Masonic Research Society
- May 1922 –
Volume VIII – Number 5
and the World's Work
Notes on the Eleusinian Mysteries
- Brother Melvin Johnson Again
to Great Men Who Were Masons
- When Did
The Craft Receive The Legend?
- Waiting. -- [A Poem]
- In God's Hands -- [A Poem]
- The Teachings of Masonry
- The Library
- Side Degrees Fifty Years
- Look to The East -- [A Poem]
- The Question
- Chief Shabbonee A Mason
- Congressman Langley, Of
Kentucky, Member of a Washington. D.C., Lodge
- Officers of the Amex Masonic
Club, Camp De Souge, A.P.0. 705, France
- Governor Taylor, of Tennessee,
- Brother John Q. Tilson,
- General Hugh Mercer – Born
In 1720 ‒ A Correction
- Congressman Riddick, of
Montana, a Mason
- A Mysterious Ring
- On Alchemy
- Works Cited
and the World's Work
for the DETROIT MASONIC NEWS and published by permission of the editor
of that publication)
Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
quibble a good deal about the exact significance of the important
you have posed, but I take it that you mean to ask if I believe that
should discharge its influence altogether, so to speak, into its own
in its own interests, or if it should turn some of its influence into
world outside itself, in order that that world may feel something of
the force and
beauty of Freemasonry. I am very sure that you do not mean to infer
that at any
time or under any circumstances Masonic lodges should engage in
politics, or as
lodges assume an active part in the direction of public affairs.
Needless to say,
I should instantly reply in the latter instance that Masonic lodges
‒ as lodges ‒ engage in politics of any kind, or anything like
politics: but I am
quite as ready to say that I do believe that Freemasonry should cease
inside its own hollow tree, and that it should be harnessing its great
to some of the worthy social causes in order that it may do something
for the world
that it was a good thing for the Fraternity to attempt to go abroad in
lend fraternal aid and encouragement to Masonic brethren there, and to
it was a good thing for Freemasonry to play the part it did in the
War, and in the founding of the United States government.
it is a good thing for Freemasonry to watch with jealous care the
interests of the
public school system of the land, not only because the disruption or
of that great educational system would defeat many of its own most
but also because such a disintegration would work an irreparable injury
it was a good thing for a large number of our Grand Lodges to fashion
Service Association of the United States in order that all our Grand
work as a unity in any cause that may call for the assistance of the
as a whole. Freemasonry now has its own Red Cross system, and that is a
which every one of us may feel proud.
it was a noble thing for this same Masonic Service Association to send
Harding, at the beginning of the great conference on the limitation of
a resolution in which Brother Harding was assured the support and
of the Association, which represented at the time thirty-four
I know that the members of all the other jurisdictions would readily
the resolutions, which adequately expressed the fact that Masons, aloof
for the peace of the world, and stand ready to lend their aid to any
bringing to pass the end of war.
that the Fraternity could ‒ if only it would ‒ do very much toward
a better understanding among the nations of the world to the end that
they may learn
to live together upon the level and discover how good a thing it would
be for peoples
to live together in harmony. If that good will does not come among
nations it can
never rest secure inside any one nation, because in the community of
the world no
nation can live or die unto itself.
I believe that it would be a good thing if every Masonic lodge made it
a point to
take up some kind of community service in its own locality. This
service need not
be advertised to the profane or undertaken with a flourish of trumpets,
but it could
be organized in such a manner as to win the support of every Freemason
in the province
of the lodge. Many have been the explanations of Masonic apathy, of the
which falls upon so many men, even after they have passed the chairs:
to my own
mind one of the cardinal causes of this apathy lies in the fact that in
cases the lodge is a mere engine which keeps all its wheels turning but
accomplish anything by its discharge of power. A lodge that is content
twice a week for initiations and once a month to transact its little
business, and then "lets it go at that," isn't much good to itself or
to the world; and many of the better men among its members will soon
with such child's play, and remain home. If that lodge would only
enlist its energies
in some worthy community cause it would find that its members would
soon lose their
apathy. Social service is necessary for Masonic health.
In the discharge
of my own humble duties in the National Masonic Research Society I
receive and reply
to a great grist of letters which come to me from brethren all over the
it will be no betrayal of confidence if I say here, in pages read by
that a large number of these letters contain complaints against the
of so much of our Masonic endeavor. "Why is it," many of these brethren
ask, "that Freemasonry isn't doing something with itself?" If one will
carefully scan the fifty or more Masonic journals published in this
land; if he
will keep a weather eye out for the Masonic books now being published;
if he will study the Grand Lodge Proceedings each year (one of the most
things a Masonic student can do for himself) he will find that the
a whole is now in a kind of ferment, and that the multitudes of young
men who have
joined us during the past five or six years are impatiently asking ‒ if
I may echo
one of the now melancholy catch phrases of the Great War ‒ "where do we
from here?" These men are not satisfied with meekly sitting on the
watching the ceremonies: they are eager to see all the things taught in
at work in the world, catching on to people's minds, and taking effect
in the general
life. In other words, I am quite sure that the rank and file of
members, as things
now are, are not only in favor of, but insistently clemently in favor
taking some part "in the work of the world."
If any of
the more conservative brethren shrink from this, fearing lest it
violate the old
traditions or transgress the Ancient Landmarks, let them in all
patience study those
ancient traditions, and learn to know what Freemasonry actually has
done in the
past! If they will do this they will discover that the more or less
American Freemasonry of the 1890's is in no sense representative of the
that the world at large has known these past two centuries. It would
the ardent and restless youngest member could he learn just how much
has actually done in carrying on the "world's work" during those two
Recently, while going through all the references to Freemasonry in the
Britannica and in the Catholic Encyclopedia I was struck by the fact
that in almost
every instance the Fraternity is mentioned as having been at work to
win for men
more liberty, more equality, and more democracy.
why it was that Freemasonry was banned from Russia. Learn what it did
in the 1848's, and what part it played in Belgium and Holland in 1820.
history in Austria and Hungary and discover why it was so cordially
hated by the
aristocracy that they at last violently destroyed it. Consider the part
played in the liberation and unification of the Italian Peninsula, and
that Garibaldi himself was an active Freemason. Go through the story of
role in France from the time when it assisted so powerfully to overturn
Regime until the present, when it is once more in a death grapple with
who again got their innings during the Great War; and how that during
period the Craft was very largely instrumental in gaining a public
for France, and in securing the separation of church and state! The
Portugal is often called "a child of Masonry"; while in Spain the
has been persecuted again and again on the grounds that it was
instilling the ideas
and ideals of democracy into the minds of the Spanish. There is no need
this list of references, save to say that the part played by the
Fraternity in our
own land has not only not been exaggerated, but hasn't even yet been
One of these days it will be proved that the Craft saved the Colonists
at the most
critical stage of the Revolutionary War, and that if it had not been
the War would have been lost, and the freeing of the Colonists would
have been delayed
if not defeated, and a very different type of government would have
These last statements sound strong but they can be every one
substantiated by incontrovertible
I don't mention
these hints from history in order to illustrate my point that the Craft
its own right part in carrying on "the world's work," for an
has no weight in logic: nor do I advance this as a precedent for our
because a precedent may merely permit ‒ not demand ‒ a given course of
recall this history in order that it may reveal what has ever been the
the Fraternity, and indicates that what it has been in the past it will
be in the future.
later, Brother Editor, we shall not raise the question that you have
by that time it will have become taken for granted that Freemasonry,
being a public
institution, owes certain duties to the world of which it is a part,
just as every
other institution owes social duties. The question then will be as to
ways and means
and as to specific tasks. At present we can't talk much about specific
as to ways and means that must be decided as the occasion arises.
Notes on the Eleusinian Mysteries
By Bro. N. W. Hayden, Ontario
IN THE BUILDER
for March, 1920, were published "Some Notes on the Mysteries of
which I sent by way of a comment on the valuable articles on this
subject from the
pen of Brother Dudley Wright, of which Part IV appeared in THE BUILDER
1919. In this portion, and in his little book which reproduces the
whole, (1) Brother
Wright offers this question, "It would be interesting to know why …
chosen (for exaltation); why the ear more than the grain; why it should
that it was 'gathered'; … and in what manner it secured, or ensured,
for the individual
a blissful existence after death."
to answer this query, after so many centuries have passed since it
to be a living usage, would surely be speculative enough for any of us,
but I addressed
myself to it and trust my answer will not be judged as falling short of
Let me first
draw attention to a quotation from Vol. II of Frazer's Golden Bough.
[Lib 1922] "In the great mysteries
at Eleusis in the month of September, the union of the sky god Zeus
with the corn
goddess Demeter appear to have been represented by the union of the
the priestess of Demeter, who acted the parts of the god and goddess.
But this intercourse
was only dramatic or symbolical, (2) for the hierophant had temporarily
himself of his virility by an application of hemlock. (3) The torches
extinguished the pair descended into a murky place while the throng of
awaited in anxious suspense the result of the mystic congress, on which
their own salvation to depend."
a time the hierophant reappeared and, in a blaze of light, silently
the assembly a reaped ear of corn, (4) the fruit of the divine
marriage. Then, in
a loud voice, he proclaimed 'Queen Bromo has brought forth a sacred
by which he meant 'The Mighty One has brought forth the Mighty.' The
in fact, had given birth to her child, the corn, and her travail pangs
in the sacred drama. This revelation of the reaped ear of corn appears
to have been
the crowning act of the Mysteries."
to the above, there is the witness of Hippolytus, [Lib 1921; Vol 1, Vol 2] one of the "early Fathers"
160-236), who was bitterly opposed to the religions of the heathen. In
he gives a "Translation and Refutation" of the rites and teachings
in a Naasene manuscript which had been written for private circulation,
like our Book of The Work, which contained the following:
"Knowledge of the Perfect Man
is deep and
hard to comprehend. For the beginning of Perfection is Gnosis of Man,
of God is perfect Perfection. (5) And the Phrygians called him also
Wheat Ear,' and after the Phrygians, the Athenians so designate him,
when, in the
secret rites of Eleusis they show those who receive in silence the
there into the Great, and Marvelous, and Most Perfect Epoptic Mystery,
wheat ear. And this wheat ear is also with the Athenians the
and mighty, from the Inexpressible, the Holy Son born of Our Lady, the
One can see
by the foregoing that in these Mysteries an ear of corn, which had been
i.e., separated from its root and stalk ‒ was used as an emblem of the
came through the gate of physical birth and separation for the good of
even as the corn itself has to be separated and prepared that our
bodies may be
why," asks Brother Wright, "was wheat chosen out for this purpose from
among all the plants which revive and die in the course of the year?" I
there is very much more hidden in this query than appears on the
surface, for it
takes us back to the origins of life, the "Divine Kings" of old Egypt,
and all that title connotes. It is a strange fact of our terrestrial
life that wheat
has never been traced to any form of wild grass. It is older than
history; it has
been found wrapped up with mummies, and the Book of the Dead has
to it as the "Corn of Life"; evidently of a symbolic nature as its
varies from three to seven cubits according to the spiritual condition
of the servant
of Horus who is "gleaning the fields of Aanroo," i.e., receiving the
reward of his actions, good or bad. In one sentence, Isis says "I
mortals the mysteries of wheat and corn."
his Critias (I think) and in his Fourth Book of Laws, [Lib 2007] suggests that just as man
his flocks and herds, not by one of their own kind, but by a superior
the Creator ruled primitive humanity with Divine Shepherds. When these
"Inventors" appeared who "discovered" fire, wheat, wine and
letters. Brother Wright tells us, "According to some ancient writers
prior to the time of Demeter and Triptolemus, fed upon the acorns of
the ilex or
the evergreen oak. Acorns, according to Virgil, were used as food in
in Spain, according to Strabo. The Scythians made bread with acorns. By
tradition before Demeter's time, men neither cultivated corn nor tilled
but roamed the mountains and woods in search for the wild fruits which
produced. Isocrates wrote, "Ceres hath made the Athenians two presents
greatest consequence: corn, which brought us out of a state of
brutality; and the
Mysteries, which teach the initiated to entertain the most agreeable
touching death and eternity." Thus the Greeks trace their knowledge of
to the goddess Ceres. The Chinese trace theirs to the instructions of
genii." These were the Kabiri,
also named in the Vedas the
Agni-putra, both terms meaning "The Sons of Flame," who were too, the
first workers in minerals and metals, the true Te-Baal-Kayin, whose
name is remembered
because they were "Lords of the Smiths" and not because of any worldly
possessions they may have acquired.
One of the
most plausible explanations of the fact that the Egyptian civilization
have no beginning, is that it was originally in that respect, a colony
coeval with another in Yucatan, for knowledge of which we are so
indebted to the
labors of Dr. and Mrs. Le Plongeon. [Lib 1909] An extended review of the
on this point can also be gained from Atlantis by Ignatius Donnelly.
[Lib 1882] Bro. Churchward in his great
Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man [Lib 1913] writes: "We are enabled to
give two figures from photographs of 'Two Gods' recently discovered
near the ruins
of Mitla, by Prof. Marshall H. Saville. (Mitla is one of the ruined
cities of Yucatan.)
These two figures are symbolically typical of the Egyptian Horus, in
two of his
characters. The one on the right has a crown on his head, with four
ears of corn,
two on each side, and between them the hieroglyphic figure for running
front, between his arms, is the Egyptian ideographic hieroglyph RHI ‒
of Earth.' His tongue is hanging out, apparently as two tongues,
or saying that he is the Lord and Bringer of food and of water; this is
the same as the Egyptian at Philae, where 'The Corn Spirit' is
represented by stalks
and ears of corn springing from its mummy near running water ‒ i.e.,
Horus is represented
as a bringer of food and water; which must be interesting to Freemasons
the origin of 'an ear of corn near a fall of water.'
"The figure on the left side is
one of the
Mexican depictions of Horus as 'The Light of the World.' He has a crown
on his head
surmounted by several groups (there should be seven) of Three Rods, or
Light. In front between the arms is a head with a rope around its neck
over the shoulders of the god, symbolical of a power bringing death,
ignorance to the Light Eternal, through or by Horus. The one Power
you are led from death to the mansions of the Blessed."
On page 381
of Mexican Antiquities, [Lib 1905] by Dr. Edward Seler, figure
A, Horus is seen
as “The Young Ear of Corn" represented here by maize. He is giving life
plenty, he is the bringer of food, of life, to the world.
In Memoires de la Mission Francaise, by Lefebvre,
pages 29 and 31, [Lib*] are shown
figures from the coffin of the Pharoah Seti 1st, 6 amongst which is the
represented as a man wearing two full ears of wheat upon his head.
It will be
useful at this point to quote from the translation of the Book of
Gates, as delineated
on the inside and outside of this sarcophagus, for which we are
indebted to the
Efforts of Dr. Wallis Budge:
"On the left of the course of
twelve male figures, who represent the 'workers in the wheat fields of
… The ears of wheat are said to be the 'members of Osiris,' and thus
the great god
is the food upon which the gods and the beatified live in the Tuat....
of wheat which flourished there was a member of the body of Osiris, for
himself was the wheat-god, and was the source of life of every plant of
his kingdom. Thus it follows that the beatified lived upon the body of
whom they ate daily.... The texts, from the earliest period, speak of
the Everliving and Everlasting god, and the Prince of eternity, and as
he was the
wheat-god it alas his body which was the 'bread of everlastingness'
the texts which were written under the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, about
B. C.... Though in the texts under consideration the grain-god Nepra is
by name, it is Osiris who assumes the lordship of the celestial grain.
between Maat, or righteousness, and the grain-god is not easy to
explain, but it
seems to me that we have here a mixture of two conceptions of Osiris.
As the grain-god
he would satisfy those who wished for a purely material heaven, where
be unknown; and as the god of righteousness, of whom the
to become the counterpart, he would become the hope and consolation,
and the symbol
of the Eternal God."
I have been
unable to get a copy of this figure, but it would probably be similar
to the one
shown in Egyptian Mythology [Lib 1918, Vol 12] by Max Muller, figure 73,
as that of Nepri (male) or Nepret (female), divine guardian of grain.
writes: "The god of grain, who in female form is sometimes identified
Renemutet, the goddess of harvest, is rather more of a poetic
the gods 'Abundance' and 'Plenty.' In this way Nepri is Lord of Food
than a god of grain particularly."
I think Brother
Wright's query is answered fairly completely by the foregoing, but
there is a further
development which is worth consideration as regards the last sentence
of his question.
As I pointed out in my "Notes" of March, 1920, the Mysteries of Eleusis
were the nearest approach to modern Freemasonry of which we have any
evidence. For nearly 1500 years they exerted their influence for good
of the known world; their initiates were numbered by the thousand, and
all the civilized
peoples of the time were represented annually in that little corner of
even as in our own day the otherwise obscure village of Ober-Ammergau
the citizens of Christendom to its decennial Passion Play.
Is it to
be supposed that the fanaticism of the Byzantine Christians entirely
ancient and worshipful ceremonies? I think not. How many of our modern
customs, ceremonies, and anniversaries are but a thin veneer of changed
upon a foundation of "pagan" usages, whose inherent life continued
they were connected with that inner shrine in humanity where dwells the
no matter how variously our minds may recognize and name Him!
as the popularly useful features of the Eleusinia are reborn in our
so, I think, the essential intent of the last and greatest of its
series of Mysteries
has been preserved for us in a custom which to many today is, as it was
to our Greek
forbears, an approach to and communion with our vision of Deity, the
and intimate of all our religious acts.
In the Encyclopedia
of Religions under the subdivision "Christian, Western," of the subject
"Sacraments" [Lib 1908; Vol 10] we are shown how the Church
Tertullian, Jerome, Cyprian, and Augustine, used the Latin word
as an equivalent of the Greek word "musterion," the chief requisite in
this valuation being the mutual use of a material symbol, of an
or to paraphrase the definition in the Catechism ‒ it must be an
outward and physical
sign of an inward and psychical process. Augustine also admits that
true or false, has its visible signs or sacrament (Cont. Faust. XIX,
same source, under the general heading of "Sacraments," we read: "In
the Eleusinia certain acts of a sacramental character had a place....
other things done or seen, they partook of a cup of 'kukeon,' a thick
gruel of meal
and water resembling the draught of barley, groats, water and
drunk by the mourning Demeter after her nine days fast. The unemended
text of Clement
of Alexandria suggests the handling of a sacred object, rather than the
of a sacred food. What did this drinking and eating mean to the
enquirers have seen in it a sacramental communion with Demeter in her
g., Gardner in his Origins of the Lord's Supper."
too, arrived at this same result, as the only explanation of a custom
centuries of observance. It must have satisfied some more or less
in the psychological economy of its participants, and our own personal
will sympathize with them. Why should we think like the priests with
Pizarro, who held that the signs of the cross and the Eucharistic
found in the New World had been planted there by Satan to deceive a
people who were
ignorant of the "Holy Mother Church"? Is it not rather more worthy of
our motto, "Follow Reason," and our belief in an everliving and
Builder, to see in these ancient customs the evidence of a divine
which each succeeding race of man, after it has come to a certain
growth of spiritual
evolution, can have unsealed in its inmost sanctuary, a new fount of
to meet new trials and win new victories? One can see herein the vision
the Eastern prayer, the most sacred verse of the Rig-Veda, the
whose beauty I have not found surpassed anywhere ‒ "Oh Thou, that
to the universe, Thou from whom all things proceed, and to whom all
unveil that face of the true sun, now hidden by this vase of golden
we may know the Truth and do our whole duty as we journey to Thy sacred
Three thousand years after the mind that framed this prayer had left
tenement, we find the same hope and desire embodied in Cardinal
hymn, "Lead, Kindly Light"; and Tennyson voices our thought that
prayer "men are bound by gold chains up to the throne of God." The
Architect has many names and wears many vestures, in the minds of His
yet withal "He inhabiteth Eternity" as Brother Hosmer wrote in THE
for May, 1917. Happy are they who know this, whether Hindoo,
Eleusinian, or the
man of today.
By Bro. Malcolm W. Bingay,
MAN IN his
egotism has quarreled about religion since the first day of recorded
the cloud worship of the first Aryan down to our own sadly disturbed
times it has
been ever the same: martyrs have given up their anguished souls, armies
massacred, empires have been shattered and civilizations sent to decay
‒ all in
the name of God. And yet through all these wars about religion there
never has been
and there never can be a religious war for a religious war is a
terms: no one can love God and at the same time hate his brother man.
has been the pretext for war, but for an explanation of the hate which
to fight we must turn from the fields of religion to the study of
it is a simple fact in psychology that we dislike, even unto hate,
those who disagree
strongly we feel a thing the more firmly we believe in the merit of our
our logic appeals to us as absolute and we subconsciously justify our
to the exclusion, in our narrow intensity, of possible outstanding
facts. It all
seems so simple and sane and understandable to us from our own personal
that we marvel at the inability of others to understand and see as we
do. The average
man, when filled with the ardor of an idea resents having anybody fail
with him in that ardor; the one who refuses to be converted to his
attitude is either
maddeningly stupid and unworthy of further consideration and sympathy,
or he is
purposely venal and vicious. The ratio of this resentment depends on
of the advocate's ardor, on his narrowness or breadth of mind, and on
spiritual qualities or lack of them.
and forgave; too many of his followers, or those who devoutly believe
they are his
followers, scream for the tar and the torch. As Swift said:
men have just enough religion to hate each other and not enough to love
cannot be placed upon religion, but rather upon our failure to
understand the three
impulses by which man lives, moves and has his being: First, instinct ‒
which man shares with the animals, the simple impulse to exist; Second
that something by which he is able to differentiate himself from the
through which he has piled up, through the ages, his material wealth;
Third ‒ spirit,
that indefinable, ineffable Something transcending both instinct and
which permits him, in his loftier moods to glimpse faintly a possible
those eternal questions which have ever harried his mortal reason, but
his immortal soul calm and at peace with the Infinite. But Man is ever
he is proud that he is a reasoning animal; and he has struggled
throughout the ages
to gain answer to those questions by reason alone.
he has built the cities of the earth; by reason he has encompassed the
reason he has made the temporal triumphs on which our civilization now
which seems to be crumbling again into the dust. The spirit alone can
from himself and his ruthless reasoning. Terrible as was the World War
we have just gone, there is one thing more terrible: the state of
makes such a thing possible. The battles of the Western front in France
outward manifestations of the war which tore the hearts of men before
the guns were
unleashed. Peace is a state of mind, and the war was raging in the
minds of men
long ere the first gun sung its song of death in the year 1914. When a
bad enough to make war, war follows even as the boil protrudes its
when the body is bad enough to make boils!
We have boasted
of our Age of Reason, and it has been an age of reason ‒ reason without
without faith in our God and our fellow man, reason like a giant ship
circles driven madly on by powerful engines with no rudder to guide its
question which stirred the mind of primitive man concerned his God.
Since the first
shepherd, stretched on the hills at night, wondered, man has asked
questions and has tried by reason alone to solve them:
What is the nature of God?
What is the origin of the world?
Whence came we?
Whither do we go?
the questions on which all the warring theologies of the world have
and they cannot be answered by reason alone ‒ they cannot be answered
at all, for they take in the realms of the immortal and we are only
mortal. As Plotinus,
the Alexandrian, said: "I am a finite being; how can I comprehend the
As soon as I comprehend the infinite, I am infinite myself." Human
a limited and an erring faculty, unable to grasp "the sorry scheme of
entire" even as the stillest lake fails to reflect the sky as a whole.
reasoning man will not permit of such a thought; he will answer and
explain to please
himself and applaud his own wisdom.
Plato and Aristole to Des Cartes, Fichte and Schelling, man the
has run in the revolving squirrel cage of his reason, trying to solve
of immortality on his mortal treadmill; from Copernicus, Galilee,
Kepler and Newton
to Einstein; from Locke to James; from Pyrrho to Anatole France; from
Bull Amon of Egypt to the psycho-analysis of Freud; from Apsu and
Tiamit of Babylonia
to Edisonian incandescence; from the fable of Prometheus unbound to the
the arrested energy of the atom ‒ thus man has sought in the stars and
in the human
brain for answer to the riddle of existence, that answer which is
hidden away in
his own heart. And always he runs in a circle that runs with him; Hegel
for saying that to which Heraclitus gave utterance two thousand years
a modern Pythagoras still stands at the shore of a strange sea,
pondering the Whence?
the Whither? and the Why?
was a door to which I found no key," sang old Omar and for him there
key and for him who cannot find it within his own soul there will be no
the key is the key of faith, the key of the spirit which transcends
said Tolstoy, "is that by which man lives." That faith is the song in
the soul of man when he ceases to run the circles of his reason, when
he rises above
the earthly passions of greed and lust and hate, and sits him down in
humility, awed by the mightiness of the universe about him ‒ and
of human understanding is the history of man's failure to rise above
his own being;
he cannot by the boot-straps of his reason pull himself above the rim
of the bowl
of Plato ‒ the Tower of Babel is not the story of ancient days, it is
fact of our civilization today. The question that begins with a
and a childlike glory in our self-sufficiency ends in an aged doubt.
all philosophy, have swung the circle back to the beginning point. We
and kept within due bounds when in our egotism we trust to intellect
alone. On the
grave of the cynical Montaigne there are engraved his own words in
mockery to his
dust: "What do I know?"
man was guided alone by instinct; to eat, to propagate, to exist was
the only urge
within his being which gave itself expression; dormant within him were
spirit. When man began to wonder he began to reason, and when he began
his material development started. So not in vain have all the
philosophers of all
the world pondered on the unknowable; for while they have not found
that for which
they sought they have developed the cerebral functioning by which man
thought processes laid out for him. The squirrel running in its
revolving cage has
developed itself for the duties inherent to that cage. Seeking answer
to the unknowable
by the rule of reason, man has been able to grasp and understand the
the ages there have been flashes of that spirit which completes the
man's impulses; yet we have but to point to the war, the chaos and
anarchy of today,
of the hate and suspicion which sweeps the world to know that it has
not yet spread
its divine effulgence so far over the earth that we have with us a
a social mysticism, which, when it comes, will be that brotherly love
‒ outward manifestations of the spirit within us ‒ symbolized by the
cement of Masonry.
without reason leaves man as the beast of the field; reason without
a ruthless Frankenstein which shall destroy mankind; the spirit alone,
the alembic of man's inner self, must be the censor and control of
reason. Our "Age
of Reason" has been an age of blind hate, of greed, of horrid fighting
of awful consequence. We stand at the crossroads. We have no
alternative. We must
go one way or the other. Either we must cooperate or go on fighting
until the last
battle-axed, bullet-riddled, gas-torn torso writhes to its end and man
is no more.
We must find understanding, born of the spirit, to bring to this
the peace of God. And as long as we have within our own hearts hatred
for our fellow
man, and engender that hate in the hearts of others by seeking evil in
than purity in ourselves, just so long do we delay the oncoming of the
man who has the life of the spirit within him views the love of man and
in himself and others, quite differently from the man who is
by mind," writes Bertrand Russell. "He sees in his moments of insight,
that in all human beings there is something deserving of love,
something appealing, a cry out of the night, a groping journey and a
When his instinct loves, he welcomes its help in seeing and feeling the
the human being whom he loves. Instinct becomes a reinforcement in
What instinct tells him spiritual insight confirms, however much the
mind may be
aware of littleness, limitations, and the enclosing walls that prevent
from shining forth. His spirit divines in all men what his instinct
shows him is
the object of his love."
was the first to discover this truth in the development of his ethics.
he said, "is the measure of all things. Descend deeper into his
and you will find that underneath all varieties there is a ground for
Men differ but men also agree; they differ as to what is fleeting; they
to what is eternal. Difference is the region of opinion; agreement is
of truth; let us endeavour to penetrate that region."
It was the
aged arguer of Athens who first sensed a universal law of morals, but
have found it out; each man conquering truth for himself, following, as
did, the inscription at Delphos: "Know Thyself." Plato proved God to
by the very feeling of affinity to His nature which stirs within our
Tyler, Frazer, in their studies of primitive culture found that whether
in the darkest
wilds of Africa, the peasant fields of Europe, or the rushing cities of
wherever the hearts of men beat in every age and clime: God is. Man
feels the spirit
of divinity within him and seeks to give outward manifestation to that
as his capacities permit. His means are determined by his birth and his
He may begin by worshipping the sun which warms him and sees him on his
as the years pass and he develops a greater knowledge, he may worship
Him who made
the sun, worshipping God in some temple of gilt and gold, which
reflects the glory
of that sun and which has been erected as the earthly conception of the
Him on high. Well may the proudest Christian gentleman paraphrase the
words of John
Bunyan, point to the primitive native in his childlike worship, and
but by the grace of God, goes he who bears my name."
outstanding fundamental fact of life is that all men, deny as they will
lips, know in their higher moods that there is a God; not something
that can be
defined for them, but something that is, the ineffable, the
of life, symbolized by the Lost Word of Masonry. Only "the fool hath
his heart there is no God." "God," said Fichte, "must be believed
in, not inferred." And St. Thomas a Kempis said: "It is better to love
God than to define him." Far easier it would be to explain by what
music the deaf Beethoven drew from the song of his soul his divine
what rules of oratory went to make up the Gettysburg speech, or what
genius conceived the lowly spider's web.
Yet man the
Reasoner crushes aside the spirit and, in his egotism, proclaims
by intellect alone, and wages war on those who will not agree with him.
fitting was the action of those French revolutionists who placed a
on an altar and hailed her as the Goddess of Reason!
This to me
is me very genius of Masonry: A love of God, simple, pure and
undefiled, and a deep
and unfeigned friendship for our fellow man with an understanding of
perhaps sometimes what we may call his narrowness and his devout
inability to understand
some things in the same spirit that we do ‒ the pure essence of
toleration: a recognition
of the spirit groping within and not the clumsy reasoning without.
Yet it is
a deplorable fact and one not avoidable in any discussion of the
subject of Masonic
toleration that the greatest message of Christ, "Love thine enemy," has
been so misunderstood as to cause quarrels and bitter misunderstandings
peoples. Christianity has been split into three general factions: the
the Roman Catholic Church, and the so-called Protestant churches. Of
the Greek church
there need be nothing said as it is not the cause of the bitterness
that has existed
for centuries between the two remaining factions ‒ those who adhere to
authority and those who revolted from its domination at the time of the
time of Uranus, the first Aryan God ‒ and no doubt ages before ‒ man
God in strange and devious ways; hideous were some of his efforts to
by outward manifestation to the spirit within him and needless it is
here to trace
this seeking, down to the cradle of Christianity, borne on the cries of
ere the Jehovah of the tent became the God of the altar. Suffice it is
upon the darkness that was upon the earth before the Son of Man poured
flood of light by His divine axiom: "Ye have heard that it was said,
love thy neighbor and hate thine enemy: but I say unto you, Love your
pray for them that persecute you that ye may be sons of your Father in
His words to mankind still mean for us the beginning of time. How long
years rolled on, and how blood-stained is the calendar!
ascendant. She ruled the earth and the people bowed down and worshipped
As country after country was crushed and the people conquered they
adopted the worship
of the Romans or gave careless lip service to their own. Isis, Osiris
competed with the gods of the Greeks, now fallen from Olympus, in the
Rome ‒ and above all stood the Caesar, god of all; the empire shone
it was rotten at the core. There came the cleansing words of Christ;
of the martyrs" became "the seed of the Church."
no other civilization but that of Rome and when the Christian faith was
from the catacombs to its triumph it knew no other form of adaptability
Roman law; drawing its religious element from Judea, its philosophy
from the Greeks,
it took its constitutional organization from the Romans. Ranke, the
Protestant scholar, in his History of the Popes tells eloquently of how
to the world its moral awakening:
"How obscure and unpretentious
was His life!"
he exclaims, "His occupation was to heal the sick and to discourse of
parables with a few fishermen, who did not always understand His words.
not where to lay His head. Yet, even from the worldly point of view,
whence we consider
it, we may safely assert that nothing more guileless or more
impressive, more exalted
or more holy, has ever been seen on earth than were His life, His whole
and His death. In every word there breathes the pure life of God. They
as St. Peter expressed it, of eternal life. The records of humanity
that can be compared however remotely with the life of Jesus.
"If the earlier forms of belief
contained an element of true religion, this was now entirely obscured;
they no longer,
as we have said, could pretend to the slightest significance. In Him
the nature of man with that of God, there shone forth, in contrast with
the universal and eternal relation of God to the world, and of man to
"The church was at first
to Republican forms but these disappeared as the new belief rose to
and the clergy gradually assumed a position entirely distinct from that
of the laity…
"It was imperative on the
body to form their constitution on the model of that of the empire." …
the Caesars turned Christian, "Theodosius, the Great, commands that all
claiming the protection of his grace should receive the faith as
propounded by St.
Peter to the Romans."
the beginning of the Christian church. When the Lombards, with other
sought to destroy the church, Pepin the younger, of the Franks, went to
To gain his aid the bishop of Rome gave the sanction of the church to
of king. Victorious, he tore from the Lombards lands which they had
the Roman Empire, territory known as the Exarchate. This should have
to emperor, but Pepin answered, to again quote Ranke, "that for no
man had he entered the strife, but from veneration of St. Peter alone,
and in the
hope of obtaining freedom from his sins." The keys of the conquered
placed on altar of St. Peter, and "in this act he laid the foundation
temporal power of the popes."
history. Suffice to show that the spirit of times, the demands of
emperors and kings
made necessary, seemingly so, a Caesarian form of government for the
Democracy as we know it today was unknown. The republics of Greece and
Republics of the leisure or propertied classes, with slaves to be
bought or sold
to do the work. Aristotle argues that without slavery there can be
the slaves must work that the philosophers may think. Plato's Republic
slaves to do the work. Democracy came with the awakening of the world
Reformation and the development of the printing press. The church of
Rome was the
matrix for the faith of the Christian people, built 'tis true in the
spirit of its
times, when 'twas said: "If you are in doubt appeal to Caesar; when
speaks matter is closed!"
we dwell long, for our purpose, on the Reformation and the Thirty Years
dogma, with both sides hating blind bitterness ‒ hating each other over
should express his love for God! That the church fell into evil days
Catholic scholar does not deny.
asks the Roman Catholic Encyclopedia, "has the church of today to do
fact that long vanished generations inflicted, in the name of religion,
with which modern man is disgusted? The children's children cannot held
for the misdeeds of their forefathers. Protestants must also take
refuge in this
principle of justice. However much they endeavor to blink the fact,
they have also
to regret similar occurrences during the Reformation epoch, when as
the Reformers and their successors made free use of the existing penal
and punished with death many inconvenient, and, according to their
persons. Hundreds of faithful Roman Catholics who fell victims to the
in England are venerated today as the English martyrs. The greater
number of executions
occurred not under Mary, the Roman Catholic, but under Queen Elizabeth.
It is, however,
unjust to hold modern Protestantism, in the one instance, and Roman
in the other, responsible these atrocities."
I think even
the most casual student of history will agree that they were rough and
passionate folks in those days, with the civil law and the moral law of
rising higher than to really enjoy frying martyrs over live coals. Both
it with freedom and abandon and as to just which side did the most is
endless argument. It would be sensible for the French people today with
of Joan of Arc to hate the English people because English soldiers
burned her alive.
No church has ever risen above the spirit of the people that go to make
church; it cannot rise above the spirit of its times; where there are a
and an ignorant people you will find a backward and an ignorant church,
what the denomination.
Let us go
not back into the Dark Ages, digging down into the dust of a dead past
to find something
on which we can hinge a hate for living men, women and children!
Let us look
to the present and the future; and what have we?
with, and to get more directly into the subject Masonic toleration,
have the opposition
of the Roman Catholic church to Masonry. Of what does that opposition
consists of a series of pronouncements directed to the members of the
church against joining the Masonic Order; worded too harshly to sound
to Protestant ears, but they are not directed to the ears of
Protestants but solely
to members of the Roman Catholic church.
It is to
be assuredly agreed that no member of any other religion would follow
any ruling given by the papal authorities. That only devout Roman
adhere to his orders. And it is to be further agreed by all Freemasons
is a fundamental law of the Order that no man shall be asked to join,
of his own free will and accord, make application. Therefore, what harm
Freemasonry because a certain leader of a certain denomination decrees
people should not join? The papal edicts against Freemasonry today mean
than if he were to issue an edict to the effect that no faithful member
of the Roman
Catholic church should join the Methodist, Episcopalian, Baptist or
churches. Everybody would readily exclaim: "Why, certainly not!" and
what it was all about.
opposition of the Church of Rome to Freemasonry is the fear of
indifferentism which equalizes all religions and gives equal rights to
error," as Cardinal Manning expressed it. Because of the very process
organization and beginning, as briefly touched upon above, the Roman
feels that it has the one true religion. Masonry cannot adhere to any
As our own beloved Dr. Newton says in his eloquent book, "The
"Of no one religion, Masonry finds great truths in all religions.
holds that truth which is common to all elevating and benign religions,
and is the
basis of each; that faith which underlies all sects and over-arches all
the sky above and the river bed below the flow of mortal years. It does
to explain or dogmatically to settle those questions or solve those
which out-top human knowledge. Beyond the facts of Faith it does not
go. With the
subtleties of speculation concerning those truths and the unworldly
out of them, it has not to do. There divisions begin, and Masonry was
not made to
divide men, but to unite them, leaving each man free to think his own
fashion his own system of ultimate truth."
we have clearly expressed the two points of opposition between
Freemasonry and Roman
Catholicism. Pope Leo XIII said of Freemasonry: "By opening their gates
persons of every creed they promote the great modern error of religious
and of the parity of all worships, the best way to annihilate every
the Roman Catholic, which being the one true one, cannot be joined with
this should not occasion quarrel. It is a striking fact of our
no matter how low a man may be or how poor his ancestry, common opinion
man the right to display vigorous resentment of any aspersions cast on
of his mother. Almost all of us are born to our religions as we are
born to our
mothers. We gain our faith as we gain life from a mother's breast; and
hold it as hallowed and sacred as we do the love of her who bore us ‒
to be brawled about and to be hating each other over.
It is regrettable
that some should hold that view of Freemasonry, that it leads to
not unlike Kipling's: "the more you 'ave known of the others, the less
will settle to one." Freemasons know better. We devoutly believe that
holds men close to their individual religious opinions; but the Roman
leaders feel otherwise and in their judgment those of their faith
should not join.
As religion is a matter of faith and not of mundane reasoning, as it is
that transcends reason, therefore he who is born of Roman Catholic
to the faith of his fathers, and it would be grossly unmasonic to
question him in
that faith and in his adherence to the edicts of his pope whom he holds
to be infallible
on all matters of faith and morals. While it may strike strangely on
ears, the doctrines of the Protestant sects, we may rest assured,
strike as strangely
says H. Fielding, "are the grammar of religion, they are to religion
is to speech. Words are the expression of our wants; grammar is the
after-wards. Speech never proceeded from grammar but the reverse. As
and changes from unknown causes, grammar must follow."
the greatest of American philosophers (and certainly no supporter of
the Roman faith),
expresses thought more in detail, in his masterly volume, "Varieties of
Experiences." [Lib 1902]
"Men need formulas just as much
need fellowship in worship," writes James. "It enriches our bare piety
to carry these exalted and mysterious verbal additions just as it
enriches a church
to have an organ and old brasses, marbles and frescoes and stained
lend an atmosphere an overtones to our devotion. They are like a hymn
an service of glory, and may sound the more sublime for being
Although some persons aim most at intellectual purity and
simplification, for others
richness is the supreme imaginative requirement. When one's mind is
this type, an individual religion will hardly serve the purpose. The
is rather of something institutional and complex, majestic in the
of its parts with authority descending from stage to stage, and at
every stage objects
for adjectives of mystery and splendor, derived the last resort from
who is the fountain and culmination of the system. One feels then as if
in the presence
of some vast encrusted work of jewelry or architecture; one hears the
liturgical appeal; one gets the honorific vibration coming from every
with such noble complexity, in which ascending and descending movements
no way to jar upon stability, in which no single item, however humble,
because so many august institutions hold it in its place, how flat does
Protestantism appear, how bare the atmosphere of those isolated
whose boast is that 'man in the bush with God may meet.' What a
levelling of what a gloriously piled-up structure! To an imagination
used to the
perspective of dignity and glory, the naked gospel seems to offer an
"It is much like the patriotic
of those brought up in ancient empires. How many emotions must be
their object, when one gives up the titles of dignity, the crimson
lights and blare
of brass, the gold embroidery, the plumed troops, the fear and
trembling, and puts
up with a president in a black silk coat who shakes hands with you, and
may be, from a 'home' upon a veldt or prairie with one sitting room and
on its center table. It pauperizes the monarchial imagination!
"The strength of these
makes it rigorously impossible, it seems to me, that Protestantism,
in spiritual profundity it may be to Roman Catholicism, should at the
succeed in making many converts from the more venerable
ecclesiasticism. The latter
offers so much richer pasturage and shade to the fancy, has so many
cells with so
many different kinds of honey, is so indulgent in its multiform appeals
nature, that Protestantism will always show to Roman Catholic eyes the
physiognomy. The bitter negativity of it to the Roman Catholic mind is
To intellectual Roman Catholics many of the antiquated beliefs and
which the Roman Catholic church gives countenance are, if taken
literally, as childish
as they are to Protestants. But they are childish in the pleasing sense
‒ innocent and amiable and worthy to be smiled on in consideration of
condition of the dear people's intellects. To the Protestant on the
are childlike in the sense of being idiotic falsehoods. He must stamp
delicate and lovable redundancy, leaving the Roman Catholic to shudder
at his literalness.
He appears to the latter as morose as if he were some hard-eyed, numb,
kind of reptile. The two will never understand each other ‒ their
centers of emotional
energy are too different. Rigorous truth and human nature's intricacies
in need of a mutual interpreter… How can any possible judge or critic
biased in favor of the religion by which his own needs are best met? He
to impartiality; but he is too close to the struggle not to be to some
participant, and he is sure to approve most warmly those fruits of
piety in others
which taste most good and prove most nourishing to him.
words, that we may grasp it more readily, let us take the Roman
as a symbolism, an eagerness to express the soul within by the outward
of signs and allegories: that is all it is to the devout Roman
Catholic. Down, each
in his own heart, the devout Roman Catholic and the devout Protestant
simple and unafraid in his faith, differs in no way, other than in
symbolism ‒ and
church symbolism is the clothes of religion. Why quarrel about the
the narrow and the ill-bred on each side will, but that is something to
and not to be emulated.
has his symbols and we of Freemasonry have ours; yet each teaches the
philosophy that these forms shall pass, that the spirit alone keeps
step with the
march of eternity. The soul of Hiram springs from his grave and cries
name is Acacia!" and down through the endless ages, there comes the
Divinity, saying, "I am the Resurrection and the Life." In form we are
far apart: "for now we see through a glass darkly": but in spirit, if
we but have faith and charity, we are as one. "Though I speak with the
of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding
brass, or a
someone interrupts, "the Roman Catholic church still adheres to its
contention of temporal power and now seeks by its 'invisible empire' to
the world. It is this that members of the Protestant faiths fear."
Let us examine
the menace to see how solid is the ground on which our fears are based;
is born of fear and hate is chiefly what is wrong with our world today.
Let us consider
statistics for a moment to judge properly the size of the threat which
is made against
the fruits of the Reformation.
let us get away from ourselves and our little sphere of life and get to
of some high mountain and there take in the world as a whole. Our
taken from the World Almanac.
according to the latest estimates, 1,702,520,366 people in the world
Of this total,
576,000,000 are of the Christian faith.
Of the Christian
faith there are 288,000,000 Romanists and 167,000,000 Protestants. The
and several hundred million are not Christian.
In the United
States there are 105,683,000 people. Of these there are but 15,721,815
who are Catholic.
problem resolves itself down to this: how will a relative handful of
Roman Catholics, scattered over the face of the earth, seize the reins
of the world
from a billion, seven hundred million people? How will 15,721,815 men,
children of any denomination control America?
In the fifteenth
century, the total population of Europe was estimated at 50 millions.
Today it is
464 millions. In the centuries when the pope had temporal power and
and peoples even as did the Caesars, the human race lived in a static
seldom moved from the towns in which they were born; only a few hardy
blazed the way around the world. Men lived and died without ever
knowing what went
on perhaps in the next town to them. Kings and lords and churchmen
ruled the world
and the people were dumb, inert as the beasts in the field: "Theirs not
reason why, theirs but to do and die." Even down into our own day and
world stood almost still. Seventy-five years ago it took three weary
a message to go across the Atlantic; today it takes three seconds. The
John Paul Jones could travel no faster nor were they better manned than
ships of the Phoenicians; the soldiers of Napoleon could travel no
faster than could
the soldiers of Hannibal; the messengers of George Washington could
no faster than could the messengers of Julius Caesar.
live in a little world, a globe made small by the inventive genius of
earth is covered by a fine gauze of electrically charged copper wires
the story of all the world every twenty-four hours. A century ago a
a rarity and its news was months old. It was weeks before the press of
of the battle Waterloo a few miles away. Today the census shows [that]
more than one and a half billion copies of newspapers published yearly
in the United
States alone. We live in a new and a thinking world; if any
denomination or sect
or order or faith ever again denominates the civilized globe it will be
by the triumph
the spirit of truth alone and not by external domination. But let us
get back again
The two largest
Roman Catholic nations of the world today are France and Italy. France
has a population
of 41,500,000 people. No religious census has been taken since 1872 but
Catholic authorities estimate that 75 per cent are members of the Roman
Let us look then into its political being and see how much the church
of Rome has
had do with the government of that country. For the past quarter of a
premiers and its government have been non-Roman Catholic: Briand,
Millerand now Briand again-all are outside the papal church.
we find an even more interesting case. It was great political genius,
broke the last link of pope's hold on temporal power. The story can be
standard history on the uniting of Italy. He gave voice his historic
"a free state and a free church," with Mazzini and Garibaldi he brought
the warring states of Italy together into a great nation, took from the
lands he had held since the days of Pepin, the younger, and made the
pope a self-elected
"prisoner of the Vatican." In the very shadow of the Vatican the people
of Rome, under a plebiscite conducted in 1870, voted by a ballot of
134,000 to 1,500
to join Italy, the new nation. This is still the condition in the land
of the ancient
Caesars. And yet, of Italy's population of less than 40,000,000 there
members of the Roman Catholic church.
is this fear of the Roman Catholic church seeking domination? The
people of its
own faith have shown in its two largest countries that they stand for a
church and a separate state.
the third largest power in the world today. It has a population of
and progressive citizens of a non-Christian faith. There are more than
others who do not come under the banners of the Christian church. Is it
the followers of the lowly Nazarene ceased their childish bickering
with each other,
overlooked each other's pettiness, and sought for the spirit of His
not grounds on which to quarrel over how they disagree about the form?
As long ago
as 1643, John Milton exclaimed:
"How many other things might be
in peace left to conscience had we but charity and were it not the
of our hypocrisy to be ever judging one another!"
As my favorite
Scotch songster sings so well: "We're a going home the same way"; so
we all going in our chosen route to that undiscovered country from
no traveler returns. We're all going home ‒ all on our way to Beulah
land of John
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. How shall we go? The modern Pilgrim would
take an auto;
let us least use the symbolism.
The old gentleman
in the big car thinks he is driving in majestic Rolls-Royce and looks
the rest in compassion not unmixed with annoyance that "these flivvers"
should be scooting along his highway. What the Roman gentleman sees as
we see as simple, powerfully built and altogether beautiful cars of our
which we insist on driving ourselves. He cannot understand how some of
side," being not all together well-mannered and perhaps out of patience
his insistence on his being the only machine, possess the temerity to
yell at him
and call his car an "ancient circus wagon." Such scolding and
on the highroad of life is unseemly. It is a violation of the law and
of the highway. Let each forgive the other in the order of his
road is very rough and very long and there are many tempting detours.
We, all of
us, have all we can do to keep on our own way, without seeking to find
while ago there was a convention of Episcopalian bishops in the city of
and as Cardinal Mercier, the heroic figure of Belgium's struggle
against the German
army, was in the city the Roman prelate was asked to address the
was considerable curiosity among the laymen present as to how he would
the Protestant bishops. He held out his long thin hands as though in
and in a deep, quiet voice opened his remarks by calling to them:
"Brothers in Christ."
the true spirit of Toleration; that toleration which is willing to
in dogma in seeking for the inward spirit.
Let us turn
for a moment to that standard authority of the Roman church, the Roman
Encyclopedia. "The man who is tolerant in every emergency is alone
and wins the hearts of his fellow man," it says. "Such tolerance is all
the more estimable in one whose royal practice of his own faith wards
off all suspicion
of unbelief or religious indifference, and whose friendly bearing
towards the heterodox,
emanates from pure neighborly charity and a strict sense of justice. It
an indisputable requisite for the maintenance of friendly intercourse
among a people composed of different religious denominations, and is
the root of
religious peace in the state. It should therefore be prized and
promoted by the
civil authorities as a safeguard to public weal, for a warfare of all
destructive of the state itself, must again break out, if citizens be
assail one another on account of religious differences. A person who by
travel and large experience has become acquainted with the world and
men and with
the finer forms of life does not easily develop into a heretic hunter,
a sadly incongruous
figure in the modern world."
do not like the wording of some of the papal edicts against the Masonic
sound rather rough on us, but we must remember they are not directed to
us but to
the members of that faith to warn them against what the church fears is
The ecclesiastical language is medieval and the bark is worse than the
ancient expression, 'heretical poison'," says the same encyclopedia,
has passed from canon law into the set phraseology of the papal
chancery and quite
naturally sounds hard to the Protestant is not intended to express any
slur on the heterodox who adhere to their opinions in good faith and in
all that the most narrow minded man who happens to be in the Roman
has to say about and against Masonry, should we not pity him in his
plight of being
so handicapped by the blinkers he wears? Or should we also don blinkers
we can only look in one direction ‒ and that straight at him ‒ and
to his limited view? Rather, opening our eyes, seeing the whole
glorious world and
all its future before us, we gain a perspective on man's narrowness and
go on our
way, not in blind anger and hate, but in love and compassion.
I once was
asked to write an article on the Roman church as the "enemy" of
my answer was, and is, that Freemasonry in this day of quick spreading
in a dawning era of the ready exchange of world ideas and ideals, has
no enemy except
that which it creates for itself: that enemy being a narrowness of
outlook, a refusal
to look at facts in co-relation to their true values and a hatred born
unfounded. Hate is the child of fear and fear is too often found within
we lack faith in ourselves. We have nothing to fear if we "have faith
right makes might; and in that faith dare to do our duty as we
of Freemasonry is that it welcomes, in a spirit of brotherly love and
men of all creeds to its altars if they but confess a sincere and an
in God; nor does it ask them more. Do we not then but vitiate our
by hating a man who by accident of birth, let us say, holds to
religious views that
are different than ours, religious views that will not permit him to
kneel at our
altars? Nor need we sneer at his church and his dogmatism, which is as
him as is ours, even though he does hold to views that we think harsh
not by returning malediction for malediction can we keep our spiritual
our intellectual freedom. If we seek to ennoble the souls of men, we
must look well
into our own hearts for the purity that is there, rather than into the
other men for that which we think is evil.
Brotherhood of Man must come through the souls of men: the divine
spirit of freedom:
and not through that blind and ruthless impulse which we in our egotism
beings are pleased to call reason!
Brother Melvin Johnson Again
always valued pages of The New England Craftsman we have clipped a news
will be of especial interest to the members of the National Masonic
Brother Johnson holds an illustrious position in American Freemasonry,
so, for he has wrought mightily in its interests, and that with a noble
and a fine mind. His many friends among the readers of THE BUILDER will
herewith to Bass to him their sincere congratulations.
Massachusetts Mason was elected to Active Membership in the Northern
A. & A.S.R., at the Chicago session, September 23, 1920. He has
his fiftieth year as we write these lines, being born in Waltham,
Mass., May 11,
of colonial forbears. Captain Edward Johnson landed in America in 1628,
in Charleston, was surveyor-general of the colony and one of the
founders of what
is now the city of Woburn. Byron B. Johnson, the father of the new
was the first Mayor of Waltham.
Johnson graduated from the public school in 1888 and entered Tuft's
in 1892. He attended Boston University Law School, graduating "Magna
in 1895. After practicing law with his father until 1902 he formed the
firm of Johnson
& North which continues in active practice at this time.
Johnson is a professor of law in the law school of Boston University,
and a trustee
of Tuft's College. He is a member of the Theta Delta Chi fraternity and
to the Phi Beta Kappa honorary society and is a member of the Phi Delta
school fraternity. He belongs also to the American Bar Association, the
Bar Association and the Middlesex Bar Association; in some of these he
Brother Johnson has labored steadily and faithfully since he reached
was raised in Monitor Lodge, Waltham, in 1892, and was Master in
Deputy Grand Master in 1904-5, Grand Marshal in 1906-08, Senior Grand
1909, and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in
1910 he has been a member of the board of directors of the Grand Lodge
1911 a member of the board of Masonic relief. Fifteen Massachusetts
lodges and a
lodge in Havana, Cuba, count him an honorary member. He is also an
of New Jersey Consistory A. A. S. R.
Masonic Research Society, the George Washington Masonic National
the Masonic Service Association of the United States all command his
member or officer.
Boys flying kites haul in their
You can't do that when you're flying words;
Things that we think may sometimes fall back dead,
But God himself can't kill them when they're said.
two ways of being happy ‒ we may either diminish our wants or increase
either will do, ‒ the result is the same.
‒ Benjamin Franklin.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.
G. M., District of Columbia
the seventeenth President of the United States, was a member of what is
Lodge No. 119, of Greeneville, Tennessee.
He was born
in Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1808, of poor but respectable parents.
lost his life in an effort to save a drowning man, and left the boy an
he was but five years of age. He was obliged to help support the
family, and at
the age of ten he was apprenticed to a tailor. He learned to read
during his apprenticeship
and, when a journeyman tailor, he became an earnest student. Education
was not so
easy to get in those days as it is now. When he became a man he married
whose capacity and whose devotion to him worked wonders in his
development. He identified
himself with the mechanical classes, which was appreciated by them, and
for him their political support, which was a factor in his democratic
elected to the state senate in 1841. He had been an elector on the Van
before that. In 1843 he was elected to Congress, was re-elected for ten
years and, in 1857, was elected to the Senate. In 1862 he was appointed
Governor of Tennessee.
He was a
busy man, always easily approached, never impatient, but ever
independent. He did
not resent sneers at his humble origin, but on the contrary, often
He was a
Union man in a secession state, maintaining the letter and intent of
and forever urging that the best interests of the commonwealth were
served by adhering
to the Constitution, instead of modifying it to suit the clamor of the
course in Congress so displeased the people in Memphis that they burned
him in effigy.
His home was assaulted, his slaves confiscated, his sick wife and the
into the streets, and his house turned into a hospital for Confederate
But this ended on the entry of the Union Army, in 1862.
elected Vice-President in 1864, and inaugurated in March, 1865.
was assassinated in April, 1865, when Johnson became President. The
Civil War had
ended. It was known that Mr. Lincoln was a lenient, peace loving man,
and it was
believed his feelings toward the southern states were of the kindliest.
believe, went very far toward softening Mr. Johnson towards the men of
had burned him in effigy. His subsequent acts were so lenient, so
so free from sectionalism that it excited his political opponents, who
of disloyalty. But when we consider who were prominent among those
may suspect a motive. Among them were Thurlow Weed and Thaddeus Stevens
so prominent in the anti-Masonic propaganda at the time of the Morgan
Not the least of his accusers was Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, who
so long a power in the Senate, and who seemed to feel that the southern
forfeited all rights ‒ an idea repellant to President Johnson.
When we laid
the cornerstone for the Masonic Temple in Washington, D. C., at the
corner of Ninth
and F streets, a procession was formed and marched up F street, the
being in carriages. A gentleman drove up in the Presidential carriage,
It was Andrew Johnson. He took a white apron from his pocket and looked
for a place
in the line. The Grand Master invited him to a seat in his carriage,
but the President
replied that his rank was that of a Master, and that he would walk with
term of office expired he returned to his Tennessee home, but was soon
the Senate, where he took his seat on March 5, 1875, but he fell ill
while on a
visit to his daughter in Tennessee, where he died in July of the same
The Craft Receive The Legend?
By Bro. D.E.W. Williamson,
worrying about how many Hirams there may have been at the building of
or wearying the brain with calculations as to the dimensions of the
the student of Masonic lore should be shown that, from the point of
view of research,
the main question is how and when the legend of the Third degree became
It is wrong
to perpetuate the mistaken statement that we have any record of more
than one artificer
named Hiram, although only recently the Rev. Morris Rosenbaum, past
master of a
London lodge, Past Grand Chaplain of the Provincial Grand Lodge of
and sometime contributor to the Transactions of the Quatuor Coronate
Lodge of Research,
has been quoted as reiterating the assertion that there were two
and son. Bro. Rosenbaum is a distinguished Jewish rabbi in London and
is quoted as an authority, but a Freemason may be an orator and an
adept in Hebrew
language and literature, yet be without standing as a Scriptural
simple truth, as the youngest graduate of a theological seminary of
inform him if so disposed, is that all we know about Hiram is what we
find in I
Kings, vii. It is true that in II Chronicles, ii and iv, there is more
him, but it has no historical value, for, as Luther pointed out four
the credibility of Chronicles is doubtful. It could not be otherwise,
is a book written at least 623 years after the death of Solomon and is
amplification, so far as its account of the Temple is concerned, of
Kings; and Kings,
itself, which was written in 622 or 621 B. C., is itself not first-hand
but is based
upon the book of the acts of Solomon ("And the rest of the acts of
and all that he did and his wisdom, are they not written in the book of
of Solomon?" ‒ I Kings, xi:41). Chronicles, therefore, is a third-hand
and written after the Exile, at that. In the Hebrew canon its weight is
that it is placed at the very end of the Bible and no competent Hebrew
Jew or Christian, will presume to challenge a statement in Kings on the
of anything in Chronicles.
the subject of "authority," there is absolutely none in ancient Hebrew
or any other tongue for "Huram" as the name of the king of Tyre or of
that of the artificer. The Greek version of the Scriptures, of which
greater part was translated within thirty or forty years after the
Chronicles, transliterates the name "Chiram" (in which the "Ch"
should be sounded as in the Scotch word "loch"). The Hebrew text of
gives the name with "i" (yod), but in the margin of the Hebrew of
in what is called a q'ri, the reason is directed to pronounce it as
notwithstanding. This Masoretic instruction may be given the date of
700 A. D. as
the earliest possible, fully sixteen centuries after Hiram's time. In
it is as if some Biblical editor sixteen centuries after Christ should
to say "Joshua" every time we came across the name of Jesus.
being thought dogmatic, may a student say that it seems to be a waste
of time to
speculate on the real Hiram and the material Temple, when it is more
know how they came into the Craft?
shall have to get rid of the idea, so widely entertained fifty years
ago when Hughan,
Speth, Gould and the new school of Masonic historians were making their
that the Legend of the Third degree was written or imported about 1723.
abandoned it himself in the last fifteen years of his life as shown by
Essays." What is the accepted view of investigators today seems to be
expressed by three eminent Masonic authorities in the discussion on the
published in the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum of November, 1916 [Lib 1916].
time immemorial lodges did not begin to come in (under the English
until after 1723," says Brother J. Littleton, author of "Freemasonry in
Bristol." [Lib*] "And there could not have been any great difference in
the ritual or they could not have come?'
Ancient Craft Masonry," says Brother W. Redfern Kelly, "there would
to have existed from time immemorial a certain essential and
William Watson says: "I have held the opinion for many years as others
done that a legend of the Builder may have been handed down from Master
finally materializing in a dramatic form as a degree."
Kelley's adjective "archaic," and in Brother Watson's expression
form," the writer believes lies the key to the inquiry of how the
its way into the work. Students of the modern drama's beginnings as
seen in the
miracle plays and mysteries of the Middle Ages cannot fail to recognize
in the legend
as we have it today the archaic dramatic form of the display at the old
But what has become of the original play? The writer has searched
through all the
published plays of the Middle Ages, from the Latin comedies of the nun
of Gandersheim, and the plays of Hilarius, through the York, Chester
plays, and has found not one that will fit the case, thus repeating the
of investigators for the Quatuor Coronate Lodge of London. But the
which the play might have appeared is necessarily limited and it may be
examination of the records of guild productions from 1535 to 1545 in
yet reveal the missing drama. If the tradition existed in England
before 1535, the
name of the hero was Abdemon, as in Josephus, which may account for the
"Agnon," "Dyon," and other forms that have puzzled the readers
of the old charges. But, if it became a part of the Craft's work with
the name of
Hiram Abif, then it could not have been taken up by the Craft before
Tyndale's translation of the Bible from the original Hebrew first gave
in English. The Coverdale Bible is also said to have Hiram Abif in it,
but the writer
has not been able to investigate this. The tradition is not likely to
in after 1546 for in that year the Coverdale Bible was prohibited from
by act of Parliament just as Tyndale's had been placed under the ban
previously. While thus the tradition is restricted to ten years during
may hope to find its entrance into the Craft, this was a crucial period
on other grounds that make it important to look deeply into the
happenings of the
time. In 1543, one of the final acts of Henry VIII, whose career was
to a close, was to cause Parliament to pass a law confiscating the
property of the
guilds. In London they were strong enough to defy him, but elsewhere it
so and what escaped Henry was taken over by the realm under his son
years later. In 1537 Henry had already confiscated the lands and
property of the
larger monasteries, patrons of the guilds and the miracle plays at the
Thus the great guilds all over the country were severely hit and it is
that the last miracle play of England was written by Bishop Bayle of
Ossory in 1538.
It is of record that at the last York pageant the Masons' Guild was
unable to support
its own play and it was taken over by the glaziers. The concentration
research upon this decade of English history ought to repay with
the time and study involved. The writer at present believes that the
as we have it today was handed down within the monasteries of the
Middle Ages and
that it passed with the breaking up of these institutions in 1537 into
of the secret circles into which the persecuted guilds were forced to
Eventually in 1717 it came from these secret associations into the
the first Grand Lodge, but only because the four lodges which formed
Lodge were themselves in full possession of it. That is one hypothesis
of the way
in which the legend entered the "work" and was carried on. But it is
to be overlooked that the New Learning appeared in Europe in the latter
the fifteenth century and that Hebrew learning and philosophy, the
Talmud and the
Kabbala, first became accessible to western scholars. Erasmus visited
a few years before 1509 and was professor of Greek at Cambridge. Sir
executed by Henry VIII in 1536, was a fount of learning. Even if the
the tradition was fostered in the monasteries should fall to the
it is possible that the investigator may make a discovery of as great
should he find that the legend had been brought down from the misty
the bosom Kabbalist students.
In the United
States we have small opportunity examine ancient manuscripts or to read
records of the period spoken of, but our English brothers, who already
much, may yet find reward for their labors in the study of these
In France the treasuries of the monks of St. Maur scattered, but a mass
can be found by the French Masonic student. In Germany there must an
of manuscripts and early printed books dealing with the time
Reformation. These ought to produce rich pickings. And there is the
at the Vatican. All these possible sources of light may reveal truths
with ten years
that will set at rest forever the hypotheses and guesses with which in
we still have to be satisfied.
Waiting. -- [A Poem]
By John Burroughs
(This poem was written
by John Burroughs, who passed on in March, 1921)
I fold my arms and wait;
Nor care for wind, or tide, or sea;
I rave no more 'gainst time or fate,
For lo! my own shall come to me.
I stay my haste, I make delays,
For what avails this eager pace?
I stand amid eternal ways,
And what is mine shall know my face.
Asleep, awake, by night or day,
The friends I seek are seeking me;
No wind can drive my bark astray,
Nor change the tide of destiny.
What matter if I stand alone?
I wait with joy the coming years;
My heart shall reap where it has sown,
And garner up its fruit of tears.
The waters know their own, and draw
The brook that springs in yonder height;
So flows the good with equal law
Unto the soul of pure delight.
The stars come nightly to the sky;
The tidal wave unto the sea;
Nor time, nor space, nor deep, nor high
Can keep my own away from me.
In God's Hands -- [A Poem]
By Bro. H. L. Haywood. Iowa
spirit lies within Thy hands:
About my heart Thy fingers close
As clasping petals of the rose
Shut round the dew that in them stands:
My being lieth low and still
Within the shadow of Thy palm:
Within that shadow where the calm
Of peace first stole along my will:
There ever let me live and lie
In that secure and silent tent
Of quiet love's own banishment
While worlds and ages wander by:
There ever let me lie and feel
Thy clasp, O God, about me steal.
The Teachings of Masonry
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs. From the questions following each section of
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
* * *
‒ Masonry and Industry
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
industrial system dates back to 1789 in which year James Watt
the feasibility of the power machine for industrial purposes. Prior to
almost all work, as the name "manufacture" (which means "make by
hand") itself indicates, was carried on by hand. Tools were simple and
and there was little necessity for great factory buildings and no
manufacturing cities such as are now so familiar to us. The worker was
his work, and felt more interest in it, and had more at stake in it,
and often he
himself purchased the raw materials in which he worked, and owned the
he transformed raw products into articles of commerce.
of the steam engine, and other power machines, changed all that. The
too expensive for the workman to own; it had to be housed in special
designed for it; using such large quantities of stuff and turning out
quantities of finished products it was necessary to devise the railroad
to tend it. The dependence of one kind of manufacturing upon another
to herd together at convenient centers and thus the industrial city
came into existence.
Things could be made that were never made before, and a hitherto
undreamed of quantity
of new wealth came into existence. Under this regime workmen could no
their own tools but became employees, selling their labor in the market
as a commodity.
The machinery of production passed into the hands of wealthy men, and
as a consequence
we have the present divisions of society so familiar to us all: the
and controlling the raw materials of production and the machinery of
and distribution; the group made up of industrial laborers; and the
of small merchants and professional men who cater to the needs of these
be easy for any economist (the writer makes no claim to any such
dignity) to quarrel
with this picture, but the picture may stand for all that as a not
of the way things are, and of how they came so to be. At any rate, it
to introduce us to the points worthy of discussion in the present study.
as this great industrial system produces such an immense quantity of
wealth we very
naturally find a great deal of rather earnest rivalry among the various
groups who, each one, strive to capture as large a share of it as
we find capitalists, proprietors, merchants, etc., forming
and so forth, as a means of securing their stake in the system; and at
time laboring men form unions, farmers have their granges, and
mercantile groups build up all manner of systems, and all this in
nearly every case
in order to secure or to protect a certain interest in the values being
daily by the industrial system.
of groups due to their often conflicting group interests has come to be
known to us in these days as "the class struggle." Oftentimes men talk
of the class struggle as if it were a new invention, something only
into existence, but as a matter of fact, as Professor Franklin H.
Giddings has been
pointing out in a recent series of lectures, the class struggle is as
old as war,
and has played in all history quite as conspicuous a part as it does
it was never quite so much to the front in discussion as it is now.
ways of describing and explaining and interpreting this class struggle,
forces that have brought it about and of the manner in which its
problems may be
solved, have caused men to fall into a variety of different groups of
theory. The Anarchist believes that the industrial system is all as it
because it has so powerfully strengthened the hands of government, and
multiplied the opportunities of political tyranny, a thing he dreads
more than he
dreads the plague. The Communist, such as is now found so frequently in
would like to see the ownership of the raw materials, the machinery of
and of the systems of distributions vested in the hands of the masses
of the common
people, without distinction of intellectual ability, wealth, or any
The Socialist would like to see the industrial system owned and managed
by the people
at large in such wise that workers would produce only for use and not
and each worker would receive just what he produces, no more and no
less. The Guild
Socialist would welcome a return of the old guilds whereby a given
be managed jointly by all the members engaged in it, with more emphasis
on the social
and artistic side of labor, and less emphasis on the money side of it.
of whom our own I.W.W.'s may be taken as a type, would like to see all
of each of the great industries own that industry in such wise that all
could be associated together in a general system, which general
would fulfil all the functions now filled by our political governments.
or the man who takes the position which may be thus described, believes
present system is the only fair and possible method of making the goods
the world. The Christian Socialist believes that if the teachings of
were consistently applied to the industrial system it would result in a
state, but that the ordinary Socialistic methods of arriving at such an
quite wrong; in other words, it trusts in moral suasion rather than in
war or the class struggle.
point of view all these groups fall into only two groups, which may be
as Revolutionary or Reformist. In the latter case a man believes that
system as it now exists is sane and sound but that there are details
in it here and there that badly need changing, and he is in favor of
reforms but refuses to touch the system as a whole. On the other hand
is now concerned in mere local abuses or failures in the system: he is
that the system as a whole is wrong, and he works to uproot the system
in order utterly to destroy it so as to replace it by something
Revolutionaries again could be divided into classes, were there any
need in the
present instance, because some of them desire one kind of a system and
and some believe that the change could be made in one manner while
that it can only be made in other ways.
... If a man believes that coal miners do not receive adequate wages he
to increase their pay and would accordingly be classed as a reformer.
If he believed
that it is utterly wrong for coal mines to be owned and managed by
for coal miners to be wage workers selling their labor as a commodity,
and if he
strives to bring about a regime wherein coal mines will be owned in
way, he is a revolutionary. If he resorts to guns in order to bring
about he is in favor of violence: if he thinks he can bring it about by
means he will not believe in violence but will be a revolutionary
In that instance the Communist would say, Let us all, without
distinction, own and
run the coal mines together. The Syndicalist would say, Let the coal
and run the mines for their own sakes. The Political Socialist would
say, Let the
people own the mines, and let them through some kind of popularly
own and manage these mines, and let coal be produced as we need it, and
a profit out of it.
name a score of other groups, such as the Single Taxers, the Land
the Cooperationists, etc., but there is no need to multiply instances,
since this is not an essay in economics but in Masonry. Masonry as such
take sides with any of these groups. Its members may be doubtless found
all, for in Europe there are many Masons who may belong to some one of
Socialist or other radical groups, and in this country there are trade
capitalists, etc., etc., everywhere in our lodges. But that makes no
to these men as Masons, because as Masons they thrust these differences
as it is laid down in Masonic law, politics and kindred subjects are
in lodge. Therefore it is perfectly plain that Masonry has nothing to
do with these
conflicting industrial and political groups as such. But ‒ and here is
point of the present study ‒ the Fraternity nevertheless has very much
in the present industrial conflicts, for industry occupies so large a
place in the
foreground of individual and social life, and exercises so potent an
everything we are or do, that the fortunes of a great national
fraternity like ours
are very much bound up with the fortunes and issues of the industrial
strives to make all men brethren, living amicably and happily together;
if an industrial
system is such as to divide men into quarrelling factions, sometimes
war on each other, it is manifest that the aims of the Fraternity are
the evils in the industrial system. Freemasonry looks toward universal
international cooperation: if industrial methods and interests, as
tariffs and large foreign investments, drive nations apart and into
some form of
war, then Freemasonry, is thwarted. Freemasonry strives for equality
but if an industrial
regime is of such a nature as to divide society into castes and
cliques, the members
of which look with jealousy and suspicion upon each other, then it is
Freemasonry must suffer defeat. Whatever makes impossible the
realization of the
ideals of the Craft is in reality the enemy of Masonry, and will be
opposed by genuine
and living Masonry just insofar: whatever makes it possible for Masonic
be realized, will be supported and strengthened by Masonry. The
shortest path perhaps
to a very clear comprehension of this whole position may be to express
in one simple
sentence the gist of the whole matter:
In any discussion
of the philosophy of industry, Freemasonry, if it remain true to its
must take the position that industry exists for the sake of man, and
must be so
managed as to make for the welfare of man. What man is, and what man
what will make it possible for man to live a normal and happy life,
that is the
criterion by which an industrial system is to be judged.
If we men
and women are to remain alive, and if we are to live lives of
then certain things are necessary to us, such as food, clothing, fuel,
amusement, and all that. Industry is the method which we have devised
wants and needs may be satisfied. If at any point, or in any moment,
system is failing to satisfy these needs then that industrial system is
and must be reorganized. I have to work in order to live but if no work
is to be
had, something is radically and dangerously wrong. I need clothing, but
be my efforts, I cannot get clothing, I am forced to rebel against the
are. I have to find food in order to remain alive, but if there is no
food to be
had, it is manifest that there is a breakdown somewhere. To say that an
system is a thing that has come about through some mechanical process
like the fall of rain, and that therefore we must passively endure its
well as enjoy its goods, is a very foolish way of thinking, because an
system is a very human thing, a thing we have brought into existence, a
which we always have, if we will but exercise it, a great deal of
however, is not to imply that the present system is wrong; far from it;
I make is that the one possible criterion whereby to test a system is
How successfully does it minister to human needs? The question as to
or shortcomings of the system now at work is quite irrelevant in the
and must be left to the economists and the industrial experts.
with the above it must also be noted that one should not make
of an industrial system, as is too often the fashion of zealous but
reformers. There are many things in nature that cannot be changed, and
we must adjust
our industrial systems to those things. I may not like to mine coal in
galleries underground, but that is where coal is to be found, so I must
best of it. I may not enjoy living in the far north where the winters
are so long
and cold, but if I am to have pine lumber that is where I must go to
get it. The
sea is too often a damp and cheerless place in which to live, but if I
I must go to sea to get them. Many of the conditions under which we
have to work
may be uncomfortable and even dangerous, but such conditions must not
up against the industrial system if these things cannot be changed.
Also, it should
be remembered that there is no magic in industry: if a given quantity
of goods are
to be produced, then a certain amount of work is required to produce
it, and that
means that man will be compelled to work so many hours, so that it may
happen that a work day will have to be long. And there is a limit to
of tools, instruments, and inventions, so that often it will
necessarily be a hard
and dangerous thing to do certain kinds of work, no matter how much
there may be by way of inventive genius. This is only another way of
while we insist that a given industrial system must satisfy the needs
of human beings
in a satisfactory manner we must take care not to frame that
requirement in such
wise as to make it impossible of realization: the fixed conditions of
be taken into consideration, the limitations of devices and tools, and
in human power and human wisdom.
is wedded to high ideals, and insistent on lofty demands, but even so
it is unwise
of Masons to suppose that therefore it has any right to expect any
It does have a right, however, to ask that this world be made and kept
a human world
in which men can live together as brothers: and it should insist that
in which we make and distribute the goods of life should be of such a
as will make possible the realization of those fine and human goals
makes its way. For Masonry is itself a living organism and cannot live
in a hostile
Freemasonry we cannot discuss such things in our lodges, and it is
Masons will very seldom, as Masons, care to discuss such matters
outside of lodges.
Be that as it may, if we are going to take our task seriously, and if
we are sincerely
in earnest to make right relations and brotherhood prevail we should
all as individuals
think out our industrial problems from the point of view of the Craft's
and ideals. Nothing presses more closely upon us in these days, nothing
fraught with the potentialities of great change and nothing will do
more to reshape
the world in which Freemasonry, like every other institution, must
abide, than our
industrial system and the burning problems which now beat about it. The
find its own way through all this, and adjust itself to it, and do its
part in it: how that can be, and when, and where, and to what results,
is the problem of the Masonic philosophy of industry, a thing not yet
which must be born sooner or later.
- How, would you describe the
industrial system that existed before 1789?
- Who was James Watt?
- What great invention did he
- How has the power changed the
whole face of the earth, and brought about
a complete reconstruction of human society?
- Name the ten basic industries.
- What is meant by an "industrial
- How did our large cities arise?
- What is the importance of
transportation systems in modern life?
- What is meant by "economist"?
- Have you ever fashioned for
yourself a theory of Freemasonry's attitude toward
- Can you give an example of the
class struggle drawn from ancient history?
- From medieval history?
- What is meant by "class
- Give evidences of its existence
drawn from your own observations.
- Has Anarchy ever had control of
- Name a few of the more famous
- What is the difference between
Communism and Socialism?
- What can you tell about Karl
Marx and his theories?
- Did you ever read "The
Communist Manifesto" by Marx and Engels?
- What did Marx teach in his
- Are there any guilds now in
- What would the Syndicalists do
with our own government if they could get
hold of it?
- Can you name any prominent
- Do the Capitalists have
organizations similar to trade unions? If so, what
are they, and what do you think of them?
- What should be the attitude of
Freemasonry toward trade unionism?
- What can you tell about
- Can you describe and define the
Cooperative movement, not mentioned in the
- Do you believe we need a new
- Or do you think the present
system is sound?
- What is meant by Land
- How would that affect an
- Would you admit an Anarchist to
membership in the Fraternity?
- Do you know any Masons who are
- Just what, according to your
own views, does Freemasonry have at stake in
the present industrial system?
- What is the attitude of French
Masonry toward the industrial crisis?
- Of English Masonry?
- What effect does the present
industrial system have on brotherhood, international
relations, peace, equality?
- What does an industrial system
exist to do?
- Is our present system
fulfilling the functions which we have a right to ask
- Are you able, through honest
effort, to secure sufficient work, food, clothing,
- What effects do the possession
of great private fortunes have upon a nation?
- What is meant by industrial
- Give examples of impossible
demands made on our industrial system by reformers.
- How do you judge of the worth
and desirability of any proffered reform?
- By what standards do you judge
- How can you prove, for example,
whether or not the eight-hour day should
be put everywhere into practice?
- What has Masonry a light to
demand of an industrial system?
- Is Masonry actually making such
demands? If so, how?
- How can such questions as these
be studied by Masons as Masons?
- Should Masonic magazines
discuss industrial problems?
is it possible to work out a Masonic Philosophy of Industry?
* * *
Bee Hive, p. 101;
Brother, p. 120;
Brotherhood, p. 120;
Brotherly Love, p. 121;
Charges of 1722, p. 143;
Charges, Old, p. 143;
Comacine Masters, p. 161;
Craftsman, p. 184;
Freemason, p. 282;
Freemasons of the Church, p. 284;
Freemasonry, Early British, p. 283;
Labour, p. 419;
Laborare est orare (Work is worship), p.
Labourers, Statutes of, p. 419;
Records, Old, p. 612;
Travelling Masons, p. 792;
Trestle Board, p. 797;
of a Master Mason, Symbolic, p. 834;
of Operative Masons, p. 834;
of the Workmen at the Temple, p.
Master of the, p. 857;
Working Tools, p. 856;
Workmen at the Temple, p. 857.
many other similar references in the revised Encyclopedia of
Freemasonry deal with
the various angles of the main question considered in the present Study
A careful examination of the information furnished under these heads
will give a
close intimacy with the attitude of Freemasons now and of old to
the era of the Operative Craft to that of the present day Speculative
What we Freemasons may be has its sure foothold in the past. What we
should be rests
upon our enlightened understanding of what has gone before and of the
to our keeping.
* * *
Our Study Club Plan
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to
of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three
in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under
the following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge
and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and
"Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st, 1921,
are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Haywood:
The Teachings of Masonry
- General Introduction.
- The Masonic Conception of Human
- The Idea of Truth in
- The Masonic Conception of
- Ritualism and Symbolism.
- Initiation and Secrecy.
- Masonic Ethics.
- Masonry and Industry.
- The Brotherhood of Man.
- The Fatherhood of God.
- Endless Life.
- Brotherly Aid.
- Schools of Masonic Philosophy.
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
* * *
How to Organize and Conduct
Study Club Meetings
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to study club purposes. After the lodge has been opened and all routine
disposed of, the Master should turn the lodge over to the chairman of
club committee. The committee should be fully prepared in advance on
to be discussed at the meeting. All members to whom references for
papers have been assigned should be prepared with their material, and
have a comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's paper by a previous
study of it.
Program for Study Club Meetings
1. Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
2. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
3. Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
4. The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
5. Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
Toleration and Freemasonry
will one encounter a nobler paper than Brother Bingay's essay on
which appears elsewhere in this issue. It is a high-minded statement of
and eternal truth with which no true man can disagree, least of all a
whom Toleration is a principle sacred and binding. Ever since it
its constitutions the famous paragraph "Concerning God and Religion"
Craft has worked in the world as a champion of the right of every man
speak, and worship as his own soul would order, and sad would be the
Masonry descend to backbiting, harshness, and to the folly of fighting
is in itself a positive and fruitful principle, for it alone can
conditions under which it is possible for men to think, work, and
The evil genius of intolerance is in its refusal to permit the spirit
of man freedom
to act and grow, and thus it hampers, thwarts, and deadens all the more
and creative faculties. Not to abuse those who differ from you, not to
them with bludgeons and tortures, but to grant to them the same
difference" that you ask for yourself is something as practicable as it
beautiful, for only thus can great constructive work be done.
is also wise to remember with Socrates that a virtue carried too far
becomes a vice.
It is possible so to interpret Toleration as to make of it a mere mush
in which one creed, one idea, one teaching is as true (or as untrue) as
and thus all distinctions are lost, and the mind falls back into a
in which truth is impossible. If THE BUILDER would find any fault at
all with Brother
Bingay's paper it would be on this score. It appears that he would
almost ask men
not to oppose what they know to be error, and that, surely, is asking
The bigoted, the fanatical, the superstitious, the tyrannical, what do
about Toleration! they would not be what they are if they cared
anything at all
for it! consequently, if one ties the hands and gags the mouth of those
the light and who try manfully to make sweet reason and the will of God
he is virtually surrendering the case to the Philistines.
a lofty indifferentism cannot be Toleration, and we do not believe that
Bingay intends it so to be. If Toleration means anything it cannot mean
such a procedure would asphyxiate all science, knowledge, truth, and
there be. What true Toleration is, it would seem, is in the last
analysis what true
gentlemanliness is: a courteous respect of the personality of others,
and a genuine
willingness that they should in their own way seek their own truths,
and live their
own lives, remembering all the while that always and everywhere every
and conduct must be constantly justified before the bar of the common
* * *
The Menace of Bigness
has more than once joined with its contemporaries in raising a warning
dizzy gyrations of the degree mill, for there is good reason to fear
from the flood of initiations that continues to pour over us. In order
the rapid increase now upon the Craft turn to the experience of
Illinois, in which
great and prosperous commonwealth Freemasonry is growing far more
rapidly than the
traditional green bay tree. In 1890 there were 42,369 Masons in
Illinois. By 1900
this had grown to 57,325, a net gain of only 14,966, or a few more than
a year! By 1910 the figure reached 101,692, which was a very
considerable army of
Masons. But see what happened during the next decade! In 1920, a little
year ago, Illinois Masonry numbered 203,447! This was a gain of
101,755, or more
than 10,000 per year. But note what happened during the one year
between 1920 and
1921: the number leaped to 230,588, which means a gain of 27,141. If
is good at mathematics he can work out the percentages for himself,
though the figures
are dizzy enough as they are.
Is such growth
as this ‒ it is quite representative ‒ to be considered a good thing or
It would appear ‒ and this, as the diplomats would say, is the whole
point of the
present "convention" ‒ that it may be either, and that it will become
one or the other according to the effectualness of the initiation
all appertaining thereto. If lodge officials are so enamored of the
lure of mere
bigness as to open the gates to anything and everything that may chance
the guise of petitioners, it is most certainly an evil, for the day in
becomes a huge, slovenly, member-chasing society will be the death day
of all those
qualities that have made it worth the time of genuine men.
But why may
we not ask of ourselves that we become equal to the rapidity of this
thing is not impossible. If the facilities are at hand, and if they be
used by qualified
men, it should be as easy to make good Masons out of one thousand
it would be out of one hundred. Can this be gainsaid? If not, why not
attention upon making the organization safe for Masonry? that is, upon
the level of institutional efficiency to the demands made upon it. The
large numbers and great resources, because it has become one of our
In the days that are before it it will need greater resources still,
for the mightiest
of all its battles is rapidly preparing.
A Further Review of "Freemasonry
and the Ancient Gods”
and the Ancient Gods," [Lib*] by Brother J.S.M. Ward, F.R. Econ. Soc.,
with an Introduction by The Hon. Sir John A. Cockburn, K.C.M.G., M.D.
by Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., Ltd., 4 Stationer's
London, E.C. 4, England. Demy 8vo, Cloth, 30s. net, or post free
anywhere in the
world, 31s. 6d. An import duty of one dollar is charged on the book.
be had through the National Masonic Research Society at $7.50, postpaid.
WHEN ON page
88 of the March issue we published a review of this work by Brother
Silas H. Shepherd,
it was announced that "an examination of the work by the editor will
shortly." Happily, in now redeeming that promise, it becomes possible
along with the editor's review, two other reviews by competent
brethren, one of
which chances to be strongly "contra," the other strongly "pro."
In this wise it turns out that, including the able summary by Brother
readers of THE BUILDER will have four independent reports of this
A "Pro" View.
and the Ancient Gods" is the latest evidence of the swing of the
from that schools of Masonic writers, like Gould, who are imbued with
of Thomas, and can only be convinced by sticking their hands in the
It was, perhaps,
necessary that the materialistic school, of which Gould was such a
should arise as a protest against the extravagant statements of men
and Preston, but now there appears to be a reaction, an inevitable turn
of the tide.
work is by J.S.M. Ward of England and is bound to create a great deal
in Masonic circles as he is the forerunner of what he, himself, terms
School" as against the so-called "Authentic School" of Gould and
his circle. "But," as he says, "after all, we must remember that
Freemasonry is still and has always been, a secret society. In its very
written documents are anathema. To this day our oath proves this and it
during the last two hundred years that any deviation from this rule has
at. Even now there are lodges in England whose ritual varies
considerably from that
in use in London, and in certain cases the sole repository of it is the
and members of the lodge. Such lodges absolutely forbid their members
to write down
one word of it. If this were the original policy of Freemasonry, how
can we reasonably
expect to find documentary evidence for the antiquity of our Order? For
purposes no documents, except the Ancient Charges, can be found of a
to the foundation of the Grand Lodge in 1717."
Yet he shows
the lack of research of such men of the documentary school as Gould and
depended on Thory and Clavel, particularly in the case of the Knight
of John Mark Larmenius, and showed that they had never seen the
in cipher which he reproduces in facsimile and demonstrates to be
genuine; and he
shows the legend of the Baldwin encampment of Knights Templar to be
based on fact,
which in itself is an important contribution to Masonic history.
the view that while the Crusades checked the incursion of Eastern races
Western world, on the other hand they brought about the impregnation of
world with the germs of Eastern thought. From thence was derived (in
of Sir Christopher Wren as well as Prof. T. Hayter Lewis, Past Master
Coronati lodge,) that style of architecture which we now term "Gothic."
traces the descent of Freemasonry through symbolism and its common use
India, among the Mayas of Central America, China, etc., and prints many
showing these races using Masonic signs. The Knights of the Temple
the East the spirit of Gnosticism which was pre-Christian, he says, and
afterwards called a heresy and it was for this that the Order was
appeared to have held an esoteric view of Christianity which would
permit the Jews
of the Kabbala and those of other religions to join, instead of being
to Trinitarian Christians as at present.
the author saw Mohammedan Pathans in an alley at Colombo, Ceylon,
meeting one another
for the first time, go through one by one, all the signs of Craft
Masonry. He gives
many authentic stories of English Masons who in India, China and
come in contact with non-Grand Lodge Masonry and have worked their way
inner sanctuaries of Temples; and of natives who have visited English
of which must be read to be appreciated.
is a distinct advance over the usual materialistic Masonic history and
is evidently one who has touched and become acquainted with the Great
has ever contacted Freemasonry. He shows that in Masonry as in the
there is an esoteric meaning which must not be given to the multitude.
a most difficult task most acceptably, since he is giving an
explanation of symbolisms
based on symbols whose very names he must not mention. He cannot give
to any one; for the secret is an experience which must be gone through
‒ the Secret
of the Beatific Vision.
It is amusing
to see how some froth and fume against the mystic and occult
interpretation of the
Masonic symbols, for it is evident that "they do not belong." They have
not joined that great and really secret organization which has existed
the ages and which exists today and whose members recognize each other
words. Those who have joined the School know their fellow scholars.
They can travel
in foreign countries and receive Master's wages, as Pythagoras taught
The others hear their speech and think it as foolish as the talk of the
was once considered, or as the gibberish of Giberol. Osiris is raised
by Horus at
the entreaty of Isis, or the Soul is raised by the spirit consciously
at the entreaty of Matter. This book marks the beginning of the New
Masons, or rather those Masons who seek to raise the Veil of Isis, even
but a trifle.
Cyrus Field Willard.
A "Contra" View.
most pretentious publication dubbed Masonic that has appeared in
England for some
time is "Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods," offered by James S.M. Ward
as the fruit of fourteen years of study and research and published in
form, with a copious bibliography and index. Patient industry the
reveals in chapter after chapter, yet one cannot but regret that his
not been applied to matters of his own knowledge rather than wasted on
far better covered by others. A person who is not especially trained to
the paths of ancient or modern non-Christian religious beliefs is very
to stumble. For example, is it not rash to write of points of contact
Egypt and Babylonian worship with the oldest Aryan beliefs without
Sayce, Cheyne, Maspero, Jastrow or Haupt may have to say? And should a
symbolism without, evidently, knowing of Goblet d'Alviella, or speak of
with but a superficial acquaintance with Cumont?
of the book does not describe its contents and a happier choice might
made because the ancient gods are quite subordinate to the main theme,
the first part, is the universality of the signs of Masonry. The author
to prove that Masonic signs are used all over the world and are
recognized and answered
by remote peoples and by the most unexpected savage tribes. The second
part is a
discussion of the higher degrees; and in the third part he scolds his
for the manner in which he insists they are altering the "work." An
Craftsman who is not familiar with English customs might be able to
very interesting information about the English attitude toward the
Templar and Scottish
Rites from the second part of the book. In this section, too, Brother
a condensation of the article on the Knights Templar which appeared in
the Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum in 1911 [Lib 1911], written by F.J.W. Crowe,
with a summary of
the Chapter of Larmenius and some excerpts from Bothwell-Gosse's "The
Perhaps, as there is no original research in Parts Two or Three of this
Ward would have done better to have omitted them and to have confined
to Part One. It would have made a more compact volume of 178 pages and
then contained all that Brother Ward really has to say. He opens with a
of an initiation ceremony among Bektashi Dervishes, but he should know
a description is of no value as evidence unless time and place and the
the witnesses are given. Nothing else will do. The Masonic world is
on this point evidence such as would be accepted, not necessarily in a
law, but to the satisfaction of the average man accustomed to weigh
If our ceremonies and ritual, signs and symbols, are in use, as has
among the Druses, Hindu sects, natives of West Africa, American
Indians, let us
have the sworn testimony if possible, but let us have the testimony,
such form that we can judge its credibility. It was hoped that it was
that Brother Ward had done in this book, but it turns out to be as
credulous as those that have gone before. He tells us that two British
worked their way into the inner shrine of a temple of Shiva by giving
of the Royal Arch, but clearly this is hearsay on his part and we are
names of the officers and their statements. And who can help being
these important features of the testimony are withheld?
skepticism is justified. It is no longer possible for anybody to make
and call them proof and this new spirit of investigation in Freemasonry
has brought us to some real knowledge of the Craft and its history. The
proof. So one has little patience in following Brother Ward through his
of Mexican revelations. Aztec and Maya remains do not sustain any
Masonic knowledge on the part of the natives whom Cortez conquered. Let
read the Smithsonian Institute summary of Mexican antiquities, to be
most large public libraries, and it will be obvious that Brother Ward's
is incapable of belief. Nor can an American Mason be induced to believe
ever saw two Pathans in an Indian alley go through all the Masonic
signs, as Brother
Ward accepts as true. There are very strong arguments to be made in
favor of an
Aryan origin for certain Masonic conceptions but such arguments gain no
puerile phantasies, as Brother Ward, a B.A. of Cambridge, surely must
says Brother Ward, getting down to more argument, "Masonry had its
in the days of Ashmole, long before any scientific study had been made
antiquities." As a statement of fact that is precisely true, but
further from the truth than the inference one would draw from it and
Ward evidently believes. The knowledge of the meaning of the Egyptian
was never really absolutely lost, for Horapollon's two volumes of
were certainly in existence in Ashmole's day. Whether Horapollon wrote
them or not,
they are in very late Greek and some students place them as late as the
century. Some of the meanings given by Horapollon Dr. Adolf Hermann
(Tollheiten), but there are the lists for anyone to see and the
for anyone to read. Whether Horapollon of Phaenebythes wrote the two
whether they were written by Horapollon who lived a century later,
between 474 and
491, or whether they were written by somebody else about 1450, the fact
that the books were in existence and anybody who possessed them could
make a fair
attempt at translation of the Egyptian hieroglyphs. And they were used
by the magic
school that debased, or pretendedly so, the Hermetic school of
philosophy with which
the student of the origins of Masonry finds himself constantly in
contact. So Brother
Ward, if he were an Egyptologist as well as a Mason, might have traced
of some of our work more directly to the Egyptian priesthood than he
anyone contend that the sign of F.C. is a natural sign?" asks the
anyone will. It is the most natural sign in the world. He says it is
found in India,
Egypt and Palestine, as well as elsewhere, and he might have added that
it is an
old American Indian sign, too, for it is ‒ one of the oldest of the
Its naturalness explains its universal use. And here it is that Brother
has wholly failed to do what the reader in taking up the book expects
to find done.
Brother Ward has traveled, he has had his eyes open, he has made notes;
but ‒ he
has really described nothing. In is not necessary to tell a Mason what
sign is, so the author could have told what a savage did, or what a
tribe did, giving
date and place, and then the Masonic reader would have known, just as
well as Brother
Ward knew, whether or not the matter described had any counterpart in
he has failed to do this, he has produced a work of great length
curious information but it is really of no value to the student.
A Third View.
Of the many
admirable qualities exhibited by "Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods" the
thing that has most favorably impressed myself is the fervor, the
with which its author, Brother J.S.M. Ward, deals with Freemasonry. To
him it is
not an antiquarian puzzle, or a corpse on the dissecting table, but a
and living thing ‒ almost a being ‒ to be known, loved, and served. If
this zeal seems to carry him away, after the manner of enthusiasm since
began, and he does not always employ as ripe a judgment as a man should
such a task as he has assumed, one is more than willing to be lenient
with one who
is always alive, even if he is not always accurate, because enthusiasm
multitude of sins.
sins are not to be counted by the multitude but there are a certain
number of them
which must be fairly admitted by even the most partisan friends of the
a sophisticated reader accustomed to the meticulous carefulness of
many slips of grammar, spelling, and of matters of fact in the volume
are very painful.
The word "Collegia" is three times (perhaps oftener) used as a singular
noun. Our old friend J. Yarker appears repeatedly as "Yarkar," a thing
that must irritate his learned ghost. Laurence Dermott makes his advent
In themselves of slight importance these slips convey the impression of
make a reader suspicious about more important matters. At the bottom of
page 8 the
author says "that in the Middle Ages an apprentice was bound for seven
In the majority of cases yes, but not always, as in France, where it
was quite common
to hold an apprentice by an indenture of only five years. On page 145
is this sentence:
"When Christianity was converting the rank and file of ancient Rome it
not fail to attract the members of the various colleges, among which
many of the Masonic fraternity." But there was no "Masonic fraternity"
among those Colleges; there was no fraternity of any kind. In the very
is this bewildering sentence: "Strange to say, Diocletian, when he set
to destroy Christianity, dealt very leniently with the Collegia of
etc. If this means anything at all it means that the Collegia had
become part of
the Christian institution, or at least, Christian, which is not true to
There never was such a thing as a great unified institution in the
as "the Collegia"; all those bodies were independent, deriving their
of form from the imperial statutes according to which they were
governed. As for
their symbols, emblems, and ritual little or nothing is known, as one
for himself from that which is the principal source of information, the
has a habit of making rapid and loose statements about matters that
call very loudly
for caution and many modifications. The case of the Roman Collegia,
to, is an example of this. The case of the Comacini may be offered as
The history of the Comacini is as yet so much of a terra incognita that
the most careful historians of architecture omit the subject
altogether, while others
refer to them incidentally, and in passing, and usually with the remark
Comacine theory is as yet in the making. Leader Scott herself, and
Brother W. Ravenscroft
after her, have both been careful to keep before their readers the
of many of the "proofs" offered by them. In the preface to his now
little book, "The Comacines," the latter writes thus:
of what I have written is theoretical and part historical, and, in
order to avoid
destroying the value of the latter, I have endeavored to keep the two
with Brother Ward is that he has not "endeavored to keep the two things
distinct." The apprentices in Masonic lore who chance to read his pages
that theme and may there be many such to read his pages ‒ will carry
away the impression
that what he has stated is so much matter-of-fact history. This is
the Comacine Theory is still just that ‒ a theory, and it should be
as such, and given that value.
finds it easier than most to cut the Gordian knot. After describing at
and in an interesting fashion, "the Hindoo Yogi system" he brings his
reader up suddenly with this statement: "For convenience, we may regard
first three degrees as corresponding roughly to our Craft degrees." If
Ward can discern such an identity he possesses a pair of X-ray eyes not
to myself, and an agility of reason that I very much covet. Of like
this is that other example of theological reasoning, the crux of which
on page 38: "There is a marked similarity between the three principal
in a Craft lodge and the three principles of the Deity"! (Quotation
my own.) On the following page is a similar sentence: "Therefore,
when your final duty is performed tonight, pause for an instant and
recall to your
mind that side of the Deity which closes the life of every man, and
which some day
will close the work of this planet when Time shall be no more." I
if ever an S.W. sees a side of Deity approaching him in order to
perform that function
he will quite forget that he has ever been an S.W.!
It is easy
for one to throw out a theory here, another there, and another further
at last, like the spider with her web, a system of theories has been
is easy in the process to forget gradually, as one advances, how he has
so that at last, when the conclusions are reached, the mind has
forgotten that it
has passed from theory to theory rather than from fact to fact. In this
is perilously easy to build up an illusion of proof out of the most
After reading the whole of "Freemasonry and the Ancient Gods," having
in mind the while its principal thesis, I came to a stop with the
feeling that what
I had in my hands was not proof, but only the illusion thereof.
book's thesis is may be succinctly stated in the author's own words, as
page viii of his Preface:
the theory that I venture to propound is that Freemasonry originated in
initiatory rites of prehistoric man, and from these rites have been
built up all
the ancient mysteries, and thence all the modern religious systems. It
is for this
reason that men of all religious beliefs can enter Freemasonry; and,
reason we admit no women is that these rites were originally the
of men; the women had their own. These for sociological reasons
those of the men survived, and developed into the mysteries."
has made a splendid undertaking even if, as some of us may believe, he
in accomplishing his purpose. Gradually, and by virtue of a prodigious
labor, carried on now for more than half a century, Masons have
accumulated a great
mass of data belonging to many countries, periods, and peoples. These
and theories now lie in heaps in our modern books, just as, before the
days of the
archeologists fragments of buildings lay scattered about the sites of
passed away without any historian being able to link up these pathetic
to the story of the peoples they once served. To a certain type of mind
is more uncomfortable than such a situation; such men are eager to
throw out great
generalizations, like nets, in order to draw all the facts into some
kind of dramatic
unity, such as has been at last attained in some of the more familiar
secular history, as in the story of Rome or of Greece. They generalize,
up grandiose systems, in order to save themselves from the feeling of
uncertainty. These generalizers have often gone astray and will
continue so to do
in the nature of the case, but, after all, they have their own high
place and their
own exceeding great reward. The present state of affairs with regard to
"history" is one that calls out loudly to such men. Sooner or later
may appear a great generalizer to furnish us with the clue to it all,
bring us out of our uncertainty, but he has not yet appeared.
exciting thing about Brother Ward's book is his forthright challenge to
describes as "the Authentic School." On page vii of his Preface he has
this to say about these same Authentists:
"Yet, despite these
the Authentic School, for all practical purposes, concentrates its
research on documentary
evidence, and naturally is unable to adduce any real evidence for
to Grand Lodge, save as an operative guild. Let the Authentic School
on documents ‒ there is still enough work to be done to occupy it fully
years ‒ but let others follow the anthropological line of research, and
total of our knowledge will be vastly increased."
Ward expect to be taken seriously in this? Where is this Authentic
of whom is it composed? how are we to recognize it when we encounter
it? Does Brother
Ward (such is the interpretation evidently placed on his words by
mean the eminent scholars who have composed the Quatuor Coronati Lodge
If so, and such is my own guess, then this Authentic School can be
and its voice heard: it has carefully and voluminously expressed itself
in the thirty-odd
volumes of the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum.
The Ars is
a library with which I have long lived on rather intimate terms, and I
in the past, as in the present, some personal intercourse with the men
contributed to its pages. But not by any stretching of words or
I make Brother Ward's adjective "Authentic" fit this group; nor can I
understand how that group may be described as concentrating on
For one thing,
the men of the Quatuor Coronati do not form a "school" in the sense
they have certain theories in common; far from it, as all will know who
delight in the discussions that almost always have followed each paper
For another thing, they have never united behind any set of formal
acts, or any
program whatsoever; they have from the first jealously protected the
right of every
member to go his own way. Having neither acts nor theories in common,
have had but one bond in common, and that has been loyalty throughout
to the commonly
accepted canons of scientific thought. Their plea has ever been, Let us
Masonry, its nature and its history, as we would investigate the
history of Rome,
or Greece, or England.
If the term
"Authentic School" has any other meaning than this, Brother Ward should
out with it! But if the term means this ‒ and I believe that most of us
interpret it ‒ then a question stands ready to hand: Does Brother Ward
ask us to
throw aside scientific methods? If he does he is asking the impossible.
And as for
his "anthropological researches," he will find as much of that in the
A.Q.C. as anywhere. The notion that the members of the Lodge Quatuor
been obsessed by concern for the minutiae of Masonic documents is
dispelled by the
most hasty reading of their Transactions. Everything has been grist
that has come
to their mill, and their mill has been operated according to the most
For all that
I disagree with him in these fundamental matters Brother Ward's book is
I shall gladly recommend to my friends whenever occasion permits. Like
David he has taken for his province "the whole round of creation." To
read the book through from beginning to end is in itself almost a
A student, and this should especially weigh with the new student, will
laid before him, in orderly and seemly array, all the larger problems
our best minds have been wrestling. And he will encounter here, in
a great accumulation of the facts that every Mason should know.
I like best of all in the book as a book is its amplitude, its sweep,
and its recognition of the romance and human appeal of our Fraternity,
not, and never has been, a static organization carved out of the rock
for aged men
to lean on. Few are they that have discovered the height, and the
depth, and the
length, and the breadth of it; nor has it entered into the imagination
of many men
to know what are its unsearchable riches. Never yet, save in the great
of stone wrought out by our cathedral building brethren of long ago,
has it been
celebrated by one competent to express that which it has put into the
life of the world; not once, save in a few stray pages of Morals and
it will not be always so! There will someday come a man endowed by
nature with the
incomparable gifts of the great poet, and equipped by his own labor
with a complete
panoply of knowledge, who, out of his balanced powers of learning,
speech, and imagination
will write The Book of Freemasonry. When that book has been written
will then discover how that though Masonry has been with them for a
long time, yet
have they hardly known it at all!
* * *
the above a Masonic brother has called my attention to the fact that
is already at least twice an author. He is credited with two volumes on
the former of them being "Gone West," [Lib*] and the latter "A
in Spirit Land." [Lib*] These two books, as an examination has shown,
of materials alleged to have been "revealed" from the "spirit world"
to the author. It appears that Brother Ward is a "trance medium" and
that he practices "automatic writing." I add this codicil to my review
because it will enable our readers more quickly to "place" Brother Ward.
Subaltern in Spirit Land" is published by William Rider & Sons,
Row, London, E.C. 4, England. The other volume (it is not at hand just
as I recall, from the same publishing house.
* * *
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to where
obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than those listed
on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the publications
wanted have been
out of print for years. Believing that many such books might be in the
other members of the Society willing to dispose of them we are setting
column each month for the use of our members. Communications from those
Masonic publications will also be welcomed.
addresses are here given that those interested may communicate direct
other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the Society.
It is requested
that all brethren whose wants may be filled through this medium
the Secretary so that the notices may then be discontinued.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.: ‒
"Realities of Masonry," Blake,
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship
of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson,
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine,
By Bro. G.
Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.: ‒
Proceedings of the Scottish Rite Body founded
by Joseph Cerneau in New York City in 1808, of which De Witt Clinton
was the first
Grand Commander, and which body became united, in 1867, with the
of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, A. & A. S. R.
Proceedings of the Supreme Council
Founded in New York by De La Motta, in 1813, by authority of the
Council, of which he was Grand Treasurer-General, these Proceedings
from 1813 to
By Bro. Frank
R. Johnson, 310 Dwight Building, Kansas City, Mo.: ‒
Year Book," published by
the Masonic Constellations, containing the History of the Grand
Council, R. &
S. M., of Missouri.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California: ‒
Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and
7, with St. John's Cards, also St. John's Cards for volumes 4 and 5;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
of Masonry," early volumes;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction
for the years 1882 and 1886;
Original Proceedings of The General Grand
Encampment Knights Templar for the years 1826 and 1835.
N. W. J. Haydon, 664 Pape Ave., Toronto, Ont., Canada: ‒
‒ A set
of Gould's History, six volume edition
preferred. By Brother Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library
of Samuel Lawrence";
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations
Source of Measures," by
J. Ralston Skinner 1875, or second edition 1894;
Quatuor Coronatorum," volumes
I to XI, inclusive;
"Masonic Facts and Fictions,"
by Henry Sadler;
Kabbalah Unveiled," by S.
L. MacGregor Mathers.
A. A. Burnand, 690 South Bronson Ave., Los Angeles, California: ‒
Various Masonic publications including
such as a complete set of "Ars Quatuor Coronatorum";
"History of Freemasonry in Scotland,"
by D. Murray Lyon, (original edition); Thomas Dunkerly, Laurence
Geo. A. Lanzarotti, Casilla 126, Rancagua, Chile: ‒
kinds of Masonic literature in Spanish.
Write first quoting prices.
If a man
empties his purse into his head, no man can take it away from him. An
in knowledge always pays the best interest.
Side Degrees Fifty Years
In the good
old days Masonic editors did not handle their competitors or their
gloves on, but lit into them like bobcats (it was the custom in
as will be noted from the following excerpt from the WESTERN FREEMASON
at which time that journal boasted as its editor no less a giant than
Brother Parvin had a tussle with Brother J. R. Hartsock, Grand Master
of Iowa, and
as usual came off on top. In one of the "replies" that Brother Parvin
wrote to Brother Hartsock occurs a paragraph of peculiar interest in
that it reveals
how at that early day the Order of the Secret Monitor ‒ now so seldomly
‒ and the degrees of the Knight of Constantine were commonplaces of
and also how that in 1859 the old bitter warfare over the rival types
of Blue Lodge
"work" was as yet as its height. We of this day, who have become so
with a uniform ritual (within the State), sustained with great care by
Lodge down to the last detail, find it difficult to transport ourselves
to a time
when there was no such authoritative "work" but in many cases local
were permitted to devise the work as they saw fit. In the main,
however, a half
dozen types came to the front to contend for mastery through a period
It may be said that the so-called "Webb Work," as modified and
by Jeremy Cross, gradually forged to the front and won out. The whole
worth careful examination by those who erroneously assume that our
in all its details has descended to us from ancient times.
Brother Hartsock obtained the true Webb work in 1842 or 1844 from
Brother Nye of
Vermont, as he says in statement seven, why did he 'lay aside that work
many innovations connected with it,' and in 1846 secure the services of
of Virginia, to obtain from him, word for word, another and a different
sometimes overleaps itself.
Hartsock came to my lodge one evening while he was Deputy Grand Master,
and I gave
him the East, when he commenced repeating that 'Cousin Sally Dillard'
story ‒ 'as
I was saying, I went down to Virginny,' etc.; and after repeating this
he called from labor with the remark, 'All those brethren who have not
the degrees of Knight of Constantine and Secret Monitor will remain and
I will confer
them.' I at once replied that such doings could not be enacted in the
hall of my
lodge, and if that was the business his Master sent him to do, he could
go to the
hotel and use the barroom as a more befitting place. At this he got
into a passion,
and threatened, but to no purpose. I ordered the tyler to close the
hall, and he
obeyed, and Brother H. went to the hotel, and in its parlor conferred
upon the younger
brethren these degrees. Whether they have any connection with the story
Sally Dillard' or not, we have never learned, for we abominate such
fungi upon the
body of Masonry."
much more of equal interest to those who may care to go back to the old
it. Can anybody tell us what was this famous (or infamous) "Cousin
Look to The East -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald Nancarrow,
thou wouldst see the Majesty of God
Rise o'er the jewelled portal of the dawn;
If thou wouldst taste the wine of morning's feast,
Awake thy Soul, and look thee to the East.
And wouldst thou have the mantle of the Lord
Spread o’er thy restless longings for a while?
Gone be thy fears, thy tumult ceased ‒
If thou wilt hold thy gaze upon the East.
When thou hast wrought the labors of thy day,
And night shall fall to compass thee about,
Then morn shall break, thy Spirit be released
The Master's hand shall seat thee in the East.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study.” When requested, questions will be
promptly by mail before publication in this department.
Outlines and Suggestions
for Six Talks on Freemasonry
me outlines for about six talks on Masonic subjects, as follows:
- Brotherly Love, Relief, and
- Freemasonry Unites Men of Every
Country, Sect, and Opinion;
- The Great Lights;
- Masonic Working Tools and What
Will be very
you have given us a rather large order! But here goes! Wherever
possible you are
being referred to material that has already appeared in THE BUILDER.
This is done
in order to economize space, which has come to be at a premium.
I. Brotherly Love, Relief, and
Love. It is something less than private friendship but more than
it is that mutual regard that is born from relations in a fraternity.
It is the
practice of good will towards men because of the mystic tie, and often
where otherwise there would be no friendly relations at all. It is the
kind of good
will that such a society as Freemasonry can create, and is therefore
in itself, and not exactly like anything in the profane world.
This is not charity in the ordinary sense of the word. It means that
when a brother
Mason is in any sort of trouble, his brethren should fly to his aid and
such relief as possible. In accordance with the obligation and with the
of Fellowship it must be secret, tactful, and kindly. It is not given
man is destitute; it is given because the man is a brother. The fact of
is accidental; the fact of his being a brother is essential.
In this connection Truth has not to do with speculative matters, such
of creed, philosophy, and all that, but with conduct as between one
Mason and another.
In this relation there must be candor, honor, and always fair play and
loyalty to the facts in the case. The Mason who carries gossip and
false tales is
not living in truth, but in falsehood. In other connections Masonry
thinking; in this connection it emphasizes true doing.
II. Freemasonry Unites Men of
Sect, and Opinion.
as a plain matter of fact. It is found in nearly all countries, and in
membership will be found Turks, Hindus, Chinese (Dr. Sun Yat Sen is a
etc. Its adherents profess all manner of different creeds: in some
Roman Catholics belong to it; members of nearly all the Protestant
sects will be
found on its rosters; so also Mohammedans, Hindus, Buddhists,
Free Thinkers (Benjamin Franklin, Thos Jefferson, and others), etc.
Inside the Masonic
world live men who adhere to all manner of political governments: there
as in England; those who believe in representative government, as in
etc., and among its members have been leaders in all manner of opposed
camps; as Andrew Jackson, a radical Democrat; and Wm. McKinley, a
All social classes are represented: when Theodore Roosevelt attended
lodge in Washington,
so he tells us, he sat under a Master who was a gardener. Freemasonry
has come from
many sources and incorporates within itself that which appeals to all,
Gentiles, Christians and non-Christians, etc. It uses the level as a
symbol of itself,
not because it planes everything down to a flat monotony, but because
it is a platform
on which men of all minds ‒ except the man of evil mind ‒ may meet in
harmony, and good will.
III. The Great Lights.
A. The Holy Bible. See the
Correspondence Circle Bulletin section of THE BUILDER
for September, 1918. It is a symbol of that which is to us the revealed
mind of God.
B. The Square. See ditto. A call
to us to perfect our moral and physical natures.
C. The Compasses. See the same. A
call to us to perfect our mental, moral, and
very nature of things, and owing to fixed conditions under which he
lives, man needs
brotherhood. On this see the Pike quotation, page 317 of THE BUILDER
for last November.
Savages have their fraternities and secret societies; this proves that
has its roots in man's very nature and is not something artificially
Fraternity, like everything else human, needs favorable conditions in
which to grow.
The Masonic lodge seeks to furnish these conditions. It gathers
together (a) like-minded
men; (b) it binds them together by solemn obligations; (c) they meet in
room and always under the same conditions; (d) they see much of each
they enjoy the same social life and often eat at the same table; (f)
they are set
to do the same tasks; (g) they live in the light of the same rich
they are all governed according to the same laws. The Fraternity which
it thus creates
within itself, Freemasonry would like to see established in the great
V. Masonry and the Needs of the
world has need of peace as between nations. Freemasonry is an
Its power to influence various peoples is growing rapidly. It should
influence in behalf of international good will, and a future comity of
To illustrate: Ireland cannot always go on rent in twain by north and
that condition is intolerable, like a sliver of wood in one's flesh;
the Irish Masonic lodges dedicate themselves to heal this wound?
Labor Problem. This is at present the problem. This problem has never
What can our Craft do to help solve it? It is a challenge to us.
Problem of Moral Order. It is evident that in this land we are passing
kind of moral revolution. Many forces are at work that are subversive
of all moral
order. Freemasonry is a great cohesive influence, and holds men fast to
highest moral ideals and obligations, as is witnessed by the ritual.
and Relief. By "relief" here is meant assistance in great catastrophes
such as war, fire, floods, earthquake, and the like. The Masonic
was called into existence to serve as an engine of such relief.
The immigrant it not to be denuded of his own proper personality, and
but he must be so built into our social and political life that he can
normally in all the activities of citizenship.
and Revolutionary Movements. Such as Bolshevism, and all that. The
Order is not
at all opposed to reforms ‒ it works for many of them ‒ but is opposed
that would tear the American system up by its roots.
of Education. You can talk ad lib about this. Materials lie about
Towner-Sterling Bill is still a live issue and needs all the
ventilating and discussing
it can get.
VI. The Masonic Working Tools
and What They Teach.
is exhausted, so Brother Editor informs me. See THE BUILDER for January
three of the Correspondence Circle Bulletin section for the Working
Tools of an
Entered Apprentice; for June 1919, page three of the Correspondence
section for the Working Tools of a Fellow Craft; and for the Trowel see
of the Correspondence Circle Bulletin of June, 1920.
* * *
Can any reader
furnish me with a copy of the poem of three or four verses entitled "I
the first lines of which are as follows:
"I will start anew this
morning, with a
higher, fairer creed.
I will cease to stand repining of my ruthless neighbor's greed.”
and the last
"I will cease to preach your
And be more concerned with mine."
* * *
The National League of Masonic
Can you give
me some information about an organization known as The National League
Clubs? I am the secretary of a local Masonic club, and we have been
of seeking to ally ourselves with the League. Who is the secretary?
of the National League of Masonic Clubs is Brother Edward A. MacKinnon,
Street, Wilmington, Delaware. At present more than 375 clubs are
31 states and from Toronto, Ontario, and Haiti, West Indies, and the
represented is about 300,000 Master Masons. The first annual convention
at Syracuse, New York, April 19th, 1906; the last convened at Atlantic
Jersey, May 22nd, 1922. The League has furnished a brief outline sketch
of the history
and inception of the organization, some paragraphs of which will
furnish you all
the information you need:
of an innate feeling in the brethren of the Masonic fraternity to be
free to enter
any Masonic Club on the basis of associate membership, where one may go
the same rights and privileges as in his home club, and not be
dependent on the
courtesy of some member of it.
of clubs which consists exclusively of Master Masons in good and
in lodges under the jurisdiction of regular Grand Lodges.
standing for the development of the highest sense and fact of
Masons, especially upon the social side of our great profession, with a
upon our affections and passions, which renders the body tame and
frees the mind from the allurements of vice.
1905, S. R. Clute, Secretary of the Masonic Club of Syracuse, N.Y.,
with the consent
and co-operation of his club, decided to send out a call to the Masonic
in existence in New York State asking them to send representatives to a
in Syracuse to consider the advisability of working out a plan to
provide for the
interchange of courtesies to visiting members of Masonic Clubs in the
to this call there assembled at Syracuse, N.Y., April 20, 1905, in the
the Masonic Temple Club, representatives from several clubs as follows:
E. M. Brown, President, and S. R. Clute, Masonic Temple Club, Syracuse,
Worshipful Brother George W. Arnold, Secretary, Masonic Club, New York,
Worshipful Master Judson Bridenbecker and Brother A. T. Smith of
No. 423, Herkimer, N. Y.
Brother Andrew Ludolph, Secretary, Masonic Club of Auburn, N. Y.
Right Worshipful, Fred M. Hart, President, and Brother F. D. Clark,
the Oswego Masonic Club, Oswego, N. Y.
Clute called the meeting to order and stated the object of the meeting,
To discuss and agree upon general measures for increasing good
the various Masonic Clubs of the State and particularly to adopt a
to enable its possessor to secure Masonic Club privileges not only in
his own Club,
but throughout the State. Brother Clute was chosen temporary President
Clark, temporary Secretary. The following resolutions were adopted:
That we, the representatives of the Masonic Clubs of Syracuse, New York
Oswego, Herkimer and Auburn, do hereby constitute an organization to be
"The League of Masonic Clubs," with headquarters at Syracuse, and that
we meet annually on the third Thursday in April, with the Masonic
Temple Club of
That the purpose of this League shall be the promotion of fraternal
the Masonic Clubs comprising it and to facilitate the interchange of
to visiting members.
That it is the sense of this organization that the several clubs
forming this League
may issue, to members in good standing, traveling cards signed by the
of the Clubs and countersigned by the members to whom they are issued,
said members to the courtesies of the Clubs comprising the League for a
to exceed six months from the date of issue ‒ the foregoing, however,
ratification by the Clubs forming the League.
S. R. Clute was elected President and Brother F. D. Clark. Secretary
* * *
A Coin Minted By Gustavus
I have in
my possession a silver dollar dated 1617. On one side of the coin (in
the words: Gustavus Adolphus, King of the Swedes, Goths, and Vandals.
glory to his kingdom. On the other side is the following inscription:
the world, save us. On the face side and just above the King's own
picture, is an
inscription composed of the four Jewish letters J H W H. Was Gustavus a
so, was he a 14th degree man, or perhaps a 32nd?
L. S., Illinois. The coin is not a particularly
uncommon one, being one of a series coined in Sweden during the years
to 1632, all of practically the same type. The Hebrew inscription above
of the king is simply the Tetragrammaton ‒ the letters JHVH in Hebrew
and this word, as you are doubtless aware, is the so-called
unpronounceable or ineffable
name of God, translated "Jehovah" in our bible. Religious emblems are
to be found upon a great many issues of coins, not only of Sweden, but
countries as well, and this applies to all ages, from the old Greeks
down to the "In God We Trust" upon our own coins.
Adolphus was certainly not a Mason, in the sense in which we employ the
for there is not the slightest evidence that anything like our
Freemasonry was known
in Sweden in those days. Assuredly he could not have been in possession
of the 14th
or 32nd degrees, for these degrees were not formulated until the second
the next century after his death.
not particularly astonishing that a king, especially one so imbued with
fervor as Gustavus Adolphus, should have displayed the Tetragrammaton
upon his coins.
Such antisemitic sentiment as prevailed applied to the Jews of the
they rejected the Christian religion. It did not attach to the ancient
race or the
ancient religion or the ancient language; for it must be remembered
himself was a Jew. And the placing of the Tetragrammaton above the
was an entirely logical bit of symbolism for the times, indicating that
power was derived from God.
* * *
tell me if Lorenzo Dow was a Mason, and also a little about his life
that is authentic.
I used to hear my grandfather talk about him, and I got the impression
that he must
have been a crack-brained old fellow, but my grandfather also said he
had been a
Mason, so my curiosity was aroused.
was a Mason, and a good one too. He was initiated at Bristol
Connecticut, in 1824,
and became at last a Knight Templar, which was uncommon in those days.
disgraceful Anti-Masonic affair (disgraceful to the country, I mean) he
his guns, and never failed to tell the antis what he thought of them.
Dow was eccentric,
in manner, dress, and speech, but I do not believe one should describe
him as "crackbrained."
Our friends the Jesuits will admit that he knew a thing or two, and how
it, for they were constantly being dented by Dow's furious onslaughts.
from a youth full of religious upheavals the young Dow at last found
his haven with
the Methodists. But in 1805 he went to England where he created much
organized camp meetings, and paved the way for the new sect of
which is still, I believe, a vigorous body. I should have said that in
1799 he had
gone to Ireland to preach Protestantism to the Roman Catholics. The
last years of
his life were spent in the United States ‒ he died in 1834 ‒ and for
the most part
were devoted to a tireless crusade against the Roman Catholics. In 1814
a curious autobiography gotten up in the form of a Journal; the 1854
this work was entitled "The Dealings of God, Man, and the Devil as
in the Life, Experience and Travels of Lorenzo Dow." [Lib 1850] Your grandfather very
probably read that book with great delight.
Chief Shabbonee A Mason
of Illinois, in THE BUILDER for January, 1922, asks if Blackhawk,
and other Indian notables were members of the Masonic fraternity. It
might be interesting
to readers of THE BUILDER to know that in a discussion some few years
ago with Brother
Charles H. Spencer, of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, now deceased, Brother
Spencer said he
was a personal friend of Shabbonee, and that the latter was a Mason.
F.M. Enders, Iowa.
* * *
Congressman Langley, Of
Kentucky, Member of a Washington. D.C., Lodge
of members of Congress who are Masons have been published recently.
have apparently been made up from data furnished by the Grand
Secretaries of the
respective States. Of course, in most instances, Congressmen are
members of lodges
in States from which they are elected to Congress. It happens, however,
John W. Langley, of Kentucky, is a member of Washington Centennial
Lodge No. 14,
F.A.A.M., of Washington, D. C. He joined this lodge while living in
he became a member of Congress. He is now in good standing on our rolls.
Secretary, Washington Centennial
Lodge No. 14; F.A.A.M., Washington, D. C.
* * *
Officers of the Amex Masonic
Club, Camp De Souge, A.P.0. 705, France
On page 5
of THE BUILDER for January, 1922, is given the name of Brother W. Boas
of Amex Masonic Club which was located at Camp de Souge, A.P.O. 705,
President was Captain W. H. Meek (or Mick), and Sergeant John Nesbitt
was the original
Secretary. Captain Meek hailed from Nebraska Lodge No. 1, of Omaha,
name of Sergeant Nesbitt's lodge was "El Paso Lodge."
was subsequently elected President, succeeding Captain Meck. W. H.
* * *
Governor Taylor, of Tennessee,
Governor of Tennessee, Alf A. Taylor, is a member of Johnson City Lodge
F. & A. M. He witnessed the raising of two of his sons several
J. R. Zimmerman, Tennessee.
* * *
Brother John Q. Tilson,
of Masons in Congress, which appears in the December, 1921, issue of
omits the name of Congressman John Q. Tilson, of Connecticut. Brother
a member of one of the New Haven lodges, and I have personal knowledge
of his being
a Mason from having sat in lodge with him.
Julius H. McCollum, Connecticut.
* * *
General Hugh Mercer – Born
In 1720 ‒ A Correction
G. W. Baird's article on "Great Men Who Were Masons ‒ General Hugh
which appeared in the February, 1922, issue of THE BUILDER the date of
birth, through an error, reads "1870." This should have read "1720."
* * *
Congressman Riddick, of
Montana, a Mason
of Congressman Carl W. Riddick, of Montana, should be added to the list
in Congress which appeared in the December, 1921, number of THE
Riddick was raised in Lewistown Lodge No. 37, A. F. & A. M.,
on December 30th, 1921.
F. P. Hillgren, Montana.
* * *
A Mysterious Ring
I have in
my possession a small plain silver ring given me by A.S. Maynard who
says it was
given him by his father just before his death. This gentleman's father
Maynard, who for several years was in the wholesale clothing business
Mass., New York, N. Y., and Chicago, Ill., and from what I can gather
from his son,
was a very prominent Mason. Upon his death, about 1906, he was buried
Mass., his funeral being held in Boston.
letter concerning the ring was written by Mrs. L. A. Maynard to her son:
I am leaving
this letter in my diary for you to find after I have gone on. Your
the ring back when he returned from his trip abroad in 1858. I don't
know how long
he had it, but I never saw it before he went across. Your Uncle Daniel
told me privately
that it was given father in return for healing a sick girl, daughter of
Useph Ali, of Arabia. I asked your father and he laughed and said she
only had a
touch of fever and that was all I could ever get out of him.
always wore it, and in 1884 a tall dark man came home with him and
he had most peculiar ways. Your father said he was a native chief of
was here on some lodge business. I noticed particularly that he nearly
your father. Your father took the ring off his hand and let the dark
man hold it
and he got down on his knees and prayed over it and said he could have
honor bestowed upon him than to have the privilege of holding the ring.
see how any ring could be so valuable. Your father said it would bring
luck to the
wearer, and if you ever give it away give it to a Mason.
Your Loving Mother."
A. S. Maynard,
who gave me the ring, is not a Mason, but his older brother was, and on
when attending a banquet with his brother in San Francisco given by the
the ring was noticed by one of the officers and he made the statement
were only five of the rings in this country and he would give anything
if he possessed
I will appreciate
any information any reader of THE BUILDER can give me in reference to
and also relative to L.A. Maynard, i.e. what lodge he was a member of
and what offices
he might have held.
C. Ray Clark, South Carolina.
* * *
to Black Art! If that is sound, why then Chemistry must also be Black
Art, for the
root of both is "Khem," as you state. Murray's Dictionary says there is
an old decree of Diocletian against "the old writings of the Egyptians,
treat of the 'chemia' (transmutation) of gold and silver."
land of Khem," was exactly synonymous with "the land of Egypt." While
originally derived from a word meaning "black," the word "Khem"
had lost its original signification, just as the Spanish meaning of the
(colored, and by exclusion, "reddish") is rarely thought of when we use
the name of that state. "Colorado" means to English-speaking and
persons a definite geographical division. "Khem" meant to the Greeks a
definite geographical division. Murray says that "chemia" was confused
with the Greek word of similar sound, "chymeia," (pouring, infusion),
and doesn't mean the same thing at all.
meant, I am sure, something like "derived from Egypt," and the Arabic
"al-kimia" meant "the Egyptian thing," or more narrowly, "the
art of Egypt." In Diocletian's time, as Murray shows, "chemia" had
come definitely to mean "transmutation."
was never any connection with the Black Art. The latter is so called,
of any fancied connection with Egypt, but because it is devoted to the
cult of the
shadow principle of nature ‒ the black god, as some of the Kabbalists
‒ the negative of God ‒ the devil. Black, the color of despair, of
the light, of diabolism, of existence without the circle of the
influence of God.
attempted to practice transmutations in the middle ages; but in all the
of alchemy one never hears of one of them succeeding in his efforts.
The true Alchemists
were most devout, in the best sense of the word. They were never
should read first, "Alchemy Ancient and Modern," [Lib 1911] by H. Stanley Redgrove. This
give him a historical basis upon which to work. Then let him read "The
Arts," [Lib*] by J.W. Frings, for a linking up with modern
And if he really wants the deep, spiritualized aspect of the whole
thing, let him
read carefully Mrs. Atwood's "Suggestive Inquiry into the Hermetic
"Blue" Masonry teems with alchemical jargon.
R. J. Lemert, Montana.
* * *
reply to G.L.R. ‒ see THE BUILDER for February, page 63 ‒ was a
quotation from "A
History of Chemistry," [Lib 1920] by Dr. James Campbell Brown.
Brown did not intend to identify alchemy with Black Art except in an
sense, and then only tentatively. In his treatment of the evolution of
takes pains to differentiate between the two.
alchemy as the "science of the transmutation of metals." "Alkenamye"
and "alconomy" were used during the Middle Ages; Chaucer spells it
The Arabic is "al-kimia," which is the Arabic prefix "al" added
to the Greek root "kamaia," which word meant "chemistry," and
was a late form of "kumaia," or "mingling." This was derived
from the Greek "keein," "to pour"; and "keein" was
in turn derived from the original root "ku," "to pour." Alchemy
was also generally spelled "alchymy." Our word "chemist" derives
therefrom. So far Skeats.
English Dictionary gives both theories as to the etymological
derivation, and leaves
the choice to the reader.
A. ‒ After
giving seventeen forms of the word, the dictionary says it is
derived from the Greek "kemaia," but goes on to say: "The word is
explained by most as 'Egyptian Art' and identified with 'kemia,' the
of the native name of Egypt (land of Khem or Ehame, 'black earth,' in
the desert sand.)" "If so, it was afterwards etymologically confused
the like-sounding Greek "kumaia," equivalent to 'infusion, pouring.'
the Renaissance spelling 'alchymia,' 'chymistry'."
B. ‒ On the
contrary side the dictionary quotes Mahn to the effect that the word
derived from "kumaia," which is "pouring, infusion," and was
first applied to pharmaceutical chemistry, which was chiefly concerned
or infusions of plants. Afterwards, Alexandrian alchemists developed
new directions and it was their notoriety that subsequently led men to
the word with the popular name of Egypt. "From the Alexandrians the art
name were adopted by the Arabs, whence they returned to Europe by way
Of the definitions
given in The English Dictionary two are here in point:
"The chemistry of the Middle
Ages and 16th
century; now applied distinctively to the pursuit of the transmutation
metals into gold, which (with the search for the alkahest or universal
and the panacea or universal remedy) constituted the chief, practical
early chemistry." Examples are given of such a use from 1362 down.
"Magic or miraculous power of
or extraction." (Figurative.)
of this last use is furnished in Shakespeare's great sonnet, No. 33:
pale streams with heavenly alchemy."
work by Stanley Redgrove, referred to in Brother Lemert's letter, is
William Rider & Sons, 164 Aldersgate Street, London, E.C.,
under date of 1911.
The book contains a very comprehensive and fair description of alchemy:
is generally understood to have been that art whose end was the
the so-called base metals into gold by means of an ill-defined
the Philosopher's Stone; but even from a purely physical standpoint,
this is a somewhat
superficial view. Alchemy was both a philosophy and an experimental
the transmutation of the metals was its end only in that this would
give the final
proof of the alchemist's hypothesis; in other words, Alchemy,
considered from the
physical standpoint, was the attempt to demonstrate experimentally on
plane the validity of a certain philosophical view of the Cosmos....
however, not many alchemists came up to this ideal; and for the
majority of them,
Alchemy did mean merely the possibility of making gold cheaply and
wealth." (Page 1.)
is not the slightest doubt that chemistry owes its origin to the direct
the alchemists themselves." (Page 3.)
It is interesting
to note that when Diocletian issued his famous edict (referred to in
letter) he believed that in burning the manuscripts of the alchemists
he was destroying
the source of the Egyptian gold supply. On this see "Demonology and
[Lib 1879; Vol 1, Vol 2] in two volumes, by Moncure
Vol. II, page 303.
Alchemy, Ancient &
Red11 / auth. Redgrove H Stanley. - Philadelphia : David McKay, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 172. - 9.7 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 024 - 1911
Ars11 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 490. - 47.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 029 - 1916
Ars16 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 418. - 20.3 MB.
Atlantis Antediluvian World
Don82 / auth. Donnelly Ignatius. - New York : Harper &
Brothers, 1882. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 478. - 28.7 MB.
Demonology & Devil Lore
Con79DD1 / auth. Conway Moncure D. - New York : Henry Holt and Company,
1879. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 445. - 13.8 MB.
Demonology & Devil Lore
Con79DD2 / auth. Conway Moncure D. - New York : Henry Holt and Company,
1879. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 485. - 14.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
History of Chemistry
Bro201 / auth. Brown James C. - London : J & A Churchill, 1920.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 572. - 36.1 MB.
Mexican Picture Writing
Sel05 / auth. Seler Eduard. - Washington DC : Smithsonian Institution,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 139. - Illustrated - 6.9 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 01 -
Greek and Roman
Gra16MR01 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1916. - Vol.
1 : 13 : p. 530. - Illustrated - 19.7 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 02 -
Eddic - Volume not found
Gra16MR02 / auth. Gray Louis H. - 1916. - Vol. 2 : 13. - Volume not
Mythology of all Races Vol 03 -
Celtic and Slavic
Gra18MR03 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1918. - Vol.
3 : 13 : p. 466. - Illustrated - 18.4 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 04 -
Gra64MR04 / auth. Gray Louis H. - New York : Cooper Square Inc, 1964. -
Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 716. - Illustrated - 26.2 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 05 -
Gra64MR05 / auth. Gray Louis H. - New York : Cooper Square Inc, 1964. -
Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 470. - Illustrated - 16.0 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 06 -
Indian and Iranian
Gra17MR06 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1917. - Vol.
6 : 13 : p. 494. - Illustrated - 21.6 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 07 -
Armenian & African
Gra25MR07 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1925. - Vol.
7 : 13 : p. 525. - Illustrated - 50.6 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 08 -
Chinese & Japanese
Gra18MR08 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1918. - Vol.
8 : 13 : p. 489. - Illustrated - 20.8 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 09 -
Gra16MR09 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1916. - Vol.
9 : 13 : p. 398. - Illustrated - 14.2 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 10 -
Gra16MR10 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1916. - Vol.
10 : 13 : p. 379. - Illustrated - 14.9 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 11 -
Gra20MR11 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1920. - Vol.
11 : 13 : p. 520. - Illustrated - 22.6 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 12 -
Egyptian & Indo-Chinese
Gra18MR12 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1918. - Vol.
12 : 13 : p. 498. - Illustrated - 20.3 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 13 -
Gra64MR13 / auth. Gray Louis H. - New York : Cooper Square, 1964. -
Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 482. - 20.0 MB.
Philosophumena or the
Refutation of all Heresies Vol 1
Hyp21RH1 / auth. Hyppolytus / trans. Legge F. - New York : The
Macmillan Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 205. - 10.0 MB.
Philosophumena or the
Refutation of all Heresies Vol 2
Hyp21RH2 / auth. Hyppolytus / trans. Legge F. - New York : The
Macmillan Company, 1921. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 215. - 10.4 MB.
Sacred Mysteries among the
Mayas and Quiches
Plo09 / auth. Plongeon Augustus Le. - New York : Theosophical
Publishing Company, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 207. - 7.3 MB - Illustrated.
The Complete Works of Plato
Pla07 / auth. Plato / trans. Jowett Benjamin. - Adelaide : Feed Books,
2007. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1578. - 7.4 MB.
The Dealings of God Man and the
Dow50 / auth. Dow Lorenzo. - New York : Cornish, Lamport & Co,
1850. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 622. - 27.8 MB.
The Eleusian Mysteries
Wri17 / auth. Wright Dudley. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
House, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 110. - 4.3 MB.
The Golden Bough
Fra221 / auth. Frazer James G. - [s.l.] : Project Gutenberg, 1922. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 664. - Formatted and Indexed from Project Gutenberg
File by rhm - 2.6 MB.
The Hermetic Mystery
Atw18 / auth. Atwood Mary A / ed. Wilmshurst Leslie. - Belfast :
William Tait, 1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 688. - 38.7 MB.
The Signs and Symbols of
Chu13 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
Company, Ltd, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 546. - 59.2 MB.
The Variety of Religious Experience
Jam02 / auth. James William. - New York : The Modern Library, 1902. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 540. - 11.2 MB.