Masonic Research Society
George Washington Masonic National Memorial
By Bro. Louis A. Watres
Pa., President, The George
Washington Masonic National Memorial Association
YEARS ago on the 22nd of February prominent Masons from several of our
Jurisdictions gathered at Alexandria, Virginia, to discuss the
erecting a fitting Memorial to Washington, the Mason. As they met in
historical lodge room of Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22, the sacred
environment and the hallowed memories of him who presided over the
he was Chief Magistrate fired them anew with the spirit of Masonry.
fully conscious of the fact that the history of Washington, the Mason,
sacred heritage of the Republic, they strongly felt, as all Freemasons
feel, that Washington's connection with Masonry and the inspiration he
the Fraternity are especially dear to the brethren. Remembering the
services rendered by Washington to his country, and that to him and
Masons who were closely associated with him was due the fact that the
fundamentals of Freemasonry were made a part of the basic law of our
resolved to erect at Alexandria a memorial which should reflect the
of the Masons of the United States to him in whose memory it should
the coming years.
out this high purpose, the George Washington Masonic National Memorial
Association was formed. That distinguished Mason, Brother Thomas J.
Maryland, was elected President and plans were formulated under which
was to proceed.
connection it is proper to say that ever since its inception one of the
inspiring minds in this great movement has been that of Brother Charles
Callahan, of Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22. He is the author of
splendid volume entitled "Washington, the Man and the Mason." [Lib 1913] The data assembled by Brother
Callahan and his fascinating way of presenting the facts relating to
Washington, the Mason, have been and are of great assistance toward the
consummation of our movement.
brethren of Alexandria generously donated for the Memorial a little
acres of land on Shooter's Hill on the commanding Arlington Ridge, and
Association has since acquired about twenty-nine acres, so that now the
contains approximately thirty-two acres. The National Cemetery at
also located on the beautiful Arlington Ridge.
year since that first meeting the Association has assembled on the 22nd
February, and each year has seen marked progress in the movement.
the Association resolved to broaden its organization and to commit the
of the United States to "the erection of a Temple costing not less than
$500,000 with an endowment fund of $250,000.” As the importance of our
movement has developed, however, it has been resolved to make our
many dollars as there are Masons in the United States, approximately
and to arrange for every Grand Jurisdiction to fill its quota, which is
dollars as there are brethren in the respecting jurisdictions.
At our convention
in February we had paid in, in cash, $708,223.31, of which $577,100 was
invested in United States Government securities; the balance to be thus
invested and cash retained sufficient to pay for the work for which
are now about to be let.
of the Grand Jurisdictions have already gone over the top.
92,000 Masons, has paid in, in cash, over $110,000, and the Grand Lodge
addition thereto agreed to pay $5,000 when called upon. New Hampshire
hundred per cent.; so is Connecticut. Rhode Island is over the top. So
District of Columbia. Maryland and Delaware are over one hundred per
Pennsylvania has paid in $93,500. The States of Washington, Arizona and
are over the top. Illinois has paid in to our Treasurer $49,000, and
there is a
very substantial sum now in the hands of its Grand Treasurer. New
paid in nearly $50,000. Some of the Grand Jurisdictions are just
work, among them New York under the chairmanship of Past Grand Master
William S. Farmer. Iowa, Minnesota, Michigan, the Dakotas, Missouri,
many others of the Western and Southern States are enthusiastic in the
movement; and there is no possible doubt that the objective will be
that the money will be available as required.
ago the Board of Directors was authorized to employ an architect and to
to our Twelfth Annual Convention plans and a model of the proposed
Temple. Helmle and Corbett, of New York, were engaged as Architects,
Eugene Osgood, 33d, of Grand Rapids, Michigan, was employed as
Architect. It is also proposed to engage Olmsted Brothers, of
as Landscape Architects.
plans and model prepared by the architects were approved by the
Committee and the Board of Directors and submitted to the Association
22nd of February last.
occasion the firm of architects was represented by Harvey Wiley
Corbett. He is
a graduate engineer of the University of California, and a graduate
Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris. He received a government diploma and is
times a Medalist. The Nero York Chapter, American Institute of
presented him with a Medal of Honor. He built the Springfield Municipal
at Springfield, Mass.; the Bush Terminal Office Building, New York; the
Buildings, of London, England; and other notable structures.
Eugene Osgood, representing the firm of Osgood and Osgood, of Grand
Michigan, is a 33d Mason, Past Master of his Blue Lodge, and Past
Commander-in-Chief of his Consistory. During the last fifteen years he
designed many notable Masonic Temples. He received his architectural
at Cornell University, and is the junior member of a firm that has been
continuous architectural practice for over forty-five years.
presenting the model and plans to our Association for approval, Brother
gave us in a most interesting manner a vision of the Memorial. In
remarks he said:
George Washington Masonic National Memorial is primarily a memorial to
Washington, the Man and the Mason. Its form is inspired by the great
built in the ancient days of Greece and Rome to mark the entrances to
harbors and from whose summits permanent burning flares that could be
miles at sea, guided the mariner on his way. The great tower of the
represents to the world at large the guiding spirit of Washington in
statesmanship, and his revered precepts which for all time will set an
by which the Ship of State may direct its course.”
Corbett, in continuing his description, did not undertake to go into
details of the plans, but gave us an excellent conception of what the
Temple will be in plain view of Washington, D. C., and will be passed
who travel between the City of Washington and George Washington's old
Mt. Vernon. The edifice will be surrounded by artistic landscaping, and
reached by broad walks and stone steps ascending through seven
the topmost colonnaded tower of the Memorial, visitors will view for
around the region in which the immortal Washington passed a great part
architecture is classic. The main masses of the building comprise a
which will be located the great George Washington Memorial Hall and
Masonic rooms, and above this base will rise a form of tower.
dimension of the edifice over all will be one hundred and sixty feet in
by two hundred and thirty feet in depth, exclusive of its steps,
approaches. Its height to the summit of the covered observation
crowning the tower will be two hundred feet.
the most stately features will be a great atrium, seventy feet wide, by
hundred feet deep, which will form the Memorial Hall, and in which it
proposed to set a statue of George Washington. This great hall will be
sixty-four feet in height, rising by a clerestory above the surrounding
of the building. It will be flanked by great Ionic columns, forty feet
and surrounded by a number of rooms devoted to Masonic interests, above
roof of which clerestory lights admit the light of day.
entrance of the building will be expressed in a six-columned portico of
Greek Doric design, forming an interesting contrast to the plain
walls of the Masonic rooms. The Memorial Hall will be reached through
portico by gradual steps.
above the great Memorial Hall, and forming the second story of the
be a museum room to house the many memorabilia of George Washington and
time, as well as interesting relics connected with Washington's service
Master of Alexandria, Washington Lodge. This museum will be fifty by
feet, with lofty ceiling and fine light. It will be reached both by
will be a third level above the museum. Above it will be a covered
platform. The three levels will be screened by stately colonnades.
four elements will form the great tower, inspired by the classic towers
as Mr. Corbett has stated, guided the mariners of old.
broad steps and grassy terraces, adorned with shrubs, will add to the
and beautiful effect of the Temple.
plans and model were unanimously approved by the Association, after
President offered the following recommendation:
working drawings, specifications, etc., be completed as soon as
that total estimates of cost can be procured; that contracts for the
and foundation units be awarded, with the end in view of laying the
sometime in early fall; that further contracts be awarded from that
point on up
to and including the completion of the work, but with the distinct
understanding that no contract, under any circumstances, shall be let
money is actually in hand to meet it."
recommendation was adopted by the Association.
the convention's adjournment the Board of Directors authorized the
plans to be proceeded with, and the work of excavating and the building
foundation walls will be begun at a very early day.
hoped that the cornerstone may be laid on the 4th of November next,
be the 170th anniversary of the entry of Brother Washington into
should be made a grand, gala day for Masons from all over the United
should be made such an affair as will impress the brethren with the
meaning of the important work we have on hand, and broad enough in
include not only the Grand Lodges of the forty-nine Jurisdictions, but
Bodies affiliated therewith.
lasting value of this Memorial building cannot be measured by money. It
much more than house and preserve the priceless relics of Washington's
It will be a center and rallying-point for Masons not only in our own
but for members of the Fraternity in every land, and it will cement and
strengthen Freemasonry. This great Memorial will serve to teach the
inheres in a closer co-ordination of fraternal energy and will promote
unity of purpose which is so much to be desired.
Mission of Masonry
By Bro. Owen Scott,
Grand Secretary, Illinois
midst of our researches into the technical problems of Masonic history
cognate matters it is wise now and then to go aside into a place of
order to see Freemasonry as a whole, and in the spirit, lest we forget
great aims and ideals in the service of which we are all laboring. What
be better for such a purpose than the following? Its author is among
workers in the forefront of one of our most powerful Grand
needs no introduction.
"For the structure which we
Time is with materials filled;
Our todays and yesterdays
Are the blocks with which we build.
Let us do our work as well,
Both the unseen and the seen.
Make the house where God may dwell
Beautiful, entire, and clean."
INSTITUTION of Freemasonry is the legacy of the ages gone. What began
organization of a band of builders, like the stone cut out of the
grown until it fills the whole earth. Where civilized man abides and
great light of truth and beauty, there stands Masonry like the monarch
woods, immortal and invincible. Unlike the great tree, its foes come
without, but from within.
destruction of the creature of our speculative art impends only when
materials have entered into its composition. Our building is made of
and is eternal in the heavens.
Freemasonry men are the artisans and the end is the building of manly
character. It has ever been the aim to build wisely and well. We seek
nearest perfect materials. We go into the quarries of everyday life and
the living stones offered, rough ashlars though they be. If moved by
motives or, if standing upon firm foundations, the unfit are by the
out into the rubbish. Do you say that this is ideal and that through
anxiety to be big and rich improper materials are put into our edifice?
but that does not destroy the value of the ideal. The lives of
less than those of men, are shaped and colored by their visions. The
noble doing is to see clearly and then to act in obedience to this
sculptor at work on a block of stone, appear to the passer-by to be
purely mechanical act. The observer sees but the chisel, the mallet,
marble. In the sculptor's brain is a presence we cannot see. It is the
form to be wrought out by his hand. His vision makes him an artist;
he becomes merely a stone cutter. So we are fashioned by our ideals.
these are true and beautiful can the life become noble and truly great.
is an institution of high ideals and lofty standards for human living.
do not reach these, does not diminish the power for good. The names of
mercenary and the ignoble blur our rolls of membership. Unworthy men
the symbols of the craft to base and unworthy ends. Would we contribute
build up our great fraternity? Then we should regard fitness above fame
worth above wealth. If Masonry has a mission, an aim, it must not
itself with merely a beautiful ritual, faultlessly rendered. If the
teachings of the Craft are to end with dramatic and spectacular
lodge, there is little room or use for our fraternity in the affairs of
first aim, therefore, is to uplift the individual life. Each man who
our altar and assumes the solemn obligations placed upon him should
clearer purpose and loftier aim. If he can but realize that as a Master
he has had given him the plans and specifications drawn by the Supreme
Architect of the Universe for the erection of the sublime structure of
character, he will have caught the real spirit and aim of Masonry.
contrary, if merely moved by desire to improve his business, to wear a
charm or to be able to start in a mad chase for the "higher degrees,"
the newly made Mason has been spoiled in the making. To be a real Mason
be a better man in every relation of life. A more loyal, loving, and
considerate husband; a more devoted and indulgent father; a better
truer friend - are a few of the fruits to be gathered from the Masonic
Many are so intent upon selfish achievements that these are little
first and greatest aim of Masonry is toward a loftier individual
purer womanhood, and a more tender and promising childhood. That Masons
builders can be seen by the name. While the operative craftsman uses
brick or stone and cements it into one common mass, the speculative
uses living stones, which when properly united with the cement of
love and affection, constitutes an edifice eternal in the heavens.
teaching men the doctrines of temperance, fortitude, prudence and
together with the many other lessons drawn from, and daily applicable
activities of life, deep foundations are laid upon which loftiest
must stand. When brotherly love, relief, and truth really enter into
of a man's being, there is little room for the selfish and the debased.
instincts and his aspirations are toward the uplift that comes from a
service to mankind. That I am my brother's keeper is demonstrated in
avenue of life whether I am ready to concede it or not. He who achieves
fortune, fame, or power over the crushed form of his fellow has made a
bargain and will render his grievous service in the Inferno of his own
creation. Service and sacrifice are the crucible in which the base
greed, avarice, and selfishness are left as the dross of life. If thy
would have thee go with him one mile, that is thy duty. When to this is
gladly, a second mile, that is a blessed privilege. Masonry puts into a
breast the sweet service of the second mile.
everyday life the man who renders the scantest service to complete his
obligations, will find his burden onerous and distasteful. If in the
another, his tenure will hang by a slender thread. If the force is to
reduced, he will be first to go. On the other hand, if one is concerned
doing excellent work than in merely putting in a specified number of
day, his promotions will follow one after the other unsolicited. The
willingly and regularly does more than he is paid for and who seeks to
things which his employer prefers not to do himself will be
secure in his position. Our eight hours for refreshment and sleep are
may have and retain sufficient strength of body and mind to follow our
vocations with vigor and success. Both these are the basis for our
God through relief of our worthy, distressed brother.
mission, therefore, to the individual is to uplift his character and
a nobler manhood.
aggregate of individuals, constituting the social state, Masonry has a
of vast importance. Civilization has ever had as a companion, our great
fraternity. Whether the one or the other is the cause or effect cannot
be determined. The warp cannot say to the woof of a fabric, "I have no
need of thee." Each is so intermingled with the other that one cannot
injured without weakening the whole. So where the great light of
the world – the Bible ‒ has gone, there is civilization and there is
Freemasonry. Without God's revelation to man in the Book of books,
been and there can be little progress toward ethical standards.
has not been concerned with the dogmas of theology and the factional
rival sects. The church, organized religious thought and activity,
To this we reverently bow, modestly claiming the privilege of casting
devils of human need in the name of the Master of men.
product of Judaism and Christianity, the Holy Scriptures, is the great
Masonry. A belief in God and his Book is fundamental. Hence no atheist
become or remain a Mason and be honest. When he ceases to rely upon God
Supreme Architect of the Universe, he owes it to himself and to the
Craft to go
out from us because he is not of us. Thus founded on the eternal truth
revealed word and learning from this our duties to God and man, we, as
are willing that the various schools of religious thought should settle
disputes of theology to their own liking. On such a foundation members
of all churches,
whether Jew or Christian, come together and work as craftsmen of
without discord or difference. Harmony is the strength of all
especially of Freemasonry.
past the mistaken notion existed, that in some way Masonry was an
the church. Masons themselves may have been to some extent responsible
error. In their enthusiasm for the lodge they were betrayed into saying
things regarding the relations of the fraternity and the church of the
God, not justified by the teachings of the Craft. In these days there
better understanding, so much so that a large proportion of the clergy
laity of most religious denominations deem it an honor to wear, the
apron, the emblem of innocence and the badge of a Mason.
Mission in the state is one of peace and fidelity. Good citizenship can
fostered by a society whose members are taught lessons of obedience to
is the first law and order league in the world. From the minutest
ritual all the way up through its ethical teachings and wonderful
human action it stands immovable for order. In no human institution is
emphasis placed upon the ancient customs and usages than in the ancient
Even to such an extent has this gone that some look upon this
partaking somewhat of fogyism and fossilism. The landmarks are our
This charter of liberties may sometimes be in some doubt in its
re-adjustment to changed conditions of modern times.
conceded that it is not in the power of a man or a body of men to make
innovations in the body of Masonry. In this age of organization in all
scope, many societies, patterned more or less after this ancient
have sprung up. Many of these mixing fraternity and the business of
against sickness and death have led some of those, less thoughtful,
lodges and many brethren can see no reason why Masonry should not leave
impregnable fortress of pure fraternity to enter into competition with
societies which occupy a different place and are organized for
different, yet useful, purposes. Through all this Masonry has stood
rock of Gibraltar against the beatings of the ocean of modern orders.
thoroughly have the laws and customs evolved through the ages been
that our Royal Craft stands today greater and better than in any age
foundation. Every Mason whether in humble or exalted station in life
practices lessons of equality.
President of the United States sits as a loyal and faithful member of
lodge. Presidents, judges, senators, congressmen, governors they may be
the world, but in the lodge they are Masons and meet upon the level,
act by the
plumb, and part upon the square with men of all places and conditions.
mechanics, teachers, ministers, and those in professional or other
life form a society of friends and brothers among whom no contention
ever exist, except that noble contention, or rather emulation of who
work and best agree. Standing as it does upon such foundations, the
merit and thorough obedience to law, it is easy to perceive how
Freemasonry contributes to good government.
republic in fact is built upon precisely this basis. All men are equal
the law of the land and must obey it. Social distinctions may exist by
of wealth or station. Society may be divided into clans and classes,
but by the
genius of our republican institutions, all men are created equal.
opens the doors of success to those able and worthy to enter. The
the indolent and the shiftless may rail at their want of luck, but
failure is from within not from without. Masonry regards no man for his
wealth or honors. Worth of the man is its only concern. Being moved by
principles it cannot fail to be a powerful factor in the state.
is largely in the keeping of such agencies as our great brotherhood.
the world men come together as friends and brothers. Discord is frowned
peace is encouraged. The vast army marching under Freemasonry's banner
"peace on earth good will toward men" must move mightily in the
direction of universal amity and concord.
settlement of international difficulties is rapidly coming. The great
tribunal may have failed to avert the war between Russia and Japan, but
mighty voice has penetrated to the ends of the earth commanding
peace. Silent but potent means are gradually wearing the rocks of
strife away. In this great movement toward millennial peace, Masonry is
willing worker. She says to those battling for conquest or for glory or
If I were a voice, a convincing
I'd be borne on the restless wind,
And wherever I saw warring nations torn,
I'd creep to the hearts full of spite and scorn,
With love's own chain to bind,
And tell them to be free.
fraternity's mission in the state is distinctly for good citizenship
voice of Masonry not only appeals to the individual life in the
character; to the man's religious thought in the broadest toleration
with greatest emphasis; to the state in sustaining law and order; but
recognizes as one of its special fields of missionary endeavor the
want and woe and suffering. It looks upon the worthy distressed
widow and orphan as its chief concern. Our fellow man is our brother.
may be of another race or creed we are yet taught that our charity is
be the Jew, robbed, wounded, half dead by the Jericho roadside, yet the
Samaritan, despised and shunned, stoops to bind up the wounds and
the wants of his enemy in distress. This is the spirit of Freemasonry.
Abou Ben Adhem [Lib 1875] we teach that those who would
highest in love to God must prove their claims by practical love to
almost every Grand Jurisdiction in our great country in some practical,
effective form provision is made for aged and indigent Masons, their
their widows, and helpless orphans. The particular methods adopted to
exigencies in various states differ according as one theory or another
gained sway. In all cases, however, there is absolute unity in the
to provide for the aged brother and his dependents when the storm and
life have come. In our state with its vast fraternal army crossing the
mark, Masonry is marching with no faltering step toward its highest
achievement. In the ranks there may be honest difference of opinion
methods, but when our commander speaks we all gladly obey. Our Grand
composed as it is, of the picked fruit of Illinois' superb manhood, is
invincible and infallible.
aggregate wisdom of the Craft as shown in the actions of this Grand
safely be depended upon to settle aright all questions arising from our
charities. There is little more than the mere mercenary in conferring
and privileges upon persons from whom we expect an equivalent in
return. When a
man has nothing to give in exchange for the favors of his brethren it
genuine blessing to those who are willing to make for him a home and a
competency of comfort.
the philosophy of our home for the aged and indigent.
recipients of the willing service of their brethren have the happy
of a well spent life. Their eyes are dim, their natural strength abated
their ears dulled by age and infirmity. They are waiting until the hour
shows the sands of life fully run. The silver cord may be almost
golden bowl be nearly broken, the pitcher be frail at the fountain or
unsteady at the cistern, and yet they feel the gentle but mighty arms
great fraternity upon which they can lean with absolute security. The
everlasting embrace of human brotherhood gives them solace in their
can be no more noble or unselfish service that any Mason can render
than to one
who can neither help himself nor make a return for what others do for
Equally is this true of the aggregate of our great Craft in supplying
and comforts of life to those who are now cared for as a special
law of growth is in doing. Unselfish service will increase not only the
to serve but with this growth will come added power. Timid hearts may
shrunk from the magnitude of the task of providing for our worthy
brother wherever he may be found. But the pitiful sum from each
Mason so far entirely adequate for all needs, would willingly be
fold if necessity demanded.
bodies based upon and drawing their inspiration from Ancient Craft
would esteem it an honor as well as a privilege to Participate in
great institutions now sheltering young and old from the storms of
sentimental and the artistic sit to contemplate and admire the glories
setting sun. Every activity, every thrill of life springs toward the
shakes off the drowsiness of a sleep of recuperation as the morning's
calls him to the achievements of the coming day. Every bird joins in
jubilee of the morning. The world of life turns toward the rising sun
for a new
baptism for new duties. So, while we may view with satisfaction the
they near the sundown of their existence with the solid comforts their
willing brethren supply them, we turn with a new thrill of joy and
toward those who in the morning of life are looking to us for succor
the choicest fruits gathered from our great old tree of fraternity is,
therefore, the care and support of the children of youth and of three
upon the master's carpet are our system of fraternal charities. In
all its power and its glory we look toward youth and toward second
and greet them with open hearts and purses to fit the one to fill our
and to bring ease and comfort to those who have fought and lost the
life. In the world at large egoism is well-nigh universal. In Masonry
altruistic spirit softens and beautifies the otherwise harsh and
outlines of character. It is the Hiram Abiff which beautifies and
the wisdom of a Solomon and the strength of the Tyrian have produced.
would make Freemasonry eternal we must make sure that we do not allow
conflict between the mercenary and the unselfish to result in the
of the noble sentiment that "the greatest of these is charity." Our
ritual is a classic. Its structure is mechanically perfect. To master
present it effectively is a great accomplishment. Our growth and
been in proportion to its unity and beauty. Yet a ritual without the
Masonry is dead. It is a skeleton of dry bones hung together by wires
as may be
seen in the doctor's office or the class room of the medical college.
for the old and young in our homes is not our whole duty. In every
city, town, or hamlet, are abundant needs for the kindly and friendly
of the individual Mason. Organized charity, so-called, does not
generous duty of the Craftsman. If he has really imbibed the true
spirit of our
wonderful brotherhood he will not allow the sun to go down without the
every worthy distressed brother within the length of his cable-tow.
will the measurement be by any circumscribed standards. Wherever there
human sigh, a pain of anguish, a sorrow-stricken heart or a fevered
cable tow will be found sufficient to reach it. The mission of Masonry
every corner of the world, in which may crouch distress or suffering or
It goes to uplift, to gladden, and to beautify. To uprear noble, manly
character whether in society, in religion, in the state, or in the
relations of individual life is Masonry's divinest mission.
world wants men, large hearted,
Men who will join its chorus and prolong
Its psalm of labor and its song of love.
The age wants heroes: Heroes who shall dare
To struggle in the serried ranks of truth,
To clutch the monster Error by the throat,
To bear opinion to a loftier scat,
To blot the era of oppression out
And lead a universal freedom in."
is without some quality, by the due application of which he might
of the world; and whoever he be that has but little in his power should
haste to do that little, lest he be confounded with him that can do
are more needed than mathematics; right living will do more for us than
spelling; graciousness is more essential than grammar; equity is a
tribute than eloquence.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. George W.
Baird, P.G.M., District of Columbia
Major General Arthur
ST. CLAIR was born in Scotland, in 1734, of noble family. After
the University of Edinburgh he served an apprenticeship with Dr.
of London. His father had died when he was as yet a boy: after the loss
mother in 1757 he purchased the remaining time of his indentures and
commission in the Royal American regiment of foot. He was in the fight
Louisburg, N.S., under Generals Amherst, Wolf, and other English
officers. He participated in the capture of Quebec in 1759, and it was
seized the colors which had fallen from the hands of a dying soldier on
Plains of Abraham and bore them to victory.
writer has always believed that the defeat of the French at that time
to do with the establishing of freedom, the inherent rights of man, and
equality on this continent than our own Revolution!
Clair married Miss Bayard, a French Huguenot of Boston, whose fortune,
his own, made him quite independent. He resigned from the British Army
to reside in Boston. Two years later he moved to Bedford, Pennsylvania,
partly by purchase and partly by grant, he had secured a tract of land.
established his residence and erected a grist mill. He was elected
the Cumberland District and justice of a court, recorder of deeds, and
the Orphans Court.
he abandoned at the approach of the Revolutionary War. In 1775 he was
commissioned a Colonel by Hancock, president of the Congress at that
time. In a
letter to Witherspoon, St. Clair said, "I hold that no man has a right
withhold his services when his country needs them. Be the sacrifices
great, it must be yielded upon the altar of patriotism."
raised the famous Second Pennsylvania regiment, filling his ten
companies in a
few weeks. His first service was at Quebec, where he arrived in time to
the retreating American armies. He commanded at the disastrous fight of
Rivers, after the death of General Thompson. He was in the fight of
Ticonderoga, and was promoted to the rank of Brigadier. After being
Washington in New Jersey at the battles of Trenton and Princeton, he
Major General. It was at this time that he became so endeared to
met some reverses later which, in appearance, might have caused us to
on his character as a military leader: but fortunately Jared Sparks has
preserved for us the real facts and thus saved his admirable record.
of him, "Time proved that he had acted the part of the skilful and
subsequent career was all brilliant. He was appointed to the command of
Point when General Arnold had flunked; and he was a member of the court
convicted Major Andre. His last battle was at Yorktown. After the war
elected to Congress, of which he served as president. Later, he was
governor of the Northwest Territory.
his brilliant and honorable career he died poor. In the eighty-fourth
his life he undertook a journey to Youngstown, and was found dead on
the next morning. Whether he was buried by charity or not his
not say, but they do say this, which will be of keen interest to my
the cemetery at Greensburg, Pennsylvania, there is a neat little
monument erected by a Masonic lodge with this inscription:
earthly remains of Major General
Arthur St. Clair are deposited beneath this humble monument,
which is erected to supply the place of a nobler one, due from his
nobler monument was due there is no question, but the lodge that
sandstone memorial probably had in mind the kind of countrymen who then
But times have changed. When the writer first heard of that memorial he
steps to induce the Sons of the American Revolution to consider the
that "nobler one due from his country," but while making the effort
found that Brother John S. Sell, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania had, on the 15th day of August 1913, unveiled a "nobler
monument" in granite, an exact duplicate of the old sandstone memorial,
except for the explanatory inscription on the east panel: even the
of lettering is closely imitated. On the east panel this is added:
this monument also lies Phoebe
Bayard, wife of General St. Clair.
She died September 18th, 1818."
and deeper foundation was placed under this granite monument than had
under the old.
St. Clair was a member of N. C. Harmony Lodge. No. 2. in Ohio.
Holy Saints John
By Bro. Benjamin
Wellington Bryant, California
COME to the era of Grand Lodges, and the resultant crystallization of
Here it will be interesting to follow the growth of the Johannine idea
the various rituals and ritualistic revisions of the eighteenth
collection of ritualistic and Monitorial allusions which I have been
gather is probably far from complete, but I, believe that they are
representative and hence sufficient for the purpose of the present
Possibly some brother having access to other Johannine formulae may be
add further items of interest. From a bare reference in the earliest
catechisms, we find it developing into the historical extravagances of
tradition in its full flower. Thence, with the broadening of Masonic
bringing better understanding of the true import of the Regulation of
see it finally declining to the less pretentious form in use at the
time. Here we have an excellent opportunity to follow the sectarian
which held the Fraternity in so firm a grasp during the eighteenth, and
into the nineteenth century. This tendency, it appears, was at last
largely through the labors of Bro. Pike and Bro. Mackey, the latter
much of his inspiration from the former. (We are prone to think of
as distinctively the exponent of the high degrees, but we should not
debt of gratitude we owe to him and to those brethren whom he gathered
him for their influence in extending the horizon of thought in Blue
Masonry, for what Bro. Roscoe Pound denominates "Masonic
earliest lectures in use under the "revived" Grand Lodge after 1717
we find the formula:
"From whence came you?
From the holy Lodge of St. John.
What recommendation do you bring from thence?
A recommendation from the brothers and fellows
of that right
worshipful and holy lodge of St. John from whence I came, who greet you
we find a hint of the developing sectarian tendency in the lecture,
nevertheless still retains the pleasant ring of good fellowship
the earlier form: "God's good greeting be to this happy meeting. And
right worshipful brothers and fellows of the right worshipful and holy
Why do you denominate it the holy Lodge of St.
Because he was the forerunner of our Savior,
and laid the
first parallel line to the Gospel." (35)
Chetwoode Crowley Ms. quotes allusion from the Catechism of 1723: "Here
I, the youngest and last entered apprentice, as I am sworn by God and
by the Square and Compass and common judge." (36) (Possibly "common
judge" is a corruption of "common gauge"). "The Grand
Mystery" published in 1725 gives the following in the Catechism:
What Lodge are you of?
Lodge of St. John,"
later in the same:
"How many angles in St. John's Lodge?
Four, bordering on Squares." (37)
ritual as improved by Desaguliers and Anderson, both of whom were
find a further sectarian development of the reference, for it is
the lodges were called St. John's Lodges because: "he was the baptizer
forerunner of our Saviour; and announced him as the Lamb of God which
away the sins of the world." This
corresponds with the French ritual of 1730:
La Loge de S. Jean,"
and the passage was thus explained: "Il faut
toujours répondre ainsi
que c'est le nom de toutes les Loges." (38)
Oliver also quotes from the second edition of Anderson's Constitutions
as follows: "In France these festivals are celebrated on the same days
they are call 'Fêtes
hommage au G. A. D. l'U." (39), which would seem to indicate that
the French brethren still retained a solstitial form of the tradition
at a time
when the Craft in Britain were abandoning it in favor of a more
version. In the year 1732 Martin Clare prepared a revision of the
ritual, but I
have not been able to find any quotations from it. Oliver credits him
continuance of the Johannine tradition, but Dr. Mackey sees in this
the beginnings of an attempt to counteract the sectarianizing or
tendency which had hitherto been on the ascendant. (40) Evidently some
brethren were beginning to awaken to the real spirit of the Regulation
but there was yet a long road ahead, as we shall see.
Clare lectures appear to have prevailed with some revision until the
of those of Dunckerley in 1770. Dunckerley's lectures give the earliest
where an allusion is incorporated in the O.B. which I have been able to
It is as follow s: "In the presence of God and this right worshipful
holy lodge dedicated to God and Holy Sts. John," and the asseveration
corresponded to it, "so help me God and Holy Sts. John." (41) To
Dunckerley is also ascribed the first introduction of the "lines
parallel." (42) His formula runs thus: "This code is embordered by
two perpendicular parallel lines, representing St. John the Baptist and
John the Evangelist who were perfect parallels in Christianity as well
is known as the "Old York Lecture," used about the same time, we find
a most elaborate catechism of a type which must have delighted the
heart of Dr.
Lodges bong finished, furnished and
decorated with ornaments, furniture and jewels, to whom they were
you, brother, and can you tell me to
whom they were first dedicated?"
To Noah, who was saved in the Ark."
by what name were the Masons then
They were called Noachidee, Sages, or Wise
whom were the lodges dedicated during
the Mosaic dispensation?"
To Moses, the chosen of God, and Solomon, the
under what name were the Masons known
during that period?"
Under the name of Dionysiacs, Geometricians,
or Masters in
as Solomon was a Jew, and died long
before the promulgation of Christianity, to whom were they dedicated
From Solomon the patronage of Masonry passed
to St. John the
under what name were they known after
the promulgation of Christianity?"
Under the name of Essenes, Architects, or
were the lodges dedicated to St. John
Because he was the forerunner of our Saviour,
and by preaching
repentance and humiliation, drew the first parallel of the Gospel."
St. John the Baptist any equal?"
He had; St. John the Evangelist."
Why was he said to be the equal of the
Because he finished by his learning what the
other began by his
zeal, and thus drew a second line parallel to the former; ever since
Freemason's lodges in all Christian countries, have been dedicated to
or the other, or both of these worthy and worshipful men." (44)
understand the next version of the tradition we must return to the year
when Chevalier Ramsey, as Orator of the Grand Lodge of France,
Templar theory in an oration delivered before that body. Mackay and
quote from that oration, the part referring to the subject under
being as follows: "During the time of the holy wars in Palestine,
principal lords and citizens associated themselves together, and
entered into a
vow to re-establish the temples of the Christians in the Holy Land; and
themselves by an oath to employ their talents and their fortune in
architecture to its primitive institution.(?) They adopted several
signs and symbolic words drawn from religion by which they might
themselves from the infidels and recognize each other in the midst of
Saracens. They communicated these signs and words only to those who had
solemnly sworn, often at the foot of the altar, never to reveal them.
not an oath of execration but a bond uniting men of all nations into
confraternity. Sometime after our order was united with the Knights of
of Jerusalem. Hence our lodges are, in all Christian countries, called
of St. John." (45)
oration must have created a profound sensation among the Craft in
well as in France, and we find in this extract from a lecture in use in
north of England late in the century, a reply to it: "Our lodges are
untruly said to be dedicated to St. John because the Masons who engaged
conquer the Holy Land chose that saint for their patron. We should be
appropriate the Balsarian sect of Christians to St. John as an
this principle. St. John obtains our dedication as being the proclaimer
salvation which was at hand by the coming of Christ; and we as a set of
religious men, assembling in the true faith, commemorate the
the Baptist. In the name of St. John the Evangelist, we acknowledge the
which he gives, and the divine Logos which he makes manifest." And
in the same lecture: "Our beauty is such as adorns all our actions; is
hewn out of the rock, which is Christ; raised upright by the plumb-line
Gospel; and squared and levelled by the horizontal of God's will in the
Lodge of St. John; and as such becomes the temple whose maker and
Oliver also cites another version of similar import which he ascribes,
indefinitely, "to our transatlantic brethren," and which is certainly
an ingenious attempt to propitiate all parties and sects:
dedications are made to these Saints, not as Christians, but as eminent
and if we are gratuitous in bestowing such a character upon them, this
affect the merit of the argument, because the dedication is made under
supposition that such was their character. They are honored by us, not
Saints, but as good and pious men ‒ not as teachers of religion, but as
examples of all those virtues which Masons are taught to reverence and
practice. And if it incidentally happens that they were also
Christians, such a
circumstance should, with a tolerant Jew, be objection to the honors
them; but with the sincere Christian a better reason." (47)
Ramsey idea was adopted by the notorious imposter Finch, who
passage upon the oration of 1740 into one of his rituals: "What is the
chief reason why our lodges are dedicated to St. John? A. Because in
of the Crusades, the Masons having united themselves with the Knights
John of Jerusalem to fight against the infidels, they adopted that
their tutelary protector and being victorious in their conflicts with
Saracens, they unanimously agreed that all Masonic lodges should in
dedicated to him." (48)
another version which Mackey quotes from an old lecture adopted into
Prestonian system, which, while it bears some resemblance to the old
lecture, is less ambitious in its historical claims. It is said that a
early Christians did actually send a deputation to the Evangelist, who
at Ephesus, requesting him to give them a code of rules for their
"that the identity of their faith might be preserved as an exclusive
society" (49) and the story of that event may have inspired some
eighteenth century ritualist to compose this beautiful bit of Masonic
the building of the first temple at Jerusalem to the Babylonian
Freemason's lodges were dedicated to King Solomon; from thence to the
the Messiah they were dedicated to Zerubbabel the builder of the second
and from that time to the final destruction of the Temple by Titus, in
reign of Vespasian, they were dedicated to St. John the Baptist; but
the many massacres and disorders which attended that memorable event
Freemasonry sunk very much into decay; many lodges were entirely broken
but few could meet in sufficient numbers to constitute their legality;
and at a
general meeting of the Craft, held in the city of Benjamin, it was
that the principal reason for the decline of Masonry was the want of a
Master to patronize it. They therefore deputed seven of their most
members to wait upon St. John the Evangelist, who was at that time
Ephesus, requesting him to take the office of Grand Master. He returned
answer, that though well stricken in years (being upwards of ninety),
having been initiated into Masonry in the early part of his life, he
upon himself that office. He therefore completed by his learning what
St. John effected by his zeal, and thus drew what Freemasons term a
parallel'; ever since which time, Freemasons lodges in all Christian
been dedicated both to St. John the Baptist and St. John the
Preston lectures were the standard in England until the reconciliation
the "Ancient" and "Modern" factions in 1813, when the
Hemming lectures were adopted as a compromise ritual. In the Hemming
Johannine dedication was eliminated, the parallel lines were said to
Moses and Solomon, and the lodges dedicated "to God and his service."
(51) Thus our English brethren silenced, so far as these two Saints
concerned, all possibility of a charge of sectarianism. The change was
without protest however; many brethren withdrew from the Fraternity
accept the new lectures, and as previously noted, even as late as 1848,
Oliver was inspired to write and publish his "Mirror for the Johannite
Masons," [Lib 1866] which would indicate that the
still rankling in the hearts of numbers of the English brethren.
concludes our review so far as European Masonry is concerned. In this
Thomas Smith Webb had already published his Monitor [Lib 1865], which was based on the
Prestonian system, prior to the Reconciliation, and by the time that
place his system had evidently gained sufficient foothold largely to
whatever influence the Hemming system might otherwise have exerted,
supported by the, anti-British feeling engendered by the then recent
and by the troubles which the young Republic was still having with the
country, was sufficiently strong to prevent the young American Grand
from abandoning the Johannine in favor of the Solomonic formula. The
edition of Webb's Monitor appeared in 1797, coincident with the
sever the Royal Arch from the Blue Lodge system, in which he was a
spirit. In 1813, while the Reconciliation was being consummated in
was serving as Grand Master of Rhode Island, thus, perhaps unwittingly,
the weight of that dignity to the side of the balance against any
might have taken place.
edition of the Webb Monitor to which I have access is the fifth,
1866, but does not appear to have been revised to any extent. In it the
is as follows:
"By a recurrence to the chapter
the dedication of lodges it will be perceived, that although our
brethren dedicated their lodges to King Solomon, yet Masons professing
Christianity dedicate theirs to St. John the Baptist and St. John the
Evangelist, who were eminent patrons of Masonry." (52)
also uses the phrase: "who were perfect parallels in Christianity as
as in Masonry."
also a copy of the Macoy Monitor [Lib 1867] of the middle nineteenth
century which gives a version apparently based upon the Ramsey theory
enunciated by Finch:
"Lodges in ancient times were
to King Solomon ... and continued to be so dedicated until after the
Among the various orders of knights engaged in those chivalric wars,
more conspicuous than the magnanimous order of the Knights of St. John.
Many brethren of our ancient Craft also went forth to aid in redeeming
sepulchre of the Saviour from the hands of the infidel; between these
Knights of St. John there existed a reciprocal feeling of brotherly
the plains of Jerusalem they entered into a solemn compact of
it was mutually agreed between them that henceforth all lodges whose
the divinity of Christ, should be dedicated to St. John the Baptist and
John the Evangelist, who were two eminent patrons of Freemasonry." (53)
and to us most interesting of all, is the "Manual of the Lodge," [Lib
by Dr. Mackey, published in 1862, wherein we find the earliest
the version which seems to be most generally in use among American
at the present time:
"Our ancient brethren dedicated
lodges to King Solomon because he was our first Most Excellent Grand
but modern Masons dedicate theirs to St. John the Baptist and St. John
Evangelist who were two eminent patrons of Masonry." (54)
Bro. Mackey adds a note in which, as in his Encyclopedia, he lays
stress upon the solstitial character of the Johannine festivals and
It was as follows:
"The two parallel lines, which
modern lectures represent St. John the Baptist and St. John the
really allude to particular periods in the sun's annual course. At two
particular points in this course, the sun is found on the zodiacal
Cancer and Capricorn, which are distinguished as the summer and winter
solstices. When the sun is at these points he has reached his greatest
and southern limit. These points, if we suppose the circle to represent
sun's annual course, will be indicated by the points where the parallel
touch the circle. But the days when the sun reaches these points are
of June and the 22nd of December, and this will account for their
application to the two Sts. John, whose anniversaries the Church has
near these days." (55)
find that, while the Johannine tradition cannot be accepted as based on
veritable historical fact in the sense of regarding the Baptist and the
Evangelist as having been personally connected with the Fraternity, yet
recognition by the Craft, in one or another of its varied forms, dates
most remote antiquity. In modern speculative Masonry there are no
portions in the line of descent from the "revival" of 1717 until the
present time. In the words of Dr. Oliver:
"In the original lectures
Sayer, Payne, and Desaguliers, and as improved by Anderson, Desaguliers
Cowper; in the revisions of Dunckerley and Martin Clare, twice
repeated, and in
the extended rituals of Hutchinson, Preston and others, the St. Johns
their place as patrons of Masonry. In no one ritual, whether ancient or
in use during the 18th century, have they been omitted." (56)
remember that the centuries prior to the birth of speculative Masonry
little or nothing of the almanac and the calendar as popular
hence the annual festivals of pagan times and the Saint's days which
places under Christian influence were indispensable aids in marking the
and the seasons. In Britain, even long after 1534 when the yoke of the
was thrown off, the religious thought remained strongly under its
there was little change from the church customs of the earlier
more natural then, than that our brethren of that period should
midyear and midsummer festival of the Baptist as the date for their
assemblies. Later when the need for more frequent fraternal
became manifest, the Evangelist's day in midwinter was the most logical
spite of the narrow and almost iron-clad theology of the time, the
close of the
sixteenth century, as Bro. Waite notes in his "Real History of the
Rosicrucians," [Lib 1887] beheld a great wave of
over central Europe, and thence into England, France, Italy, and
In England this movement found its chief expression through the
school of thought and we find that the influx of speculatives during
seventeenth century brought in the Fraternity such men as Ashmole,
Robert Moray (or Murray), Wren, Locke, Boyle, and others of strong
tendencies, and of sufficient learning and prominence to be Fellows of
Royal Society. The Rosicrucian philosophy embodied much of that
religion which is the basis of Freemasonry, but its adherents found it
wise to conceal
its broad principles under a veil of Christian mysticism in that age
open and free statement of such doctrine would have subjected them to
persecution or ostracism. These men must have understood, as possibly
operatives of their day did not, the astronomical origin of the
festivals, and from the standpoint of that knowledge, might very
lent their influence to the more regular observance of those dates.
the scene during the period when the stage was unwittingly being set
"revival" or "revolution of 1717," they must have lent a
very considerable influence to the shaping of the circumstances which
led up to
that event. Viewing the Johannine dedication and festivals in the light
solstitial observance which had been celebrated from most remote
thus truly in harmony with the liberal spirit, not only of Rosicrucian,
also of Masonic faith, it seems even more probable that we are indebted
considerable measure to those early mystics for the perpetuation of
of the Craft.
revival in 1717 the ritual fell into the hands of such orthodox
the Gospel as Dr. Anderson and Dr. Desaguliers, who would, of course,
observances in their Christian, rather than in their solstitial and
aspect. Under their hands it was shaped into a Christian tradition, and
ritualists who followed them apparently adopted their lead and further
developed it as we have seen. It is most fascinating to trace, through
early meager references and the later wild fabrications of tradition,
development from the early dedication and festival observance, through
bloom of a sectarian legend down to our modern unassuming and
version. It is not surprising, when this one item could develop into
flower that many other fabulous statements could gain circulation and
among the brethren. Bro. Gould quotes and condemns a number of these.
to one, "27,000 Masons accompanied the Christian princes in the
Crusades." Another was the statement that Martin Luther was received
the Society on Christmas night, 1520, just fifteen days after he had
Pope's Bull; and still other, and even more absurd were that the Craft
into Britain, A. M. 2974, by "E-Brank, King of the Trojan race, and
Ireland by the prophet Jeremiah." (58)
to Bro. Mackey, a reaction from the sectarian influence and the flights
imagination of the earlier ritualists began to become manifest in the
revision, (59) though I have found no quotations from it bearing upon
subject of the present paper. Neither have I found any from the ritual
the Dermott or "Ancient" faction unless the "old York lecture"
above quoted belonged to them. However, the opponents of the
tendency apparently finally made their voices heard and gained a signal
in the adoption of the Hemming lectures. I am not prepared to discuss
wisdom of that change other than to remark that one argument in its
that it removed one point of temptation beyond the reach of those
to its influence. Here in America we seem to have gradually receded
more sectarian versions to the unassuming one in general use at present
apparently gives no offence to our brethren of the Jewish faith.
long since abandoned the belief that the two Johns in person were
the Fraternity. Both Gould and Mackey recognize their symbolical
(60) Dr. Mackey thus defines a symbol in the Masonic acceptance of the
"A symbol is defined to be a visible sign with which a spiritual
emotion or idea is connected." (61) This thought should be ever borne
mind in the study of Masonic ritual and symbolism, for in no other way
of our system of speculative Masonry be interpreted. As the operative
our ancient brethren was deemed a high and noble science, so their
organization, well worthy of so noble a fate, has been bequeathed to us
Speculative Fraternity, and has become, by some yet unexplained method,
repository of a wonderful science of symbols based partly upon the
art and partly upon ancient mystical religion and philosophy.
well to remember that the whole purpose of symbolism, in the sense used
Mackey, in the ages which saw its origin as a development of the
picture writing, was to convey or reveal truth only to such as were
truly prepared, worthy and well qualified; and that its early authors
remarkable adepts in the art of so concealing those truths which they
be too sacred for the unworthy profane. It is well to remember these
approaching the study of Masonry, for we may thus, if we in our turn
duly and truly prepared," open the way to clues which will lead to the
discovery of some of those vast treasures of hidden truth which modern
Freemasonry has inherited from those schools of the secret wisdom of
‒ the Ancient Mysteries, and from some of their later successors.
in the ritual or monitors of the Craft is there a more perfect example
nor one more easily demonstrated when we find its key, than in the
natural truths so carefully hidden behind the meager references
our work to the two characters which are the subjects of the present
would not minimize the importance of the moral which the monitor
them, but would emphasize my belief that this represents only a
fraction of the
real lesson. Their festivals, engrafted as we have seen, upon the old
solstitial festivals which were so prominent in the Light-religions of
antiquity, give us a miniature statement of the whole philosophy of
which is a mystery-drama of human life. Falling upon June 24th and
dates so close to the summer and winter solstices as to leave no doubt
their origin, they give us more than a hint of the close relation of
the phenomena of the visible universe, ‒ "the microcosm in the
For our Masonic purposes, it matters little what particular story we
these dates; the fact of our observance of them as ancient festivals of
Fraternity preserves the spirit of the symbolism; and whether we
as the midsummer and midwinter solstices under the beautifully poetical
phraseology of the Osiric, Eleusinian or Druidic Mysteries, or as the
days of Christian saints traditionally alleged to have lent their
our Fraternity, the fundamental lesson is the same.
reputed character of the Baptist and of the Evangelist adapts their
very readily to the symbolism. The feast of the Baptist recalls to our
his inflexible fidelity and martyrdom for his faith, and thus, while
us of another martyrdom for similar high principles which is familiar
Masons, furnishes a worthy ideal for Masonic consideration. In the rite
baptism from which his distinctive title is derived is symbolized the
of the heart from the dross of selfishness and vice, and the spiritual
initiation of the soul into the knowledge of the mysteries of eternal
Thus the festival of his birth very appropriately coincides with the
solstice, when all visible nature is at the zenith of life, light, and
the other hand, the festival of the Evangelist who is so fortunately
represented as a man in the winter and wisdom of life; who so
proclaimed the gospel of brotherly love; and whose writings teem with
allegories of the mystical initiation into the secrets that lie beyond
of material vision, is very properly assigned to that period of the
life has reached its full maturity and seems about to depart from the
Considering all this he too becomes a worthy and appropriate figure for
therefore find in these two figures, so peculiarly and even
connected with Masonry, that broad symbolism which admits of universal
interpretation and appreciation. It is truly in harmony with the spirit
"that religion in which all men agree" and is therefore really
Masonic. Their festivals falling upon the two extremes of the year well
represent the cycle of nature and of human life, and thereby give us a
the whole philosophy of Masonry. Though of Christian derivation, their
interpretation carries the same lesson for the Jew and the Theist as
Christian Brother. They tell of the eternal cycle of existence, of
manifestation and disappearance, of activity and repose, which is the
and immutable law of God, and which is so fittingly expressed in our
phrase: "From labor to refreshment and from refreshment to labor
of Freemasonry," [Lib 1915] Pound, p. 66.
34. "Mirror for the Johannite Masons," [Lib 1866] Oliver, p. 26.
35. Ibid, p. 34.
36. "Essays," [Lib 1913] Gould, p. xix
37. "History of Freemasonry," [Lib 1889] Gould, vol.
4, pp. 281-2.
38. "Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 27.
39. Ibid, p. 67.
40. "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," [Lib 1914] Mackey,
article on "Martin Clare."
41. "Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver; p. 27.
42. "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on
43. "Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 35.
44. "Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 27; also
"Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on
45. "History of Freemasonry," [Lib 1889] Gould, vol.
3, p. 341; also "Encyclopedia of
Freemasonry," Mackey, article on "Ramsey."
46. "Mirror for the Johannite Masons," Oliver, p. 29.
48. Ibid, p. 20.
49. "Annot. on John," Kitto.
50. "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on
51. Ibid, article on "Parallel Lines."
52. "Freemason's Monitor," [Lib 1865] Webb, P. 31,
5th Edition, republished, Cincinnati
53. "Masonic Manual," [Lib 1867] Robert Macoy,
15th Edition, New York 1858.
54. "Manual of the Lodge," [Lib 1891] Mackey, New
55. Ibid, p. 57.
56. "Mirror for the Johannite Masons," [Lib 1866] Oliver, p. 32.
57. "Real History of the Rosicrucians," [Lib 1887] Waite, p. 39,
New York 1888.
58. "History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. P. 127.
59. "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on
60. "History of Freemasonry," Gould, vol. 3, p. 79; also
"Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," article on "Dedication."
61. "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," Mackey, article on
Cross and Flag – [A Poem]
By Frederick L. Hosmer
Day," edited by B.H. Schauffler, and published by Moffat, Yard
age to age they gather, ail the brave
of heart and strong,
In the strife of truth with error, of the right against the wrong;
I can see their gleaming banner, I can hear their triumph song;
The Truth is marching on!
"In this sign we conquer"; 'tis the symbol of our faith,
Made holy by the might of love, triumphant over death;
He finds his life who loseth it, forever more it saith:
The Right is marching on!
The earth is circling onward, out of shadow into light;
The stars keep watch above our way, however dark the night;
For every martyr's stripe there glows a bar of morning light;
For Love is marching on!
Lead on, O cross of martyr faith, with thee is victory!
Shine forth, O stars and reddening dawn, the full day yet shall be!
On earth his kingdom cometh, and with joy our eyes shall see:
Our God is marching on!
A Long March through
by his fellow men by the strongest of all ties, the tie of a common
free man finds that a new vision is with him always, shedding over
task the light of love. The life of Man is a long march through the
surrounded by invisible foes, tortured by weariness and pain, towards a
that few can hope to reach, and where none may tarry long. One by one,
march, our comrades vanish from our sight, seized by the silent orders
omnipotent death. Very brief is the time in which we can help them, in
their happiness or misery is decided. Be it ours to shed sunshine on
path, to lighten their sorrows by the balm of sympathy, to give them
joy of a never tiring affection, to strengthen failing courage, to
in hours of despair. Let us not weigh in grudging scales their merits
demerits, but let us think only of their need, of the sorrows, of the
difficulties, perhaps the blindnesses, that make the misery of their
us remember that they are fellow-sufferers in the same darkness, actors
same tragedy with ourselves. And so, when their day is over, when their
and their evil have become eternal by the immortality of the past, be
to feel that, where they suffered, where they failed no deed of ours
cause; but wherever a spark of the divine fire kindled in their hearts,
ready with encouragement, with sympathy, with brave words in which high
‒ Bertrand Russell.
A Masonic Bank
Porto Rico brethren have conceived the novel idea of establishing a
"Masonic Bank," which has become one of the "great banking
institutions of San Juan," to use the words of Grand Secretary J. G.
Torres. In a little more than a year its original capital has been
nine times over, its deposits exceed $150,000, and its loans also
sum. It has branches in Sabana Grande and Lares and agencies at three
points. The stock is quoted at a premium of 7 1/2% and is expected to
higher. It pays interests on open deposits which permanently exceed
has enabled the brethren as well as profanes to hold their fruits
having to sell them at low prices; it has freed the poor from the grip
usurers by making loans as small as $25.00 at the legal rate of
interest; it has
encouraged thrift and saving; it has aided Grand Lodge with necessary
and has assisted the lodges in building, buying and enlarging their
is declared to have increased greatly the prestige of our institution.
bank, though owned and operated by Masons, is not controlled by Grand
Proc., Grand Lodge of Alabama.
A Parsee Hymn -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald Nancarrow,
God of Earth, and Air, and Sea;
Thou never dying Fire,
To Thee within and round about
We, part of Thee, aspire.
Thou art the flame within our hearts,
Thou countless Gods in One;
Thou are the light above the hills,
The Moon, the Stars, the Sun.
Before the worlds rose in the vast
There shone Thy Deathless Ray;
From dust to Suns, from Suns to dust
All is Thy endless day.
And ever through our darkness, yea,
Until no more is night,
Before us shining on our path
Art Thou, Unwaning Light.
History of the Early Days of Templarism
By Bro. Stanley C.
Warner, Past Grand Commander, Colorado
Brother Stanley Clark Warner
was born at
Wilton, in Lenox County, Ontario, Canada, June 25, 1863. He attended
University at Coburg, Ontario, and graduated from that institution in
1884, with the degree of B.A.; studied law and was admitted to the bar
Province of Ontario in May, 1887, entering into the practice of his
at Napanee, Ontario. He is now engaged in a steadily increasing legal
in Denver, Colorado.
Brother Warner was raised in
Doric Lodge No.
316, A.F. & A.M., Toronto, Canada, on May 19, 1887, later
Union Lodge No. 7 at Napanee, serving that lodge as Secretary and
and chosen as Worshipful Master in December, 1889. He was a District
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Canada in 1891-92, and served one
the Board of General Purposes of that Grand Lodge. In January, 1906, he
affiliated with Albert Pike Lodge No. 117, at Denver, Colorado. He has
the Grand Lodge of Colorado on various committees, being Chairman of
Committee on Foreign Correspondence since 1917. He has been an
worker in all Masonic Bodies in Denver. In the Grand Commandery of
was elected Grand Commander on October 24, 1920.
numbers of our members and, in fact, many of our Templar speakers, are
imbued with the fiction that modern Masonic Templarism has a direct
with and is the lineal descendant of the Knights Templar Order,
1113 by Hughes De Payens to protect pilgrims on their journey to the
and one often hears both publicly expressed and inferentially suggested
our present Grand Master holds his office in direct accession to the
Jacques De Malay, whom an avaricious king of France, with the
concurrence of an
infamous Pope of Rome, burned at the stake in Paris, March 18, 1313:
despite the fact that this pleasing fiction has been discarded by
our prominent Masonic writers and historians during the last quarter of
century, Sir Knight Colman in his Centennial address to the Grand
1916 upon the subject of the early history of that body, said: "There
no probability, hardly even any possibility, that our modern Order of
Masonic Knighthood is directly connected with the ancient Order of
Knights whose name and date we proudly bear and whose valiant character
Christian virtues we emulate."
Rugg, Past Grand Master of the Grand Encampment, in his Centennial
the Grand Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, said:
"Tradition and common belief
value, but they must not be allowed to offset historic evidence. It is
of unwisdom to cling to a theory that has been generally discarded by
have made the most extensive and careful examination of the grounds on
rests. In this case the most reliable authorities concur in judgment
Masonic Templary, as recognized in the eighteenth and nineteenth
not historically connected with or lineally descended from the
of the Crusades."
Hopkins, Past Grand Master of the Grand Encampment, at the Conclave
Louisville in 1901, said:
"I readily admit that we cannot
indisputable title to this inheritance, but the claim is precious
title may not be secure. I would fain believe that the founders of the
did not leave the organization which they founded and cemented with
to become the plaything of chance or to rest upon the uncertain tenure
will or whim of a rapacious king and a weak pope. I am disposed to
it is only a sentiment, but it is one to which some of us cling
which we only surrender when we recognize that tradition must yield to
Knight Parvin, Past Grand Recorder of Iowa and for many years closely
with the Grand Encampment, has said:
"The popular theory under which
writers view the origin and history of Templar Masonry would trace it
some mysterious line of connection to the Order of Malta which was
1798, or back to the Order of the Temple, which ceased to exist in
the latter theory, even at this day, has many advocates. A better and
theory, is to credit the whole system of Masonic Templary to the
genius of the ritual makers of the eighteenth century."
Col. W.J.B. MacLeod Moore, Supreme Grand Master, ad vitam, of the
Great Priory of Canada, frequently declared in his annual allocutions
Freemasonry was not the successor of the military Templars.
published addresses of the distinguished Templars to which references
made are not of easy access to the membership of our Order, and in
short account of our early history at this time, we have in mind that
information will be thereby more generally available to such Templars
interested therein. We make no claim of any personal research, but
present to you the facts as collected from the works of Eminent Sir
have made a life study thereof.
long centuries elapsed after the death of Jacques De Malay and the
of the ancient Order before history or even Masonic tradition suggests
existence of Masonic Templarism. During these four centuries civil
silent as to the Templars, and little is known or related of the
Masons met without charter or other authority, initiated candidates,
without even an organized lodge or without record of the same, this by
of inherent right, and with no intent or desire to make their
public. It was only in 1717 that the Masonic Fraternity assumed an
existence, and it was shortly after this date that we find the first
of the Modern Templar Degree. The long cherished alleged connection of
orders through Scottish sources rests largely upon the fact that among
adherents of the Stuart Pretender who fled to France after his defeat
early part of the eighteenth century, was one Chevalier Ramsay, a
gentleman of much culture, and a tutor of the Second Pretender, Charles
This distinguished exile, while in France, is said to have developed a
system with a sixth degree, designated the Knight of the Temple, and
of his visits to Scotland, to have created Knights Templar there. With
Pretender's approval he attempted to use his Masonic connection to aid
exiled Stuarts, and in grafting upon Masonry a Military Order, he may
in mind the assistance which it might be to his benefactor. Masonic
differ as to the truth of these statements, but in any event the
was occasionally conferred in Great Britain during the middle of the
century, and encampments of the Order were during that period formed at
York, Bristol, and Salisbury, more or less intimately connected with
says that "Templarism was first introduced into the British Empire in
Masonic lodges known as the Ancients under the Duke of Athol, who was
Master of Scotland, in the eighteenth century," and that about 1780 the
Templar Degree was merged into the Masonic system, following the Royal
the sequence of additional degrees.
Redfern Kelly, G.C.T., in a series of articles in the Toronto
published since this speech was first written, says that the records of
York Grand Lodges, designated also the Grand Lodge of all England, of
June, 1780, announced that lodge as asserting authority over five
orders of Masonry, the Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason,
Arch and Knight Templar, and also show the conferring of the Templar
York, England, on November 29, 1779. He further asserts that this Grand
was the only one which officially recognized the Order of the Temple as
Masonic, in either Great Britain or Ireland during the eighteenth
history of the Order of the Temple, [Lib*] by Sir Patrick Colquhoun of
England, published in 1878, is authority for the statement that in 1769
Mother Kilwinning Lodge of Scotland issued a charter to Kilwinning
Lodge of Dublin, which authorized the conferring of the degree of
Templar therein, but it would appear that the Order was found in Dublin
to that date in the possession of military organizations composed of
soldiers of Scotland and Ireland. It is probably by this same military
that the Order was introduced into this country in Boston about the
period. Hughan, the great English Masonic authority, makes the positive
statement that the first authentic record of the conferring of the
found in the minutes of St. Andrews Royal Arch Lodge in Boston under
August 28, 1769, where we read that "the petition of Bro. William Davis
before the lodge begging to have and receive the parts belonging to a
Arch Mason, which being read, was received and he unanimously voted in,
accordingly made by receiving the four steps, that of Excellent,
Super-Excellent, Royal Arch, and Knight Templar."
history of Masonry prior to 1717, the early history of Masonic
consists of the record of the meetings of Knights of the Order in
places for the purpose of conferring the same, without any constituted
authority, by inherent right only, acting sometimes with and sometimes
the sanction of regular Masonic lodges.
records of this same St Andrews Royal Arch Chapter show that in
"the petition of Bro. Paul Revere coming before the lodge begging to
become an Arch Mason, it was received and he was unanimously accepted
accordingly made." He subsequently became in the same body a Knight
Templar. In 1770 it was voted "that the M. M. Joseph Warren, Esq.,
be made a Royal Arch Mason this evening, and he was accordingly made,
gratis." The minutes of this body show the conferring of the order or
degree of Knight Templar on about 50 candidates between the years 1769
last decade of the eighteenth century encampments were formed by
Craftsmen in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, at Boston, Providence,
Newburyport, and Portland (now in Maine), at Philadelphia,
Wilmington, Delaware; at Albany and New York City; at Baltimore,
at Charleston, South Carolina, in all of which encampments the Order of
Temple was conferred.
step was the formation of Grand Encampments, as they were then called,
various states. The first was organized in Philadelphia, May 12, 1797,
four constituent bodies. It had but a brief existence, was revived in
again became extinct in 1824, and remained so during the Anti-Masonic
Excitement. It was again revived in 1852 under the authority of the
of Pennsylvania, to which it acknowledged allegiance until 1857, when,
consent of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, it became part of the Grand
Encampment of the United States.
important event in this era of Templar history was the organization in
the city of Providence of the Grand Encampment of Massachusetts and
Island. This is especially true, because the Templars responsible for
were almost identically those who subsequently in 1816 participated in
organization of our present governing body, and as any history of our
incomplete which does not particularly deal with the lives of at least
these pioneers of American Templarism, we shall for a few moments
the actual subject under consideration.
Smith Webb, founder of St. John's Encampment in Providence in 1802,
officer from 1805 to 1817 of what is now called the Grand Commandery of
Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and Deputy Grand Master from 1816 until
death in 1819, of the General Grand Encampment of the United States,
in Boston in 1771, was made a Mason in New Hampshire in 1792, a Royal
Mason in Philadelphia in 1796, and a Knight Templar sometime previous
either in Temple Encampment at Albany, in a Philadelphia Encampment, in
Encampment, or in the Old Encampment of New York City, all four of
claim the honor. He was the author of several successive editions of
Free Mason's Monitor," was an organizer of great ability, had an
attractive personality, a win-some manner, with indefatigable energy,
great versatility of language, both written and oral, all of which
making for him the high reputation which he has since held as a Masonic
ritualist and organizer. He has been said to have invented the American
of Templary, and there is no doubt that he, along with Fowle, is
for the present impressive ceremonies, not only of the Templar Order
but, in a
large measure, of Craft Masonry and the Royal Arch system. He died
July 6, 1819, while on a visit to Cleveland, Ohio, and was buried there
shortly prior to the Second Triennial Session of our Grand Encampment.
remains were subsequently removed to the North Burial Ground at
Rode Island, where a monument of white marble has been erected to his
Fowle, first Sovereign Master of Boston Encampment of Red Cross Knights
Grand Master of that Encampment when it was reorganized as a Templar
1806, which office he held until 1824, Grand Generalissimo of the Grand
Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island from its organization in
until 1817, then its Deputy Grand Master and subsequently its Grand
1820 to 1825; was named Grand Generalissimo of the General Grand
its organization in 1816, and was elected Deputy Grand Master at the
Conclave in 1819. Sir Knight Fowle was a member of St. Andrew's Chapter
Boston, where he received the Knight Templar degree on the 28th of
1795. He was a great friend of Webb, and a ritualist of a very high
was a well-known lecturer and his powers of organization made him, when
in conjunction with Webb, a potent factor in all branches of Masonic,
the efforts of these two men is due the organization of what is known
present as the Grand Commandery of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and
that of our present governing body, to which reference will be made
DeWitt Clinton was born at Little Britain, New York, in 1769, and died
1828. He was the father of the Great Canal System of the Empire State,
as its Governor, having resigned a seat in the United States Senate for
purpose, was in 1812 a candidate against James Madison for President of
United States, was Grand Master of Masons of New York from 1806 to
selected first Grand Master of the General Grand Encampment of the
States in 1816, and served as such until his death on the 11th of
1828. He devoted a busy and useful life to the service of his community
an Order which he considered as wielding a great influence for good in
government, both of his state and country. He was at the head of the
during the early days of the unfortunate Morgan excitement, and did
much by his
influence to alleviate the disastrous conditions which resulted
was a lawyer, a statesman, and a patriot, and with Webb and Fowle
combination to which is largely due the present status of Templarism in
Grand Encampment of New York was organized in 1814; and was in a great
an outgrowth from the "Sovereign Grand Consistory" organized by the
well-known Masonic charlatan, Joseph Cerneau.
were in existence in 1816 three sovereign grand bodies of the Order ‒
Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and New York, in addition
which there were isolated encampments working in Connecticut, Maryland
South Carolina. The great organizers Webb and Fowle, having about
previously launched the General Grand Chapter of the United States,
their state Grand Encampment with more or less authority, along with
Templars from New York, held a convention in Philadelphia on June 11,
where they met with delegates from Pennsylvania and endeavored to
United States Grand Encampment. Opposition developed thereto on the
part of the
delegates from Pennsylvania, who refused to concur in the adoption of a
proposed constitution, preferring rather their own ritual, their own
and their own powers of government, being influenced largely by their
connection with the Mother Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, to which they
and until 1857 subject. Unsuccessful in their efforts, but still
Webb and Fowle stopped over in New York City on their way home and
within ten days, organized what is today the Grand Encampment Knights
of the United States of America; adopted a constitution, carefully
Webb, which remained essentially unchanged until 1856; prepared a
officers substantially the same as at present prevailing; and named
for those offices from their two state jurisdictions, Webb and Fowle
subordinating themselves to Governor Clinton, whose civil position,
his Masonic record and his powerful influence rendered him eminently
fit to act
as Grand Master of the organization. It remained only for the Knights
Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and New York to ratify this action and
such changes in the constitution of their different bodies as were
the thirty-six years following the formation of the Grand Encampment
additional Grand Commanderies were added to its roster, a slow growth
solely to the persecution of the members of the Order for a score of
following the Morgan Excitement. During the fifties, ten Grand
were added to the list, when our great Civil War, along with its
the general affairs of the nation, for many years delayed the spread of
Order over the United States. Since that war its growth has been
normal, and today we have forty-seven Grand Commanderies in the United
with a total membership of over 368,000.
of the United States, the activities of modern Templarism are confined
British nation, with whose Great Priories of England and Wales,
Scotland, and Canada, we are, by the Concordat of 1910, in fraternal
History in New Mexico
exceptionally able article was written upon special request of THE
is here offered as a specimen of what might be done by the way of brief
histories of every state in the Union. Would not a volume made up of
sketches be of great value? Our thanks go to Brother Walter who is now
President of the First National Bank of Santa Fe, the same bank of
William W. Griffin, the first Grand Master of New Mexico, was one time
President; and also to Brother Francis E. Lester, Past Grand Master of
who recommended Brother Walter as a suitable historian of New Mexico
Freemasonry. The Southwest is a great store of the most romantic
history, a virgin mine of inspiration and fact, awaiting development at
hands of Masonic writers.
in 1831 that Albert Pike, the noted Masonic author, visited Santa Fe.
the spot from which he first viewed the city, rises the splendid
Cathedral, in which the Consistory and other bodies make their home. In
collected poems of Pike are a few verses which record the impression
historic and ancient city made upon the distinguished visitor. This is
Santa Fe's first connection with the history of Masonry.
ten years later, in 1841, we find reference to what appears to have
attempt to establish a lodge in Santa Fe. In an address delivered
Grand Lodge on May 13, 1901, Wm. G. Ritch, then Secretary and acting
of New Mexico, refers to this attempt, which is based upon a reference
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Texas to the effect that a
granted for the institution of a lodge at Santa Fe. Nothing further
have come of the attempt, and it was not until 1847 that a military
instituted. In the archives of the Grand Lodge of Missouri we find the
following notation: "Missouri Military Lodge No. 86, Third Regiment,
Missouri Volunteers; dispensation issued June 12, 1847 by John Ralls,
Master. Chartered October 14, 1847; closed with the Mexican War."
Ralls commanded one of the volunteer regiments from Missouri stationed
Fe after Colonel Price had been relieved by new levies. As was noted,
also Grand Master of the Masonic jurisdiction of Missouri. Lt. Col. H.
Boyakin, who served with the First Illinois Regiment, also stationed at
Fe, was a craftsman who later was Master of a lodge.
Colonel R. E. Twitchell in his "Leading Facts of New Mexican
History," [Lib*] Vol. 5, page 315:
"Of the work of this lodge we
without information; there being no returns or files among the archives
which to glean facts. And we have no further evidence of its having
save that the lodge is referred to by name and number in the minute
Hardin Lodge No. 87 at Santa Fe, as having been visited by the latter
date of October 26, 1847. We are thus able only to speak of Missouri
Lodge No. 86 as an existing lodge at Santa Fe, apparently working
from sometime in September, 1847, down to the close of the service of
regiment a year later. That No. 86 did good work there can be no doubt,
it was under the immediate fostering presence and care of the Grand
the jurisdiction issuing its charter, and who no doubt instituted the
second lodge contemporaneous with the latter as to time and place bears
name of Hardin Lodge No. 87, A.F. & A.M. Of the latter, there
evidence of its existence, well known to the older members of Montezuma
This lodge had also been
organized under the
authority of Grand Master John Ralls, its duration also being limited
service of the regiment. The minutes of Hardin Lodge show work,
initiation, and the names of some of the old-timers are preserved in
minutes of Montezuma Lodge No. 1. These lodges existed before the
of any other Masonic organizations west of the Missouri. They are the
beginnings of Freemasonry in that immense domain lying between the
River and the Pacific Ocean, and between the British possessions and
Republic of Mexico and the State of Texas. Quoting the same historian
"These military lodges go down
history as marking the first dawn of fraternity in an immensity of area
developed into an empire of free states, each having its grand
the peer of any other jurisdiction in Masonry the world over. And thus
in the great west kept step with the vanguard of civilization. We must
forget that among the pioneers and early inspirations of modern
military lodge was an important agency in the planting of the Craft far
these military lodges were short lived, and it was not until the
Montezuma Lodge on the 22nd day of August, 1851, that the history of
Masonry in New Mexico begins. In those early days, the lodge room was
center of civic and social activity for a wide domain. Trappers and
pathfinders and pioneers, made it their place of social gathering, and
find Kit Carson, Saint Vrain, military officers, federal and
officials, mingling in social intercourse. The first death to be
Montezuma Lodge was that of Robert T. Brent, junior warden of the
was killed on December 4, 1851, while crossing the Jornado de Muerto,
"Journey of Death." He fell a victim to the Apaches and was buried by
the lodge on December 23rd. The legislative assembly granted a civil
Montezuma Lodge on February 6, 1854. Up to 1860, Montezuma Lodge was
Masonic organization within a radius of almost a thousand miles, and
membership was drawn from far distant communities and settlements. Says
"The Masonic lodge in those
something more than a mere civic society. In the absence of American
generally during the first two decades of the American occupation,
no social centers, no places of amusement, no homes of the American
attractive resort in which to while away an hour ‒ unless, forsooth we
Mexican baile, the gambling room, and the saloon. Naturally members
at the Masonic lodge room. The Masonic hall became the club room and
center of those who would avoid contact with the dissipations of the
The sole protestant church of the period, indeed, had representatives
ground ‒ sometimes."
lodge room of Montezuma Lodge in Santa Fe are preserved a number of the
including Kit Carson's rifle, of those early days. The furniture and
furnishings which were brought from St. Joseph, Missouri, in 1852 over
Santa Fe Trail in wagons are still in use, and on the walls are the
of several score of the first members. It was not until 1855, that the
Order gained further footing west of the Missouri except in a few
Oregon and California. It was in 1860 that Bent Lodge was instituted at
Then followed lodges at Las Vegas, Elizabethtown, Cimarron, Silver
Tiptonville. Vicissitudes of fate resulted in the surrender of the
the lodges at Taos, Elizabethtown, and Cimarron. In 1877, the Grand
New Mexico was instituted at Santa Fe by the representatives of
Chapman, and Aztec lodges. The first Grand Master was Wm. W. Griffin,
of the First National Bank at Santa Fe. The Grand Royal Arch Chapter
organized in 1898, the first Royal Arch chapter having been instituted
Fe in 1865. The Grand Commandery of the Knights Templar was organized
The Shrine was granted a charter in 1887, and has its temple at
The four bodies of the Scottish Rite trace their beginnings to February
1883, when Santa Fe Lodge of Perfection No. 1 was instituted under the
direction of Charles Spaulding of Topeka, Kansas, deputy of the Supreme
Council. The two last surviving resident members of the first session
lodge, U.S. Senator Thomas B. Catron and Dr. W. S. Harroun, died only
It was not until 1905 that the lodge became active in conferring the
It was then that Cony T. Brown, under the direction of the late Col.
deputy of the Supreme Council, communicated the degrees from the fourth
fourteenth upon a small class, including Judge Richard H. Hanna, the
deputy of the Supreme Council for New Mexico. Since then, the lodge has
rapidly. In 1908, Aitlan Chapter, Rose Croix No. 1, was instituted
direction of Col. Frost. A few months later in the same year, Coronado
of Kadosh and New Mexico Consistory No. 1 were instituted.
first reunion was held in 1909, at which time the late James E.
Sovereign Grand Commander, and many other distinguished Masons were
Lodge now owns its own home on the south side of the beautiful plaza,
also the business center in Santa Fe. The Scottish Rite bodies have
cathedral that is monumental in character and unique among the Masonic
buildings of the United States. It is a replica in part of the Court of
of the Alhambra. The building is tinted a deep, rich red, and while
itself, yet is only one unit of the great structure as it will finally
In addition to the magnificent auditorium, it has a great banquet hall
as ante-rooms and social center, together with offices occupied by the
permanent secretary. The stage of the auditorium is equipped with
curtains and complete electrical apparatus for the production of
lighting effects. Above the proscenium arch is a mural painting
Boabdil delivering the keys of the Alhambra to Ferdinand and Isabella.
pipe organ has been installed, and the Scottish Rite choir is famous
the southwest for its musical renditions.
all in all, Masonry has played a very important part in the development
southwest. It gathered into its fold the men who were leaders in active
as well as in science and the arts. Every large town now has its
and each year there are four or five pilgrimages and reunions at Santa
where the degrees up to and including the thirty-second are conferred
beauty and splendor. Membership runs into the thousands, and all of the
bodies are flourishing in every respect. The future of the organization
to be a brilliant one, and the impress its members are making upon the
commonwealth and its progress is marked.
RADICAL and the revolutionist are abroad in the land in such force as
been seen for many years. It was all to be expected, one may suppose,
as a part
of the inevitable aftermath of the war during which trying period many
women suffered grievous wrongs; civilization itself was called in
multitudes were given a sense of insecurity in the very ground under
feet. Such a condition, maintained for some five years, was sure to
vast deal of discontent and morose opposition to the scheme of things.
Furthermore, in that period of excitement ‒ it has not yet passed away
worked at fever heat and tongues were loosened. A great commotion of
propaganda, discussion, political diatribes, and general riotous
redness is the
consequence of it all.
has penetrated to the intellectual centers of the land, into books, and
and universities. A kind of modified bolshevism, watered down into a
familiar phraseology, is being steadily preached in a great many
recitation rooms by admired and intelligent men. In some of the most
respectable of our colleges ‒ as the present writer learned from his
investigations in some cases ‒ there are from ten to twenty per cent of
members of the faculty in avowed alliance with some one or more of the
no need to be greatly alarmed at all this, for ten per cent of all the
professors in the land could not shake the Goddess of Liberty from her
pedestal; but such facts are set forth as indications and illustrations
general condition which is a justly considered source of alarm. It may
said without fear of exaggeration that in some form or other thousands
thousands of our citizens are organized in direct opposition to the
principles and ideals on which the United States government is
men and women must be left free to ventilate their hostile opinions.
Constitution which they hate and seek to destroy guarantees them that
Neither should force be used in order to put a stop to their dangerous
teachings. The history of the whole world, from Adam down, offers
convincing proof that the use of force is the least successful of all
antitoxins where political poisoning is feared. The men and women who
all the histories for arguments to show that we are an enslaved people
governed, and that America does not spell liberty, equality, and
rather capitalistic greed and tyranny; who work day and night to devise
arguments to convince our citizens that such is the case; and who try
way or another to inoculate our young men with their heresies, these
women must be met by reason, persuasion, facts and argument. Reason
must be met
by reason, argument by argument, thought by thought. In no other wise
be truly defeated. Those who believe in Americanism, intelligently and
bigotry or ignorant jingoism, must organize themselves and carry on
propaganda, and evermore stand ready to win their victories anew.
coming more and more to be felt that Freemasonry cannot wholly remain
from the defense of a genuine, well considered, and intelligent
number of our representative journals have frankly said as much, and in
cases have published notable calls to the Fraternity in order to awaken
its sleep and to make it know that the day is at hand, and that it is
that it should buckle on its armor. Grand Masters have in their turn
their own minds to the same effect, and already a number of
coming into existence where through the Fraternity, rapidly approaching
three million mark in its membership, may deliver its stupendous power
hands of Americanism.
is not opposed to reform. On the contrary it is itself the mother of
reforms, and hundreds of the men who have wrought so successfully to
and change the political scheme of things have been ‒ and are ‒ active
reputable Masons. Grand Lodges themselves, even, have done many things
of political and social change.
reform and revolution are not the same thing. The reformer believes
fundamentals of our social and political system are sound and right,
details of its operation should here and there be remedied. He believes
wage system, for illustration, but strives to have wages increased and
labor cut down; he believes in representative government but is in
electing senators by popular ballot; he believes in private property
thinks that an income tax is just and necessary; and so on and so on. A
be ever so much of a reformer, as Henry Demarest Lloyd was, as Lincoln
as Roosevelt was, and at the same time have the most fervent belief in
principles anal general outlines of the American scheme of government.
revolutionist is very different. He disagrees with the very scheme
would tear up the principles and fundamentals. He is not out to reform
system but to destroy it; he is not wishing to levy a tax on incomes,
do away with the whole principle of private incomes; he would not waste
protecting property in land, he would sweep the whole system of private
ownership in land into the discard; he would not deign to work for the
election of United States senators, he would do away with the senate;
not care a straw for the amendments to the Constitution that may be
because he is out to undo the Constitution altogether, and to set up in
place some form of communism, or socialism, or syndicalism, or what
position which this Fraternity occupies is out in the open, and
justifiable. It stands ready to become the friend and aider of any
that reform appears wise and just, as is illustrated by the universal
support of the Towner-Sterling Bill: but it at the same time stands
like a wall
of adamant in opposition to any and every scheme which seeks to
American system in order to replace it by something different.
* * *
On The Question of
anon ye editor receives a letter ‒ usually from a brother grown gray in
Craft, to judge by tone and handwriting, and therefore to be received
respect ‒ to protest against the existence of social clubs inside the
Fraternity. These clubs, so it is alleged, contravene our laws and
true? Not unless ye editor has been reading the histories of Masonry to
avail. The fact is that the earlier lodges, those that existed in the
speculative Masonry was aborning, were anything but the solemn
serious men that we often picture them; for they usually met in taverns
enjoyed such privileges as went therewith, and they were a joyous happy
who made a practice of bringing their tables of meat and drink into the
room with them. They sang, and often they roistered, and many times
and their humor flowed about them like wild streams. There was not, and
knew there was not, any contradiction between all that and the spirit
principles of Freemasonry, for Freemasonry is not a funereal, sour
at all, but full of life and gladness and youth. It must needs be
it does not have to be solemn; it is well for it to remain sober but it
not have to grow sour. And if young men wish to gather in a dining room
have a feed together, and a few songs, and a list of humorous toasts,
where are the laws that are contravened? or the principles that are
As the old gentleman said in the humorous story, "there ain't any sich
thing." Whether a social club in a Masonic Temple is a good thing or a
thing depends entirely upon local conditions. Such matters have no
place in the
body of Masonic principle whatsoever, and are left aside as matters of
expediency, and individual desire.
The Hour Glass -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Frank C. Hickman,
the sand, how swift it goes;
Likewise our lives draw to a close.
We can't without astonishment,
Behold these particles take vent
But that we've much to think anent.
How almost imperceptibly
They pass on to eternity;
And in an hour none remain,
They have exhausted to the grain:
"Thus wasteth man," but not in vain.
To-day his leaves of hope will sprout,
To-morrow blossoms thick come out.
He bears his blushing honors on, ‒
To goals he feels are fairly won,
But disappointment laughs anon.
For next day comes a frost and nips
The shoot, prolific to its tips,
And while he glorys in his worth,
Like Autumn leaves he falls from mirth,
To help enrich our Mother Earth.
Articles of Interest to the
Masonic Student in
Religion and Ethics"
RECENT appearance of the twelfth volume this magnificent reference work
been brought to completion, with the exception of the Index volume
which is now
in course of preparation. There is nothing like it anywhere in the
its own field, and it easily places Dr. Hastings on the throne as the
editor of his generation. The work is sold by the publishers direct,
and may be
purchased by the impecunious ‒ which includes most of us ‒ on the
For terms and conditions address the publishers, Charles Scribner's
Avenue and 48th Street, New York, N. Y. [Lib 1908; (13 Volumes –
scope of the work is adequately described by the title except that
there is a
great deal more material on folklore, anthropology, magic and all that
might expect. One of the best features of all is the adequate and quite
included with each article; this feature in itself makes the set almost
indispensable to students and serious readers. Each volume contains
about the authors of the various articles; a table of cross references
list of abbreviations. Unlike other encyclopedias each important
been broken into sections and each section allocated to an author of
for example, the excellent article ‒ a treatise in length ‒ on
divided as follows, with the authors appearing in brackets ‒ where
writers so frequently find themselves:
(J. Gamble), p. 134.
Greek and Roman (P. Gardner), p. 139.
Jewish (I. Abrahams), p. 143.
Muslim (D. S. Margoliouth), p. 145.
Hindu (A. S. Geden), p. 141.
Semitic (M. H. Farbridge), p. 146.
frequently each of these authors contributes a bibliography on his own
all of which, when added to the general bibliography at the end of the
furnishes one with as complete a list of books as any but the
editor has found this encyclopedia so useful in steering the courses of
BUILDER that he has kept it ever at his elbow, and it is this use of it
has suggested to him the value of publishing in these pages a list of
articles on subjects about which Masonic students so often find
p. 40; this is a treatment of one of the philosophical conceptions of
AEgean religion, p. 141; much about Greek ritual, etc.
Affirmation, p. 157; deals with oaths, etc.
Agnosticism, p. 215; helpful in the study of Atheism.
Ahriman, p 237; Persian god of darkness.
Albigneses, p. 277; one of the heretical sects, persecuted by the Roman
Catholic Church. Some believe that traces from the Albigenses remain in
Freemasonry. See "New Light on the Renaissance," by Harold Bayley.
Alchemy, p. 287.
Allegory, p. 327.
Altar, p. 333; covers usages in all countries. A very complete article.
Altruism, p. 355; scientific study of charity and brotherhood.
Analogy, p. 415; helpful in the study of symbolism.
Anarchy, p. 419.
Annointing, p. 549.
Anti-Semitism, p. 593.
Appollonius of Tyana, p. 609.
Apostolic Succession, p. 633; thorough study of the rise of the Papacy.
Architecture, p. 677; deals principally with religious architecture,
developed in twenty-four parts.
Ark, p. 791.
Arthurian Cycle, p. 1; deals with the Holy Grail legends.
Assassins, p. 138.
Atheism, p. 173; studied in ten different varieties.
Avesta, p. 266; the sacred book of Zoroastrianism.
Bacon, Francis, p. 321.
Badges, p. 325.
Basilidies, p. 426; one of the founders of Gnosticism.
Benevolence, p. 474.
Bhagavad-Gita, p. 535; one of the sacred books of India.
Bible, p. 562: a treatise of more than fifty closely printed pages.
Binding and Loosing, p. 618; a careful examination of one of the
claims of the Papacy.
Boehme, p. 778; one of the great mystics.
Book of Life, p. 792, has much to say about astrology.
Brahmanism, p. 799.
Branches and Twigs, p. 831; side lights on ritualistic customs.
Brotherhood, p. 857.
Brotherly Love, p. 872.
Bruno, p. 878; one of the martyrs of free thought.
Buddha, p. 881.
Buddhism, p. 887.
Bull-roarer, p. 889; one of the conspicuous devices used in primitive
Bulls and briefs, p. 891; deals with papal bulls from the earliest time.
p. 61; indispensable to the student of astrology.
Canaanites, p. 176; furnishes the historical background for King
Casuistry, p. 239; belongs to the study of ethics.
Catholicism, p. 258.
Character, p. 364.
Charity, p. 373.
Charms and Amulets, p. 392.
Cherub, Cherubim; p. 508.
China, p. 549; religion and ethics in that country.
Chivalry, p. 565; has much to say about the Knights Templar.
Christianity, p. 679.
Chronology, p. 610.
Church, p. 616.
Circumambulation, p. 657; a wonderful article written by a noted
scholar, Count Goblet d'Alviella.
Clericalism and anti-clericalism, p . 689 .
Coins and medals, p. 699.
Commemoration of the dead, p. 716.
Communism, p. 776; useful in the study of Socialism.
Concordat, p. 800; necessary in the study of Freemasonry in France.
Conditional immortality, p. 822; deals with a peculiar conception of
Confession, p. 825; tells the story of how the confessional came into
the Roman Catholic Church. A very long article. It is principally
the various creeds of Christendom and contains a complete and valuable
Confessions of Faith.
Consistency, p. 65; belongs to ethical theory.
Cooperation, p. 112.
Corners, p. 119; useful in the study of the Northeast Corner.
Cosmogony and Cosmology, p. 125; a treatise of more than 50 pages.
Councils and Synods, p. 179; necessary to an understanding of the
the Roman Catholic Church.
Creeds and Articles, p. 231; should be read along with the articles on
Crimes and Punishments, p. 248.
Criminology, p. 305.
Cross, p. 324: every Masonic student should read this article.
Crusades, p. 345; all about the Knights Templar, etc.
Culdees, p. 357; some writers have tried to trace Freemasonry back to
Cursing and Blessing, p. 367; useful in cations and Oaths.
Death and Disposal of the Dead, p. 411; a great treatise of one hundred
covering all countries.
Deism, p. 533; one of the forms of the theory of God.
Deluge, p. 545; useful in a study of Noachite Masonry.
Door, p. 846; read this article in connection with the study of the
p. 40; an interesting subject of costume and dress symbolism.
Druids, p. 82; it was once the custom to credit the Druids with the
establishment of Freemasonry.
Duty, p. 119.
Education, p. 166; as developed among twelve peoples.
Egoism, p. 231.
Egyptian Religion, p. 236; this was written by W. M. Flinders Petrie.
Enlightenment, The, p. 310; an account of the rise of modern thought.
Equity, p. 357.
Error and Truth, p. 366.
Essenes, p. 396; written by James Moffatt.
Eternity, p. 401.
Ethical Discipline, p. 405.
Ethics, p. 414.
Ethics and Morality, p. 436: eighty-five pages.
Ethnology, p. 522; gives scientific classification of peoples.
Fairy, p. 678; contains much folklore material.
Faith, p. 689.
Feet-Washing, p. 814; consult this when you study Maundy Thursday.
Female Principle, p. 827; useful in studying the Lesser Lights.
Festival and Fasts, p. 836.
Fire-gods, p. 26.
First Cause, p. 36; philosophical discussion of the idea of God.
Fleece, p. 51; useful in studying the Golden Fleece.
Folklore, p. 57.
Foundation-Rites, p. 109; deals with custom of laying cornerstones,
Freemasonry, p. 118; two and one-half pages by E. L. Hawkins.
Free-Thought, p. 120.
Friendly Societies, p. 127.
Friendship, p. 131.
Gabars, p. 147; deals with one group of Zoroastrians.
Gallicanism, p. 156.
Guilds, p. 215; the latter half of this article deals with the Roman
Girdle, p. 226; important for studying the Cable Tow.
Gnosticism, p. 231; the Knights Templar were accused of Gnosticism.
God, p. 243; sixty-seven pages.
Golden Rule, p. 310.
Good and Evil, p. 318.
Government, p. 358.
Graeco-Egyptian Religion, 374; has much to say about the Mysteries.
Grail, The Holy, p. 385.
Greece, Greek Religion, p. 392.
Greek Orthodox Church, p. 425.
Hand, p. 482; the symbolical and ritualistic use of the hand.
Happiness, p. 510.
Head, p. 532; in folklore, symbolism, etc.
Heart, p. 556; in symbolism and religion.
Heresy, p. 614; treats of some of the heretical sects of the Middle
Hermes Trismegistus, p. 686.
Holiness, p. 731; interesting to the Royal Arch Mason.
Hope, p. 779; one of the Theological Virtues.
Horn, p. 791; its use in symbolism and magic.
Huguenots, p. 823.
Hyksos, p. 889; a chapter in Egyptian History.
Ignorance, p. 103.
Immortality, p. 172.
Incense, p. 201; a Scottish Rite student will be interested in this.
India, p. 209; religions, cults, etc.
Infallibility, p. 256; gives the historical background of the doctrine
Infinity, p. 282.
Initiation, p. 314, a long treatise on initiation among Buddhists,
Hindus, Jews, Parsees, Romans and Tibetans. Introductory section is
Count Goblet d'Alviella.
Inquisition, p. 330; its history and doctrines.
Invocation, p. 407.
Ishtar, p. 428.
Isis, p. 434.
Israel, p. 439.
Jesuits, p. 500; includes an exceptionally complete bibliography.
Jesus Christ, p. 505.
Josephus, p. 569.
Judaism, p. 581; a long treatise by Herbert Loewe.
Kabbala, p. 622; also written by Herbert Loewe.
Kabeiroi, p. 628; one of the ancient mysteries. Often spelled "Kabiri."
Karma, p. 673.
Kingdom of God, p. 732.
Kneeling, p. 745.
Landmarks and Boundaries, p. 789.
Death, p. 1.
Light and Darkness, p. 27.
Litany, p. 78.
Locks and Keys, p. 120; treats of their symbolical uses
Loyalty, p. 183.
Loyola, p. 188; founder of the Jesuits.
Luther, p. 198.
Magi, p. 242.
Magic, p. 245; a treatise of seventy-five pages.
Magical Circle, p. 321.
Mahabharata, p. 325; one of the sacred books of India.
Maimonides, p. 340; greatest Jewish philosopher of the Middle Ages.
Mana, p. 375; important in the study of magic.
Manichaeism, p. 394; the Abbey Barruel traced Freemasonry back to
a wild theory.
Massebhah, p. 487; sacred stones and pillars of the Old Testament.
Materialism, p. 488.
May, Midsummer, p. 601; important for the study of St. John's Day.
Mendelssohn, p. 549; has much to say about Brother Lessing.
Merlin, p. 565; deals with the King Arthur legends.
Messiah, p. 570.
Metals and Minerals, p. 688; throws light on one of the famous
incidents of the
Miracle-Plays, Mysteries, Moralities, p. 690; important in the study of
Hiram Abiff drama.
Mithraism, p. 752.
Modernism, p. 763; deals with the attempt to establish modern thought
Roman Catholic theology.
Molinism, p. 774; the teachings of Molinos, one of the great mystics.
Monotheism, p. 817; the doctrine of one God.
Mother of the Gods, p. 847.
Mouth, p. 869; as used in ritual and symbolism.
Muhammad, p. 871; frequently spelled Mohammed: founder of
Written by D. S. Margoliouth.
Muhammadanism, P. 880.
Mysteries, p. 70.
Mysticism, p. 83.
Mythology, p. 117.
Names, p. 130; a thorough treatise of forty-six pages.
Name of God, p. 177; deals with the Tetragrammaton.
Naturalism, p. 195.
Neo-Platonism, p. 307.
Neo-Pythagoreanism, p. 319.
Numbers, p. 406; in ritual, magic, symbolism, etc.
Oath, p. 430.
Occultism, p. 444.
Oddfellows, p. 448.
Office, The Holy, p. 460; about the inquisition.
Om, p. 490; one of the sacred names of Deity in India.
Odeal, p. 507.
Ormazd, p. 566.
Pantheism, p. 609.
Papacy, p. 620.
Parsis, p. 640; about the Persian Zoroastrians.
Pacal, p. 652; famous for his attack on the Jesuits.
Persecution, p. 742.
Phallism, p. 815: on sex worship.
Philanthropy, p. 837.
Phrenology. p. 897.
Pistis Sophia, p. 45.
Pleroma, p. 62.
Compass, p. 73; a thorough treatise, and exceedingly valuable to the
student. Contains much about orientation.
Poles and Posts, p. 91; interesting in connection with the Great
Polytheism, p. 112; the doctrine of many gods.
Prayer, p. 154.
Prayer Wheels, p. 218; written by Count Goblet d'Alviella.
Pre-Existence, p. 236.
Priest, Priesthood, p. 278.
Processions and Dances, p. 356
Profanity, p. 378.
Protestantism, p. 410.
Purification, p. 455; useful in a study of Masonic lustration.
Pythagoras, p. 520.
Quietism, p. 533; one of the schools of mysticism.
Kur'an, p. 538; usually spelled Koran.
Reformation, The, p. 609.
Regalia, p. 632.
Regeneration, p. 639; read this in connection with the Raising of Hiram
Religion, p. 662.
Religious Orders, p. 693; useful to a student of the higher grades.
Righteousness, p. 777.
Roman religion, p. 820; the religion of the ancient Roman people.
Wlitten by W.
Rosicrucians, p. 856; written by Arthur C. Jones.
Russian Church, p. 867.
Samaritans, p. 161.
Satanism, p. 203.
Secret Societies, p. 287; a treatise in twenty pages and six parts.
Serpent Worship, p. 399.
Seven Sleepers, p. 428; an old legend sometimes found in Masonic books.
Virtues, p. 430; contains a section on the Cardinal Virtues.
Sects, p. 432.
Shekinah, p. 450.
Shoes and Sandals, p. 474.
Sibylline Oracles, p. 496.
Simon Magus, p. 514.
Sin, p. 528.
Sky and Sky Gods, p. 580.
Socialism, p. 634.
Soul, p. 725.
Staff, p. 811.
Stones, p. 864.
Strangers. p. 883.
p. 10; a school of Mohammedan mystics.
Summun Bonum, p. 44; the doctrine of the greatest good.
Sun, Moon and Stars, p. 48; a wonderful treatise of 50 pages.
Superstition, p. 120.
Swedenborg, p. 129.
Symbolism, p. 134.
Tabu, p. 181; often spelled "Taboo."
Tammuz, p. 187; an Asiatic nature god.
Taoism, p. 197; one of the three great religions of China.
Tatuing, p. 208; usually spelled "tattooing."
Temples, p. 236.
Thags, p. 259; a secret society of criminals which existed a long time
India. Theism, p. 261; the philosophical doctrine of the personal God.
Theology, p. 293.
Theosophical Society, p. 300.
Therapeutae, p. 315; see THE BUILDER, December, 1921 page 365.
Time, p. 334.
Token, p. 357.
Toleration, p. 360.
Totemism, p. 393.
Tradition, p. 411.
Transmigration, p. 425: an article in eight parts.
Trees and Plants, p. 448; read this in connection with the Acacia.
Trinity, p. 458; the Christian doctrine of God.
Typology, p. 600; read this in connection with the article on symbolism.
Under world, p. 516.
Universality, p. 535.
Upanisads, p. 640; a Sanskrit treatise much venerated in India
Vampire, p. 589, Brother Dudley Wright's book on this subject is listed
Vedanta, p. 597; the most widespread of the six philosophical systems
Vedic Religion, p. 601; a religion founded on the Vedas.
Voltaire, p. 627.
Vows, p. 644.
Waldenses, p. 663.
Water, Water Gods, p. 704.
Western Church, p. 727; "The epithet 'Western' differentiates the
of the West, or Roman Catholic Church, from that of the East, known as
Wisdom, p. 742.
Word, p. 749.
Worship, p. 752.
Yoga, p. 831.
Zionism, p. 865.
Zohar, p. 868; the greatest of the Kabbalistical books.
Zoroastrianism, p. 862.
* * *
For Sale, And Exchange
constantly receiving inquiries from readers as to where they may obtain
publications on Freemasonry and kindred subjects not offered in our
Book List. Most of the books thus sought are out of print, but it may
that other readers, owning copies, may be willing to dispose of the
Therefore this column is set aside each month for such a service. And
also hoped ‒ and expected ‒ that readers possessing very old or rare
works will communicate the fact to THE BUILDER in behalf of general
office addresses are here given in order that those buying and selling
communicate directly with each other. Brethren are asked to cancel
soon as their wants are supplied.
case does THE BUILDER assume any responsibility whatsoever for
thus bought, sold, exchanged or borrowed.
D. D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake, 1879;
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873;
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Bro. G. Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.:
Proceedings of the Scottish Rite Body founded by Joseph Cerneau in New
City in 1808, of which De Witt Clinton was the first Grand Commander,
body became united, in 1867, with the Supreme Council of the Northern
Jurisdiction, A. & A. S. R.
Also Proceedings of the Supreme Council founded in New York by De La
1813, by authority of the Southern Supreme Council, of which he was
Treasurer-General, these Proceedings from 1813 to 1860.
Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"The Year Book," published by the Masonic Constellations, containing
the History of the Grand Council, R. & S. M., of Missouri.
Brother Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel Lawrence";
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry";
"The Source of Measures," by J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes I to XI, inclusive;
"Masonic Facts and Fictions," by Henry Sadler;
"The Kabbalah Unveiled," by S. L. MacGregor Mathers.
Ernest E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California:
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards,
John's Cards for volumes 4 and 6;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
"Voice of Masonry," early volumes;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1882
Original Proceedings of The General Grand Encampment Knights Templar
years 1826 and 1835.
George A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile:
All kinds of Masonic literature in Spanish. Write first quoting prices.
Brother L. Rask, 14 Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.:
"Remarks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists," by E. A. Hitchcock,
Janesville, N. Y., about 1865;
"Secret Societies of all Ages," Heckethorn;
"Lost Language of Symbology," by Harold Bayley, published by
Lippincott; "Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson, Edinburgh, 1843;
"Solar System of the Ancients Discovered," by J. Wilson, published by
Longmans Co., London, 1856;
"The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor, Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co.,
or the edition of 1899 published by Scribners, New York;
"Anacalypsis," by Geodfrey Higgins, 1836, published by Green &
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum," any volume or volumes.
J. H. Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.:
Fascilus 2, "Cementaria Hibernica," by Chetwode Crawley;
Volumes 1, 2, 5 and 8, Quatuor Coronati Antigrapha;
"Some Memorials of Globe Lodge No. 23," Henry Sadler;
"Constitutions of the Freemasons," Hughan, 1869;
"Numerical and Medallic Register of Lodges," Hughan, 1878;
"History of the Appolo Lodge and the R. A., York," Hughan, 1894;
Any items on Anti-Masonry, especially tracts, handbills, posters, old
newspapers, almanacs, etc., relating to Morgan incident, 1826-1840, and
recurrence of same from 1870 to 1885.
J. H. Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.:
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Volumes 6 to 26, in parts as issued, with St.
"Masonic Reprints and Revelations," Sadler;
"The Natural History of Staffordshire," Dr. Robert Plot, 1686, folio;
"The History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, Yorston edition, 4
"History of Freemasonry in Europe," Emmanuel Rebold, 1867;
"Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literatur," August Wolfsteig,
1911-13, two volumes and register, paper, as issued;
"History of Freemasonry," Mackey, 7 volumes;
"History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders," Hughan and Stillson;
Facsimile engraving Picard's "Les Francmassons," 1735, fine copy.
Brother A. A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California:
Various Masonic publications including such as a complete set of "Ars
"History of Freemasonry in Scotland," by D. Murray Lyon, (original
edition); Thomas Dunckerley, Laurence Dermott, etc.
Brother Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"History of Freemasonry," Mitchell, 2 volumes, sheep;
"History of Freemasonry," Robert Freke Gould, 4 volumes, cloth, in
"History of Freemasonry," Albert G. Mackey, 7 volumes, linen cloth,
Addison's "Knights Templar," Macoy, 1 volume, cloth;
"Museum of Antiquity," Yaggy, 1 volume, morocco;
"History and Cyclopedia of Freemasonry," Macoy and Oliver, new, full
Also miscellaneous books.
Public School Number of
August issue of THE BUILDER will be a PUBLIC SCHOOL NUMBER. Features of
number will be a symposium of opinion of the Public School question by
majority of the Grand Masters of the United States and leading articles
Brother Horace M. Towner, father of the Sterling-Towner Bill, Brother
Gompers, President of the American Federation of Labor, and Brother
Russell, Dean of Education, University of Iowa. Tell your Masonic
BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
contributors writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own
opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity
opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one
Masonic thought as over against another, but offers to all alike a
fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own
Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the
at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly
from our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study
are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested,
questions will be answered promptly by mail before publication in this
The Jesuit's Oaths
paragraphs in various numbers of THE BUILDER I have gathered that you
wish to overdo the subject of Roman Catholics and their ways,
nevertheless I am
writing to ask of you as a favor that you will furnish me with the
are administered to Jesuits. Please make sure to give me the legitimate
some wild thing published on hearsay. I shall thank you very much.
D. L. K., Ohio.
oaths are found recorded in the Constitutionis Societatis Jesu, Part V,
chapters 3 and 4. It would also be well for you to consult "The History
the Jesuits," [Lib 1889] by Nicolini, Bohn Edition,
1854, pp. 47-52. According to the Jesuits' own laws the first oath is
administered to the individual after he has passed a novitiate of two
is the oath that makes him a "student," or "scholastic." It
is here given in full:
"Almighty everlasting God! I,
although most unworthy in thy divine sight, yet relying on thy infinite
and compassion, and impelled by the desire of serving thee, vow, in the
presence of the most Holy Virgin Mary and thy universal court of
perpetual poverty, chastity, and obedience in the Society of Jesus to
divine Majesty; and I promise to enter the same society, and live in it
perpetually, understanding all things according to the Constitution of
Society itself. Of thy boundless goodness and mercy through the blood
Christ I hereby pray that thou wilt deign to accept this sacrifice
(holocaustum) in the odor of sweetness; and as thou hast granted the
and offering of this, so wilt thou give thy abundant grape for the
from eight to fifteen years of labor as a "scholastic" the Jesuit
passes on to the grade of "Coadjutor," and accordingly takes the oath
"I, N. N., promise to Almighty
before his Virgin Mother and the whole court of heaven, and to thee,
Father, President-General of the Society of Jesus, holding the place of
to thy successors, or to the Reverend Father, in the place of the
President-General of the Society of Jesus, and to his successors,
place of God, perpetual poverty, chastity, and obedience, and according
(i. e., the obedience) special care in the education of boys, according
mode set down in the Apostolic Letters and in the Constitutions of the
vows are called "simple," or "dispensable," and one who has
taken them may, for sufficient cause, leave the Order; not so with the
vow, which is called the vow of the "professed"; it is binding for
life. Those who have taken this obligation constitute the fourth class
called "professi." They are the real Jesuits.
"I, N. N., make profession and
to Almighty God, before his Virgin Mother and the universal court of
all standing by, and to thee, Reverend Father, President-General of the
of Jesus, holding the place of God, and to thy successors or to thee,
Father, Vice-President-General of the Society of Jesus, and to his
holding the place of God, perpetual poverty, chastity, and obedience,
according to it peculiar care for the instruction of children,
according to the
method of living contained in the Apostolic Letters of the Society of
in its Constitutions. In addition I promise special obedience to the
Pontiff in regard to missions, so far as may be contained in the same
Letters and Constitutions."
some cases a "professed" is not compelled to take the vow covering
missions, but all must take in addition to the above the following
first part of this last oath repeats much of the one preceding and is
to save space:
"I, N. N., promise that I shall
for any reason do or consent that what is ordained about poverty in the
Constitution of the Society shall be changed, unless when from just
things impelling poverty should seem to be better restricted. Further,
promise that I shall never by any act or pretense even indirectly seek
for any honor or dignity of the Society. Further, I promise that I
care for nor seek any honor or dignity outside of the Society, nor
my election, unless compelled by obedience to him who can enjoin me
penalty of sin. Besides, if I should know of anyone who cares for or
aforesaid honors, I promise to divulge him and the whole case to the
the President. In addition, I promise, if it should ever happen that
reason I should be advanced to be president (or bishop) of any church,
care which I owe to the salvation of my soul and to the right
the matter imposed upon me, the President-General of the Society having
in that place and number, that I shall never refuse to hear the counsel
he or any of the Society whom he may substitute for himself deigns to
I promise always to yield to counsels of this kind if I judge them
those which come to my own mind understanding everything according to
Constitutions and declarations of the Society of Jesus."
* * *
About the "Lost
like to get a book or two on The Lost Word. If you know of such
editions let me
know. I once saw a reference to a book entitled The Lost Word Found
[Lib 1909] by Dr. Buck. Is this book
might be able to find a copy of Dr. Buck's book through any good second
book store, but the volume would now be of little value, because it is
presentation of the claims of TK, and TK's claims, as you know,
you have access to the books you will find in the two volumes of A. E.
The Secret Tradition in Freemasonry [Lib 1911; Vol 1, Vol 2] many references to the
of the Lost Word which, if you will consider them in their totality,
complete account of the matter. In THE BUILDER for February 1915 you
the subject dealt with by W.F. Kuhn. In November of the same year, on
you will find quite a lengthy article on The Ineffable Name by George
Warvelle. THE BUILDER for June 1916 contains an article by A. E. Waite
he briefly summarizes the legend. In an article on The Legendary Origin
Freemasonry, on page 297 of the issue for November 1919, Dudley Wright
with the subject in a few paragraphs. A more extended treatment of the
will be found in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin sections of THE
February and for May of 1920, especially the latter, in which the
many men are summarized. Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914] contains a short article
entitled "Lost Word." Albert Pike's
"Morals and Dogma" [Lib 1871] may be consulted to
as may also any good treatment of the Kabbala. [Lib 1902] In looking through books on
this subject always be sure to consult all
references to "The Tetragrammaton" and "The Letter 'G"' as
well to "The Lost Word."
* * *
A Guide to Roger Bacon
occasion to prepare a paper on Roger Bacon ("Roger," you will note,
not "Francis") and I should like to be referred to something simple
and brief, as I am always hard put to find time to read.
G. H., New York.
your purpose it would be difficult to find anything better than The
magazine for August, 1914 [Lib 1914]. The entire number is devoted
to Roger Bacon and contains articles on Roger Bacon by Paul Carus;
Roger Bacon; The Two Bacons, by Ernest Duhring; Roger Bacon the
Alfred H. Lloyd; Roger Bacon as a Scientist, by Karl E. Guthe; and
Logician and Mathematician, by Philip E. B. Jourdain. You will find
you need inside the compass of these various articles.
* * *
Church Affiliations of
Members of Congress
been requested by our Study Club leader to report to our Club what are
church affiliations of the members of the U. S. Congress. I have not
to find the information anywhere; can you furnish it to me?
Methodist Church made an investigation of the subject with the
of a total of 435 members of congress 24 are non-members, and church
affiliation of 98 could not be ascertained. The following are the
Brethren, Mormon, Independent, Mennonite, Dutch Reformed, Evangelical
member each. There are two Universalists. There are three members of
church and three of the Jewish church. Five Unitarians, 10 Disciples,
11 Christians, 18 Catholics, 23 Congregationalists, 35 Episcopalians,
Baptists, 56 Presbyterians and 99 Methodists.
the senate the survey showed that out of a total of 96 senators the
affiliation of 23 was unknown and only four were non-members. There was
Protestant Episcopalian, one Christian. The Lutherans, Dutch Reformed,
Unitarians and Mormons all have two members each. There are 6 Catholics
Baptists, 7 Congregationalists, 11 Presbyterians, 12 Episcopalians and
* * *
The Daughters of the
kindly furnish me with some information about the woman's organization
The Daughters of the Nile?
above query was referred to Mrs. Edith E. Gattis, Supreme Queen of the
whose address is 317 West Blaine Street, Seattle; in reply she has very
obligingly given us the following letter:
Daughters of the Nile is an institution composed of Shriners' wives,
mothers, sisters and widows, and is one of the loftiest institutions in
world today, composed strictly of women. Masonry was screened of its
giving the purest and noblest ideals, to which womankind could
abide by. We have at the present time temples scattered throughout the
States, also Canada, and very soon a temple will be organized in the
The present temples are Hatasu No. 1, Seattle; Tirzah, No. 2, Butte,
Miriam, No. 3, Victoria, B.C.; Nydia, No. 4, Portland, Oregon; Zora,
Tacoma, Washington; El Karnak, No. 6, Spokane; Lotus, No. 7, Duluth,
Zenobia, No. 8, Chicago, IIIinois; Zuleika, No. 9, Binghampton, New
Pyramid, No. 10, Davenport, Iowa; Netiken, No. 11, Des Moines, Iowa;
No. 12, Los Angeles, California; Zuleima, No. 13, Ashland Oregon.
temples can only be organized where a Shrine Temple exists, and they
as Hatasu Temple No. 1, Daughters of the Nile, and the Daughters of the
added to each of the above names I have quoted, just as we would say,
Temple, A.A.O.N.M.S.' We elect our members to membership before we
invite, ‒ in
other words, membership cannot be solicited, and in this way we keep
membership to the highest standard of womankind. I might add at this
it was my privilege and pleasure this last May to initiate Mrs. Warren
Harding, the wife of the President, into the order of The Daughters of
Nile. She favors the organization very much, and is proud to be classed
member. I might further add that the membership throughout the nation
equally exclusive and any community is benefitted by this organization
be very glad to give you further information.
enclose a copy of one of my addresses made a few years past, that will
perhaps a more full idea of its purpose and aim, and I would add that
organization is composed of the best women on earth, regardless of
standing before they come into the order: the standard of ideals taught
high that our new initiates will at once become bigger, better and
women. I cannot say too much in favor of the institution, and recommend
all worthy women, and urge the organization of a temple in every
district to give our best women the opportunity and advantage of such
Edith E. Grattis, Washington."
* * *
give me the title of a good history of the Huguenots? My ancestors for
generations belonged to that blood and faith. Have any of them ever
Rise of the Huguenots," in two volumes [Lib 1880, Vol 1, Vol 2], by H. M. Baird, published by
Scribner's in 1883, is generally accepted as the history on the
can find it in almost any public library. "French Blood in America,"
1911] by Lucian J. Fosdick, and
published by Fleming H. Revell Co., is also very good; it contains a
the Huguenots and Freemasonry. Yes, they have figured much in the
Freemasonry, as you will learn from the chapter just mentioned. Paul
* * *
A List of Masonic
like to "read up" on Freemasonry but I find it difficult to find out
the various subjects. Can you furnish me with a list of Masonic topics?
is a very incomplete list, drawn up at random, and offered as being
suggestive. The best way to get a line on the topics of Masonic study
is to run
through the pages of some good Masonic Encyclopedia and note the
Primitive Secret Societies, The Men's House, The Ancient Mysteries,
Osiris, Mithraism, Magna Mater, Eleusinian Mysteries, King Solomon's
Dionysian Artificers, King Hiram of Tyre, The Roman Collegia, The
Cathedral Builders, Craft Guilds, Operative Masonry, Non-Operative
Masonry, Decline of Operative Masonry, Occultism, Hermeticism,
Kabbalism, The Old Charges, The Knights Templar, The Revival of
Modern Grand Lodge, The Ancient Grand Lodge, The Grand Lodge of All
Military Lodges, The Union of 1813, Negro Masonry, The Founding of
Various Countries, Steinmetzen, Compagnonnage, The Druids, The Culdees,
Symbolism, Ritualism, Divergencies of Ritual, Degrees Theory, Entered
Apprentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason, The Assembly, Theory of Grand
The Apron, The Three Great Lights, The Three Lesser Lights, The Square
Compasses, Circumambulation, The Letter "G", The Lost Word, The
Middle Chamber, The Orders of Architecture, Approaching the East, The
Working Tools, Obligation, Qualifications, Hiram Abiff, The Raising,
Preparation, All-seeing Eye, Tetragrammaton, Masonic Jurisprudence, The
Theories of Jurisdiction, Masonic Criminal Procedure, Prerogatives of
Officials, Philosophy of Masonry, Equality, Liberty, Fraternity,
Ethics, Immortality, Democracy, Christopher Wren, Ashmole, Dugdale,
Anderson, Dr. Desaguliers, Laurence Dermott, William Preston, Dr Geo.
Wm. Hutchinson, Thos. Smith Webb, Jeremy Cross, Albert Pike, Theo.
Masonic Music. Masonic Poetry, Masonic Journalism, Masonic Oratory.
and Traditions" Once More
review of Brother Dudley Wright's book, "Masonic Legends and
Traditions," [Lib*] in the February number of THE BUILDER interested
wonder if the readers of THE BUILDER would not be interested to read a
of the same book that appeared in The Occult Review and that was
Brother A. E. Waite, who has had articles in THE BUILDER. I am sending
clipping and ask you to print it. The review was published last October.
M. J. Hingley, Illinois.:
Brother A. E. Waite's Review
a process of exhaustion, we have most of us reached the conclusion, or
accepted as a working hypothesis, that the Hiramic Myth of Craft
first formulated in the years which followed immediately the foundation
Grand Lodge in 1717. It is not for such reason to be regarded a lying
the contrary it is comparable to Bacon's New Atlantis or Bunyan's
Progress, in the sense that it is a morality, a tale possessed and
an allegorical motive. It belongs in this sense to symbolism, and is
such of the speculative Masonic system. It is neither of history nor
and it has been allocated to these in the past only by minds devoid of
gifts. Insofar as it is a myth with a meaning there is a broad sense in
it seems to have been framed on the Ancient Mysteries, the death and
resurrection of the god. When the high grades developed there were some
emerged in the direct sense from the central story of the Craft, but
makers knew nothing, unfortunately, of the old mystery pageants and
among those who took the Hiramic Myth literally. There rose up in this
series of barren grades, embodying further fables to extend the
but unlike this they were stories without a meaning. There was no
"veiled in allegory" or "illustrated by symbols." In his
account of Masonic Legends Brother Wright has eschewed these things of
imposition and vanity, which might have filled his volume easily, and
recourse to the curious storehouse of the Old English Constitutions and
accessible rabbinical sources. To those who are not Masons his
almost sure to be new, and perhaps as much may be said of the rank and
the Brotherhood. There are chapters on the Temple of Solomon in lore
legend, on Solomonic traditions, On Hiram King of Tyre, Hiram Abiff and
the Queen of Sheba, for whom a niche has been found ‒ for better, for
it may be ‒ in Masonic archives. It should be understood that these
belong to the lighter side and the accidents of a great subject, but
their place on its outskirts, and they are left here to produce their
impression, without discussion of their value. There are a few which
aspect of importance which will appeal only to students as they connect
the Secret Tradition imported by Freemasonry from old antecedent
thanks, Brother Hingley, for calling our attention to so interesting a
of an excellent little book. Meanwhile our readers will care to know
Occult Review is a monthly journal devoted to the occult and to the
is published by William Rider and Sons, Cathedral House, Paternoster
C., London, England, and is edited by Ralph Shirley. It is the leading
journal of its genre.
On Things In General
Fraternal Forum in miniature as carried on through the mails among
David E. W. Williamson, Brother R. J. Lemert, and H. L. Haywood, the
acting as chairman. It is herewith presented in dialog form ‒ or should
triolog? ‒ and published for the good of the Order. If any brother
put in a word on the matters discussed in this melange let him not
do so; he will find himself in good company.
Excavations on the
Temple Site at Jerusalem
‒ Just a line. In THE BUILDER it was stated I think in the last number,
nothing had been done about excavations on the Temple site at
is wholly correct and it might have been added that there is little
anything being done, owing to the certainty that the first move would
forth a howl from all faiths and sects. But I notice in the Quarterly
of the Palestine Exploration Fund for October (London, just at hand)
Professor Sayce, in the Expository Times for August, has an article on
Temple Mount. This publication is a new one to me. I shall try to get
through Stetcher, New York. The Quarterly Statement merely prints two
that Sayce has such an article in such a publication.
H. L. H.
‒ Brother Haydon has sent in a clipping from Adventure, I don't recall
issue, to the effect that an Austrian ‒ named Grim as I recall it ‒
or less surreptitiously, do some excavating. The story sounds more or
apocryphal ‒ more rather than less ‒ but I shall wait to learn about
in detail with some interest. As to Sayce, he is a bit persona non
me. Years ago I purchased a volume of his that determined me to
more. He is warped by theological presuppositions, it appeared to me,
reminded me of the saying of Ole John Burroughs about Henry Drummond,
Drummond "tried to prove that God is a Presbyterian." But if Sayce
has written anything on the subject I shall be glad to see it. He is
if not convincing.
An Ideal Masonic
wrote to R.J.L. and to D.E.W.W. to ask them their opinions about what a
History should be, in order that he might have the advantage of their
his own venture in that line.)
You ask me a question that I've been asking myself for years ‒ my ideal
Masonic History. Heaven knows! I've been wanting to write one, too, for
while; and I have made two or three starts, only to chuck the whole
thing up in
disgust each time. I have pretty nearly everything that has been
think, and it is almost impossible to prepare a work that is worth
without threshing over old straw. Still, I am not in the least
any of the histories on the market. Even Newton couldn't keep a lot of
questionable stuff out ‒ stuff that is wholly unjustified. There are
excellent points about the works of Vibert, Armitage and McBride.
an idea, however, that I propose to develop one of these days ‒ a book
entitled, probably, "Essentials of Masonic History." In fact, I have
a lot of the manuscript licked into condition now ‒ a holdover of a
four years ago when I had some time hanging heavily upon me. It will be
of amplification of the theory laid down in my "Ancestors" ‒ a series
of thumb-nail sketches of each of the various elements which in my
contributed to the making of modern Masonry: a short chapter, for
prehistoric building, particularly of sacred and public structures, in
different lands; a statement of the facts, so far as ascertainable,
the various Mystery systems, with a supplementary statement of the
that may reasonably flow from the known facts; the same thing as
Dionysian Artificers and the Essenes and the Culdees and the School of
Alexandria, and the various Pythagorean and Platonian schools of
the Collegia and the Magistri Comacini, and the ancient vestiges of
art and traditions in Britain and on the Continent; the Johannites and
Manicheans and the Vaudois; the Templars and what they may have picked
the south; the Rosicrucians, the Alchemists, the Troubadours, the old
Theosophists and mystics and the Hermetists and all that sort of thing.
be a sort of scrapbook, I suspect, but I'll try to clear up a lot of
misconceptions, poke around in a lot of dark corners, give a lot of
and label any of my own or others' speculations for exactly what they
not appeal to any vast number of people, but I'll have a lot of fun
and I'll drag out in the open a lot of stuff that isn't available to
ordinary reader thus far.
to goodness that some chap would find it possible to dig down into the
surrounding the condition of the Craft at and before the formation of
Lodge of London in 1717. I am absolutely convinced, in my own mind,
whole transaction was a colossal fraud, although I can't get quite
head the peculiar variety of hypnosis by which Anderson and his
the thing over. I'd bet the best goose nest I ever saw that the Third
was known and was being worked long, long before 1717; and then I'd
reversion in the aforesaid goosenest that it wasn't known to the Grand
London some years afterward. I have the strongest sort of hunch that
"Ancients" were pretty much on the square, and that that bunch were
in more or less legitimate possession of a much richer Masonry, from
ritualistic standpoint, at least, than Anderson's people, and that it
came from Ireland. The problem of Stuart Masonry has always intrigued
(pardon me, but I like to use that word at least once in each letter;
delightfully mouthfilling), and I don't mind saying that I have a good
admiration for our ancient and querulous friend, John Yarker ‒ peace to
ashes ‒ even if he was an arrant old rebel.
an idea that the Irish lodges ‒ and maybe some on western English soil,
Bristol, for instance ‒ worked the Third much as we do; and that the
lodges, when they finally got the dope on that work, merely illustrated
much as the Emulation and similar workings do today. There can't be
that French Masonry sprang from the Grand Lodge of London, although I
there was Masonry in France of the Irish variety in 1688 and from that
until the rise of the Emperors of the East and West and the other
which later fused into the Rite of Perfection. But this, the Stuart
was apparently kept in the background, the popular variety being that
by Anderson and his friends. Now I have a number of exposes printed in
from 1746 on. Clearly they were of the dominant Masonry, or the English
Masonry; and a most significant thing is that the Third Degree, which
described most fully, and rather elaborately pictured, does not work
tragedy, but merely exemplifies it, a la Emulation et al.
design that R.J.L. laid out upon the trestle board made H.L.H. feel
humble. "Who is equal to such things?" To his humbleness was added
despair when he received from D.E.W.W. his specifications.)
‒ I am not competent, I fear, even to offer a suggestion at to what a
history of Freemasonry should include. It seems to me, though, that it
not to be controversial, as all Gould's writings are. What the
Freemason wants to know is first whence he came and why from such a
That, it seems, should be answered with a concise statement of, first
organizing of Freemasonry in London and environs between 1717 and 1723
Grand Lodge, secondly the existence of Freemasonry in Scotland as shown
records and in Ireland by assumption from that speech at Trinity
in Gould, as well as at York and other cities in England outside of the
jurisdiction of the London Grand Lodge. This Masonry outside of London
organized into Grand Lodges ‒ Ireland, I believe, in 1725; Scotland in
York about the same time or earlier, as well as a Grand Lodge under the
Scottish constitution in London. Mention of Masonry outside of London
include the Ashmole references, the Randell Holme writings, the Tattler
quotations and the statement about Christopher Wren. In this way of
you would follow the Aristotelian rule of plunging at once into the
things. Possible derivations might be considered as your second chapter
be placed in an appendix ‒ referring to the Comacines, the Cathedral
the Essenes, the Ancient Mysteries, the Mithraic cult, the Druses, the
Templar, the Culdees, the Kabbala. America deserves a better and
consideration at the hands of historians than she has yet received and
Freemasonry in the United States, if I may offer this advice, should be
credit for existence as early as most of the "time immemorial" lodges
in England, if not in Ireland.
that Franklin was raised up in some lodge ‒ whence did it draw its
The same way with the lodge in which Washington was raised. These
existed without a doubt and, if they were "working" it is reasonable
to believe that others were doing the same thing. To get at a broader
understanding of Freemasonry and its scope in the first half of the
century may not be so difficult after all, as I think there are good
of the Craft in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, possibly also in
which it might be possible to extract much information. As far as New
concerned, if the history written by Brother Ossian Lang and published
year in the Masonic Standard is a fair account of all that is available
it is not encouraging, but I fear Brother Lang has not achieved all
possible. Reading the little he was able to give us it seems to me that
practical newspaper writer could fail to see the strong, dramatic
of the story that could be written on the documents that plainly were
hands of Brother Lang.
in the Colonies as the War of the Revolution affected it can only be
but from the time of what might be called the reorganization of the
Lodges you would have a clear field if through the members of the
Masonic Research Society, whose services could be made available in the
different jurisdictions, you would get a narrative of the work in those
jurisdictions. The summarizing would be some job, I'll concede, but it
in concise, easily comprehended form a credible history ‒ something we
now. Through a Montana brother some time ago I obtained the loan of a
the work of Freemasonry and the Chapter, written by a person who gave
of Malcolm Duncan, probably a pseudonym ‒ if not, it should be. In the
part of this expose (I read every one of them I can get hold of and
promised the loan of some from France) is an account of the spread of
ritual in the United States, alleged to have been taken from an address
Grand Master of Vermont. I am sorry I have not the book at this moment,
would copy this for you, but any second-hand store in Los Angeles has
Duncan book for sale and the Society headquarters at Anamosa
a copy. It is said to be as common and widely circulated as the Jabez
Richardson work. However, the inquiring newly-made Mason wants to know
the ritual and he should be told something reasonable, and he might at
told that, since the present "work" in England was adopted as a
compromise between the Ancients and the Moderns in 1813 (and that there
three versions there, as you pointed out in the last number of THE
Emulation, Stability and Oxford), the stamp of greater antiquity
rests upon the "work" closely followed with slight differences in
American jurisdictions. He might be told that Pennsylvania is sui
is close to the present English work, that Massachusetts is probably as
to the original Webb work as any Grand Lodge but that New York insists
closer, while Virginia and Louisiana each pretends to trace direct to
fountain head, but that those who really know declare that Illinois and
Indiana, Michigan and the Middle West are the real thing. And our
brothers should consider themselves lucky if let of without mention,
they got their original standard from four different jurisdictions and
only some fifteen years since they failed to improve it by rearranging
altogether. For instance, basing their statement on what is universally
admitted to have been a misdrawing in the original Jeremy Cross chart,
tell the newly obligated Master Mason that a Master Mason should wear
with the right corner turned up but they go on to explain that it isn't
you know. I'm not saying much about Nevada. We use the New York standard
much space to devote to the Compagnonnage de la Tour de France I do not
Since you mentioned tracing Gould on one topic to a source that proved
untrustworthy or at least unworthy of serious consideration, I have
thinking that perhaps Gould has given too much weight to Perdiguer's
It is virtually all we have and none of the manuscripts spoken of by
has ever been traced in the eighty years since the book was published.
Compagnonnage, of course, ought to be mentioned somewhere in your
chapter or as an appendix, itself. In my belief that we shall find
origin of the legend in the monasteries, I have depended much on this
Compagnonnage story, but candidly I'm beginning to be rather skeptical.
If A. E.
Waite were not such a terribly involved and tedious writer, one could
volume on "The Secret Tradition" [Lib 1911; Vol 1, Vol 2] and get a very fair idea of
origin of what we in this country call the York Rite as well as the
Rite and the various other existing versions of the work. But it is out
question. Every young Mason is early given to understand that the
"higher" degrees offer a rich reward. Hence, a short Masonic history
ought to tell something about the Royal Arch and its attachments, the
rites, the Knights Templar on the one hand, and the Scottish Rite, with
wide influence, on the other. Every published book on the Chapter in
States is definitely and unquestionably wrong in assuming that the
was ever a part of the Third Degree, according to the investigations on
subject published by the Quatuor Coronati Lodge. As for the Templars,
reasonable account of them, so far as Masonry is concerned, was
the same lodge's publications in 1913, by Chetwood Crawley.
to the Scottish Rite, something should be said about the refusal of
Scotch, Irish and many American Grand Lodges to recognize the
France. The Mason should be told why.
illustrations would spoil your book. Five or six at most ought to be
they should avoid the rut that we have got into in the United States in
Macoy publications ‒ a picture of George Washington, one of Lafayette,
Washington's apron, General Warren, occasionally one of Benjamin
These are about worn out. A live group of eminent Past Grand Masters of
would be far more likely to catch the student's eye. (Excuse me if I
dogmatically ‒ it’s a daily habit of me in my work.)
The Legend of the Third
letter of some weeks back D.E.W.W. had urged the theory that our Third
drama had probably sprung from some of the old monastic ceremonies.
by H.L.H. to amplify the idea he sent the following.)
let me take up as briefly as I can "The Case for the Monasteries." The
diegesis of the Halliwell, or Regius, manuscript and the Cooke
believed by all editors to have been written by some learned monk ‒
those of monasteries, as seen in Ranulf's "Polychronicon."
[Lib 1872-86 (Complete 9 Vol Set – See Bibliography)] Indications of these oldest
Masonry are that they were composed for the edification or instruction
lodge of Masons at work on the monastery, abbey or church at the time.
legend of the Third Degree is common to English, Irish and Scottish
is found, in slightly altered form, in the Compagnonnage. Gould says
Compagnonnage derives the story from "The same sources of origin as our
own Freemasonry." What were those sources? Except the church, the
of England and France in the Middle Ages had nothing in common. It was
center of social life as well as the repository of what learning
was no education among the people in general, as we understand the term
there was little or no travel. Such travelers as there were had no
place to go
except to the monasteries for food and lodging and the travelers, we
welcomed by the monks to whom they told the news of the day and with
exchanged gossip and the latest songs and stories. Those who traveled
place to place were principally the masons and builders and thus they
access to the learning and literature of the most widely disseminated
fraternity ever known ‒ the fraternity of the Roman Catholic Church.
Masons of England and those of France both had a legend dealing with
artifices it is a fair assumption that they obtained it from the one
source ‒ to-wit: the church.
may be some significance to the fact the Compagnonnage connects the
Arles with the legend and this Arles of Provence was a famous center of
religious dramas and it has more than once occurred to me that our
charges with their mention of such names as "Tuball" and
"Noe" and "Euclid" and so forth and the general spirit of
the "history" were written by some monk ‒ the only person who could
write at all at that period ‒ who had before him, as he composed the
mental picture of one of those pageants for which the Middle Ages were
Then you may have observed that these charges were first printed as
Old Constitutions." Now where did they get that plural form of
Constitution? I have never seen it referred to anywhere, but it has
me that the Diatagai were first published as "Apostolic Constitutions"
by the Jesuit Turrianus in 1563 and we are told by the Encyclopedia
(eleventh edition, vol. ii, page 199) that this spurious work was "more
highly esteemed in England than elsewhere." Just a bit of evidence of
particular importance by itself but helping in connection with the
in the cumulative effect. Then the late E.L. Hawkins (Transactions of
Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 1913 [Lib*]) drew attention to the fact that in
charges the certain direction "Tunc unus ex senioribus teneat librum"
etc., is always in Latin. It seems to me that this is a clincher,
Hawkins did not see it, for here we have a clear case of the church
printing the rubric in Latin.
simply summarized this and have written it in the shape of notes
because it is
by no means complete. There is much to be investigated before a
judgment can be reached. But I think the case as it stands is
strong to warrant following up. Do you? And I think I told you about
Robert Clegg's referring me to volume four of Gould's history, to the
copied from the Illustrated London News of 1870 showing the ordination
Benedictine monk. (I have been wholly unable to get the Roman ritual of
ordination of priest or monk. Could you suggest where I could get one?)
I wrote to you or was going to write that there are faint resemblances
faint, but they are there) in the Book of Common Prayer to the
questioning of a
is something of a browser in occultism, especially insofar as it has to
Freemasonry. H.L.H. asked him to write something on the subject for THE
getting material together for the series on occultism which you are so
to say you think you can use, and hope to get at it one of these days.
my late purchases from France, Pierre Piobb's "Evolution de
l'Ocultisme," [Lib*] gives me some excellent ideas, which I propose to
work in whenever the time comes. I was somewhat astonished to learn
that the word "Occultisme," the prototype of our own word, I assume,
is of recent coinage, having been first applied by Papus (Dr. Encausse)
1888. By the way, speaking of words, I observe that the barbarism
"Hermeticism" now and then appears in THE BUILDER.
What's wrong with "Hermeticism"? I find it used in the Ars Quatuor
Coronati? Isn't that good enough for you?
Why, my objection to it is that its formation is faulty. Your root word
course, "Hermes"; hence and ergo, Hermes-ic ‒ Hermetic for the sake
of euphony. Also, Hermes-ism ‒ Hermetism, for the same reason. The root
latter word is not "Hermetic," but "Hermes."
one is occasionally forced to coin a word to express a burgeoning
even in such case it is well to consider some rules. And neither rule
nor reason justifies "Hermeticism" as you will appreciate if you just
think a moment. It may be that some of the dictionaries carry the word
I complain, but I doubt it.
course, in employing such a word one has the weight of authority of
Dumpty, cited in that standard work, "Alice in Wonderland," in which
when reproved by Alice for a solecism, he defends himself by saying (I
paraphrase from ancient memory): "Words are my servants, not my
and I require them to mean whatever I will that they shall mean."
occasionally finds weird and wonderful words in English and Scottish
publications. I have before me as I write the latest Proceedings of the
Lodge of Scotland, containing an auditor's report, in which the
remarks sweetly, ong passong, "the income effeiring to Grand Lodge . .
from dues of Intrants," etc. And yet I fear I shall never be justified
employing these two gladsome accessions to my vocabulary, dearly as I
desire it, in one of my reports. I can imagine some keen lawyer
about them on the witness stand.
The Trivium and the
said something in a letter to R.J.L. about the "trivium and the
quadrivium." H.L.H. has stolen R.J.L.'s reply.)
into this "seven liberal arts and sciences" matter some years ago,
and there a few things which persist in my memory which may be of some
trivium and the quadrivium formed the basis of the instruction in the
University of Athens, the School of Alexandria, and that university at
which began to be called the Athenaeum in Hadrian's day, about A. D.
before, and certainly from the time of Isocrates (436-338 B.C.) and
influences of Speusippus (407-339 B. C.) and Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)
knowledge was summarized under seven heads ‒ grammar, rhetoric and
known as the trivium; and music, astronomy, geometry and arithmetic,
quadrivium, just as friend Pafnutius observes.
‒ such as I have been able to lay my hand on tonight ‒ tell me that
designations were first employed about the end of the fourth century.
quite certain the terms applied to these branches of knowledge were
sometimes comprehending two or three things, sometimes half a dozen. In
Romano-Hellenic schools dialectic embraced logic, ethics and
with Quintillian only logic and ethics.
our classification into seven liberal arts and sciences is extremely
have Matter's "Ecole d'Alexandrie" on my shelves, and it is my
impression that there's quite a bit of data in it; but there are three
laborious volumes, unindexed, more's the pity.
way, of course you know that at least in the Middle Ages the quadrivium
was regarded as wholly mathematical, even to music; the trivium was the
The Point Within A
delivered himself of an opinion as to the origin of the Point Within
that is interesting, "intriguing," as the young lions of The New
Republic would say.)
an idea regarding the Point Within the Circle that I hope to develop to
near my satisfaction one of these days ‒ and there's no phallicism in
I'm making either. I have a rather huge collection of ancient coins,
them possibly a dozen old Athenian tetradrachms running from 600 or
more B. C.
down several hundred years. All bear, in semiarchaic Greek characters,
abbreviation of the name of the city ‒ AOE. You will observe that the
"theta" is not made as we now make it, an O with a bar across an
ellipse, but it is a true circle with a dot in its center.
dug into the origin of the Greek alphabet as much as I have into some
others ‒ Hebrew and Phoenician, for example. But theoretically the
Hebrew "aleph" was a hieroglyphical representation of the head of an
ox, and the Phoenecian aleph is easily recognizable as such a drawing.
"Aleph" means ox or bullock. "Beth" is a house or a tent,
and the character was originally a drawing of part of a house.
"Cimel" is "camel," and once more a hieroglyph. When the
Phoenician alphabet was first formed the writers selected common words
beginning with the sound they wanted to represent, and then drew a
picture of that object, which later became conventionalized. We all
so please don't think that I imagine I'm playing the schoolmaster; I'm
thinking on paper. When the Greeks adopted their alphabet, they
largely from their elders as to many of their characters. In some cases
didn't. One of their words for the Supreme Being was, and is,"theos,"
as we know. Was there once a time, in a proto-Greek tongue, when it was
"theta"? The words are tremendously alike. If so, or if the character
"theta" was originally called "theos," or if, as a third
possibility, reverence for a sacred name or superstitious fear led them
adopt a modification, a sort of diminutive, and to call the God
"theos" in sacred ceremonies, but "theta" in ordinary
conversation, and if they followed the time-honored custom of adopting
hieroglyph like the Hebrews and the Phoenicians, it is clear that the
Within a Circle must have been a conventional representation of Deity
alphabet was formed.
have believed much in many of the derivations to which some writers are
firmly wedded ‒ phallicism, sun worship, stellar cults, and all that
thing. Relatively, phallicism is a late development ‒ that is, in the
religions it was unknown, practically. Long ages ago there was a cult
of life ‒
and a very noble and lofty thing it was, coordinate with the worship of
male principle in nature. Later the female principle was introduced by
rebellious party, who sought a slogan, as we would call it today, to
adherents. And to get something "catchy," something that would gain
the adhesion of the masses, the bolsheviki, they substituted the female
principle, and female gods ‒ or goddesses ‒ for the old male gods. And
the usual result when the male and female principles are juxtaposed.
inclined to believe that the Point Within a Circle was originally
same thing as the All-seeing Eye, and that as a symbol of Deity it is
found on some of the very oldest monuments. Of course, we know that it
Ra symbol on the Egyptian monuments, meaning not only God, but the sun;
here again I can't believe the sun was regarded as a deity, but merely
visible manifestation of Deity ‒ once more an eye.
the Vedic quotations in Ragozin's "Vedic India" [Lib 1899] demonstrate quite clearly how
the Aryans regarded the sun ‒ merely as the manifestations of Deity,
and not as
quite well that most of what I've written is trite to you, but as I
said on the
earlier page, I've been merely thinking on paper.
ever read Dupuis' "Origine de Tous les Cultes"? I have the original
work, in ten or twelve volumes, and also a later abridgement [Lib 1840 (English)]. But Dupuis saw sun worship
One could say much about your "theta" theory, "for and
ferninst." You know that the alchemists used the Point Within the
as a sign for the sun, and for such things as they associated with that
luminary, gold for example (see Campbell Brown's History of Chemistry):
alchemy goes so far back, since it was so prevalent during the Middle
since so many of its signs ‒ as witness a doctor's signature to his
prescriptions ‒ have remained in use, I am inclined to believe that the
came thence, and that it has generally meant the sun, and by analogy,
the sublime to the ridiculous. H.L.H. enclosed his "phiz" in a letter
to R.J.L. with the following results.)
thank you for the likeness. You're a younger man than I would have
Don't fret about the lack of gray hairs. You'll get them if you keep up
writing game. I put in about 25 or 30 years of my sweet young life in
work, and I'm mighty nearly snow white ‒ and just a kid yet ‒ only 55
month. It's a deep pity that you didn't wait about three weeks before
born, so you could have seen the light under the auspices of
you'd have taken to occultism like a duck to water. Of course, no
individual could be expected to like it.
A Mirror for the Johannite
Oli66 / auth. Oliver George. - New York : Masonic Publishing and
Manufacturing Co, 1866. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 196. - 10.9 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
French Blood in America
Fos11 / auth. Fosdick Lucian. - Boston : Richard G. Badger, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 464. - 25.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of the Jesuits
Nic89 / auth. Nicolini Giovanni B. - London : George Bell and Sons,
1889. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 579. - 34.9 MB.
Manual of the Lodge
Mac91 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Effingham Maynard &
Co, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 261. - 14.1 MB.
Mac67 / auth. Macoy Robert. - New York : Clark, Austin & Co,
1867. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 171. - 2.6 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Polychronicon Vol 1
Hig65PO1 / auth. Higden Ranulph / ed. Babington Churchill. - London :
[s.n.], 1865. - Vol. 1 : 9 : p. 548. - 21.2 MB.
Polychronicon Vol 2
Hig69PO2 / auth. Higden Ranulph / ed. Babington Churchill. - London :
Longman, Green, & Co, 1869. - Vol. 2 : 9 : p. 518. - 33.9 MB.
Polychronicon Vol 3
Hig71PO3 / auth. Higden Ranulph / ed. Lumly Joseph R. - London :
Longman & Co, 1871. - Vol. 3 : 9 : p. 528. - 30.6 MB.
Polychronicon Vol 4
Hig72PO4 / auth. Higden Ranulph / ed. Lumly Joseph R. - Londong :
Longman & Co, 1872. - Vol. 4 : 9 : p. 532. - 27.6 MB.
Polychronicon Vol 5
Hig74PO5 / auth. Higden Ranulph / ed. Lumly Joseph R. - London :
Longman & Co, 1874. - Vol. 5 : 9 : p. 561. - 25.1 MB.
Polychronicon Vol 6
Hig76PO6 / auth. Higden Ranulph / ed. Lumly Joseph R. - London :
Longman & Co, 1876. - Vol. 6 : 9 : p. 556. - 29.5 MB.
Polychronicon Vol 7
Hig79PO7 / auth. Higden Ranulph / ed. Lumly Joseph R. - London :
Longman & Co, 1879. - Vol. 7 : 9 : p. 606. - 35.7 MB.
Polychronicon Vol 8
Hig82PO8 / auth. Higden Ranulph / ed. Lumly Joseph R / trans. 9. -
London : Longman & Co, 1882. - 8 : p. 651. - 31.3 MB.
Polychronicon Vol 9
Hig86PO9 / auth. Higden Ranulph / ed. Lumly Joseph R / trans. 9. -
London : Longman & Co, 1886. - 9 : p. 636. - 35.7 MB.
Real History of the Rosicrucians
Wai87 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : George Redway, 1887. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 456. - 18.1 MB.
Car141 / auth. Carus Paul. - Chicago : Open Court Publishing Compay,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 86. - 4.6 MB.
The Doctrine and Literature of
Wai02 / auth. Waite Arthur E. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Company, 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 528. - 30.2 MB.
The Lost Word Found
Buc09 / auth. Buck Jirah D. - Chicago : Indo-American Book Co, 1909. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 64. - 1.7 MB.
The Morals of Abou Ben Adhem
Loc75 / auth. Locke David R. - Toronto : Belford Brothers, 1875. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 222. - 14.5 MB.
The Origin, Object and
Organization of the Christian Religion
Dup40 / auth. Dupuis Francois / trans. Southwell Charles. - London :
William Friend, 1840. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 83. - 5.1 MB.
The Philosophy of Masonry
Pou15 / auth. Pound Roscoe. - [s.l.] : The Builder Magazine, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 53. - 0.3 MB.
The Rise of the Huguenots Vol 1
Bai80 / auth. Baird Henry M. - London : Hodder and Stoughton, 1880. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 610. - 40.1 MB.
The Rise of the Huguenots Vol 2
Bai801 / auth. Baird Henry M. - London : Hodder and Stoughton, 1880. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 702. - 36.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.
The Story of Vedic India
Rag99 / auth. Ragozin Zenaide A. - New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 475. - 18.5 MB.
Washington the Man and Mason
Cal13 / auth. Callahan Charles. - Washington : The Memorial Temple
Committee, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 501. - 28.3 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web65 / auth. Webb Thomas S / ed. Fenton James. - Cincinnati : C Moore,
1865. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 145. - 12.4 MB.