Masonic Research Society
of the Brethren"
By Bro. Rudyard Kipling,
I WAS buying
a canary in a bird shop when he first spoke to me and suggested that I
a less highly coloured bird. "Colour's all in the feeding," said he.
you know how to feed 'em, it goes. You'll excuse me, but canaries are
one of my
out before I could thank him. He was a middle-aged man with gray hair
and a short
dark beard, rather like a Sealyham terrier in silver spectacles. For
his face and his voice stayed in my mind so distinctly that, months
I jostled against him on a platform crowded with an Angling Club going
to the Thames,
I recognized, turned and nodded.
your advice about the canary," I said.
you? Good!" he replied heartily over the rod-case on his shoulder, and
parted from me by the crowd.
A YEAR ago
I turned into a tobacconist's to have a badly stopped pipe cleaned out.
Well! And how did the canary do?" said the man behind the counter. We
hands, and "What's your name?" we both asked together.
was Lewis Holroyd Burges, of "Burges and Son," as I might have seen
the door ‒ but Son had been killed in Egypt. His beard was blacker and
whiter than it had been, and the eyes were sunk a little.
Well! To think," said he, "of one man in all these millions turning up
in this curious way, when there's so many who don't turn up at all-eh?"
was then he told me of Son Lewis's death and why the boy had been
"There's not much left for middle-aged people just at present. Even
‒" he broke off for a breath. "We used to fish together. And the same
with canaries! We used to breed 'em for color-deep orange was our
why I spoke to you, if you remember, but I've sold all my birds. Well!
now we must locate your trouble."
He bent over
my erring pipe and dealt with it skilfully as a surgeon. A soldier came
something in an undertone, received a reply, and went out.
of my clients are soldiers nowadays, and a number of 'em belong to the
said Mr. Burges. "It breaks my heart to give them the tobaccos they ask
On the other hand, not one man in five thousand has a tobacco palate.
yes. Palate, no. Here's your pipe. It deserves better treatment than
it's had. There's
a procedure, a ritual, in all things. Any time you're passing by again,
you, you will be most welcome. I've one or two odds and ends that may
I left the
shop with me rarest of all feelings on me ‒ that sensation which is
right ‒ that I had made a friend. A little distance from the door I was
by a wounded man who asked for "Burgess." The place seemed to be known
in the neighborhood.
I found my
way to it again, and often after that, but it was not till my third
visit that I
discovered Mr. Burges held a half interest in Ackman and Permit's, the
importers, which had come to him through an uncle whose children now
in the Cromwell Road, and said that uncle had been on the Stock
a shopkeeper by instinct," said Mr. Burges. "I like the ritual of
things. The shop has always done us well. I like to do well by the
It had been
established by his grandfather in 1827, but the fittings and
appointments were at
least half a century older. The brown and red tobacco and snuff jars,
Garters, and names of forgotten mixtures in gold leaf, the polished
tobacco barrels on which favored customers sat, the cherry-black
the delicately molded shelves, the reeded cigar-cabinets, the
scales, and the Dutch brass roll and cake-cutter were things to covet.
aren't so bad," he admitted. "That large Bristol jar hasn't any
to my knowledge. Those eight snuff-jars on the third shelf ‒ they're
he used to work for Wimble in Seventeen-Forty ‒ they're absolutely
unique. Is there
anyone in the trade now could tell you what Romano's Hollande' was? Or
or 'John's Lane'? Here's a snuff-mull of George the First's time; and
here's a Louis
Quinze ‒ what am I talking of? Treize, Treize, of course ‒ grater for
They were regular tools of the shop in my grandfather's day. And who on
leave 'em to outside the British Museum now, I can't think!"
‒ I wish this were a tale for virtuosi ‒ his amazing pipes were kept in
and this gave me the privilege of making his wife's acquaintance. One
I was looking covetously at a jaracanda-wood "cigarro" ‒ not cigar ‒
with silver lock-plates and drawer-knobs of Spanish work, a wounded
into the shop and disturbed our happy little committee.
he began loudly, "are you the right place?"
sent you?" Mr. Burges demanded.
from Messities. But that ain't the point! I've got no certificates, nor
you understand. I left Lodge owin' 'em seventeen dollars back dues. But
at Messities told me it wouldn't make any odds here."
doesn't," said Mr. Burges. "We meet tonight at 7 p.m."
face fell a yard. "Hell!" said he. "But I'm in hospital ‒ I can't
Tuesdays and Fridays at 3 p.m.," Mr. Burges added promptly. "You'll
to be proved, of course."
I can get by that, all right," was the cheery reply. "Toosday, then."
might that be?" I asked.
know any more than you do ‒ except he must be a Brother. London's full
now. Well! Well! We must all do what we can these days. If you come to
evening, I'll take you on to Lodge afterward. It's a Lodge of
Which is your Lodge?" I said, for up till then he had not given me its
and Works 5837' ‒ the third Saturday of every month. Our Lodge of
nominally every Thursday, but we sit oftener than that now because
there are so
many Visiting Brethren in town." Here another customer entered, and I
away much interested in the range of Brother Burgess hobbies.
he was dressed as for Church, and with gold pince-nez in lieu of the
I blessed my stars that I had thought to change into decent clothes.
we owe that much to the Craft," he assented. "All Ritual is fortifying.
Ritual's a natural necessity for mankind. The more things are upset,
the more they
fly to it. I abhor slovenly Ritual anywhere. By the way, would you mind
at the examinations, if there are many Visiting Brothers tonight?
You'll find some
of 'em very rusty but ‒ it's the Spirit, not the Letter, that giveth
life. The question
of Visiting Brethren is an important one. There are so many of them in
you see; and so few places where they can meet."
dear thing!" said Mrs. Burges, and handed him his locket and initialed
Lodge is only just round the corner," he went on. "You mustn't be too
critical of our appurtenances. The place was a garage once."
As far as
I could make out in the humiliating darkness, we wandered up a mews and
into a courtyard.
Mr. Burges piloted me, murmuring apologies for everything in advance.
mustn't expect ‒" he was still saying when we stumbled up a porch and
a carefully decorated anteroom hung round with masonic prints. I
noticed Peter Gilkes
and Barton Wilson, fathers of "Emulation" working, in the place of
Kneller's Christopher Wren; Dunkerley, with his own Fitz-George
and the bend sinister on the Royal Arms; Hogarth's caricature of
Wilkes, also his
disreputable "Night," and a beautifully framed set of Grand Masters,
Anthony Sayer down.
these another of your hobbies?" I asked.
this time," Mr. Burges smiled. "We have to thank Brother Lemming for
He introduced me to the senior partner of Lemming and Orton, whose
shop is hard to find, but whose words and cheques in the matter of
prints are widely
frames are the best part of said Brother Lemming” after my compliments.
are some more in the Lodge Room. Come and look. We've got the big
that neary went to Iowa."
I had never
seen a Lodge Room better fitted. From mosaicked floor to appropriate
curtain to pillar, implements to seats, seats to lights, and little
at one end, every detail was perfect in particular kind and general
design. I said
what I thought many times over.
you I was a Ritualist," said Mr. Burges. "Look at those carved
and grapes on the back of these Warden's chairs. That's the old
Masonic furnishers spoiled it. I picked up that pair in Stepney ten
years ago –
the same time I got the gavel." It was of old, yellowed ivory, cut all
piece out of some tremendous tusk. "That came from the Cold Coast," he
said. "It belonged to a Military Lodge there in 1794. You can see the
it's a fair question-" I began, "how much ‒"
stood us," said Brother Lemming, his thumbs in his waistcoat pockets,
appreciable sum of money when we built it in 1906, even with what
‒ he was our contractor ‒ cheated himself out of. By the way, that
block there is
pure Carrara, he tells me. I don't understand marbles myself. Since the
war I expect
we've put in ‒ oh, quite another little sum. Now we'll go to the
and take on the Brethren."
He led me
back, not to the anteroom, but a convenient chamber flanked with what
confessional-boxes (I found out later that was what they had been when
up for a song near Oswestry). A few men in uniform were waiting at the
"That's only the head of the procession. The rest are in the anteroom,"
said an officer of the Lodge.
assigned me my discreet box, saying: "Don't be surprised. They come all
was not a bad description, for my first penitent was all
an Officers' Hospital, Pentonville way. He asked me in profane Scots
how I expected
a man with only six teeth and half a lower lip to speak to any purpose,
and we compromised
on signs. The next ‒ a New Zealander from Taranaki ‒ reversed the
process, for he
was one-armed, and that in a sling. I mistrusted an enormous
Sergeant-Major of Heavy
Artillery, who struck me as much too glib, so I sent him on to Brother
the next box, who discovered he was a Past District Grand Officer. My
last man nearly
broke me down altogether. Everything seemed to have gone from him.
blame yer," he gulped at last. "I wouldn't pass my own self on my
but I give yer my word that so far as I've had any religion, it's been
all the religion
I've had. For God's sake, let me sit in Lodge again, Brother."
examinations were ended, a Lodge Officer came round with our aprons ‒
or silver-gilt confections, but heavily-corded silk with tassels and ‒
where a man
could prove he was entitled to them ‒ levels, of decent plate. Someone
of me tightened the belt on a stiffly silent person in civil clothes
badge. "'Strewth! This is comfort again," I heard him say. The
nodded. The man went on suddenly: "Here! What're you doing? Leave off!
promised not to! Chuck it!" and dabbed at his companion's streaming
him leak," said an Australian signaler. "Can't you see how happy the
that the silent Brother was a "shell-shocker" whom Brother Lemming had
passed, on the guarantee of his friend and ‒ what moved Lemming more ‒
that, were he refused, he would have fits from pure disappointment. So
wept happily and silently among Brethren evidently accustomed to these
We fell in,
two by two, according to tradition, fifty of us at least, and were
played into Lodge
by the harmonium, which I discovered was in reality an organ of repute.
time to settle us down, for ten or twelve were cripples and had to be
long and easy-chairs. I sat between a one-footed R.A.M.C. Corporal and
of Territorials, who, he told me, had "had a brawl" with a bomb, which
had bent him in two directions. "But that's first-class Bach the
giving us now," he said delightedly. "I'd like to know him. I used to
be a piano-thumper of sorts."
introduce you after Lodge," said one of the regular Brethren behind us
fat, torpedo-bearded man, who turned out to be the local Doctor. "After
there's nobody to touch Bach, is there?" Those two plunged at once into
talk, which to outsiders is as fascinating as trigonometry.
a Lodge of Instruction is mainly a parade-ground for Ritual. It cannot
or confer degrees, but is limited to rehearsals and lectures.
Burges, resplendent in Solomon's Chair (I found out later where that,
too, had been
picked up), briefly told the Visiting Brethren how welcome they were
would be, and asked them to vote what ceremony should be rendered for
decision was announced he wanted to know whether any Visiting Brothers
the duties of any Lodge Officers. They protested bashfully that they
were too rusty.
"The very reason why," said Brother Burges, while the organ Bached
My musical Captain sighed and wriggled in his chair.
moment, Worshipful Sir." The fat Doctor rose. "We have here a musician
for whom place and opportunity are needed. Only," he went on
"those organ-loft steps are a bit steep."
much," said Brother Burges, with the solemnity of an initiation, "does
our Brother weigh?"
little over eight stone," said the Brother. "'Weighed this mornin',
District Grand Officer, who was also Battery Sergeant-Major, waddled
the slight weight in his arms and bore it to the loft, where, the
pumping, it played joyously as a soul caught up to Heaven by surprise.
visitors had been coaxed to supply the necessary officers, a ceremony
Brother Burges forbade the regular members to prompt. The visitors had
to work entirely
by themselves, but, on the Battery Sergeant-Major taking a hand, he was
as of too exalted rank. They floundered badly after that support was
R.A.M.C. on my right chuckled.
like it?" said the Doctor to him.
I? It's Heaven to me, sittin' in Lodge again. It's all comin' back now,
their mistakes. I haven't much religion, but all I had I learned in
Recognizing me, he flushed a little as one does when one says a thing
in another's hearing. "Yes, 'veiled in all'gory and illustrated by
‒ the Fatherhood of God, an' the Brotherhood of Man, an' what more in
Hell do you
want? ... Look at 'em!" He broke off, giggling. "See! See! They've tied
the whole thing into knots. I could ha' done better myself ‒ my one
foot in France.
Yes, I should think they ought to do it over again!"
The new organist
covered the little confusion that had arisen with what sounded like the
amateurs, rather red and hot, had finished, they demanded an
of their bungled ceremony by Regular Brethren of the Lodge. Then I
the first time what word-and-gesture-perfect Ritual can be brought to
mean. We all
applauded, the one-footed Corporal most of all. It was a revelation.
are rather proud of our working, and this is an audience worth playing
the Doctor said.
Master delivered a little lecture on the meanings of some pictured
symbols and diagrams.
His theme was a well-worn one, but his deep holding voice made it fresh.
how these old copybook headings persist," the Doctor said.
all right!" the one-footed man spoke cautiously out of the side of his
like a boy in form. "But they're the kind of copybook headin's we shall
burnin' round our bunk in Hell. Believe me-ee! I've broke enough of 'em
Now, h'sh!" He leaned forward, drinking it all in.
Brother Burges touched on a point which had given rise to some
diversity of Ritual.
He asked for information. "Well, in Jamaica, Worshipful Sir," a
Brother began, and explained how they worked that detail in his parts.
another joined in from different quarters of the Lodge (and the world),
they were warmed the Doctor sidled softly round the walls and, over our
passed us cigarettes.
innovation," he said as he returned to the captain-musician's vacant
my left. "But men can't really talk without tobacco, and we're only a
I've learned more in one evenin' here than ten years.' The one-footed
round for an instant from a dark sour-looking Yeoman in spurs who was
the law on Dutch Ritual. The blue haze and the talk increased, while
the organ from
the loft blessed us all.
this is delightful," said I to the Doctor. "How did it all happen?"
Burges started it. He used to talk to the men who dropped into his shop
war began. He told us sleepy old chaps in Lodge that what men wanted
more than anything
else was Lodges where they could sit-just sit and be happy like we are
now. He was
right, too. He generally is. We're learning things in the War. A man's
more to him than people imagine. As our friend on your right said just
often Masonry's the only practical creed we've ever listened to since
we were children.
Platitudes or no platitudes, it squares with what everybody knows ought
to be done."
He sighed. "And if this war hasn't brought home the Brotherhood of Man
all, I'm a ‒ a Hun!"
did you get your visitors?" I went on.
I told a few fellows in hospital near here, at Burges's suggestion,
that we had
a Lodge of Instruction and they'd be welcome. And they came, and they
friends. And they came! That was two years ago ‒ and now we've Lodge of
two nights a week, and a matinee nearly every Tuesday and Friday for
the men who
can't get evening-leave. Yes, it's all very curious. I'd no notion what
meant ‒ and means ‒ till this war."
I till this evening," I replied.
it's quite natural if you think. Here's London ‒ all England ‒ packed
with the Craft
from all over the world, and nowhere for them to go. Why, our weekly
for the last four months averaged just under a hundred and forty.
Divide by four
‒ call it thirty-five Visiting Brethren a time. Our record's
seventy-one, but we
have packed in as many as eighty-four at banquets. You can see for
a potty little hole we are!"
too!" I cried. "It must cost like all sin. May the Visiting Brethren ‒"
laughed. "No, a Visiting Brother may not."
when a man has had an evening like this he wants to ‒"
what they all say. That makes our difficulty. They do exactly what you
to suggest, and they're offended if we don't take it."
you?" I asked.
dear man ‒ what does it come to? They can't all stay to banquet. Say
suppers a week ‒ fifteen quid ‒ sixty a month ‒ seven hundred and
twenty a year.
How much are Lemming and Orton worth? And Ellis and McKnight ‒ that
long thin man
over yonder ‒ the provision dealers? How much d'you suppose could
Burges write a
cheque for and not feel? 'Tisn't as if he had to save for any one now.
And the same
with Anstruther. I assure you we have no scruple in calling on the
when we want anything. We couldn't do the work otherwise. Have you
noticed how the
Lodge is kept ‒ brasswork, jewels, furniture and so on?"
indeed," I said. "It's like a ship. You could eat your dinner off the
come here on a by-day and you'll often find half a dozen Brethren, with
between 'em, polishing and ronuking and sweeping everything they can
get at. I cured
a shell-shocker this spring by giving him our jewels to look after. He
polished the numbers off them, but ‒ it kept him from fighting the Huns
in his sleep.
And when we need Masters to take our duties ‒ two matinees a week is
rather a tax
‒ we've the choice of P.M.'s from all over the world. The Dominions are
on Ritual than an average English Lodge. Besides that ‒ Oh, we're going
Listen to the greetings. They'll be interesting."
of the great gavel brought us to our feet, after some surging and
the cripples. Then the Battery Sergeant-Major, in a trained voice,
and fraternal greetings to "Faith and Works" from his tropical District
and Lodge. The others followed, without order, in every tone between a
a squeak. I heard "Hauraki," "Inyan-ga-Umbezi," "Aloha,"
"Southern Lights" (from somewhere Puntas Arenas way), "Lodge of Rough
Ashlars" (and that Newfoundland Brother looked it), two or three
of something or other, half a dozen cardinal virtues, variously
from Klondyke to Kalgoorlie, one Military Lodge on one of the fronts,
with a severe Scots burr by my friend of the head-bandages, and the
rest as mixed
as the Empire itself. Just at the end there was a little stir. The
had begun to make noises; his companion tried to soothe him.
him be! Let him be!" the Doctor called professionally. The man jerked
and at last mumbled something unintelligible even to his friend, but a
P.M. pushed forward importantly.
is all right," he said. "He wants to say," he spat out some yard-long
Welsh name, adding, "That means Pembroke Docks, Worshipful Sir. We haf
Masons in Wales, too." The silent man nodded approval.
said the Doctor, quite unmoved. "It happens that way sometimes. Hespere
fereis, isn't it? The Star brings 'em all home. I must get a note of
case after Lodge. I know you don't care for music," he went on, "but
afraid you'll have to put up with a little more. It's a paraphrase from
organist arranged it. We sing it antiphonally, as a sort of dismissal."
Even I could
appreciate what followed. The singing seemed confined to half a dozen
answering each other till the last line, when the full Lodge came in. I
as I heard it:
"We have showed thee, O Man,
What is good.
What doth the Lord require of us?
Or Consciences' self desire of us?
But to do justly
And to love mercy
And to walk humbly with our God
As every Mason should."
Then we were
played and sung out to the quaint tune of the "Entered Apprentices'
I noticed that the regular Brethren of the Lodge did not begin to take
regalia till the lines:
"Great Kings, Dukes and Lords
Have laid down their swords."
into the anteroom, now set for the banquet, on the verse:
We have on our side,
Which maketh men just in their station."
(a big-boned clergyman) that I found myself next to at table told me
was "a fond thing vainly invented" on the strength of some old legend.
He laid down that Masonry should be regarded as an "intellectual
An Officer of Engineers disagreed with him, and told us how in
Flanders, a year
before, some ten or twelve Brethren held Lodge in what was left of a
for the Emblems of Mortality and plenty of rough ashlars, there was no
yu weren't a bit the worse for that," said the clergyman. "The idea
be enough without trappings."
it wasn't," said the other. "We took a lot of trouble to make our
out of camouflage-stuff that we'd pinched, and we manufactured our
jewels from old
metal. I've got the set now. It kept us happy for weeks."
were absolutely irregular an' unauthorised. Whaur was your warrant?"
Brother from the Military Lodge. "Grand Lodge ought to take steps
Grand Lodge had any sense," a private three places up our table broke
'ud warrant travelling Lodges at the front and attach first-class
lecturers to 'em."
ye conferr degrees promiscuously?" said the scandalised Scot.
time a man asked, of course. You'd have half the Army in."
played with the idea for a little while, and proved that on the lowest
fees Grand Lodge would get huge revenues.
said the Engineer Officer thoughtfully, "I could design a complete
Lodge outfit under forty pounds weight."
wrong. I'll prove it. We've tried ourselves," said the Military Lodge
and they went at it together across the table, each with his own
was simplicity itself. Many of us ate in haste so as to get back to
hospitals, but now and again a Brother came in from the outer darkness
to fill a
chair and empty a plate. These were Brethren who had been there before
One man lurched
in ‒ helmet, Flanders mud, accoutrements and all ‒ fresh from the
two hours to wait for my train," he explained. "I remembered your
though. My God, this is good!"
is your train and from which station?" said the clergyman, precisely.
well. What will you have to eat?"
Everything. I've thrown up a month's feed off Folkestone."
himself for ten minutes without a word. Then, without a word, his face
The clergyman had him by one already limp arm and steered him to a
he dropped and snored. No one took the trouble to turn round.
that usual too?" I asked.
not?" said the clergyman. "I'm on duty tonight to wake them for their
trains. They do not respect the cloth on those occasions." He turned
back on me and continued his discussion with a Brother from Aberdeen by
way of Mitylene
where, in the intervals of mine-sweeping, he had evolved a complete
theory of the
Revelations of St. John the Divine in the Island of Patmos.
I fell into
the hands of a Sergeant-Instructor of Machine Guns ‒ by profession a
ladies' dresses. He told me that Englishwomen as a class "lose on their
what they make on their clothes," and that "Satan himself can't save a
woman who wears thirty-shilling corsets, under a thirty-guinea
to my grief, he was buttonholed by an earnest Lieutenant of his own
became a Sergeant again all in one click.
back and forth, studying the prints on the walls and the Masonic
the cases, while I listened to the inconceivable talk all round me.
Little by little
the company thinned, till at last there were only a dozen or so of us
left. We gathered
at the end of a table by the fire, the night-bird from Flanders
into the hollow of his helmet, which someone had tipped over his face.
how did it go with you?" said the Doctor.
was like a new world," I answered.
what it is really." Brother Burges returned the gold pince-nez to their
and reshipped his silver spectacles. "Or that's what it might be made
a little trouble. When I think of the possibilities of the Craft at
I wonder ‒" He stared into the fire.
too," said the Sergeant-Major slowly, "but ‒ on the whole ‒ I'm
to agree with you. We could do much with Masonry."
an aid ‒ as an aid ‒ not as a substitute for Religion," the clergyman
Lord! Can't we give Religion a rest for a bit," the Doctor muttered.
hasn't done so ‒ I beg your pardon all round."
was bristling. "Kamerad!" the wise Sergeant-Major went on, both hands
up. "Certainly not as a substitute for a creed, but as an average plan
What I've seen at the front makes me sure of it."
came out of his muse. "There ought to be dozen ‒ twenty ‒ other Lodges
every night; conferring degrees too, as well as instruction. Why
shouldn't the young
men join? They practice what we're always preaching. Well! Well! We
must all do
what we can. What's the use of old Masons if they can't give a little
their own lines?"
said the Sergeant-Major, turning on the Doctor. "And what's the darn
a Brother if he isn't allowed to help?"
it your own way then," said the Doctor testily. He had evidently been
before. He took something the Sergeant-Major handed to him and pocketed
a nod. "I was wrong," he said to me, "when I boasted of our
They get round us sometimes. This," he slapped his pocket, "will give
a banquet on Tuesday. We don't usually feed at matinees. It will be a
By the way, try another sandwich. The ham are best." He pushed me a
are," I said. "I've only had five or six. I've been looking for them."
you like them," said Brother Lemming. "Fed him myself, cured him myself
‒ at my little place in Berkshire. His name was Charlemagne. By the
way, Doc, am
I to keep another one for next month?"
course," said the Doctor, with his mouth full. "A little fatter than
chap, please. And don't forget your promise about the pickled
appreciated." Brother Lemming nodded above the pipe he had lit as we
a second supper. Suddenly the clergyman, after a glance at the clock,
half a dozen sandwiches from under my nose, put them into an
oiled-paper bag, and
advanced cautiously towards the sleeper on the couch.
wake rough sometimes," said the Doctor. "Nerves, y'know." The clergyman
tiptoed directly behind the man's head, and at arm's length rapped on
the dome of
the helmet. The man woke in one vivid streak, as the clergyman stepped
grabbed for a rifle that was not there.
barely half an hour to catch your train." The clergyman passed him the
uncommonly kind and I'm very grateful," said the man, wriggling into
straps. He followed his guide into the darkness after saluting.
that?" said Lemming.
say," the Doctor returned indifferently. "He's been here before. He's
evidently a P.M. of sorts."
Well!" said Brother Burges, whose eyelids were drooping. "We must all
do what we can. Isn't it almost time to lock up?"
said I, as we helped each other into our coats, "what would happen if
Lodge knew about all this."
what?" Lemming turned on me quickly.
of Instruction open three nights and two afternoons a week ‒ and
running a lodging-house
as well. It's all very nice, but it doesn't strike me somehow as
point hasn't been raised yet," said Lemming. "We'll settle it after the
war. Meantime we shall go on."
ought to be scores of them," Brother Burges repeated as we went out of
door. "All London's full of the Craft, and no places for them to meet
of the possibilities of it! Think what could have been done by Masonry
for all the world. I hope I'm not censorious, but it sometimes crosses
my mind that
Grand Lodge may have thrown away its chance in the war almost as much
as the Church
for you Brother Tamworth is taking that chap to King's Cross," said
Lemming, "or he'd be down your throat. What really troubles Tamworth is
legal position under Masonic Law. I think he'll inform on us one of
Well, good night all." The Doctor and Lemming turned off together.
said Brother Burges, slipping his arm into mine. "Almost as much as the
has. But perhaps I'm too much of a Ritualist."
I said nothing.
I was speculating how soon I could steal a march on Brother Tamworth
against "Faith and Works No. 5837 E. C."
Indians in Freemasonry
By Bro. Arthur C. Parker,
of Brother O. B. Slane, of Illinois, in the January number of THE
to Indian Masons brings an interesting subject to the foreground it is
To what extent
has Freemasonry contributed to the civilization of the American Indian?
Let us first
answer Brother Slane's inquiry as to what Indians of prominence were or
He mentioned Red Jacket, but so far as tradition goes Red Jacket was
only an Entered
Apprentice, as were many Masons of the Revolutionary period. In this
period we find
that Chief Joseph Brant was a Master Mason and a member of St.
of which R.'. W.'. Sir William Johnson was Worshipful Master. Brant was
visitor of lodges and the lodge at Hudson, N.Y., has on its walls a
Captain Brant, and in its archives a story of his visitations and of
for Colonel McKinstry, whose life he had saved through the recognition
of a sign
Masonic History records several Delaware Indians who were Masons, among
Knockapot, who impoverished himself during the Revolution and later
aid. It is also stated that Lieutenant Cusick, the Tuscarora, was a
was an aide to La Fayette during the Revolutionary War. During La
visit to Washington, early in the last century, Cusick made the journey
to the Capitol
to see his old chief. He spoke so much of La Fayette's valour that
him if he ever knew the General. "Know him?" replied Cusick, "Know
him? Why many a time I threw myself between him and the bullets that
came his way,
while I served as Lieutenant on his staff!"
It will be
remembered that George Copway, the Ojibway, was an ardent Mason, and
that he appealed
to Masonic lodges to assist him in establishing schools for his people.
It was Copway
who called attention to Red Jacket's neglected and despoiled grave and
a renewed interest in that famous orator.
Civil War period there were hundreds of Indian Masons, and all of them
men in their tribes. Brother Slane has mentioned Ely S. Parker, the
who was. General Grant's Military Secretary, and who was a member of
General Parker's brother, Isaac Newton Parker, was also a Mason, and
work in the south- most line as a dispatch runner. Deerfoot, America's
long distance runner, was of this period. He likewise was a Mason, and
one. Deerfoot's baptismal name was Louis Bennett. It is interesting to
all tribal Indians of the old regime have a native name and a
in the way of a baptismal name.
the West became Masons as friendship and understanding grew up between
neighbors and themselves.
Five Civilized Tribes, for example, there were many Masons,
particularly among the
Cherokee. The celebrated chiefs Ross, Bushyhead, W.B. Mayes and
were members of the Fraternity. Albert Pike had long been busy among
In later times other Masons had sought to interest the Indians of
literally hundreds of prominent Oklahomans of Indian blood, either
or of a certain degree, are Masons. One sees the Square and Compass,
the Cross and
Crown, and the Double-Headed Eagle everywhere among these Indians. Such
Indians as Senator Owen, Congressman Carter, and Gabe E. Parker, former
of the Treasury and now Superintendent of the Five Civilized Tribes,
Masons and members of concordant orders.
Many an Indian
in old Indian Territory has served as Master of a lodge. The same may
be said of
the Indian country in Kansas, and the Dakotas. In travelling through
country the prevalence of Indian Masons interested me. I once pointed
to a Consistory
charm worn by a Pawnee Indian (a banker, by the way) and asked what it
was. He replied,
"Oh, that's a sign I can't get along without down here. It's a sign a
on the square."
to the question propounded at the beginning of this article as to what
has contributed to the civilization of the Indian, let me state that
contacts made with the Indians were those where the sentiments of
emphasized. The mission and the lodge were such contacts, though we
must not forget
the school, for the youth, the army, and for the older men.
Many of the
officers of the frontier posts were Masons, as were many of the
and some of the missionaries. Masonic influence was gradually developed
became a real power for constructive good. Masons fostered missionary
particularly education. They founded schools and established hospitals.
Dr. Robert W. Hill, an early official in Indian Territory, busied
himself on one
hand by establishing Indian missions and schools, and in the other in
He became the Deputy for Oklahoma for the Commander of the Scottish
Rite and a leading
Knight Templar. He tells me that the first 32 degree Mason that he
made, and the
first Knight Templar, in Oklahoma, were Indians.
Masonic support have done many valuable things for the Indian race, and
of Masonry in the civilization of the red man is no small one, though
it is largely
unrecorded, for Masons do not flaunt their charities. It would not be
however, to say that Masonry has been, and is now, a tremendous power
and enlightenment among the Indians. Of all secular influences none
support to the vital needs of the race than Masonry. This is not done
in an organized
way, of course, but it is done none the less by Masons.
As an example
of organized interest, the recent Council of the New York Indian
at Buffalo Consistory, A. & A. S. R., may be cited. To the
on one of Buffalo's most exclusive streets came Indians from all parts
of New York
State, from both reservation and white communities. Here they were
welcomed by George
Kelly Staples, 33 degree, Commander, himself an adopted Seneca and
gathered from far and near to sit in council with these descendants of
Red Jacket, and to listen to their debates. George L. Tucker, 33
of the Temple, invited the Indians to visit the Indian Museum which he
and endowed, and to the delight of the delegates, served the entire
visitors with a banquet at which distinguished Masons spoke. Both
and Brother Staples frequently visit the neighboring reservations and
the churches of the Christians and the lodges of the non-Christians,
and both are
members of an ancient Indian Order similar in many ways to Masonry.
It is a common
thing to see Indians going in and out of the Consistory. One of the old
is Chief Tahan, of the Kiowas, who is a popular member of the
Clifford Shongo and Arthur Doxtater, both Seneeas of influence, have
Scottish Rite grades. But whether Mason or not, Indians have been made
here and the "chain of friendship has brightened." Masonry seems to be
solving the New York "Indian problem" long in advance of the courts or
the legislature, simply practical and sincere friendship. It is this
sort of brotherhood
that makes life worth living ‒ for the red man at least.
Thus it is over all the earth;
That which we call the fairest,
And prize for its surpassing worth,
Is always rarest.
It is not
enough to be industrious, so are the ants. What are you industrious
Federation of Craftsmen
By Bro. O.N. Pomeroy, Ohio
ON the 20th
day of October, 1898, the writer called on a brother engineer in his
‒ Benjamin Dettleback was his name ‒ and in the course of a
conversation made the
remark that an organization of engineers composed entirely of Master
be an ideal thing. Brother Dettleback was so favorably impressed with
that for the next few weeks we met as often as we could to talk the
At last we decided to canvass the city to discover how many engineers
might be eligible.
We worked on this until December 10th, 1899, when we inserted a notice
in one of
our daily papers calling a meeting at the Forest City House.
We met on
December 22, 1899, with twenty-seven present. As a result of the
conference we organized,
calling ourselves Craftsmen. Owing to the opposition encountered on the
those Masonic brethren who were fearful lest this might prove an
in the Fraternity we found it uphill work. But we were very careful not
upon any of the laws and usages of the Fraternity and we kept at it
with much patience
until at last the most skeptical conceded our success.
was begun in Cleveland took root in other parts of the country, so that
have Councils of Engineers from Manitoba to Texas, San Francisco to
Boston. A great
organization has come into being, known as The Universal Craftsmen
Council of Engineers.
This larger organization came into existence through a conference held
in my home
at Cleveland on September 14th, 1903, when there were present besides
delegates, their names being: Benjamin Dettleback, of Cleveland; Oscar
John L. O'Brien of Chicago; John H. Leathers, of Rochester, New York;
Davey of Detroit; and James Gillespie of Philadelphia. This
organization now numbers
over sixty councils and is powerful enough to enable Masonic engineers
to hold their
own in the competitive market. In many of the large cities today they
are in possession
of from seventy to ninety per cent of all the principal power plants,
and in the
Chicago district alone 1300 of the most prominent plants are in the
hands of Craftsmen.
Also, the organization publishes, and sends to each member, The
which is everywhere conceded to be one of the best, if not the best,
to Cleveland. The Masonic brothers of the city who were not engineers
but who followed
similar crafts became so much interested in our work, and were so eager
in the benefits which we had won for ourselves, that they asked for
rights of affiliation:
but the Constitution of our International made it impossible for us to
so we urged them to form similar organizations of their own. This they
now we have nine crafts so organized, among them being workers in
plumbing, steam-fitting, printing, sheet-metal, building, etc. These
total membership of over one thousand, and they are altogether joined
in the organization
known as The Cleveland Federation of Craftsmen.
Each of the
nine bodies has a representation on the board of control of three for
hundred members, and one additional for every hundred or major fraction
above one hundred. The Federation meets each month to transact such
may call for deliberation, and at this meeting each constituent body
number of men out of employment. Each council has its employment
committee and the
Federation has a general employment committee composed of one member
from each council.
If any reader should suppose that these are committees in name only he
guess coming, for they are active twenty-four hours a day. The
Federation of Craftsmen
has just purchased a fine twenty-two room residence in the heart of the
serve as headquarters and club rooms.
be slower to think that the man at his worst is the real man, and
certain that the
better we are ourselves the less likely is he to be his worst in our
he talks away his own character before us, he is signifying contempt
of the Porch
By Bro. William B. Bragdon,
accounts we learn of two columns or pillars that were placed in the
Porch of King
Solomon's Temple at Jerusalem, one on the right hand named Jachin, and
one on the
left named Boaz, which are given various dimensions but which New
have been taught to know as eighteen cubits in height, twelve in
and four in diameter, and which were surmounted by three kinds of
network, lilywork, and pomegranates.
of these pillars and their correct representation should be of extreme
to the Masonic student, and the following brief analysis may be of some
plays such an important part in the study of archaeology and the
history of architecture,
that it may always be taken for granted, for every great school of art
can trace its development to the work of its predecessors, either from
its own country,
or from some foreign land from which aesthetic influence was received
through trade or from conquest by war.
The Ancient Greeks spent 500 years in the development of their Doric
successive generation using the results of the previous decade as a
their endeavors, until the height of perfection was attained in the
Spaniards continued to work in the Moorish style for years after the
been driven out of the land they had over-run.
So the first
thing to be done in considering the Pillars Jachin and Boaz is to look
ascertain if possible the origin of the influence which worked through
who created them.
the man selected by Hiram, King of Tyre, to undertake this stupendous
for Solomon, King of Israel, was, according to Milman in his history of
[Lib 1883; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] "a man of Jewish extraction,
who had learned his art at Tyre"; but whether he was a Jew or a
is of little consequence, except that he had been trained in a
for its workers of brass and metals and for that reason most acceptable
W. Shaw Caldecott in his book on the history of the Temple [Lib*],
attempts to convey
the impression that this building "was not Babylonian, or Egyptian or
or even a subtle blending of what was best in each, but was the genuine
of Hebrew life and Hebrew faith," but the facts do not substantiate
study of what monuments have been unearthed, we find that the arts were
by the Jews to any great extent, and that their only large work for
their Temple at Jerusalem, which had no native traditional inspiration
the Tabernacle which directly preceded it, and on that account as much
as any, left
no guiding mark for a standard for future generations.
French archaeologists, Perrot and Chipiez, [Lib 1884/90; Vol 1, Vol 2] in their standard work on
Judea (Vol 1), mention
the fact that "the art to which the Temple is due, was Phoenician art,
by the power and individuality so characteristic of Egyptian, Assyrian
productions." Yet history tells us how the Phoenicians became the
people of the East, and that commercial enterprises carried the art of
their own country and thence to Babylonia, and even to Greece, both of
nations show Egyptian influence in their decorative arts.
And so for
the very reason that the Phoenicians borrowed their forms from the Nile
Euphrates valleys it was a poor art at best, and became even more
the architect's point of view, when transferred to a neighboring people
no underlying traditions of their own. This mixture of styles is most
the Pillars of the Temple Porch, where a confusing and unusual order
as we shall see, which has baffled scholars in their many attempts at
must have felt this foreign influence in the gatherings of trained men
he studied and worked, for his building in many respects was modelled
from the Egyptian
temple, as, to quote Milman, "it retained the ground-plan and
the Egyptian, or rather of almost all sacred edifices of antiquity;
even its measurements
are singularly in unison with some of the most ancient temples in Upper
consisted of a propylaeon, a temple, and a sanctuary; called
respectively the Porch,
the Holy Place, and the Holy of Holies," with rising steps and
as one progressed, producing an element of mystery, in exact imitation
of the temples
built on the Nile.
Porch of Solomon's Temple stood two pillars of brass, similar to
Jachin and Boaz, and it was on these that Solomon and Hiram Abif
determined to lavish
the former's wealth and the latter's ability in an otherwise simple
treatment of decorative pillars grouped about an entrance without any
reason, was characteristic of Phoenician art as well, for the
architects of those
latter countries "had no liking for any kind of construction, and
made slight use of the pier and column," as Perrot and Chipiez tell us.
remark that "we may feel some surprise that the Phoenicians, who were
of Egypt rather than Chaldea, and had in abundance the stone denied to
country, should have taken the Mesopotamian architects as their models
in this matter
of the column," but I think this can be explained from the fact that
was of the soil, so to speak, and in closer touch with Phoenicia by
land and by
blood than the men of Egypt, who lived their peaceful lives about the
in isolation (except by sea) from surrounding civilizations.
mentions his admiration at the sight of "two shafts, one of pure gold ‒
other of emerald," which stood in places in the shrine of Melkart at
similar to those occupied at Jerusalem by Jachin and Boaz. In fact many
authors mention the tall pillars rising in pairs before the entrances
At all events
the column about an entrance used without any structural relation was a
of decoration in Phoenicia, and would naturally be the motif considered
for a temple porch, when designed by a Phoenician architect.
the description of the Porch Pillars given in Kings, in Chronicles, and
seems to vary, if an analysis is made of the parts described in the
text we find
they are substantially the same, as in one case the shaft is meant by
and in another the entire column with its base, capital, and the
platform on which
it stood. So architectural students generally agree that Jachin and
Boaz each rested
upon a square base three cubits high, had round straight shafts
in height, twelve in circumference and four in diameter, were adorned
caps five cubits in height which were ornamented with network, lilywork
and were further adorned and protected by supercaps four cubits high.
appears to be clear and would be simple to understand except for the
of "network, lily-work and pomegranates." There have been countless
of these words, and many restorations of the Pillars, but I have never
two alike, nor any that I consider exactly fitting.
In all architecture
the capital has been the feature of the order reserved for decoration,
any type can be designated by a glance at this member, strange to say
it is the
cap that is the stumbling-block in this case. Geometric patterns were
of surface ornamentation with the Egyptians and Chaldeans, and
crisscross line work,
or network, in applique, was frequently used, so that we do not
hesitate long here
for the meaning of "network."
to be more controversy, however, over the interpretation of
I do not see why there should be. The pomegranate flower with its rose
petals and heart was constantly represented in conventional form as a
a means of decoration in all the countries of Asia Minor, and was so
used as embroidery
on the robes of the High Priests of the Temple. Examples at this period
as fruit are rare, but the flower was used in some form in nearly every
of Phoenician and Mesopotamian sculpture that has been reclaimed, and
the enframements and balconies about the entrance porches of the
temples and palaces.
It has been
argued that the "chains of pomegranates" mentioned in the Bible refers
to the fruit; I see no reason why it does not suggest a garland of
as our daisy chain, for the garland or festoon was used in all ancient
art and was
continued in the Roman Period and later in the Renaissance.
If we therefore
assume that rosettes of pomegranate flowers were meant in the Biblical
is a question of the application of this ornament to the cap, and in
the natural architectural reasoning would be to apply cast buttons in
in the spaces enclosed by the intersections of the diagonal strands of
describes these caps at the time of the destruction of the Temple as
twenty-four rosettes on each side, one hundred all told, so that the
to supply the difference might have been placed at the corners as
buttons for supporting
the hanging festoons of the same flower. In this respect I agree with
for I feel that the drooping garlands hoped in transition from the
round shaft to the heavy cap.
locate the lily-work, however, is a more difficult problem.
In the first
place this lily does not correspond with the hothouse or Easter lily of
which it might suggest to the layman, but was undoubtedly the
water-lily or lotus
plant of Egypt, which was conventionalized by the Egyptian architects
as one of
their chief forms of ornament, and developed into a capital of one of
the lotus flower and bud found its way into Phoenicia and Chaldea, and
we find many
examples of this ornament used in the temples in a running and
of design, which was still later developed by the Greeks into the
beautiful "honeysuckle" ornament.
It was this
lotus flower that was probably intended by the term "lily," and it will
be necessary to consider the purpose of the Pillars in the Porch of
in order to picture the lily-work in its position in the capitals.
objects encountered in the Temple, the Pillars Jachin and Boaz were
symbols of deeper
truths which they intended to teach. Although specialists in Hebrew do
as to their meaning, it is possible that before the former the Kings of
crowned, and there they were reminded of the fact that they owed their
to the Jehovah who had established them, while before the latter the
might have been ordained, and impressed with the importance of
conducing the rituals
of their exalted office with fortitude and strength; hence Jachin
and Boaz "strength."
And for these
and other ceremonies, we are told that the consecration oil used was
poured in the
top of the capitals. This gives us a clue for the lilywork, for it
would not seem
illogical that some such form as the Egyptian lotus bud, which was
receptacle use, might have been created as a crowning feature for the
both as a decorative terminating pinnacle where there was no supporting
and also serving the practical purpose of a hidden storehouse for the
mentioned seem to have been merely screens to hide the vessels of oil
and to protect
them from the vandalism of birds, which was a common practice of the
of drillings for securing metal nettings for that purpose having been
in the sculptures of the Greek temple pediments. These supercaps were
network with pomegranate rosette decoration similar to the capitals
below, but with
perforations, and of portable material.
So we find
our Pillars Jachin and Boaz with cylindrical smooth shafts and 'square
ornamented with diagonal meshes and cast rosettes, crowned with lotus
the whole resting on square blocky bases, and if the foregoing
deductions are correct,
the true Pillars were quite different from our usual lodge room
That God May Awaken Me -- [A Poem]
By Bro. H.L. Haywood. Iowa
schools from books, from teachers skilled
Have I blessed: and Art hath loaned her meed
Of joy through pictures, carvings, and her golden reed;
And all her powers to thrill me, or restrain:
To these hath Nature added hill, and sea, and plain,
The lighted sky, the flowers upon the mead,
The show of things, the forces, and the fiery screed
Of stars above a world of joy and pain:
O what a school! yet in it do I lie
As witless, helpless, as the frozen streams!
Wilt Thou now sow Thy fires within my heart!
May I not hear the magic of Thy sudden cry
To wake me from the stupor of my dreams
To more of life than Nature or than Art!
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
General Nicholas Herkimer
HERKIMER, a member of St. Patrick's Lodge of New York, a patriot of
was born in 1717, and died August 6, 1777, at Little Falls, New York,
where he was
buried, and where the beautiful memorial was erected. He must have
become an army
man rather young, for he was in the French and Indian War in command of
in 1758. (That so-called French and Indian War was the struggle of our
to defend the religious stand the Pilgrims had taken.)
At the beginning
of the Revolutionary War in 1775 Herkimer was commissioned colonel: in
1776 he was
made Brigadier and placed in command of the Militia of Tyron County,
New York. In
1777, when General St. Leger invested Fort Stanwix, afterwards called
at the head of the Mohawk River, General Herkimer took his Militia to
of Gen. Gansevoort.
At a point
some six miles from Ft. Stanwix, near Oneida Creek, General Herkimer
fell into an
ambush; his horse was killed and he was badly wounded, a leg being
himself to a stump he encouraged his men to the last but superior
numbers were too
much for the little band, which sustained defeat with the loss of two
This was called the battle of Oriskany.
years afterwards the Oneida Historical Society celebrated the
centennial of this
battle and raised a subscription to erect a monument to the memory of
This was an obelisk of granite eighty-five feet in height. A greater
was the naming of one of the richest counties in New York after the
of General Herkimer to the cause of the Revolution may have been
equaled but it
was never surpassed. His sitting propped against a stump, with life
while he used his brains and his personal magnetism to help his men,
own limbs were useless, is a picture of the heroism of the man. He
fought and died
for a blessed heritage which we should not neglect.
What is now
known as Herkimer County was first settled by Palatine Germans among
whom was one
John Jost Herkimer, father of the General. This John Jost built a stone
with a few other buildings of the same type (some of which are still
the village) was enclosed within a fort, which was first known by its
of Kouari, but was later named Fort Herkimer. Near this, and within the
of the village, was erected another fortress known as Fort Davton. It
was from this
latter spot that General Herkimer led his forces when he went out to
of Fort Schuyler, which relief expedition was brought to a sudden halt
by the ambuscade
at Oriskany, already described. The present village, its township, and
are all named Herkimer after this illustrious family.
is now a village of some thousand or so population in Oneida County. It
was in a
little ravine about two miles to the west of it that the battle of
fought. General Herkimer had heard of the danger to Fort Schuyler,
which stood near
the site of the present city of Rome, and set out to relieve it. That
fort was being
besieged by British and Indians under Colonel Barry St. Leger and
the famous Indian leader who was, strangely enough, a Freemason.
had about 800 militiamen. About 200 men were lost on both sides. To the
forces the severest loss was General Herkimer himself, who died a few
as the result of the clumsy amputation of a leg. The British,
forces of the colonials, withdrew from Fort Schuyler. The importance of
lies in the fact that it cost the British General Burgoyne the support
Barry St. Leger at the battle of Saratoga, which was, partly on account
fact, lost to the British to which St. Leger was going when the
to General Herkimer stands in the village of Herkimer. Those interested
in the romantic
story of this patriot will find it worthwhile to read "The Herkimers
by Phoebe S. Cowen.
By Bro. Robert I. Clegg,
under the Roman Catholic rule of Austria, long had her institutions,
and nationally inspired. Massacre by the wholesale of Protestants was
process of catholicizing the downtrodden. Thus for example do the
such periods as the one of Leopold I (1657-1705), and that of Joseph II
But the latter emperor found the national aspirations too powerful to
he was compelled to restore the ancient constitutions.
at last the year of revolution in 1848. An outbreak of intense
patriotism was led
by the famous Louis Kossuth, and a desperate attempt was made to regain
independence of Hungary. A new constitution was adopted and for some
was in power as the Supreme Governor. But the Austrians had obtained
of the Russians and a return was forced to the former despotism which
trial by jury, nor freedom of the press. It was not until 1867 that the
of Austria-Hungary was consolidated under the Emperor Francis Joseph.
was born in 1802 at Monok in Hungary, studied law at the Protestant
College of Sarospatak
and then to some extent practiced his profession as a lawyer, but
really gave his
life to the cause of Hungarian nationalism.
of Kossuth's life were spent in prison at an early age for publishing
debates in the National Assembly. Then he edited from 1841 to 1844, the
the organ of the nationalist movement. This prominence in leadership
his becoming Minister of Finance in the Hungarian Ministry of 1848.
in the dispute with Austria over the revolt of the Croats, Kossuth
independent and took over its government. But in 1849 he was forced to
flee to Turkey
where he was imprisoned for a time. On his release he visited the
in the interests of Hungary and later on his return made several
the Austrian government.
died at Turin in 1894.
It is not
commonly known among the Fraternity that this great champion of human
a Freemason, and an American Craftsman at that! His petition for
membership is still
on file in his Mother Lodge, Cincinnati Lodge No. 133, at Cincinnati,
highly interesting document is written in his own hand, and while
the practice of the present day, has sundry features in its expressions
even now at this later day and generation of decided piquancy and
force. What he
says of a community of interests in a truly Masonic spirit among
nations was evolved
long before the Hague Conference of Carnegie, the World Court of Knox,
or the League
of Nations of Wilson, yet is most suggestive and inspirational.
for membership of Louis Kossuth was received by Cincinnati Lodge No.
133, F. and
A. M., on February 18, 1852, and reads as follows:
"To the Worshipful Master,
Wardens and Brethren
of Cincinnati Lodge No. 133, of Free and Accepted Masons.
"The petition of the subscriber
showeth that having long entertained a favourable opinion of your
he is desirous of being admitted a member thereof if found worthy.
"Being an exile for liberty's
sake, he has
no fixed place of residence, is now staying at Cincinnati; his age is
49 1/2 years,
his occupation is to restore his native land, Hungary, to its national
and to achieve by community of action with other nations, civil and
in Europe. (Signed) "Louis Kossuth."
of the lodge tell us that on motion the petition was by unanimous vote
case of emergency," and forthwith referred to a Committee of
With the petition of Louis Kossuth were those of Colonel Count Gregory
aged 38, member of the staff of Governor Kossuth; Peter A. Nagy, aged
Paul Hajnik, aged 44 years, Treasurer of the Hungarian Fund, and Dr.
(Strasser), aged 42, physician to Louis Kossuth.
Committee reported on the same day and the petitioners were elected to
Entered Apprentice Degree. The communication was then adjourned to
at 6 o'clock in the afternoon when the candidates were initiated.
was made to February 20, at the same hour, when the candidates were
elected to, and received the Fellow Craft Degree. At this meeting the
Degree was conferred upon Brother Kossuth. An adjournment was then
taken to February
21 at 6 o'clock when the other candidates received the Master's Degree.
$20.00 each which had been deposited with the lodge were ordered
returned to the
newly-made brethren and at the same time diplomas and demits were given
to all of
the month, February 28, 1852, Governor Kossuth with several of his
a meeting of Centre Lodge No. 23, at Indianapolis, Indiana. From an
by him on that occasion the following opinion of the distinguished
regard to Freemasonry is taken:
"The Masonic brotherhood is one
to better the condition of mankind, and we are delighted to know it
attention of so many brethren around you as we find surrounding us
the great antiquity of the Order which should endear it to all good
excellent precepts and high moral teachings must induce all good
members of the
Order to appreciate its benevolent purposes and useful works. To one
without a country or a home, dependent upon the hospitality of
strangers for life
and protection, a great substitute for all my privations is I find to
by brethren of the Masonic Order."
time in St. Louis, Missouri, Brother Kossuth remarked with emphasis:
"If all men were Freemasons,
Oh, what a
worldwide and glorious republic we should have!"
two last quotations we are indebted to the research facilities and
courtesy of Brother
N.R. Parvin, Grand Secretary of Iowa, who credits them to the Western
Vol. III, page 196.
made similar expressions of his opinion of Freemasonry at the reception
by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts.
in England In 1921
By Bro. Dudley Wright. England
YEAR has been for Freemasonry in England a year of distinct
progression; and the
advance is marked not only in the Craft, but in all branches and,
in Royal Arch and Mark Masonry. Grand lodge closes the year with a
register of 3,711
lodges, as against 3,612 at the end of 1920, but since the last annual
lodges in Queensland, formerly within the English jurisdiction, have
the Scottish and independent lodges of that State in forming the United
of Queensland, thus reducing the number of "district" lodges (as
lodges are termed) from 666 in 1920 to 578 in 1921. England has
chartered 188 lodges
during the year as against 194 in 1920. Sixty Royal Arch Chapters and
Mark Lodges have also been warranted during the year, both these
figures being considerably
in excess of the pre-war and war-time averages.
progression has been characteristic of the receipts of the three
benevolent institutions and the Mark Benevolent Fund, the four
in an aggregate collection of nearly 299,000 pounds, enabling the
each instance to admit all approved candidates to the benefit of the
without ballot. Were it possible to give the sums contributed to the
Hospital and Nursing Home and the many Provincial and District Charity
would doubtless be found that the sum contributed towards Masonic
the past year exceeded half a million of money. Nor has Masonic
here. Early in the year the official announcement was made that the
of the million, the sum aimed at in connection with the scheme
promulgated by the
Duke of Connaught, Grand Master, for the erection of a central Masonic
Temple to meet the ever-increasing demands, and also as a Memorial to
of England who fought and fell in the great war (whose names fill a
good sized volume
that was published during the year) had been secured. The last meeting
Lodge held in 1921 witnessed the distribution of medals to the
lodges which have already qualified as "Hall Stone" lodges, and already
the medal is becoming a familiar sight at Masonic gatherings.
year both the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York have been installed
of lodges, the former in Household Brigade Lodge, No. 2614, and the
latter in Navy
Lodge, No. 2612. Both also have during the year been admitted to Royal
and the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
Grand Lodge Officers have passed away during the year, some being well
many circles, particularly Lord Balfour of Burleigh and Lord Halsbury,
Wardens; the Hon. C. E. Davies, who, although Grand Master of Tasmania,
jurisdiction, also held office in the Grand Lodge of England as a Past
Canon Horsley, Past Grand Chaplain; and Brothers W. L. A. B.
Sir Alfred Newton, Past Grand Deacons. The Province of West Lancashire
and the District
of South Africa, Central Division, have lost their rulers in the
persons of Brothers
Louis S. Winsloe and Arthur J. Green, and their offices, together with
of Malta, both in the Craft and Royal Arch, are still vacant, while the
of Cornwall is at present without a chief officer in consequence of the
of Lord Halsbury.
have been no contentions to affect Freemasonry in England during the
year it became
necessary, as the outcome of an invitation to attend an International
at Geneva, for the Grand Lodge of England once more to assert its
to associate with any body or bodies admitting to membership any who
are not pledged
to a definite belief in a Supreme Being. Application was also made
during the year
for recognition by the Grand Lodge of England by a body admitting both
men and women
to membership, but this, in accordance with its Constitutions, could
not be granted.
Grand Lodge has also been compelled to refuse permission to any members
within its jurisdiction to join the Order of the Eastern Star, on
account of its
stipulation that the male members of the Order shall be "Freemasons in
Two of the
most pleasing Masonic events of the year were the hearty welcome given
Lodge to the Grand Master, the Duke of Connaught, on his return from
the reception to the Masonic members of the Wesleyan Ecumenical
The Study Club
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs ‒ From the questions following each section
of the paper
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the tenet of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
* * *
who was one of the most learned men of all times, one of the greatest
the last century, and who left behind him as his monument the great
History, [Lib 1902-11; (13 Volumes – see Bibliography)] had as his life work the task
writing a History of Liberty. On this he toiled for years, with two
full of books, with all manner of original materials in several
he had accumulated great heaps of data. But alas! he never arrived at
where he felt that he knew enough about liberty to write its history!
and he died
with all his knowledge in him, his magnum opus unwritten! Such an
us what a subject we have before us in the present paper; how difficult
it is to
deal with; how little has as yet been really thought out about it; how
men's experiences of it; and consequently how modest must be our own
the present connection.
into a discussion of the subject fashion in your own mind as definitely
as you can
what you mean by liberty, and what you mean by liberty as a Masonic
On the surface
it might appear to some that Masonry in itself has not much liberty to
own children. The initiate finds himself forced to rehearse a Ritual no
of which can be changed; he is in the hands of a group of men who
govern him and
his fellow members; the subordinate lodge, as its very name implies,
itself to the will of Grand Lodge: and the whole field covered by the
is hedged about by a series of Landmarks which, like the laws of the
Medes and the
Persians, change not. Where the individual finds himself so
circumscribed, and compelled
to move in so narrow a channel, how, say many, can he be said to have
ask such a question betray the misunderstanding under which so many
labor as regards
what is and what is not liberty. They have a vague notion as to what it
they dimly feel that in some way there isn't much liberty to be had
in institutions or in government, or in the way the world is made. If
that one of us has similar misgivings and doubts it may be worthwhile
to examine two or three of the false conceptions of liberty which are
not merely freedom from restraint. How many there are who think it to
be so! A friend
who has spent many years in working among immigrants told me that
hordes of aliens
come in from southeastern Europe, and used to come in from Russia, who
told over and over that in America there are no laws, no governments,
and fines, and that here every man may do as he pleases with no other
man to hinder.
Finding themselves so completely disillusioned when they discover the
about the nation, they grow sullen and rebellious, consider themselves
and fall an easy victim to the fallacies of anarchy. Such ideas of
liberty are born
of fancy, for there is no part of the human race anywhere that does
have, or ever
has had, any experience of such a state. On the contrary every one of
us knows from
his own experiences that liberty and restraint go together and are in
no sense necessarily
opposed one to the other. In a family there is all manner of restraint
only for the children but for the parents as well, who are unable to do
things because there are children to care for at home; but even so,
and the children may all enjoy to the utmost the fullest family
liberty. And we
know that it is the same with a man's work. If he is running a farm he
to remain at his post to care for his stock often when he would prefer
to be elsewhere;
that he must be up with the sun, and do a certain amount of plowing,
planting, harvesting, and what not, even though his fancies would lead
him to do
something very different. He has restraints enough, nevertheless he
enjoys on his
farm absolute liberty of toil, for the two things go together. And so
it is in every
kind of labor, and in every other sphere in which men live; always
there are the
fences about one, and the sign set up, "thus far shalt thou go but no
but that does not destroy liberty, which is a very different thing than
Nor is liberty
the same as a go-as-you-please individualism. A large and powerful
group of men
in the last century taught that all things that check the individual
and that the full enjoyment of life comes only when the individual can
himself a separate entity cut off from other individuals whom he is not
and who are not to hinder him. The state is to have no right to
interfere with the
lives of men in any way, shape or form. Herbert Spencer, who may be
of this school of thought, resented it when the state interposed to
when it undertook to levy income taxes and to direct business
developments; he was
bitter even against the governmental building of highroads which he
be left to the citizens in each given community. It may be true that
such a conception
of individualism would accord well with liberty, and it might be
unfortunately the experience of the nations has shown it utterly
impossible of operation;
it is not in harmony with the way men are made. Human nature is against
each individual man is by his very nature a social being who can no
more be cut
off from the social organization than a leaf can be safely cut from the
the parent tree. There are some things that we can do separately as
there are other equally important things that we can do only as
citizens of a community,
as members of a social order. What would have become of us, to cite one
if it had been left to individual enterprise to manage the late war? In
cases the individual, for his own joy and welfare, must be held to his
the social organism and made to perform his functions there.
to the philosophical doctrine of individualism preached by Spencer are
of the "laissez faire" school of economics which played so large a part
in the history of the nineteenth century. The members of this school
the business relations of men are governed by certain "economic laws"
which operate in the same way as, and are as unchangeable as, the
of nature. Men must be left alone, was their cry, and not tampered
with; hands off,
and business will run itself; the world will be fed, clothed, and
housed as automatically
as the sun rises and sets. The chief of these "economic laws" was
to be unfettered competition, indeed, competition was set up as such an
god that when, during the Irish famine in 1825 it was proposed to
in England and ship corn to the starving millions many "economists"
the project on the ground that the situation would be cared for by the
of the law of supply and demand and that nobody had any right to divert
the normal channels of trade. The theories of the "laissez faire"
seem quaint and far off to one at this date, for their whole scheme of
gone by the board, and that for a hundred reasons, one of which is that
in economic life no such "laws" as those that operate in nature, and
such laws as do operate in economics are of the same kind as those that
in all forms of human association; they are full of the action of men's
desires, and deliberate planning. "To let things alone," to let things
drift, does not mean that things will be cared for by automatic natural
that the most predatory individuals in the community will use such a
state as an
opportunity to rob their fellows right and left. In our own government
we have learned
that business, in all its forms, is something that must be regulated
like all other
human activities, and that any ideal of liberty which assumes itself to
of an absence of regulation is a false ideal.
various false notions of liberty have in common one thought, that it is
thing to leave each individual to himself, uncontrolled by others; to
let him be
an entity in a void. Such a thought is false and impossible. Man is by
structure a social being, and therefore one that must live, for the
sake of his
own happiness as much as for the sake of the happiness of others,
ringed about by
all manner of governing forces and influence. What then is Liberty?
In my own
conception of it liberty means that each man of us is to enjoy
unhindered the full
exercise of the normal functions and powers of his nature. This is an
conception than that implied in the no-restraint theory, because man's
function normally in a void, or in a condition of pure individualism:
and powers of a man's nature, when rightly understood, imply and demand
life, a community of lives in which each individual finds his true
his right relations to other human beings. It will be better to permit
to define itself through a series of examples and illustrations.
One of the
most important powers of a man's nature is his mind. If the man is to
if his nature is to be healthy and unmutilated, he must be permitted to
a social order where he has absolute right to use that mind unhindered
or anybody. The mind is so made that any interference with its normal
brings distress to the individual and disorder to human society. Every
dictate to men how they shall use their minds has proved to be
disastrous, as history
so abundantly proves. One may recall Prince Metternich and the Peace of
1815 when the masters of Europe ordained what men should think, speak,
That regime did not bring the uniformity of thought and peace of life
masters expected; it brought quite the contrary, a fermentation of
and women which led finally to the outbursts of 1848. It is a peculiar
have one's very brain in chains: men must rebel or at last surrender,
to sink in
the apathy and listlessness of the peasant and the serf.
In what does
liberty of mind consist? In the right to use it normally, for the
health and the
good of all. It does not mean that an individual is free to make use of
without restraint or hindrance of any kind. The man who uses his
intellect to perpetrate
a fraud should be held in leash; when he exercises it in the
manufacture and dissemination
of lies it is time that he feel that he is not the only man who lives
in the world.
When a man is set free to think he is set free, not for intellectual
anarchy which is at last the absence of thought, but to think according
laws of thinking which are inherent in the mind itself. Therefore
freedom of thought
does not lead to anarchy and confusion but to harmony, for all facts
exist in the
system of nature, and all truth is in harmony with itself. When we
for the right of the free intellect we are contending for the right and
use of the intellect, the normal use of it; not for mere caprice.
So also with
the right to choose one's own work, which is also essential to a state
During the last centuries of the Roman Empire the collegiate system
were a kind of craft union) had hardened to such rigidity that what a
had done that also must he do; he was not even free to leave his own
permission; he existed in a kind of industrial slavery. The same thing
or almost the same thing, at the end of the guild system in England:
men had at
last to break the system because it was destroying, the right of free
work. In India,
or in certain parts of it, the caste system functions in the same
manner to deprive
the individual of the light to choose his own form of labor.
also exists in the very structure of man's nature. Each of us has his
and prefers his own "line." One man loves manual toil; another would be
a musician; a third finds himself made to be a scholar. So goes it with
urge within one's nature toward a certain form of labor is as essential
as the freedom of thought, and it is always as disastrous to human
the freedom to work is denied as it is when men are deprived of freedom
In any social order rightly conceived the liberty of every man to work
as he chooses
does not mean that a man can exercise his desire unrestrained. It does
that an individual can do what he pleases as if he were alone in a void
other man could be. It means that the right to work, like all other
rights, is shaped
by the structure of human nature, and by the necessities of society. If
form of business proves destructive of social order, such for example
as the business
of war, or opium smuggling, or piracy, etc., then the man's right
ceases. What we
all should strive to uphold is the normal exercise of such rights.
As much may
be said of the right of free worship, or liberty of religion. Religion
is, it seems,
an integral part of nature, therefore it must have healthy development
else it lead
to ills and to unhappiness. Interference with religious liberty, the
long and dark
attempts to dictate to men what and how they shall worship, has every
misery and degradation. A normal religiousness makes for the welfare of
life, and he therefore has a right to the free and normal exercise of
may be said of all the other functions and powers of our nature. We
have an inherent
right to choose our friends; to marry whom we would; to have a voice in
government; to live where and when we desire; etc., etc. In all the
which liberty may take we find this same truth, that this liberty is
for the sake
of the healthful exercise of human nature, so that a man can be happy
while he lives,
and that any interference with the normal functioning of the same leads
to the mutilation of nature, and is therefore a thing to be opposed and
And all this does not lead to individualism, to atomism, to any form of
or to anarchy as many conservative minds fear, because if the functions
nature are rightly exercised, exercised according to human nature
will not lead to conflict among men, but rather to unity and harmony.
The very way
in which a man is made causes him to be a part of nature, a part of
in constant relationship with God. Any liberty which divorces him from
makes him an anti-social being, or causes him to violate the deep laws
of his own
spirit, is not real liberty at all, but its counterfeit.
it follows from all that has been heretofore said, is therefore not a
which the powers that be may confer on a man at their pleasure: it is
by the very structure of man. It is something necessary, something
demanded by the
nature of things. Therefore it is, as our Declaration of Independence
a natural right. It is a right that existed before governments came
nay, governments exist in order to make it possible, and to preserve it
For law, lightly understood, exists in order that liberty may be
When we have
reached this conception we can no longer believe that such a thing can
be a mere
matter of simple instinct to any individual which he will straightway
to exercise the moment he is set loose to do as he pleases. Liberty,
it is so deep and many-sided a thing, and sends so many roots down into
and so many ramifications out into human society, is a thing that must
The baby chick has an instinct which teaches it how to eat the moment
it steps out
of the shell; some have held the theory that man has a similar instinct
which he will exercise if only priests, kings, and aristocrats will let
Such a notion is a fallacy. We each one have the right to be free; but
to be indeed
free, that means a right education for the purpose. Freedom as a right
every man: freedom as a fact exists only in those natures which have
point of view the whole of Masonry exists in order to teach men how to
use of their prerogatives of freedom. The candidate is made to feel
that he is not
a separate living atom living and dying unto himself, but that he is by
part of a great brotherhood of men and women; he is taught that until
he can exercise
the powers of maturity he must, like all good apprentices, be content
to have others
lead him; he is made to understand that mature life is not his at a
grasp but that
he lives in darkness concerning it until he has gone the whole road of
he is shown that the hoodwink cannot be removed until he is duly
obligated to his
fellows and taught his duties; he is made to understand that unless he
is able to
walk alone and exercise his rights normally a cable-tow of external
needed to hold him in place, and that such a cable-tow must remain,
about him until
he is able to stand on his own feet; he is made to understand the ever
of light, and that unless he is always seeking it, darkness will settle
and darkness means unhappiness; and not until he is instructed how to
be the absolute
master of himself is he raised from the dead level of his slavery to
perpendicular of a free man.
In its mysteries
of initiation Freemasonry reveals itself to its adepts, under one of
at least, as the preparation for the liberty of the mind, of the body,
of the soul,
of manhood and womanhood. Its part out in the great world among other
institutions also reveals it as the champion of liberty in all its
forms and under
all its veils. And it has ever contended for liberty because it has
win for men life, more life, and life more abundantly. That is its
because man needs liberty in order richly to live, it has striven to
in all its forms. During the last hundred years Masonry has not been
one single struggle for civil, or political, or religious liberty. When
sought to throw off the yoke of unlawful or cruel rulers it has lent
them its aid.
When they have prayed and bled to be relieved of the yoke of spiritual
bondage it has given them of its strength and made their war its own.
has won for himself all those freedoms wherein his life consists it
will ever be
so, because Masonry exists in order that we all may live more happily,
- In what way is liberty
exemplified and taught in the Fraternity?
- What is the difference ‒ if
there is a difference ‒ between "liberty"
- How many kinds of liberty can
you name, such as, for example, civil, religious,
- Do you believe that the
individual Mason, under the present system of Masonic
laws and usages, enjoys as much freedom as he deserves?
- Does the subordinate lodge have
- How would you differentiate
"independence" from "liberty"?
- What other common terms express
the same general idea?
- What does the Bible teach about
- Masons fought on both sides of
the Civil War. Was that inconsistent with
- Albert Pike was an officer in
the Confederate army. Was that inconsistent
with what be teaches about liberty and freedom in Morals and Dogma? If
so, in what
way was it inconsistent?
- What liberties do American
citizens now actually enjoy?
- Does the man enjoy real liberty
in work who has a boss over him, who must
go and come at a certain time, and have all the conditions of labor
- What is the "right to work"?
- Is it the same as "liberty of
- What is meant by individualism?
- Can you name any great
"Individualists" in our own national history?
- Was Lincoln an Individualist?
- What countries in Europe give
their citizens civil liberty? Religious liberty?
Liberty of thought?
- What can you tell about Herbert
- What did he write?
- Can you illustrate from
American industrial and business history the theory
of "laissez faire"?
- What about railways, public
corporations, etc., as things went forty years
- How would you explain the
fallacy of the "let things drift" school?
- Do you agree with the writer's
definition of liberty as given in the paper?
- How would you improve upon it?
In what way, if any, is it defective?
- Can you fashion a more
comprehensive description of what liberty is that
you would care to have printed in THE BUILDER?
- What can you tell about the
history of intellectual liberty in the United
- Did the early colonists enjoy
much of it? Do we have complete intellectual
- How do you justify the
restrictions placed on free thought and free speech
during the Great War?
- Have we been given back all the
free thought and speech we enjoyed before
- What would your neighbors do or
say if you were to speak out openly just
what you think about religion, polities, morality, etc.?
- Do you now practice freedom of
thought, and free speech? If not, why not?
- Have you freedom of thought and
speech in your Masonic lodge?
- What kind of "industrial
democracy" do the Socialists want?
- The Bolshevists?
- Do we now have "liberty of
work" in our present factory system?
- Can you tell a little about the
history of religious liberty in this nation?
- Have we all always enjoyed it?
- How was it won?
- How many other nations are now
fighting for religious liberty?
- What is the difference between
spiritual, and religious, liberty, if any?
- Do bad habits hold a man in
- How do parents teach their
children how to exercise freedom?
- How is it true that the law is
for the sake of liberty?
- How many ways are there that
Masonry teaches men, and drills men, and shapes
men, to know what liberty is, and to exercise right liberty?
- What part is Masonry now
playing, here and abroad, in the liberating of men?
- In how many revolutions has
Masonry played a part?
- Do you believe in revolutions?
- What is the difference between
a right revolution and a wrong revolution?
- What is Masonry now doing in
Mexico, Central America, and South America?
- Why is the Masonic ideal of
liberty so opposed by the Roman Catholic Church?
- The greatest Masonic teacher of
liberty has been Albert Pike; can you explain
his conception of it?
- Have you ever read his "Morals
- What does be therein teach
- What branch of the Masonic
Fraternity has had most to say about this subject?
- What is the difference between
liberty and equality?
liberty and democracy?
* * *
references will furnish much interesting material on the subjects
touched upon in
the preceding paper by Brother Haywood.
should be assigned by the Study Club Committee to different brethren
who may compile
papers of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many
articles themselves, or extracts therefrom, may be read directly from
The latter method may be followed when the members may not feel able to
supplemental papers of their own, or when the originals may be deemed
without any alterations or additions.
or papers thus prepared should be read at the opening of the study
the paper by Brother Haywood is taken up.
Encyclopedia ‒ (Revised Edition):
Pike, p. 663;
Freedom, p. 281;
Freemason, p. 282;
Freemasonry in Brazil, p. 115;
Freemasonry in Mexico, p. 482;
Laborare est orare, "To labor is to
pray," p. 419;
or Liberty, p. 444;
Liberal Arts and Sciences, p. 444;
Libertine, p. 445.
* * *
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to
of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three
in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under
the following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge
and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and
"Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st, 1921,
are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919
and the remaining papers of the series may be had in the 1921 bound
will be ready for delivery early in December. Single copies of 1921
are not obtainable, our stock having become exhausted.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Havwood:
A. Reasons for a course explaining what the "teachings
of Masonry" mean.
‒ B. How
one can arrive at his own Philosophy
Conclusion. The Philosophy of Masonry is
not a study of philosophy in general, but a study of Masonry such as a
gives to any great intellectual problem.
1. ‒ The
Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
2. ‒ The Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
3. ‒ The Masonic Conception of Education.
4. ‒ Symbolism.
5. ‒ Secrecy.
6. ‒ Masonic Ethics.
7. ‒ Democracy.
8. ‒ Equality.
9. ‒ Liberty.
10. ‒ Masonry and Industry.
11. ‒ The Brotherhood of Man.
12. ‒ The Fatherhood of God.
13. ‒ Endless Life.
14. ‒ Brotherly Aid.
15. ‒ Schools of Masonic Philosophy.
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
* * *
HOW TO ORGANIZE
AND CONDUCT STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
of any supplemental papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared
by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of the study club
of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper.
of this section, using the questions following this section to bring
4. The subsequent
sections of the paper should then be taken up and disposed of in the
Box. Invite questions on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
Let the brethren understand that these meetings are for their
and enlightenment and get them into the habit of asking all the
questions they may
be able to think of. If at the time these questions are propounded no
one can answer
them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to supply answers to them
for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
"In the Glorious Hour of
By Bro. J. F. Clendening,
the glorious hour of dawning
When the sun begins to peep
From above the farthest hilltops,
To arouse us from our sleep;
Then we pray to God our Master
To direct us through the day,
To avoid the trials and pitfalls
That assail us on our way.
When the sun at high meridian,
The glory of the day,
Informs each weary pilgrim
That he's half along the way;
Then we turn to God all glorious
For strength to stand the test
That will give us welcome entry
In that dwelling of the Blest.
The sun in the west at evening
Marks the closing of our day;
Then we cry to God our Father
And to Him humbly pray
For grace that's all sufficient,
For love that's all sublime,
That will guard us through the Valley
And bring us Home in time.
The Roman Catholics and
no particular reason for making a sensational secret out of the feud
and Freemasonry, any more than there is any good sense in overdoing the
the point of fanaticism. THE BUILDER is very frank in its attitude
toward the whole
question: it believes that the feud is an existing thing of great
and that Masonic students therefore desire the facts just as they
desire facts about
any other subject germane to Masonic research. THE BUILDER has no fear
of anybody, least of all of a large group of fellow men who share with
us the privileges
of American citizenship, for there is nothing to fear! What can the
do to us? Nothing! we are too strong for them. We are stronger than we
believe. If articles and letters are published in these pages about
and Romanism it is for precisely the same reason that articles are
the Comacines, King Solomon's Temple, or Freemasonry in the A. E. F.
are of interest to our readers, who are therefore entitled to them.
to ye editor that a fallacy underlies the arguments advanced by Brother
in his communication which appears elsewhere in this issue, and also in
Bingay's letter which appeared some time back, and which has aroused so
among the readers of this journal. That fallacy, briefly put, is this:
both of these
brethren (this is an academic, not a personal discussion) assume that
the feud between
the Craft and Romanism is merely a matter of difference of religious
that such differences are of little consequence; because we all differ;
we should tolerate Roman theories as we ask others to tolerate our
is fallacious because the feud is not a question of differences of mere
or theories; the differences are of a social and practical character,
and they are
working themselves out at this moment in the actual life of the people.
between two social forces should not be described in the same terms as
between two theories.
may be briefly illustrated as follows. In one of the largest industrial
the nation investigation showed that a certain Romanist organization
for its own members more than seventy per cent of the executive
positions in a certain
industry. When that was discovered another group of men, working in the
organized themselves in order to secure their own just proportion of
In that case there never was a thought as to difference between the
of Protestantism and the metaphysics of Romanism. The men engaged in
social struggled (for it was that) were not concerned with academic
matters at all.
In one of the largest cities of this land a Romanist bishop keeps an
office in the
city hall adjoining the mayor's own private office, and every
appointment made by
that mayor first receives the o. k. of the bishop. A number of citizens
city do not approve of such a procedure and they going to put a stop to
another of our largest cities the Romanists secured control of the
board and dictated through that body what books should be used or not
what teachers should be appointed! Verbum sat!
no need to take alarm at this sort of thing, or to grow hysterical.
have been going on a long while, and will continue so to do. But these
illustrate the point that the feud between Romanism and the Craft is
a difference of opinion. The Romanists are working for one kind of
are working for another. To open our eyes to these facts; frankly to
when occasion warrants; to learn all that can be learned about them;
cannot be objectionable to any man. Our Romanist friends are doing it
all the time.
We shall do it all the time. And meanwhile we shall gladly give to all
as Brothers Bingay and Hollrigl the use of our pages to state the whole
their very different points of view.
* * *
"The Ancient Jews Believed,
mind has a trick of telescoping the past. As it glances backwards whole
and era collapse together into a broad blur, out of which stand a few
facts. The long rich history of Rome or of Assyria becomes a mere
curtain of vague
thought on which the imagination unconsciously projects a few pictures
at bottom nothing but generalizations. On the curtain the man calls
of Rome" is seen a stern soldier bearing shield and sword, for that is
of type, so he believes, of all Romans. Egypt is a dark fog in which
looms a pyramid.
Assyria is a string of flying warriors followed by elephants and crowds
bright banners. And so on.
of the mind, which tries to manage the great masses of facts known as
this fashion, is recalled to the writer by a book that now lies before
by some obscure student to prove that all the ancient nations believed
On a page toward the middle of the volume are these typical words, "The
Jews believed," etc.
ancient Jews believed," forsooth! What did they believe? They believed
things. Who were these "ancient Jews"? They were a people whose
history extends over more than a thousand years of time. During this
they underwent a hundred profound transformations; and all the while
with, and were influenced by, countless other peoples. It is almost
call to mind one single outstanding belief which they all entertained
this long national evolution. "The ancient Jews believed" this, that,
and the other thing. At one time they did not believe in personal
another time they did. Some of them never believed in a supernatural
and others always did; and so forth, and so forth. When Jerusalem was
by Titus in A. D. 70, these people were so desperately divided among
that inside the doomed city itself, with food running out and
their various cliques fought each other like hyenas. That is how much
unity of belief
they had, for these groups were based on religious schisms, and other
And so is
it also of other ancient peoples. There were a thousand religions,
sects, cults, and schools among the Egyptians, and likewise among the
Persians, and the Romans. To fuse those myriads into one mass of a
given mold and
then to generalize therefrom, is to be fooled by a trick of the fancy.
It is true
of course that all these people had a few deeply rooted characteristics
and habit, and these were constant throughout many centuries of
early Buddhists, the early Christians, for example, were split into
which differed from each other, but which all agreed on two or three
But even so, generalizations about them are exceedingly misleading.
read a sermon on this to Masonic students, if sermons were in order.
How often do
we read in our own literature, "The Ancient Jews believed"! or, "the
Catholic Church taught," or "early Masons believed"! And how often
we encounter interpreters of our symbolism who assume that in the
Ancient and Medieval
worlds all men were agreed about these symbols! One needs only to read
a work like
Count Goblet d'Aliviella's "Migration of Symbols" [Lib 1894] to learn how diverse and
were the meanings attached to symbols at different times and by
for this habit of generalizing about things that cannot be generalized
is to stick
tenaciously to specific facts, and always to ask for definite proofs.
If some brother
steps out to block a badly needed reform by saying "Our Masonic
taught that," challenge him to tell just what forbears he has in mind,
what, and where they did or said the things he avers, and you will
that he has been blurring together in his thoughts a thousand separate
of all this for us Masons is that we must strive evermore to develop as
far as possible
the scientific habit of mind, which never accepts hasty
generalizations, but carefully
and patiently sifts out the facts from the fables, the specific events
imagination's fog of recollection, and constructs its theories out of
particles of real knowledge.
how a man ought to take heed lest he overweeningly follow public
should be measured by the rule of reason and not by the common report."
* * *
Wanted: An Author
E. Williamson, Editor of the Gazette, Reno, Nevada, has written to
has led to the variations in the ritual as it is used in the various
In the natural order of things this query, with the attendant reply,
lodgment in the interesting quarters of the Question Box. But it is to
editorial notice, and that for such reasons as will presently appear.
to Bro. Williamson's inquiry may be given in few words:
in ritual are due to variations in origin. Some Grand Lodges sprang
from the old
"Modern" Grand Lodge system of England, others came from the "Ancient"
Grand Lodge. Still others received some influences from one or more of
other Grand Lodges that functioned for a brief while; and yet others
by the work as it was practiced in Ireland or in Scotland, for the
Masonry of both
those countries reached hands across the sea. Having started with
was inevitable that these should continue and, in many cases, increase,
ritual remained in a somewhat plastic condition for some years after
which, we believe, is true enough as far as it goes, is very
is but an abstraction, a ghost that arises like a film from a thousand
facts. What Brother Williamson deserves to have, and what we all need,
is a book
of some two hundred pages or so on the whole subject of Divergences
set forth in concise, interesting, and reliable fashion the history of
and an account of the way things now are.
some student undertake such a book?
should appeal to a man of high abilities for it is a difficult one, and
demands the qualities of genuine scholarship. The author of such a book
compelled to fulfill the following requirements: A familiarity with the
of eighteenth century Freemasonry in England, Scotland, Ireland, and
Freemasonry as it developed in army lodges; with the various Grand
which were rivals in the field during the Revolutionary period and for
a few years
thereafter; a mastery of the very complicated facts concerning early
America; ability to trace back to its original sources the Freemasonry
of each and
every one of our Grand Lodges, fifty-one in all; a knowledge of the
struggles which took place in many of these, and of the interactions
a knowledge of the course of ritualistic development inside the history
of the states
which played the larger part in the founding of American Freemasonry; a
of the history of the Ritual itself, as it has been created, shaped,
through the centuries by a variety of influences and a number of
If any reader
of this page cares to undertake so worth-while a task the National
Society will undertake on its part to lend assistance to him in this
It will secure
for him such books as he may need to purchase, from any place in the
that without profit to itself.
It will secure
for him the loan of any such works as he may wish to borrow, wherever
such a thing
It will lend
him counsel at any or all stages of his work, in all possible ways, and
him with any desired information that it may possess in its own files.
It will have
his manuscript criticized by Masonic experts, and that at no charge to
If the book
produced would warrant it, it would make him a fair proposition for its
In case he
would have it published at his own risk the Society would gladly assist
him in every
way to bring it to the widest possible attention of the Craft, here and
If any brother,
duly and truly prepared, and worthy and well qualified, will step
forward to embrace
this task and this opportunity, he will most surely receive the right
with the congratulations of every Masonic student. The whole subject of
is of paramount interest and of first rate importance, and it has never
as yet been
thoroughly canvassed in any book.
This is but
one example of that need for an American Masonic literature which has
in these pages before. Masons of literary talent, who have the means
of authorship, have immediately before them, inside the Craft itself,
the most golden
of all imaginable opportunities for authorship. An author is wanted to
Divergencies. The same thing may be said of any one of a hundred or so
which have never been written up at all, or if so, have been done in a
or have been well done but lost to us now for having gone out of print.
The Life of Uncivilized
Society" [Lib 1920] by Robert H. Lowie, Ph. D.,
of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History. Published by Boni
105 West 40th Street, New York. Price $3.00.
are hard put to it when asked to recommend a book that shall give the
layman a brief
summary of what is now known regarding their science as a whole or in
any one of
its branches. They are usually obliged to confess that such an
as is likely to satisfy the questioner does not exist. In no department
has the want of a modern summary made itself more painfully felt than
in that of
social organization." These words, taken from Dr. Lowie's Preface,
describe the nature of this volume of 463 very compact pages, except
that it must
not be understood that the author has undertaken to write an
encyclopedia of facts.
He accumulates no facts save as may be necessary to lay bare the
workings of primitive
social organization, which is the primary purpose of his book. The
titles of the
fifteen chapters will suggest how much ground is covered, and what is
of the same: Introduction, Marriage, Polygamy, The Family, Kinship
Usages, The Sib,
History of the Sib, The Position of Woman, Property, Associations,
Theory of Associations,
Rank, Government, Justice, and Conclusion. In all these cases Dr. Lowie
to make clear to the layman the essential character of these forms of
life among uncivilized folk.
themselves, if one may judge from the reviews of the scientific press,
book has sharply challenged attention by his heroic abandonment of the
now become time-honored, of dealing with the data of anthropology by
of the doctrines of the philosophy of evolution.
evolution are regarded by many as synonymous, but this is greatly to
err, for the
two are as unlike as can be. Charles Darwin set himself to discover how
come into existence: after many years of experiment he offered the
known as Natural Selection, Survival of the Fittest, and the Struggle
Herbert Spencer added to this outlay of theories his own doctrine that
is an advancement from a state of heterogeneity to a state of
homogeneity with concomitant
loss of energy; and subsequent evolutionists have contributed still
until there is, if one may so dub it, a whole "theology" of evolution,
doctrine within doctrine, like the "wheels within wheels" that Ezekiel
saw in his fantastic visions. It is a great mistake to suppose that all
necessarily the "philosophy of science," because there cannot be any
thing, but it is true that for a long time scientists were its most
and these same men were careless enough to mix up this philosophy with
researches with the results that many of their books are neither
science, but an impossible medley of both, as one will find, for
instance, in Haeckel's
obsolete "Riddle of the Universe," [Lib 1934] a volume very accurately
of this procedure lay in the fact that the scientist was not left free
to face facts
as he might find them, but had evermore to see them through the colored
of his "evolutionary philosophy," with the result that he ceased to be
a scientist and became a propagandist of certain theories about things
This has played sad havoc with much modern; science, especially in the
of anthropology, as witness Herbert Spencer's laborious attempts to
prove that all
anthropological data conform to the dogmas of Darwinism.
has completely freed himself from this philosophical harness not only
is not a part of the scientist's business to philosophize, but also
because he cannot
otherwise see things as they really are: and he himself is at great
pains to make
clear his position, as one may see, on page 56, where he makes a
criticism of Lewis
H. Morgan's famous "Ancient Society," [Lib 1877] a volume still considered as
classicus. Morgan, who was an evolutionist first of all, and filled
zeal to propagate its doctrines, when he came to examine the phenomena
of sex life
among savages simply assumed that the evolutionary theory as he
understood it would
explain everything so he merely set forth the theory as though he were
the facts, though it chanced that nothing could be more dissimilar than
I shall give Dr. Lowie's own words:
"For the mid-Victorian thinker
it was a foregone conclusion requiring only statement, not proof, that
is the highest form of marriage in the best of conceivable universes;
and it was
equally axiomatic that early man must have lived under conditions
from that ideal goal. So Morgan made no pretense at producing empirical
pristine promiscuity, which in fact he assigned to the period when man
hovering near the border line between humanity and a lower organic
stage. He advanced
promiscuity as a logical postulate precisely as some evolutionary
the axiom of spontaneous generation; and thereby placed it beyond the
range of scientific
If the reader
will read and reread this quotation, carefully ponder every word in it,
it with the attitude of most writers who deal with large fields of
he will find in it a clear revelation of the fact that scientists are
at last beginning
to learn that they must free themselves from all a priori theorizing
and keep themselves
free to face facts as they really are. It is the breaking of a new day
in the world
of thought. Science had first to be divorced from theology; science
must now be
divorced from philosophy. Dr. Lowie's study, though it was by no means
purpose, is a great adventure toward the latter goal, which is a
to be wished.
To the Masonic
student the two prize chapters in the book are X and XI, the former of
with "Associations," the latter with "Theories of Associations,"
for it is in these chapters that Dr. Lowie treats secret societies
people, a theme made so familiar to us in recent years by Hutton
"Primitive Secret Societies." [Lib 1908] After a reader has gone
through Dr. Webster's book he will find a certain advantage in going
over the same
ground again in Dr. Lowie's volume, for in the latter the whole scheme
secret cults and initiations is put into a larger framework of fact, so
is better able to see it in its just perspectives. There is no space
left to canvass
with thoroughness the two chapters in "Primitive Society," but one
at least may be said which will be not without point to those who have
much in the field: Dr. Lowie shows that savage initiation and secrecy
is all of
a piece with the rest of primitive life; the savage goes at it not from
of occultism, but merely as a means of bringing about certain
conditions in his
own world. It is only in their most superficial aspects that the secret
of one tribe are like the secret societies of another tribe, for the
and structural peculiarities are in all cases very different, so that
about primitive secret societies in general, as so many of our Masonic
wont to do, is one of the most dangerous of practices.
peoples, as they lived in the now civilized portions of the globe
before the beginning
of what we call history, and as they now live in the more backward
as Polynesia and Melanesia, constitute as yet a terra incognita, an
Of the more superficial facts concerning them we know something, but of
nature of their world we know so little that it is ever the mark of
wisdom to say,
"Let us not be too certain about these things." Meanwhile it is a great
gain that the lead is being taken by such men as Dr. Lowie, who are
stripping themselves of all preconceptions in order that they may
furnish us with
a veridical picture of the life of primitive folk ‒ primitive folk who
all is said and done, bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh, and as
ourselves as peas in a pod except that the circumstances and accidents
lives are as different as possible from our own.
H. L. Haywood.
* * *
"Freemasonry and the
happy coincidence this brief examination of a new and important work in
reached the editor's hands immediately after the receipt of a copy of
the work from
the author himself. An examination of the work by the editor will
which will not be a work of supererogation, because Brother Ward's
volume is one
that deserves critical examination at many hands. It is probable that
Masonic Research Society will carry the work in its Book List as soon
can be made with the English publishers.)
One of our
beloved brethren has very wisely said that "Freemasonry is a very
Institution, in a very peculiar world and in a very peculiar time in
of the world." One of the most distinguished Masonic scholars, G. W.
has given a solid foundation for Masonic study in his "What is
in which he says: "Freemasonry may be looked at in two lights ‒ as a
and as a peculiar cult. In its first aspect its origin is fairly
the other it is involved in mystery. Its physical development can be
sufficient accuracy; its ethical evolution is a great puzzle."
is very voluminous. It not only covers a vast field of exact history,
philosophy, and ritualistic interpretation of symbolic teaching, but
a wide diversity of opinion which is deduced from the facts at the
disposal of its
many talented writers.
We live in
an age of specialization. The general and versatile student of
Freemasonry may be
able to acquire a broad and fairly comprehensive conception of all the
of the subject as a whole, but it is to the writers who have
specialized that we
are indebted for the means of acquiring the same.
the writers of the past fifty years have brought the literature to a
it commands the respect and admiration of intellectual men, it seems
offer a word of caution. Every student ought to verify the things which
as facts in any book, and reserve an opinion on the theories of the
he has an opportunity to weigh the adverse criticism and be able to
judge with reason
based on knowledge.
aspect of Freemasonry of which Brother Speth speaks has been fairly
and by reading the standard works of the best authors we may find a
solution to the origin of the physical corporation, now well
established as a Grand
Lodge system. Unfortunately those who have been qualified to understand
field of information regarding its "ethical evolution," or its symbolic
teaching, and the transmission of such teaching from a remote past,
veiled their writings in technical, obscure, and at times allegorical
or have had a tendency to inculcate dogmatic ideas. The interest which
this most difficult phase of Masonic study is keen and beneficial. It
is to be hoped
that its development along lines of scholarly research will be as
helpful to the
literature of the Craft in the near future as that of the "authentic
of writers dealing with its physical development has been in the past.
by way of directing attention to an attempt to establish an
School" by a talented English brother, J. S. M. Ward, in his
and the Ancient Gods," [Lib*] a book of 373 pages just brought out by a
student who has unsuccessfully endeavored to understand the
of "Morals and Dogma" [Lib 1871] fails to see the connection
symbols used by solar and stellar cults and modern Freemasonry in
Symbols of Primordial Man"; he wishes John Yarker had given the sources
his information in "Arcane Schools," [Lib 1909] and he is only partially
with Mrs. Cooper-Oakley's hints in “Traces of a Hidden Tradition in
Medieval Mysticism." [Lib 1900] Such a one may find in the
of Brother Ward much that will satisfy his longing for light on the
is written in a clear and scholarly style and leaves no doubt as to the
and belief of the author.
In his preface
Brother Ward states his hopes that others may be led to follow up his
"In so doing no doubt they will disagree with some of my conclusions ‒
perhaps disprove them ‒ but the sum total of our knowledge cannot fail
to be increased."
deals with a considerable amount of symbolism relating to the Royal
Arch and Scottish
Rite degrees and brings to mind the theory recently expounded by Bro.
J. E. S. Tuckett,
of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, in which he advocates:
"That before 1717 Freemasonry
a store of legend, tradition, and symbolism of wide extent. That from
1717 the Grand
Lodge selected a portion only of this store, gradually evolving a Rite
of E.A., F.C., M.M., and R.A. That the restriction of the terms 'pure,'
and (in a certain sense) 'Craft' to the degrees included in this Rite
and due solely to the accident of selection by the G. L. That the
Degrees were founded on other portions of the same store. That they
by Britons, and are as much a British Institution as the Grand Lodge
has given a vast amount of information regarding the use of symbols in
and in modern times by semi-civilized people and by Mohammedans in
written explanations of the symbols of particular interest to Masons
must of necessity
be somewhat veiled, the author has particularized enough to make his
to the reader who would be interested in it.
of the work hardly appears to express its theme, which is the symbolic
of basic truths by every people in all ages. Is this Freemasonry? If it
is, we can
indeed claim an origin that is lost in the dim past. If by Freemasonry
to the organization it assumes an entirely different aspect. Brother
Ward is a student
and thoroughly familiar with the best works of the "authentic school"
dealing with its physical development and has happily interwoven much
of this in
have a tendency to confuse and possibly misrepresent, but the following
with the hope that judgment be suspended until it is read in connection
chapter in which it appears:
not call a New Guinea native a Freemason because he uses a certain
What I contend is: That these signs were part of the original
initiatory rites of
the savages, and these rites were the basis from which developed the
the modern religious systems of the world."
will particularly elucidate much that the Masonic student would desire
Hutton Webster's "Primitive Secret Societies."
Silas H. Shepherd.
* * *
A New Contribution to the
Gaiety of Nations
For All Occasions," "Selected and Edited by one of America's Foremost
Public Speakers." [Lib 1922] Published by Edward J. Clode,
156 Fifth Ave.,
New York, N. Y. Price $1.00.
chaplains, toastmasters, public speakers, after dinner speakers, stump
et al, attention! Have you ever been in a box where you would have
given your right
hand for a telling anecdote, or a good roaring humorous story? Here is
that you need. It is a volume of more than 300 well stocked pages,
bound in substantial
cloth of Irish hue, and marketed at the modest price of one dollar. As
of genuine American humor it is, in the experience of the writer,
and far more useful than those five-foot shelves of "the world's
and all that, most of which works are filled up with stories of faded
aroma of which has long since vanished away. What is so dull as humor
that has lost
In the present
volume, the editor of which was too shy to admit his identity, there
are no duds.
Every joke is in A1 shape, primed and fused, and ready for business.
the jokes are arranged under headings alphabetically ordered, so that
one may quickly
turn to the sort of thing he needs, as for instance, Love, Lunacy,
Maidens, Manners, Marksmanship, Marriage, etc. The collection is
prefaced by an
essay (author unsigned) on humor in general and American humor in
same essay is as studded with wit as a pudding with raisins. Here is
one of the
"Anent the Irish bull, we may
quote an Irishman's
answer when asked to define a bull: 'If you see thirteen cows lying
down in a field,
and one of them is standing up, that's a bull!' "
of a bull is given in the case of a sad break by one Sir Boyle Roche
who, in addressing
the Irish House of Commons, asserted stoutly:
"Single misfortunes never come
the greatest of all possible misfortune is usually followed by a
two or three examples of the American variety of humor drawn from the
body of the
book which will suffice to exhibit the nature of the collection:
"It was shortly after
Thanksgiving Day that
someone asked the little boy to define the word "appetite." His reply
was prompt and enthusiastic: "When you're eating you're 'appy; and when
get through you're tight ‒ that's appetite."
complained to the sergeant that he'd got a splinter in his finger: "Ye
have more sinse," was the harsh comment, "than to scratch your head."
A small boy
was asked to describe the spinal column. His reply was most graphic.
a long limber bone. Our head sets on one end; we set on the other."
Here is a
joke that Mark Twain would have been proud to sign:
"The old farmer and his wife
menagerie. When they halted before the hippopotamus' cage, he remarked
"Darned curious fish, ain't it,
"That ain't a fish," the wife
"That's a rep-tile."
It was thus
that the argument began. It progressed to a point of such violence that
lady began laboring the husband with her umbrella. The old man dodged
and ran, the
wife in pursuit. The trainer had just opened the door of the lion's
cage, and the
farmer popped in. He crowded in behind the largest lion and peered over
fearfully at his wife, who, on the other side of the bars, shook her
"Coward!" she shouted. "Coward!"
H. L. Haywood.
* * *
Medieval Europe Once More
Middle Ages" by Dana Carleton Munro, [Lib 1902] Dodge Professor Medieval
Princeton University. Published by The Century Company, 1921, at $3.50.
Volume IV of The Century Historical Series of which George Lincoln
Burr, of Cornell
University, is general editor.
follows the familiar path through the Middle Ages. It begins with the
and the formation of the papacy, and continues to the era of expansion
time this continent was discovered, and Europe found a chance to
breathe. The chapters
are neatly divided, and each paragraph has its own signpost in the
shape of a little
subhead printed in the margin. There are the usual maps, a very
complete and detailed
index, and also a fairly exhaustive bibliography. Professor Munro, who
apologizes for this bibliography, refers his readers to Paetow's "Guide
the Study of Medieval History" [Lib 1917] which he describes as being
excellent that it seems a work of supererogation to attempt to make
History, unless it is mere trash, is good reading for a Mason, and this
is no exception
to the rule, for it is well worth any man's time and money. It is
doubtful if one
could find more information crowded into simpler language or less space
The chapters on The Papacy and the Monks, Feudalism, The Church to 954
A. D., The
Empire Under the Papacy, Crusades to 1187, Holy Roman Empire, The Later
Monasticism, Towns and Trade, Heresy and the Friars, and Innocent III
and the Church
(especially the last named), are of peculiar interest to Masonic
students and should
be carefully studied.
spot in every such history to a Mason is almost always the writer's
account of the
guilds. Professor Munro does not devote much space to the subject, but
what he has
to say is well said, as witness the following paragraph, which is taken
craft guilds superseded the gild merchant. These were associations of
in the same trade, and their primary object was to make rules for the
to keep a monopoly for the members. A craft guild usually made only one
instance, one guild made arrows, another bowstrings, and a third bows.
of industry was carried to very great lengths, so that in a single town
be more than a dozen separate guilds making leather or leather
products, or a guild
might specialize in a single kind of hat, as the peacock-hatters did.
We are fortunate
in having an account of one hundred of the craft guilds, or mysteries,
drawn up by an official of Louis IX. The head men in each made a
statement as to
their organization and rules. There are extant rules of individual
crafts in different
countries and for different dates, which prove that it is safe to
the statements of the mysteries (or guilds) in Paris. The master
workman had to
have a house of his own, to know his trade, and to be of good moral
some guilds he was allowed to have only one apprentice, but might take
when the first had nearly completed his apprenticeship. This was
years. The apprentice was to be treated as a son, and could appeal to
of the craft in case of brutality. His duties were to open and close
the shop, run
errands and learn the trade. He was not to be made to wash dishes or
tend a baby;
the master's wife was not allowed to beat him. At the end of his term
he might become
a master if he had money enough and could prove his ability as a
workman. All work
was to be done by daylight except in the case of guilds that made
luxuries for the
nobles; these were not restricted as to hours of work. Each craft guild
patron saint and attended church in a body. Craft guilds acted as
mutual aid societies
for burials, for the care of widows, orphans, sick and poor. They also
They had to furnish men for the city watch. Their special duty was to
quality of the product, but they seldom succeeded in doing this for any
of time; for, in spite of stringent rules, there were many frauds.
the mysteries (or guilds) gave a play. Such a mystery play at York
a series of scenes beginning with a representation of the creation of
and ending with the Judgment Day. The various crafts each had a part;
the fishmongers and mariners represented Noah in the ark, with his
family and animals;
the vintners represented the marriage of Cana, where the water was
turned into wine."
exhibits what is at once the weakness and the strength of every brief
a great deal of matter is condensed into a page or two, that is the
in order to make such a condensation, all manner of exceptions,
variations are ignored; that is the weakness. The story of the guilds
so simple as Professor Munro here makes it out to be, albeit he makes
in his account.
For the non-professional
student who needs a ready reference manual on a large field of history,
is most admirably adapted. The more thorough student will find it
necessary to turn
to the specialists and read on one portion of Medievalism at a time. If
a Medieval History that is at once thorough and complete it is probable
Cambridge Medieval History is the best.
H. L. Haywood.
* * *
Publications Wanted, for
Sale, and Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to where
obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than those listed
on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the publications
wanted have been
out of print for years. Believing that many such books might be in the
other members of the Society willing to dispose of them we are setting
column each month for the use of our members. Communications from those
Masonic publications will also be welcomed.
addresses are here given that those interested may communicate direct
other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the Society.
It is requested
that all brethern whose wants may be filled through this medium
the Secretary so that the notices may then be discontinued.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake,
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship
of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson,
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine,
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California;
Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and
7, with St. John's Cards, also St. John's Cards for volumes 4 and 5;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
of Masonry," early volumes;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction
for the years 1882 and 1886;
Original Proceedings of The General Grand
Encampment Knights Templar for the years 1826 and 1835.
By Bro. E.
A. Marsh, 820 Broad Ave., N. W. Canton, Ohio:
Traditions of Freemasonry,"
by A.T.C. Pierson, published at St. Paul Minn., 1865.
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library
of Samuel Lawrence,"
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations
By Bro. H.
H. Klussmann, 310 Monastery St., West Hoboken, N. J.:
"Traditions of Freemasonry,"
by A. T. C. Pierson;
"Illustrations of Masonry," by
N. W. J. Haydon, 564 Pape Ave., Toronto, Ont., Canada:
‒ A set
of Gould's History, six volume edition
For Sale or Exchange
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin:
Leaves from a Freemason's Note
Book," by George Oliver. This volume also contains
Account of the Schism showing
the presumed origin of the Royal Arch Degree." Univ. Mas. Lib. edition.
"Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry,"
by Robert Morris. (Fiction and anecdotes.) Price $3.50.
By Bro F.
R. Johnson, 3425 East 61st St., Kansas City, Mo.:
History of Freemasonry,"
by Robert Freke Gould, published by the John C. Yorkston Co., silk
first-class condition, four volumes, $17.00;
"History of Freemasonry," by
J. W. S. Mitchell, P. G. M. of Missouri 1844-45, full morocco binding,
History of Freemasonry,"
by Albert G. Mackey, seven volumes, practically new, $30.00;
Standard History of Freemasonry,"
by J. Fletcher Brennan, published in 1885, one volume;
from the Quarry," by John
H. Brownell, Editor of the American Tyler, 1893, $6.00;
"Antiquities of the Orient Unveiled,"
by M. Walcott Redding, 1877, $5.00;
"History and Cyclopaedia," by
Oliver and Macoy, full morocco binding, $10.00.
If you would
not be forgotten as soon as you are dead, either write things worth
reading or do
things worth writing.
‒ Benjamin Franklin.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his or name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
The Broken Column
Is it true
as I have recently heard it said, that the symbol of the Virgin
Weeping Over the Broken Column is of American origin?
T. H. F., Florida.
answer to your reply will be found in an article on "The Broken
written by Brother C.C. Hunt, and published in the Quarterly Bulletin
of the Grand
Lodge of Iowa, July 1921. We print the entire article:
This emblem has usually been
considered as an
invention of Brother Jeremy L. Cross and doubtless he is largely
its present form in our work. Brother Robert B. Folger in the Masonic
of May 10, 1879, giving Cross's account of its introduction into the
"The causes which led him first
the plan of such a work were as follows: He was passionately fond of
under Thomas Smith Webb, Gleason, and others, became perfect under them
in the lectures
and work, and then started through the country as a lecturer in the
year 1810. He
was a man of excellent appearance in early life, very fluent in
language, and, withal,
a very fine singer. As a matter of course, he became very popular, the
of lecturing flowed in upon him very fast, and he had as much to engage
in that line as he could well attend to. Wishing to take advantage of
all the business
that offered, he found the work slow of accomplishment by reason of
by imperfect memories. He wanted something of an objective kind, which
the effect of bringing to mind the various subjects of his lectures,
and so fixing
the details in the mind, as with the sets of objects presented to the
lectures in detail would be complete.
"There was not at that time any
lodges except the so-called Master's Carpet and the works of Preston
and Webb. The
Master's Carpet was deficient, being without many of the most important
and those which it displayed were very much 'mixed up.' The work of
not agree with the 'adopted work.' That of Webb agreed perfectly, but
wanting in its most important part, viz., the hieroglyphics, by which
the work is
plainly and uniformly presented to the learner, rendering it easy of
and imprinting it upon the mind in such a manner that it will not
readily be forgotten.
"He considered the matter for
and finally attempted to draw various plans, taking Webb's Monitor for
Part of the work he accomplished satisfactorily to himself. This
included the first
and second degrees, and although there was but little really original
in the emblems
which he produced, yet the classification and arrangement was his own.
He went on
with the third degree very well, as far as the Monitor of Webb goes,
when he came
to a pause.
"There was a deficiency in the
which had to be filled in order to effect his purposes, and he became
thinking over the subject. He finally consulted a brother, formerly a
Mayor of New
Haven, who at the time was one of his most intimate friends, and they,
together for a week or more, could not hit upon any symbol which would
simple and yet answer the purpose. Whereupon the copper-plate engraver,
also a brother,
who was doing his work, was called in. They went at the business with
and the number of hieroglyphics which had by this time accumulated was
Some were too large, some too small, some too complicated, requiring
too much explanation,
and many not at all adapted to the subject. 'Finally,' said the
'Brother Cross, when great men die, they generally have a monument.'
said Cross; 'I never thought of that,' and away he went.
"He was missing from the
company, and was
found loitering around the burying-ground in New Haven in a maze. He
all that was there, but did not seem satisfied. At last he got an idea,
the council came together again, and he then told them that he had got
of what he wanted ‒ that while sojourning in New York City he had seen
erected over Commodore Lawrence in the southwest corner of Trinity
that it was a glorious monument to the memory of a great man who fell
It was a large marble pillar, broken off. The part broken off was taken
they had left the capital lying at the base. He would have that pillar
for the foundation
of his new emblem, but would bring the other part of the pillar in,
leaving it resting
against the base. Then one could know what it all meant. The other part
of the pillar
should be there. This was assented to, but more was wanted. They needed
describing the merits of the dead. They found no place on the column,
a lengthy discussion they hit upon an open book, placed upon the broken
But there should, in the order of things, be some reader of the book,
so they selected
the emblem of innocence in a beautiful virgin, who should weep over the
the deceased while she read of his heroic deeds.
"It would be proper to state
that the monument
erected to the memory of Commodore Lawrence was put up in the southwest
Trinity Churchyard, in the year 1813, after the fight between the
and Shannon, in which battle Lawrence fell. It was a beautiful marble
off, and a part of the capital laid at its base. The monument remained
1844-45, at which time Trinity Church had been taken down and rebuilt
as it now
stands. When finished, all the debris was cleaned away the burial
and fancifully decorated, and the corporation of the church took away
the old and
dilapidated monument of Lawrence from that spot and erected a new one
of a different
form, placing it in the front of the yard on Broadway, at the lower
the church, where it now stands. Brother Cross and myself visited the
together, and he expressed great disappointment at the change, saying
'it was not
half as good as the one, they had taken away!'"
of Cross to having originated the emblem is, however, disputed. Oliver
the monument but does not assign to it an American origin and the idea
very old. In the Barney ritual of 1817, formerly in the possession of
of Vermont, which was the work adopted by the Grand Lodge of Iowa in
is the marble column, the beautiful virgin weeping, the open book, the
Acacia, the urn, and Time standing behind. The only part lacking is the
and the words referring to this were added later. Samuel Wilson says:
to 1826, but the date or circumstances of their getting in I cannot
Thus it would seem that everything in the present emblem except the
the Broken Column was in use prior to the publication of Cross's Work
and in fact
the emblem in somewhat different form is frequently found in ancient
Jews the column symbolized the princes, rulers or nobles, and a broken
that a pillar of the state had fallen.
mythology Isis is sometimes pictured weeping the broken column which
body of her husband while behind her stands Horus or Time pouring
ambrosia on her
"Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics," [Lib 1908; Vol 7 pp 336] Isis is said to be sometimes
represented standing. In her right hand is
sistrum, in her left a small ewer and on her forehead is a lotus,
emblem of the
Dionysiac Mysteries Dionysius is represented as slain, Rhea goes in
search of the
body. She finds it and causes it to be buried in due form. She is
as standing by a column holding in her hand a sprig of wheat, emblem
since though it be placed in the ground and die it springs again into
life. She was the wife of Kronos or Time, who may fittingly be
represented as standing
therefore, it may be true that Cross gave to the emblem its present
form it cannot
be said that he gave expression to an entirely new idea. The greater
part of it
is an adaption rather than an invention.
* * *
I write to
ask you to explain the meaning of the word "hecatomb." I asked our
what it means and he told me it had something to do with geometry, but
seem to fit in with the context.
W. H. R., Virginia.
not fit in with the context at all, or with anything else. "Hecatomb"
originally referred to the sacrifice of a hundred oxen, but after long
to denote any large sacrifice. It is said that after Pythagoras had
Forty-Seventh Proposition he sacrificed a hecatomb to give expression
to his joy.
Inasmuch as Pythagoras was a philosopher who practiced vegetarianism,
that it is wicked to slay living creatures, it is hardly possible that
this is history.
* * *
I am interested
to learn if churches have gained or lost in membership during the past
Have the Roman Catholics gained faster than the Protestants?
D. S. A., Illinois.
find the matter carefully worked out by Gustavus Myers in Current
History for October
last, on page 934 and following. He bases all his statements on the
census, which was taken in 1916.
to 1916 Protestant churches gained 4,735,990, or 23.4 per cent. During
period the Roman Catholic church gained 1,511,060, or 10.6 per cent. In
of the forty-eight states the Catholic church lost membership during
in eighteen other states it increased in membership, but its rate of
less than during the period of 1896-1906. Even in those states where
is heaviest the lineman Catholics did not grow as rapidly as the
states in which the Roman Catholics made an absolute gain are Arizona,
New Jersey, Maine, and Ohio. Of the total Roman Catholic membership
per cent are children. It is estimated that 74.4 are under thirteen
years of age.
Moreover it should be remembered that in that church membership is
based on the
population of a parish, and all members of the family are included
whether they have formally expressed a desire for membership or not. Of
members in the United States 37.5 are Roman Catholic: Roman Catholics
of the total population, which means about one person in six or seven.
churches have 59.7 per cent of the membership of all churches; or about
cent of the total population. The Mormon Church gained in every one of
states where it flourishes except in Wisconsin, its gain amounting to
in ten years. Their total membership is 205,682. The Jewish churches
There are 313,626 Eastern Catholics in the land, and 45,959 belonging
other than Christianity.
* * *
Morris a Freemason?
not, but he should have been, for, with his education as an architect,
his great love for the Middle Ages, not to speak of his passion for
and for equality, he would have greatly enjoyed Masonic fellowship. As
it was he
wrote many great and beautiful things about the builders and their
craft, and did
much to recall his generation to a renewed appreciation of the
were in danger of becoming lost arts through the introduction of
machinery. It was
he who wrote,
"Brotherhood is heaven,
The lack of brotherhood is hell,"
a saying which might well be inscribed above
the lintels of the Masonic temple. One of these
days we shall publish a very interesting article about this brother who
was an uninitiated
Mason; meanwhile you may be recommended to read the authorized life by
and also the little brochure by the English poet who has turned
Noyes. The latter work is to be found in the "English Men of Letters"
series, and is richly worthwhile.
* * *
On Enforcing the Law
days when our Constitutional Government ‒ that same government for
which our Masonic
fathers fought and toiled ‒ is being attacked by so many groups of law
wouldn't it be a good thing for Masonic lodges to carry on a quiet
G. H., Kansas.
such worthwhile purpose were made a Masonic duty where would the end
be? The "causes"
in behalf of which the Fraternity is constantly solicited are
has to be an end somewhere. However, it may well be that some
may be situated in a community in which it could do much good by
insisting on law
enforcement, ‒ if it carries on such a campaign in a strictly Masonic
to law enforcement itself, and the philosophy that lies behind it, one
improve on the words of our Attorney-General, Brother H. M. Daugherty,
in a speech
made before the Ohio Bar Association:
"As early as 1780 the
of Rights declared for the separation of powers, and assigned as a
therefor ‒ 'to the end that this may be a government of laws and not of
of the fallacies of our present-day thinking is that questions of the
of the law and law enforcement must be made an issue in political
is always vital to know the views of the executive in State or Nation
of proposed legislative policy; for the chief executive in the Nation
and in the
States in which he exercises the veto power and in which he is required
the legislative department information on the state of public affairs
and to recommend
to them measures of legislation, is a part of the legislative power,
and in the
course of our development such executive has become not only an organ
opinion but also the political leader of his party. Hence, the electors
to know the position of the executive on matters of legislative policy.
But it can
never be proper in a government of law and not of men to demand a
his attitude towards the enforcement of law. Practical politics
this demand, but to the extent that such practical politics is
effective it is contrary
to the spirit and purpose of our government. Our Fathers who framed our
would have spurned any such political philosophy.
"If any citizen dislikes the
law under which
he is living, his relief is through the legislative department of
not through those who, under the Constitution, have the sworn duty of
the law. As a citizen cannot choose what laws he will obey, so,
charged with law enforcement cannot choose what laws they will enforce.
sound position for those who favor respect for law to take is that
with law enforcement must enforce all the laws, and all good citizens
all the laws; neither can exercise any right of choice in this matter
themselves above the law. It is the part of faithful officials to
enforce and the
part of good citizens to obey them.
"Another subject closely
related to the
topic just discussed that tends to undermine respect for law and which
a mooted question in every system of constitutional government, is the
theories of the relation and attitude of the minority to the majority.
we hear much about the rights of the minority, as if it had a special
of not obeying the law because it is made by the majority.
"Our constitutional Fathers
the political philosophy underlying the relation of government to
to minor groups of individuals. There was nothing in the doctrine of
in relation to majorities that was not before them for consideration.
to the world its first solution of that problem in an instrument which
the rights of minorities, as far as they ought to be protected, and, at
time, left the majority free to carry out the sovereign will.
"The theory of our
as framed by our Fathers, as is well known to all, is, that there is a
rights, privileges, and immunities set off as a separate domain into
which the powers
of government cannot enter. They also provided the first agency in the
for protecting this excluded domain from trespass by government by
a judicial system with power to say to the various agencies of the
far thou shalt go and no farther.' The Fathers did not claim
infallibility for the
rule of the majority. They provided against hasty or inconsiderate
action by a system
of checks and balances by the doctrine of the separation of powers, and
the two branches of the Legislature as well as the Executive, agencies
in law making.
This system insured careful consideration and the opportunity for the
of the Nation and States to express itself."
Lodge of Masonic Research wishes to compile a mailing list of other
Lodges of Research,
Masonic Study Clubs, and similar bodies in the Craft, with whom it can
literary matter, and in any other way, further the welfare of the Order
mutual interests. Secretaries of such bodies are requested to send
to the undersigned, Secretary of the Toronto Lodge of Masonic Research.
‒ N. W. J. Haydon, 564 Pape Ave.,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
* * *
The Roman Catholic Articles
I wish to
express my agreement with Brother Bingay in regard to the publication
detrimental to the Roman Catholic Church.
Masonic teaching on this subject is contained in the ritual, and is so
no brother who knows the ritual can fail to be forcibly impressed by
it. It is the
first and fundamental lesson of Masonry that we should not carry into
anything offensive or defensive, and its last lesson is to the effect
that we should
practice out of the lodge the great moral duties inculcated in it. How
indisputable Masonic teaching compare with the statement that "there
was a time when it was more essential for Masons for such defense than
As long as we find nothing offensive within the lodge we have no need
to look around
for weapons with which to defend ourselves.
written by Masons who are vehemently opposed to the Roman Church have
characteristic, and that is, not hatred, but fear. They are afraid that
of that great and powerful organization will hurt Masonry, and their
love for the
Order prompts them to defend it with every weapon they can find. But,
Masonry needs no such defense. It is too strong, too sublime, too
glorious an institution
to be disturbed by the hostile attitude of the Roman Catholic Church. A
will give no more attention to the past and present condemnations of
the Holy Father
than a lion does to the barking of a dog. This is a proud statement,
but more worthy,
I believe, of a certain title, than a humble, direct or indirect
of our fear.
still another side to the question. A brother with fear and envy in his
close himself up against anything good and pleasant and beautiful that
be contained in that old institution. To appreciate art we must love
it, and we
can love it only if we place it in the right perspective and in the
The writer of these lines had the privilege of attending mass in many
cathedrals in Europe, among them the Church of St. Peter in Rome. He
found God there,
and he enjoyed the beauty of the architecture, of the music, and of the
He also attended worship in the beautiful Mother Church of Christian
in Boston, Mass., and he found God there also. But he could never have
services as he did, if he had been afraid of Roman Catholics or of
Surely, there are so many good and useful and beautiful things in this
there should be no time left to give our attention to anything else.
A story is
told of a brother who came to live in a little town, mostly Roman
was badly in need of a new and larger church. The Mason, who was well
to do, formed
a committee and went to work to build that church. After its completion
Catholic priest came to him and thanked him for what he had done, at
the same time
expressing his astonishment that he being a Mason, should show such
respect to the
said the brother, "you worship God in your way and I in His."
So let us
Joseph Hollrigl, New Hampshire.
of THE BUILDER regarding the publication of articles concerning the
anti-Masonic policies of the Roman Catholic Hierarchy is stated in the
Department of this issue. ‒ Editor.)
* * *
Christian Science and Freemasonry
on Christian Science and Freemasonry which appeared in the August,
1921, issue of
THE BUILDER is of more than passing interest.
Writings," [Lib 1906] p. 142, and in "The First
Church of Christ
Scientist and Miscellany," [Lib 1915] both publications by Mary
Eddy, may be found two beautiful letters written by the discoverer and
Article XXXV, Section 2, in the first revised edition of the "Church
which contains all the rules and by-laws of the Mother Church, also
written by Mary
Baker Eddy, specifies the "seventy-third edition as authority." In
VIII, Section 15, of the 73rd edition we read: "Members of this Church
not become members of organizations which exclude either sex ‒ except
they are Freemasons."
It was the
privilege of the writer to be on a Masonic committee appointed to
or not there was anything in the Masonic doctrines that would conflict
of Christian Science, and vice versa. It was the unanimous decision of
that there was none.
information may be of interest to many brethren who seem to be
perplexed over this
Wm. A. Theobald, Illinois.
* * *
to the inquiry of Brother C.O.B., Oregon, in the Question Box
Department of the
December, 1921, number of THE BUILDER, I will say that if the inquirer
and the brother
who wrote the reply to his question should visit Burlington County, New
we Jersey Masons could introduce them to quite a number of brother
Masons who are
members of the "Society of Friends," i.e. Quakers.
In my own
lodge there are two such brethren, one of them a Past Master, and both
in the Fraternity. We have two more members who claim the right to call
"Friends," being what are called "birthright" members of that
sect. A glance at a list of officers and Past Masters of nearby lodges
names of eight or ten more, one of these being the Master of his lodge.
It was always
my impression that Benjamin Franklin was a Quaker, but on looking up
I have not been able to find any corroborative evidence. On the
contrary, one Encyclopedia
says he was buried in Christ Church burying ground. This may be true,
Church is on Second Street, while Franklin's grave is near the corner
and Arch Streets, Philadelphia. The plot of ground may have belonged to
but if so that church must have sold it, graves and all, since at the
it is occupied by a Friends' Meeting House, and a very old one. Perhaps
our Philadelphia brethren can give us the history of the particular
piece of ground
in which Franklin is buried.
V. M. Irick, New Jersey.
* * *
On page 351
of the December issue of THE BUILDER Brother Dern says: "Masonry laid
the first eight-hour law," etc. Perhaps this statement is correct, but
division of the twenty-four hours into three equal parts is certainly a
It was used as far back as 1830, though the Oliver-Macoy "Cyclopedia,"
edition of 1869 [Lib 1870], on page 691, says, ". . .
which we are
taught to divide into three parts, whereby we find a portion for the
God," etc. No mention is made of equal parts, or eight hours. It might
of interest to learn just when this division of time into three equal
parts of eight
hours each first appears in our ritual. It is not universal, for
adheres to the old form. I should be glad to learn if there are other
in which the eight-hour law has not been adopted.
V. M. Irick, New Jersey.
* * *
Scripture References on
the Emblems of the Third Degree
I read with
great pleasure the article in the December number of THE BUILDER on the
emblems of the Third degree by Brother Dern.
some Bible references which I have selected to go with some of these
The Pot of Incense
is an emblem of a pure heart,
which is always
an acceptable sacrifice to Deity. "Blessed are the pure in heart, for
shall see God." Matthew V, 8.
The Bee Hive
is an emblem of industry. "Let
working with his hands the thing which is good." Ephesians IV, 28. "I
must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day; the night
no man can work." John IX, 4.
The Book of Constitutions
Guarded by the Tyler's
reminds us that we should be
ever watchful and
guarded in our thoughts, words and actions. "Take the helmet of
and of the Spirit which is the word of God." Ephesians VI, 17. "Ye may
put to silence the ignorance of foolish men." I Peter II, 15.
The Sword Pointing to a Naked
"Yea a sword shall pierce
soul." Luke II, 36.
The All-Seeing Eye
"Behold the eye of the Lord is
that fear him." Psalms XXX, 18. "His eyes behold, his eyelids try the
children of men." Psalms XI, 4.
The Anchor and the Ark
are emblems of a well-grounded
hope and a well-spent
life. "Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and
and which entereth into that within the veil." Hebrews VI, 19.
The Forty-Seventh Problem of
teaches Masons to be general
lovers of the arts
and sciences. "I gave my heart to seek and search out by wisdom
all things that are done under heaven." Ecclesiastes I, 13. "He that
wisdom loveth his oven soul; he that keepeth understanding shall find
Proverbs XIX, 8.
is an emblem of human life.
"Verily, I say
unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the
the Son of God; and they that hear shall live." St. John V, 25.
is an emblem of time, which
cuts the brittle
thread of life. "He cometh forth as a flower and is cut down; he fleeth
as a shadow and continueth not." Job XIV, 2. "I said in the cutting off
of my days, I shall go to the gates of the grave; I am deprived of the
my years." Isaiah XXXVIII, 10.
O. B. Slane, Illinois.
* * *
"The American's Creed"
In the December
number of THE BUILDER I notice a request by Brother A. R. O., Georgia,
for a copy
of "The American Creed." This you have printed in full.
what the brother wants is the book entitled "The American's Creed,"
with the symbolism of the creed. This is an impersonal little book,
with no author's
name attached and with no particular publisher advertised thereby. It
its authors, a Sons of the American Revolution production. Copies of
the book may
be secured through Matthew Page Andrews, Chairman, Creed Committee, 849
Charles H. Bronson, Minnesota.
* * *
"Freemasonry in the
As a native
of the Isle of Jersey I was keenly interested in an article on
in the Channel Islands" which appeared in The Freemason, of London, for
20th, 1921. Inasmuch as there are doubtless many other brethren in
who hail from the Islands, or who have relatives there, it has seemed a
to me to reprint the excellent article. I send it to you. If you will
run it in
the columns of THE BUILDER I shall appreciate it much, as will, I am
sure, all others
who, like myself, may have a personal interest in the subject.
A. J. Sloane, New York City.
Freemasonry in the Channel
is intertwined with the romantic and practical record of every land.
is this true in regard to the Channel Islands, those quaint little
arising from the sea just off the coast of France and which command the
Channel, almost directly opposite Plymouth. These islands are hoary
The towns have changed but little in either appearance or custom since
of William the Conqueror, for the islands were part of the Duchy of
although they have been British Possessions for the last thousand years
language, laws, and customs still exist.
islands have, therefore, become a great attraction for archaeologists,
and philologists. Recent excavations have demonstrated the existence of
man on the island of Jersey at least twenty thousand years ago. There
old caves, some of them natural and many artificial, which fairly reek
of forgotten ages; there are underground chambers and passage-ways,
hewn from the
living rock that go back to an almost unbelievable point in the youth
of the human
race; there are towers and castles and houses on the various islands
that are still
in excellent state of preservation, and in many cases still in use,
that date back
with records to the year 875.
In this atmosphere
of antiquity the Masonic student naturally becomes curious to learn
what part Freemasonry
may have played in these odd islands in the ages past and gone. And his
is further aroused by the fact that there are eight Masonic lodges in
Jersey, and one of them is on the roll of the "Atholl" or Antient Grand
Lodge of England. This lodge, known as "Doyle's Lodge of Fellowship,
was chartered by the Grand Lodge of England in 1806, and has played an
part in the life of the Channel Islands.
In this connection
I stumbled on a bit of unwritten Masonic history dating back nearly a
a half while on a recent visit to the ancient city of York, England,
where I visited
the York Lodge, No. 236, which is one of the oldest in England. The
the lodge showed me a letter written by a Freemason who was confined in
of Mont Orgueil, on the Isle of Jersey. This brother was an English
his regiment was stationed on the island. He complained that he had
imprisoned by his commanding officer and implored the Worshipful Master
of the York
Lodge to take steps to procure his release. This brother, however, was
release to assist in repelling an invasion of the French, who, under
the Baron de
Ruttecourt, sought with a small force to capture these important
islands. This attack
occurred in the beginning of January, 1781, and is a bit of history
and would be of but little interest to the average reader were it not
for the fact
that the principal actors in this drama were Freemasons.
undertook the expedition as a venture of his own, with the connivance
and, no doubt,
the secret assistance of the French Government. In case of success he
was to be
rewarded with the governorship of the island. The expedition was well
some twelve hundred volunteers, of different corps, embarked from
France on 24th
December, 1780, but were compelled to take refuge at Chansey on account
weather. On the evening of 5th January, 1781, they embarked again, and
a landing at Platte Rocque, the south-eastern corner of the island,
near where Seymour
Tower has since been built. They marched to St. Helier, reaching the
in the morning of the 6th; surprised the guards and, either through
or treachery, penetrated to Royal Square ‒ occupied different positions
in the town,
seized the lieutenant-governor, Major Moses Corbet, in his bed; and,
him prisoner, compelled him to send an order to the royal troops,
to remain within their barracks.
the invaders marched against Elizabeth Castle, carrying the unforturate
with them to enforce their demands. But they had reckoned without their
regiments of the line and the militia were rapidly assembling. Captains
and Mulcaster determined to hold the castle; and Major Francis Pierson,
Mason, a gallant young officer ‒ he was not twenty-five years of age ‒
these difficult circumstances," says Durell, "the young and gallant
acted with all the decision of a British officer, who sees no obstacles
cannot surmount, and who never thinks of danger when it would impede
him in the
performance of his duty." The circumstances were difficult enough; for
enemy occupied the town, and could sweep the narrow streets with their
Pierson marched his troops down into St. Helier. The French fought
were everywhere repulsed. The gallant Pierson, however, fell, shot
through the breast
early in the action. De Ruttecourt himself was mortally wounded. He,
too, was a
leader had fallen, a panic seized the French troops. They gave way at
and many rushed in the houses for shelter. More than four hundred were
twenty-six were killed, and eighty wounded in the action two hundred
had been drowned
in the landing and another hundred were lost or missing in the endeavor
Never did a desperate enterprise end in more complete failure.
was buried with military honors in St. Heliers churchyard, while his
found a resting-place in the church itself. His grave is still visited
tourists, and on the tombstone is carved the square and compasses, the
guided his life.
many other Masonic legends, but these, however, are not well enough
to warrant repetition. It is said ‒ how true I do not know ‒ that at
one time Napoleon
himself was a secret visitor to the islands and that other noted French
met with certain famous English statesmen in the early days in an
endeavor to avert
the conflicts that afterwards plunged Europe into blood and ruin and
resulted in the Little Corporal's downfall, and that these conferences
under the seal and safeguard of the Masonic Lodge that then existed at
Edwin A. Turner.
* * *
Another Oldest Secretary
In the October
issue of THE BUILDER is a letter concerning the oldest lodge secretary.
not state how long this brother has served as secretary.
I would like
to say a word for the secretary of Vincennes Lodge No. 1, of Vincennes,
Brother Arelius M. Willoughby was born November 14, 1842; made a Master
1870 and elected secretary in 1876. He has served continuously since
excepting for one year while he occupied the Master's chair.
Earl H. Buck, Indiana.
* * *
Dawning -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Charles Comstock, Tenn.
These verses were suggested
by and are in a sense a reply to the poem by B.L.T. which was published
in THE BUILDER,
October, 1921, page 295.
"I lay me down to sleep,"
When the toils of Earth are done?
When Night's shadows round me creep,
Stars unveiling, one by one?
Am I at the journey's end,
When I reach Life's human goal?
When no more within me blend,
Form of flesh and formless soul?
True, from care and strife we rest,
When the storms of Earth are past, ‒
When within Time's golden west,
Sunset gleams are gone at last.
Wakes the deathless spirit then,
To the glory dawn of life, ‒
To the joys no mortals ken,
Joys with never taint of strife.
For the spirit ne'er was born, ‒
Never shall it cease to be: ‒
Death is but eternal morn, ‒
From Earth's imperfections, free.
Opes the soul to nobler themes, ‒
Pleasures, rare, that ne'er shall cease: ‒
Knowing then what now are dreams, ‒
Perfect wisdom. love and peace.
One of the
illusions is, that the present hour is not the critical, decisive hour.
on your heart that every day is the best day in the year.
R. W. Emerson.
them that helps themselves
‒ Benjamin Franklin.
American Wit and Humour
Ano22 / auth. Anonymous. - New York : Edward J Clode, 1922. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 366. - 5.3 MB.
Mor77 / auth. Morgan Lewis H. - Chicago : Charles H Kerr &
Company, 1877. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 578. - 26.9 MB.
Yar09 / auth. Yarker John. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
382. - 1.8 MB.
Art in Sardinia and Judea Vol 1
Per90SJ1 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles / trans. Gonino I.
- London : Chapman and Hall Limited, 1890. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 373. -
Illustrated - 17.9 MB.
Art in Sardinia and Judea Vol 2
Per90SJ2 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles / trans. Gonino I.
- London : Chapman and Hall Limited, 1890. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 282. -
Illustrated - 21.5 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 00
- Origin of the Work
Act07MH00 / auth. Acton Baron John E E. - Cambridge : Cambridge
University Press, 1907. - Vol. 0 : 14 : p. 120. - 10.7 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 01
- The Renaissance
Act07MH01 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1907.
- Vol. 1 : 14 : p. 847. - 44.2 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 02
- The Reformation
Act03MH02 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1903.
- Vol. 02 : 14 : p. 886. - 49.1 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 03
- The Wars of Religion
Act04MH03 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1904.
- Vol. 03 : 14 : p. 945. - 33.1 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 04
- The Thirty Years War
Act06MH04 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1906.
- Vol. 4 : 14 : p. 1036. - 29.7 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 05
- The Age of Louis XIV
Act08MH05 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1908.
- Vol. 5 : 14 : p. 1001. - 60.7 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 06
- The Eighteenth Century
Act09MH06 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1909.
- Vol. 6 : 14 : p. 1012. - 94.1 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 07
- The United States
Act03MH07 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1903.
- Vol. 7 : 14 : p. 885. - 26.8 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 08
- The French Revolution
Act04MH08 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1904.
- Vol. 8 : 14 : p. 905. - 46.7 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 09
Act06MH09 / auth. Acton
Baron John E E / ed. Ward
Ed A. W., Pothero G. E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge
University Press, 1906. - Vol. 9 : 14 : p. 976. - 54.2 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 10
- The Restoration
Act07MH10 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1907.
- Vol. 10 : 14 : p. 968. - 31.8 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 11
- Growth of Nationalities
Act09MH11 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1909.
- Vol. 11 : 14 : p. 1086. - 34.6 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 12
- The Latest Age
Act10MH12 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1910.
- Vol. 12 : 14 : p. 1069. - 32.5 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 13
- Genealogical Tables and General Index
Act11MH13 / auth. Acton Baron John E E / ed. Ward Ed A. W., Pothero G.
E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1911.
- Vol. 13 : 14 : p. 654. - 50.9 MB.
Cambridge Modern History Vol 14
Act12MH14 / auth. Acton
Baron John E E / ed. Ward
Ed E. A., Pothero G. E. and Leathes Stanley. - Cambridge : Cambridge
University Press, 1912. - Vol. 14 : 14 : p. 562. - 51.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
General History, Cyclopedia
& Dictionary of Freemasonry
Mac701 / auth. Macoy Robert. - New York : Masonic Publishing Co., 1870.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 683. - 24.8 MB.
Guide to Meadieval Study
Pae17 / auth. Paetow Louis J. - Berkley : University of California
Press, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 575. - 28.7 MB.
History of the Jews Vol 1
Mil66HJ1 / auth. Milman Henry H. - London : John Murray, 1866. - Vol. 1
: 3 : p. 512. - 18.5 MB.
History of the Jews Vol 2
Mil83HJ2 / auth. Milman Henry H. - London : John Murray, 1883. - Vol. 2
: 3 : p. 531. - 26.8 MB.
History of the Jews Vol 3
Mil83HJ3 / auth. Milman Henry H. - London : John Murray, 1883. - Vol. 3
: 3 : p. 521. - 26.7 MB.
History of the Middle Ages
Mun02 / auth. Munro Dana C. - New York : D Appleton and Company, 1902.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 269. - Illustrated - 8.5 MB.
Manual of the Mother Church -
The First Church of Christ Scientist in Boston Mass.
Edd17 / auth. Eddy Mary B. - Boston : Allison V. Stewart, 1917. - 89th
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 251. - 7.7 MB.
Miscellaneous Writings 1883-1896
Edd06 / auth. Eddy Mary B. - Boston : Joseph Armstrong, 1906. - 64th
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 488. - 12.7 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Primitive Secret Societies
Web08 / auth. Webster Hutton. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1908.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 241. - 7.0 MB.
Low20 / auth. Lowie Herbert H. - New York : Horace Liveright, 1920. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 472. - 10.4 MB.
The First Church of Christ
Scientist and Miscellany
Edd15 / auth. Eddy Mary B. - Boston : Allison V. Stewart, 1915. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 386. - 7.5 MB.
The Herkimers and Schuylers
Cow03 / auth. Cowen Phoebe S. - Albany : Joel Munsell's Sons, 1903. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 167. - 4.0 MB.
The Migration of Symbols
dAl94 / auth. d'Alviella Goblet. - Westminster : Archibald Constable
and Co., 1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 315. - 8.8 MB.
The Riddle of the Universe
Hae34 / auth. Haeckel Ernst. - London : Watts & Co, 1934. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 333. - 16.5 MB.
What is Freemasonry
Spe93 / auth. Speth George W. - London : George Kenning, 1893. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 16. - 0.3 MB.