Masonic Research Society
By The Editor
19TH last, Masonic delegates from the Grand Lodge of New York, from
Bulgaria, Spain, France, Italy, Holland, Portugal, Turkey, Switzerland,
Grand Lodge "To the Rising Sun" of Nuremburg, assembled at Geneva,
and there, after six sessions, organized the Masonic International
Four other Grand Lodges, one of which was the Grand Lodge of Louisiana,
at not having delegates present.
Freemasonry was represented by three brethren from New York, Townsend
C. Prime and Arthur S. Tompkins. At our request Brother Scudder has
sent us in brief
the estimate which he has formed of the International Association.
Quartier la Tente, 33°, who has labored through so many years to bring
about a cooperation
of the Masonic Powers of all lands, has received a recognition and
reward for all
his self-sacrificing efforts by being made Grand Chancellor of the new
‒ a very high honor. THE BUILDER extends to Brother Quartier la Tente
and prays for him many years of fruitful and successful service in his
summary of the accomplishments of the Conference follows:
Noteworthy Accomplishments of the Geneva Conference
The Conference established an
agency through which all Grand lodges are enabled
to deal with one another in their efforts to get at the truth
concerning each other,
thus facilitating their getting the facts upon which to base their
of each other, instead of having to rely and act largely upon hearsay,
as has been
the case in the past.
Contact between jurisdictions
is afforded without their being in diplomatic
relations with one another, through their joint membership in the
and diplomatic relations will begin only when agreeable to those
The membership of Grand Lodges
belonging to the Association must be composed
of men exclusiveIy. Thus Woman Masonry, as a part of the Order, is
Members of the Association
respect the territorial integrity and jurisdiction
of each other member. Foreign lodges within our territory, chartered by
Grand Lodges, acting, however, in hostility to our claims of
will be eliminated.
Grand Lodges maintain each its
The Association has no concern
with matters other than those of its own organization
lesser importance are the following facts:
‒ New York is one of the
organizers and founders of the Association, the
first Masonic international body in Symbolic Masonry in the history of
‒ It is one of the five Grand
Jurisdictions entrusted with the management
of the Bureau for the first three years of its life.
‒ It controls the question of
membership in the Association so far as the
United States is concerned and thereby is in a position to eliminate
of clandestine bodies which in Europe heretofore have often, through
been recognized, and thereby have been enabled by pointing to such
give themselves the semblance of legitimacy and use it to further their
‒ Membership in the Association
is dependent upon subscribing to the principles
enunciated. These, however, are not exclusive, but embrace those things
all can agree, leaving open for future accord and understanding matters
upon, they thereafter to be incorporated in the Declaration of
Principles, as agreed
from time to time.
‒ Grand Lodges, and not
individuals, are given prominence in the management
and direction of the Association. Hereby is minimized the opportunity
for individual aggrandizement. The Grand Master for the time being, or
Lodge over which he presides, determines who shall express its will on
committee, when such Grand Lodge is an elected member of that
committee. This plan
of government dwarfs the individual and exalts the institution; it
lessens the likelihood
of any one individual attempting to pose as the head of Freemasonry.
of his term in his representative capacity is beyond the control of the
it is entirely under the control of the Association and his Grand
Lodge. These two
would have to act in concert before any one man could gain ascendancy
over the Association.
Declaration of Principles
Grand Jurisdictions represented in Congress, with a view to making more
their humanitarian and pacific mission, proclaim hereby constituted a
Association, the seat of which is Geneva.
Grand Jurisdictions which subscribe to the Principles, herein set
forth, shall be
eligible to membership.
by the ideal shared by all, each Grand Jurisdiction in this Association
its sovereignty, its traditions and its ritual.
founded on land marks philanthropic, philosophic and progressive, the
basis of which
is the acceptance of the principle that all men are brothers, has for
the quest of Truth, the study and practice of morality, and of that
which will lead
to unity among men.
to better the condition of humanity from the material and spiritual
well as to lead it to a higher intellectual and social plane.
It has for
principles, toleration, respect for others and for self, liberty and
It holds it to be its duty to extend to all members of the human family
of fraternity, which unite Freemasons the world over.
deeming work to be one of the essential duties of man, honors equally
toil with their hands and those given to intellectual pursuits.
It is composed
then of a society of upright men, free and faithful, who, bound
together by the
ties of liberty, equality and fraternity, labor individually and
promote social progress, giving expression thereby to beneficence in
Part I. Regulations
Art. 1. ‒
The object of the Association is:
To maintain and to develop
between Masonic Grand Jurisdictions.
To create new relations.
Art. 2. ‒
The Association and each Grand Jurisdiction forbids itself all
interference in the
domestic affairs of all other jurisdictions.
Jurisdiction is invited to exchange with associated Grand Jurisdictions
of work and to promote opportunities of contact with a view to
harmonizing and coordinating
efforts held in common. Nevertheless the fact of membership in the
not imply an obligation to entertain direct relationship with other
which are members.
Art. 3. ‒
All Grand Jurisdictions belonging to the Association must be composed
of men exclusively.
Art. 4. ‒
The Masonic International Association has for organization:
II. Admission, Resignation, Exclusion.
Art. 5. ‒
The candidacy of a Grand Jurisdiction for membership in the Association
considered, excepting it be seconded by three Grand Jurisdictions which
Grand Jurisdictions sponsoring a candidacy must be included those
members of the
Association having their seat in the same territory as the candidate.
however that the endorsement by the Grand Lodge of New York of the
Grand Lodges in the United States shall be required. When, however,
more than three
American Grand Lodges shall have given their adhesion to these
articles, the Grand
Lodges of the United States which are members of the Association are
to select from among the Grand Jurisdictions of the United States which
subscribed to these articles, the Grand Jurisdictions which shall act
Art. 6. ‒
Each candidacy shall be submitted immediately to all member
jurisdictions by notice
of the Secretariat. The candidate shall be declared elected by the
if there shall not have been registered an objection thereto stating
within six months from the day when the Secretariat shall have sent out
admission shall be proclaimed by the Congress.
Art. 7. ‒
Each jurisdiction may withdraw freely from the Association if it has
met its financial
obligations. The Secretary forthwith shall notify each member
jurisdiction of such
Art. 8. ‒
Expulsion may be decreed by the Congress where a jurisdiction shall
the provisions of these articles or the spirit of the declaration of
The International Congress.
Art. 9. ‒
The International Congress is the ruling agency of the Masonic
Its jurisdiction is limited to questions only affecting the Association.
meet every third year and shall fix the place and the date of its next
Grand Jurisdiction casts one vote.
can act as proxy for more than two members.
‒ To constitute a quorum the congress must bring together half plus one
of its membership.
shall determine the vote required to adopt a measure excepting in the
elections to membership and of expulsions of members which must be
voted by two-thirds
of the jurisdictions represented.
‒ In case of emergency and for serious matters the congress can be
called in extraordinary
session by the advisory committee on the demand addressed to the
five Grand Jurisdictions. It will sheet in such a case at Geneva. Its
order of business
is limited to the matter which caused the reunion.
The Advisory Committee.
‒ The advisory committee is named by the congress. It is composed of
Masters or their representatives.
‒ The Advisory Committee:
A. Has in
charge the execution of the resolutions of the congress.
B. It takes
the steps necessary to realize within the provisions of the
regulations, the purposes
of the Association.
C. It audits
the accounts of the Secretariat and submits them to member
D. It has
power, in case of necessity, to authorize expenditures not provided for
in the budget.
Part V. The
‒ The Secretariat is subject to the authority of the congress and the
shall be at Geneva
‒ The Secretary is elected by the Congress He is charged with the
execution of the
decisions of the congress and of the advisory committee.
shall publish a quarterly and an annual bulletin.
is the Treasurer of the Association. He receives the dues of members
and meets the
expenses provided for in the budget. He shall incur no expense not
in the budget without the approval of the advisory committee to which
he shall present
annually an account of all receipts and disbursements and a tentative
‒ The Secretary shall receive the honorariums, the amount of which is
by the congress.
of the office staff is under his jurisdiction.
staff shall be members of a legitimate Masonic body.
lighting and upkeep of the offices of the bureau shall be at the
expense of the
‒ In case of the resignation or the death of the Secretary, the vacancy
filled temporarily by the advisory committee.
‒ The income of the Association shall be derived from:
A. The dues
of members based on a sliding scale fixed by each congress: the maximum
to be $1,000
the minimum to be $20.
to the Bulletins and the sale of Masonic works.
of all kinds.
‒ All amendments to these statutes must be proposed six months in
advance and adopted
by the affirmative vote of a majority of two-thirds of the Grand
by the congress as the basis of annual dues:
From 1 to 2,000 members $ 20.00
2,000 to 5,000 members
5,000 to 10,000 members $150.00
10,000 to 25,000 members $200.00
25,000 to 50,000 members $250.00
50,000 to 100,000 members $500.00
100,000 to 200,000 members
200,000 members and over $1,000.00
is taken at its commercial value before the war.
Swiss Francs) for 1922.
1. Dues Fr.
2. Subscriptions to bulletin
and sales of printed matter
1. Office force
5. General expenses
Better than grandeur, better
Than ranks and titles, a hundred-fold,
Is a healthy body and a mind at ease,
And simple pleasures that always please.
A heart that can feel for another's woe,
And share in his joy with a friendly glow.
With sympathies large enough to hold
All men as brothers, is better than gold.
By Bro. E. Ellison, California
recent times no historical work on Freemasonry was considered complete
account of the "Travelling Masons." We have been gravely assured by the
writers on the subject, that Freemasonry in medieval times was an
association of church builders, incorporated under a charter issued by
granting to the society a complete monopoly in the building of
It was said that the mysteries of Gothic architecture, both operative
(practical and theoretical), were the particular secrets of the
whenever a new cathedral or other religious house was contemplated
for plans and specifications must be made to the headquarters of the
the plans were prepared and approved, orders for details of craftsmen
from headquarters to the subordinate lodges throughout Christendom; and
and south, east and west, masons obeyed the summons and journeyed to
the site of
the proposed building, under the leadership of their overseers or
at their destination, they made themselves known to the master builder
of secret signs and tokens. Huts, or lodges, were then built, in which
prepared the material for the structure in accordance with plans and
In these lodges the craftsmen held their meetings, and here the
mysteries of the
craft were imparted to such profanes as had been found "worthy and well
It was claimed,
further, that under the terms of the charter, the fraternity was
empowered to determine
the wages and hours of labor of its members, as well as other
conditions of employment.
The craftsmen were not subject to the law of the land; but all charges
against a member, whether made by a fellow or by a profane, were tried
tribunal of the society which was clothed with complete judicial powers.
the belief in the existence of an international corporation of builders
shattered and swept into the dust by Robert F. Gould, together with
many other venerable
cobwebs which had gathered around the columns and arches of the Masonic
thus preventing us from viewing the structure in the light of true
demonstrates conclusively that "International Freemasonry" in the
Ages is a fiction. Careful search in the archives of the Vatican has
failed to bring
to light the slightest evidence that the Masonic Craft has ever
received any special
honors or favors from the pope; and the only basis for the belief in
seems to be that at various times popes and prelates issued bulls
to persons who should make liberal donations of money, lands or labor,
in course of construction.
Nor has anyone
been successful in locating the headquarters of this "international
True, the German Steinmetzen (Freemasons) were organized along more
than local lines.
In 1567 they formed a federation of craft societies in German lands and
the workmaster of Strassburg cathedral their chief judge (Oberste
the federation did not extend beyond the boundaries of Germany, and the
of the central government did not at any time receive more than passing
As a matter of fact, the real bond of union between the constituent
bodies lay in
their common objects and common craft usages.
further shown that the general features of the Freemason's craft
societies did not
differ from those of other callings, and such differences as did exist
to local conditions and the peculiarities of the trade.
In the first
place, the Freemasons' guilds were of later origin than those of other
former did not come into existence until architecture and building
had become so refined as to necessitate specialization and subdivision
Originally all masons, whether they worked in rough or squared stone
brick, as well as tilers, slaters and those working in the other
of the building industry, were members of the same guild. As time
passed the lines
of demarcation between the different branches of the industry became
defined with a consequent division of the organization. Finally, when
the art of
Gothic building had so far advanced that it became necessary to
men as architects and to design and execute the delicate stonework and
a future division took place. The architects, designers and sculptors
from the mother society and organized separately. Their work was of the
character, and became more art than a craft, requiring technical and
as well as great manual skill. Their profession stood at the head of
trades, and became known as Freemasonry.
Only a limited
number of fellows were required; and in consequence we find masters,
(fellow crafts) and apprentices members of the same guild; while in
such as the masons' and carpenters' employing larger bodies of men, the
at an early period withdrew from the masters and formed fraternities of
The apprentices, while they were members of the craft, were not
eligible to membership
in the guild. There were still other points of difference: The
Freemasons were employed
almost exclusively upon religious buildings. This brought their craft
in close contact
with the clergy, and from this association the Freemasons' societies
deep religious imprint that is not apparent in those of other crafts.
of Freemasonry was held in high esteem in the Middle Ages. The Church
was rich and
powerful and displayed its wealth and taste in the construction of
In fact, church architecture was the only outlet for the genius of the
the intellectual forces of society seemed to converge in architecture
professions; and the calling, therefore, attracted the best minds and
intellects of the times. All other knowledge was discouraged and
condemned by the
says that down to the time of the invention of printing the progress of
in art and science is recorded in a "book of stone" ‒ Architecture!
commenced to decline after the Reformation. The power of the Church was
its right to levy contributions upon the people was taken from it; and
found other means of satisfying their desire for knowledge, and to
as an operative art declined with the discontinuance of Gothic church
and with it went the operative fraternities. In order to perpetuate the
the lodges admitted to membership men who had not been bred to the
trade. In many
cases these "accepted" brethren were men of learning and science, and
through their influence the lodges were gradually transformed into
or philosophical societies, in which form they have come down to our
As time passed,
the old customs of the operative days fell into disuse and became only
and traditions; and, later, more or less fantastic explanations of
and purpose were invented, such as the legend of the "Travelling
to get a clear view of the craft usages of our operative Masonic
must look for their parallels in kindred crafts, such as the masons and
whose fraternities have had a continuous existence from the Middle Ages
our own day.
his chapter on the German Steinmetzen (Freemasons), borrows freely from
and masons for illustration of Masonic customs. He conveys the
impression that these
societies, like their Freemasonic relatives, have become extinct. In
still exist, although now rapidly falling into decay, due to several
encroachment of modern trades-unionism; the fact that the state has
of their benevolent and charitable functions; and, finally, because the
apprenticeship rules are being more and more relaxed.
It is an
immemorial custom in these crafts, when an apprentice has completed his
to spend three years in travel from place to place, working for a time
The purpose of his journey is to familiarize himself with the methods
various places; to enable him to "see the world," and, finally, to
crowding the trade. In this pilgrimage the journeyman travels under the
and protection of his craft guild, or fraternity.
are a few facts concerning these organizations with particular
reference to the
carpenter's trade, a body which claims to be the senior of the building
and to have had a continuous existence from the early centuries of the
of the society is "Die Fremden Zimmergessellen." The translation of the
name presents some difficulties. "Fremde" in German means either a
or a stranger, or one absent from home. Considering the connection in
word is here used, "travelling" is the nearest equivalent in English.
The name therefore signifies the "Travelling Journeymen Carpenters."
name reminds us of that used by the journeymen's societies of France
(Sons of Solomon)
whose members called themselves "compagnons étrangers" (stranger
of the German carpenters' fraternity is at Bremen, and its subordinate
dispersed throughout Central Europe. A new lodge may be formed in any
the petition of not less than seven members; but only one lodge may be
in any one city or town. In the vernacular of the craft, the opening of
a new lodge
is described as "Opening the Book," so called from the "Brotherbook,"
a manuscript volume containing the statutes and regulations of the
which no lodge can be legally held. The copy of the Brotherbook,
the purpose of a charter. Lodges are sometimes opened in remote foreign
for instance, in Jerusalem, 1900; in Paris, 1904, and at Liege,
head of the fraternity is called Hauptaltgeselle (Chief Senior Fellow),
General Secretary-Treasurer is called Hauptbuchgeselle. Local lodges
over by the Senior Fellow (Altgeselle); the Secretary is called
officers are elected for six months. In addition the local bodies have
officer, who performs the joint duties of Steward and Doorkeeper.
apprentice has been set free by his master, after three years' service,
for admission into the journeymen's fraternity. His application is
a member who has worked with him and who vouches for his character and
The application must be accompanied by a certificate from the master
the applicant has learned his trade. In certain states the law
prohibits the apprentice
from taking employment as a journeyman until he has made an essay, or
In such case proof of masterpiece must be furnished. If no objection is
application is approved, and the candidate is notified to present
himself for initiation
at the next meeting of the lodge. Should objection be made, the
application is rejected
without a ballot. After the lodge has been formally opened the
candidate is taken
in charge by the member who presented his application, and who now acts
as his sponsor.
He is conducted to the Senior Fellow's station in the lodge. A number
are put to him by the Senior Fellow, and are answered for him by his
dialogue refers to the importance and dignity of the craft, the objects
of the fraternity,
and in particular to the duty of the individual fellow to his brethren
and to the
craft. The candidate is asked whether he is willing to subscribe to
and on his reply in the affirmative the obligation is administered, to
of which he pledges his word as a true man. He is then presented with
Ehrbarkeit" (literally: Virtue), a black neckerchief, and is informed
this piece of attire is a symbol of manly virtue and the particular
badge of the
fraternity. He is instructed to wear it during all his waking hours,
or at play, and solemnly admonished never to disgrace it by word or act.
times the fellows wore a distinctive livery, consisting of a short
jacket with double rows of silver buttons, knee breeches of the same
black hat and shoes, together with the indispensable neckcloth. The
livery has long
since fallen into disuse, although the wearing of the "Ehrbarkeit"
It is still considered improper to wear shoes of any colour other than
the members have a special aversion to white hats.
a lecture by the Senior Fellow in which the candidate is instructed in
and regulations of the fraternity, its customs and usages; how to
while travelling; how to present himself and make himself known to his
in foreign parts, etc. At stated times the Brotherbook is also read in
There is no mention of any grip or token; only a brief catechism to
which we shall
is now a Junior Fellow (Junggeselle), and the ceremonies are concluded
his "ribbon" across the bar under the coat of arms of the craft,
over the Senior Fellow's station. This ribbon is of silk, about six
feet long by
two inches wide, of any colour to suit the taste of the candidate; on
one end is
inscribed his name and the place and date of his birth; on the other,
the date of
his admission into the fraternity. The Senior Fellow orders the Steward
the "Harmony Tankard" (Vertragskanne), a large drinking vessel, which
forms an indispensable part of the furniture of the lodge. The tankard
to the Senior Fellow, who dips his gavel in the beer and sprinkles a
few drops of
the liquid on the new-made brother's ribbon, and expresses the hope
that the later
will always live in amity and harmony with his brethren. The business
of the lodge
being concluded, the Senior Fellow calls off, and the health of the new
is drunk, while the members join in singing their craft songs, of which
I may mention
here the peculiar form of salutation. A member is never addressed in
lodge as brother
or comrade; but always as "Ehrbarer Geselle" (trusty fellow). The form
of address of the Senior Fellow is "Ehrbarer Altgeselle."
remain standing "in order" during the entire meeting, heels together,
toes pointing out, coat tightly buttoned and the hat held in the right
the left breast. This attitude is characteristic of the fraternity and
on all occasions of craft business and ceremony. The Senior Fellow also
standing, but with covered head.
Junior Fellow is ready to travel, he applies to the lodge for
clearance; but before
it is granted must satisfy the Senior Fellow that he has parted with
in friendship, that he is in fellowship with his brethren, and last but
that he is clear of debt. These matters being satisfactorily settled,
he is given
a clearance card, or "Brief," as it is called, signed by the Senior
and Secretary. The Senior Fellow again reminds the journeyman about to
that under the laws of the fraternity he is obliged to travel for three
at least once a year he must visit a city where a lodge is located, and
not less than six weeks; that he should not remain in the same place
six months, and in no event more than one year; that he must not return
to his birthplace,
or the place where he learned his trade, during his wandering years,
except to attend
the funeral of a near relative, and in such case he should only remain
He is warned against keeping bad company and against incurring any
debt, and urged
to conduct himself in such a manner as to reflect credit upon the
health is then drunk by his brethren with the wish for a pleasant
journey and safe
meetings are invariably held on Saturday night, and on the following
day he sets
out on his travels. In former times the brethren of the lodge
accompanied him beyond
the city gates with music and song, but this custom is now obsolete. He
journeys on foot, although there is no special inhibition against the
use of speedier
means of transportation.
at his destination, he goes to the house of call (Herberge). This is an
by his fellow craftsmen, where their lodge room is located. Some of
of call belong to the fraternity. He presents himself at the lodge door
three times. He is received by the Senior Fellow, or some other brother
for the purpose. He assumes the posture already described, and the
Fellow: (gives his name).
Who are you?
Fellow: A true and trusty (ehrbarer und rechtschaffener) Travelling
What do you desire?
Fellow: Under favor and by your leave, (mit Gunst und Erlaubniss), to
ask the trusty
(ehrbarer) Senior Fellow to furnish me employment for eight or fourteen
as long as it may suit the master, and according to craft custom and
'Tis well! (das ist löblich! Literally: Praiseworthy; an obsolete
Senior Fellow: Your Brief!
Senior Fellow examines the card and finding it in order says: Be at
lays aside his hat, unbuttons his coat and takes his seat. His name is
the visitors' register, and he is told where he may apply for
employment. He is
then treated to a schnapps and a glass of beer. This ceremony is called
literally, "drinking him out." He is next informed of the conditions of
trade, wages, etc., and in turn he delivers the news of his travels.
he is introduced to the landlord and landlady of the inn, whom
thereafter he calls
father and mother. If there is a daughter in the house, he calls her
night's lodging and breakfast are paid for by the lodge.
If no one
is present in the lodge room when he calls, he goes into the tap room
of the inn,
orders a stein of beer, and waits for some member to appear. When he
an arrival by the black neckerchief, he strikes the table with his
stein. The signal
is immediately answered by the newcomer, who addresses him as comrade
whether he can be of service.
On the following
Saturday he visits the lodge, but is not admitted until the meeting has
opened and the Senior Fellow has announced his arrival. He is then
the brethren; thereafter he is recognized as a member of the lodge and
to take part in its proceedings.
If no work
is procured for him, and he is without funds, the lodge gives security
for his board
and lodging; but if he owes any debt, he is not granted clearance when
town. Instead, he receives a letter addressed to the Senior Fellow of
to which he may apply, informing him (the Senior Fellow) of the
it is the duty of that official to arrange that a reasonable amount be
each pay day, until the debt is paid.
arrive at a town in which there is no lodge, he looks up some master
who has been
a member of the journeymen's fraternity and applies in the prescribed
master is authorized to render such aid as the circumstances require,
by the fraternity.
If he should
become involved in a quarrel or fight with a fellow member, or be
accused of violating
the laws or ethics of the craft, he is summoned to appear at lodge. He
by the Senior Fellow, who possesses power to hear and determine all
craft law and usage, and summarily to impose penalties upon the guilty
Even in grave cases the brethren are not asked to determine the guilt
or to assess punishment. The power of the Senior Fellow to try and
punish is called
domestic court (Stubengericht). The defendant has, however, the right
from the decision of the Senior Fellow to the Chief Senior Fellow, and
judgment of the latter to a commission composed of seven Senior
from different parts of the jurisdiction. The commission is the supreme
the order (Schiedgeticht).
If the penalty
imposed is a minor fine it is usually paid without question. Part of it
for drink, and the atonement is celebrated in convivial spirit.
fellow meet with an accident, or be overtaken by illness, medical care
at the expense of the lodge, if he is without means; and the Senior
brethren in their turn to nurse him until he is able to take care of
until he dies.
of death during his years of wandering, he is buried by the lodge. The
has no regular burial service, this being performed by a clergyman; but
follow the remains to the cemetery, wearing their work squares across
shoulder. Twelve fellows act as pallbearers. As we read in the craft
"Who shall be pallbearers?
Twelve sturdy Journeymen Carpenters."
craftsman has completed his years of travel he may settle down in his
or some other place to his liking, and is thereafter called a resident
But he does not relinquish his membership in the fraternity unless he
master and goes into business for himself. But even as a master he is
in close contact
with the craftsmen's body, and is by custom bound to extend the hand of
and do acts of courtesy to such members as may apply to him.
is here called to some peculiar rules of conduct followed by the
has already been made of the fact that the craftsman must not take off
neckerchief while at work. If he finds it necessary to open his shirt
simply opens the neckcloth and slips it down his bosom. It is
considered bad form
to work with sleeves rolled up; and it is regarded as highly improper
for a fellow
to go more than a house length from his lodging without coat or hat.
We have already
noted that the membership is divided into grades. The first, Junior
Fellow, is conferred
at initiation. From the time he commences travelling he is rated as a
three years on the road he is recognized as an Old Fellow, and eligible
as presiding officer of a lodge. No particular ceremony is connected
with the last
two "degrees," nor do they confer any distinction beyond that due to
skill and experience.
In the carpenter's
calling the authority of the Senior Fellow does not extend beyond the
the shop or on the job every fellow is his equal. In this respect the
from the Steinmetzen, whose foreman (parlier) in the shop became ipso
warden of the society. This is no doubt due to the fact that in the
all grades were members of the same fraternity.
masons, the carpenters have their cowans. The latter call a travelling
who is not a member of the society, a "Vogtländer." The origin of the
term is unknown, but it signifies one who is willing to work unusually
for low wages.
In the reproduction
of a clearance card issued by a lodge in Essen, 1904, note the seal,
name of the fraternity around the outer edge, and the central design,
the coat of arms of the craft, viz.; A plane between the extended
hatchets, two adjacent squares, and, at the bottom, a saw.
the legend printed around the outer border, which may be freely
translated, as follows:
"Who can become an apprentice?
Who shall be fellow craft? He who can.
Who shall be master? He who can design and plan.
What should a Travelling Fellow be? A true man."
be interesting to examine this ancient society historically but the
means are not
at hand. It is claimed that its Brotherbook is several centuries older
of the Steinmetzen, which was adopted in 1567 and there seems no reason
at present has no legendary history, such as we find in the Ancient
Charges of Freemasonry,
but it is more than likely that in former times such history formed
part of the
secrets of the craft, and that it has either fallen into disuse or been
during those periods when the government attempted to suppress this and
organizations. During the "blood-and-iron" rule of Bismarck all secret
societies and clandestine meetings were forbidden, and though this
order did not
completely destroy the body, the members had to exercise great care to
police from breaking up their meetings and lodging the members in jail.
Why the black
neckerchief? Is it a symbol of mourning for some traditional founder or
the craft? Is it not possible that the original significance of it has
or forgotten? How many seamen of today are aware of the fact that the
universally worn by the enlisted men of all navies, was originally worn
for Nelson, and that the three white stripes on the naval seaman's
are commemorative of the three great victories won by that great seaman?
It is my
hope that in the near future we shall have available a copy of the
which will enable us to form a clearer idea of the inner workings of
My Creed -- [A Poem]
live as gently as I can,
To be, no matter where, a man;
To take what comes of good or ill;
To cling to faith and honor still;
To do my best and let stand
The record of my brain and hand;
And then, should failure come to me,
Still work and hope for victory!
"To have no secret place wherein
I stoop unseen to shame or sin;
To be the same when I'm alone
As when my even deed is known,
To live undaunted, unafraid
Of any step that I have made;
To be without pretense or sham,
Exactly what men think I am."
Medallion Of 1516
By Bro. Joe L. Carson. Virginia
indebted to the courtesy of Brother Joe Carson, of Riverton, Virginia,
is well known to our readers, for the privilege of publishing the
presented herewith. This medallion is an item of considerable
importance to antiquaries,
since it is computed to be 405 years old. Thus far nothing has been
it, so that it is hoped that among our own readers may be found those
who may add
something to the information furnished by Brother Carson, either by way
or of interpretation.
a casual reader will find many points to challenge his speculative
faculty by way
of explaining the symbols and emblems exhibited in this rare old
What is the figure above the sun and moon in cut "A?" What signify the
numbers 15 and 16? Why five steps? What is the object that lies at the
foot of the
stair, and looks like a coffin? What is the "X" shaped figure at the
left of the Sun? What is the winged figure supposed to be in cut "B"?
are the explanatory paragraphs sent by Brother Carson:
the authenticated history of an old Masonic Medallion dated 1516, oval
in form and
beautifully carved with Masonic symbols and characters, found in the
ruins of an
old house in the townland of Derganyneville near Dromore in the county
in the year 1912 by Mrs. Sarah Dowd, an old lady who lived beside the
house in question
as caretaker of a farm, the property of Mr. John J. Nelson, of
County, Tyrone. The composition of the medallion is believed to be
correct size 3 5-8 by 2 3-4 inches.
statement given before the undersigned members of the Masonic Order is
the end of the year 1912 a little girl, a niece of mine, and myself,
out some stones from amongst the partly fallen ruins of the kitchen of
an old house
in Derganyneville when there fell out also a flat oval piece of
something like slate,
of a dark color and with a small portion of chimney soot adhering to
it. Being struck
with the peculiar shape of the article I picked it up from amongst the
thinking it rather a curiosity, I brought it to my employer, Mr. John
and told him how I had found; Afterwards, on the 8th of July, 1921, I
to meet Mr. Nelson and some other gentlemen at the said ruins, which I
pointed out the exact place where I found the article."
J. Nelson's statement corroborates that of Mrs. Dowd, and he further
after he had washed the soot and dirt off the medallion he recognized
as having something to do with Freemasonry, as although not a member of
himself, a Mason lodge met in his father's house when he was a young
lad, of which
his father was a Past Master, and the Master's chair with Masonic
thereon was for several years after his father's death and the winding
up of the
lodge, preserved in the family, but eventually became broken up and
lost. Mr. Nelson
kept the medallion in his private drawer for some years, when happening
it up while looking for some papers, he put it in his pocket and
brought it to his
old friend and neighbor, Mr. John R. Henderson, of Lisnahanna,
Trillick, whom he
knew to be a Freemason and whom he surmised, would be interested in it,
to be the case, for Mr. Henderson, or, we may now say, Brother
its evident connection with early Masonry sent it by the hand of
Brother Davis Graham,
to Brother Robt. W. Wilson, then acting as Grand Secretary to the
Lodge of Tyrone and Fermanagh, who had it immediately photographed, and
submitted it to several of the leading members of the Lodge of
Research, who were
all intensely interested in what they deem a rare and valuable Masonic
of the foregoing history of the same is vouched hereby by us who were
the interviews with Mrs. Dowd and Mr. Nelson, and at the taking of
the spot and of the parties named herein on the 8th day of July, 1921.
John R. Henderson,
Trillick, P. M. Lodge 58, Trillick.
David Graham, Enniskillen, P. M. Lodge 473, Enniskillen.
James Henderson, Lisnahanna, Trillick, Dolph Lodge No. 80, Athena,
Oregon, U. S.
John Mercer, Enniskillen, Lodge 891, Enniskillen.
Robert W. Wilson, Enniskillen, P. M.
Deputy Grand Master, 1724
By Bro. Dudley Wright, England
has always attracted to its ranks men of erudition and leaning, and one
of the most
honored of such is that of Martin Folkes, Deputy Grand Master, 1724. It
fitting, in view of the interest he is said to have taken in
Freemasonry and the
influence he is reported to have had, that Martin Folkes should have
been born in
Queen Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, the only home the Grand Lodge of
known since it had a home of its own, the date of his birth being 29th
1690. He was the eldest son of Martin Folkes, an eminent lawyer and a
Gray's Inn, described in the Gray's Inn Admission Register as of
Suffolk, and admitted 18th May, 1661. In 1695, Martin Folkes, senior,
and, in 1697, Attorney-General to Catherine, Queen Dowager of Charles
II. The mother
was Dorothy, the second daughter of Sir William Hovell, Kt., of
near Lynn, Norfolk. The family of Folkes is known to be of
and the first member of whom there is any record is William Fowke, as
the name was
anciently written, who was of eminence in Staffordshire in A. D. 1438.
When a boy
of nine years, Martin Folkes, the subject of this sketch, was sent to
of Saumur, and his tutor, Cappel, the son of Lewis Cappel, a celebrated
described him as "a choice youth of a penetrating genius and master of
beauties of the best Roman and Greek writers." Soon after, in February,
at the age of seventeen, he was sent to Clare Hall, Cambridge, under
the care of
Dr. Laughton, where he made great progress in mathematics and other
after gaining his baccalaureate, he proceeded to the degree of Master
of Arts on
6th October, 1717.
of his progress at the University may be made from the fact that he was
years of age when he was, on the 29th July, 1714, elected a Fellow of
Society, his name having been accepted for nomination on the previous
13th of December.
A little more than two years after his election ‒ on 30th November,
1716 ‒ he was
chosen as a member of the Council of the Society, an honor renewed
1727, and, in 1722, an addition was made to the distinction by his
the President, Sir Isaac Newton, as one of the Vice-Presidents. Folkes
at the meetings in the absence of his chief and on one occasion he was
told by Dr.
Jurin, the secretary, who dedicated to Folkes the 34th volume of the
that "the greatest man that ever lived (meaning Sir Isaac Newton)
out to fill the chair and to preside in the Society when he himself was
prevented by indisposition, and that it was sufficient to say of him
that he was
'Sir Isaac's friend.'" On the death of Sir Isaac Newton, in 1727, Sir
Sloane and Martin Folkes competed for the presidency, the latter being
In 1729 Folkes again became a member of the Council and, in 1732 and
1733, was asked
by Sir Hans Sloane again to accept a Vice-Presidency, which he did,
and, on 30th
November, 1741, he succeeded Sir Hans Sloane as President. He presented
with a fine portrait of himself, painted by Hogarth.
married on 18th October, 1714, at St. Helen's, Bishopgate, to Lucretia
when he was described as "of Nafferton, Yorkshire" and his bride as "of
St. Andrew's Holborn." Dr. Doran, in Their Majesties' Servants, writes:
this period (about 1714) the stage lost a lady who was as dear to it as
namely Mrs. Bradshaws. Her departure, however, was caused by marriage,
not by death;
and the gentleman who carried her off, instead of being a rollicking
a worthless peer, was a staid, solemn antiquary, Martin Folkes, who
the town by wedding young Mistress Bradshawe. The lady had been on the
eighteen years; she had trodden it from early childhood, and always
reputation. She had her reward in an excellent, sensible, and wealthy
whom her exemplary and prudent conduct endeared her; and the happiness
of this couple
was well established. She won applause as the originator of the
characters of Corinna
in 'The Conspirator,' Sylvia in 'The Double Gallant,' and Arabella Zeal
of the History of the English Stage also describes her as "one of the
and most promising genii of her time" and says that she was taken off
by Mr. Folkes "for her exemplary and prudent conduct." Unhappily many
years before Martin Folkes' demise the wife became mentally unbalanced
and had to
become the inmate of an asylum.
In 1719 Folkes
was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, afterwards becoming
When Algernon, Duke of Somerset, for many years President of the
Society, died on
9th February, 1750, Martin Folkes was immediately chosen to succeed
him, in which
office he was continued by the Charter of Incorporation, which was
granted on 2nd
November, 1751. It was Folkes himself who, in conjunction with Lord
obtained a Charter of Incorporation for the Society. Prior to his
election as President
of this body, Oxford had conferred upon him the Doctorate of Civil Law,
his alma mater, the Doctorate of Laws, when on the occasion of a visit
Chancellor, the Duke of Newcastle. It is said that when he was "capped"
at Oxford, he returned them "a compliment in a Latin speech, admired
propriety and elegance."
also an associate of the Egyptian Club and a member of a literary club,
the Spalding Society. He was the patron of George Edwards, the
naturalist, and gave
some help to Theobald for his Notes on Shakespeare. At one time he had
for Parliamentary honors, for he contested Lynn as a Whig in 1747.
Smith, Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1736, and preceptor to
of Cumberland, was indebted to Folkes for some curious information
which he embodied
in his great work on Optics and acknowledged in his Preface to the
published in 1738. Folkes also edited C. Maclaurin's Treatise on
Algebra. He was
renowned as a numismatist and had a famous collection of coins and
medals. On his
travels through Italy he compiled a Dissertation on the Weights and
Values of Ancient
Coins. The only copies of his works in the British Museum are: 1, a
Table of English
Gold Coins from the 18th year of King Edward III, with weights and
1736, 4to. 2, A Table of English Silver Coins from the Norman Conquest
to the present
time, with weights, values, and remarks, 1745, 4to ‒ 3, Tables of
and Gold Coins, in three parts, 1763, published after his death.
some interesting references to Martin Folkes, or to what may not
be described as "Martin Folkes and his Circle" in the Journal and
of John Byrom, the inventor of a system of shorthand and who dedicated
some verses entitled "A Humorous Account of the Epping Forest Robbery."
Some of the more important are here reproduced:
"1725, Tuesday, 9th February.
Bob Ord came
in while I was writing and I went to him to the Club in Paul's Church
were Mr. Brown, Derham, White, Glover, Heathcote, Graham, Foulkes, and
we talked about the 'Religion of Nature delineated,' the character of
I asked Mr. Brown."
"1725. Tuesday, 9th March.
Thence to the
Club in Paul's Church Yard, where we had two barrels of oysters, one
another after supper, Mr. Leycester, Glover, White, Bob Ord, Graham,
Derham, Heathcote, a talking gent. I had never seen there before; paid
2s. 6d. a
piece. Mr. Brown they said had got the gout. We talked much of
something and nothing,
about Dr. Vincent's copying of letters, and I told them I was going to
a Cabala Club that were guessers."
"1725. Thursday, 11th March.
When we were
at dinner the Duke of Richmond and Mr. Foulkes [came in]. . . . The
Duke of Richmond
was very merry and good company; Mr. Foulkes just mentioned my having
shorthand, but nothing more was said on it then. I came to the Society
in the coach
with the Duke of Richmond, Mr. Foulkes, and Mr. Sloan and we talked
"1725. Tuesday, 6th April . . .
Church Yard, where Mr. Leycester and I went, Mr. Graham, Foulkes,
Montagu. . . . I had a scallop shell and Welsh rabbit. Mr. Leycester
and I walked
home together. There was a Lodge of Freemasons in the room over us,
where Mr. Foulkes,
who is Deputy Grand Master, was till he came to us. Mr. Sloan was for
upstairs if I would go: I said I would, and come back if there was
anything I did
not like and then he bid me sit down."
"1725. Tuesday, 29th June.
Mildmay and I
went to the Sun in Paul's Church Yard, it was past ten when we came
were twelve of us only, Foulkes, Graham, Brown, Derham, Bob Ord, Sloan,
Hauksbee, Dr. Anteney, and a stranger that Mr. Foulkes brought. . . .
said that Dr. Stukeley had said that he could read the Egyptian
well as English,"
1725, the Duke of Richmond, then Grand Master, was created a Knight of
but was unable to attend the investiture in consequence of attack of
proxy at the ceremony was Sir George Sanders, who was accompanied by
then Deputy Grand Master and an intimate friend of the Duke, who
furnished the Duke
with a full account of the investiture. The Duke, acknowledging Folkes'
days after its receipt, said:
"I am very much asham'd when I
long I have defer'd answering your two obliging letters, especially
when I consider
that I ought to have writ first to thanks you, as I do now, for the
have had in letting us have your company here at Goodwood, but staying
a while is but tantalizing us, for as soon as one had the pleasure of
your affairs oblig'd you to go. But next summer, if I return to Sussex,
I hope, remember your promise of staying some time with me, in being my
I fear the fatigue you underwent, might hinder the pleasure of the
I wish it lay in my power to show you in a more essential way, how
great a value
and friendship I have for you. I have been guilty of such an omission
less than the Deputy Grand Master can make up for me. . . . I desire
you would present
my humble service to Mrs. Folkes. I hope she was entertained at the
Martin Folkes went abroad with his family to Italy and remained abroad
two years and a half. He was armed with letters of introduction from
the Duke of
Richmond and was warmly greet by the many friends of the Duke whom he
upon his travels. Apparently Mrs. Folkes was not received with open
arms by all
and sundry, but possibly an explanation of this and of the following
Tom Hill, the Duke's steward wrote to the Duke on 20th July, 1733, is
that the mental
malady from which she afterwards suffered so acutely was then in
The steward's communication was as follows:
"With much ado I obtain'd leave
the following account relating to Mrs. Folkes out of a letter that came
having first sworn no to tel the person that sent it.
"'There is come hither a Lady
with her husband,
three children, and a monky, who are no more exempt from obedience to
her, one than
another, and all seemingly fellow-sufferers alike. I happen'd to be at
a visit when
she came in. In all my life did I never hear such an insupportable
so much nonsense in so small a space of time. You will be surpris'd
when I tell
you the husband is reckon'd as clever a man as any in England. His name
(Martin Folkes as she cals him) who used to be very much with the Duke
The lady he married is very wel known in England. He designs making the
Italy and France, by which time I don't doubt but she wil turn out the
of fine Ladys. She did think indeed of bringing a little dog and a cat
to keep poor
pug company, but that they could not possibly find more room in the
characters are no where to be met abroad, whatever they may be in
England, and even
there I never saw one come up to this.'
"This is al that was read to me
out of the
letter. I could not help saying, what I fancy you'l join with me in,
In an evil hour didst thou take to thy bosom this Lady Mar-all."
of Richmond gave Martin Folkes a letter of introduction to Princess
which he spoke of him as "a gentleman of very good family, and one of
savants of this kingdom."
in a letter to the Countess Celia Borromea, he wrote:
"I may venture to say that this
be attended with one agreeable circumstance to your Excellency which is
introducing one of the most learned and at the same time most agreeable
men in Europe
to you, besides this he is one of the most intimate and dearest friends
I have in
the world, which I am vain enough to hope will not lessen him in your
esteem. His name is Mr. Folkes: he is a member of our Royal Society and
a great while our Vice-President, he was an intimate acquaintance of
the great Sir
Isaac Newton, for whose memory, as every man of learning must, he has
to be some confusion with regard to a medal either designed, or struck,
Folkes, or struck in his honour. Hawkins, in his Medallic
Illustrations, says of
a medal, dated 1740:
"In February 1740, James
a nephew of Jean Dossier, engraver to the Mint at Geneva, published
executing several medals of famous men living in England. The set was
of thirteen medals and the subscription to be four guineas, but if sold
the price was 7s. 6d. each. The medal of Martin Folkes was first made.
were engraved in London, but the medaig were struck abroad, because no
allowed for that purpose in this country."
to Hawkins, however, there was a second medal, bearing the date of
1742, which he
"Was executed at Rome, and,
by especial command of the Pope, unknown to Folkes whom it was intended
during his visit to Italy. Freemasonry was originally named 'Lux' and
is said to
have existed from the Creation. Folkes' visit to Rome took place in
1733. It is
much more probable that the medal was struck at Rome to show the high
which Folkes was held in that city of antiquities and about the time he
a member of the French Academy. There is in the British Museum an early
this medal struck before the legends were added or the type of the
tradition obviously is without foundation. Clement XII occupied the
in 1733, and Benedict XIV in 1742, and both condemned the Masonic Order
language, so that it is scarcely likely that either would sanction the
a medal in honor of so distinguished a Freemason.
by some means left the possession of the Folkes family, but, about
1890, it was
recovered by Bro. Sir William Folkes, Bart., a lineal descendant, whose
found it in a curiosity shop in Norwich. In the History of the
No. 107, King's Lynn, published in 1911, it is stated that "Sir William
has in his possession a bronze medal, which was struck in honor of
by the Masons resident in Rome in the year 1742, and also an original
the Duke of Richmond to his Deputy, Martin Folkes, asking him to make
for not attending to a report from a Charity Committee, and thanking
him for an
old record he had sent him, which he stated was really very curious,
and a certain
proof of Masons' antiquity by the Unbelievers. Martin Folkes
constituted the Maid's
Head Lodge, the earliest Lodge on the roll of Norfolk Freemasonry [No.
30 in the
1725 List, erased in 1809.-D. W.] and his name appears in the first
list of members
Forbes says (Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, xiv [Lib 1901]) that Martin Folkes founded a
in Rome in 1742 and named it after Fabius Maximus. "He had a medal
the Papal Mint, engraved by Hamerain. On the obverse is his bust, and
on the reverse
a sphinx in the foreground, on the side of which is the crescent moon.
the pyramid tomb of Caius Cestius, thus a rectangle is introduced
twice, as two
sides of the tomb are shown. At the northeast and northwest corners of
are two columns, so the tomb and columns might suggest the temple. In
the sun shines in full splendor, above all is the motto, Sua sidera
norunt. At the
base is Romae, A.L. 5742."
On the 5th
September, 1742, Martin Folkes had been elected a member of the French
to fill the vacancy caused by the demise of the celebrated Halley, and,
in the words
of the Minute "the Academy thought it could not better repair the loss
by the election of M. Folkes in his place." The Minute also mentions in
of high praise his communications to the Royal Society on the subject
Weld in his
History of the Royal Society also says that "Martin Folkes was a man of
knowledge, who has, however, rendered more service to archaeology than
the latter being chiefly enriched by his work on the intricate subject
weights, and measures."
At the anniversary
meeting of the Society in 1753, Martin Folkes resigned the Presidency,
to the great
regret of the Fellows, who immediately passed the following resolution:
That the thanks of the Society be returned to Martin Folkes, Esq.,
President, for the many great services which they have received from
him, both as
Member and as President, of which they shall retain the highest sense.
he be assured of the great concern which they feel that his ill state
will not permit him any longer to discharge the office of President,
which he has
so many years filled with so much credit to himself and advantage to
testimony, which appears in his Common Place Book, is of particular
view of a more lengthy, statement which appeared later from his pen. He
to the meetings held under Folkes' presidency:
"They are a most elegant and
for a contemplative person: here we meet, either personally or in their
the geniuses of England, or, rather of the whole world, whatever the
My custom is, when I return home and take a contemplative pipe, to set
memoirs of what entertainments we have there."
was succeeded in the Presidency by the Earl of Macclesfield, who, from
of his election to the Council evinced a warm interest in the Society.
summarizing the years of the Presidency of Martin Folkes, says:
"It is but just to Mr. Folkes
to state that
he left the Society in a much more flourishing condition than when he
President; for, at the time of his resignation, their funded capital
3,000 pounds. A careful examination of the voluminous Minutes of the
extending over the eleven years that he was in office, enables me to
he was scarcely ever absent from the chair, and that the meetings were
by a greater number of visitors than usual, numbering frequently as
many as thirty
or forty. Indeed, so much inconvenience was occasionally experienced by
desiring to be admitted, that the President was obliged to request the
exercise a little discretion in bringing visitors and to enforce the
precluding their admission until leave had been obtained from the
Society in the
On the 26th
September, 1753, Martin Folkes was seized with paralysis, as a result
of which he
was deprived of the use of his left side. In this unhappy situation he
on until 28th June, 1754, when a second stroke put an end to his mortal
He was buried in Hillington Church near Lynn, in Norfolk, under a black
in the chancel, with no other inscription than his name and the date of
in accordance with the provisions of his last will, dated September,
1751. He bequeathed
200 pounds to the Royal Society, in addition to a cornelian ring, on
which was engraved
the arms of the Royal Society, for the use of the President. He also
400 pounds a year for life to his wife and he left, 12,000 pounds to
each of his
daughters. In 1792 a monument was erected to him in the south side of
of Westminster Abbey.
Diary contains an entry dated 28th June, 1754, which reads as follows:
"This morn, about four, dyed
of a repeated paralytic stroke. He had just finished his new house
his own in a most elegant manner, though always incapable of having the
from it. He has remained for this three or four year a most miserable
dereliction from that Deity which he supposed took no account of our
had not provided for an immortal part."
It is singular
that Dr. Stukeley should have waited until after Folkes' death before
to attack him, but his entry in his Common Place Book is more lengthy
and more spiteful.
He there writes:
"Martin Folkes has an estate of
pounds got by his father-in-law. He is a man of no economy. Before at
age he married
Mrs. Bracegirdle off the stage. His mother grieved at it so much that
herself out of a window and broke her arm. His only son broke his neck
off a horse
back at Paris. His eldest daughter ran away with a bookkeeper and who
used her very
ill. Quarrelling with Sir Hans Sloane about the Presidentship of the
and being baffled he went to Rome with his wife and daughters, dog, cat
monkey. There his wife grew religiously mad. He went to Venice and got
hurt upon his leg. Returning he was successor to Sir Hans Sloane,
President of the
Royal Society. Losing his teeth he speaks so as not to be understood.
refuses all papers that speak of longitude. He chases the Council and
his junto of Sycophants that meet him every night at Rawthmilis coffee
that dine with him on Thursdays at the Miter, Fleet Street. He has a
of learning, philosophy, astronomy; but knows nothing of natural
history. In matters
of religion an errant infidel and loud scoffer. Professes himself a
all monkeys, believes nothing of a future state, of the Scriptures, of
He perverted Duke of Montagu, Richmond, Lord Pembroke, and very many
more of the
nobility, who had an opinion of his understanding; and this has done an
prejudice to Religion in general, made the nobility throw off the mask
deride and discountenance even the appearance of religion, which has
into that deplorable situation we are now in, with thieves and
forgery, etc. He thinks there is no difference between us and animals;
is owing to the different structure of our brain, as between man and
man. When I
lived in Ormond Street in 1720, he set up an Infidel Club at his house
evenings, where Will Jones, the mathematician, and others of the
assembled. He invited me earnestly to come thither, but I always
refused. From that
time he has been propagating the infidel system with great assiduity
and made it
even fashionable in the Royal Society, so that when any mention is made
or the deluge, of religion, Scriptures, etc., it generally is received
with a loud
laugh. In September, 1751, being of a very gross habit, great eater and
he was seized with the colic, which soon terminated in a hemiplegia. He
been confined a twelvemonth in this miserable state, but so far from
his irreligious notions that he's grown worse if possible. In two years
dyed in a deplorable manner. Two years after his daughters both married
some slight corroboration of his irreligious opinions in an entry in
under date of 26th March, 1736, when he wrote:
"Mr. Johnson talked about the
Duke of Montague
and I walked with him through the Strand and he said Martin Folkes
of the book however adds:
"Probably against religion as
he had seen
it exhibited in Rome and Florence, where he had resided two years and
returned (September, 1735) to England."
destroyed many manuscripts shortly before his death, some of which, it
would have thrown light upon the early history of the organized Craft
His library was sold by Samuel Baker, of York Street, Covent Garden, W.
C. The sale
began on Monday, 2nd February, 1756, and continued for forty days.
There were in
all 5,126 items, the sum realized being 3,091 pounds 6s., which was a
in those days, although a great many items were withdrawn from the sale.
family of Ffolkes descends from Martin Folkes' brother, William Folkes,
of the Inner Temple, agent to the Duke of Montague in Lancashire, who
his second wife, the only daughter and heiress of Sir William Browne,
of the Royal College of Physicians. There was only one child of this
Folkes, who changed the spelling of his name and styled himself Martin
after the death of his grandfather. He was created a Baronet on 26th
The present bearer of the title, Sir William Edward Browne Ffolkes, is
Baronet and brother of the third Baronet, who had only one child, a
the wife of Lieut.-Col. the Hon. John Dawnay. The present Rector of
the Rev. F.A.S. Ffolkes, M.V.O., J.P., Chaplain in Ordinary to the King
of the King's Own Norfolk Yeomanry-is a brother of the present Baronet.
Fellow Craft Club
is admittedly a commonplace, it is undeniably true, ‒ that we live in a
time. The conditions of hustling modern life force us, whether we will
or no, to
fill our days and hours with a multitude of activities; and even then
to leave undone
many desirable things.
we believe, are our fraternal activities; yet even in these circles we
these same hustling conditions of all other phases of life. There are
and they all clamor for attention. Such attention as we give must be
Careful attention we believe we have given to our Masonic organization;
here we find more or less of this overfilling of our available time.
circles any new organization, even though auxiliary, may well be
received with caution.
Energy and attention needed for the main lines of Man sonic activity
be lightly scattered and carelessly divided. Any new club must fully
existence if it is to be received, approved and made permanent.
would seem to discourage the addition to our system of a new unit such
as our Fellow
Craft Club. This club, however, was the outgrowth of these very
somewhat to meet their problems which we are facing.
undoubted problems is that of the gradual change in our lodges brought
new needs. Our lodges, becoming larger and larger, must serve this
This growth in membership brings a constantly increasing number of
candidates, and this necessitates more frequent meetings. The time of
our busy officers,
mortgaged to the degree work and the duties incident to a large
membership, is hardly
sufficient to meet the needs that are urgent.
however, are merely the more insistent ones. Others arise from the fact
a certain extent the lodge, standing less alone in the community than
must compete with many other activities which are bidding for the
attention of busy
men. Many men, we must confess, are not interested for very long in the
alone, and their interest must be maintained by an emphasis on the
which make gatherings of men attractive.
Out of such
conditions grew our Fellow Craft Club. It was formed primarily for the
assisting the Master in his lodge work, and then for the purpose of
doing some things
which the Master could not find time to accomplish. The club was first
but a small
group of men with enthusiasm for our lodge. The work, once started,
new possibilities for service which were met as they appeared. The
by-laws (we were
ambitious enough to believe we needed them) are simple, providing just
to accomplish our purpose. The work, not the machinery, is emphasized.
state: "The object of this organization shall be to promote the welfare
1, By assisting the officers of the lodge in the presentation of
the Third degree.
2, By assisting the Senior Deacon in welcoming and introducing visiting
3, By providing means of entertainment and refreshments at such
the Worshipful Master shall direct."
for membership are provided. The Junior Warden of the lodge is
Club Leader, but emphasis is placed on the fact that the authority of
Master is absolute in all the affairs of the club. Other useful matters
out in these by-laws.
is accomplishing several of its purposes. In connection with the degree
furnishes and organizes men for the Fellow Craft team in the Third
degree. For this
work we have enough interested men so that it is possible always to
have the necessary
for the Third degree, but for other meeting nights also, the club
members have been
appointed in rotation on reception committees, a past master when
with them. This committee welcomes all who attend our meetings to make
that their attendance and interest are appreciated. Especial attention
are of course given to strangers. The stranger is introduced to those
who may be
at liberty, an examining committee is arranged if he is making his
and after the examination he is placed in charge of some brethren who
look to his
pleasure during the rest of the evening. Every brother who is a member
lodge is marked with a small bow of blue ribbon on his coat lapel. This
him a visitor and being automatically an introduction to every brother
smooths the way for easy acquaintance and informal welcome.
has the Fellow Craft Club taken responsibility for the social side of
Lunches and smokers following lodge meetings have been arranged and
these affairs, delightful in their informality, there is often a
speaker who for
a few minutes speaks entertainingly, after which the men themselves
either ask questions,
continue the discussion, or indulge in general conversation.
has arranged a few dances during the winter season. These have been
simple and inexpensive,
and have interested many who were not permanently attracted by the
indoor lodge activities being unseasonable, the club took the lead in
for a successful picnic in which all the appendant Masonic bodies of
the city joined.
has found it desirable, however, to preserve for itself organization
enough to prevent
the feeling that it is merely a group of committees. To this end the
arranged a monthly meeting for the discussion of plans and policies;
and in connection
with this meeting have introduced an initiation for the new members.
The club being
largely social, it has not been felt that the initiation need carry any
import. It is not even remotely suggestive of any Masonic degree work,
too sacred to be trifled with. This little initiation employs amusing
features without degenerating into anything undesirable, yet closes
with a dignified
climax. Containing amusement and a little instruction, it has added
greatly to the
interest of the club.
We find that
the club has awakened and maintained an interest in many men by giving
to do. It has scattered rather widely among them the social duties and
as well as the incidental work of the lodge. Many men do not care to
office. Many more are not fitted for the peculiar requirements of such
But almost every man being interested in his lodge, we find that most
of them are
glad to do the things which this club fosters.
We are but
beginning, and find that there is a large field of activity not yet
more things might with benefit be done.
branches and forms of Masonic study and instruction remain for future
which might with entire appropriateness be fostered by the Fellow Craft
following the regular meetings could be systematized, extended, and
made more important.
might well care for and handle the properties for the various degrees,
time and making for general efficiency.
along dramatic lines would be valuable. College dramatic clubs have
shown us how
to make this work useful and pleasant, indicating a field where
valuable training are combined. As an approach to this work the club
degree teams to understudy the officers for the various degrees. This
a taste of degree work to those who do not care to assume official
and would perhaps develop good material for officers.
of the club might bring to the meetings of the lodge those who are
in by some handicap and so deprived of lodge life.
could do much to keep in touch with every Mason resident in our city
to a lodge elsewhere. This would extend Masonic courtesy in a very
We have found
that our work grows with experience, each new step determining the
our Fellow Craft Club has worked well. It has proved its worth and
adding to the efficiency of the lodge. By keeping itself strictly
the lodge it has not been subject to any of the criticisms which would
any competing or disturbing organization. It has kept its reason for
in view, has tried to do its legitimate work, and has held itself
strictly to the
desires and plans of the Worshipful Master. It seems to us to have
for growth and extension and for added usefulness to our lodge.
The fact that we live in a very busy time, and that our lodges are
brings important problems! Any new organization must justify the time
we give it
by being useful. The Fellow Craft Club tries to help the Master to
solve some of
his problems by giving him active assistance. It has a simple
holds itself strictly subordinate to the Master. It furnishes a Fellow
It provides reception committees for communications, with especial
visitors. It arranges social affairs following meetings. It has
dances and a summer picnic. It has its own meetings, with a diverting
It has interested men by giving them duties. Still further work remains
to be done.
Pleasures are like poppies
You seize the flower, the bloom is shed,
Or like the snowflake in the river,
A moment white, then lost forever.
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs. From the questions following each section of
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the text of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
* * *
Part X ‒
WHEN in the
course of human events the mass of people living in a nation learn how
to live together
as a people, and devise means whereby to secure for themselves their
rights as a
people, and contrive political machinery and social institutions of
as exist by and for the whole mass of individuals, that land may be
said to be a
democracy; for democracy may be described as a state of society in
which the people
as a whole control in their own collective interest the institutions
of the nation. No nation becomes democratic by first thinking out a
theory of what
democracy is and then, as an architect follows a blueprint,
out to put the theory into practice; but they arrive at democracy very
and naturally, though not always without strife, by securing control of
and of another until they have control of everything, mad then manage
so as to satisfy the needs and desires of the people as a whole.
long for democracy, others are on the way to democracy, and others
still may be
said to possess it, albeit in no nation has it as yet become perfect.
The most conspicuous
among these last is, perhaps, our own country. It was the first great
adopt democracy whole-heartedly, and it has from the first never
swerved from the
path that leads to a more and more complete control of everything by
themselves and in their own interests. Whether one should describe as
a nation that merely longs for it, or whether the name should be
only to those nations which may be truly said already to possess it,
must be left
to the individual's opinion to decide. The use of words is one thing,
another. The organization of public life by and for the public ‒ that
is what we
Americans all our hearts, unless we are renegades, and that is what we
Masons, with an equal whole-heartedness, believe the Masonic Fraternity
Now it is
self-evident that there may be many means whereby the public as a
public may come
into control of its own social forces and institutions. How democracy
is to be won
and preserved is a question of political and social machinery, and that
is a question
that cannot concern us here because it belongs to politics. Suffice to
it is possible for the people directly to manage their own
institutions, as in some
cities the price of a street car ride is determined by popular ballot,
usually described as "direct democracy," and that it is also possible
for the people to control their own institutions through elected
as is usually done among us, which method is called the "republican" or
"representative" system. In our own nation we mix up the two methods
much and the United States might be properly described as a democracy
in the form
of a republic.
Club member may have been wondering why it should be necessary to
include in this
series a paper on democracy when the course includes two other papers
and liberty respectively. Well, it may be said in reply that while
equality and liberty, equality and liberty may exist without democracy,
in our nation, and also I believe in our Fraternity, we strive for all
Liberty means that a man is free to develop and use the functions of
his own nature
without undue interference from others. Equality means that one man has
fundamental nature as another man, and should have the same privileges
but it has often happened that a social structure has existed in which
only a minority
of the people have been permitted to enjoy either liberty or equality.
for example, a fraction of the populace was composed of citizens
while the great bulk of them were slaves, and in many parts of India,
to cite an
example of the other kind, all the individuals enjoy liberty but, owing
to a very
hard-and-fast caste system, they do not have equality. The democrat
(this must not
be confused with the member of the political party which employs that
that liberty is a good thing for each individual and that therefore a
guarantee it to all, and he also thinks that the state should provide
for all. A state in which all the social forces and values are
controlled by and
for all the people, and which is so organized at the same time as to
all liberty and equality, may be thought of as the ideal toward which
all true democrats
are working. If it be true, as I think it is true, that Freemasonry is
one of the
mightiest forces working in that direction, we may all feel that no
could be of more value to our nation than Freemasonry.
We must be
careful not to conceive of democracy being merely political. I should
as a criticism of James Bryce's definition in his recent treatise,
to be a great work, called "Modern Democracies." He says that
really means nothing more nor less than the rule of the whole people
their sovereign will by their votes." That is clearly a merely
Democracy is oft something besides a "rule": it may be an expression of
the popular life, as in what we call democratic art, like the "Leaves
by Walt Whitman; and when it is a rule it may be exercised in quite
as when social changes are brought about or prevented by the power of
and also it often happens that the mere unconscious growth and changing
of a people
may transform important conditions in a nation's life.
I think one should quarrel with Viscount Bryce's definition in that it
things as social democracy, industrial democracy, and intellectual
social democracy we mean that social customs and conditions should be
and shaped by all the people in the interests of all the people. By
we mean that industry shall be controlled by and in the interests of
and by intellectual democracy we mean that there shall be no mere caste
as there was in Ancient Egypt but that everybody will use his brains
and that science
and scholarship exist for all and by all. The organizing of science and
in public schools which function under the control of the state is an
how the intellectual life may become genuinely democratic. How all
may be accomplished or perfected is a question of ways and means, and
those discussions in which we strive to discover what are the most
mechanisms, and therefore do not come within our present province.
It is wise
for us to learn to look at the facts themselves, and do our own
thinking by means
of them, rather than to let ourselves be deceived by words. For
oftentimes it happens
that a nation may call itself a democracy or a republic and yet have
not even a
tithe of the reality for which these names stand. Mexico under Diaz may
a very stable government but it was not a democracy, though Diaz and
were careful to observe the formalities, and carried on "elections"
once in a while. Diaz called himself a "President" but in reality was
a dictator. In England, on the other hand, there is a king and a royal
everybody knows that the English people are quite as democratic as we
their great governing body is immediately responsible to the people,
and is elected
directly by the people.
It may be
safely said that Freemasonry is about the most democratic institution
On its lodge floor men of all grades of rank, wealth and influence meet
in absolute equality, so that Presidents of the United States have sat
on the side
lines while some humble workman governed in the East. Its members are
secret ballot; its officers are chosen by ballot also; and it is
governed by laws
administered through representatives who must, once a year, give an
account of their
trust to the body of the membership. It is so organized that its
and privileges are equally distributed among the whole membership so
that all share
nature of the Craft is shown by its actual conduct in history during
the past two
hundred years. It arose in England (I refer here to modern speculative
we now know it) when society in general hated and loathed the idea of
and when men were broken up into social classes of such rigidity as
really to constitute
genuine castes; but in its lodges it gave to every man absolute freedom
and expression and it put into practice those methods of popular rule
which we have
now in our government. Since its reorganization in 1717 it has always
weight, or at least with very few exceptions if any, on the side of
I had occasion recently to read every reference to Freemasonry in the
Britannica, and I was struck by the fact again and again that the
mention almost every time as being one of the forces on the side of a
tyranny in some country, as, for example, in Spain and in Belgium. We
know how that
a great many of the founders of our nation were active members of the
that the Declaration of Independence has been freely described, even by
as a Masonic document; and how it can be accurately said that the
the United States is Masonry put into political practice; and we also
Masons were very active in tormenting and carrying through the American
My friend and colleague, Cyrus Field Willard, of San Diego, California,
a paper on "The Origin of the Scottish Rite" which is to be published
in these pages, in which he shows that European Jews of great wealth
were so anxious
to see organized here a democracy in which they could have full
never be in danger of persecution that they poured vast sums of money
into the coffers
of the Revolutionary government; and that they made use of lodges, and
many such, in order to carry on their work through Masonry.
and principles of Freemasonry can never be realized in any state of
a democratic one. How could there be equality for all in a nation ruled
by a class,
or a caste, or a clique of bureaucrats, or a set of multi-millionaires?
liberty be guaranteed to every last man in a nation that did not govern
laws that apply equally to all, and are interpreted and executed by men
the people and responsible to the people? In any other kind of
and equality may be granted for a time as a privilege but there is
never any way
of knowing, as history itself so abundantly attests, when that
privilege will be
mention of the Scottish Rite reminds one of Masonry's great book,
"Morals and Dogma." [Lib 1871] Those who have carefully read
wonderful work ("those" should include every Mason, whether he be a
of the Scottish Rite Bodies or not) will recall how that liberty and
through its pages over and over like a mighty bell, and how that the
the whole of history as a vast conflict between the forces that make
and the forces that make for freedom. It is often asked why Scottish
makes such headway in Latin countries where Ancient Craft Masonry (the
Lodge") stagnates: I believe the reply to be this, that Albert Pike and
co-founders of the Scottish Rite System organized a Masonry that may be
translated into a people's yearning for political freedom. They read in
palimpsest their own prayers for liberation; they find in it a power
it is an irresistible force for the overthrow of thrones and dominions.
But is must
not be supposed that Freemasonry works for democracy only when it is
some actual struggle, as it was during our Revolutionary period. Its
perpetual influences, quiet as the coming of the night,
in every Masons mind those thoughts and feelings which make toward
has become a commonplace with political thinkers that democracy cannot
come to any
people until they have prepared themselves for it. It is not a magic
that acts independently
of the citizenship; it is a thing that people themselves do if it be
done, and it
cannot be unless they learn how to do it, and until they desire it with
desire. A great Order of more than two and one-half million members in
exercises an immeasurable influence toward a full and complete
democracy by constantly
instilling into its members those ideas and longings which inwardly
for the fullest measures of equality and liberty. As the sun works so
the spring in developing the young seeds until a luxuriant vegetation
so does the mighty Order that is dedicated to Light throw its
about the mind and heart of everyone of its children. And it does this
It knows no seasons: it has no winter.
I said, is not a kind of magic that works whether or no. It is not an
When the people govern themselves they do not escape mistakes nor are
freed from weaknesses and evils. The theory of democracy is that the
learn to govern themselves only by governing themselves, just as an
by experience and experiments. Therefore though the people, or let us
may fail, time and again, that is no reason for despairing of democracy.
- Do you find Brother Haywood's
definition of democracy to be adequate? If
not, how would you enlarge or modify it?
- How can a people ever be said
to control their own life when always a minority,
sometimes large, sometimes small, is opposed to the course of the
- Is majority rule the same as
- Can you name a nation now
existing which is trying to secure democracy?
- Name two nations now "on their
way to democracy."
- Would you describe the soviet
government of Russia as a democracy?
- What kind of a government did
Alexander Hamilton wish us to have?
- What sort of a nation did
Thomas Jefferson strive for?
- Were they both democrats?
- Do you believe that the mass of
the citizenship of this nation is competent
to manage its own affairs?
- A French writer (Fauget)
describes democracy as "the cult of inefficiency."
Do you agree with him?
- Or do you agree with
President-Emeritus Eliot of Harvard University that
democracy is the most efficient of governments?
- What is meant by political
- What is sociology?
- What is economics?
- Give examples from your own
knowledge of "direct democracy."
- Of "representative democracy."
- Can you explain the difference
between the Democratic Party and the Republican
Party on this question?
- Can you tell in what ways some
of our own social institutions are not yet
- What is a social institution?
- Do you believe that industry
should be socialized, or brought under public
- Is this the same as Socialism?
If not, in what way does it differ?
- How could industrial democracy
be brought about?
- Can you name any country that
calls itself a democracy which is really not?
- Name a democratic country that
still has a king but is really democratic.
- Is Belgium a democracy?
- In the foregoing section are
mentioned a few ways in which Freemasonry is
democratic; can you name others?
- Can you give examples of how
Freemasonry has actually fought on the side
of political liberty?
- Why can't a democratic
institution like ours flourish in an undemocratic
- What is the principal idea in
Pike's "Morals and Dogma"?
- What does that name mean?
- Has Freemasonry made you more
- How can one carry out the
ideals of democracy in every day conduct?
- How would you change Masonry to
make it more democratic?
it be made more democratic?
* * *
and Accepted, p. 281;
Born, p. 281;
Freedom, p. 281;
Freedom, Fervency and Zeal, p. 282;
Freemasonry, p. 283;
Will and Accord, p. 284.
rule implies the just collective government of themselves by free men.
Just as Freemasonry
has its peculiar strength in the free choice of its members to become
of their own accord and that they have the qualifications to do so r
free born and free men, so is the democracy formed of those united to
with due regard the personal liberty and equality of each. Only by
what is meant by Masonic freedom, liberty, and equality, may one best
that democracy intended by the Freemason fathers of the Republic in the
Scales, p. 666;
Equality, p. 247. Both refer to the lesson
of balance, and both ought to be considered in connection with the
Level, p. 242.
A just Masonic appreciation of these leads not to the anarchy
recognizing no distinction,
but to that brotherhood which rejoices unselfishly in our successful
Belgium, p. 102;
Egyptian Mysteries, p. 232;
Egyptian Priests, Initiation of the, p.
Lodge (as a governing body), p. 306;
Mexico, p. 482;
Albert, p. 563;
Scottish Rite, p. 671;
Character of Freemasonry, p. 696.
* * *
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to
of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three
in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under
the following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge
and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and
"Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st, 1921,
are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Haywood:
The Teachings of Masonry
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
- The Masonic Conception of Human
- The Idea of Truth in
- The Masonic Conception of
- Ritualism and Symbolism.
- Initiation and Secrecy.
- Masonic Ethics.
- Masonry and Industry.
- The Brotherhood of Man.
- The Fatherhood of God.
- Endless Life.
- Brotherly Aid.
of Masonic Philosophy.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
How to Organize and Conduct
Study Club Meetings
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
Program for Study Club Meetings
1. Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
2. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
3. Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
4. The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
5. Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
Oh Time -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Frank C. Hickman,
time! immortal is thy life!
The emblematic Scythe, thy Knife, ‒
With which thou reap.
Thy harvest is life's brittle thread, ‒
Thou sever free,
Whereby thou send us on to tread
Behold! what havoc thou hast made
Mid'st Mortal man!
Oh time! thou has't a cruel trade
At thy command!
If infancy arrive at youth,
Without a Scratch,
And youth succeeds to man, forsooth,
With health to match, ‒
Yet all too soon, thou Scythe of Time!
Cut short our days,
And we are gathered up in fine
And sent our ways.
The Privileges of Your N.M.R.S.
new members have flocked into our family since the war and many of
so there is some reason to believe, have as yet not discovered all the
and opportunities that accompany membership in the National Masonic
To the end that these brethren may be made to feel more at home, and
that they may
be made acquainted with their rights and prerogatives as members, they
to join in the little conference which we shall now hold among
ourselves and for
our own benefit. Ye editor will address the new members, as follows:
joined our circle it was not by means of purchasing a subscription to
but by taking out membership in The National Masonic Research Society,
you are entitled to much more than the twelve monthly numbers of the
carries on a constantly increasing service by correspondence. This
the whole field of Masonic research, study, and reading, and of all the
activities that pertain to those interests. If you have any need at all
Society's services do not hesitate to write to us about it.
Do you have
a talk to prepare and can't find any materials for it? Or, it may be,
do not know
how to go about preparing a talk on Masonry? Let us help you.
Do you wish
to borrow or to buy a book on Masonry? Ask us. We are not always able
books, either for loaning or for sale, but we do our best. We have a
few books for
sale ourselves. If a book can be purchased, and we do not have it on
we shall tell you where you can get it. If you wish to borrow a book we
you find the loan of it when that is possible. If you are thinking of
books but wish first to consult us about their value, feel free to
write about them.
If you wish
to start a Study Club in your lodge but do not know how to go about it
be very glad to help you. After assisting in the organization of
we have learned much from experience, and this which we have learned we
to share with you.
If you are
of a mind to undertake the study of Masonry privately and for your own
benefit we shall be equally pleased to lend you whatever assistance you
outlining a list of titles, and in securing whatever materials you may
You are entitled
to all these forms of service by virtue of your membership in the
Society, and you
must consider yourself at liberty to write to the Society at any time
There will never be any charges whatsoever for such assistance as it is
function to render.
is not a magazine in the strict sense of that term but a Journal, by
the which is
meant that its control and management is vested in the Society as a
of in the hands of one man, or a group of men, and it exists to reflect
of the Society and to minister to the needs of the Society. Each and
every one of
you is associated with the editor in the production of it. If you have
you consider worth publishing submit it; if there is room for it, and
it is deemed
worthy of print, it will be published. Every member has the right to
materials to THE BUILDER.
If you are
troubled by some difficulty in your reading about Masonry send your
problem to the
Question Box Editor. You will receive a reply as soon as it is possible
the facts, and unless the Question Box Department is overcrowded the
appear there in due time over your initials. As soon as a reply is
will receive a copy of it through the mails.
If you have
anything to say about the Society itself, or about THE BUILDER, or if
you wish to
address a word to the Fraternity at large, or make some comment on
matters of the
day that pertain to Masonry, prepare a letter for the Correspondence
Many letters are received and replied to that do not appear in that
but all letters that deserve a wide notice or are worthy of permanent
published sooner or later, if it is possible to find the space.
If you are
the director of a Study Club and you are looking for an outline of
studies for your
club turn to the back numbers of THE BUILDER beginning with 1917. You
find the beginnings of a complete course of such studies covering the
Lodge ritual. At the present time a second series is running on "The
of Masonry." In order to meet the demand for the first series it is
to publish the same in book form some time during this year. This
volume will be
arranged as a text book for Study Clubs and will contain all the
helps that any club will need under ordinary circumstances.
If you have
become interested in Masonic reading and study you should possess the
of THE BUILDER. Thus far seven such volumes have been issued. Each
an index and there is a consolidated index covering all the volumes
the first five years. These seven bound volumes comprise the largest
and most accurate
as semblage of articles and of information dealing with Masonry that
be obtained. THE BUILDER has already become an encyclopedia.
If you have
not already done so it will be worth your while to read very carefully
on the inside front cover of THE BUILDER.
And now a
word about Masonic books. Many of our best works are published abroad,
and it is
often quite impossible to get them. Other works often quoted have gone
out of print
and therefore cannot be included in our book list. In that event we are
to refer a request for these titles to houses that deal in second-hand
The titles included in our own list are not by any means the only ones
that we should
recommend; they are listed because it is possible to supply them
promptly in quantities.
If you encounter
a book that we have not reviewed in The Library Department acquaint the
the fact. He is evermore on the lookout for all Masonic books that
appear. If you
know of a book that you believe we should include in our list write us
Masonic Research Society, including its journal, THE BUILDER, is not a
institution existing in order to pay dividends, but a Masonic service
existing to render whatever help it can toward the enlarging and
enriching of the
life of the Masonic Fraternity, to the glory of which it is dedicated.
are yet other questions that you have in your minds write to the editor
You are one of the family and you are urged to enjoy the freedom of the
* * *
The Hand and the Brain
anon one encounters in Masonic journals and in Masonic speeches a good
deal of fault-finding
with Masonic study and research on the ground that a "real" Mason, a
Mason, ‒ the words are emphasized here to conform with the emphasis
that is always
given to them in such cases ‒ is one who works hard in charity, in
burdens of the lodge, and in putting into practice in the world outside
that he has been taught inside the lodge, instead of being one who
wastes his time
reading a lot of Masonic books. Why make any such distinction? If that
is valid in Freemasonry is it not equally valid elsewhere, and for the
Then why send a boy to school to be taught mathematics, logic, history,
he might be putting in his time at the more practical tasks of driving
wagon or following the plow? Why should a man ever waste his time
reading a book
when it is well known that a book is a string of mere words, and there
is so much
actual work to be done in the world? These will be considered
but they are not one whit more ridiculous than the attempt to draw a
line of cleavage
between Masonic study and Masonic practice, because a man needs use
only one eye
while he is abroad in the Craft to see that as a rule the men who do
the most Masonic
reading are the ones who do the most Masonic work. A statesman reads
order that he may the better meet the problems of his own day. A
studies Latin in order that he may the better understand how to write a
or design a building. A physician studies anatomy, with all its
thousand and one
details of remote significance, in order that he may the more
the malady of a sick child. There is no conflict anywhere between right
right practice, and there never has been. Men study to know in order
to do. So has it always been, so is it now, so will it ever be. And so
is it in
Freemasonry. Those who study to know the history, the philosophy, the
symbolism, the jurisprudence, and the literature of the Craft are not
anxious to set up false claims to mentality, but men who are busy
brain that it may all the more successfully direct the hand.
* * *
A Gorgeous Mason
Once in a
while, a long while, one encounters a production that is a classic in
its own field.
Expressing a fact or an idea in a manner that is adequate, delightful,
it takes its place at once among those things that we treasure and
editor believes that the paragraph which follows is to be so
classified. He found
it in the annual address of the Grand Master of Arkansas for 1920,
Bauerlein, and the utterance speaks for itself, and that abundantly in
And what a picture it is! Were all Masons to be tricked out like the
specimen presented herewith what a spectacle would a lodge assembled
colony of flamingoes, a bevy of birds of paradise would be as tame as
mat that lies upon the porch! The watch-fob Mason, the jeweler's pride,
look into this glass and see himself:
a certain lodge your Grand Master found the Worshipful Master much
he had a visitor who could not prove himself. At the request of the
your servant went to the committee room and found a brother taking a
a silver case upon which was enameled the square and compasses. We
is a nice case.' The visitor replied: 'It cost me $7.00. I bought it
when I took
the third degree. I paid $40.00 for the degrees.' Question after
question was asked
and no answer could he give that would prove he had received anything
for his $47.00.
We noticed a pair of cuff buttons: on each was a keystone. We were
they cost $15.00 and he had purchased them when he was made a Royal
Arch Mason and
he further enlightened us that the Chapter degrees had set him back
a beautiful Knight Templar charm, your servant discovered that this
with the Commandery degrees had cost $250.00 more. Commenting upon a
ring the visitor
displayed as he lighted his cigarette brought forth the information
that this ring
and the Scottish Rite degrees had separated the visitor from three
dollars, ‒ and yet he could not work his way into a Blue Lodge! Seeing
on his coat, we asked: 'How much did that cost you?' With a face
lighted up with
a smile the decorated brother replied: 'My wife gave me that when I
joined the Shrine,
but I paid $78.00 for the degree, which included the Fez.' We were glad
that the good brother had at least one piece of jewelry that cost him
the brother continued: 'The Shrine is the playground of Masonry and I
am glad that
I have all there is in Masonry and am at the top.' "Poor deluded man,
paid $715 to get all there was in Masonry he remembered that, but not a
the ritual, not a beauty, not a lesson. For his $715 he had gotten
will not purchase the beauties of our mysteries. They must come through
and mind and not through the purse. Before you can see all the gems and
of our beloved Order revealed in their grandeur, you must have a
A New Brief History of
Story of the Craft," [Lib*] by Wor. Bro. Lionel Vibert, author of
Before the Existence of Grand Lodges," [Lib 1910] etc. Published by Spencer
Co., 19 Great Queen Street, London, W. C. 2. For sale by the National
Society at $1.35, postpaid.
BY A HAPPY
circumstance this book has appeared almost coincidentally with the
of Brother Vibert in the East of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati, Masonry's
honor. Not since the days of the giants has any other man been more
to the position, for Brother Vibert has been these many years a
faithful and diligent
servant of that great research institution, and it would be impossible
another more thoroughly imbued with its tone, or more attuned to its
earlier work, entitled "Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand
and very well known, was a compend of the more important results of
researches in the field of early Freemasonry, and helped much to make
to laymen throughout the world the achievements of the scholars in that
new work, just off the press, is another essay in the same line, and
quite as successful,
which is praise enough.
Of the Masons
who feel an interest in Masonic history, and who desire to be
intelligent in their
Masonry as well as faithful, very few have either time or inclination
to push their
way through the great tomes of erudition in which lie buried whatever
is known about
the Craft: and these men, countless numbers of them, have been asking
brief and simple that they may find time and ability to read. Also,
there are many
others, more advanced students, who, though they find opportunity to
read a little,
are utterly unable to keep pace with the latest developments in
research, and are
accordingly eager to have the field reviewed for them by some competent
Brother Vibert's book, "The Story of the Craft," is designed to meet
needs of both these groups: it is brief (88 pages in all) and simple,
and it is
an authentic report (though not in the form of a report) of the results
Coronati researches in the department of general Masonic history.
has an eye single to the facts in the case. In writing he was very
upon furnishing his reader a maximum of facts in a minimum of space.
is almost Baconian, so that his pages are like conglomerate rocks, not
to see, but pebbled through with hard bits of dry information. The
reader may at
times wish his author a little easier to follow, but for all that he
will not be
inclined to find fault. A scorn of verbiage, an absence of that windy
so often inflates a ten page Masonic pamphlet (or what should be one)
into a 200
page "book," is refreshing and rewarding. May the day come when all our
writers will be as much interested in facts! A typical example of
method of telling a long story in few words is found in his account of
and development of the "Antient Grand Lodge," as printed on page
of the book:
"There now appeared in London a
Irish Freemasons, men of very humble social standing for the most part,
nevertheless, and following the usages that in their minds were
the Craft from time immemorial. Not only did they find the Grand Lodge
to the "Modern" Grand Lodge. ‒ H.L.H.) following different practices,
but these Irish Masons were refused recognition by that body.
"They thereupon, in 1751, took
step of forming a Grand Committee of their own, which in 1753 they made
into a Grand
Lodge, and they called themselves the Antients, to indicate that they
the true tradition, and the original Grand Lodge they described as the
in reference to the innovations it had introduced. Further, at this
time the Grand
Lodge at York, which had long since asserted, apparently without
it alone was of great antiquity, was dormant. The Antients, therefore,
themselves as 'York Masons,' meaning thereby no more than that they,
like the Masons
at York, preserved the true traditions of the operative lodges and the
which refer to an Assembly held at York by Edwin. The moving spirit in
was Laurence Dermott, who was Secretary, and later on Deputy Grand
Master, and in
1756 he issued Constitutions, under the title of 'Ahiman Rezon' (which
explained as meaning 'faithful brother Secretary'). They also very soon
had a peer
as their Grand Master, and the circumstance that at a later date two
Dukes of Atholl
presided over them, the second being their last Grand Master before the
the Union, (the Union of the Antients and Moderns came in 1813. ‒
H.L.H.) also led
them to be known as the Atholl Grand Lodge. No doubt they attracted to
many who were dissatisfied with the original Grand Lodge and its
methods, but it
must be clearly understood that in its inception the Grand Lodge of the
was not a seceding but an independent body."
In this excellently
brief fashion Brother Vibert covers about the same ground as Gould's
History" [Lib 1904] except ‒ and this is somewhat
a new departure
in writing Masonic history ‒ he ignores in beginning the long story of
backgrounds of Freemasonry, in which usually are included accounts of
Mysteries, the Collegia, the Comacini, and all that.
If any advance
serious objections to Brother Vibert's volume it will be on the ground
that he has
too completely ignored the part played by organizations other than
in the evolution of the Craft. As things now stand, so it will be
urged, the features
of Freemasonry that most appeal to the imagination are in many cases
not of operative origin at all, but derive from occult fraternities and
groups; and these elements have as necessary a place in even a brief
resume of Masonic
history as any account of builders' lodges and their work. To this
would very probably reply that he has undertaken only to tell the story
of the institution
as an institution, without reference to the ritual and philosophy and
and that everything cannot be told in only eighty-eight pages.
especially the beginner, who needs at hand a brief reference work in
which to find
dates, names, and facts, will have no cause to quarrel with "The Story
Craft" on the ground of omissions, for it contains nearly all the more
matters of fact. For my own part, I shall place the volume on the shelf
"Concise," and stand ready to recommend it to beginners in Masonic
and to Study Clubs whenever an opportunity presents. Among more recent
Heiron's "Ancient Freemasonry and the Old Dundee Lodge, No. 18," [Lib*]
"A Century of Masonic Working" [Lib*] by F. W. Golby, and "A New
Encyclopedia of Freemasonry" [Lib*] by A. E. Waite (all published by
firm) should go along with it on the same shelf. And if anybody chances
to ask me,
"Do you like Vibert's new book?", I shall reply that I like it very
except that it does not have an index. Alas for all these English
brethren who have
formed the bad habit of publishing books without index!
H. L. Haywood.
* * *
The Blois Masonic Club
in the World War, a History of the Masonic Club of A. P. O. 726, A. E.
France." [Lib*] Compiled by Brothers E. Q. Jackson, J. M. Loughborough,
Mitchell Wilt. Price fifty cents.
many Masonic clubs organized in France by members of the A.E.F. the
club at Blois
was one of the most successful. Among the larger units of organization
the A.E.F. and which helped mightily to put the Boches to sleep was the
of Supplies, or, as it was familiarly known, the S.O.S. Under this
existed at Blois a Casual Officers' Depot, American Post Office 726.
of the C.O.D. was to reclassify wounded officers who were ready to
return to service,
also, green officers, just over who had not yet been assigned, were
the C.O.D. in order to be fitted into their places. To maintain a big
such as the C.O.D. required many resident officers, commissioned and
and these were called "permanents." Among these "permanents"
were, of course, a lot of Masons, and thereby hangs this tale.
On the 15th
of March, 1918, a number of these brethren held an informal meeting
with a view
to the organization of a Masonic Club. On March 22nd another meeting
was held, and
on March 29th a permanent organization was effected under the name
Club." On May 3rd this name was changed to the "Masonic Club of A.P.O.
is not space in which to carry the interesting story any farther. To
that end the
three brethren listed under the caption have compiled and written a
history of this club, and a good one it is, full of romance and
done in the very best style. In connection with the history of the club
have furnished a list of brief biographical sketches of the brethren
in it and, what is still more important, a roster of the club arranged
according to states. Of these names there are more than nine pages, and
seems to be represented. Those who in any way came into contact with
the club at
Blois will surely wish to have this book; so also will the Masonic
reader who desires
to keep in touch with the developing story of Freemasonry overseas. A
copy may be
obtained by writing to Brother E. Q. Jackson, 846 Lexington Avenue, New
* * *
Saint" by Antonio Fogazzaro. [Lib 1906] Translated from the Italian
Prichard-Agnetti, with an Introduction by William Roscoe Thayer.
Published by Grosset
& Dunlap, 1140 Broadway, New York, N. Y., by special
arrangements with G. P.
Putnam's, New York and London.
the "woman" who had belonged to Benedetto's past. Donna Rosetta was the
wife of an "excellency," the Under-Secretary of State, and a
cynical person, loving intrigues. The latter had dragged Jeanne off to
see the notorious
"non-concessionist," Cardinal Blank, on the pretext that he might be
into using his influence in behalf of "the saint," Benedetto, who had
been commanded to leave Rome within three days. When the Donna Rosetta
to the carriage to her awaiting friend she, ‒ but I shall let the
describe the scene.
"As she enters the carriage she
little book at her feet, and, instead of speaking, rubs her lips
her perfumed handkerchief. Finally she says, with a shudder, that she
to kiss the Cardinal's hand, and that it was anything but clean.... And
he had given
her a little book on the doctrines of hell and the inevitable damnation
It was this little book she had cast at her feet on entering the
and Jeanne rode home with the little book about the inevitable
damnation of Freemasons
under their feet.
little gleam lies upon the book like a blue ray from the moon through
an angry sky.
Is the sarcasm intended for us, for us Freemasons? or is the author
of the Cardinal whose hand "was anything but clean"? It is hard to say.
the little incident is indeed a little incident, and it has been
because it is a point of contact between a famous novel and our
was born at Vincenza in 1842, a district then under the immediate
control of Austria.
Having been bred to a liberal mind he was obliged to seek the Dee air
where Cavour labored titanically and (at last) successfully to steer
people between the Scylla of the Red Revolutionaries headed by Mazzini,
Charybdis of the Black Reactionaries, headed by the lean-handed gentry
of the Vatican,
to a constitutional free government. Law was Fogazzaro's vocation ‒ he
senator at last ‒ but literature became his mistress, and it has been
in her field
that he has won himself his laurels, quite the greenest and brightest
that any Italian
novelist has worn since the days of the great Manzoni. In 1881 he
first romance, "Malombra" [Lib 1907]; and in 1905 crowned his
with "Il Santo," the volume now on the table.
A few years
ago a middle western preacher attracted some attention with a book on
Came to Chicago." [Lib 1894] It was a literary scheme for
casting the Chicago
morals into contrast against an ideal background, and it succeeded very
Saint" is such another book, albeit on a much higher plane of literary
"If a Saint came to Rome, to the Rome of the Vatican and the Quirinal,"
‒ that is the theme of "The Saint."
is a saint, so the author assures us. He is given the dress, the mien,
and the vocabulary,
and every other character in the book announces him as such. But alas!
and his speeches, some of the latter of which are quite long sermons,
and even his
death, do not give us readers that impression, unless it be that we
shall be content
with hearsay. Fogazzaro does not belong among the great literary
creators. He was
not able to let Benedetto himself, by word and by deed, reveal himself
to us as
a Saint; he was compelled to have us believe it on the author's word.
of this lack of final creative power, the reader, for all his genuine
the exciting book, discovers it at bottom to be a sublimated melodrama.
It is a
moving picture panorama drifting across the vision wherein popes,
college students, gardeners, musicians, atheists, freethinkers,
a few lovely women move along from one interesting situation to
another. After this
panorama has passed it is forgotten; the characters have not remained
that "The Saint" does not belong among the greatest (where many of its
admirers have placed it) it remains only to say that it is well within
It deals with a high theme; it compels one's interest; it has
valorousness and vision.
One is glad to have had the privilege of reading it.
wrote the book as an ardent Roman Catholic of the more liberal school,
himself as not afraid of the new mood of inquiry and examination which
we call the
scientific spirit, and who called upon the governors of the church to
open the doors
to this new spirit in order to prove to this generation the eternal
Roman Catholic dogma.
alas! the book has been placed on the Index!
* * *
The American's Creed
Book of the American's Creed." The conditions under which this volume
are described below. Issued by the American Creed Fellowship.
1916, Henry Sterling Chapin, of New York, conceived the idea of
promoting a country-wide
contest for the writing of a National Creed, which should be the
expression of American political faith, and at the same time embrace
things most distinctive in American history and tradition.
in 1917, the proposed contest was announced at a large gathering of
American authors, artists, and editors. The American Press took up the
and a number of the great magazines published editorial articles
wishing the plan
behalf of the city of Baltimore, Mayor John H. Preston offered an award
for the winning creed." Committees were appointed, conditions were
and the contest was on. The choice of the Committee on Award was
announced to be
the Creed submitted by William Tyler Page, who lives in a suburb of
D. C., and who, by his researches in constitutional government, and by
and devout study of American history, had saturated himself with the
spirit of Americanism.
quotation or in substance, is the account of the origin of the now
Creed" as given in the latter part of "The Book of the American's
the great little volume now under review.
immediately accepted the Creed, and all over the land school children
by the million
were reciting its stately simple sentences. Many patriots who saw what
of this might mean to the nation conceived of the idea of perfecting an
that might serve as a means of placing the Creed into the hands of
child in the land. Out of this idea grew the "American's Creed
the nature and function of which are so well described in the pages of
Foundations," a pedagogic bi-monthly published at Cooperstown, New
old home of James Fennimore Cooper.
Foundations wishes to announce to its readers that The American's Creed
has been created, and that it may, in due time, be incorporated by
qualifications for membership are as follows:
to become a life member of The American's Creed Fellowship, and I
$1.00, for which I shall receive a Founder's Copy of 'The American's
under the auspices of the historical and patriotic societies of
America, the same
containing the Creed, the story of its origin, and the basis for its
the sayings of the Founders and Builders of the Republic.
The American's Creed as a summary of American political faith and I
will lend my
moral support to the use of the Creed throughout the Nation."
and dues to The American's Creed Fellowship, 849 Park Ave., Baltimore,
state membership, if any, in patriotic society or societies.
worded as above may be sent in and the name will be transferred to the
on Announcement has issued a pamphlet stating one great specific object
of the Fellowship.
Under the heading of "The American's Creed Fellowship" it states that
"A call to the colors means a defense of American constitutional
'against all enemies, foreign or domestic.' Armies led by foreign foes
must be repelled
by force; but those misled by domestic enemies may best be won by
American's Creed, as a comprehensive summary of our political faith,
simplest basis for explaining the principles of constitutional
us not only continue the teaching of The American's Creed in our
schools, in peace
as well as in war, but extend the use of it in citizenship work.
forward this purpose, The American's Creed Fellowship has been
organized. The Fellowship
hopes to place 'The Book of the American's Creed' in the hands of the
of the grammar schools of the United States.
child is to be awarded the book on the sole condition that he or she
the Creed. Three objects will thereby be accomplished which have not
yet been successfully
combined in any patriotic endeavor.
(1) It will interest the child;
(2) It will carry an effective message to the home; and
(3) There will be almost no wastage of money or material.
Fellowship offers a specially numbered Founder's Copy of 'The Book of
Creed' to every signer of a Fellowship card."
on Publication consists of the following: Matthew Page Andrews, Porter
Henry Sterling Chapin, W. B. Chapman, Irvin S. Cobb, Hamlin Garland,
Richard Gwinn, James H. Preston, Julian Street, and Charles Hanson
for correspondence and information are at 849 Park Avenue, Baltimore,
Headquarters are at the Offices of the Clerk of the House of
itself is a little jewel of pure English, of clear thinking, and of the
art, sixty-six pages in length, and appropriately bound in blue. After
The American's Creed it devotes 52 pages to an exposition of its every
is followed by an account of the manner in which the Creed came into
and the volume closes with a list "Of the Doctrinal Authorities Upon
the American's Creed is Based."
in the United States should possess a copy of this book. Every pastor,
politician, publicist, and public speaker should read, mark, and
it, for the like of it cannot elsewhere be found. And as for Masons,
of the Fraternity from one coast to the other, should keep it ever at
It is one of the clearest and most concise statements of the principles
of the American
government that has ever been written.
* * *
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to where
obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than those listed
on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the publications
wanted have been
out of print for years. Believing that many such books might be in the
other members of the Society willing to dispose of them we are setting
column each month for the use of our members. Communications from those
Masonic publications will also be welcomed.
addresses are here given that those interested may communicate direct
other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the Society.
It is requested
that all brethren whose wants may be filled through this medium
the Secretary so that the notices may then be discontinued.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake,
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship
of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson,
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine,
By Bro. G.
Alfred Lawrence, 142 West 86th St., New York, N. Y.:
Proceedings of the Scottish Rite Body founded
by Joseph Cerneau in New York City in 1808, of which De Witt Clinton
was the first
Grand Commander, and which body became united, in 1867, with the
of the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, A. & A. S. R.
Proceedings of the Supreme Council
founded in New York by De La Motta, in 1813, by authority of the
Council, of which he was Grand Treasurer-General, these Proceedings
from 1813 to
By Bro. Frank
R. Johnson, 310 Dwight Building, Kansas City, Mo.:
Year Book," published by
the Masonic Constellations, containing the History of the Grand
Council, R. &
S. M., of Missouri.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 306 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California;
Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and
7, with St. John's Cards, also St. John's Cards for volumes 4 and 5;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
of Masonry," early volumes;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction
for the years 1882 and 1886;
Original Proceedings of The General Grand
Encampment Knights Templar for the years 1826 and 1835.
N. W. J. Haydon, 664 Pape Ave., Toronto, Ont., Canada:
‒ A set
of Gould's History, six volume edition
By Bro. E.
A. Marsh, 820 Broad Ave. N. W., Canton, Ohio:
Traditions of Freemasonry,"
by A. T. C. Pierson, published at St. Paul, Minn., 1866. By Bro. Silas
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library
of Samuel Lawrence,"
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations
By Bro. H.
H. Klussmann, 310 Monastery St., West Hoboken, N. J.:
"Traditions of Freemasonry,"
by A.T.C. Pierson;
"Illustrations of Masonry," by
For Sale or Exchange
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
Leaves from a Freemason's Note
Book," by George Oliver. This volume also contains "Some Account of the
Schism showing the presumed origin of the Royal Arch Degree." Univ.
edition. Price $3.00.
"Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry,"
by Robert Morris. (Fiction and anecdotes.) Price $3.50.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
Solomon's Temple Once More
ago I read a statement to the effect that prior to the seventeenth
was no existence in our traditions or other literary matter of any
claim for descent
or other connection with the Temple of Solomon ‒ that the appearance of
dates from the arrival of a learned Jew in England who appeared before
of King Charles I with a model of the Temple and impressed his views as
those who formed the Accepted part of the Order so that their influence
story to be incorporated into our legends. What evidence is there for
is no evidence. The story is absurd and obviously is founded on the
the model of the Temple of Solomon designed by Gerhard Schott,
Rathsherr of Hamburg,
and finished by him in 1694. On his death, his heirs found difficulty
the model at what they regarded as a just sum, but finally disposed of
it to an
Englishman. The date of 1717 for this transaction is given by Schott's
It was exhibited in London for years and ultimately found its way back
In 1890 it was in Dresden. (See Dr. Hagedorn's letter, Ars Quatuor
vol. xiii, 1900. [Lib 1900]) As to a "learned Jew"
appearing with such a story, he would have encountered even at the
merry court of
Charles I, Hebraists whose learning was quite equal to that of any
student of the
Hebrew language, whether born to the tongue or not. It was English
bishops who gave
us King James' version of the Bible, and the Universities certainly
would not forget
Hebrew because King James did not live forever. If you will refer to
for September, 1920, page 3, you will find a summary of views on the
legend of Hiram
and its introduction into Freemasonry, written by Brother H. L.
Haywood, that very
fully covers the question, and you will be inclined to adopt Brother
To this it might be added that the late Sir Walter Besant believed the
have come to us from the Alchemists, Rosicrucians and perhaps Gnostics,
the contrary, W. H. Rylands, the great Masonic authority of England,
was derived from the miracle plays of the Middle Ages. The researches
of E. Conder,
Jr., as published in the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, went far later to
Rylands that it could not have originated in miracle plays, English, at
but the field is still open to the investigator.
* * *
The Cardinal Virtues
the Cardinal Virtues? Are they supposed to be based on the New
Testament; if so,
on what text or texts?
D. S., Louisiana.
Virtues were enjoined by the Greek and Roman sages long before the
advent of Christ;
therefore, though they are met with in one form or another in every
part of the
New Testament, they do not rest, for their sanction, upon any one or
more of its
texts. See the thoughtful comments on these Virtues, which are
Prudence, and Justice, in Brother Oliver Day Street's article, THE
1918, page 242. Cicero gives a characteristically Roman account of them
in his De
Inventione Rhetorica, Lib., II, cap. 63, 64; if you will consult that
you will discover that these Virtues do not mean the same thing to us
did to the Romans. The word "cardinal," in this connection, means
or "pre-eminent," and oftentimes is applied to more than the
four, as, (the case is noted in Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914]) in the dome of Ascension of
St. Mark's at Venice fifteen are given. It
was Plato [Lib 1888] (see his Republic IV, 427)
gave currency (or so it is supposed) to the four Virtues with the list
we are so familiar, and it is said that St. Ambrose was the first
to adapt the list to the Christian system of morals, though it was with
and with a full understanding of the limited and arbitrary character of
list. Roman Catholic theologians formed the habit of describing these
as "natural" in contradistinction to Faith, Hope, and Charity which
for obvious reasons, described as "theological." Henry Sidgwick, in his
"History of Ethics," [Lib 1866] goes thoroughly into all this
44, 133, etc., 6th edition). St. Augustine loved to work over all the
ethical doctrines, especially the Cardinal Virtues, into the
phraseology of Christianity
and in this he has been followed by Christian theologians ever since.
the master of all the Scholastics, preferred to follow the lead of
god of the Scholastics, in his interpretation of the Four, as will be
found in the
"Nicomachean Ethics," [Lib 1892] which is a volume you should
if you are interested to pursue this subject very far. It is a curious
the melancholy and unfortunate Belgian sage, Arnold Geulincx, [Lib 1895 (German)]
whose principal works were published posthumously, held that all
virtues flow from
the one supreme fount of the love of right reason; and that the
are diligence, obedience, justice and humility. It will be seen that
there is no
very fundamental importance in the arbitrary list that Plato gave us of
Cardinal Virtues; other ethical thinkers have chosen other lisp, and so
One virtue so often leads to another that one could select almost any
any other number for that matter, and from those selected deduce a
of morals, and wholesome, perhaps, as well as whole. Nevertheless it
that when they are properly understood the orthodox four will furnish
one with a
pretty complete foundation structure for a good working moral system.
In the Masonic
system the Cardinal Virtues are referred to in the work of the First
* * *
Giles Fonda Yates
In a Masonic
speech which I heard last Sunday the speaker mentioned a certain Yates
with so much
feeling that I was led to believe that this man must have been a figure
at one time. But I have never before heard of him. Can you guess who he
must have referred to Giles Fonda Yates ‒ his name sounds like a line
melancholy poem, does it not? ‒ who was so zealous and influential an
the A. & A. Scottish Rite in the early days of that Order.
Brother Albert Mackey
was a close friend of Yates and writes of him with feeling, as you will
if you will turn to the brief sketch in the Encyclopaedia, Volume II,
In addition to what you will find there it may be said that Yates was
for some years
editor of the department called "Horae Esotericae" in the famous old
Quarterly," which journal, as Dr. J.F. Newton has put it, died of too
excellence. Also, Yates was a tireless student of Indian lore, more
the secret societies and rites of those people, and he was for a number
a sub-chief in one of the sections of the Mohawk tribe. Yates was born
New York, in 1796; he died in New York City on December 13, 1869. For a
in the height of his Masonic career he was Sovereign Grand Commander.
* * *
Grand Officers of the Acacia
please give me the name and address of the Grand Secretary or the head
of the Acacia
M. W. P., Maryland.
officers of the Acacia Fraternity are:
President ‒ Harry L. Brown, 1670 Old Colony Building, Chicago, Ill.
Grand Counsellor ‒ Howard T. Hill, Box 1, Manhattan, Kansas.
Grand Treasurer ‒ Carroll S. Huntington, 1428 Lunt Ave., Chicago, III.
Grand Secretary ‒ W. Elmer Ekblaw, 711 W. Nevada St., Urbana, Ill.
Grand Editor ‒ T. Hawley Tapping, The Press, Grand Rapids. Mich
* * *
Arthur Brisbane Not A Mason
please advise me if Arthur Brisbane, editor of the Hearst newspapers,
is a Mason?
to our personal inquiry Mr. Brisbane replied: "I wish to say that I am
a member of the Masons or of any other fraternal organization. I am
simply a newspaper man."
* * *
"The Universal Engineer"
I was very
much interested to read Brother Pomeroy's article that appeared in THE
March, and note that he speaks of a large engineering magazine
published by Masonic
Engineers. Can you please give me the name and address of the same?
The journal referred to, one of the best in the world, is "The
which is described as the "Official Publication of the Universal
Engineers of the World." It is edited at 160 Nassau Street, New York
and printed at Cooperstown, New York. The office of the Corporation is
Street, Newark, N.J.
* * *
Books on Confucius
I find it
hard to discover good books on the life of Confucius, and would like to
ask if you
could furnish me with the title of a good one.
W. H. T., Alabama.
perhaps, is "The Life and Teachings of Confucius" by James Legge, [Lib
1887] the great sinologist. It is
I of the series called "The Chinese Classics: Translated into English,
Preliminary Essays and Explanatory Notes." The volume was published by
Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd., Dryden House, Gerard Street
W., London, England,
* * *
Hosea Ballou A Freemason
I have had
it in mind to ask you for some time if Hosea Ballou, the founder of the
Church, was a Freemason. I am a member of that denomination and find
very much in harmony with those of the Order. Will thank you for this
S. P. F., Illinois.
Hosea Ballou was admitted to Mount Lebanon Lodge, Boston,
Massachusetts, on October
27th, 1817; was appointed its chaplain in the following December, and
loyal and consistent member of the Order until his death in 1862. Are
accurate in describing him as the founder of the Universalist
themselves accord that honor to the English immigrant preacher, the
Murray, do they not?
was born in Richmond, New Hampshire, in 1771. After experimenting with
in various centers he at last settled in Boston in charge of the Second
Church, which office he held for thirty-five years, or until his death.
and edited two Universalist journals, and it is estimated that he wrote
sermons. His best known work was his "A Treatise on Atonement," [Lib 1811] issued in 1806. He was a
great and good man, as much an ornament to Freemasonry
as to Christianity.
* * *
Do you not
think it possible that the world should utterly lose some things of
Do you not believe that some of these things, once believed lost, are
has lost many ideas, truths, and sound philosophies. The writer was
reading some remains of the old Greek, Isocrates, who lived in the
B. C., and who was telling what he believed a real education should be;
other specifications was this, that an educated man "as seldom as
misses the golden mean." What is meant by the "golden mean"? How
many know? Very few, because the idea is almost lost out of the world,
one time it was a living part of the fabric of Greek everyday thought,
the minds of some of the noblest thinkers that the world has ever
known, or ever
will know. And in the future we shall hear less and less of the golden
there may come a time that the most learned will be puzzled to know
what it signifies.
It is possible that some of the symbols in our ritual are, as it were,
deposits of ideas equally true and equally fruitful which have been
completely forgotten, that we do not even possess clues to their
meaning. If you
believe yourself to have recovered some such forgotten truths still
Freemasonry why not tell us about it?
* * *
Hubert Work, First Assistant
Is the First
Assistant Postmaster General a member of the Masonic Fraternity?
Work, First Assistant Postmaster General, is a member of Pueblo Lodge
No. 17, A.
F. & A. M., Pueblo, Colorado.
* * *
The Popes that Have Issued
Bulls Against Freemasonry
came up in a meeting of the Study Club of which I am secretary as to
how many popes
have issued bulls against Freemasonry. Can you kindly let me have the
in order that I may report at the next meeting?
D. R., Idaho.
Here is the list with the date of the bulls, or
first bulls. If there is an error in this
list will the brother who detects it be sure to write to us?
Clement XII, 1738. [Lib 1738]
Pius VIII, 1829. [Lib 1829]
Benedict XIV, 1751. [Lib 1751]
Gregory XVI, 1832. [Lib 1832]
Pius VII, 1821. [Lib 1821]
Pius IX, 1846. This pope attacked the Order in five different bulls.
[Lib 1846; 1864; 1873]
Leo XIII was the most tireless enemy the Order has yet encountered. He
first bull in 1882, then followed with others in the years 1884, 1890,
1902 (?). [Lib 1881; 1882a; 1882b; 1884; 1890; 1894]
is also a Bull of Leo XII, 1826 [Lib 1826] and Pius XI, 1928 [Lib 1928] - rhm
where the pope maintained temporal power these bulls were effectual,
and were often
carried to the point of literal fulfillment, as witness the case of
Spain, in which
country many brethren underwent death, imprisonment, fines, and other
for the sake of Freemasonry. Between 1780 and 1815 there were 19 cases
in 1816 there were 25 cases; in 1817 there were 14 cases; in 1818 there
and in 1819 there were 7.
* * *
The Future Life
Why is it
that things we hear and read about the future life are often so vague?
Can you tell
me where I can find a book that deals with the teachings of the Bible
on that subject
in a definite and scientific manner?
G. H., Maryland.
vague? Because, in all probability, we know so little about the
subject. The book
you are after is "Eschatology; Hebrew, Jewish, and Christian," [Lib 1899] by R. H. Charles; published
by Adam and Charles Black, London. The first
edition was published in 1899. Dr. Charles is one of the most
illustrious of all
authorities on Eschatology, in which branch of theology the problems
the future life are usually classified. Dr. Charles has embodied some
of the more
important portions of his material in a smaller book called "Religious
Between the Old and the New Testaments," [Lib 1914] published by Henry Holt and
New York, as volume No. 88 in The Home University Library of Modern
V of this work, which deals with "Man's Forgiveness of His Neighbor ‒ a
in Religious Development" has become famous. It should be read by every
* * *
The Faith of Jacques G.
me if you can what was the religious holding of James G. Blaine, and
who made the
speech about "rum, Romanism, and rebellion."
of James Gillespie Blaine were descended from North Ireland immigrants.
Maria Gillespie, an intelligent and very charming lady, was a Roman
secured a priest to perform her wedding ceremony. His father, a
brilliant but somewhat
unsteady man, was a Presbyterian of the old Covenanter type. Blaine
up in a religious atmosphere, but was never a Roman Catholic, though it
about often during his political campaigns that he was a Roman Catholic
this canard was absolutely groundless, because, in his early life and
while he was
living at Augusta, Maine he united with the Congregationalist church,
as you will
learn from the biography written by Russell Conway. An accurate account
of the famous
"rum, Romanism, and rebellion" episode is given in the authentic
by Stanwood, whose "History of the Presidency" [Lib 1916] should be read by every Mason
for the sake of its excellent treatment of
the anti-Masonic excitement. On page 289 of Stanwood's "Life of Blaine"
(it was published in 1905 by Houghton, Miflin & Company) we may
"But a still more untoward
to mark this visit to New York. On the 29th of October a large number
assembled to meet Mr. Blaine and to assure him of their support. Their
was the Rev. Mr. Burchard, who made a brief address which closed with
'We are Republicans, and don't propose to leave our party and identify
with a party whose antecedents have been rum, Romanism, and rebellion.
We are loyal
to our flag; we are loyal to you.' Mr. Blaine apparently did not notice
clause, but it would have been difficult to rebuke the attempt to
introduce a sectarian
issue into the canvass, if he had been aware of it, without giving
political adversaries at once took advantage of the unfortunate remark
from his support all whom they could persuade that the election of
be a blow at the Roman Catholic Church. Some of the most unscrupulous
of his opponents
represented the words as those of Blaine himself. It is said that
the sentiments to him were distributed at the doors of Roman Catholic
the following Sunday. There is no doubt that the heedless remark caused
loss of more than enough votes to have changed the result in New York
and thus to
have elected him President."
* * *
Masonry Among The Chippewa
you know whether any Chippewas are members of the Fraternity? There are
few Chippewas in the portion of Minnesota near the Red Lake Reservation
S.S.H., North Dakota.
whether any of the Red Lake Chippewas, or more properly, Ojibway,
belong to our
own order of Free and Accepted Masons, I am unable to state, although
this is not
at all improbable. That is a question which the secretaries of the
can best answer. As to the Indians being members of their own primitive
order, yes indeed.
the Ojibway the secret society known as the Midewin is highly
developed, and possesses
ceremonies, rituals, and rites of initiation and raising very similar
to that described
in my article "Little Wolf Joins the Mitawin," in the October, 1921,
of THE BUILDER; in fact, many students of ethnology believe that it is
members of this tribe that the oldest form of the rites occurs.
considerable time and money have been devoted to the study of this very
among the Ojibway, the scientists who have hitherto done the work have
Masons, and hence much of the most significant facts have escaped
late Mr. W. J. Hoffman has written a monograph entitled "The Midewiwin
Medicine Society' of the Ojibway," based largely on studies made among
Red Lake and Leech Lake Indians, and published in the Seventh Annual
Report of the
Bureau of American Ethnology of Washington, D.C. in 1885-6. He,
failed to grasp the significance of what he saw and heard, and, if I
got no inkling of the true meaning of the underlying ritual, or the
myth of the
death and resurrection of the ancient founder of the lodge.
myself spent some time among some of the bands of Ojibway in Manitoba,
and Seewatin, in Canada, and obtained some data on the subject, but, as
I was not
then a Mason ‒ or rather was only an Entered Apprentice I too, was
blind to the
a fine opportunity for an original piece of work for someone who has
and who possesses the patience, tact, and diplomacy to get really close
to the Indian.
are a very numerous people, as North American Indian tribes go, there
20,214 in the United States, and many more in Canada, according to the
1910. Of these, some are civilized according to our ways, others are
primitive. The conservative old-style bands all possess the Midewin or
and the old leaders possess birch bark scrolls upon which are written
characters, or picture writing, symbols referring to the songs and
ritual of the
lodge, the meaning of which is known only to them. It must be
remembered that not
all the members of any tribe are brethren, and the rites are often as
the majority of any given group as they are to us, also the non-members
as given to speculation of an erroneous nature as to what goes on in
the lodge as
are white non-Masons. To obtain information, go to headquarters, and,
and membership is commonly bought by the Indians themselves from the
joining, it can sometimes be bought by a white man who has the
confidence of the
Indians, and in whose sincerity they firmly believe.
tribes having a form of this primitive society to my knowledge are: The
Menomini, Sauk, Santee, Sioux, Winnebago, Iowa, Oto, and perhaps the
the Miami, Peoria, and perhaps other tribes of the Illinois confederacy
and the Ponca and Omaha had an aberrant form. Practically nothing is
known of the
rites among the majority of these tribes except that all those of
Siouan stock ‒
i.e., the Santee, Iowa, Winnebago, Oto, Ponca and Omaha, are much
farther from Masonry
as we know it than the others. The Iroquoian tribes, that is the
Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and the Wyandot, and perhaps others, have or
a different society which in some respects still more strongly
resembles our Masonry.
of THE BUILDER who have in their possession important (as they would
books on Freemasonry that have never been reviewed or noticed in THE
requested to send to the editor titles, authors, publishers, and
* * *
would like to hear from Study Clubs that have devised courses of study
Also, it would like to have the names of the secretaries of active
* * *
the editors of THE BUILDER would like to get in touch with brethren who
a thorough, or systematic study of architecture; of architecture, that
necessary reference to Freemasonry.
* * *
tell us where a complete set of the bound volumes of The American
Magazine may be obtained? It was begun, we believe, in 1886, and was
for quite a while by J. F. Brennan. Albert Mackey was editor for a time.
* * *
Masonic College Fraternities
in the Question Box of the December number, in answer to brother
as to the number of Masonic college fraternities you state there are
two, The Acacia,
and Square and Compass. I knew of the Acacia but did not know of the
Compass ‒ that is, as a fraternity. In many of the colleges and
are Masonic Clubs, usually designated as "Square and Compass Clubs." We
have two here at the University of Southern California, one in the
College of Law
and one in the College of Liberal Arts. There is also a flourishing
but not called Square and Compass, at the University of Arizona,
Tucson. The question
of federating these different Clubs into some kind of general
organization has been
frequently discussed at the meetings of the local clubs here, and we
have been hoping
that some scheme would be put forward in the near future acceptable to
you say of the Square and Compass fraternity is true of these
as far as I am acquainted with them, but so far as I knew they were
local clubs. Please advise me more fully on this point.
now in process of organization at the University of Southern California
Alpha Mu fraternity which will be a regular Greek letter fraternity but
open only to Masons and under the same restrictions as other Greek
It is hoped to make this the mother chapter and extend the fraternity
to other colleges
I also beg
to call your attention to the Trowel Fraternity. There is a chapter in
College of the University of Southern California here. The Bulletin of
Information Bureau of the University for the First Semester has this
Fraternity, 4th year, consisting of 14 chapters ‒ at present restricted
Colleges and other professional allies. Local chapter consisting of
about 45 members.
Secretary and Treasurer ‒ E.T. Dutkon, Dental College, 635 West
Los Angeles." I understand that the Trowel is not interfraternal, but
has been a source of great pleasure to me during the past year. The
do not subscribe are certainly missing a lot.
Aubrey 0. Bray, California.
an unfortunate misfiling of information ye editor cannot recover the
on which he based his statements concerning the Square and Compass
the brothers who sent him information get in touch with him again?
Also, will any
other brothers who have pertinent information about college Masonic
send their data to THE BUILDER? Brother Bray has our hearty thanks for
* * *
The A. E. F. Masonic Club
at Abainville, Meuse, France
I send you
a few words regarding A.E.F. Masonic Clubs. At Abainville, Meuse, about
from Gondrecourt, there was a Masonic Club. Brother Hale was the
Secretary at Abainville and was vitally interested in our Abainville
our meetings we generally adjourned to his Hut for refreshments. We had
Abainville was the center of the American Light Railway Repair and
and the Abainville Club was made up mostly of railroad men. The Club
a pocket piece a two franc silver coin with the reverse ground off and
and Compass engraved in the centre with the words "Abainville Club No.
around the coin. When I was at Abainville there was no club at
men from that town came to Abainville The President at that time was a
Officer attached, I believe, to the 22nd Engineers (Lt. Ry.) named
Ross, (I am not
absolutely certain as to that name.) We initiated with paddles officers
and we had great times. Wish I had a copy of the ritual; if you could
get one, it
would be worthwhile.
Out of 26
men in the Third Battalion Headquarters two officers and four men were
Harry B. Formhals, Mass.
* * *
Presentation of a Past Master's
was delivered on installation night by Brother C.L. Putnam when he
retiring Master with a Past Master's Jewel. Brother Putnam is one of
our Past Masters.
He does not claim the thoughts as his own, but the arrangement of them
is, and I
am taking the liberty of sending the same to you:
My Brother: Your zeal for the
Masonry and the progress you have made in its mysteries, have pointed
you out as
a proper object of our favor and esteem.
From the time, ten years ago,
when you knocked
at the door of the preparation room seeking admission into our order,
feet have trodden round after round of the ladder which leads to fame
in our mystic
circle, and even the purple of the Fraternity has rested upon your
You have labored with us more
than seven years,
honestly toiling, and encouraged and buoyed up by the promise that if
you were faithful,
you should receive the reward due a Master Mason.
Behold! your temple is nearly
we hope you have received your reward in the satisfaction of having
for others. You have learned that a life of service to your fellow men
is the only
life worth living.
Night after night for the past
seven years or
more you have been present in this lodge room. Not for the honor alone
such ambition is truly laudable) of having it said that you were
Warden, Senior Warden, or even Master of Alpine Lodge, with but the one
service; that of teaching the brothers the principles of Freemasonry
which for centuries
have made better men, better citizens, better fathers, better husbands.
Your work has been well and
and may the G.A.O.T.U. accept and approve your labors.
The brethren of Alpine Lodge
wish to express
to you, through me, their love and appreciation for the service you
This jewel is a token of their esteem, and the distinguished emblem of
a Past Master,
which they hope you will wear with equal pleasure to yourself and honor
to the Fraternity.
Fred H. Jess, Iowa.
* * *
Our Grand Lodge of Sorrow
is very glad indeed to give publicity to so worthy a cause as that
the following communication. Readers may rest assured that the brethren
move know what they are about and are to be trusted to the full. The
Brother Francis E. Lester, Grand Master of New Mexico, which appeared
on page 14
of THE BUILDER for January, gives one some conception of the kind of
confronts our brethren in the great Southwest.)
It is the
largest Masonic organization on earth, is our Grand Lodge of Sorrow.
It has an
average membership of 42,300.
an average of 4,700 members by death every year.
that many members every year so that the average membership remains
about the same.
never meet in the Grand Lodge and there are no subordinate lodges. They
for admission and can demit only by death.
unceasingly to rebuild the temple of their bodies ravaged by the fever
They walk in the valley of the shadow of death. They are the Master
Masons who have
laid down or must soon lay down their working tools and seek the aid
of their brethren.
the Masons of America who are victims of tuberculosis. Among the
of the Craft, it is estimated that there are 42,300 suffering with this
Of this number 4,700 die annually. There are no Masonic Hospitals for
lodges are, in most cases, financially unable to give them assistance
over the year
or more of time which would be required to arrest their disease under
the most favorable
conditions in a hospital or sanatorium.
In many cases
the lodge sends the patient to the Southwest for the benefit of the
little money in excess of traveling expenses. Lodges in the Southwest
in numbers and limited in funds. They cannot begin to care for the
asking for assistance. Free care and treatment can be secured only in
in connection with poorhouses, and in some few Roman Catholic
bear the burden of the care of the Mason without a lodge? Does the
of America owe him any duty? If so, how shall it proceed to administer
appointed by the Grand Lodge of Texas, to confer with similar
committees to be appointed
by the Grand Lodges of Arizona and New Mexico, three of the states
affected by the
migration of consumptive Masons, will attempt to formulate a plan for
of a hospital or sanatorium for the care of these brethren. The
committee will welcome
suggestions from any brethren, anywhere. Think on these things and give
benefit of your study and experience.
2130 River Ave., San Antonio, Texas.
* * *
Another "Oldest Secretary"
N. Grubb was made a Mason January 1, 1879, in Ruth Lodge No. 64,
and one year afterwards was made secretary of his lodge. He has served
in that capacity
continuously ever since. He is still an active Mason and most effectual
after forty-two years and more. Doesn't that come near being a record?
Oscar Lloyd Steinberg, Virginia.
The Pine Cone -- [A Poem]
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
spire of seeds,
Slender, tapering, brown as rust,
O what mystic wonder breeds
In this life you hold in trust!
In these chambers stiffly set
What a secret thou dost keep!
Here will future time beget
Towering brothers of the deep!
Rondured columns of the pines,
Bracing up the arching skies:
Out of thee their vast designs
From what miracles arise!
Thou art dumb as any stone
Yet from thee will one day spring
Harp-like branches whence the tone
Of the northern winds will ring.
Thou art with such frailty bound
As the merest child could spurn
Yet thy sons will clasp the ground
When our sons to dust return.
Could we but thy secret read
How 'twould start us with surprise!
Life and death their fated screed
Would unroll before our eyes.
In thy humble withered pod
Lieth what no language tells;
All the secret lore of God
Hides within thy narrow cells!
A good word
is an easy obligation; but not to speak ill, requires only our silence,
A Concise History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
A History of the Presidency
Sta16 / auth. Stanwood Edward. - New York : Houghton Mifflin Company,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 593. - 28.6 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
AQC Transactions Vol 013 - 1900
Ars00 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - 18.4 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 014 - 1901
Ars01 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1901. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 22.3 MB.
Arnold Geulincx und seine
Lan95 / auth. Land
Jan P N. - Den Haag : Martinus Nijhoff, 1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 224. -
German - 5.0 MB.
Bull - Ab Apostolici
Pop90 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1890. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 15. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Auspicato Concessum
Pop82 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1882. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 10. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Diuturnum
Pop81 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1881. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 14. - 0.3 MB.
Bull - Ecclesiam
Pop21 / auth. Pope Pius VII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1821. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 6. - 0.3 MB.
Bull - Etsi Multa
Pop73 / auth. Pope Pius IX. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1873. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 12. - 0.1 MB.
Bull - Etsi Nos
Pop821 / auth. Pope
Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1882. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 10. - 0.2
Bull - Humanum Genus
Pop84 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1884. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 24. - 0.5 MB.
Bull - In Eminenti
Pop38 / auth. Pope Clement XII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1738. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 4. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Mirari Vos
Pop32 / auth. Pope Gregory XVI. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1832. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 11. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Mortalium Animos
Pop28 / auth. Pope Pius XI. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1928. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 9. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Praeclara
Pop94 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1894. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 14. - 0.3 MB.
Bull - Providas Romanorum
Pop51 / auth. Pope Benedict XIV. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1751. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 6. - 0.3 MB.
Bull - Quanta Cura
Pop64 / auth. Pope Pius IX. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1864. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 10. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Qui Pluribus
Pop46 / auth. Pope
Pius IX. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1846. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 14. - 0.3
Bull - Quo Graviora
Pop26 / auth. Pope Leo XII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1826. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 22. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Traditi Humiliati
Pop29 / auth. Pope Pius VIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1829. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 7. - 0.2 MB.
Doctrine of a Future Life
Cha99 / auth. Charles Robert H. - London : Adam and Charles Black,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 446. - 10.3 MB.
Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
History of Ethics
Sid66 / auth. Sidgwick Henry. - London : Macmillan and Co, 1866. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 299. - 9.8 MB.
If Christ Came to Chicago
Ste94 / auth. Stead William. - London : The Review of Reviews, 1894. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 482. - 15.0 MB.
Life and Teachings of Confucius
Leg87 / auth. Legge James. - London : Trubner & Co, 1887. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 348. - 20.8 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Ari92 / auth. Aristotle / ed. Welldon J E C. - London : Macmillan and
Co, 1892. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 425. - 9.7 MB.
Cha14 / auth. Charles Robert H. - New York : Henry Holt and Company,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 265. - 10.0 MB.
The American's Creed
Pag21 / auth. Page William T. - Garden City : The Country Life Press,
1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 74. - 2.3 MB.
The Republic of Plato
Jow88 / auth. Jowett Benjamin. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1888. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 619. - 37.3 MB.
Fog06 / auth. Fogazzaro Antonio / trans. Pritchard-Agnetti M. - London
: Hodder and Stoughton, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 427. - 8.1 MB.
Fog07 / auth. Fogazzaro Antonio. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincott
& Company, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 503. - 8.9 MB.
Treatise on Atonement
Bal11 / auth. Ballou Hosea. - Bennington : Ebenezer Wallbridge, 1811. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 318. - 19.2 MB.