operative descendants of the architects of Byzantium, but
I do not
find any other reference to them. Are these to be considered as
identical with that
other body known as the "Comacine Masters"? If not, who were they?
N.W.J. Haydon, Ontario.
was referred to Brother Waite himself who very kindly replied after the
you will look at my Secret Tradition in Freemasonry, vol. II, pp.
76-80, you will
see that I am dealing with various speculations which, in my opinion,
to support them, or shall I say, little at least? They are those of
and things analogous thereto. My reference to 'a leading association of
under the authority of the Holy See is quoted from one of these
sources, and the
association in question is not named definitely, that is to say, in the
work. I take it to have meant The Comacini, but it is not easy to
what may have been in the minds of some eighteenth century dreamers."
* * *
Books on Church History
or set of books would you recommend to give an impartial and unbiased
religion or church history? What I want is a fairly complete reference
History of the Christian Church," [Lib 1894] by George Park Fisher,
by Scribner's, contains all the cold facts ‒ often they are pretty
cold, too ‒ about
the subject, and the book is written, as far as I can see, in a fair
spirit throughout. A more complete account, slightly from a Baptist
angle, is found
in the two volumes of "A Manual of Church History," [Lib 1900; Vol 1, Vol 2] by A. H. Newman, published by
American Baptist Publication Society. I have studied this work
thoroughly and know
it to be good. Neander's Church History [Lib 1871; (5 Volumes – see
Milman's Latin Christianity [Lib 1881; (8 Volumes in 4 Books – see
Gieseler's Church History [Lib*], Hagenbach's History of the Church
[Lib 1869; Vol
1, Vol 2], and Robertson's History of
Church [Lib 1875-1904; (8 Volumes –
see Bibliography)], are all standard. The best thing
on the doctrines involved is, of course, Harnack's History of Dogma
(7 Volumes –
see Bibliography)] in seven volumes. Fisher is as good a
work as you will find.
Journal, of Johannesburg, South Africa, has recently exhumed a most
item from an old Masonic periodical. The Masonic Journal, published at
Mass., which, in one of its issues in 1858, included this interesting
bit of history:
of "Brother Jonathan" is of Masonic origin. George Washington,
of the American army in the Revolution, was a Mason, as well as all the
not even excepting Benedict Arnold, the traitor, who attempted to
deliver West Point
into the hands of the enemy. On one occasion, when the American army
had met with
some serious reverses, General Washington called his brother officers
consult in what manner their efforts could be counteracted. Differing
as they did
in opinion, the commander-in-chief postponed any action on the subject
"Let us consult 'Brother Jonathan'," referring to Jonathan Trumbull,
was a well-known Mason, and particularly distinguished for "his sound
strict morals, and having the tongue of a good report."
* * *
More Notes on South African
On page 31
of THE BUILDER for January was printed a valuable communication from
Moister, Editor of The Masonic Journal of South Africa, 55 Meischke's
Johannesburg. Since that letter was printed Brother Moister has written
letter which contains these notes that may be added to his original
There is now an Irish Lodge at Salisbury, which was consecrated a few
as you may have seen in the M.J. (under the Prov. Grand Lodge of South
Master and Royal Arch. Since writing you we have a ruling from the
Chapter of Scotland on a point raised by my Chapter (Commonwealth 398
seems that another Scottish Chapter had allowed Irish R. A. Masons to
see the whole
working including the E.M., while my Chapter had insisted upon their
degree and charging them for it. It has been ruled that while English
R. A. Masons
who have not taken the degree of E.M. must still join a Chapter and
have that conferred
on them if they wish to see the E.M. work, in the Irish, their ceremony
veils so closely approximates to the Scottish E.M. degree that a brief
or obligation that whatever may be new to them in the E.M. degree shall
as a Masonic secret, will satisfy our requirements, and so we had to
offer to) the fees charged. Of course, the brethren concerned promptly
told us to
apply the amount to benevolence.
Re the other
note. I don't think I specifically stated that Dr. Jameson was not a
that I did not know him to be one.
I am almost
sure about John Hays Hammond, the Columbia Lodge under the English
almost entirely composed of Americans at first, although it has now
lost that national characteristic.
Wm. Moister. Editor. The Masonic Journal of South
* * *
Great Significance of the
In the March,
1922, issue of THE BUILDER appeared an article by Brother O.N. Pomeroy
entitled "The Cleveland Federation of Craftsmen." The formation of
of various crafts whose members were composed of Master Masons was
how many of the readers of this magazine realize what an important step
is in the productive as well as the social world?
would seem to me, is the beginning of a renaissance, which I hope may
bring about a return to brotherhoods of craftsmen resembling, in spirit
the Middle Age guilds.
In a lecture
delivered at the Lowell Institute in Boston, Mass., on Nov. 26th, 1919,
by Mr. Thomas
M. Legge, the Medical Inspector of Factories and Workshops for the
an urgent plea was offered for a return to just such conditions as had
the high-day of the Masonic guilds. He said, "Trade-unions are the
of the traditions of the trade guilds. Let them carry on the tradition
of what was
best in their great predecessor. A great future lies before them. Let
feel their responsibility. Wages and creature comforts of their members
I grant you, must come first, but these happily are now in sight of
Let them look into vistas beyond."
If this should
transpire I believe astonishing results would ultimately be obtained,
both for employee
and employer. An interest and pride in output, which is so lacking
elevate the quality of the work produced, and establish a premium for
mechanics have this laudable end well within their power to achieve if
to organize for the betterment of their craft, as is being done by this
Federation. Let us hope that it may become national in scope and a
return be made
to the great brotherhoods of the past!
W. B. Bragdon, New York.
* * *
Regarding Goethe ‒ Investigating
referred to in The London Daily News about which you requested
information in the
Correspondence Column of the February THE BUILDER, page 64, was read at
anniversary celebration of the raising of Goethe to Masonry, and was
Leipzig in 1880 under the title:
"Johann Wolfgang Goethe als
zum 23. Juni, 1880, dem 100-jaehrigen Freimaurer Jubilaeum Goethes."
[Lib 1880] The author was J. Pietsch.
pamphlet was an octavo
of 63 pages and was sold at about fifty cents.
South Carolina (p. 61, same issue), will write to me he can obtain
lodge investigating committees. Hanselmann Lodge, 208, Cincinnati,
Ohio, of which
the writer is a member has for several years had a permanent
and also a formal printed questionnaire and the lodge has found its
methods of great
value in the examination of the qualifications of candidates.
Henry E. Wilde, Ohio.
* * *
"The Entered Apprentice's
Song" Now In Use
It may interest
you and your correspondent "T.F.W., Alabama," in the December issue of
THE BUILDER to hear that a revised version of "The Entered Apprentice's
is in use in several of the English lodges. The words as used I give
below. It will
be noted the chief difference is in the first verse. It was thought
was a more suitable word than "beggar" as the first section of the
lecture in English lodges reads, "brother to a King, fellow to a
companion to a peasant, if a Freemason and found worthy." Another
"Our wine has a spring." This also has been altered as also the line,
"Let's drink, laugh, and sing" as such was considered to have too much
of a bacchanalian flavor about it:
Come, let us prepare,
We brothers that are
Here met on this happy occasion
We'll quaff and we'll sing;
Be he peasant or king,
Here's a health to an Accepted Mason.
(2) The world tries in vain
Our secrets to gain,
And still let them wonder and guess on;
They ne'er can divine
A word or a sign,
Of a Free and an Accepted Mason.
(3) Great Kings, Dukes, and Lords
Have laid by their swords,
Our Myst'ries to put a good grace on;
And have not been ashamed
To hear themselves named,
As a Free and an Accepted Mason.
4) Antiquity's pride
We have on our side,
And we keep up our old reputation;
There's naught but what's good
To be understood,
By a Free and an Accepted Mason.
(5) We're true and sincere,
We're just to the fair;
They'll trust on any occasion;
No mortal can more
The ladies adore,
Than a Free and an Accepted Mason.
(All rise and join hands.)
(6) Then join hand in hand,
To each other firm stand,
Let's be merry and put a bright face on;
No Order can boast
So noble a toast,
As a Free and an Accepted Mason.
In the English
lodges previous to opening it is customary to sing a hymn, "Hail
Another hymn, "Now the Evening Shadows Falling," is sung after the
In the November
issue of THE BUILDER Brother Francis E. White gives some very
of English Freemasonry. He states there are no official rituals. It is
there are none which are officially recognized but two are issued which
by a long
period of use extending to over 100 years have come to be recognized as
The chief is known as the "Emulation" as practiced and taught by the
Lodge in London while the other is known as the "Standard, or Stability
Muggeridge" and is taught by the Stability Lodge of Instruction,
printed ritual or paper is permitted to be used while the lodge is at
is performed from memory. Some lodges, one of which is held in the city
works an old ritual known as the "York." This is entirely done from
no printed ritual existing. There are no lectures attached to the
J.B. Ward, London.
* * *
The Irish Masonic Medallion,
and Bull-Issuing Popes
a couple of the queries in the April issue of THE BUILDER to which I
the Masonic Medallion, on p. 107. In cut A, the figure above the Sun
and Moon I
take to be the All-Seeing Eye. The numbers 15, and 16, are simply the
I should think that it is really a Coffin represented at the foot of
In cut B. perhaps the winged figure is a Phoenix.
I would be
glad if some Brother would interpret the initials in cut B.
Now as to
the Bull-issuing popes on p. 126, I would add these:
VII renewed by Edict the Bull of Clement XII.
XII issued the Bull "Quo graviora," concerning which Waite, in the
volume of his New Masonic Encyclopedia, on p. 266, gives seven
of Freemasonry. Waite errs, however, in his next paragraph, where he
the Bull in 1838 to Gregory XII, instead of Gregory XVI.
H.V A. Parsell, New York.
* * *
Another Definition of Freemasonry
K. Bein's "Vertaro de Esperanto," I note this definition of Freemasonry:
"A member of that religious and
society whose aim is moral perfection on the basis of general equality
probably be of some degree of interest and may also be worth the
permanence of print
in the columns of THE BUILDER.
Robt. I. Clegg, Illinois.
* * *
More about Quakers in Freemasonry
As a church
the Quaker, or Friend, organization is opposed to secret societies and
the Masonic Fraternity, but this feeling of opposition seems to be
this is true of this community, as we have in our lodge here quite a
number of enthusiastic
Masons who are also prominent members of the Friends' church.
Brother Sadilek refers to is one C.B. Johnson who is now cashier of a
bank in Whittier,
California. At that time there was quite a little opposition in the
church to his
move toward Masonry. The writer had the pleasure of raising Brother J.
and can say
truthfully that he is a first-class man and would suggest that you
write or call
on him and get his version of the matter.
E.M. Crosswait, Iowa.
* * *
Divisions of the Day
In the March
issue of THE BUILDER, page 95, Brother V. M. Irick asks for information
as to jurisdictions
that do not class the day into three "equal" parts.
the monitor approved by the Grand Lodge of Idaho in 1903: "It being
into twenty-four equal parts is emblematical of the twenty-four hours
of the day;
which we are taught to divide into three parts...."
S. G. Davis, Idaho.
A Manual of Church History Vol
1 - to AD 1517
New00CH1 / auth. Newman Albert H. - Philadelphia : American Baptist
Publication Society, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 651. - 24.0 MB.
A Manual of Church History Vol
2 - AD 1517-1903
New03CH2 / auth. Newman Albert H. - Philadelphia : American Baptist
Publication Society, 1903. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 736. - 33.6 MB.
Church History 18th &
19th Century Vol 1
Hag69CH1 / auth. Hagenbach Karl R. - New York : Charles Scribner
& Co, 1869. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 524. - 20.6 MB.
Church History 18th &
19th Century Vol 2
Hag69CH2 / auth. Hagenbach Karl R. - New York : Charles Scribner
& Co, 1869. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 498. - 35.0 MB.
General History of the
Christian Church Vol 1
Nea71CC1 / auth. Neander August / trans. Torrey Joseph. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1871. - Vol. 1 : 5 : p. 812. - 57.7 MB.
General History of the
Christian Church Vol 2
Nea71CC2 / auth. Neander August / trans. Torrey Joseph. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1871. - Vol. 2 : 5 : p. 845. - 62.5 MB.
General History of the
Christian Church Vol 3
Nea71CC3 / auth. Neander August / trans. Torrey Joseph. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1871. - Vol. 3 : 5 : p. 671. - 50.2 MB.
General History of the
Christian Church Vol 4
Nea71CC4 / auth. Neander August / trans. Torrey Joseph. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Comapny, 1871. - Vol. 4 : 5 : p. 697. - 50.1 MB.
General History of the
Christian Church Vol 5
Nea71CC5 / auth. Neander August / trans. Torrey Joseph. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1871. - Vol. 5 : 5 : p. 452. - 31.1 MB.
History of Dogma Vol 1
Har95HD1 / auth. Harnack Adolph / trans. Buchanan Neil. - Boston :
Roberts Brothers, 1895. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 387. - 9.4 MB.
History of Dogma Vol 2
Har97HD2 / auth. Harnack Adolph / trans. Buchanan Neil. - Boston :
Roberts Brothers, 1897. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 392. - 20.1 MB.
History of Dogma Vol 3
Har97HD3 / auth. Harnack Adolph / trans. Buchanan Neil. - Boston :
Roberts Brothers, 1897. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 350. - 18.0 MB.
History of Dogma Vol 4
Har98HD4 / auth. Harnack Adolph / trans. Buchanan Neil. - Boston :
Little, Brown, and Company, 1898. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 366. - 18.6 MB.
History of Dogma Vol 5
Har99HD5 / auth. Harnack Adolph / trans. Buchanan Neil. - Boston :
Little, Brown, and Company, 1899. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 347. - 18.4 MB.
History of Dogma Vol 6
Har99HD6 / auth. Harnack Adolph / trans. Buchanan Neil. - Boston :
Little, Brown, and Company, 1899. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 329. - 17.1 MB.
History of Dogma Vol 7
Har00HD7 / auth. Harnack Adolph / trans. Buchanan Neil. - Boston :
Little, Brown, and Company, 1900. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 339. - 17.9 MB.
History of Latin Christianity
Mil81LC1 / auth. Milman Henry H. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell
& Co, 1881. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 1104. - 42.2 MB.
History of Latin Christianity
Mil81LC2 / auth. Milman Henry H. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell
& Co, 1881. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 1069. - 43.2 MB.
History of Latin Christianity
Mil03LC3 / auth. Milman Henry H. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell
& Co, 1903. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 1062. - 43.0 MB.
History of Latin Christianity
Mil03LC4 / auth. Milman Henry H. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell
& Co, 1903. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 1122. - 49.3 MB.
History of the Christian Church
Fis94 / auth. Fisher George P. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 756. - 24.4 MB.
History of the Christian Church
Rob07CC1 / auth. Robertson James C. - London : John Murray, 1907. -
Vol. 1 : 8 : p. 470. - 21.1 MB.
History of the Christian Church
Rob04CC2 / auth. Robertson James C. - London : John Murray, 1904. -
Vol. 2 : 8 : p. 465. - 19.5 MB.
History of the Christian Church
Rob75CC3 / auth. Robertson James C. - London : John Murray, 1875. -
Vol. 3 : 8 : p. 496. - 21.8 MB.
History of the Christian Church
Rob031CC4 / auth. Robertson James C. - London : John Murray, 1903. -
Vol. 4 : 8 : p. 481. - 20.4 MB.
History of the Christian Church
Rob04CC5 / auth. Robertson James C. - London : John Murray, 1904. -
Vol. 5 : 8 : p. 457. - 19.9 MB.
History of the Christian Church
Rob04CC6 / auth. Robertson James C. - London : John Murray, 1904. -
Vol. 6 : 8 : p. 497. - 21.3 MB.
History of the Christian Church
Rob75CC7 / auth. Robertson James C. - London : John Murray, 1875. -
Vol. 7 : 8 : p. 512. - 22.0 MB.
History of the Christian Church
Rob75CC8 / auth. Robertson James C. - London : John Murray, 1875. -
Vol. 8 : 8 : p. 504. - 22.7 MB.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Pie801 / auth. Pietsch P. - Leipzig : Bruno Zechel, 1880. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 66. - 1.1 MB.
Manhood of Humanity
Kor21 / auth. Korzybski Alfred. - New York : E P Dutton &
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 278. - 13.7 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Principia Mathematica Vol 1
Whi27PM1 / auth. Whitehead A N and Russell Bertrand. - Cambridge :
University Press, 1927. - 2nd : Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 720.
Principia Mathematica Vol 2
Whi27PM2 / auth. Whitehead A N and Russell Bertrand. - Cambridge :
University Press, 1927. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 769. - 24.6 MB.
Principia Mathematica Vol 3
Whi27PM3 / auth. Whitehead A N and Russell Bertrand. - Cambridge :
University Press, 1927. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 497. - 16.9 MB.
The Mysteries of Mithra
Cum03 / auth. Cumont Franz / trans. McCormack Thomas J. - Chicago : The
Open Court Publishing Company, 1903. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 270. - 5.3 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.