Masonic Research Society
Hospitals for Crippled Children
By Bro. Forrest Adair, Georgia
of the Shriners' Hospitals for Crippled
A TRAIN is
wrecked. From its debris of wrathing steel, temples to suffering
arisen. A man is maimed and from his pain racked body came a tremendous
banish pain. Throughout North America, hospitals, to make anew helpless
crippled children, are being built by the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine.
there will be scores of these hospitals on the continent and every one
of them can
trace its beginning back to the smoking runs of a locomotive and its
back to the man who defied pain in order to keep his word.
the history of how this came about, THE BUILDER played an important
part in what
some people might call a series of coincidences, but most people will
as the hand of a Divine Providence.
It was in
the stormy year of 1914 that the train went out from Atlanta, Ga. Ed
a member of the crew and Ed Roberts was a Noble of Yaarab Temple of the
When he was rescued from the wreck it was discovered that a leg was
was also a dislocation of the hip, which was overlooked by the railroad
back to Atlanta, Roberts called for me as I was then Potentate of
and throughout his long suffering I was a daily visitor at his bedside.
leg was amputated, but the dislocated hip, pressing on a sciatic nerve,
to give ceaseless and terrible pain. Opiates were constantly
one day I, speaking brother and counsellor, said: "Ed, don't let the
give you any more of that stuff. Stick the pain out. If you continue on
it will get you the pain you are now called on to endure will be
to the suffering you'll then have undergo as a drug addict."
his word. That word was never broken. He was finally discharged from
but the pain remained with him. Months passed until one day I was
summoned by the
wife of Brother Roberts. I found him in agony.
believe I can stand this suffering any longer," he told me, "but I've
given you my word about morphine. I won't break it, but something has
got be done
and done quickly."
Now in Atlanta
was Dr. Michael Hoke, one of [the] foremost orthopedic surgeons in
America. I called
Dr. Hoke and explained the case. Roberts was again taken to the
Dr. Hoke manipulated his hip, forcing it back into the socket. It took
its successful healing and all the time Roberts was given special
nursing, and was
finally sent out whole.
on Dr. Hoke for an accounting. Yaarab is a wealthy Temple and its
always believed that their first duty is to their members. I knew Dr.
Hoke was a
high priced specialist, and was prepared to pay accordingly.
rendered the bill. It was $5! I protested. Dr. Hoke told me to mind my
"You haven't any idea of the suffering this man was going through,"
the Doctor, "and he was undergoing it just because he had given you his
You have your pleasures and it's my pleasure to do something for a man
I wouldn't have missed this opportunity for a good many $5 bills."
satisfied. "I want to do something too," I explained.
tell you what you can do," said Dr. Hoke." You can do one of the
things it has ever been given man to do. Do you know that right in this
there are hundreds of children, all gnarled and twisted, doomed to
and pain, who could be made whole just like our friend?
parents come to me every day. I'd be glad to treat all of them. That's
but I haven't the money to furnish them with hospital equipment. I
haven't the money
to pay a skilled orthopedic nurse. But, I'll tell you what I'll do. If
will furnish a little house, say with three or four beds, and pay for a
undertake the cases of all the patients that couldn't possibly pay, and
more fun out of it than anything you've ever tried. Think it over."
I did think
it over. I wanted to think it over all by myself, so I dismissed my car
walking about the streets with Dr. Hoke's words chanting in my ears. It
that I passed the Masonic Temple and wandered in ‒ still thinking.
In the temple
I encountered the late Joseph C. Greenfield. He was busy writing but
I entered and handed me the sheets of paper on which he was working. It
was an article
for THE BUILDER and was headed "What Are We Doing?" The tenor of the
was that while we were making vast numbers of badge-wearing Masons each
were doing nothing tangible for the benefit of humanity.
idea struck me. Here was a great organization anxious to do something
and not knowing where to turn. I had just left a great man, anxious to
very definite. Why not bring the two together? "Joe," I said, "call
a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Scottish Rite Bodies, I
have a proposition
to put up to them."
was called and I submitted Dr. Hoke's plan. It was enthusiastically
I suggested that we submit it to the entire Scottish Rite jurisdiction
I wanted whole-souled cooperation in this thing, for I saw the chance
proposal was submitted, there wasn't a dissenting vote or voice. We
were ready to
do something. We leased a little cottage near Decatur, equipped it with
and Dr. Hooke went to work.
many months before we saw that our field for doing things was
limitless. What seemed
to us miracles were performed each month. We saw children who could
come out from that little cottage walking erect. We saw life made new,
for the little ones, but for their mothers and fathers and for us.
added to the hospital, but we've always kept that little cottage. Today
has sixty beds and is considered a model in every way by orthopedic
just one drawback to the whole arrangement. We could care only for the
of our immediate section. Railroad transportation from a distance is
insurmountable obstacle to the poor. Parents like to be near their
little ones as
they go through this trial.
Kendrick, at that time Imperial Potentate of the Mystic Shrine, had
in a "Home" for Crippled Children in Philadelphia, his home town. It
his idea for the Shrine to sponsor some such charity and he submitted a
did not meet with as hearty response as it deserved. Maybe this was
For there is a distinction between a "Home" and a "Hospital."
There have been established in a great many states and in nearly all
the large cities,
"Homes" for crippled children. These little beings with club feet,
legs, paralyzed arms and legs, bent backs, tubercular joints and
spines, have been
sent to these homes, where they have been kept reared and fed until a
removed them, but in these homes practically nothing has been done to
child to a normal or approximately normal condition and send it back
child belongs ‒ to its own mammy and daddy.
exactly the work that was being accomplished in the Scottish Rite
Hospital in Atlanta,
and there was the great Shrine order waiting to have someone give them
to do something big and generous and constructive.
has been in existence for forty-six years and has grown to a membership
The Shriners are organized along the lines of legitimate fun and clean
no body of men on earth ever get more real pleasure out of life than
some members, however, a good many of them too, who I believe were
under a Divine inspiration, who thought it might be well if the
to have these good times, but at the same time began to do something
Some of them
had visited the Scottish Rite Hospital for Crippled Children. Among
these was Imperial
Potentate Kendrick, who had already made a move in a similar direction.
had visited the hospital began to dream of more hospitals and more of
a hospital could be placed within the reach of every poor little
in North America.
became a reality when the proposal was made to the Shrine in concrete
form in a
resolution assessing each member $2.00 annually to carry on this work,
the staggering total of $1,000,000 each year for the building and
Shriner's Hospitals for Crippled Children. A Board of Trustees was
named to take
charge of the plan and to build these little "miracle shops" as rapidly
as funds became available.
is already far advanced. The Board of Trustees visited Atlanta and the
Rite Hospital a year ago, accepted it as a model, and now five similar
are in course of construction in different sections of the country. The
to be located were in St. Louis, St. Paul-Minneapolis, Shreveport, La.,
and Montreal, while five others have been tentatively located, one in
Oregon, one in New England, one in Pennsylvania, one in Virginia and
one in the
Rocky Mountain States. As soon as these are under way five more will be
until there is a hospital for crippled children wherever there is a
Temple of Shriners.
of Trustees has made but two provisions of admission into the
hospitals. In the
first place, the patients must be financially unable to enter a private
for treatment. In the second place, they must be susceptible to
are some children so hopelessly crippled that science can do nothing
for them. The
Trustees believe that under these conditions it is poor charity to have
bed and hospital care and attention given where no good can result,
when so many
little ones who can be helped are crying for just that care and
these cases are few and far between. The orthopedic surgeons in charge
Shriners' Hospitals are men hard to convince that their science can not
practically every case.
is a comparatively new one and is constantly being developed.
Operations are now
successfully performed that were undreamed of just a few years ago, and
study and experiments are part of the regular routine of these Shriner
there was the case of the daughter of Brother Frank Higgins of New
York, the Masonic
writer. This daughter, Pauline, had been stricken with that dreadful
during the epidemic in New York in 1916. She spent four and one-half
years in the
marble wainscoted, splendidly equipped "Homes" for crippled children in
New York and Philadelphia, but no surgeon's knife had ever been used
and no physical
therapist had ever made an effort to start her dormant muscles to
walk a step when she was brought to the Hospital for Crippled Children
but five months later when her father came for her, she walked down the
to meet him. When he had dried his tears of joy, he sat down in the
wrote a wonderful article for the "New Age," headed "The Greatest
Scottish Rite Cathedral on Earth," and in it he described the
"the temple of babies' smiles." John H. Atwood, Past Imperial Potentate
of the Shrine, an eminent lawyer now residing in Kansas City, Mo. after
the little hospital in Atlanta, wrote to one of his closest friends in
Council as follows:
who fancied that I knew a lot of things, find that I knew nothing about
aspects in life that I now feel are more important than any of those of
have had knowledge.
such a multitude of unfortunates existed, I did not appreciate; that
things can be done to right the wrongs done by Providence, I did not
my mind, it is the finest thing I know of in the whole world
and little, homes and harbors of refuge, as I have known them, shrivel
into insignificance beside the things I saw in those unpretentious
the pines in the suburbs of this good city.
than sky-touching towers, stately halls, gorgeous paraphernalia and all
and circumstances that so frequently mark Shrine activities, is a
or two, that might, with perfect truth ‒ if like this Atlanta
institution ‒ be described
as 'Miracle Houses.'"
Board of Orthopedic Surgeons cooperates with the Board of Trustees.
This board is
now composed of Dr. Robert B. Osgood of Boston, a former President of
Association of Orthopedic Surgeons, Dr. Michael Hoke of Atlanta, Dr.
John C. Wilson
of Los Angeles, Dr. W. E. Gallie of Toronto, Canada, and Dr. W.E.
Ryerson of Chicago.
Their services are contributed to the Shrine without cost. They attend
all the meetings
of the Board of Trustees and select, subject to approval of the Board
the chief surgeon for each of the new institutions.
are very jealously guarding the integrity of the hospitals. At the last
of the Board of Trustees it was decided to accept no bequests to the
carried with them provisions for memorial tablets or other methods of
the institutions into monuments to individuals. The hospitals are
simply and solely
for the relief of suffering childhood. That is all.
the Scottish Rite Hospital in Atlanta there hangs a picture of Noble
the man whose suffering made the whole system possible, the picture is
ago Brother Roberts visited the hospital. He was being shown about by a
newcomer. As she entered the room where the picture hangs, she pointed
it out, not
realizing that she was showing the visitor his own likeness.
not know who that gentleman is," she said, "but I understand he founded
An hour later
he was found in an isolated spot on the hospital grounds. He was
sobbing a prayer
of thanksgiving, thanks for the railroad wreck, thanks for his
shattered hip, thanks
for the Providence that had made him the unwitting instrument for this
blessings will cover all North America.
Freemasonry in the World War ‒ An Announcement
By Bro. Charles F. Irwin,
By his ability
to write, speak and organize, by his unflagging zeal, and by his
overseas Masons, Brother Charles F. Irwin has peculiarly fitted himself
The National Masonic Research Society's efforts to collect and arrange
of Masonic activity during, and as a result of, the Great War. Every
has even a grain of information to contribute is urged to communicate
Irwin whose address is Eaton, Ohio.
Freemasonry in the World War has learned from the experiences of the
past. The losses
sustained by the Fraternity in our several wars have been incalculable
systematic efforts were made to collect, arrange, and embody in print
and events of special worth to the Craft. This condition has been
foreseen by modern
Masonry and a movement is afoot to rescue from the rubbish heap the
occurrences of value to the Craft in the Great War. Various Grand
Lodges from year
to year have turned their attention to this important work as attested
Proceedings. Masons individually have been investigating and collecting
because of their zeal for the Institution. But the field is so vast
short of a nation-wide effort can hope to cover the ground.
throughout the United States have been gravitating toward each other as
of investigation have crossed each other's paths. At last a concerted
plan of activity
is to be put on foot. The National Masonic Research Society is
logically the central
organization to head this movement. Its past record merits such
experiences gained by its staff together with their intimate knowledge
Craftsmen throughout the country assures the Fraternity that proper
care will be
taken to cover the whole field of war time Masonic activity.
has been invited to become the chairman of this new movement. I have
to outline the policy of our department and to explain our purpose.
This is done
under considerable hesitancy. There are many difficulties to be faced
and much labor
to be undertaken. The prayer of the New England fisherman is
God, the ocean is so vast, and my bark is so small!"
that the best results can be obtained through representatives in each
territory who were themselves overseas and participated in the
struggle. Their personal
experiences and their contact with war time conditions fit them to
express in written
form the conclusions they arrived at as the war burnt its way to its
Among the thousands of Craftsmen who went across the ocean there are
many who observed
and participated in events which held a Masonic significance. Incidents
and unrelated to the general sweep of Craft activity, when brought into
with other incidents, reveal the general relativity of the whole
is to secure the material, to examine it carefully for the purpose of
accuracy, and to publish its results, in order that Masonry may enter
into the benefits.
How can this
objective be obtained? By contact with those who are in possession of
or who can lead us to the facts. It will be the purpose of our group of
to secure the material from those who have it. This will be sought by
a correspondence with the brethren who were in the service abroad. We
the officers of the various overseas Masonic clubs in order to secure
of these organizations. We will encourage the continuance of the ties
we were far from home. As striking material comes to hand it will be
the Craft through the pages of THE BUILDER from month to month. There
tales as yet unpublished. There is material to satisfy the Masonic
will be encouraged to communicate with the chairman. The occurrences
had may seem obscure and trivial. Nothing is trivial that comes under
of Masons. These insignificant events may fall one by one into a chain
processes that explain why the world disaster came. These individual
have messages needed by the Fraternity. And you, my brother, are
invited to unite
with us in our present undertaking.
as I have said will be at first the collecting of overseas Masonic
data. This will
be done under a number of distinct heads: Military Organizations,
Combat Areas, the Enemy, our Allies, etc. To this end we shall
by active brothers embodying the conclusions reached by the writers on
principles and relationships. We shall ask and seek the answers to
as to the practical worth of Masonry in times of extreme danger and
of continental conditions will be presented. Biographies of prominent
the Fraternity, who participated in the struggle, will be prepared and
War did not end with the Armistice. The after effects continue and will
for years to come. Masonry's duties are to continue till the objectives
of the war
are finally attained. Only by securing the principles for which such
of money and men was given can we expect to rest from our labors.
It is important
to discover whether the sinister influences that produced the strife
To know this requires a study of obscure currents of thought and
action, on the
part of men and organizations before, during, and since the war.
Masonry went to Europe during the war. It carried definite benefits to
desperate need. But American Masons also received definite impressions
contact with Europe. What these impressions were, and the
interpretation of them
will be one of our undertakings.
opens to overseas Masons a field for expression. The time is ripe. The
ready to hear. Those who have been considering experiences have had
to arrange them into lines of definite thought. We invite such to place
in written form and to send them to us. Thus we shall be doing not only
comrades a benefit but we shall be leaving for future generations a
wealth of Masonic
action that will prove an inspiration to younger Craftsmen.
Study Clubs Are Worth While
By Bro. Frank G. Burroughs,
effort now being made by a large number of Grand Lodges in the United
the line of Masonic Education had its inception as a response to the
need of a fuller
realization by Masons of Masonic opportunities and Masonic duties.
'Tis an unsettled
world today, largely due to the great unrest created by the World War
and its readjustment
problems. This unrest creates Masonic opportunity and Masonic
obligations. We dare
no longer placidly rehearse our ritualistic obligations and relinquish
and thought of them when we lay aside our aprons.
We have work
to do and Masonic wages to earn.
We must be
taught to realize our obligations to our fellow man as well as to our
We must obtain
a clearer and more definite understanding of what Masonry is and what
We must learn
how to apply to the problems of life the principles taught within the
We must obtain
ritual interpretation as well as ritual instruction. We must help in
of character which is the cornerstone of our Masonic edifice.
We must be
brought to realize that the whole duty of man is contained within the
of the three degrees of Masonry, and, by constant discussion and
we must learn to dig out for ourselves each little bit of symbolism and
contained in each word of our ritual, every little bit of our lodge
and every article of Masonic use and clothing.
We must learn
new meanings of the word "Fraternalism," and learn the true
of the Masonic ritual in its relation to business life, to home life,
intercourse and to social obligations. Masonic instruction does not
imply only a
delving into Masonic symbolism, or research into Masonic antiquities.
It means an
effort to induce Masons to view in their true light the esoteric
principles of our
ritual and teachings and to indicate the application of these
principles in our
daily intercourse with the world at large.
of Masonic instruction lies in its practical application. The real
Mason is he who
practices outside of the lodge those virtues inculcated in it, not he
who is able
to deliver a ritualistic recital of those principles and straightway
doffs his apron
and leaves the principles sticking under the flap until again called
forgetting or ignoring the fact that they form a real working formula
for life and
conduct twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, and fifty-two weeks
year of life.
application, then, is the ultimate end and aim of Masonic study. The
deep studies in the symbolism and ritual of the order had led him to a
understanding of the hidden mysteries of Masonry cannot avoid having it
part of him and a part of his every-day life and conduct.
a never-ending study, and a study that grows on one. It's something
like the medical
profession. A doctor is never too old to take a post graduate course
and learn something
new. But there is a difference. In medicine the new things come because
of new discoveries
in medical science, while in Masonry the thoughts have been there for
need only the mental pick and shovel of the student.
Mason does not give much attention to the never-ending symbolism of
the meaning of the working tools, to the level, the square, the compass
apron. But he only needs waking up a little to discover how valuable
are the lessons conveyed by each act done and each word spoken, and by
every object used in a Masonic lodge.
Why the square?
‒ To square our actions, says the ritual. Why the plumb? ‒ To teach
Why the level? ‒ To teach democracy. But did you ever stop to think
that the combination
of the three makes that all-embracing rule of life and conduct ‒ the
"Do to others as you would they should do unto you"
If we are
square, we shall easily put ourselves in the other fellow's place. If
we are upright
as the plumb we shall be just in all of our dealings, and if we seek no
advancement over our fellows, as the level teaches, we shall be able to
own failings as plainly as we can see the other man's, and the
combination of the
three, the square, the level and the plumb, comprises the Golden Rule
rule and guide of our faith.
course in THE BUILDER is planned to arrest the attention and drive home
not at once apparent. If once Masons realize that the ritual of the
Order is not
an empty thing, not a string of words to catch the ear, but an ancient
every word of which bristles with symbolism and every act of which
contains an esoteric
significance, then and then only can Masonry become that which it is
be a great moral force for the upbuilding of character, a power in the
education realizes its ultimate logical conclusion, our Order will be
an immeasurably higher plane. We shall cease to become merely members
of the greatest
"fraternal order" on earth, but will become members of the greatest
that ever existed ‒ a fraternity that will live as well as speak the
of Man and the Fatherhood of God.
this high ideal the Masonic ritual, Masonic emblems, Masonic symbolism,
furnishings, and every and each little act ordained as part and parcel
of our work
provide the machinery.
By the study
of Masonry as it is we bring to ourselves the realization of our duties
‒ our duty
to ourselves, to our families, to our Masonic brethren, to our
associates in business
or pleasure, in a word, as our Monitor so tersely puts it, to practice
the lodge those virtues taught within it.
study we come to a realization of the duties and obligations of
fraternity. We learn
that the symbolism of the cable tow obligates us to help our fellow
Mason in a material
way anywhere within the length of that piece of string, and that its
length is only
to be gauged by our ability to help and by his necessities. Our study
of the cable
tow will show us that we should ever be on the alert to assist the
of the brethren as well as our own.
study we learn to apply as well as recite the lessons of the working
tools. To act
on the level, and, by the same token, to seek not for undue
superiority, and to
recognize the equality of others. To be square in all our dealings and
our time properly so that after devoting a time to rest and recreation
and a time
to work, we may still have an equal period of time left in which we may
brother Mason, his widow or orphan. To be upright, straight up and down
plumb, with no deviation from the absolute perpendicular.
study we learn the meaning and everyday application of all Masonic
keep ourselves as spotless as a piece of lambskin, to be willing to
learn and to
stand in the northeast corner of the world so as to be near the
fountain of knowledge
and follow the rising sun from the east by way of the south to the west
to the happy contentment of a life full of years and good deeds.
we want to make our fraternity truly fraternal and a power in a
of selfish endeavor.
the weight of numbers, we have the greatest system of ethics, we need
either in our ritual or our teachings ‒ all we need is to bring home to
just what our obligations obligate us to do.
we have driven that home to ourselves we shall go out into the world
our Masonic membership ‒ not by wearing a pin or hanging a certificate
on the wall
of our home or office ‒ but by conducting our lives in such a manner
that he who
runs may read, that those with whom we come in contact may recognize
membership by reason of our consistent practice of the ethics of
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
General Morgan Lewis
who was Grand Master in New York from 1830 to 1843, is recorded in
history as a
soldier, and Governor of New York, but he was also the popular and very
Master; and also the son of Francis Lewis, one of the signers of the
He had every
early advantage, and such a nature as could not be spoilt. After
Princeton in the class of 1773, he began the study of law in the
offices of that
great diplomat, John Jay, who was afterwards the Chief Justice of the
of the United States.
apt pupil, and apparently much in love with his chosen profession,
heeded the shrill notes of the fife when the Revolutionary War was
at once volunteered his services and joined Washington's Army at
Boston. He was
elected Captain of a company of the New York militia but soon was
promoted to the
rank of Major. It is mentioned in the dispatches of General Stephens
behaved very gallantly in the battle at Germantown.
In 1776 Lewis
was made Quartermaster-General, with the rank of Colonel under General
Saratoga, and in the action at Bemis' Heights shared the perks and the
the day with Arnold, Morgan and the other officers. After the surrender
he was engaged in the operations undertaken by General Clinton against
force of British regulars and the hostile Indians in the northwestern
part of the
State of New York.
War of the Revolution Lewis resumed his law practice in the City of New
1788, and was soon elected to the state legislature. In this case the
the man; not the man the office. In the legislature he did well, but as
of the people were generally in the same direction, there was no
a contest, and therefore no exciting debates.
moved his domicile to Dutchess County, and in a short time was
a judge of the court of common pleas, and later, attorney general of
the State of
New York, and in 1801 Chief Justice of the same court.
was by that time nationwide. His splendid record in the Grand Lodge of
was generally known to the brethren over the whole land. In 1804 he was
Governor of the State, and was obliged to take up his residence in
Albany. In this
office he did much to advance the cause of education and to strengthen
two grand steps in the interest of the republic.
He was elected
to the state senate in 1810, and two years later at the beginning of
the war of
1812 he was made Quartermaster-General in the U.S. Army with the rank
He was advanced to the rank of Major-General in 1813.
campaign of that year General Lewis was with General Dearborn on the
He captured Fort George and was in command for some time at Sackets
Harbor and French
Creek. In the latter part of the year 1813 he accompanied General
Wilkinson in his
expedition against Montreal, and in 1814 had command of the forces
which were held
for the defense of the city and harbor of New York.
year 1815 General Lewis seems to have lived much in retirement, so far
and his profession go, but did not lose interest in Freemasonry. He
lived in a time
when the Order sought the man, and made strenuous efforts to keep the
best man at
the head. No man was elected because it was his turn in the early days
of the Republic.
He was born
in New York City in 1754 and died there in 1844. He was buried at
a beautiful memorial was erected in his honor.
The cut here
shown was loaned by the Rev. Brother Edward Pearson Newton, rector of
Parish, Hyde Park on the Hudson, who is a member of Rhinebeck Lodge No.
Rhinebeck, N. Y.
is unheard, none is wasted, there is none that we shall not meet again
in the world
to come. Oh! when we come to die, how bitterly shall we mourn that we
so little, prayed so negligently; ah; we shall see then that life was
when it was not also prayer.
is the mother of good luck.
‒ Benjamin Franklin.
By Bro. Benjamin Wellington
the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist! What was their connection with
Is the Monitorial tradition supported by historical fact? Why does our
firmly committed as it is to that regulation in the Constitutions of
obliges its members only to "that religion in which all men agree,"
its lodges to the memory of two Saints belonging distinctly to the
Whence came the tradition? When was it adopted? Why the St. Johns
rather than St.
Thomas whom tradition denominates the patron of architecture? Such are
a few of
the questions frequently asked and seemingly no Masonic Question Box is
without one or more of them. Much has been written on the subject, but
little of it appears to have any real value, or to lead us nearer to a
of the mystery. The excuse for the present paper is not the hope that
be added to the accumulation of data, so much as it is an attempt to
arrange the available material, and possibly give some hints that may
lead to a
to have been two attempts at a serious and extended consideration of
in Masonic literature. The first, and among English-speaking brethren,
readily available publication, is Dr. Oliver's "Mirror for the
(1) originally published in England in 1848, as a protest against the
the United Grand Lodge of England in 1813 when the Johannine dedication
by that body when it adopted the Hemming lectures. Dr. Oliver collected
accessible a great mass of material which he arranged and discussed in
form albeit his conclusions are too evidently biased by his own
views to have much real value for present day Masonic scholarship.
However we must
acknowledge our debt of gratitude for him for his indefatigable labors
as a pioneer
in what, in his day, was an unknown field. We cannot read his writings
or look upon
his portrait which so clearly reflects his benign nature without loving
his sincere and upright character and his fearless stand for the right
as he saw
it, even while we take exception to the eighteenth century orthodoxy
in almost every page of his Masonic writings.
work in which the Johannine claims are discussed at some length is the
or "Three Oldest Professional Documents of the Brotherhood of
which Krause published about 1810 [Lib 1810 (German)]. Although antedating Oliver's
I have placed this second because it is little known to the
due to the fact that, so far as I have been able to determine, no
been published. This is the work the publication of which was so
by the German brethren, and for which the author was suspended by the
Having access only to the meager quotations and references given by a
writers, I am not prepared to discuss its contents.
two extended works upon the subject we should perhaps add Mackey's
(2) [Lib 1914] which gives many references
data upon the Sts. John, as well as several versions of the tradition
as it appears
in different systems of lectures. Most of them are evidently quoted
from Dr. Oliver's
work. However, he has given us a hint of a broader and seemingly a
by tracing the St. John Festivals back to the solstitial celebrations
of the Ancient
Mysteries. (3) Except for these three writers I have been unable to
find any extended
works which attempt a detailed consideration of the matter.
at an intelligent understanding of this rather obscure subject it seems
first to examine into the origin of the two festivals which are far
older than Christianity.
They appear to have originated in that ancient wisdom- or
light-religion in which
so much of that which we now know as Freemasonry had its origin; and of
catch some comparatively latter-day glimpses in what is commonly
referred to under
the general name of Ancient Mysteries. Writers and historians are
in their agreement that the rituals of many of those ancient
festivals in observance of the equinoxes and solstices. This was true,
of one or two of the pagan lands of antiquity, but of many, for they
appear to have
been very widely diffused in the ancient world wherever any great
degree of civilization
had been attained. The Egyptian, Phoenician, Dionysian, Adonisian,
Scandinavian and Druidical mysteries, each in its own land and time,
appear to have
introduced the astronomical features and all celebrated dramas and
which the phenomena of nature were veiled in myth and allegory. Thus
of each of those faiths of olden time celebrated, each in his own
usually beautiful and poetical symbolism, the passing of the equinoxes
as well as other natural phenomena; and hence must have possessed a
knowledge of the contents of "the great book of nature and revelation";
of astronomy and its vital influence upon the rotation of the seasons.
In the mysteries
of Eleusis the story of Ceres and her search for her daughter
Proserpine, when divested
of its mythological setting, becomes the tale of the seasonal rotation.
the thought was the same, but veiled in the allegory of Isis, Osiris,
Bear in mind that this is intended to refer only to those aspects of
which were held less secret and were consequently better understood and
discussed, and about which considerable data has been preserved. Of the
of those Greater Mysteries celebrated in some localities, little is
known with certainty.
However there is good reason to believe that when the novice proven
won past the ordeals of the luminary initiation, he was rewarded with
in the eternal verities of life and its relation to Deity. Here, it is
he was led on from the consideration of the simpler and more evident
truths of visible
nature, which were embodied in his earlier initiation, to the
contemplation of the
more abstract truth of one God? (4)
Some of those
early mystery-systems with their attendant festivals, were still
celebrated in the
early centuries of the Christian era, and while their original meaning
had, to some
extent perhaps, been obscured, the festival days still played an
in the life the people among whom Christian missionaries were seeking
much as do our own public holidays present day social and religious
life. They were
therefore a difficult problem with which the mission and church fathers
had to contend.
Of the customs prevailing in the Roman Empire at this period one author
as the entire State, so also every community, every city, every circle
had its special cult, well founded institutions, rich and distinguished
for priests and special feast days and sacrifices. Every province,
every city, every
village, honored with local rites its protecting divinity, and
everywhere the various
religious observances were most intimately connected with the civil
of the community and sustained by local patriotism." (5)
the system with which missionaries had to compete for recognition. As a
situation, let us suppose that a people alien thought as well as blood
were to come
among us here in America and in the fire of their zeal seek to engraft
faith upon our thought. It would be a difficult, nay, an almost
to wean away from the observance of Christmas, Thanksgiving or New
Years, and perhaps
most difficult of all to from our memories the events and traditions
with the Fourth of July; and while the memory of these days persisted
in the thought-life
of our people, the missionaries' success could not be complete. Such
was the problem
confronting the early propagandists of Christianity. So long as the
remained, the memory of the older faith remained. So as the "heathen"
retained a ghost of the memory of the original meaning of those
was a weak link in the chain that bound them to Christianity.
that the officials of the early church about the solution of the
difficulty in a
thoroughly diplomatic way. Numerous authors from Sir Isaac Newton in
1733 (6), to
the new volume of the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics' just off the
given up a picture of the transition from the pagan to Christian
appears that during the third century or thereabouts, the missionaries
the above mentioned difficulty, Gregory Thaumaturgus, and after him St.
and St. Gregory the Great, each advised that an attempt be made to
rather than to extirpate the popular observances. If a certain day had
observed as a pagan holiday, let it be changed into a Christian
festival. Thus the
Christmas observances succeeded those of the Bacchanalia and
Saturnalia; the Floralia
gave way to the floral ceremonies of May-day, and festivals to the
John the Baptist and various of the apostles took the place of the
Gregory Thaumaturgus, to whom Sir Isaac Newton gives credit for the
of the movement, died in 265, hence the change began to take place very
the history of the church. In the fifth century, Theodoret speaks of
of the festivals of the old heathen gods into those of Peter, Paul,
other saints, but mentions no other names of apostles. (8) According to
of Nyssa, writing about 379, the church was then observing the
festivals of Stephen,
Peter, Jaines, John and Paul between Christmas and New Years, on the
"the prodse of the proto-Martyr should be followed by a commemoration
apostles." (9) The author of "Greek Religion" [Lib 1910] gives a picture of the
"That in Greece itself ancient
persist under cover of the new religion, and that ancient deities or
reappear as Christian saints is hardly surprising to one who considers
method by which Christianity became the established religion. It was
not so difficult
to make the Parthenon a Christian church when the virgin goddess of
wisdom was supplanted
by a St. Sophia (Wisdom), then by the Virgin Mary – Similarly Apollo
was more than
once supplanted by St. George, Poseidon by St. Nicholas the patron of
by St. Michael and St. Damian, and in grottos where nymphs had been
saints received similar worship from the same people." (10)
of the Baptist's day with the ancient midsummer rites of the Teutonic,
peoples also seems well established. (11)
Thus we are
able to trace quite clearly some of the influences which finally
the observance of the Baptist on Midsummer's day, June 24, and of the
death of the
Evangelist on December 27. But much of it still remains a mystery. It
to note here that the nature of the festivals ‒ the one of birth,
coming in the
summer and on the longest day of the year; and the other of a death
the shortest day and at the season when the hand of death seems laid
upon all nature
‒ is particularly fitting. The peculiar character and history of the
as shown in records and traditions also seems to coincide with the same
The Baptist is reputed to have been a member of the sect of Essenes,
who were mystics
and celibates and held all property in common. He is frequently
a "Seeker of Light." He was a man of stern integrity and unshakable
and bravely met death in the full bloom of his strength in the service
of the cause
to which he had devoted his life. In marked contrast to his short life
martyrdom is the long life and peaceful end of the Evangelist. While
the life and
teachings of the one are veiled in obscurity and can scarcely be
verified with certainty,
the work of the other stands out in clear colors. The Evangelist
appears to have
come of a well-to-do family, his mother being one of those who
contributed to the
support of the work of Jesus and to have been a man of considerable
he seems to have been well equipped to "finish by his learning what the
began by his zeal." In marked contrast to the simplicity of the message
to the Baptist is the finished and scholarly Gospel credited to the
Opening with the mystic doctrine of the Logos- "In the beginning was
and the Word was with God, and the Word was God," he has given us a
at variance with that of the other Apostles. Again, his name appears in
with the mystic and apparently esoteric book of the Apocalypse. At
in their history, their circumstances, their messages, and their
methods we find
the same sharp contrast that has its analogy in the extremes of the
seasons in which
their festivals fall.
the genealogy of the festival, it may be of interest briefly to note
that of dedications.
"Among the ancients," says Bro. Mackey, "every temple, altar, statue,
or sacred place was dedicated to some divinity." This, in Rome at
required by law, and the necessary proceedings were definitely defined.
In the laws
governing the Collegia, a fundamental legal requirement for
organization was that
the College should select a patron divinity. It served in the Roman
as a means of identification. Among the Jews there was a distinction
and dedication; sacred things being both consecrated and dedicated,
things were dedicated only. (12) This custom was practiced as early as
of Moses, the Tabernacle being both consecrated and dedicated, and the
same is true
of the Temple of Solomon. (13) The practice has been continued among
and it is probably needless to call attention to the fact that Masonry
or when the Craft became connected with these saints and when it began
its lodges to them cannot be traced with any degree of certainty. A
writer in THE
BUILDER asserts that our dedication to them finds a counterpart in the
accorded them by the Comacines. Many of their churches were dedicated
to one or
the other of them. The Island of Comacina was dedicated to St. John the
and his festival is still celebrated annually by the inhabitants with
and ceremony. (14) This is particularly significant, for many
authorities now believe
that the Comacines form an important link in the history of our
I of Scotland in 1424 passed a statute legalizing trade societies, and
for the dedication of each to some patron saint. The early craft guilds
appear to have followed the same custom, practically all of them being
dedicated, usually to some Saint connected with their calling, and
guild was named after him. (15)
of the London trades appear to have formed fraternities without ranging
under the banner of some saint," says Bro. Gould, "and if possible they
chose one who bore some fancied relation to their trade. Thus the
St. Peter; the drapers chose the Virgin Mary, mother of the 'Holy Lamb'
as the emblem of that trade. The goldsmiths' patron was St. Dunstan,
to have been a brother artisan. The merchant tailors, another branch of
business, marked their connection with it by selecting St. John the
was the harbinger of the 'Holy Lamb' so adopted by the drapers ‒ Eleven
of the guilds ‒ had John the Baptist as their patron saint, and several
while keeping June 24 as their head day, also met on December 27, the
feast of the Evangelist." (16)
examined the records of some six-hundred of these guilds [Lib 1870] and found few cases where the
saints were omitted.
the Comacine recognition, which cannot strictly be considered as that
of a guild,
inasmuch as it was their churches and their island home which were the
of dedication, the earliest Masonic connection of these particular
saints of which
we have record, appears in a, guild of Stone Masons and Carpenters at
1430 called the Fraternity of St. John the Baptist. (17) On the other
"Quatuor Coronate," or "Four Crowned Martyrs," are invoked in
the Strassburg Ordinances of 1456 and those of Torgau of 1462, while in
of these, nor in the Brotherbook of 1563, is there any reference to the
(18) Bro. Mackey says that the earliest festivals of the Operative, or
of the Middle Ages were those of St. John the Baptist on June 24, and
of the "Four
Crowned Martyrs," on November 4. (19)
quotes a bit of doggerel verse which he says "it is confidently
was a part of the O. B. of a system in use in the fourteenth century:
"That you will always keep,
guard and conceal,
And from this time you never will reveal,
Either to M. M., F. C., or apprentice
Of St. John's Order what our grand intent is." (20)
brother neglects, however, to cite his authority for the above, and
has evidently copied the stanza from him, adds the comment, without
or authority, that it is doubtful if it can be traced to an earlier
date than the
beginning of the eighteenth century. (21) I have been unable identify
it among the
MSS. listed in Gould's History. Of a similar character is the reputed
of so-called Charter of Cologne, which purports to date from 1535, and
"E. That the society of
brethren began to
be call 'the fraternity of Freemasons' A.D. 1450 at Valenciennes
to which date they were called 'the brethren of St. John.'"
"K. Every year a feast is held
of St. John the patron of the community." (22)
of this, like the former quotation is gravely questioned by almost
scholar so we may dismiss them both without further comment. Among the
Great Britain the earliest definite date of a Johannine reference
appears to be
"St. John's day in Christmas," 1561, when it is related that Queen
sent an armed force to break up the annual Grand Lodge at York. But the
as it were, executed a counter-attack and initiated a number of the
the force, who returned to the Queen with so favorable an account of
and nature of the society that the Craft remained unmolested during the
of her reign. (23) This appears to the earliest reference to the
festival of the
Evangelist in connection with the Fraternity to which a semblance of
be given. Gould gives a list of early dates which he has succeeded in
where the festival of the Evangelist is mentioned in the lodge minutes,
Edinburgh, 1599; Aberd 1670; Melrose, 1674; Dunblane, 1646; Atcheson
while the earliest notice of the Baptist's day appears in the York
minutes of June
24, 1713. These are the earliest references appearing in the records of
Masonic organization. There is mention of the feasts of both saints in
of Gateshead Sodality in 1671, but that was an organization of mixed
The earliest date, that of Edinburg, 1599, is entry in the minutes of
of Edinburgh No 1, providing that annually on St. John the Evangelist's
Wardens shall be chosen. (25) A ritualistic notice appears in the
Sloane MS. of
1646, the date of the initiation of Elias Ashmole, which contains the
answer: "Where did they first call their Lodge? A. At the holy chapel
John." (26) In a copy the Gothic Constitutions exhibited before Henry
Earl of St. Albans, at an assembly held on John the Evangelist's day,
1663, it was
strictly joined that the Grand Festivals should be held on John's day
of a custom which existed from time immemorial. (27) Both Anderson
to that meeting, but the Roberts MS states that it was held December 8.
the Alnwick MS. the members were required to attend the parish church
of that town
each "St. John's day in Christmas", ‒ "Clad in aprons and carrying
common squares." (29) In a charter granted by the Bishop of Durham,
1671, it is directed that the incorporated body "shall upon the fower
day of June, commonly called the feast of St. John Baptist, yearely
themselves together before nine of the clock in the forenoone of the
same day, and
there shall, by the greatest number of theirs voices, elect and chuse
fouer of the
said fellowshippe to be there wardens, and one other fitt person to be
. . . and shall vpon the same day make Freemen and brethren; and shall
said fover and twentieth day of June, and att three other feasts or
times in the
yeare ‒ that is to saie, the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, St.
John Day in
Christeninas, and the five and twentieth day of March, … for ever
together." (30) This was the Gateshead Sodality mentioned above.
Old Lodges of London having constituted themselves a Grand Lodge pro
tem in 1716
or early in 1717, set the date for the formal revival of the quarterly
for St. John the Baptist's day of 1717. It is related in Anderson's
that "Accordingly on St. John the Baptist's day in the 3rd year of King
I., A. D. 1717, the ASSEMBLY and Feast of the Free and Accepted Masons
at the Goose and Gridiron Ale-house." "The ASSEMBLY and Feast" was
held on the same date in 1718, 1719, and 1720; but there appears no
record of the
observance of the Evangelist's day under the Grand Lodge until 1720
when a quarterly
communication or Grand Lodge was held on that day. This was under the
of George Payne. The festival of St George the patron saint of England,
on April 23, was later adopted as the principal feast of the Grand
known minutes of the Craft in Ireland show a meeting of the Grand Lodge
on the Evangelist's day, 1726. The annual meeting was held on the same
date in 1727.
The meetings for 1728, 1730, and 1731 were dated on the Baptist's day.
that day falling on Sunday, the Grand Lodge met on Saturday and
Monday the 25th. The year 1729 shows no record of a meeting. The
incorporated in the same minutes are dated as having been adopted on
day, 1728, but there is no other record of that communication. They
due Honour, Respect, and obedience to ye right Worshipful the Grand
his Worship may be properly attended for the more solemn and proper
Grand Lodge on St. John the Baptist's day, annually, forever … "(31)
of the Munster Grand Lodge do not continue beyond 1733. The present
of Ireland was established in 1730, but its earliest minutes have been
Gould gives no dates of the early communications. According to Mackey,
the present custom includes the observance of both the Baptist's and
Grand Lodge was established in 1736, the minutes showing a preliminary
September 30, which suggests the festival of St. Michael though Gould
makes no reference
to it in his account of the formation of that body. The actual
place on St. Andrew's day, November 30, and that day is still observed
as the principal
feast of Scottish Masons, thus concurring in the celebration of the
feast of the
patron of their country. Bro. Mackey, however, quotes Lawrie to the
Scottish Masons always observed the festival of the Baptist until 1737
change was made to St. Andrew's day. This statement is in marked
variance with Gould,
who, I believe, is the safer guide. The Johannine dedication still
the Grand Lodge of Scotland and the three degrees are officially
appears, therefore, to indicate that the two festivals had already
attained an immemorial
status in the customs and traditions of the Craft long before the dawn
of the Grand
Lodge era. Even during the Middle Ages there is sufficient evidence to
belief that they were quite widely recognized. Indeed, if we may accept
theory now gaining ground among our Masonic scholars, there is, in the
attention accorded these two saints and their festivals by those
builders, another link in the chain of Masonic evolution. Through them
leads back to the Roman Collegia, and thence to the ancient pagan
The change from the pagan to the Christian nomenclature would have been
result of the Christianization of the Empire. Thus, apparently we have
in our Johannine
dedication and festivals a direct line of descent from the most ancient
known to man, and from the evidence at hand, I am inclined to believe
that in remarkably
few instances have their celebration been entirely neglected by the
this is not far-fetched will be realized when we remember that many a
and time-honored historical or genealogical tree has little more to
(To be concluded.)
to the Mercenary Craftsman
By Bro. Francis E. White,
Grand Secretary, Nebraska
Here is an
utterance from the sagacious and much experienced Grand Secretary of
can and should be recommended to the attention of every Master and
in the land. It deals in a telling way with a problem that has reached
proportions in large centers, and will probably reach to larger
if the present rate of membership increase continues. Ye editor
expresses a pious
hope that Brother White will follow this with another paper on those
who make use of the Fraternity for political and business purposes,
often in the
most unblushing fashion!
a man soweth, that shall he also reap" is as true today as it was when
the Apostle, wrote it. I am assuming that the Apostle Paul used the
words as a figure
of speech, and with no reference to the fruits of the soil.
this gem of wisdom to Freemasonry, we might say that we are now
reaping, and will
continue to do so, what we have sown, a portion of which we do not want
we do not know what to do with. If the crop exceeds our expectations,
we must remember
that Nature makes allowances for losses and produces accordingly. It
would be a
waste of time to refer at length to the great increase in membership in
few years. Every student of Masonic conditions knows what it has been,
and the statistical
tables give the facts. I believe it is safe to say that every Masonic
when noting the great increase in membership, that there was a
which Freemasonry could have prospered very nicely. One Masonic writer
puts it rather
tersely, saying, in reply to the query: "Are we making too many
"No; a thousand times no! We are making them entirely too slowly; in
we are not making one for every one hundred Master's degrees conferred.
We are too
busy making members to devote our attention to making Masons." This
seems to me to be a little overdrawn.
we have to consider conditions as they exist and not as they might be.
It is a question
that needs the wisdom of Solomon to answer, and I can only give my
on the subject. I have always taken the view that becoming a member of
Fraternity is in the nature of a contract, whereby the lodge promises
to do and
perform certain things, and receives from the candidate his promise to
not exactly in return for what we give, but to fulfill his part of the
not only for his own brood, but for the good of the Fraternity. After
I have reached the conclusion that we are responsible for a percentage
Craftsmen. People see our Masonic Homes, note our Relief Committees,
see our funeral
processions, and the little real charity that we do reaches them in an
form, and who can blame them, if from our own acts, they are impressed
idea that to belong to the Masonic Fraternity carries with it a Masonic
such as the town never saw before, and a living, in case of death, to
your children, your wife's kin and yours to the most remote of them.
Many a wife,
mother, sister, and daughter has received just such an impression as
the above from
some member of the family who no doubt believed it himself. Too many of
construe charity as coming in place of going: that is to say, they
expect to receive
it, in place of extending it. A little education on the right lines
a mercenary Craftsman into a charitable one; in any event, it might
of our members and their dependents from demanding, where they have
only the right
should be advised more fully on what they can expect from the
Fraternity, also on
what we shall expect from them. This, however, relates more properly to
subject than it does to the one I am trying to answer. As long as a
to fulfill his promise, we are in duty bound to extend to him the same
consideration that we do to our most just and upright brother. It is
some of us, at times, to feel the same spirit of fraternity towards
brother that we do to others, but the time to set him apart in a
passed when we received him into fellowship. Therefore, we must
consider that he
has some rights, and if he obeys the laws of the land and transgresses
laws, we must render to him a full measure of consideration.
Craftsmen might be divided into three classes. First ‒ A percentage
brethren might, by proper procedure, become worthy members of the
it is our duty to try to induce them to change their selfish natures
and grow to
be more in keeping with the spirit of our Fraternity. We might try to
get them interested
in our charity work, if we are doing any. If we are not doing anything
lines, let us take up some of it for our own benefit as well as for the
of the Masonic brother. Precept and example will do much. Bear in mind
brother you are trying to win over has some good in him and perhaps
needs to be
reached in the right way to produce deeds of charity that will bring
Do not forget that if you want the Masonic brother to walk in the paths
charity, and brotherly love, you must walk in these paths once in a
The privilege of association with men of character and standing is one
of the incentives
for some men to seek admission into the Masonic Fraternity, and
sometimes a mercenary
Craftsman realizes that getting into the Order does not carry with it
privilege, and when he wonders why, someone might suggest that good
deeds are the
only passport to full fellowship in the Fraternity. The above
to a class of members that I believe we can benefit: members who are
to good influence, and will respond to the right effort that is made to
better natures. Let us fulfill our part of the contract, and by
to turn a part of the crop we have reaped from the seed sown, into a
in place of letting it remain a liability.
class of mercenary Craftsmen will doubtless solve the problem as to
what shall be
done with them, for themselves and for us, when they learn that they
can get out
of Freemasonry only what they put into it, and being entirely destitute
to put in, many of them will drop out, either by demission or by
the laws in regard to suspension should be kept in good, first-class
and not be permitted to rust for the want of service.
Craftsmen who will cause us the most trouble will be those who think
that the world
owes them a living and who are trying to collect the entire debt, as
they view it,
from the Masonic Fraternity. Finding neither sympathy nor financial
their own Masonic lodges, the members of this class will take "to the
and open up again the beaten path that formerly ran from the south to
in the summer time, and reversed the line of travel at the approach of
I said that this class would cause us the most trouble, and yet it
us the least. We have now and for some time have had a remedy for this
our own hands; but the well-learned hard luck story related to the
Master of a lodge,
whose sympathy is large and whose judgment for the time being is set
a few dollars that are worse than wasted. This class of mercenary
be dealt with kindly, firmly, and effectively. Kindly, so as to be sure
applicant for relief is not entitled to it. Try to convince him in a
that if he were entitled to relief, he would receive it. If there is
solve it in favor of the applicant. If you are going to err in a matter
kind, err on the right side, but do not err too much. Firmly, by
some evidence of Masonic good standing, more than a simple statement of
and number of the lodge, and the old, old story of stolen receipts and
Insist upon something in the way of documentary evidence; a receipt for
the current year, with some authentication by the Grand Secretary,
should be demanded.
Effectively, by spreading the information regarding impostors, far and
might be added the class of men who apply for admission to our lodges,
increased business or for help of a political nature. Our duty to
Craftsmen of this
kind, is to ignore their mercenary proclivities.
To sum up
this subject: Every Grand Lodge should give it careful consideration;
and means for the identification of their members, so there would be no
of them being taken for impostors. A very small percentage of the money
unworthy Masons would provide first-class documentary evidence in the
way of diplomas
and receipts for dues. Legislation should be enacted prohibiting lodges
any of the lodge funds without such documentary evidence, showing that
for relief is in good standing in a lodge that is recognized by the
With a list of regular lodges before the examining committee, a diploma
or a receipt
for dues in the hands of a worthy brother should always and most always
a steady response to reasonable requests for assistance; all others
should he denied.
The Song of the Red Bird -- [A Poem]
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
was a cold and wintry day
As down a sullen city street
I made my silent, gloomy way
With heavy heart, reluctant feet.
The day itself, as sad as I,
Was roofed with clouds of heavy gray;
The weary wind was but a sigh;
The city street was mired with clay.
But from the sky's deep heart of peace,
Down wafting soft, and still, and slow,
As though to put my heart at ease,
There fell great innocent flakes of snow.
Above my head the maples met
With branches gray, wind-swept, and bare;
My spirit hears their mourning yet
For many sorrows lingered there:
And many sorrows lived in me
And many fears, regrets, and woes
While there I stood beneath that tree
And lived with it amid the snows: ‒
When all at once I heard a song,
A tender, winsome song I heard,
Too heart-enthralling to belong
Unto so small, so shy a bird!
My heart had broken down in me!
It lived again that holy day;
For when that bird sang in the tree,
One more long winter passed away.
The Passing of Charles Homer
By The Editor
"To the Past go more dead faces,
As the Loved leave vacant places,
Everywhere the sad eyes meet us,
In the evening's dusk they greet us,
And to come to them entreat us,
9 last, Charles Christopher Homer died at his home in Baltimore,
Maryland, the city
of his birth, after an illness of a year. His passing left a gap that
will not easily
be filled, because he was a man who wrought largely and in many
his father, for whom he was named, he became president of the Second
of Baltimore. Later he became president also of the Savings Bank of
a director of the Baltimore Clearing House Association, as well as
the National Currency Association.
But he was
not content with his activities in banking, multifarious as they were,
refused to place his tireless faculties, his business experience, and
faculties ‒ he was a graduate of the Law School of the University of
at the disposal of worthful causes: he was a director of the German
a trustee of the Shepherd and Enoch Pratt Hospital, and he was one of
members of the City Service Commission. In addition to all this he held
in a large number of societies and associations, the scope of his
indicated by this incomplete list of them: ‒ Academy of Political
Academy of Social and Political Science, American Asiatic Association,
Forestry Association, American Geographical Society, American Institute
Maryland Historical Society, Municipal Art Society, National Economic
Geographic Society, National Masonic Research Society, National
Navy League of the United States, Society for the History of Germans in
and the Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore Country, Baltimore Athletic,
Merchants, Baltimore Press, Automobile and City Clubs, Baltimore.
all these, and in some senses over and above all these, went a
in Freemasonry that waxed more and more compelling for twenty-six
years. From his
being made a Mason in 1896 until his death he labored tirelessly in all
and always with patience, with good humor, and with sanity. Maryland
to him the highest possible expression of their regard by electing him
Thomas J. Shryock, who was serving his thirty-third term as Grand
Master. When he
was made Grand High Priest of the Grand Chapter of Maryland in 1919,
the Grand Chapter
published a record of his Masonic affiliations, as follows:
Homer was initiated April 2, 1896, passed May 8, 1896 and raised June
1, in Germania
Lodge, No. 160; dimitted March 22, 1901.
- Placed dimit in Kedron Lodge,
May 7, 1901.
- Filled the chairs in Kedron
Lodge, No. 148, A.’. F.’. & A.’. M.’., of
Maryland, serving as Master in 1906.
- Member of the Board of Grand
Inspectors in 1907.
- Elected Senior Grand Warden of
the Grand Lodge in 1908.
- Elected a member of the Board
of Managers of the Masonic Temple in 1908,
serving thereon to date.
- Elected Deputy Grand Master in
- Chairman of the Finance
Committee of the Grand Lodge for four years.
- Acting Grand Master, February
3, 1918 to November, 1918.
- Elected Grand Master November,
1918; re-elected November 1919.
- Elected member of and Treasurer
of the Grand Lodge Charity Fund in 1915,
succeeded by Brother Daniel J. Emich, as Treasurer, in February, 1918.
- Exalted in Druid Royal Arch
Chapter, No. 28.
charter member of the Baltimore Royal Arch Chapter, No. 40, serving
as High Priest of that Chapter in 1912.
He was knighted
in Beauseant Commandery, No. 8, Knights Templar, 1897: Eminent
Grand Commander Knights Templar, 1913; Concordia Council, No. 1, Royal
Masters; Albert Pike Lodge of Perfection, Meredith Chapter Rose Croix,
Preceptory, Chesapeake Consistory, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite;
Kadosh, 1913 to 1918; Knight Commander of the Court of Honor, 1911;
October, 1913; appointed Deputy of the Supreme Council in the State of
March, 1918; Sovereign Grand Inspector General, October, 1919; member
Committee and Committee on Foreign Relations of Supreme Council
Scottish Rite; Treasurer
of the War Relief Fund the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite; Member
Commission and Treasurer of Masonic Service Association of the United
Provincial Magus for Maryland of Rosicrucian Society, in 1918; M. P.
Cyprian Council, U. S. Red Cross of Constantine; Grand Warder
Templar, September, 1919.
To this should
be added the fact that he was one of the founders of the Masonic
attended all its annual sessions, except the last, and was treasurer
compelled his resignation: and that, from its beginning in 1915, he has
enthusiastic member of the National Masonic Research Society ‒ so
we shall for many a long day sadly miss his cheery presence, and his
Peace to his ashes, and a long remembrance to his illustrious name!
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs. From the questions following each section of
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
* * *
‒ The Brotherhood of Man
hear it said by zealous reformers that we men must learn to be social
individualism, egoism, and all such creeds are vicious in their
the socializing of life will bring in an era of which William Morris
he wrote that "Brotherhood is heaven, the lack of brotherhood is hell."
(Or did he use the word fellowship?" It matters not.) Admirable as is
and intent of these reformers a fallacy lies at the heart of their
theory. We men
are already social beings: we were born that way. To tell us that we
social is like telling the fishes to live in the water.
When a human
babe is born it finds itself from the first in the midst of a family,
by indissoluble ties to father, mother, brother, and sister. After the
up a little, it discovers itself to have neighbors all about it. When
come he learns that there are hundreds of other little people like
he has reached maturity he will marry and have a family of his own. If
in an occupation he will find, almost without an exception, that his
is made possible by the fact that there are other human beings to whom
he is tied
by all manner of common interests.
nature of man's world is reflected in the structure of his own body and
is possessed of the faculty of speech, which implies that there are
him who have something to communicate to him, and to whom he has
something to communicate.
Nearly all his thinking has reference to his relations with others.
When he sets
himself to the task of learning, most of his learning is about others,
they have been or done. The very nature of his private
self-consciousness, so the
psychologists have learned, is such that if a babe could grow up alone
on a desert
island it would be idiotic or insane, no matter how healthy it might be
There is no way in which a man can set out to become a social being,
is already a social being, and can never be anything else. Sociality is
fact, built into the nature of man and of man's world, from which a man
can no more
escape than he can escape from his skin. This fact, so it seems to me,
essential to a right understanding of our subject.
are to us so self-evident that it seems impossible that any mature
ever have overlooked them: such however has been the case, and that
for this understanding of man as by nature a social being is one of the
of modern thinking and scientific research. Once psychologists assumed
comes into existence as a lonely individual untied to others, and that
assumed social relations. Sociologists and political economists were
hard put to
explain how a self-sufficient individuality like man ever came to exist
Rousseau advanced the theory of the "Social Contract" [Lib 1923] as his explanation of the
Hobbes brought forth another theory, and so on. Economists began their
with an account of some hypothetical man living on a desert island and
to show how that man's economic interests would lead him to form
with others. The theologians placed before their minds a picture of an
brought into existence as a solitary unit, who had later to be brought
relation with God [and] with man. All such theorizing, then or now, for
lives in some form or other with many men, is useless because it begins
that man is a solitary unit who must become social by his own effort,
truth is that a man is a social being already, and from the very
true it is easily seen that brotherhood is anything but a merely
which sensitive people can feel, and idealistic people can strive
after. On the
contrary it is already a fact, as hard and real a fact as the mother
rock that makes
the foundation of the mountains. To practice brotherhood is to discover
men are already brothers by nature and that we can never be happy, or
live in harmony
with the laws and forces of our own beings, until we learn to love each
to cultivate the fraternal spirit. Men make a fatal mistake who suppose
are really by nature such beings as the wolf or the tiger, that we are
devouring each other only by fear or custom, and that he who builds on
is the only man who has Nature on his side. The only man who has Nature
on his side
is he who builds on the fact that man is a social being, and therefore
that he can
never be happy until he is in harmony with his fellows.
day psychologists, who are making such careful investigations of
us that the old idea that the first and most powerful force in a man is
of self-preservation, and that everything else must be secondary to
that, is a fearful
fallacy. The truth is, so they aver, that the instincts which looks
such as the instinct of parenthood, and the instinct of sociality, are
and equally powerful, and that the individual who stultifies those
suffer in a hundred ways. Why is it that a man who sees some person
about to drown,
and that one a total stranger, will dart away from his own wife and
leap into the water, and there risk possible death? He doesn't reason
or argue about
the matter, but acts on his instinct. The need to live a brotherly life
in the very scriptures of blood and tissue and bone, and he who lives
to that need will bring himself into an abnormal condition in which his
will perish. This, so it seems to me, is one of the first laws of
is no mere sentimental luxury, but a necessity, and that in the same
bread and air and water are necessities.
One may describe
brotherhood as the normal development of the social instincts, or he
it as the wise, common sense adjustment of one's self to one's fellows.
makes that wise and harmonious adjustment he makes it not in response
to some sentimental
and pious wish that such things should be, but in response to facts, to
things really are with man's being. Just as a man must be in right
the food he eats in order to maintain health, so must he likewise be in
to his fellows if he would live in happiness.
The man who
understands that brotherhood is one form of wisdom, and that it is
demanded by the
way things really are in man's world, will not be troubled by
Neither will he permit a few accidental private experiences to sour him
of all brotherly
striving. It may be that my neighbor and I have natures that are the
each other. What I admire he detests. What he loves I hate. His
temperament is antagonistic
to mine. My vocation is one that is opposed to his interests. We cannot
intercourse because we discover too many antipathies. Such a thing has
do with brotherhood when it is rightly understood. Brotherhood does not
us that we privately like people who are obnoxious to us, or that
like us who find our company distasteful. Such things are in the domain
intimate likes and dislikes and have to do with private friendship
rather than with
If I cannot
like this neighbor of mine I can be a brother to him nevertheless. I
can give him
exact justice in all my dealings with him. I can always refuse to do
evil to him
or speak evil of him. I can always maintain an attitude of good will to
wish for him good fortune and happiness. I can ever stand ready to help
him to fullness
of life, insofar as circumstances make that possible, and I can always
place any obstacles in his path. If I have a difference with him I can
him as one man to another, honestly and openly, without childish
in attitude is the brotherly spirit, and it can flourish where private
men of affairs usually like to think of brotherhood in the terms of
and that is perfectly legitimate. The greatest things in the world ‒ it
is a banal
statement to make ‒ are accomplished by a great many men agreeing to
together. The National Masonic Research Society is an example of this.
We who belong
to it, and work for it (this includes you as well as myself) have no
opportunity) to make money out of it, or to gain private ends by means
of it. We
are all interested to learn and teach more about Freemasonry and we
formed a society whereby we may the better accomplish that purpose.
Such a thing
is in itself brotherhood. The great Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research,
in England in 1884, to which reference is so often made in these pages,
case in point. The able scholars who toiled so diligently under the
aegis of the
lodge, and who laid the whole Fraternity under such an obligation to
without money and without price, but solely in order that we could all
about our Craft. In so doing those men acted as brothers in as literal
a sense as
if they had all donned monk's habits and gone to live somewhere in the
society of a monastery.
we speak of the bond which holds men together in such endeavor as the
Tie." It is quite impossible to describe or to explain that tie, those
know what it is by experience, do not need it to be defined. There is
of private friendship in it, for I believe that the majority of Masons
have a feeling
towards brother Masons that they do not have towards outsiders, and
there is something
of the purpose of cooperation in it, as described above. It is a
mixture of these
two things, plus many other things.
Be that as
it may it is true that what we mean by that tie is really the hope of
It is only as men are bound by it, whether they are Masons or not, that
can go on towards happiness. For after all is said and done the world
is a unity,
and is one. That is the nature of mankind and mankind can never be
happy in living
until all act in harmony with their nature. Those who make sport of the
towards racial unity, internationalism, all such endeavors to bind man
man, woman to woman, know not of what they speak though they know it
not, it is
they who are miss by sentimental illusions, and imaginary mirages, the
men who work
to build life on the foundations on which life was intended to rest. In
as a man understands brotherhood and acts in conformity with its
demands, he will
always work for human unity. In his lodge he will not be a dividing and
force. In his community he will be a good citizen who knows that the
a right to demand many sacrifices on the part of its children. He will
maintain the principles of his country, and oppose every influence that
its degradation and division. He will everywhere use his efforts to
break down racial
antipathy, religious differences, and class hatred. War, fanaticism,
and unjust ambitions, the base intrigues of false statesmen, and the
in public vices, he will everywhere and oppose. It is his task as a
played a great part in bringing about these conditions, and the part it
is yet to
play "is more than the twelve labors of Hercules." It is a great thing
for the world that at a time when everywhere the spirit of strife and
so rampant there should be in existence a powerful international body
of men who
preach and emphasize the need for unity, harmony, and international
comity. I like
to think that the Fraternity is a kind of great school in which men
by practicing it towards fellow Masons, because he who begins by
practicing it towards
fellow Masons will come sooner or later to practice it everywhere. And
I like to
think that Freemasonry is a world inside the world, and that in Masonry
of fraternity are developing which will one day take root everywhere.
winter winds are raging the gardener sows the seed in the protection of
After a while the plants will be carried outdoors to live under the
the protecting arms of the Fraternity is growing a spirit which, as
rapidly as conditions
permit, must make itself felt everywhere. The great work of the world
must be done
by the combined and cooperating efforts of all the men of the world. At
that world lies dismembered about us, bleeding at every pore. This does
that brotherhood is a failure. It means that a world without
brotherhood is a failure.
It is the only practicable means of healing the hurts of mankind. Every
who learns in the lodge the lessons of brotherhood and who goes through
practicing that lesson is helping toward the new order of things
wherein will dwell
peace for all men.
A thing that
must achieve such a work as this cannot be a puny growth of private
It is a world power capable of gigantic efforts. Those who think of it
a hand clasp and a slap on the back are dealing with it like children.
It is a world
law, destined to change the earth into conformity with itself, and as a
it is something superb, awe- inspiring, god-like.
I speak the
password primeval, I give the sign of Democracy; By God! I will accept
all cannot have their counterpart of on the same terms … I dreamed in a
saw a city invincible to the attacks of the whole of the rest of the
earth; I dreamed
that was the new City of Friends; nothing was greater there than the
robust love ‒ it led the rest …. Swiftly arose and spread around me the
ledge that pass all the argument of the earth, And I know that the hand
of God is
the promise of my own, And I know that the spirit of God is the brother
of my own,
And that all men ever born are also my brothers and the women my
sisters and lovers,
And that a kelson of the creation is love… Is it a dream? Nay, but the
lack of it
the dream, And, failing it, life's lore and wealth a dream, And all the
dream " (Whitman.)
(P.S. I may
be allowed to refer the reader to another article of mine on a
of this me theme which appeared in THE BUILDER for January 1917. H. L.
- Give your own definition of
- Carefully examine in your own
mind the idea that man is by nature a social
- Give other facts than those in
the second paragraph to prove that man is
a social being by nature.
- Why would a person grown up on
a desert island necessarily be an idiot?
- What is the difference between
"sociality" and "sociability"?
- What has the social nature of
man to do with Freemasonry?
- Could Freemasonry succeed in
its mission if it were true that man's nature
is essentially egotistic and anti-social?
- Can you furnish other examples
of how much of the thinking of the past has
assumed that man is by nature an un-social being?
- Who was Rousseau?
- What is an "economist"?
- Is industry social by its
- Can you name any well-known
theological doctrines which assume that man is
by nature a separate unit?
- In what sense is it true that
"brotherhood" is already a fact?
- Were the French the brethren of
the German, and vice versa, during the battle
- If they were not, when were
- Are they brothers now?
- How can they become brothers,
- If they really were brethren
all the time may that not explain the horror
of the war?
- Do you habitually act on the
supposition that each man you know is by nature
an egotistic being who must be coaxed into being social?
- Is unselfishness as natural as
- Who are the "psychologists"?
- What are the various instincts
at the bottom of man's nature?
- Is the instinct of fraternalism
as deeply rooted as the instinct of self-preservation?
- What does Brother Haywood mean
by the phrase "in right relation to one's
- How do you get along with
persons you do not personally like?
- Does brotherhood demand that we
have a personal liking for every man?
- Could such a thing be possible?
- What is meant by the saying in
the V.S.L. that "We should love one another,"
and "Love your enemies"?
- How can a man "love" his
- How can one Mason love another
Mason whom he personally dislikes?
- Can you give two or three other
examples of brotherhood as being cooperation?
- Could one describe the
cooperation, or "team play," of a baseball
club as being brotherhood?
- Do you believe in brotherhood
sufficiently to practice it? to risk things
on the strength of it?
- How would you explain the
- Tell in what ways Freemasonry
endeavors to make brotherhood prevail in the
- Does a man have to wait to
understand brotherhood before he can practice
- May it not be that he learns
what it is by practicing it as far as he can
understand it and believe it?
- What is international
* * *
Brother, p. 120;
Brotherhood, p. 120;
Brotherly Love, p. 121;
Companion, p. 173;
Tie, p. 501;
Wisdom, p. 854
* * *
Our Study Club Plan
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to
of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three
in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under
the following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge
and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and
"Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st, 1922,
are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918,
1919, 1920 and
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Haywood:
The Teachings of Masonry
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
Masonic Conception of Education.
Brotherhood of Man.
Fatherhood of God.
of Masonic Philosophy.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
* * *
How to Organize and Conduct
Study Club Meetings
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted,all possible time to be
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
Program for Study Club Meetings
Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
* * *
Study Club Papers Discontinued
As the majority
of lodges and study clubs usually "call off" during the months of July
and August, the next installment of the current series of study club
be published in the September issue.
The Instinct for Antiquity
IN HIS article
on the "Mission of the Masonic Press" Robert Freke Gould had some sport
with Dr. Oliver's famous remark about the antiquity of the Masonic
Order. It was
honest sport as the reader himself will acknowledge from the following,
the sentence that caused the laughter: "Ancient Masonic traditions say,
I think justly, that our science existed before the creation of the
Globe, and was
diffused amid the numerous systems with which the grand empyreum of
space was furnished."
This is a fair sample of the sort of thing that used to be said by our
the age of Masonry, and it is little wonder that critical historians
thereby to feel and express a vast contempt for such so-called history.
all ‒ there is no need to say that THE BUILDER has no patience whatever
fables ‒ leaving the matter of historical accuracy on one side, it was
a very human
and therefore justifiable instinct that led our Masonic fathers to
allege so enormous
an antiquity. They felt that Freemasonry was a thing of supreme value
they believed that it had exercised in the world so vast an amount of
that they could not believe it to be of recent origin. Believing it to
be of such
worth they could not help but believe that it was consequently of great
The instinct for antiquity which seems to be an ineradicable part of
usually springs from such roots. What is new, man feels, cannot be very
what is of world-wide value cannot have been recently contrived. The
ideas of antiquity
and great worth go inevitably together.
Virgil always furnished their heroes with a pedigree from the gods.
Rome, so the
Romans themselves believed, was built from heaven; the Jews and the
each also as firmly considered their own holy cities of celestial
origin. The Greek
Catholic is convinced that his religious system came directly from the
his Roman Catholic brother has as little doubt that his came from the
through the mediation of St. Peter. The Anglican Catholic, not to be
the same claim for his own church, or, if he chance to be an unlearned
that Christianity was brought to Britain by Joseph of Arimathea. The
who were Rome's bitterest foes during the Middle Ages, taught their
their own faith was original Christianity undefiled by modern
accretions; and Protestants
and Liberals of our own day do the same thing.
historian, with his pedestrian mind and his insistence on the facts in
will have scant sympathy for any of these pious beliefs, it may be, but
that? One should interpret such beliefs with the more charitable
faculties of the
imagination. There is a great deal of good sense in the belief that
what is new
cannot be true, in this region at an rate, for it is inconceivable that
all antiquity men should have been left in the dark about the simple
of life. Freemasonry, in any form recognizable by us, most certainly
did not exist
at the beginning of the world (if the world ever had a beginning) but
the men and
the women who lived at that time, we may believe, were not altogether
the things that give us wisdom. Those "hopes that make us men," those
truths that sustain us inwardly and outwardly, which the great Order
to our business and our bosoms, are not mushroom growths of a day,
which some learned
pundit of last week chanced to come upon.
* * *
words have been reported of John H. Reddin, Supreme Knight of the
Knights of Columbus:
necessary, the Knights of Columbus will put its whole force of 800,000
the movement to end foreign propaganda in America, be it European or
brave words. One cannot but regret that the Knights of Columbus did not
when it lent its powerful aid to the Sinn Fein movement by resolution
and by money.
The Sinn Feiners had no more business in these United States than would
of the Soviets. If they, their president and their spellbinders did not
a "foreign propaganda" those two words have no meaning.
can't help but remember that the Knights of Columbus themselves are in
here to propagate the influence of a church and a political power that
is as foreign
to us and to all that we stand for as are the gibberings of Lenine and
If the Knights wish to put a stop to "foreign propaganda" they might
* * *
The Seeing Eye
do you visualize your job?"
of three stone cutters leaves nothing of wisdom to be said. They were
a stone. A stranger asked the first what he was doing.
working for $7.50 a day," he replied.
you?" the stranger asked the second.
cutting this stone," growled the laborer.
question was put to the third stone cutter, he answered,
building a cathedral."
The Christian Register (Boston).
A Communication from the
Reviser of Gould's "Concise History of Freemasonry"
is greatly pleased to publish this letter from Bro. Fred J. W. Crowe,
of Gould's "Concise History of Freemasonry" [Lib 1951] was reviewed in the Library
Department last January. The rare spirit in
which this communication is conceived will surely tempt a number of our
to extend their acquaintanceship with the author. He was made a member
Coronati Lodge of Research, of London, England, in 1898, and became
of the same ‒ which office was once described by Brother W.J. Hughan as
ribbon" of Masonry ‒ in 1909. He has contributed many now familiar
the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, one of the most notable of which was a
of "The 'Charta Transmissionis' of Larmenius," published in the Ars,
XXIV, page 185 [Lib 1911]. He has written "What Is
[Lib 1893] and also three Master Mason's
one each for England [Lib 1890], Scotland [Lib 1894], and Ireland [Lib*].
TO the Editor
of THE BUILDER:
I have just
seen your able review of the new edition of Gould's "Concise History,"
which appeared in the January, 1922, number of THE BUILDER, and I am
sure I may
rely on your courtesy and fairness to allow me to state my side of the
case in your
It is always
a thankless task to revise a book, because whatever line you take,
someone is sure
to disapprove of it, and of course everyone has a right to criticize as
Had I done
as you suggest and left the original matter intact, and inserted any
etc., as footnotes, I should have largely increased the cumbrousness of
and considerably increased the price. On the other hand, a well-known
and author reproaches me for not having entirely rewritten it! When
who shall decide?
I was in
great doubt what line to take, and finally did as you know.
my action, I must beg to make a short personal explanation. I had the
of being a humble member of a band of intimate friends which included
first-magnitude stars as Hughan, Lane, Speth, Chetwode Crawley, Murray
and others. Gould I also knew well, but not so intimately. I had
and saw correspondence from and between all these, and for some dozen
years I lived
close to William James Hughan, and saw him almost daily on Masonic
matters, so that
I may claim a more intimate knowledge than most people of what they all
and felt. I rank Hughan highest of all. Hughan had been at work on a
of Freemasonry" for some years, but he was the most unselfish man I
and when he found Gould wanted to write it, he recommended him to the
and handed over to him the whole of his material, and helped him in
every way, even
to reading every page of the proofs. It is an open secret on this side
that he actually
wrote parts of the book, as he himself told me. Others also rendered
"Concise" came out, Hughan rendered the same services, and I was often
with him at the time he was at work on the proofs, and he told me he
the opening chapters too long, and having little really to do with
whilst as to the Irish origin of the "Ancients" he utterly disagrees
Gould, and did his utmost to alter the chapter. The other friends did
but without success for Gould never liked to change his views, and so
in all our
minds there was a blot on the work.
As to the
earlier part of the book being somewhat tedious and irrelevant, I may
when it first appeared I was shown a criticism in a very important
which said, "It is neither concise nor a history." I don't know who
this, but it shows that I was not alone in finding it long.
circumstances, I decided that my wisest course was to cut the chapters
which I had heard wide complaints of unnecessary length, and to alter
VII, of which I do not personally know a single English supporter, thus
exactly the objections of Hughan, than whom no greater authority has
my mind. In this way I made what seemed to me as little alteration as
In fact, another English critic "congratulated me on the reverence with
I handled Gould." A third, who is probably the most learned now with us
"Do be sure and cut out all that talk about 'schism' and 'schismatics'
has no foundation." You know now how diverse opinions were, and hence
I don't really
see how there can be any doubt of what is Gould, and what Crowe.
leaves the remainder still Gould, whilst I have indicated clearly what
The additions you quoted from page 349 of the originals are only a list
of the "Important
Occurrences in Freemasonry" as given in the Official Year Book of the
Lodge of England from the date of the "Concise" first appearing to my
own writing. Surely this must be clear, and being merely official
facts, it doesn't matter whether Gould or Crowe inserted them. All the
I think, will be found as similar statements of facts since the first
I think, therefore, I have taken the only possible way of executing my
I cry mea culpa for any unintentional sins of omission or commission.
I thank you very sincerely for your kind compliments, and acknowledge
fairness from your own point of view. I can only regret that we do not
see eye to eye, and I still hope our American brethren will find the
as useful as the old was.
and fraternally yours,
Fred J.W. Crowe,
P. M. Lodge "Quatuor Coronati" 2076,
P.A.G.D.C., England, P.S.G.W., Iowa, etc.
* * *
President Harding Conquers
and the Riddle of Peace" [Lib 1922] by H.G. Wells. Published by
Macmillan Company, 66 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. The book sells at
enterprise and driving energy of The New York World" Mr. H.G. Wells was
to the Washington Conference in order that he might therefrom convey to
world his impressions of the outcome of that bold experiment in the New
The Wellsian articles, as the reader already knows, appeared in many
the United States and abroad, and were read by multitudes of people.
papers have now been gathered into a volume and published under the
and the Riddle of Peace."
twenty-nine papers," writes Mr. Wells, "do not profess to be a record
or description of the Washington Conference. They give merely the
fluctuating ideas of one visitor to that conference. They show the
reaction of that
gathering upon a mind keenly set upon the idea of an organized world
record phases of enthusiasm, hope, doubt, depression and irritation.
They have scarcely
been touched, except to correct a word or a phrase here or there; they
in all essentials they are the articles just as they appeared in The
New York World,
the Chicago Tribune, and the other American and European papers which
style is here in all its plenitude; rushing by one like a torrent;
splashing; there is no need to review its thrice-familiar character. To
and doubtless also to a great majority of American readers, the
of the volume is the delightfully frank confession on Mr. Wells' part
of his conquest
by Brother Warren G. Harding, President of the United States. "I saw
for the first time at Arlington. He is a very big fine-looking man and
is a wonderful instrument. He spoke slowly and very distinctly, his
controlled. He is ‒ how can I say it? ‒ more statuesque than any of the
Presidents of recent times, but without a trace in his movements or
of posturing or vanity. Men say he is a sincerely modest man,
determined to do the
best that is in him and at once appalled and inspired by the world
which he finds himself among the most prominent figures… I have heard
of the President both before I came to America and since I have been
here, but here
I have found also a growing and spreading belief in him. And this
address of his,
rhetorical though it was in a simple and popular American way, was
a very dignified address and one inspired by a spirit that is
Every other gossip tells you that President Harding comes from Main
Street and repeats
the story of Mrs. Harding saying, 'We're just folk.' If President
Harding is a fair
sample of Main Street, Sinclair Lewis has not told us the full story
and Main Street
is destined to save the world."
Harding's great peace plan, Mr. Wells is frankly enthusiastic. These
writes in his Introduction, "record ‒ and in a very friendly and
spirit ‒ the birth and unfolding of the 'Association of Nations' idea,
idea, of world pacification, they note some of the peculiar
circumstances of that
birth, and they study the chief difficulties on its way to realization.
It is, the
writer believes, the most practical and hopeful method of attacking
of the Sphinx that has hitherto been proposed."
* * *
A Dictionary of Religion
of Religion and Ethics," [Lib 1923] edited by Shailer Mathews and
B. Smith, with the aid of about one hundred specialists. Published by
Company, 66 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. Price $8.00.
is so infused with religion and ethics that any book dealing freely
with the two
latter subjects will be of interest to the Craft. The work under
513 pages, 7 x 10 inches, and the articles have room for briefly
defining all the
words of importance in the field of religion and ethics and many of
them are discussed
at some length.
subjects are written apparently by those most in sympathy with them
there is well
maintained the historical rather than the propagandist or speculative
From a strictly Masonic viewpoint, the definition of Freemasonry will
for us probably
have first place. Written by a well-known Freemason, Brother Roscoe
Pound, his examination
of the subject is attractive in vision but necessarily limited in
to the amount of space permitted. Brother Pound says, in part, that
"The 'art' or 'Mystery' of the
or Free and Accepted Masons, a universal, religious, moral, charitable
fraternal organization. It is religious in requiring belief in God as a
of initiation and insisting on such belief as one of its unalterable
this and belief in immortality it has no religious dogmas but expects
to adhere to some religion and obligates him upon the sacred oath of
he professes. For the rest it seeks to promote morals by ceremonies,
lectures, inculcating life measured by reason and performance of duties
one's country, one's neighbor, and one's self. It relieves needy
for their dependents, educates orphans and insists upon duties of
charity and benevolence."
this definition there is a brief account of the Fraternity's history.
states that there is no authentic evidence as to its origin but that
"Old Charges," show that in the 14th century it was an established
with a long past.
has many other items that tempt the making of similar abstracts. Among
the following references: "Catechisms," "Cathedral Architecture,"
"Charms and Amulets," "Crusades," "Cult," "Drama
in Religion," "Foundation Rites," "Initiation," "Inquisition,"
"Miracle Plays," "Morality Plays," "Mystery Plays,"
"Mystery Religions," "Oaths and Vows," "Rites, Rituals
and Ceremonies," "Secret Societies, Primitive," "Symbols,"
etc. The essay on "Rites, Rituals and Ceremonies" is especially
A bibliography is appended but so far as its references relate to
is the least useful part of the book.
* * *
A Masonic Year Book
Masonic Year, 1922," [Lib*] prepared by Robert I. Clegg and published
MASONIC HISTORY COMPANY, 225 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago. A few
copies are available
for general distribution at $1.00 per copy.
I. Clegg, who has so long been at home in these pages, and who is
editor for The
Masonic History Company, is making it his custom at the end of each
year to gather
out of his clippings and memoranda of the past twelve months such items
as are most
salient, and most interesting; these he collates in a little volume,
bound in blue
cloth, and tastefully printed which he offers to the Craft as a
the title of The Masonic Year. The volume for 1922 runs to 142 pages
items clustering about some twenty-three heads, such as Masonic
Statistics, Unusual Masonic Events, Royal Arch Masons, Cryptic Rite,
etc. The great
majority of these items are taken from the Masonic press of 1921; a
half dozen or
so are drawn from Grand Lodge Proceedings, and two or three are of a
There is not a dead paragraph in the book, or a useless fact. The
volume is one
that cannot but be highly prized by those who take any interest at all
Freemasonry. If only it possessed an index, which unfortunately it does
would be nothing in it to offend the most determined critic.
Year is a prophecy of what may yet be done in its line. Now that the
has grown to such prodigious proportions in these States, and is
itself felt with abounding vigor, its activities have outgrown the
power of any
one mind, with our present facilities for knowledge, to keep pace with
need badly a real annual cyclopedia which would do for Masonic workers,
Grand Lodge members, students and laborers in all the grades what the
Year Book does for the members of the United States Congress, and what
Almanac does for everybody. Such a volume would be worth its weight in
cannot be made suddenly and out of the whole cloth, and at a leap, as
it were; it
will have to grow from less to more, from humble beginnings to great
The Masonic Year is destined to become, someday, such an annual
cyclopedia. So mote
* * *
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to where
obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than those listed
on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the publications
wanted have been
out of print for years. Believing that many such books might be in the
other members of the Society willing to dispose of them we are setting
column each month for the use of our members. Communications from those
Masonic publications will also be welcomed.
addresses are here given that those interested may communicate direct
other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the Society.
It is requested
that all brethren whose wants may be filled through this medium
the Secretary so that the notices may then he discontinued.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N.Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake,
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship
of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson,
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine,
By Bro. G.
Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N.Y.:
Proceedings of the Scottish Rite Body founded
by Joseph Cerneau in New York City in 1808, of which De Witt Clinton
was the first
Grand Commander, and which body became united, in 1867, with the
of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, A. & A.S.R.
Proceedings of the Supreme Council
founded in New York by De La Motta, in 1813 by authority of the
Council, of which he was Grand Treasurer-General, these Proceedings
from 1813 to
By Bro. Frank
R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
Year Book," published by
the Masonic Constellations, containing the History of the Grand
S. M., of Missouri.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California:
Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and
7, with St. John's Cards, also St. John's Cards for volumes 4 and 5;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
of Masonry," early volumes;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction
for the years 1882 and 1886;
Original Proceedings of The General Grand
Encampment Knights Templar for the years 1826 and 1835.
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library
of Samuel Lawrence";
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations
Source of Measures," by
J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second edition 1894;
Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes
I to XI, inclusive;
"Masonic Facts and Fictions,"
by Henry Sadler;
Kabbala Unveiled," by S.
L. MacGregor Mathers.
Geo. A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Raneagua, Chile:
kinds of Masonic literature in Spanish.
Write first quoting prices.
L. Rask, 14 Alvey St., Schenectady, N. Y.:
"Remarks upon Alchemy and the Alchemists,"
by E. A. Hitchcock, Janesville, N.Y., about 1865;
"Secret Societies of all Ages,"
Language of Symbology,"
by Harold Bayley, published by Lippincott;
"Sacred Hermeneutics," by Davidson,
System of the Ancients Discovered,"
by J. Wilson, published by Longmans Co., London, 1866;
Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor,
Kegan, Paul, Trench & Co., 1883, or the edition of 1899
published by Scribners,
"Anacalypsis," by Geodfrey Higgins,
1836, published by Green & Longmans, London;
Quatuor Coronatorum," any
volume or volumes.
By Bro. J.
H. Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.:
Fascilus 2, "Caementaria Hibernica,"
by Chetwode Crawley;
Volumes 1, 2, 5 and 8, Quatuor Coronati
Memorials of Globe Lodge No.
23," Henry Sadler;
"Constitutions of the Freemasons,"
"Numerical and Medallic Register of
Lodges," Hughan, 1878;
"History of the Apollo Lodge and the
R. A., York," Hughan, 1894;
any items on Anti-Masonry, especially tracts, handbills, posters, old
almanacs, etc., relating to Morgan incident, 1826-1840, and recurrence
of same from
1870 to 1885.
By Bro. J.
H. Tatsch, Union Bank & Trust Co., Los Angeles, Calif.:
Quatuor Coronatorum, Volumes 6 to 26,
in parts as issued, with St. John Cards;
"Masonic Reprints and Revelations,"
Natural History of Staffordshire,"
Dr. Robert Plot, 1686, folio;
History of Freemasonry,"
Robert Freke Gould, Yorston edition, 4 volumes;
"History of Freemasonry in Europe,"
Emmanuel Rebold, 1867;
"Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen
Literatur," August Wolfsteig, 1911-13, two volumes and register, paper,
"History of Freemasonry," Mackey,
"History of Freemasonry and Concordant
Orders," Hughan and Stillson;
Facsimile engraving Picard's "Les
Francmassons," 1735, fine copy.
A. A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California:
Various Masonic publications including
such as a complete set of "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum";
"History of Freemasonry in Scotland,"
by D. Murray Lyon, (original edition);
Dunkerly, Laurence Dermott, etc.
Frank R. Johnson, 306 East 10th St., Kansas City, Mo.:
"History of Freemasonry," Mitchell,
2 volumes, sheep;
"History of Freemasonry," Robert
Freke Gould, 4 volumes, cloth, in good condition;
"History of Freemasonry," Albert
G. Mackey, 7 volumes, linen cloth, new;
Addison's "Knights Templar,"
Macoy, 1 volume, cloth;
"Museum of Antiquity," Yaggy,
1 volume, morocco;
"History and Cyclopedia of Freemasonry,"
Macoy and Oliver, new, full morocco.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
How McKinley Became a Mason
Can you please
tell me when McKinley was made a Mason? There is so much doubt about
that have been Masons (supposedly) and there is so little to be learned
that I am dubious about them all. A friend assures me that McKinley
really was a
member of the Order, but I prefer to make sure of it before I believe
are laudable but in this connection unnecessary, because William
McKinley was a
Mason beyond all peradventure of a doubt, and he was a man who thought
the Order. An account of his making is found in "Recollections of
Presidents," [Lib 1906] a volume written by John S.
who, unless the writer is off the track, was one time governor of
book is published by Doubleday, Page & Company, 1906, and
reminiscences of thirteen presidents, including Jefferson Davis of the
Those who enjoy a volume that is rich with interesting facts, wise and
often illuminating, will find this a work to place alongside Richard W.
"Personal Recollections of Sixteen Presidents." [Lib 1894; Vol 1, Vol 2] Here is the story of how
was made a Mason.
to President McKinley was found in the "Personal Recollections
of Sixteen Presidents." The quote below is actually from "Recollections
of Thirteen Presidents," page 215 – rhm)
"One day, while the Fitz John
was under discussion in the House, McKinley gave a party of us
assembled in the
cloak-room an interesting account of how, although he was a Union
soldier and resident
of Ohio, he became a Mason in the lodge at Winchester, Virginia, during
He said he was stationed at Winchester in the winter of 1864, and that
Parker, a citizen of the town, was conspicuously active in alleviating
of the people. This brought him into frequent contact with the Federal
They all conceived a fondness for the old gentleman, which he in turn
One of the Federal officers was a prominent Mason and discovered that
was Master of the Winchester lodge. The lodge room had been dismantled
and was probably
occupied by Federal troops, but the faithful Master had all the
his possession. The Federal officer proposed to him to re-open the
lodge. At first,
as a loyal Confederate, he opposed the idea, but at last yielded to the
that Masonry was a universal brotherhood, and that its teachings would
available then and there to mitigate the hardships of war. So the lodge
and a number of Masons in the Federal Army attended its meetings.
a fad among the uninitiated in Winchester, and McKinley, among others,
you need more detailed information, turn to the excellent article on
the Mason" which Brother Frederick W. Hart contributed to THE BUILDER
1918, page 81.
* * *
The Greek Catholic Church
As I am a
Mason of Greek birth and a member of the Greek Orthodox Church I would
like to know
for my information and as a guide to investigating committees for
men of Greek descent and religion, something about these questions:
1. Is there a schism between the
Greeks and Catholic Church?
2. Has the Greek Church ever been
excommunicated by the Pope of Rome?
3. Isn't the Greek Church more
closely related to the Church of England than
to the Church of Rome?
A. G. R., Missouri.
1 and 2 may be answered together. The real causes for the split between
of the East (or Greek) and of the West (or Roman, or Latin) were the
same as those
that split the political empire in two, and which made necessary two
at Constantinople, and one at Rome. Christians in the eastern half of
world were oriental in thought and custom and lived under political
those in the western half of that same world were essentially
occidental in their
natures and always strove for political freedom. (This is necessarily a
generalization.) It was the case of "East is east and west is west."
the technical and formal split first appeared in the ninth century when
(863) excommunicated Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople. Photius, as
head of the
Eastern Church, immediately retaliated by publishing an encyclical in
which he described
the Roman church as an heretical organization (which it was in all
for it had departed far from the rules laid down by the old General
867 Photius excommunicated the Pope of Rome, and thus the long feud was
were made to restore amity, and excommunications were made and then
both sides, but at last Pope Nicholas placed the ban on the patriarchs
(head of the Greek, or Eastern, church) and it was never recalled. The
between the two churches, as churches, did not come until 1054, in
which year Pope
Leo IX excommunicated the whole of the Eastern Church. Since then many
have been made to bring together the two branches of the Christendom
but to no avail.
The theological "crux" of this long quarrel lay in the separation of
as between East and West concerning the doctrine of the Holy Spirit.
After the phrase
"and in the Holy Ghost" found in the Apostle's Creed the Eastern Church
added the words "who proceedeth from the Father." To this the Roman
added the term "filioque" ‒ that is, "and the son." For this
reason the theological warfare between the East and the West is often
as "the filioque controversy." There were, however, many other
almost any one of which, apart from this particular difference of
most probably have brought about a split. In the West churchmen
assumed control of the church, whereas in the East church government
in the hands of the Emperors, or political despots. The Eastern
speculative and mystical, whereas the Western concerned themselves more
with practical problems. The monastic orders, though monasticism was
an Eastern product, soon became stagnant in the East; they were the
and aggressively missionary element in the West. Church rules and
rigidly stereotyped in the East; in the West there was more growth,
adaptation. The Eastern Church became much more conservative in every
way, as in
its restrictions on religious art, and it never succeeded as well as
the West in
assimilating the rival sects within its membership.
3. ‒ There
is as much difference between the Church of England and the Greek
Church as between
the latter and the Roman Church. The Church of England retains the
clause, which is so obnoxious to the Greeks. The Greeks have never
validity of Anglican orders. The relation, or possible relation,
between these two
churches, was brought to the fore by the Oxford Movement in England, of
Newman became the symbol. At that time there was much talk of a
possible union of
the two bodies but nothing ever came of it, and there was never, on
the slightest attempt made at official overtures.
* * *
A Masonic Pope
day I was reading the "Story of Freemasonry" [Lib 1913] by Sibley and on page 23 I
"…The epistle of 1873 was in no
It attributed Masonry to Satan, and declared the Evil One founded it
its development. These fierce denunciations of Pius IX are of peculiar
to Masons, because the records of the Italian Grand Lodge show His
to have been expelled from the fraternity after his election as pope.
having been aided by Garibaldi, a 33 degree Mason, in overthrowing the
power of the papacy and establishing religious and constitutional
liberty in Italy,
was informed that the pope, when a young man, had been initiated,
passed and raised
in a Masonic lodge. He therefore caused him to be tried for repeated
of his obligations to the Masonic brethren. Pius IX was found guilty,
the proclamation of his expulsion, signed by Victor Emanuel, then King
and Grand Master of Masons in that country, was sent all over the
statement is very conclusive and decisive. However, in the August 1921
THE BUILDER I read the following:
"So far as is known no pope has
been a member
of the Fraternity. This could have happened a thousand years ago when
builders of church buildings, favored by the Papal See, and all loyal
but, so far as we can discover, it has never occurred."
As you see,
this statement is also very positive. As the two statements are
each other will you please give me more Light?
G. J. M., Manila, P. I.
difficult to ascertain the facts concerning this celebrated incident.
Each man must
study the evidence for himself and arrive at his own conclusions.
Readers have been
generous in sending forward the various accounts that have long been
"Apropos of the Note on p. 61,
of the February
1922 number of THE BUILDER, in regard to a query as to the affiliation
of the late
pope Pius IX, as a Freemason, I will say:
"In 1868, before I became a
Mason, a white-haired
Scandinavian friend told me that he knew Count Mastai (not Mastlai)
the pope became a priest, and that he was then a Mason."
that Ferretti was then anything but devoutly pious.
Canon J. W. Horsley, lately deceased, published a letter which he had
a friend whom, so he writes, he can trust both as a clergyman and as a
paragraph following gives the Monte Video version:
"In answer to your letter, it
is a fact
that the signature of pope Pius IX exists in one of the native lodges
of Monte Video.
Soon after his ordination Mastai was sent out as an auditor to the
of Chile. It was generally reported that he was initiated into Masonry
in that country,
although I have not been able to get the exact date. Anyhow, when later
on he was
appointed Apostolic delegate in the Uruguay, he appeared in the lodges
as a full-blown
Mason. This matter is generally known and accepted as historical in S.
both among brethren of the Craft and profane persons. I forget the name
of the lodge
but it was an Italian one."
version was recently published in that scholarly Masonic journal, The
and is here reproduced by permission of its editor, Brother R.J.
name is always welcome in these pages:
years it has been maintained that Pope Pius IX, whose name before his
to the pontificate was Giovanni Ferretti Mastai, had received the
degrees of Masonry
in his younger life. The editor of The Montana Mason has sought for
proof of this
assertion for a number of years hitherto without success. Recently he
possession of a number of old Masonic publications in various foreign
among which i sa copy of the "Bollettino Officiale del Grande Oriente
Egiziano" (Official Bulletin of the National Grand Orient of Egypt),
in the Italian language at Alexandria, Egypt,in March, 1876. This old
a copy of a certificate issued in 1839 by a Masonic lodge of Palmreo,
the "Eternal Catena" (Eternal Union) lodge, in which the pope was made
a Mason. A translation from the Italian follows:
of Nuremburg, Lodge of Germanic Loyalty, daughter of the Grand Lodge of
working under constitutions emanating from the Grand Mother Lodge of
the Three Globes
archives contain, under No. 13,715, the following document, certified
in regular and required form, written in Italian, and bearing the great
the Grand Lodge Luce Perpetua of Naples:
Lodge Eterna Catena of Palermo:
Master Masons, dignitaries and officials of the third degree of Masonry
of St. John,
certify in the name of the Supreme Master, who directs all, that on
this, the date
given below, at the hour of twelve at night, we have received in this
lodge in the
form prescribed by our rituals, and with entire conformity to our
the Brother Giovanni Ferretti Mastai, a native of the Pontifical
States, who, having
assumed the oath in the presence of all of us, declared that he did not
any secret society hostile to this lodge, and who has paid the charges
we call upon all the Masonic lodges of the world to recognize him and
hold him as
a genuine, and true Mason, received in a just and perfect lodge, and
thus we regard
and certify him,as a conscientious and honorable man.
testimony of the entire truth of the present document, we sign in
Palermo, in the
profane and civil year 1839, on the fifteenth day of the month of
varietur: Giovanni Ferretti Mastai.
"'Matteo Chiava, Master of the Lodge.
"'Paolo Duplessi, Secretary of the Lodge.
"'Sisto Calano, Grand Master of the Lodge of Naples.'
certify to the truth of the foregoing, and that our archives contain
the above document
under the number indicated.
von Wittelsburg, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Bavaria, Prince of
* * *
History of Freemasonry in
spent all their lives in Nova Scotia, that solid and substantial old
being the case I need not tell you that I was born there. But
I was old enough to know anything about Masonry I came to these states.
Now I should
like to learn something about the history of Masonry in Nova Scotia. I
know it is
too long a subject for the Question Box but I thought you might give me
find a rather complete account of Freemasonry in Nova Scotia ‒ albeit
outline form ‒ in the Transactions (always worth seeing) of The Nova
of Research, Vol. I. No. 2, for January 31, 1916. The account was
written by Bro.
J. Plimsoll Edwards, of Londonderry. The paragraphs given below
compromise the first
five pages of his narrative and omit altogether the long account he
gives of local
surprising that so little has been published or ever written ‒ so far
as I know
‒ on the history of Freemasonry in Nova Scotia, especially when we
not only did the Masonry of Canada originate in this province, and work
under most distinguished social auspices for many years before its
in any other portion of the Dominion ‒ but that we have in our
possession a singular
wealth of early records, minutes, papers and written memoranda
available to any
aspirant for historic work. Undoubtedly lectures and essays on the
been at times read; but the only works which to my knowledge have
appeared in print,
and faced the cold critical eye of the reading public have been limited
one a book entitled "A concise account of the Rise and Progress of
in the Province of Nova Scotia from the first settlement of it to this
1786" ‒ of which the only copy known to exist is in the library of the
Lodge of Massachusetts the other a pamphlet of 32 pages "Early History
in Nova Scotia" [Lib*] ‒ being a lecture delivered before Virgin Lodge,
in June, 1910, by our late lamented Brother Hon. William Ross, formerly
of this jurisdiction. This latter work is well known.
and most interesting history of the Craft in all Canada has been
published by M.'.W.'.
Bro. J. Ross Robertson, [Lib 1900; Vol 1, Vol 2] of Toronto; it is a credit
to the Dominion but to the Empire, and few works of the sort throughout
world approach its high standard of excellence.
as of minor consequence certain hieroglyphics which were found in 1827
on a stone
near Annapolis Royal, we learn that the founder, and first great figure
in our Masonic
life was Erasmus James Philips, Major of His Majesty's 40th Regiment of
sometime prior to 1726 ‒ the exact date is unknown, and of little
importance ‒ came
to Annapolis Royal. He was made a Mason in Boston in 1737, being then
31 years of
age. In 1739 or 1740 he apparently received from the Provincial Grand
New England a warrant as Provincial Grand Master of Acadia, and bears
in the record of the minutes of the Boston lodge. Of his Masonic work
we practically know nothing, but undoubtedly a lodge was established
there. As far
back as 1854 the then Provincial Grand Master of Nova Scotia, the
Keith, in his address at the annual communication of the Provincial
referred to Annapolis Royal as the "cradle of Masonry in Nova Scotia."
The work done by this lodge was still in evidence when, in 1719,
Halifax came into
being as a civilized community. Now appears on the scene one of the
Masons in Nova Scotian life ‒ Hon. Edward Cornwallis, founder and first
of town and province; and on 12th of June, 1750, a petition came to
signed by Cornwallis and four other men prominent in the social life of
town, ‒ Wm. Steele, Robert Campbell, William Nesbitt, and David Haldane
a Warrant to be granted them to hold and establish a lodge in Halifax.
granted, and the Warrant received on the 19th of July, on which date
in Halifax; Governor Cornwallis was the first W.'.M.'., and on leaving
was succeeded in the chair by Governor Lawrence. On this evening Lord
distinguished naval officer and afterwards prominent in social and
in Boston, where the duties of his profession soon led him, was
Apprentice. Other prominent residents of the town followed in his wake,
lodge flourished. In the following March another lodge was founded in
the existence and success of the Craft in the province became
established on a sound
celebrated the first anniversary of St. John the Baptist in Halifax by
procession to the Governor's house, thence to church ‒ all clothed in
account of the recent death of the M.'. W.'. Bro. the Prince of Wales,
of King George the Second.
Cornwallis, as the first W.'.M.'. of the first Halifax lodge, deserves
His marked ability as both soldier and administrator made him prominent
important capacities; and as a Mason he is entitled to our homage and
had in 1748 established and been Master of the lodge of the 20th
Regiment of the
British Army ‒ now the Lancashire Fusiliers ‒ warranted as No. 63 on
the roll of
the Grand Lodge of Ireland, and afterwards known as "Minden" Lodge, in
honor of the great victory of that name in which the 20th took so large
Next year, 1749, he was seconded from active military service to be
leader of the
expedition to found the town of Halifax, and was succeeded in the 20th
Wolfe, the hero of Louisbourg and Quebec. Records of Cornwallis'
in this province are scant: but his zeal must have burned brightly, for
that soon after leaving Nova Scotia he became for a third time the
founder of a
lodge, being that of the 24th Regiment, warranted as No. 426 on the
the Grand Lodge of England. It seems strange that so great a name in
of our Craft has not been perpetuated in any lodge now existing in this
In 1786 there was a charter granted to Cornwallis Lodge No. 15, to meet
a lodge which included in its members some of the most distinguished
names of our early citizens such as Salter, Binney and Murdoch; but it
its privileges in the early years of the next century. There exists
excellent opportunity for any incoming lodge to work under ones of the
names in both our Masonic and Provincial history.
have seen the first lodge in Halifax ‒ the second in Nova Scotia ‒ was
in July, 1750. The lodge instituted at Annapolis Royal ten or twelve
had probably ceased working at this time, and Halifax, No. 1, stood
came the second Halifax lodge warranted in 1761. At this period and for
years following, R.'.W.'. Bro. Philips acted under what was called a
or Special Warrant for provincial control, for it was not until 1768
that a Grand
Warrant was issued by the Grand Lodge of England, constituting him
Master of Nova Scotia and of the territories thereunto belonging.
No. 1, of Halifax, does not appear on the English Register until 1770,
when it was
entered as No. 109; Lodge No. 2, Halifax, apparently did not exist long
amalgamated with No. 1.
there was warranted a lodge which has left an imperishable record in
annals of British North America, "St. Andrew's" in Halifax, Nova
warranted on 26th of March of this year as No. 155, and now not only
No. 1 of Nova
Scotia, but the real and authentic No. 1 of all Canada.
to 1770, three other lodges were warranted but there is no record of
being made effective or of any work done by them. In 1780, however,
there came into
being another of the long lived pioneer lodges of Nova Scotia, that
known as St.
John, which still flourishes as No. 2 on the Register of this
jurisdiction. Of the
splendid work done by this lodge during the 136 years of its vigorous
is no occasion to speak. It was closely followed (September 1781) by
lodge, called "Union No. 1," which existed until 1820, and which
in its membership many men of prominence in the provincial capital. The
addition to the Masonic forces of Nova Scotia was made in 1782 in the
of "Virgin Lodge" under dispensation from St. Andrew's and St. John. In
October 1784 it was warranted by the new Provincial Grand Lodge but
with a change
of name, being called "Artillery Lodge" ‒ due probably to the military
character of its members; sixteen years later the original name was
authority of the Grand Lodge.
the history of the Craft in our province from 1750 to 1784 we must not
of the existence and work of the military lodges during this period. In
in 1766 a lodge known as the "Lodge of Social and Military Virtues,"
attached to the 46th Regiment of Foot, worked under a warrant issued in
the Grand Lodge of Ireland. The charter of this lodge was reissued
about 1846 to
certain Montreal brethren; it is now No. 1, "Lodge of Antiquity" on the
Quebec Register, and still flourishes. At Louisbourg in 1768, at least
six of the
regiments in the great siege had lodges attached to them; these were
the 1st, 16th,
17th, 36th, 47th and 48th. The 28th Regiment (which was also on duty
a lodge constituted on that historic soil by Colonel Richard Gridley,
was warranted as Louisbourg Lodge, in honor of its birth place; there
are also evidences
of one existing in the 43rd Regiment. These were, however, Masonic
birds of passage,
and moved on in due course to take part in the great attack on Quebec
the fade of the northern part of this continent. In 1782 there were
in the Nova Scotia Volunteers, the Royal Artillery, and the 82nd Foot,
in Halifax under dispensation from regular lodges No. 166, and No. 211
No. 1 St. Andrew and No. 2 St. John of the Nova Scotia Register).
antedated an event which we now chronicle as being of great and
in our history ‒ the organization in September, 1784, of a new
governing body, the
Provincial Grand Lodge of Nova Scotia, and which thereafter assumed
authority in the province. It resulted largely from the vigorous
in 1781) of the Halifax lodges, whose persistence was thus crowned with
This Provincial Grand Lodge deserves our special attention. It was
most liberal lines, and its charter was similar to that granted at the
to the Craft in Lower Canada, while that granted Upper Canada was more
It gave ample power practically for every Masonic act, including
ability to elect
successors in office ‒ the Grand Lodge of England reserving only the
right to hear
appeals and similar supreme and final privileges. This admirable
charter, ‒ a credit
to that branch of the Masonic family "The Ancient York Masons" from
it emanated, ‒ gave every facility for extension as well as
during its existence as originally granted excellent work was done by
in this province; but soon after the union of the "Ancients" and
in 1813, the liberties of the Nova Scotia and lower Canada lodges began
to be impaired;
and within fifteen years self-government in these jurisdictions largely
To this I will refer later. I might however mention that the
the "Ancients" and "Moderns" ‒ the two somewhat hostile camps
into which English Masonry was then divided ‒ had resulted in a rather
issue of warrants during the preceding thirty or forty years; but our
that time took little share in the dispute.
already referred to the first great name in Nova Scotia Masonry, Major
and to his appointment in 1739 as Provincial Grand Master of this
On his death he was succeeded in office by Lieut. Governor the Hon.
who died in 1776. During his tenure of office comparatively little
in matters Masonic, and after his death the Grand Warrant lay dormant
revival in the Craft in 1784 when the new Provincial Grand Lodge came
The latter was presided over by R.'.W.'. Brother John George Pyke as
assisted by R.'.E.'. Brother William Campbell as Deputy Grand Master;
Brother Joseph Peters (Postmaster-General) Secretary; Rev. Brother
Weeks, Chaplain. The latter's prayer at opening was one of singular
good effects of a recognized governing body were at once apparent, and
grew and flourished. R.'.W.'. Brother Pike resigned the chair in 1785,
and was succeeded
by the Hon. John Parr, Lieutenant Governor of this province. Governor
Parr was elected
Grand Master annually until his death in November, 1791: and his
funeral on the
29th of that month was the occasion of a most imposing Masonic display.
He was succeeded
as P.'.G.'.M.'. by the Hon. Richard Bulkeley, Secretary of the
province, who held
office until 1800. During M.'.W.'. Brother Parr's regime six lodges
and in that of his successor eight more came into existence.
* * *
Religion and the Grand Orient
Can you give
me some information on Freemasonry in France? Have they removed the
of a belief in God, or merely removed the Bible from the altar? There
is a real
difference to me.
O.T.C., New Hampshire.
Orient of France was organized in 1736 on the basis of Anderson's
which were purely Theistic, so far as religion is concerned. During the
of the eighteenth century the Grand Lodge of England did not require
belief in God
in the sense in which it now does, neither did it keep the Bible on the
now: belief in God and the Bible on the altar, were made landmarks in
or about 1760.
Prior to that time the Grand Orient, in its religious requirements, was
Grand Lodge of England, and was recognized by Grand Lodges everywhere.
About a century
after its origin the Grand Orient adopted belief in God and the Bible
on the altar
as landmarks, after the fashion of England, but conditions became so
France that after the Franco-Prussian War it was deemed wise to return
to the original
Constitutions, Accordingly, in 1877, M. Desmons, a Protestant
Clergyman, who was
a delegate to the September Convention at Paris, introduced a motion to
The motion was later adopted. As one of its recent secretaries
expressed it, "The
Grand Orient permits to each one of its members the liberty to believe
or not to
believe in God." "Its only principle is an absolute respect for freedom
of conscience. In matters of faith it confirms nothing and it denies
Every subordinate lodge may keep the Bible on the altar, and it may
candidate in the name of T.S.G.A.O.T.U.
* * *
in the United States
American Grand Lodges first begin to claim exclusive territorial
Grand Lodge to claim exclusive territorial jurisdiction, so far as the
been able to ascertain, was the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. In 1783
itself "free and independent of any other Grand Lodge or Grand Master
Universe," which was "a large order" but one that was subsequently
made good, although one naturally can't speak with certainty about the
At the same time the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts claimed jurisdiction
in any other
state or territory, where there was not already a Grand Lodge, over
as it might establish. And it furthermore, and at the same time,
declared that no
person, save itself or its own Grand Master, should be permitted to
prerogatives of a Grand Master or a Grand Lodge "within any part of the
of Massachusetts, the rightful and appropriate limits to which the
this Grand Lodge forever hereafter extends." Other Grand Lodges
until today the right of an American Grand Lodge to claim absolute and
over all lodges existing within its territory is everywhere
* * *
John Coustos, Masonic Martyr
an article in THE BUILDER we noticed your inquiry as to a volume of The
Book of Freemasonry [Lib 1885] relating to the adventures of
one John Coustos.
I have such a book in my possession, it being a very finely bound,
printed and illuminated
leather volume, handed down to me by my wife's grandfather, one Mr.
George Q. Gardener,
of Decorah, Iowa. Thinking the information might be of some value to
you, beg to
advise that it is being read by many of the Craft here as an
interesting piece of
G.W. Peoples. Jr., Minnesota.
* * *
It just occurred
to me that in the September issue of THE BUILDER, page 246, speaking of
Sufferings of John Coustos for Freemasonry" you say "does any reader
where a copy of this book may be had?" If you mean where it may be
will have to answer, no. But if you merely wish to read it, a matter of
of hours, a copy is to be found in the library belonging to Kinderhook
263, Kinderhook, N. Y., a small village about twenty miles south of
worth a visit if you happen to be coming east to either New York City
in which case it would not be much out of your way. You might possibly
the Hon. R. C. Waterbury, M.D., P.M., P.H.P., etc., to loan you a copy,
for I think
they have two copies.
V.M. Irick, Vincentown, N. J.
* * *
Masonic Burial Services
A brief history
of the origin and first use of the present Masonic Burial Service I am
interest many readers of THE BUILDER, ‒ when and where, are questions
that I have
been asked, but have not been able to answer.
C.M. Schenck, Colorado.
* * *
of "The Masonic Burial Service," you have published a sentiment which
I have entertained for a long time and talked about for years. Burial
say something like this "We consign the body of our brother to the
to remain until the last trump sounds" or words to that effect. And
and safe to you, my Brother, be this earthly bed. Bright and glorious
be your rising
from it" etc., then intimating that sometime in the dim future, "on the
bright morning of the resurrection" he will be raised into immortality.
few there are who believe anything of the kind! Masonry plainly teaches
a part of which is right here and which never ends, nor is suspended
more beautiful and in accord with general belief are the words of the
in the Scottish Rite burial service where he says in part "In what
where he is, we do not know; but only that he has not ceased to be, and
is in the hands of his Father, who loves and pities him, as He doth all
He hath made." And again, in the second part also where he says, "Our
Brother still lives, though the breath of his life has returned to God
Why not revise
our burial service and let it be rendered in words that we can believe?
For I can
imagine that there might easily be those who would not care to have the
burial service rendered as it is, for it seems little less than mockery
sentiment which scarcely any Masons believe. Let us revise our burial
L.A. McConnell, Michigan.
February issue (page 56) THE BUILDER published an editorial which, to
the great number of commendatory letters received, evidently expressed
dissatisfaction with the Masonic Burial Service generally in use. Of
the two printed above are representative. There is a short and easy
road to a modification
of the Service now in use; take it before your Grand Lodge. Each Grand
full power to make such a Burial Service as it may choose; the present
is not a landmark. As for the information requested by Brother Schenck,
been a difficult thing to come upon. If our readers chance to possess
or Masonic magazines containing data on the subject they will confer a
us all by passing on their information.
* * *
The First Pope
I would like
a little information on Roman Catholicism. Who was the first pope?
It is impossible to tell who was the first pope, because
the papacy came
of slow growth, and did not reach recognizable form until the fifth or
but it is generally held that Leo the Great (440-461) was the first
real pope, though
Gregory the Great (590-604) was the first real pope in our present
sense, for he
was the first to exercise the claims to political as well as to
which came to characterize the popes during the Middle Ages. Consult
books: Milman's "Latin Christianity" [Lib 1881-1908; (8 Volumes –
Pennington's "Epochs of the Papacy" [Lib 1881]; Lea's "Studies in Church
[Lib 1883]; Bryce's "The Holy Roman
[Lib 1911]; Guizot's "History of
Vol. 1 [Lib 1869; Vol
1; (for remaining
7 Volumes see
and Bright's "The Roman See in the Early Church." [Lib 1896]
* * *
Early American Masonic
kindly inform me through your columns if THE BUILDER has at any time
bibliography of the earlier Masonic periodicals in the United States?
is a bound copy of Volume 4 (1854) of the Masonic Union, published and
R.'. W.'. Finley M. King (later Grand Master of this state) at Port
Byron, N. Y.
The last number of this issue was June, 1854, and in September of the
it reappeared in connection with the Masonic Register, published by
J.F. Adams at
343 Broadway, New York City, the combined monthly being called the
In the Masonic
Union exchange column or by giving credit for articles reprinted, the
names of several
contemporary periodicals are mentioned. Among them are the Freemasons
Mass.; the American Freemason (semi-monthly), Louisville, Kentucky; the
Landmark (monthly), Mt. Clemens, Michigan; and the Masonic Signet,
M.W. Mitchell was editor of the latter.
periodicals contained as much interesting Masonic history as Volume 4
of the Union
they would be well worth digging out of the ruins, so far as possible,
for the edification of the historically inclined brother.
to 1854 the Register was published as a Masonic weekly but Dr. Adams
readers that the inadequate income from that arrangement made the
change to a monthly
and combination with the Union necessary to keep the wolf from his door.
W.R.M., New York.
has never published a bibliography of the earlier Masonic periodicals;
nor has the
subject been given adequate publication except by Josiah H. Drummond in
and Bibliographical Memoranda." This is one of the best reference works
bibliographical study that has ever been compiled, but is very limited
in its scope.
It covers the proceedings of the different Grand Bodies, periodicals,
manuals, constitutions and text-books. Thirty-two pages are devoted to
before 1882, the date it was published. Unfortunately this is one of
the many valuable
works that have become quite scarce.
the periodical literature of Freemasonry, there seems to have been
when the quality was of particular excellence, one of which was the
decade of 1850-60.
During that period a number of exceptionally talented brethren were
of their time to articles for the Masonic press, and editing Masonic
Among such brethren the names of Mackey, Morris, King, Yates, Hyneman,
Brennan are but a few of the more prominent.
War brought an end to much of the literary work in Freemasonry, and it
resumed the quality it had attained. The advance that was made in
by the able efforts of Fort, Gould, Hughan, Sadler, Crawley, Lyons,
Speth and many
of their contemporaries in the last of the nineteenth century has
an entirely superior class of literature for the present student. The
today may avoid the fallacies of earlier times regarding the historical
He has the results of an abundance of critical research. The older
has a very great value, however, in showing the developments of our
the changes of opinion regarding traditions, and the interpretations of
Although the brethren of the middle of the nineteenth century held many
are now considered erroneous, we owe them a very great debt of
gratitude for the
foundations they laid by their literary efforts. A knowledge of the
of the Fraternity is of much value to those who desire a comprehensive
of both our usages and our history.
repay the efforts of any student to read any of the earlier periodicals
familiar with the views of the pioneers who paved the way to such
THE BUILDER. The "notes" on Masonic periodicals, by Drummond ought to
be republished for the information of the Craft. One hundred and
are listed with very comprehensive descriptions. It may be of interest
to the readers
to mention the few following:
Freemason (Louisville, Ky.) was first published by Robert Morris, in
1853. It was
taken over by J.F. Brennan in 1858, discontinued in 1860, and resumed
in 1868 and
again finally abandoned in 1870.
Landmark (Mt. Clemens, Mich.) was started in 1851 and discontinued in
Signet and Literary Mirror was commenced at St. Louis, in 1848 by
and ran until 1854 when it was published at Montgomery, Ala. It then
the Masonic Journal and only four numbers were published.
Journal, edited by Geo. W. Chase (1854-60); The Masonic Mirror by Leon
The American Quarterly Review of Freemasonry by A.G. Mackey (1857); The
Review by Cornelius Moore (1845-1882).
Silas H. Shepherd.
* * *
A German Book on Masonry
please furnish me with the name and address of the publishers of August
"Bibliographie der Freimaurerischen Literatur? Can this work be
Wolfstieg, August. Bibliographie der deutschen
at Burg, b-M, by A. Hupfer for the Society of German Freemasons. 2
vol., X 990 and
XVI 1041. Price, 64 Marks.
quoted was in 1916. It is the opinion of the undersigned that at
present the price
would be almost that many dollars. If you are thinking of purchasing,
Unger, Berlin C, Spandauer Strasse 22, Germany, or perhaps address A.
b-M, Germany, directly.
our good libraries can, for a week or ten days, borrow the work for you
Library of Congress at Washington.
Counsellor Schott and Models
of Solomon's Temple
In a letter
published in THE BUILDER in January last page 31, Brother John F.
George asked the
question, "Who was Counsellor Schott?" It happens that ye editor is
to reply to this question himself with facts based on two articles that
in the ARS QUATUOR CORONATORUM, Vol. 12 [Lib*] page 150, and Vol. 13,
page 24. The
former of these two articles was written by Bro. W.J. Chetwode Crawley,
Masonic savant of Ireland. Its opening paragraph is worth transcribing
is not a little remarkable that the two cardinal epochs in English
associated with the appearance in London of models of the Temple of
the first epoch, that of the Revival of Freemasonry, the model ascribed
Schott had arrived in London, and was on exhibition in 1723 and 1730.
At the second
epoch, when the organization of the Antients was struggling into
model of Rabbi Jacob Jehuda Leon was on view in 1759-1760. The former
seems to have won its way to popular favor, and cannot have been
on the rank and file of Freemasons at the very time when our legends
molded and harmonized. Much of the outside interest in the affairs of
was doubtless due to the object lessons presented by the models of the
to which, it was understood, Freemasons referred their origin. As a
matter of history,
the three years we have specified, 1723, 1730 and 1760, were severally
an otherwise unaccountable outburst of spurious rituals, called forth
by the curiosity
(or Rathsherr) Gerhard Schott was born in Hamburg, Germany, on April
and lived there until his death in 1702. He was founder, manager, and
of an Opera House in which an opera was produced that was called "The
of Jerusalem." "At first the public were by no means satisfied with the
scenery at the conclusion of the first portion. This consideration,
a religious bent of mind, with the general admiration, at that period,
of the Temple
as an architectural masterpiece, and with a genial devotion to the
of his musical plays, caused in Schott … the determination to reproduce
Temple, with all its personnel, sacrifices and ceremonial, in actual
The model was completed in 1692 or 1694 and placed on exhibition in a
at the rear of the Opera House. In 1717 the model was sold to an
moved the huge structure to London where it was placed on exhibition,
much to the
general interest of the public, as already described by Crawley.
Drawings of the
model have been pretty generally distributed over the world; one
pictures in many Masonic temples.
* * *
Albert Pike's Election as
Sovereign Grand Commander
I note that
in your review of Allsopp's "Life Story of Albert Pike," [Lib 1928] on pages 58-59 of the
of THE BUILDER, you noted some of the misinformation therein given. It
me that it might be well to add that General Pike was
Commander-in-Chief of the
Grand Consistory of Louisiana when, in 1857, he received at the hands
of the Supreme
Council of the Southern Jurisdiction, the 33d of the A. &
A.S.R., and on the
same date he was appointed Deputy of the Supreme Council. He was
elected to active
membership in the Supreme Council in 1858, and was elected Sovereign
ad vitam, January 2, 1859. He was elected by a "Letter Vote in
and the last vote electing him was received January 2, but the election
announced, formally, until January 3, 1859.
M. W. Wood, Idaho.
* * *
A Word to the Candidate
Before we proceed with the ceremony of admitting you into our Order I
wish to make
a few remarks concerning the nature of Freemasonry, so that you may
a general way what you may expect and what will be expected of you.
Some of your
friends may have referred jokingly to your initiation, and may have led
you to believe
that you will be required to submit to certain humiliating or
in order to provide amusement for those of us who are already members.
If you have
any such idea, I beg of you to dismiss it from your mind at this moment.
a serious undertaking. Its ceremonies are intended to teach great moral
Some of these ceremonies partake more or less of a religious nature.
And while Masonry
does not adopt any particular form, or creed, or denomination of
yet one of its fundamental and essential requirements is a belief in a
as the Father of the universe; and if you cannot earnestly and
to such a belief, I would advise that you withdraw now and make no
to proceed in our ceremonies.
find that Masonry has no place for frivolity. You will perhaps find it
different from all your preconceived ideas, and you will possibly be
the character of the ceremonies through which you will pass. You will,
I hope, be
pleased and benefitted by the revelations which will be made to you,
and by the
associations which will come to you through membership in our
I have simply
to suggest; therefore, that as you pass through these ceremonies, you
as much at ease and in as receptive a frame of mind as possible. Let
your mind be
open to receive impressions as they come to you. Pay close attention to
said and done at all times, and try to remember as much as possible of
At each stage of the ceremonies there will be someone near at hand to
and to tell you or show you what to do and how to do it. And you need
have no fear
of humiliation, embarrassment or annoyance.
preliminary suggestions I beg to request that you make yourself as
possible here until your presence is desired in the preparation room of
Mark A. Hall, Iowa.
* * *
Suggestions for Investigating
In the February
1922 issue of THE BUILDER, under the title of "Committees of
you quote from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, on the
of securing the proper information on petitioners.
We have a
small lodge of one hundred and thirty members, and always have from one
to a dozen
petitions every meeting. We have adopted the following plan, and find
that it works
committee on petitions is appointed by the Worshipful Master composed
of Past Masters
and the Secretary of the lodge. The Secretary is always paid a salary
enable him to have sufficient time to get the desired information, and
always has the necessary papers on file at any time. There is a small
of a Past Master not being in a position to get information along any
might be denied "Dick, Tom and Harry," if you will permit me to use the
expression in speaking of the members of the Craft as such. We find
that the members
will confide in the older men of the lodge more quickly than they will
ones, which is of course to be expected, and we are getting excellent
this work, together with not being forced to let petitions lay over due
to the absence
of the Investigating Committee on that particular petition.
I see no
reason why this could not be done with any number of petitions,
regardless of the
size of the lodge.
Luther E. Davis. Tennessee.
* * *
A Master After Our Own Heart
We have recently
adopted the Study Club plan of the N.M.R.S. in Day Star Lodge No. 798,
N.Y., of which I am Master.
I have made
it my duty (and it certainly is my pleasure) to speak of the necessity
such course of Masonic study as a regular policy in all lodges wherever
I could, and as a result I have had many lodges, or rather the Masters,
ask me to
speak on the subject at their meetings. Whenever possible I have done
so, and I
am quite sure that many other New York and Brooklyn lodges will follow
of Day Star lodge by adopting the Society's Study Club plan in the very
astounding that this, or similar courses, have not been made just as
a part of the work of the lodges as the conferring of degrees.
For the life
of me I cannot see how the responsibility of the lodge to the candidate
the conferring of the Third degree. Perhaps my opinion has been
influenced by my
over zealousness. Nevertheless, I hope my disease gets to such a
that every Mason with whom I come into contact will get the same thing,
in much shorter time.
H.W. Dunn, New York.
* * *
A Searcher for Light
it! The only fault I can find with your work is that your obligation
stops you from
explaining some things on which I need light.
handed me Volume II of THE BUILDER and in running through these copies
to unfold. As committing to memory is easy for me, I took up the work
and was rapidly
advanced in the chairs, all the while foolishly believing Yours Truly
to be "some old head" in Masonry. Then Brother Louis Block, in your
of August last, calls me a "Phonograph," highly insulting my egotism.
Why did not
some brother insult me long ago, and maybe I would have known what I
have been talking
about to the candidate by this time.
My mind is
now "muddled." There is no one in this vicinity who can answer my
and I can't write them to you. Until such time as I am able to explain
some of the
deeper meanings of our ritual, I will feel guilty when assisting with
It is true there is a great moral lesson in the bare "work," but to me
it would be great if every member could understand the deeper truths
and take the
ritual more seriously, eliminating the occasional snicker. "Give Us
S. G. Davis, Idaho.
* * *
"Dome of the Rock,"
On Site of Solomon's Temple
Here is an
item that I believe may be of some interest to our circle. I found it
an article in the magazine "Adventure" for December 10, 1921. I have
many magazine articles and books by Talbot Mundy and know him to be
on matters about which he writes. The article states:
Dome of the Rock ‒ more commonly miscalled the Mosque of Omar ‒ is the
sacred place after Mecca and Medina in the Moslem world; and being on
the site of
Solomon's and Herod's Temples, it is equally sacred to Christian and
Jews. In fact,
few orthodox Jews will enter the precincts for fear of treading unaware
on the spot
(now unknown) where the Holy of Holies stood.
under the Dome of the Rock is, of course, absolutely forbidden. Any
attempt at it,
if known, would be certain to stir fanaticism to its depths. But there
was a German
or Austrian (I am not sure which) who did contrive to excavate pretty
much as told
in the story; he was caught, the affair was hushed up, and Grim is one
of the very
few who know what lies under the Rock of Abraham."
N.W.J. Haydon. Ontario.
A Concise History of
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A Mirror for the Johannite
Oli66 / auth. Oliver George. - New York : Masonic Publishing and
Manufacturing Co, 1866. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 196. - 10.9 MB.
Albert Pike a Biography
All281 / auth. Allsopp Fred W. - Little Rock : Parke Harper Co., 1928.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 415. - 30.8 MB - Illustrated.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
AQC Transactions Vol 024 - 1911
Ars11 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 490. - 47.0 MB.
Dictionary of Christian
Antiquities Vol 1
Che75 / auth. Cheetham Smith and. - London : John Murray, 1875. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 921. - 87.2 MB.
Dictionary of Christian
Antiquities Vol 2
Che751 / auth. Cheetham Smith and. - London : John Murray, 1875. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 1173. - 60.6 MB.
Dictionary of Religion
Mat23 / auth. Mathews Shailer and Smith Gerald B. - New York : The
Macmillan Company, 1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 524. - 49.5 MB.
Die drei šltesten Kunsturkunden
Kra10 / auth. Krause Karl C F. - Dresden : Arnoldische Kunst- und
Buchhandlung, 1810. - Original Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 709. - German
- 44.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
Smi70 / auth. Smith Toulmin. - London : The Early English Text Society,
1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 683. - 41.9 MB.
Epochs of the Papacy
Pen81 / auth. Pennington Arthur R. - London : Georg Bell and Sons,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 529. - 11.3 MB.
Handbook of Greek Religion
Fai10 / auth. Fairbanks Arthur. - New York : American Book Company,
1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 388. - 13.8 MB.
History & Development
Bre70 / auth. Brentano Lujo. - London : Trubner & Co, 1870. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 154. - 14.5 MB.
History of France Vol 1
Gui69HF1 / auth. Guizot Francois P / trans. Black Robert. - New York :
The Nottingham Society, 1869. - Vol. 1 : 8 : p. 506. - Illustrated -
History of France Vol 2
Gui69HF2 / auth. Guizot Francois P / trans. Black Robert. - New York :
The Nottingham Society, 1869. - Vol. 2 : 8 : p. 490. - Illustrated -
History of France Vol 3
Gui69HF3 / auth. Guizot Francois P / trans. Black Robert. - New York :
The Nottingham Society, 1869. - Vol. 3 : 8 : p. 483. - Illustrated -
History of France Vol 4
Gui69HF4 / auth. Guizot Francois P / trans. Black Robert. - New York :
The Nottingham Society, 1869. - Vol. 4 : 8 : p. 475. - Illustrated -
History of France Vol 5
Gui69HF5 / auth. Guizot Francois P / trans. Black Robert. - New York :
The Nottingham Society, 1869. - Vol. 5 : 8 : p. 406. - Illustrated -
History of France Vol 6
Gui69HF6 / auth. Guizot Francois P / trans. Black Robert. - New York :
The Nottingham Society, 1869. - Vol. 6 : 8 : p. 424. - Illustrated -
History of France Vol 7
Gui69HF7 / auth. Guizot Francois P / trans. Black Robert. - New York :
The Nottingham Society, 1869. - Vol. 7 : 8 : p. 446. - Illustrated -
History of France Vol 8
Gui69HF8 / auth. Guizot Francois P / trans. Black Robert. - New York :
The Nottingham Society, 1869. - Vol. 8 : 8 : p. 474. - Illustrated -
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 1
Rob00FC1 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 1358. - 36.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry in
Canada Vol 2
Rob00FC2 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : George N. Morgan
& Co Ltd, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 465. - 19.0 MB.
History of Latin Christianity
Mil81LC1 / auth. Milman Henry H. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell
& Co, 1881. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 1104. - 42.2 MB.
History of Latin Christianity
Mil81LC2 / auth. Milman Henry H. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell
& Co, 1881. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 1069. - 43.2 MB.
History of Latin Christianity
Mil03LC3 / auth. Milman Henry H. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell
& Co, 1903. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 1062. - 43.0 MB.
History of Latin Christianity
Mil03LC4 / auth. Milman Henry H. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell
& Co, 1903. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 1122. - 49.3 MB.
Observations upon the
Prophecies of Daniel
New31 / auth. Newton Isaac. - London : James Nisbet, 1831. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 271. - 10.1 MB.
Sixteen Presidents Vol 1
Tho94SP1 / auth. Thompson Richard W. - Indianapolis : The Bowen-Merrill
Company, 1894. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 258. - 10.3 MB.
Sixteen Presidents Vol 2
Tho94SP2 / auth. Thompson Richard W. - Indianapolis : The Bowen-Merrill
Company, 1894. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 208. - 6.7 MB.
Studies in Church History
Lea83 / auth. Lea Henry C. - Philadelphia : Henry C Lea's Sons
& Co, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 610. - 19.3 MB.
The Conflict of Christianity
Uhl04 / auth. Uhlhorn Gerhard. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 510. - 16.0 MB.
The Holy Roman Empire
Bry11 / auth. Bryce James. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 637. - 30.9 MB.
The Master Mason's Handbook
Cro90 / auth. Crowe Frederick J W. - London : George Kenning, 1890. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 105. - 2.5 MB.
The Riddle of Peace
Wel221 / auth. Wells Herbert G. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 321. - 12.2 MB.
The Roman See
Bri96 / auth. Bright William. - London : Longman, Green, & Co,
1896. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 515. - 18.9 MB.
The Scarlet Book of Free Masonry
Red85 / auth. Redding M W. - New York : Redding & Co, 1885. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 511. - Illustrated - 28.2 MB.
The Scottish Master Mason's
Cro94 / auth. Crowe Frederick. - London : George Kenning, 1894. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 99. - 4.2 MB.
The Social Contract
Rou23 / auth. Rousseau
Jean J. - London : J M Dent & Sons Ltd, 1923. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
333. - 10.7 MB.
The Story of Freemasonry
Sib13 / auth. Sibley W G. - Gallipolis : The Lions Paw Club, 1913. -
3rd : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 122. - 4.3 MB.
Wis06 / auth. Wise John S. - New York : Doubleday, Page &
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 290. - 12.4 MB.
What is Freemasonry
Spe93 / auth. Speth George W. - London : George Kenning, 1893. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 16. - 0.3 MB.