Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.
District of Columbia
General Hugh Mercer
General Officer of the Revolutionary Army was a member of
Fredericksburg Lodge No.
4, in Virginia ‒ the lodge in which George Washington was made a Mason.
Mercer was a close personal friend of Washington, and the idol of the
Fredericksburg. Not only was he held in high esteem by the
but they also raised a monument to him. In Philadelphia, where he died,
Andrew's Society (Scotch), with 3000 others, followed his remains to
and erected a monument to his memory in Laurel Hill Cemetery.
was born in Aberdeen, Scotland; received his education in the Aberdeen
and graduated a Doctor of Medicine. It is remarkable how many medical
men were General
Officers in our Revolutionary War. Mercer was an Assistant Surgeon in
the Army of
Prince Charles Edward, and was in the battle of Colloden in 1745. His
in that rebellion, it is thought, was the reason for his migrating to
of Virginia, in 1747. He made his first home at Mercersburg,
he practiced medicine.
French and Indian War was well understood by Mercer ‒ it was a war
between the Protestant
Colonists and the French Romish Colonists, and it did not take Mercer
long to see
that his future religious liberty was at stake.
Mercer became a Captain in the Company of Colonel George Washington. In
of General Braddock, and at his terrible defeat at the battle of
9th, 1765, Mercer was severely wounded and left on the field for dead.
But he revived
in a few hours and made his way to a stream of water and thence to a
was weak from loss of blood, and hungry, and managed to kill a
he skinned and on which he subsisted until he had gained a little
strength and finally
was enabled to reach Fort Cumberland.
of Philadelphia afterwards gave him a gold medal in appreciation of his
during that that campaign.
Provincial forces were reorganized in 1758 Mercer was promoted to a
and accompanied the Army of General Forbes to Fort Duquesne (Pittsburg)
commanded the Post until relieved. He then fixed his residence at
Virginia, and resumed the practice a medicine.
Revolutionary War broke out Mercer warmly espoused the cause of the
his profession and became the commandant of three regiments of Minute
Men, in the
year 1775. In 1776 he organized and drilled the Virginia Militia. On
of the same year he was promoted to be Colonel of the Third Virginia
on June 5th, 1776 was commissioned a Brigadier General by the
at the request of General Washington.
American Army retreated through New Jersey General Mercer was with it,
and he led
the column to attack the enemy at Trenton on December 6th, 1776, and it
that he advised the daring night march on Princeton, on January 3rd,
of the American Army on the evening of January 2nd was extremely
having but five thousand men, half of whom were militia who had been in
a few days. To fight the veteran soldiers before them looked like
madness ‒ to attempt
to re-cross the Delaware River under the fire of the enemy would have
The march to Princeton having been decided upon, the advance command
was given to
at the time when the British regiments at Princeton were about to begin
to reinforce Lord Cornwallis in the south, and it was these regiments
the approach of Mercer, at Princeton. Mercer attacked, but was
repelled, and the
enemy followed the Americans until they were reinforced by Washington's
and the Pennsylvania Militia. During the fighting Mercer was felled by
of a Briton's musket, for the fighting was hand-to-hand. Mercer rose,
and defended himself with his sword. He was bayoneted, and left on the
dead. After the battle a farmer carried Mercer to his house, where he
pain until his death, which occurred on January 12th.
In the year
1773 Congress made provision for the education of the younger son of
in appreciation of the great services the General had rendered to his
of Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4 has gone to great pains to search out and
the writer the Masonic history of General Mercer, and, I may say, it
in no other place. From the excerpt furnished the writer, and its
wording, it is
evident that the brother who served as Secretary of that lodge during
period mentioned in this article, set a splendid example.
hands at least twenty times during the Civil War, but not a Masonic
disturbed. Those were days of gallant men.
By Bro. Silas H. Shepherd,
adage that one cannot make rabbit soup until he has captured his rabbit
home to the Masonic student times without number, for if there is
to capture it is a Masonic Bibliography. And they who undertake to
fashion the same,
and who succeed therein, even in small measure, deserve the plaudits of
All this is by way of introducing one of the most successful essays in
that has ever come to the ink-stained desk of ye editor. The literary
for the success of this venture is Bro. Silas H. Shepherd who has been
a member of the Committee on Masonic Research of the Grand Lodge of
whose name is familiar to our readers, albeit not as familiar as it
should be, and
will be, we trust. "Masonic Bibliographies and Catalogues" is published
in paper bindings by the above mentioned Committee, and is number 11 in
of their publications. Bro. Shepherd has been assisted by Brothers
Henry A. Crosby
and George C. Nuesse, his colleagues on the Committee.
from January Issue)
attempt has been
made to include these catalogues in the bibliography)
Publishing Co. *
Semi-annual Catalogues of Masonic Works, sold by the Masonic Publishing
their salesroom in the City of New York, from June, 1877, to May, 1899.
pages. (Listed in Catalogue No. 46 of the Masonic Pub. Co., Nov., 1899.)
Publishing Co. *
Semi-annual Catalogues of the Masonic Publishing Co., dating from 1899
(Numbers 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51.)
William Harvey *
Freemasonry. A Catalogue of Books, for the most part of Masonic
interest, with a
selection of standard and important works on allied subjects. No. 65,
Press Book Shop, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. (No date ‒ about 1915.) 47 pages.
W. H. *
Catalogue No. 6 from the William Harvey Miner Co., Inc., Antiquarian
3518-20-22 Franklin Ave., St. Louis, Mo. 36 pages.
Miner, W.H. *
Catalogue No. 11. The
William Harvey Miner Co., Inc. 20 pages.
Grand Lodge of
A correct list of the works collected and bound for the use of the
Grand Lodge of
Missouri, as referred to in the Grand Secretary's report of 1872. By
Gouley, Grand Secretary. St. Louis, 1872. 8 vol. paper, 6 pages.
Catalogue of the Masonic Library of C. Moore, editor of "The Masonic
Cincinnati. (No date ‒ about 1865.) 15 pages.
A Catalogue of Rare, Interesting and Curious Books pertaining to the
by W.W. Morgan, London, 1889. 8 vol. 16 pages.
A Catalogue of the Rare and Valuable Collection of Masonic Books. Sold
by Mr. Bernardy.
London, 1850. 8 vol. 27 pages.
John Metcalfe *
A Catalogue of Books, Rare, Curious, Occult, Masonic and Miscellaneous,
sale by John Metcalfe-Morton, Antiquarian Bookseller of Ye Olde Booke
1 Duke Street, Brighton, England. No. XLVIII. 192C
York Grand Lodge Library
of the Librarian:
York Grand Lodge Library
Library of the Grand Lodge of New York. (Catalogue.) Included in the
of the Grand Lodge of N. Y. of 1888. A catalogue of additions in the
Collection made by Committee of Antiquities of the Grand Lodge of F.
& A. M.
of New York. 1905.
Scotia Grand Lodge
Catalogue of Ancient Masonic Documents, in possession of Grand Lodge of
A. F. & A. M. Halifax, N. S., 1890. 74 pages.
Works on Freemasonry, lately published by George Oliver. London:
Works on Freemasonry by George Oliver. Published by Richard Spencer,
22 pages. 8mo.
Consistory Library *
Catalogue of Oriental Consistory Library, S. P. R. S. 32d, Chicago,
by Miss Mabel K. Dixon, Librarian. 61 pages.
Masonic Library." (Nos. 70 to 75.)
Library of the Grand Lodge of
Catalogue of the Library of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Phila.,
1881. 66 pages.
Catalogue of the Museum and Library. Peterborough, 1915. 20 pages.
Supplement and Catalogue. Peterborough, 1920. 15 pages.
Remarks on some Masonic book-plates and their owners. By A. Winthrop
1908-1911. 61 pages. In two parts.
Masonic Book-plates. Boston. The Four Seas Co., 1918. By Winward
Prescott. 29 pages.
Catalogue of Standard and Rare Masonic Books Pamphlets, Proceedings,
in the library of the late Jesse R. Purnell. 10 pages. (No date.)
Catalogue of Books and Medals, collected by Pythagoras Lodge, No. 1, in
New York, 1859. 8vo., pages XII ‒ 145.
Lodge (2) *
Twenty-first semi-annual sale Catalogue of the Masonic Publishing Co.,
the extensive collection of Rare and Antique Masonic Books, Catalogues,
Periodicals, etc., in the late Masonic Library of Pythagoras Lodge, No.
1 of N.
Y., to be sold at their salesrooms, 63 Blenker Street, N. Y., on
18th, 1887. New York. Masonic Publishing Co.
Lodge (3) *
The Masonic Library of Pythagoras Lodge No. 1, Free and Accepted Masons
of New York.
New York, (November.)
Coronati Lodge No. 2076, London*
A Classified Index to the Catalogue Slips, Lodge of the Quatuor
Coronati, No. 2076,
London. Edited by G.W. Speth, Secretary. Margate, 1893.
Coronati Lodge No. 2076, London*
A List of Articles Contained in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes I to
an Enumeration and Roll of Authors, compiled by Rodk. H. Baxter.
A Catalogue of the Library in the Masonic Hall, Reading. Reading, 1896.
Catalogue of the Masonic Library of the late Dr. James S. Reeves, East
103 pages. (No date.)
Catalogue of Standard and Rare Masonic Books, Magazines, Pamphlets,
etc., contained in the library of W. H. Riggs, Martinsburg, W. Va.,
1884. 14 pages.
Rough list of Books, Pamphlets, etc., bearing upon the Morgan
Controversy, by Peter
Ross. 1902. 7 pages.
See "England, United Grand Lodge." (No. 36.)
Grand Lodge of Scotland. Catalogue of Books and Manuscripts in the
Library at Freemasons'
Hall, Edinburgh. Published by authority of Grand Lodge by the Grand
Catalogue of Masonic and Miscellaneous Books, Pamphlets, Magazines,
in the library of John W. Simons, of New York. N. Y. Masonic Publishing
Masonic Exhibition held at "The Chalet," Pylstone, Shanklin. Catalogue
of exhibit edited by Alfred Greenham, with archaeological notes by Wm.
Shanklin, 1886. 102 pages.
Sheffield Masonic Library Scheme. Sheffield, 1876. 15 pages. Pages 10
to 15 contain
list of Masonic Books.
Catalogue of Books in the Library of the Hallamshire College. (Soc.
Ros. in Anglia.)
Sheffield, 1917. 72 pages.
Catalogue of William Snyder's Masonic Library. Lafontaine, Indiana. (No
Catalogue of a valuable collection of books on Freemasonry (500
Catalogue of Books sold by R. Spencer. London, 1875.
Spencer & Co.'s Masonic Illustrated Price List of Jewels,
Banners, and all Requisites for Freemasonry. London. 19th edition.
Catalogue of a valuably collection of books on Freemasonry.
Catalogue of Standard Works on Freemasonry, Music, etc., Spencer
& Co., 19-20-21
Great Queen Street, London, W. C. Established 1801. 25 pages. (No date.)
See "Quatuor Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London." (No. 124.)
A Masonic Curriculum, by G. W. Speth. American edition, published by
Bulletin, Detroit, Mich., 1901.
Catalogue of the Masonic Library of James W. Staton, deceased. Now
offered for sale
by his administrators, R. E. & H. W. Staton, Brooksville, Ky.
1904. 155 pages.
Bibliographical notes on the proceedings of the Grand Council of Royal
Masters of the State of Kentucky. By James W. Staton, Brooksville, Ey.,
Masonic Bibliographical memoranda relating to reprints. By James W.
Ky., 1887. 19 pages.
Catalogue of Important Masonic Books. Being a private collection
many years, with much care and at a large cost, comprising choice and
in several languages, on the Origin, History, Usages, etc., of the
Order of Freemasons
throughout the world. Bangs, Merwin & Co., New York, 1867. 17
Catalogue of a valuable Library founded by the late Dr. H. B. Leeson,
to be sold
by auction. London, 1873. 31 pages.
Council, Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A.*
Catalogue of the Library of the Supreme Council, 33d, for the S. J. of
the U. S.
Washington, D. C., 1880. 42 pages.
Council, Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A.*
Libraries of the Supreme Council of the 33d for the Southern
Jurisdiction of the
U. S. A. at Washington, 1st Jan., 1884. J. J. Little & Co.,
1884. 267 pages.
Council, Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A.
The Taylor Collection in the Library of the Supreme Council 33d,
D. C., 1905. 98 pages
Council, Southern Jurisdiction, U. S. A.
The Busby Collection in the Library of the Supreme Council, Washington,
D. C. Press
of the Wilkin-Shiery Printing Co., 1907. 82 pages.
A Catalogue of Books, Ancient and Modern, 1914. Freemasonry, Kabalah,
Oriental Religions, Symbolism. William Tait, Bookseller and Publisher,
Ireland. (No. 16.) 40 pages.
Catalogue of the Library of the late W. Kelly, to be sold at auction by
Feb., 1895. Leicester. 21 pages. Taylor, George
Masonic Library and Museum.” (No. 172.)
A Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry, the Templars, Astrology,
Platonists, by T.
Taylor, London. Gardner, 1897
T.* See "Leicester, England." (No. 84.)
Catalogue of American Books on Freemasonry, on sale by Trubner
& Co., London,
1857. 8 pages.
Library of Oriental Consistory, Chicago, Ill. A serial catalogue in ten
George Warvelle. (No date. 156 pages.
Catalogue of Masonic Works. The property of W. Watson, Leeds. Leeds,
Dr. Wm. Wynn*
Catalogue of Books from the Library of Dr. Willian Wynn Westcott, by F.
14 Marlborough Road Gunnersbury, London, W. 4. 1919.
Provincial Library Report, West Yorkshire.
Provincial Library Report. Leeds, 1890, 19 pages.
Provincial Library Report, Leeds, 1891, 12 pages.
Provincial Library Report, Leeds, 1892, 16 pages.
Provincial Library Report, Leeds, 1894, 28 pages.
See Liverpool. (No. 88 and 89.)
Yorkshire Provincial Priory
First Annual Report of the Provincial Librarian. 1912 18 pages.
Acts of Parliament, referring to Freemasonry, by H. J Whymper, 1892. 20
Catalogue of Works on Freemasonry. Gora Gali, 1888 8vo. 19 pages.
H. J. Catalogue of works on Freemasonry. H. J. Whymper, London, 1899.
Ram Saran. First edition. 54 pages. A second edition was issued in
1891, which was
enlarged to 66 pages. Both editions were limited and are now very
scarce. 164. Whymper,
A Catalogue of Bibliographies, Lists, and Catalogues of Works on
H. J. Whymper, London, January, 1891. Only 100 copies printed.
We know of
only two copies of this catalogue in America, being the one in the
Library at Washington, D. C, and one owned by F. H. Marquis of
Minutes of the Proceedings of Lodge "Albert Victor," No.2370, E. C., of
a Regular Meeting held on the 31st January, 1891. Lahore. Printed at
Press, 1891. Appendix B. Catalogues and Bibliographies, by H. J.
Whymper, C. E.
Early Printed Literature Referring to Freemasonry, by H. J. Whymper,
Works relating to Freemasonry catalogued by Henry Tennyson Folkard,
Wigan, and Secretary Wigan Lodge No. 2326, Wigan. Privately printed for
only, by Strowger & Son, 1892. Third edition. 64 pages. Only
100 copies printed.
1st edition, 1880, 12mo. 2nd edition, 1882.
Occult Literature: catalogue of 1000 works, all curious and interesting
of great rarity. London, 1884. 8vo. 32 pages.
Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry in the Library of Thomas M. Woodhead.
1903. 96 pages.
Masonic Soiree and Exhibition, held at Guild hall, Worcester. Catalogue
edited by George Taylor, with archaeological notes by Wm. J. Hughan.
1884. 73 pages.
Masonic Library and Museum*
Catalogue of Books, Manuscripts, Articles, Engravings, Aprons and other
to Freemasonry, and now forming the Worcestershire Masonic Library and
by George Taylor, with bibliographical notes by Wm. J. Hughan. London.
by George Kenning, 1891.
A Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry. By John Yarker. Belfast, 1909.
Masonic Conversazione and Exhibition held at York, 20th July, 1884,
under the auspices
of York College (Society Rosecrucia in Anglia). Catalogue of exhibits.
Catalogue of Masonic Exhibits at reception to the British Association
at York on
Sept. 6, 1881. York. 19 pages.
Catalogue of the Masonic Library of. Dresden, 1847.
to bibliographical notes in other than strictly bibliographical works
NOTE ‒ Supplemental
to the list of Catalogues and Bibliographies, a few references to
articles of interest
to bibliophiles, and portions of standard Masonic works dealing with
are here given. This reference portion might be made much longer with
in the hands of the compiler, but the present list will point the way
to the best
sources, without becoming burdensome with details.
An Attempt to Classify the Old Charges, by William Begemann.
The Grand Lodge of England, 1717-1917, by A. F. Calvert, London, 1917.
Notes on Masonic Bibliography, by Hyde Clarke.
Fred J. W.
Inaugural address. Q. C. Lodge.
Ars Q. C. volume 22 (1909).
An Inventory of Ancient Craft Documents, by R. F. Gould.
Collected Essays and Papers Relating to Freemasonry, by R. F. Gould,
Bibliography of the Old Charges, by W. J. Hughan.
George Oliver's Unpublished Masonic Works, by W. J Hughan.
A Dissertation on the Grand Hermesian Anaglyph.
The Pythagorian Triangle.
Notable Rosicrucian Works, by W. J. Hughan.
Sketches of notable Masonic works, by W. J. Hughan.
Masonic Bibliography, by W. J. Hughan.
Masonic Bibliography, by W. J. Hughan.
Bureau for Masonic Affairs
Year Book of the International Bureau for Masonic Affairs, 1917.
Quarterly Bulletin of the Iowa Masonic Library. Volume 1, No. 1,
Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, by A. G. Mackey and Chas T. McClenachan.
by Edw. L. Hawkins and W.J. Hughan
Thoughts on the Selection of a Masonic Library, by A. G. Mackey.
The Early Editions of Webb's Freemason's Monitor, by F. H. Marquis.
The Pocket Companions, 1735-1831, by F. H. Marquis.
A Catalogue of Masonic Books in the British Museum.
The Universal Masonic Library Advocate, a bimonthly publication devoted
to the single
interest of establishing a library of Masonic literature in every
lodge. Vol. 1,
No. 3 Robt. Morris, Fulton, Ky. 1855.
Masonic Institutes, by George Oliver.
Works on Freemasonry, by George Oliver, pub. by R. Spencer.
A General History of Freemasonry in Europe. By Emmanuel Rebold. Amer.
Ed. Cin. O.
1869. J. F. Brennan.
The Origin and Early History of Masonry, by G. W. Steinbrenner, New
List of 29 early editions of Prichard's "Masonry Dissected.” ed." 1907
Masonic Reprints of Leicester Lodge of Research.
History of 23 editions of "Pocket Companions." Trans. Leicester Lodge
of Research, 1918.
An Alphabetical Catalogue of works on Hermetic Philosophy and Alchemy.
Stukeley, F. R S.
By Bro. Dudley Wright, England
lesser figures that live in our memories because of their association
English Masonry there are few more lovable, or more picturesque, than
Dr. Stukeley, of whom Brother Wright gives us a speaking likeness in
sketch. It is urged upon the careful Masonic student that he pay
especial heed to
the extracts from Dr. Stukeley's diary [Lib 1882-1887; Vol 1, Vol 2. Vol 3], for therein he will find
of much importance, inasmuch as they furnish us with certain undeniable
early eighteenth century Freemasonry, facts that are often disputed.
STUKELEY may well be described as "a man of many parts," although it
be said that he mastered thoroughly any of the subjects on which he
posed as an
authority. From his earliest days he was imbued with an earnest desire
of all kinds of subjects, but he was not successful in becoming as he
indeed, claimed to be, an authority on any one in particular, least of
all, a number
of them. He was born at Holbeach, Lincolnshire, on 7th November, 1687,
the son of
John Stukeley, an attorney, and his wife, Frances, the daughter of
of Weston, Lincolnshire, who was descended from the same ancestors as
or Boleyn, the ill-fated queen of Henry VIII. His father was also the
of an ancient family, his ancestors having been lords of Great
Stukeley, near Huntingdon.
William Stukeley was sent to the Free School at Holbeach, where he
received a good
preliminary education. It is recorded that as a boy he was fond of
the woods to read and also to collect plants. A pen picture has been
drawn of his
listening occasionally behind a screen in his father's study to his
with a Mr. Belgrave, whom the son describes as "an ingenious gent." and
in refutation of whose arguments he says he wrote a small manuscript
Stukeyley says that he also collected coins, bought microscopes and
and learned something of wood-carving, dialling, "and some astrology
On 7th November,
1703, William Stukeley was admitted as a pensioner to Bennet (now
College, Cambridge, of which he became a scholar in the following
April. He was
intended by his father for the legal profession, but the study of law
and its attendant
subjects was distasteful to him and he turned early to scientific
particularly anatomy. He says that in his undergraduate days he "went
a simpling and began to steal dogs and dissect." When at home he "made
a handsome sceleton of a cat." Stephen Hales of the Royal Society and
Gray of Canterbury were among his botanical associates and he made
to Ray's Catalogus Plantarum circa Cantabrigiam. On 21st January, 1709,
his name among the graduates as a Bachelor of Medicine. On leaving
that year he studied medicine under Dr. Mead at St. Thomas's Hospital
under Rolfe, a surgeon in Chancery Lane.
he set up in practice at Boston, in Lincolnshire, where he, remained
when he removed to Great Ormond Street, London, next to Powis House. On
March of the same year he became a Fellow of the Royal Society on the
of Dr. Mead. In 1718 we find him taking a part in the establishment of
of Antiquaries, of which body he acted as Secretary for nine years. On
the 7th July,
1719, he graduated at Cambridge as a Doctor of Medicine and on the 30th
of the same year he was admitted as a candidate of the College of
a fully-fledged Fellow exactly twelve months afterwards, i.e., on 30th
1720, the same year in which he published in account of Arthur's Oon
time he began to turn his thoughts to Freemasonry. Masters, in his
History of the
College of Corpus Christi, says that "his curiosity led him (Stukeley)
initiated into the mysteries of Masonry, suspecting it to be the
remains of the
mysteries of the antients, when with difficulty a number sufficient was
to be found
in all London. After this it became a public fashion not only spread
and Ireland, but all Europe."
himself refers to this fact in his Common Place Book, wherein he says:
the first person made a free mason in London for many years. We had
find members enough to perform the ceremony. Immediately after that it
took a run
and ran itself out of breath thro the folly of members." Stukeley's
took place on the 6th January, 1721 at the Salutation Tavern, Tavistock
with Mr. Collins, Capt. Rowe, who made the famous "diving engine."
For a time,
at any rate, Stukeley appears to have taken a great interest in the
doings of the
Craft. At any rate he seems to have become sufficiently prominent and
secure an invitation to the Quarterly Communication of Grand Lodge held
in the June
following his election, judging from the following entry in his Diary:
"1721. 24th June. The Masons
had a dinner
in Stationers' Hall. Present, Duke of Montague, Ld. Herbert, Ld.
Stanhope, Sr. And.
Fountain, &c. Dr. Desaguliers pronounc'd an oration. The Gd.
Mr. Mr. Pain produc'd
an old MS. of the Constitutions which he got in the West of England 500
He read over a new sat of articles to be observ'd. The Duke of Montague
Mr. next year. Dr. Beal, Deputy."
extracts from his Diary are also of interest:
"27th December, 1721. We met at
Tavern, Strand, by consent of Grand Mr. present. Dr. Beal constituted a
there, where I was chosen Mr."
on this entry in The Freemason of 31st July, 1880, Bro. T. B. Whyteheid
"Nothing is named about the
for the chair, and as Bro. Stukeley had not been twelve months a Mason,
it is manifest
that any Brother could be chosen to preside, as also that the verbal
the Grand Master, or his Deputy, was sufficient to authorise the
formation of a
"25th May, 1722. Met Duke of
Lord Dunbarton, Hinchinbrok, &c. at Fount. Tav. Lodg. to
consider Feast on St.
"3rd Nov. 1722. The Duke of
Ld. Dalkeith visited our Lodg. at the Fountain."
"7th Nov. 1722. Order of the
"28th Dec. 1722. I dined with
introduced by Ld. Winchelsea. I made them both members of the Order of
or Roman Knighthood."
be interesting to know more about this Order, of which Stukeley gives
particulars. In 1722, also, he became a member of the "Gentlemen's
at Spalding, a literary association which was patronized by many
members of the
Craft, including Dr. Desaguliers, the Earl of Dalkeith, and Lord
Masters in 1719, 1723, and 1727 respectively; Martin Folkes and Dr.
Deputy Grand Masters, 1724 and 1752-1756; Francis Drake, Grand Master
of All England,
1761-1762; Joseph Ames, David Casley, Sir Richard Manningham, and
In 1722 he
was Gulstonian Lecturer when he delivered a discourse on the spleen.
time he began to suffer from the gout, which he partly cured by using
"oleum arthriticum" and partly by long rides in search of antiquities.
The first fruits of his antiquarian expeditions appeared in 1724, when
his Itinerarium Curiosum. About the same time he became one of the
Censors of the
College of Physicians, a member of the Council of the Royal Society, as
of the Committee appointed to examine into the condition of the
of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich. He was well known to the Earl of
the Earl of Winchelsea, and to "all virtuosos in London" and had a
friendship with Sir Isaac Newton. He went on long expeditionary tours
Gale, whose brother-in-law he afterwards became, the twain visiting
of England. He traversed the whole length of the Roman wall and drew
out plans and
descriptions of numerous old cities, roads, altars, etc. In 1723 he
account of a Roman Ampitheatre at Dorchester to a Masonic lodge which
had that year
honoured him by appointing him Master.
In 1726 Stukeley
went to live at Grantham where he quickly secured a lucrative medical
Here he laid out a garden and a sylvan "temple of the Druids," with an
old apple tree, overgrown with mistletoe in the centre. It was at
Sir Isaac Newton received the first part of his education and where he
to have ended his days if he could have met with a suitable house.
consulted by the Dukes of Ancaster and Rutland, the families of
etc., indeed, most of the principal families in the county were glad to
for advice. He declined an invitation from the Earl of Hertford to
settle as a physician
in his Common Place Book to his life at Grantham in the following words:
"June, 1726, being sadly
plagu'd with the
gout, I retired to Grantham, thinking by country exercise to get the
better of it,
and by means of that, and a method of life and management which I found
out, I was
not disappointed in my expectation. Here I set up a lodg. of
freemasons, wh. lasted
all the time I lived there."
in the Diary he also wrote:
"In two years time I lost an
number of my most intimate friends there, Sr. lsaac Newton, Ld.
Winchelsea … my
friend Mr. Ja. Anderson, a scotsman, a learned & ingenious
Antiquary … My Land
lord Lambert of the Fountain Tavern, Strand, where I was Mr. of a new
lodg. of Masons:
& many others."
On 6th February,
1727, he wrote from Grantham to Samuel Gale, as follows:
"In the town we have settled a
for dancing among the fair sex, and a weekly meeting for conversation
gentlemen. We have likewise erected a small but well-disciplined Lodge
In 1728 he
married Frances, daughter of Robert Williamson, of Allington,
this had anything or not to do with his decision is not stated, but a
afterwards he decided upon a change of profession, giving as his excuse
overcome with fatigue in his profession and repeated attacks of gout."
to enter the Church and in this decision he was encouraged by
Archbishop Wake, who
ordained him at Croydon on 20th July, 1729. Almost immediately he was
living of Holbeach, his native place, by Dr. Reynolds, Bishop of
the Earl of Winchelsea also offered him another, but he declined them
that of All Saints, Stamford, to which he was presented by Lord
and to Stamford he removed, but on his removal from Grantham to
Stamford he appears
to have ceased all Masonic activity.
In 1736 he
published his Palaeographia Sacra [Lib*], the object of which was to
"how heathen mythology is derived from sacred history, and that the
of the poets is no other than Jehovah in Scripture." Four years later
his book on Stonehenge, as the outcome of his frequent visits. Druidism
was to him
"the aboriginal patriarchal religion" and his intimate friends called
him "Chyndonax" and "the Arch-Druid of this age." In 1739 he
was given the living of Somerby by Grantham, which he held in
conjunction with that
of Stamford until 1747, when he accepted from the Duke of Montague the
St. George the Martyr in Queen Square, Bloomsbury. From 1748 onwards he
Queen Square and at a house in Kentish Town, over the door of which he
O may this rural solitude
And contemplation all its pleasures give
The Druid priest.
had passed away in 1737, leaving him with three daughters, but, in
1739, he was
married to Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Gale, Dean of York, and sister
and Samuel Gale, the celebrated antiquarians.
interest in his original profession and in the College of Physicians
up to the end of his life. He not infrequently attended meetings and
took part in
business of the College, as seen from several notes made by him in his
of the Pharmacopoeia of 1746. As a clergyman, he was noted for his
It is said that on one occasion, in April 1764, he postponed the
service for an
hour in order that the congregation might go outside the church and
witness an eclipse
of the sun. When he was nearly seventy-six years of age he preached for
time in spectacles, selecting for his text the words: "Now we see
glass darkly," while, in his discourse, he dwelt on the evils of too
He was seized
with paralysis on 27th February, 1765, and passed away on 3rd March
his rectory in Queen Square, in his seventy-eighth year. He was buried
in the churchyard
of East Ham, and, according to his special request, without any
was undoubtedly a clever man, but in many instances he gave expressions
before they were matured and before he had carefully weighed the pros
As a result he made some curious and amusing blunders. He published a
"Oriuna, the wife of Carausius" through his misreading of the word
on a coin of that emperor. It was he, however, who drew up the plans,
and rules of the Society of Antiquaries, so that he is entitled to be
the principal founder of that body. His Diary contains some interesting
reminiscences of famous people. He tells us, for instance, under date
of 22nd August,
1754 that "Sir Christopher Wren smoaked to his death. I have smoaked a
with him when he was almost 100. (He was 91 when he died)." Later, he
the information that Wren was a great drinker of coffee. Munk, in his
Roll of the
College of Physicians, refers to Stukeley as "that learned and
antiquary," and Canon Richard Parkinson, the editor of some of the
of the Chetham Society, says that "his learning was extensive and
and his writings prove him to have been a divine, philosopher, and
a high order." There is in the possession of the Chetham Society a
collection of poems by Dr. Stukeley which have never been published.
the learned author of the Divine Legation of Moses, writing on 4th
to Richard Hurd, afterwards Bishop of Worcester, said: "Poor Dr.
in the midst of a florid age of eighty-four, was last Saturday struck
with an apoplectic
fit, which deprived him of his senses. I suppose he is dead by this
A few days later he wrote: "You say true. I have a tenderness in my
which will make me miss poor Stukeley; for, not to say that he was one
of my oldest
acquaintance, there was in him such a mixture of simplicity, drollery,
ingenuity, superstition, and antiquarianism, that he often afforded me
of well-seasoned repast, which the French call an Ambigu,
I suppose for a compound of things never meant to meet together.
I have often heard him laughed at by fools, who have neither his sense,
nor his honesty; though it must be confessed that in him they were all
Evans, in his Ancient British Coins, wrote: "Dr. Stukeley, prior to his
in 1765, had prepared twenty-three plates of the coins of the ancient
which were published by his executor Richard Fleming. They are not
any letter-press description, but on the first fifteen plates, which
appear to have
been engraved from Dr. Stukeley's own sketches, many of the coins have
beneath them, giving the names of the princes to whom he attributed
them. The coins
themselves are most inaccurately drawn, and in many instances are
merely bad copies
of the engravings in Camden and elsewhere."
his History of the Royal Society, has another criticism. He says: "It
be feared that Stukeley's love for Geology did little to advance the
it appears that he communicated some geological papers to the Society,
so many absurd hypotheses, that even at that period (1751) when Geology
was so little
understood, the Council determined that they should not be printed. He
several communications in which he asserted in the most positive manner
were vegetables. These papers were likewise rejected, which made the
very angry. He gives vent to his feelings in forcible language and
has eyes must see that they are vegetables. '
library, which consisted of 1121 items altogether, occupied in its sale
evenings of the week commencing Monday, 28th April, 1766. It contained
Masonic interest, unless an exception is made in favor of the two
of the MSS. of Thomas Rawlinson, Esq."
By Bro. Sam H. Goodwin,
Grand Secretary, Utah
BUILDER for February and March, 1921, appeared two articles on the
subject of Mormonism
and Freemasonry, which attracted much interest and received many
We consider it a matter of great good fortune to be able to present
herewith a third
and concluding article by the same writer.
articles by Brother Goodwin have been reprinted in pamphlet format and
will be found
listed in the monthly book list on the inside back cover of the
circumstances great care should be exercised in the selection of
material for membership
in Masonic lodges. This holds true everywhere and at all times and is a
in an especial sense devolves upon those who in a representative
pass upon the qualifications of applicants for our mysteries. A number
for this might be given some of which it is the purpose of this article
to set forth.
In a general
way it may be said that the historic, well known and consistent
position held by
the Craft of this jurisdiction, practically, from the very inception of
Masonry ‒ back in '65 ‒ to the present time furnishes one reason for
the part of Utah investigating committees. (1) Further, there is a
on the part of some who are young in Masonry ‒ and of others who,
are inclined to be lenient toward a relaxation of requirements ‒ to
only of the superficial and to base their conclusions upon an imperfect
of facts which cannot be ignored with safety. In what follows attention
to certain facts no one of which, perhaps, taken alone may seem to be
of any great
consequence, but which in the aggregate are worthy of serious
seeking to attain the object in view we may pass boundaries which,
acquired a pseudo-sanctity and find ourselves in fields too rarely
entered by those
who, for the time being, are charged with the duty of guarding well our
may be no uncertainty as to what is here undertaken, it may be stated
that we are
dealing with the general subject of "Mormonism and Masonry," and that
the particular phase of the subject upon which we now enter relates
itself to any
would-be applicant who at the same time is a member of the Latter
of its initiates, among other things, that they shall come of their own
accord. By implication, principle and teaching it assumes that those
who come into
its fellowship are, and will remain, free from any influence or agency
interfere with the performance of such duties as may devolve upon them.
in view the petitioner is required to declare that he is not a member
of any organization
whose rules are incompatible with membership in the fraternity. This is
in criticism of any organization that curtails the freed of thought or
its adherents. Such criticism does not lie within the province of
Masonry. But Masonry,
like other organizations, does claim and exercise the right to erect
as may seem to be necessary; to fix upon and apply tests; to pass upon
of would be members, and to decide in any and every case, whether its
can be, or have been satisfactorily met. In the exercise of these, as
of all other
functions, Masonry is a law unto itself.
ground thus cleared we may proceed the consideration of certain facts
and significance of which can hardly be mistaken.
If we do
not mistake the meaning of the words those who are authorized to speak,
Day Saints organization makes such demands upon those who accept its
and leadership as to produce results which do not accord with the
genius of Freemasonry.
For example, great stress is laid upon the authority and power of the
We are told that a man may not honestly differ from the "presiding
without being guilty of apostasy and subject to excommunication. This
was declared in no uncertain phrase by Brigham Young and George Q.
Cannon, and in
effect it has frequently been set forth since. Said Cannon, on one
Brigham Young was present: "It is apostasy to differ honestly with the
of the President. A man may be honest even in hell." (2) And President
on the same occasion, declared in no less unmistakable terms that one
as well ask the question whether a man had the right to differ honestly
Almighty." (3) Presumably these rather startling assertions rest upon
frequently promulgated, that the president of the church is "the very
of God" (4); "His vicegerent on earth, (5), and the sole channel
which He communicates His will and purpose concerning all that pertains
to His Kingdom
on earth." (6)
of the practical application of the principle under consideration are
and these furnish convincing proof of the vitality of the doctrine.
W.S. Godbe and
his colleagues were cut off from the church because they presumed to
deny the right
of Brigham Young to restrict freedom of thought and speech or to
for opinion's sake and because they did not accept his financial
policy. (7) Moses
Thatcher held opinions concerning his rights and privileges as an
which did not accord with those of the First Presidency and the other
the quorum of Apostles and he "declined to take counsel," and he was
for his temerity. (8) Smurthwaite felt that the President of the church
enter the commercial field in competition with persons less highly
placed, and he
gave voice to his opinion to his Bishop and was cut off from the
church. (9) B.
H. Roberts, noting an unmistakable partiality in the application of a
in the interest of one political party and against the other, entered
once without the approval of the church authorities and was made feel
of their displeasure, but later was "reconciled" with his brethren.
Roberts, who is perhaps the brainiest man in the church, as he is the
thinker and most prolific writer, recently gave frank expression ‒ in a
address ‒ to his belief that the Mormon people had not always been
their conduct had not always been defensible; that on the part of some
narrowness and fanaticism and bigotry and unwisdom had been exhibited;
disasters which overtook the followers of the prophet in Missouri were
due, in part
at least, to boastfulness, overzeal, fanaticism and unwisdom on the
part of the
people, and that "In his early experiences even the prophet Joseph
his mistakes and was several times reproved of the Lord because of
For this frank avowal of facts, of the truth of which his historical
convinced him, he was taken sharply to task in the same session of the
by the President of the church, Joseph F. Smith. (12) Such results as
are here indicated,
need occasion no surprise, for it must be remembered that the
authorities ‒ the
Priesthood ‒ are "in very deed a part of God" (13) and as such they can
fix, irrevocably, the ultimate status of man, for to them belongs the
bind on earth that which shall be bound in heaven and to loose on earth
shall be loosed in, heaven" (14) ; "to remit sin" (15); "to
say what shall be done and how it shall be done and on what occasions
it shall be
done," (16) and when the President of the church speaks "anything as
mind and will of the Lord, it is just as binding upon us as if God
to us." (17)
are at familiar with the teachings and literature of the Mormon Church
need no proof
of the necessity of absolute obedience to the Priesthood on the part of
or of the insistence upon this from the beginning to the present. As
denial of this principle was one of the chief offenses of those who
for the "Utah Schism." (18) "It had been argued that we must passively
and uninquiringly obey the Priesthood because we could not otherwise
build up Zion,"
complained E.L.T. Harrison, in "An Appeal to the People and Protest."
(19) And such obedience appears to be required in all the relations of
life ‒ in
things spiritual and temporal. (20)
Some of us
who are unacquainted with the refinements, or modifications, or
which such teachings may be subjected in their application to
individual cases may
well be pardoned if we question whether a member of an organization
such unusual demands is, or really can be, in a position to act freely
what course shall be pursued. And if he is not really free in this
he, being so circumstanced, be considered good material for our Rites?
answer, honestly and satisfactorily, that question in our petition to
has already been made?
We are familiar
with the fact that leaders of the Latter Day Saints organization have
declared that their followers are as free to act in all the affairs of
as are the votaries of any other faith or philosophy of life. But when
the most vital concern ‒ having to do with time and eternity ‒ are made
absolutely, upon acceptance of this fundamental principle we are forced
such assertions make an unwarranted and impossible demand upon our
of facts which cannot or ought not to be ignored in this study has to
do with the
matter of polygamy. The writer understands that by many this is
regarded as a dead
issue. He is mindful of the further fact that a Manifesto was issued by
of the church in 1890, which advised the people to refrain from the
this principle, (23) and that later this famous document was construed
a s prohibiting
not only new marriages, but also those who had previously entered this
from living with their plural wives. (24) It is to be remembered, too,
present head of the church recently declared ‒ with so much earnestness
afterwards apologized for the manner in which he had spoken, having
been, as he
expressed himself, "gloriously mad" ‒ that "No man on earth has the
power to perform plural marriages," and, "We have excommunicated two
who have pretended to perform plural marriages." (25) All this and
for reasons that follow ‒ do not remove the subject beyond the purview
of the Mason,
or the Lodge, that may be seeking information as to the fitness of
material to come
into our fellowship. It is conceded that this subject does not have the
for the Mason and citizen that it had when Grand Secretary Diehl sent
out his Circular
in which he set forth the position of the Grand Lodge of Utah with
the Latter Day Saints, their teachings and practices. (26) But after
have been made there still remain considerations that are pertinent to
‒ at all events, such is the conviction of the writer. He is not
this subject is a "dead issue," for he recalls the fact that a
of the church ‒ the "very mouthpiece of God," as we have seen ‒
concerning this practice and doctrine: "… It is one of the most vital
of our religious faith; it emanated from God and cannot be legislated
this from us and you rob us of our hopes and associations in the
(27) And hardly less pertinent is the fact that this principle, like
which established it, still holds its place in the teachings, beliefs
of the Mormon people.
may experience some difficulty, perhaps, when they undertake to
reconcile one set
of facts with another set of facts which appears to be at the opposite
is the situation. It is known that the practice of polygamy has been
according to repeated statements made by those who are in authority ‒
and that this
principle is no longer taught by the church. Yet, it is a matter of
that the present head of the organization is a polygamist ‒ as also was
predecessor in that position and all who preceded him ‒ at least, such
was his status
it the time of the Smoot investigation when he was "a fugitive from
(28) on account of his marital relations. (29) There are other leaders
with the President of the church who are similarly situated. These men
are the leaders
of the thought and exemplars of the principles of the organization and
their religion." (30) This is referred to here, not in any spirit of
but for the purpose of calling attention to the teaching value of such
actions speak so loud that I cannot hear what you say," is an adage
not without suggestiveness in this connection. The influence of the
and more particularly of the President of the church, is greater than
that of any
other man or set of men. How could it be otherwise in view of his
to Deity and of the great and unusual powers he exercises by virtue of
It must follow that the words, the actions, and the daily life of one
such singular prerogatives exert a tremendous influence in the
direction of shaping
opinion and belief; of determining the attitude of multitudes of people
institutions and the laws of the land, (31) in fact, of making the
he is. For a man or for men, so placed, to take the position for any
length of time, that a law with which they do not find themselves in
accord is unconstitutional
and therefore is to be ignored, (32) as was done for nearly two
decades; to insist
that the practice of polygamy "is ordained of God, … is ecclesiastical
nature and government," and because of this "it is therefore outside
law," and so, "being within the pale of the church, its free exercise
cannot be prohibited," (33) again, for the "vicegerent of God" to
testify in the conspicuous manner (though not of his own free will and
he had been, and was then, living in known violation of the laws of his
church and his God, (34) that he expected to continue so doing and that
he was willing
to take his chances the laws of the State, (35) and for other leaders,
only a little
less prominent than the President to testify the same conditions in
relations (36) ‒ for such a situation to develop and exist and be taken
as a sort
of matter of course, or even approved and mended, by so large a body of
cannot be productive of results that are far from being reassuring. How
can it be
otherwise than that such attitude toward law, and such examples on the
part of such
influential men, should have a powerful effect upon young manhood and
of the Latter Day Saints organization? We are of the opinion that it is
‒ certainly, it is not in accord with Masonic ideals and teachings ‒ to
young people to character-forming influences which must tend to make
to law. Many thoughtful Craftsmen earnestly believe that these are
times in which
regard for law should be emphasized on all suitable occasions, and that
general practice, in effect, of nullifying and repealing law by
of law, instead of making use of the means provided by law, is a
beyond calculation, a positive, subtle menace to the very foundation of
which are our boast.
of this phase of our subject should not be overlooked. Not only is the
taught by example, and that by the most influential men in the Latter
organization, but it appears in the literature, and often in the
the people. The "Doctrine and Covenants" is one of the four standard
adopted by formal action of this organization. It is the word of God
and is of equal
authority with the Bible, the Book of Mormon and the Pearl of Great
Latter Day Saints controversialists have strenuously objected when
have quoted statements made by Conference speakers in place of adhering
to these standard works of the church. (37) Now, as noted above, the
Covenants is authoritative and standard. Section, or chapter, 132, of
records the Revelation on plural marriage. If it ever taught this
principle ‒ and
there is no controversy on this score ‒ it still teaches it, for the
of the church, Joseph F. Smith, testified under oath that it had not
or repealed, (38) and so far is known to the writer, no action of this
ever been taken. It is still part and parcel of the authoritative
teachings of the
church, as also is the rather severe sentence which it pronounces upon
fail to accept this teaching. (39)
In the material
provided for study by the young people's organizations of the church
stress is laid upon the "Lives" of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Brigham
and others of the leading men in the history of this people, all of
their religion." These men are held up as heroic characters whose words
example are presented for instruction and emulation. (40) Sometimes
addressing large numbers of this faith declare their adherence to the
under consideration. (41) Some years after the Manifesto was issued an
that the principle of plural marriage is as true today as it ever was,
that those "who prevent you from obeying are responsible to God for so
(42) B.H. Roberts, in a church periodical published for the guidance
of young people ‒ members of the Mutual Improvement Association ‒ has a
in defense of this principle. (43) Other illustrations of the matter
could easily be assembled if they were deemed necessary but enough has
it would seem, to show what is being done along this line. We do not
reconcile the contradictions which must be apparent to every observant
‒ we are simply calling attention to facts.
pages are being written in the hope that they may prove to be helpful,
in a measure,
to investigation committees, there is another point of view that should
here. Sometimes it is asserted with reference to one who has applied,
or is desirous
of applying, for the degrees: "He does not practice polygamy; never has
so, and though a member of the Latter Day Saints organization he never
it even in principle. Why, isn't he good material?" Such a question
to call for an affirmative answer and, other things being equal, to
room for objection. But even in such a case there are certain
should have weight, and it is not any one thing, but all those matters
to do with conduct and character ‒ which really help to place a man ‒
be laid on the scales. There is, we believe, such a thing as ‒ for want
of a better
term ‒ group responsibility. By this it is meant that a man can hardly
off, relieve himself of, responsibility by declining to hold to one
the same time that he claims the privileges and accepts the benefits
membership in an organization of which that very principle is
fundamental. To illustrate:
The writer might claim affiliation with the I.W.W., for example, but
insist that, while a member of that organization and ready to aid in
of its principles and philosophy of life, be does not now, and never
in the use of dynamite for the destruction of life and property in
order to gain
the ends which this particular organization his in view. Could he,
justly, be shrived
of responsibility when the organization of which he is a member uses
in the payment of dues and assessments which, among other things, were
to keep him
in good standing in the organization, his money helped to buy the
in the destruction of life. Should his protest of disbelief in a
the practical, concrete assistance he gave to the organization which
does hold to
the principles he disclaims? Whether the analogy is close and
satisfactory in all
particulars or not, there is a suggestion here which investigating
not ignore when arriving at a conclusion.
another objection, and one that at first blush would seem to be
is sure to appear when the suggestion is made that one's belief is to
when passing upon the qualifications of an applicant. The impression
generally that Masonry does not assume the right to question a
petitioner on this
score ‒ that, in effect, he may "believe what he pleases," and, if all
right in other respects he may be received into our fellowship. Of
course, a moment's
reflection must convince us that this is not the case. We do claim ‒
exercise ‒ the right to demand that a man must believe certain things
or his petition
will not even be presented to the lodge. It must be evident, too, to
the well informed
that the range of inquiry touching what must be accepted by applicants
is not fixed
by any so-called "immutable landmark," for the requirements in this
vary in different jurisdictions. Further, one can hardly follow a
the ceremonies of the several degrees without noting how often, by
and scarcely less direct implication, the matter of belief is involved.
ago a prominent leader in the Latter Day Saints organization when taken
by critics for his avowed belief in the principle under consideration ‒
and be was
"living his religion," and still is doing so ‒ responded: "Well,
gentlemen, whose business is it? What are you going to do about
are not prepared to say that, under the circumstances, that is not a
sufficient answer. But here the situation is very different. Masonry
certain standards to which applicants must conform; does pass upon
necessarily must pass upon character, and in order to judge character,
it is needful
to know somewhat of the material, as it were, that has gone into the
making of character.
Hence, many questions are asked, or should be if the information is not
that do not appear in our petitions. And so, on occasion and when in
doubt, we make
inquiries concerning the habits and practices of an applicant.
arise which would lead us to satisfy ourselves whether or not the
applicant is a
"dope-fiend," or "booze-fighter," or libertine; whether he abuses
his wife, or neglects his children, or defrauds his creditors, or is
wedded to the
gaming-table. And we do not hesitate to satisfy ourselves as to his
whether he is crippled, or defective in any respect, or is subject to
disease which might bring him to be a burden upon the lodge. These
of health and character are not our business until application is made
to our fraternity. Then the candidate says in effect: "The bars are
any questions needful, for I am desirous of meeting the conditions in
I may be made a Mason." That one of the most powerful character-shaping
should be excluded from consideration would be absurd, if it were
required, or even
permitted. Our right to make such inquires, and the necessity for them,
be beyond question.
In this connection,
and as further emphasizing the importance that may be attached to a
state of mind
not an overt act ‒ to a "belief," as a determining factor in estimating
character, the decision of a Salt Lake Judge in the Third District
Court is illuminating
and suggestive. The matter came up on the petition of an alien to
become a citizen
of the United States.
the naturalization laws under the statute certain requirements are set
to satisfy any one of these conditions results in defeating application
Among other declarations required the petitioner must state under oath
that he is
not "a polygamist or believer in the practice of polygamy," and
he must make it "appear to the satisfaction of the court" that he is
to the principles of the Constitution of the United States. (45) In the
consideration the applicant for citizenship took the oath as required,
to being a polygamist and his belief in the practice of polygamy. At
however, he was interrogated with respect to fulfilment of conditions
admission to citizenship. The testimony showed ‒ with reference to
belief in the
practice of polygamy ‒ that the petitioner based his disbelief in the
the conviction, and upon no other ground, that so long as they exist,
rules of church and state should be obeyed. He did not disbelieve in it
of any objection to the practice itself: apart from its relationship to
and legal prohibitions he does believe it now." (46) He was willing to
the law, and to have it obeyed, but it was shown that he did not
believe in, and
was unsympathetic with, the forbidding canons of both church and state.
held that "One cannot honestly believe in a practice apart from the
it is against the law, and at the same time be honestly attached to the
it." And further, that since his testimony shows a lack of attachment
law against polygamy, a law fundamental in our scheme of government, he
to fulfil that important condition requiring petitioners to show to the
of the court that they are attached to the principles of the
(47) Admission to citizenship was therefore denied him.
to which attention is especially directed in this incident is the
to a "belief," as disclosing an unfavorable attitude of mind toward the
laws of the land. Masonry, like citizenship acquired through
a privilege, not a right, and a privilege conditioned upon compliance
requirements and those requirements are fixed by the written and
of the Fraternity.
We pass now
to another matter. Masonry directs the attention of its initiates to
the Bible as
"God's inestimable gift to man as a rule and guide to his faith and
In Anglo-Saxon Masonry the "Great Light" occupies a prominent and
position in the ritual. The attitude of the Latter Day Saints
the Bible is not without its significance for us.
is accepted as the "Word of God, so far as translated correctly." (48),
The Book of Mormon [Lib 186~] is equally the word of God,
as also are the
Doctrine and Covenants [Lib 1880], and Pearl of Great Price
[Lib 1913] ‒ these are the "standard
of the Mormon church.(49) In this particular, of course, there could be
for "a Book of the Law" on the, altar meets the requirements. But, as
we understand the matter, a fundamental teaching of the church is what
may be termed
the principle of a continuous or "immediate revelation." By this is
that the President of the church who, as we have seen is the "very
of God," (50) may at any time substitute something better than any one
four books named or than all of them together, and such pronouncement
would be the
very word of God, binding alike upon all the adherents of that faith.
whole of them (i.e., the four books listed above) are not all we need…
has his mouthpiece to say what shall be done and how it shall be done
and on what
occasion it shall be done.'"(51) The authorities of the church are the
oracles of God and they are worth more to the Latter Day Saints than
all the Bibles,
all the Books of Mormon and all the Books of Doctrine and Covenants
that are written.
If we could have but one of them give me the living oracles of the
my guidance." (52) "When compared with the living oracles," declared
Brigham Young, 'those books are nothing to me; those books do not
convey the word
of God direct to us now, as do the words of the Prophet or a man
bearing the Holy
Priesthood in our day and generation. I would rather have the living
all the writing in the books." These words ‒ quoted by President
‒ were spoken in the presence of Joseph Smith, who immediately arose
and said: "Brother
Brigham has told you the word of the Lord and he has told you the
We do not
call attention to these things by way of criticism. These teachings
Bible, in relation to the "living oracles," are for those who can, and
who care to, accept them. But we do suggest, that such ideas concern us
are held by those who would apply to our lodges for the degrees, and
of the source whence such principles emanate, might feel moved at any
time to substitute
some man's dictum for the Great Light in the affairs of life. Under
we submit that the word that might be declared by the "living oracles"
might not accord in any particular or respect with the fundamentals of
And this might very probably be the case in as much as the Latter Day
is opposed to all secret societies ‒ except its own. (55)
matter is worthy of passing notice, at least, in this connection. This
to Deity. Masonry requires of its initiates an avowal of belief in God.
not undertake to say what one's conception of God shall be, so that in
a member of the Latter Day Saints organization can meet the
requirements. But this
fact does not preclude a consideration of conceptions so fundamental in
character as one's apprehension of Deity. Here also is disclaimed any
thought of criticism. The purpose is simply to get as much light as
the influences and forces and beliefs which work together in the great
task of shaping
Saints are taught, and, we assume, believe in, a plurality of gods.
god organized the heavens. In the beginning the heads of the gods
heavens and the earth." (56) In the beginning the Bible shows there is
of gods beyond the power of refutation." (51) "The head of the gods
one God for us." (52) The Deity of the Latter Day Saints "… is an
man." (59) He has parts and passions like men, including the
which he exercises, having With Him, as "He sits enthroned in yonder
a female Deity. (60) Whatever allowance may be made, in the matter of
man at liberty to conceive of God as he may, this much may be said:
Such a materialistic
idea of God differs so widely from that held by Masons generally, but
in this country, that the question night well arise whether those
holding it would
fit into the Masonic institution. The peace and harmony of a lodge is
of prime importance.
has been made to the fact that the Latter Day Saints organization is
secret societies and the reason for this "must be clear to every
intelligent Latter Day Saint." Masonry, according to the late President
F. Smith, is an "institution of the evil one," as is abundantly shown
by many passages in the four standard books of the church. (61) Now,
true, it must follow that a member of that organization who would join
in the face of these facts would act in direct opposition to the
of church leaders, and no less explicit injunctions of the four
standard works of
the church, which he has accepted as the very word of his God. This
such a person would necessarily be a "bad" Mormon, and Masons may be
for seriously doubting if a "bad Mormon" can make a good Mason.
to summarize the principal matters presented in the foregoing pages so
may be seen at a glance some of the reasons which have weight with Utah
1. Historical: Attitude of the
Nauvoo Masons toward Masonic customs and law.*
2. Clandestinism: Temple
ceremonies and use of language and symbols.
3. Priesthood: Unlimited power of
and right to direct and dictate in all things,
temporal and spiritual the "mouthpiece of God."
4. Polygamy: This is taught:
a. In original revelation which
has not been annulled or repealed, nor can it
b. In positive declarations of
belief in it by leaders and prominent teachers.
c. In the literature of the
d. By the example of the leaders
who "live their religion."
5. Attitude toward law:
Enforcement of law against polygamy was "persecution,"
and is still so held and taught
6. Petition: Inability of
applicant honestly to answer one question in petition.
7. Great Light: Substitution of
"living oracles" (Priesthood) for
8. Deity: Conception of male and
female deity out of harmony with that of Anglo-Saxon
9. Membership prohibited: L.D.S.
organization holds Masonry to be "of the
evil one" and is opposed to members having any connection therewith.
BUILDER for March, 1921, p. 36.
1 Proc. New.,
1866, pp. 120-121; Proc. Utah, 1882, pp. 28-53; 1883, pp. 24-26.
2 Tullidge's Quar. Mag. 1881, Volume 1, p. 33; On the general subject
to the priesthood, see George Q. Cannon, "Contributor," 1894, volume
3 Tullidge's Quar. 1881, Vol, 1, p. 33
4 Manual Mutual Impv. Assn. 1901-2, pp. 81-82; 69th Annual Conf. Rept.
5, 6, 7; 70th Annual Conf. Rept. 1900, p. 52; "Outlines of
[Lib 1885] Roberts, p.
5 69th Annual Conf. Rept. 1899, p. 5.
6 "The Thatcher Episode," [Lib 1896] 1899 (B.
Young, Jr.), p. 14; Salt Lake Tribune, April
4, 1921, p. 1.
7 Tullidge's Quar. Mag. 1881, Vol. 1, p. 32.
8 "The Thatcher Episode," 1896, p. 19, Cf. pp. 29-31.
9 Smoot Investigation, [Lib 1905] 1906, Vol.
10 "The Thatcher Episode" 1896, p. 35; Smoot Investigation, 1904, Vol.
I pp. 723, 1012.
11 80th Semi-Annual Conf. Report, 1909, pp. 103-104.
12 80th Semi-Annual Conf. Report, 1909, pp. 124, 125.
13 "New Witness for God," [Lib 1909/11; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol
3] Roberts, p.
187; Cf. Smoot Investigation, Vol. I,
1904, Note 1, p. 1; Doc. & Cov., Sect. 107:5.
14 72nd Semi-Annual Conf. Report 1901, p. 2; 75th Semi-Annual Conf.
p. 5; Doctrine and Covenants, See. 124:93.
l5 75th Semi-Annual Conf. Report, 1904, p. 5.
16 69th Annual Conf. Report 1899, p. 17.
17 Cf. Des. News, Oct. 4, 1896 Geo. Q Cannon.
18 Tullidge's Quar. Mag. 1881, Vol. 1, p. 33.
19 Tullidge's Quar. Mag. 1881 Vol. 1, p. 32.
20 Jour. Desc., Vol. 12, p. 59, Vol. 5, p. 100 Vol. 6, p. 345; "An
to the Presidents," etc., by President John Taylor, 1882, pp. 7, 8, 9,
"Inside of Mormonism," [Lib 1903] 1903, p. 67;
Doct. & Cov., Sec. 124, p. 436; Deseret
Apr. 25, 1895; Logan Journal, May 26, 1898.
21 Cf "Thatcher Episode," 1896.
22 Cf. Refercnce No. 15, above.
23 Pres. Woodruff's Manifests; Proc. of the Semi-Annual Conf., Oct. 6,
entire; Smoot Invest., 1904, Vol. 1, p. 332-333; Doct. & Cov.
Ed. 1914, 493-94.
24 "Defense of the Faith of the Saints," [Lib 1907/12; Vol
1, Vol 2] Roberts,
1912, Vol. 2, p. 333; Cf. Smoot Investigation,
1904, Vol. 2, p. 968.
25 Salt Lake Tribune, Apr. 5, 1921.
26 Proc. Utah, 1883, pp. 24-26.
27 President John Taylor, Tullidge's Quar. Mag. 1883, Vol. 2, pp. 7, 8.
28 Smoot Investigation; D. H. Roberts, 1904, Vol. 1, pp. 74-211. (F.M.
30 Smoot Investigation, 1904, Vol. 1, p. 712.
31 Smoot Investigation, 1904, Vol. 1, p. 336.
32 An Epistle of the First Presidency," etc., 1886, entire; "An Epistle
of the Apostles," etc., Oct. 10, 1887, p. 4; "The Mormon Problem,"
1882, Opinion of Supreme Court, U. S., p. 70.
33 "Handbook of Reference," A.H. Cannon, 1884, p. 102
34 Smoot Investigation, 1904, Vol. 1, p. 334. (Jos F. Smith)
35 Smoot Investigation, see No. 34, above.
36 Smoot Investigation, (B.H. Roberts), 1904, Vol. 1, p.718. (F. M.
Lyman), p. 430;
Cf. Jour. Disc. Vol. 5, pp. 1-38, 100; "Inside of Mormonism," pp.
Des. News, Jan. 16, 1889.
37 "Defence of the Faith," etc., 1921, Vol. 2, p. 293.
38 Smoot Investigation, 1901, Vol. 1, p. -; Apostle Hyrum M. Smith, son
Joseph F. Smith, some time after his father testified as above,
declared that the
revelations could not be changed. His words were: "These revelations
in the Doctrine and Covenants, Book of Mormon and Pearl of Great Price…
proclaimed by revelation as I have stated, and up to this time, after
years of existence of the Church, not one principle or doctrine thus
been receded from by the members of the Church. We have never
repudiated any of
the truths revealed to the Prophet Joseph Smith and to his successors
in the office
of Prophet, Seer and Revelator to the church of Jesus Christ of Latter
We have never relinquished our belief in any one of these doctrines and
We have never been called upon or found it necessary in any stage of
to eliminate any revelation from the record. Neither have we ever
denied any of
them. We testify in all soberness that these revelations are from God.
therefore the same yesterday, today and forever, and are everlasting
to the salvation of those unto whom they are given." Seventy-eighth
Conf. Report 1907. Page 31.
39 Doctrine & Convenants, 1914, Sect. 132:4, p. 464.
40 87th Annual Conf. Rept., 1917, pp. 6, 7.
41 Salt Lake Herald, Apr. 5, 1918 (2000 people present).
42 Logan Journal, Jan. 20, 1898.
43 Improvement Era, 1898,.Vol. 1, pp. 472, 475, 478, 482.
44 "Defence of the Faith," etc., 1912, Vol. 2, p. 331
45 "Naturalization Laws & Regulations," 1915 p. 5.
46 Decision of Judge Harold M. Stephens, (Mss.) 1917, pp. 2,3
47 Ibid p. 8; Cf R.W.Young, Smoot Investigation, 1904, Vol 2, p. 968.
48 "Articles of Faith," Talmage, [Lib 1899] 1899, p. 240
49 Smoot Investigation, 1904, Vol. 1, p. 179.
50 69th Annual Conf. Rept, 1899, pp. 5, 6, 7, 17.
51 69th Annual Conf. Rept, 1899, p. 17.
52 68th Semi-Annual Conf. Rept., 1897, pp. 23-24.
53 Ibid, p. 23.
55 Joseph F. Smith, Improvement Era,,1900, Vol. 4, pp. 8, 9.
56 "Mormon Doctrine of Deity," [Lib 1903] Roberts,
1903, p. 231. Quoted from Joseph Smith's
words, spoken June 16, 1844. Mil. Star, Vol. 24, p. 108.
57 Mormon Doctrine of Deity," Roberts, 1903, p. 231.
58 Ibid; Cf. p. 42.
59 "Mormon Doctrine of Deity,"- Roberts, 1903, p. 10; Jour. of Disc.,
Vol. 6, Disc. No. 3; Improvement Era, Vol, 1, 1898, p. 755.
60 Cf. 69th Annual Conf. Rept. 1899, pp. 18, 20; "Defence of the
1912, Vol. 2, p. 270.
61 "Improvement Era," 1900, Jos. F. Smith, Vol. IV, pp. 58-59.
The Great Poet -- [A Poem]
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
God is a Judge, O God is a King,
An almighty Monarch who rules everything;
O God is a Warrior, O God is a Lord
And terribly flasheth the might of His sword:
But this I affirm for I certainly know it
That God above all other things is a Poet.
Wherever I listen, His melody streams,
And always I'm hearing Him crooning His dreams;
And whatever it is that He chooseth to say
He says in a poet's own beautiful way.
Committees of Investigation
have complained during the past year of great laxity in the matter of
petitioners for the degrees. The principal reasons assigned for this
neglect are to be found in the overwhelming number of petitions which
are sent to
lodges and the inability to get members to devote proper time to look
up those who
apply for the privileges of the Fraternity. It cannot be doubted but
this is an
age which demands the careful scrutiny of everyone who knocks at the
door of the
lodge. There are so many individuals in the country at the present time
ideas which are at variance to those of Masonry that the admission of
be a most serious calamity. It is believed that the problem of proper
of petitioners for the degrees is one which ought to be worked out
along new and
more progressive lines. The old idea of secrecy in appointing an
and the present practice of picking anybody as a member of such
committee does not
comport with present day conditions. It is believed that we have
reached a period
in our Masonic development when a single committee on petitions
composed of men
who have the time and ingenuity to devote to the cause would be
desirable. It is
an old saying that what is everybody's business is nobody's business,
and this seems
to be largely true in the matter of investigating candidates for the
of the Fraternity. This is a problem with which we must grapple sooner
and it is believed that it can be worked out in due time when
thoughtful men give
to the subject that attention which it should receive.
Proc., Grand Lodge of Illinois
of the hour is education ‒ American education, Masonic education,
interchangeable terms. We as Masons, must bend our energies to
opinion not only by precept, but by example. Public opinion is the
force that rules
the country. With a warped and jaundiced public opinion the country is
and in danger; with a correct and righteous public opinion the country
and safe. Public opinion is but the crystalization of individual
opinion. We must
therefore, work upon the individual, and in aid of that work the
must thoroughly learn the principles, the tenets and lessons which are
in the lodge room, and then he must go out into the highways and
by-ways of the
community and exemplify the practice of these principles in his
dealings and actions
with his fellow men. Every Masonic lodge must become the center of good
and wise counsels in the community in which it is established. In this
our noble Order justify its existence and secure and safeguard American
and American institutions to the end of time and to the uttermost
Proc., Grand Lodge of Louisiana.
A Toast to the Lambskin -- [A Poem]
a toast to the Lambskin, more ancient
Than the fleece of pure gold, or the eagles of war;
'Tis the badge of a Mason, more noble to wear
Than the garter of England, or order so rare.
Let the king wear his purple, and point to his crown
Which may fall from his brow when his throne tumbles down
For the badge of a Mason has much more to give
Than a kingdom so frail that it cannot long live.
Let the field marshal boast of the men he can guide,
Of the infantry column and heroes who ride,
But the white leather apron his standard outranks
Since it floats from the east to the death's river banks
'Tis the shield of the orphan, 'tis the emblem of love,
'Tis the charter of faith from the Grand Lodge above.
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa.
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs ‒ From the questions following each section
of the paper
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the tenet of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
* * *
IT IS not
often that one of the subjects of speculative thought becomes the
of the hour but that is what happened in our own national history
between 1850 and
1861 with the doctrine of equality. The whole matter, needless to say,
to the front by the slavery issue. Anti-slavery orators never wearied
their southern friends that the fathers of the nation, in their
Declaration of Independence,
had openly proclaimed "that all men are created equal": if that is
they argued, then Negroes deserve the rights of citizenship, for
Negroes are men.
The pro-slavery advocates retorted by saying; that the fathers of the
of them, had themselves been slave holders, and that they had really
meant to say
that "all men are created equal except negroes." He who reads through
the more important debates on that subject ‒ such a one will be richly
‒ will learn how exceedingly difficult it is to frame any definition of
that will at once do justice to things as they are and to things as
they ought to
be. Equality is an aspiration, (in Masonry as elsewhere) a hope, a
dream, an, ideal,
hard to capture in a net of words, difficult to envisage by the mind,
and one must
remain content after all his thinking about the matter he has not yet
to think it through.
It is as
difficult to arrive at a clear conception of equality from the history
as it is from the history of this nation. The old Craft Mason did not
have any equality
except in a very special sense. His guild was a helpless part of an
social order. He himself had a place in his own guild determined by the
regulations laid down from above. The guilds themselves were graded in
and the members inside each guild were held fast in a similar
hierarchy. There is
no evidence to show that at any time prior to 1717 any form of Masonry
taught and enforced the doctrine. Subsequent to 1717 the doctrine has
come to the
fore, and in some countries has almost occupied the first place among
But ever, so there have been many exceptions. In the Masonry of Latin
equality has not, for obvious reasons, been very much emphasized. Even
the home of democracy, it has never had a very rigorous application to
classes of an aristocratic society. When the Earl of Carnovan inducted
VII into his seat as Grand Master he was careful to remind that
Potentate that English
Masonry had never been subversive of the monarchical system as it had
been in other
It is in
France and in America that we find the Masonic doctrine of equality
most in evidence,
and most influential. The part played by Masonry in the French
Revolution is, and
perhaps will ever remain, pretty much of a mystery. But there is sound
to prove that Masonry had much to do with convincing the French masses
had rights of their own. To this day liberty and democracy is widely
in France in the equalitarian sense. "Liberty, Fraternity, Equality" is
a slogan that has not yet lost its power of appeal.
But it is
in our own land that equality has played its major part in Masonic
history. It may
be that it as Masonry itself (though this point is hotly disputed) that
the Declaration the words "All men be created equal." It is certain
Masonry had with the strain of equalitarianism that runs the
Constitution. It is
certain that the Craft forefront in demanding for the Negro the [?] of
And it is certain that at present moment equality and Masonry are
in many, many minds.
It is Russia,
strange to say, that now finds equality a living issue. Sovietism,
unless we have
been all deceived as to its nature and purposes, goes in for equality
as the chief
good. To level all classes, to do away with distinctions, even such
as those at exist between the learned and the unlearned, to be a part
of the Lenin
program. It would be a curious experiment to send a questionnaire
around our Masonic
leaders and spokesmen to ask them what they think of the Soviet
program, and if
they would be willing to see Equality really tried out. The answers
might not throw
much light on the Russian experiment, but they would surely help us all
just what equality means to Masons.
I have my
own theory as to what Equality means to Masons, and I shall give it:
but I give
it as nothing other than my own private opinion, and not as an
expression of a generally
held formulation of the doctrine. I wish that such a general
be made because Masonic thinking demands it. Until we can work out such
the whole matter will ever remain as foggy as it seems to be now (if
one may from
Masonic literature, speeches, and journalism), and not many Masons will
what is it is said that all Masons "meet upon the level."
It is easiest
to approach the subject by a process of elimination. By equality we
that all men are equal in the original endowment of their nature. There
men and little men, and we all know that in many cases a big man "was
that way," and that a little man cannot become big by ever so much
Why this is so is a mystery, and appears to be (though it doubtless is
not) a fundamental
injustice in the very structure of the universe. I had brought to mind
while reading the third volume of "The History of the United States"
1920, Vol 3; (Nine Volumes –
by James Ford Rhodes, wherein he
carries through several pages a comparison of Lincoln and McClellan.
spiteful, vainglorious, and ill-mannered; he was a good organizer but
he did not
have the courage which naturally belongs to a general. He treated the
with rudeness, and wrote to his wife in such strains of pride as made
the fate of the Union depended on him alone. Lincoln was a great
human power who could be magnanimous, meek, patient for that very
reason. In contrasting
the two men one cannot help but believe that the sundering difference
was a matter
of original nature, and that at birth Lincoln was more of a human being
An inequality like that, one that goes down to the roots of being, is
one that is
hard to reconcile with our sense of the evenhanded justice of Nature.
But the fact
is there, and it is everywhere, for no two men have the same aboriginal
let abstract theorists say what they may.
say that men are equal in nature: neither can we say that they are
equal, or can
be equal, in opportunity. That may possibly happen in small circles all
of which live under the same conditions, as in the case of a family, or
but it is untrue of the race when viewed in the large. The Australian
take an extreme example, never can have the opportunities for
education, for wealth,
for pleasure, fame, what not, as are enjoyed by the average American
should have equal opportunities but they do not have them. They never
can have them
because the earth itself varies too much over its surface ever to make
for all men everywhere to be born into equal opportunities for the
goods of life.
Men are not
born equal in abilities. On this it is not needful to say much because
of inequality is one that confronts us everywhere. It used to be the
theorists to teach that if only all men could receive the same
education and have
the same chances at wealth, and live under equal laws, and be freed
restrictions, all would come up to the same average. Horace Mann firmly
that if all the boys and girls of this nation could get into college
all of them
would turn out scholars, proficient in Greek, Latin, and the arts. But
have had any experience with boys and girls in college know that
nothing is more
certain and unvarying than differences of ability. One student, no
matter how hard
he tries, cannot master mathematics; another seems to be mathematical
In the last
place ‒ there is no need further to multiply instances ‒ there can be
no such thing
as social equality, if by that term one means social uniformity. Social
there are, and always will be, because social needs and instincts are
If a social class (I use the word in its largest sense) is based on
caste, or aristocratic
privilege, or any other kind of special privilege, then it is an evil.
are many social classes that are based not on the principle of the
one group of persons to another but upon the fact of difference among
men. I shall
use a very homely example. In a small town a group of fifty persons
into a literary club, and in the activities of such a club meet each
get acquainted with each other, and all share in the common enjoyment
art. Let us suppose, for clearness of illustration, that admittance to
rests purely on the desire to share in the study of literature. It is
there will be a great number of persons in the community who will never
because in every community there are so many who care nothing for
example, as I said above, is of trivial character in itself, but, it
may serve to
remind us of how many social gradations, classes, cliques, clubs, etc.,
everywhere which rest not on any fact of superiority but upon the fact
of the difference
of interests, tastes, and aims among people. As long as such
differences exist (which
will probably be as long as there is a human race) there will never
come a time
when such social groupings will vanish away, and there will
consequently never come
a time when all men will enjoy the same social advantages. To work for
of such a social state, as the Communists have ever done, as in the
case of Owen,
Fourier, St. Simon, etc., is to strive for the impossible. Such social
is not equality in any possible sense.
is Equality? Instead of attempting any exhaustive definition, I shall
make a generalization
concerning it, and then trust to a series of examples to do the
defining for me.
The statement is follows:
is entitled to the right, equal to the right enjoyed by other men, to
and normal functionings of his own nature.
Newton had a great intellect, one of the very greatest, all historians
has ever appeared on the earth. My intellect cannot in any sense be
spoken of as
equal to his. Nevertheless I claim the same right to use my intellect,
such as it
is, that he enjoyed; and he, if he were living, would have no right
merely because of his own superiority, to deny me the prerogatives of
him to do so, and for me to submit to such abasement would be a crime
The right to use the mind is for all men everywhere and always the same
may be the inequalities of mental ability. Whenever this right is
or controlled in the interests of some clique or class, as has often
suffers, individuals suffer, and a wrong is done that merits condign
thing holds good of practical ability. William Morris had an
genius. He could weave tapestry, carve wood, paint pictures, write
speeches, model in clay, print books, and a score of things beside, and
do all with
rare skill. There are few of us who could claim any such ability, but
even so, we
have the same right to use our powers that Morris had to use his. In
and all-important regard, William Morris was no better than the most
in his workshops.
of us is social by nature, and nearly every one of us appreciates the
of friendship. But some men seem to have a genius for friendship.
comparatively unknown himself, was the center of a circle of friends
one of whom became famous in some line. Our own Charles Eliot Norton,
no rarer spirit has ever dwelt in this land, numbered among his close
men as Ruskin, Carlyle, Emerson, Lowell, George William Curtis, Charles
Leslie Stephen, and nobody knows how many more such outstanding
and I may number our friends on the fingers of one hand, and they may
be the humblest
imaginable so far as attainments go, but for all that each of us has
the right to
friends, the same right as that enjoyed by Watts-Dunton and Eliot
Norton. Such a
statement may seem banal enough, but there are places in the world now,
been many places in the past, where social life has been so rigidly
graded that custom and aristocratic dictation have made impossible to
all but a
few the unhindered exercise of so fundamental a thing in human nature
as the cultivation
of human equality has been oftenest violated, it seems, in religion,
the one field
in which men should enjoy the largest measure of it. What a tale of
tyranny, and aristocracy has been the history of the world's churches.
One no sooner
thinks of the matter than examples flock to the mind in unmanageable
one great period of their history the Egyptian people were entirely
the feet of a priestly hierarchy that crushed out in the masses the
of worship, or made use of that instinct for the advantage of their own
Buddha had unveiled to the eyes of his people the sacredness of each
soul before the ineffable and eternal realities of the universe, the
back with their castes and their engines of oppression and the people
again all uses of their own religious faculties. Jesus came forth to
make each man
know himself as a son of God, bound together in the great circle of
after time went on, and the priestly leaven had its opportunities to
work, it required
a Lutheran revolution to restore to Christians the "liberty of a
man." The old lady across the street, who reads her Bible morning and
who arises and retires with prayer, and, who lives in her humble and
such a religious life as she is capable of conceiving of, is worlds
removed in religious
faculty from a Buddha, a Jesus, a Luther: but she is as much entitled
as they to
think her poor religious thoughts, and to lead her life of little
it will be seen that equality is not a utopian theory which men have
being desirable in this harsh world. Far from it! Equality is a
necessity of our
nature, without which we live mutilated unhappy lives. It is a
necessity, when properly
understood, like food, clothing, and shelter. He who robs men of that
Nature ordains is committing a crime against human beings. He does
must necessarily be followed by tragic consequences, as is true of the
of any other condition made necessary by Nature herself. It is because
the doctrine is not a mere plaything for erudites but a pressing
problem for every
man, however busy he may be.
some reader may here rightfully interject, is all, very good, and
nobody will deny
that equality is a right but what about equality as a fact? One needs
about him to see that even the simple and basic equality which you have
is not being enjoyed by the masses of people to any degree at all!"
enough," I should reply, "but you have merely stated the complementary
fact (complementary, is, to what I have hitherto said) that equality is
a task as
well as a right, and it is precisely because equality is a right that
it is for
us all a task" "By that I mean, that if we are clear in our mind that
every man is justly entitled to a reasonable measure of equality then
it is for
us all, insofar as we are good Masons and citizens, to see that every
man gets it.
To see that man gets it is precisely one of the great missions in which
Let us consider
a moment equality before the law. There was a time in England when only
had access to the protection of the "law" at all, and when priesthood
had its own courts where priest administered the law to priest. Poor
men were arrested
without warrant; sentenced without being tried; and often executed
It all depended upon the whim of the earl, or the baron, or bishop, or
what-not. But very gradually there was developed in England a genuine
the law, as may be traced through the following important watermarks of
of the freedom of English-people:
1. Magna Charta;
2. The petition of Rights, 1628;
3. Habeas Corpus, 1679.
In our Colonial
days these gains made by the people of England naturally were enjoyed
by the early
settlers and they at last, after writing a Declaration of Independence,
basic equality before the law in the Constitution, and in the first
seven or eight
As may be
expected, equality before the law is not yet a realized fact for all.
for a great corporation told me that his employers were so powerful
wealth that he would guarantee to keep any case indefinitely in the
thus wear out any adversary, however just might be that man's claims.
law's delays," is often a sad calamity for a poor man. In my own old
I knew of two men whose opposite experiences illustrate this
unfortunate fact. One
was the president of a great corporation who in a federal court was
on ten serious counts, but being a corporation president, and very
very prominent, he paid not a cent of fine and did not spend a day in
he returned to his home city he was met at the depot by a band and a
The other man about whom I knew was a poor fellow who stole a coil of
from a car-barn in the same city and served two years in the
penitentiary for so
doing! The reader knows of such cases, I have no doubt, and so does
this is only to say that any right which humanity gains is always
and must be evermore completely won, and that every right must evermore
guarded, for the whole tendency of human society, if men relax their
is to slide backwards. Equality before the law as we now enjoy it in
is found nowhere else in the world save in England, France, and a few
In the great portion of the world it is a thing unknown. If that
equality is not
yet a perfect thing, the challenge is to us; it is no sense a proof
that the doctrine
of equality is an impossible thing.
true of equality before the law holds true of equality in every right
and just sense.
And we Masons are under a peculiar obligation to devote ourselves to
the task of
making equality everywhere a fact. For equality is one of our central
Fraternity never permits us to forget that; the ritual impresses it
upon the candidate
in every way; the lodge is so organized that everyone "meets upon the
The candidate is made to feel that without the assistance of his
fellows he is a
poor, naked, blind, destitute thing without hope: the member is made to
every Mason has the Masonic rights equal to every other Mason, and pays
dues, enters on the same conditions, holds office on the same terms,
equally with all others the burdens and obligations of the Order.
- Do you believe that the "Negro"
is the equal of the white man?
- If you do not how do you
reconcile such a disbelief with the Masonic teaching
that "we meet upon the level" and with the Declaration of Independence?
- If Negroes are equal why is it
that when left to themselves they are so backward?
- What was Lincoln's theory of
the Negro in this connection?
- What was his scheme for solving
the Negro problem?
- How many kinds of guilds were
- Was Operative Masonry a guild?
- Do you, consider England a
democratic country where equality is a fact?
- What do you know about the
connection between Masonry and the French Revolution?
- Are Bolshevists in Russia
aiming at equality? or at Communism?
- What is the difference, if any,
between the two?
- Is equality, as Soviet
Government understands it, a possibility?
- Do you consider yourself equal
in endowment to a Jesus or to a Socrates?
- Were those men "great" in
nature from birth on?
- Do you believe the same
opportunities as those enjoyed by the son of J. D.
Rockefeller? Why not?
- Do you believe, that you could
paint as great a picture, as Raphael if you
"had the chance"?
- Do you have social equality in
- Do you agree with Brother
Haywood's description of equality? If not, will
you send your criticism of his description to THE BUILDER?
- Can you furnish types of
equality, to Harmonize with his description, which
he has not given?
- Do you possess the same rights
to have friends as any other men?
- In what countries is it
impossible for men to be free in their choice of
- What is the cause of those
- Give other examples in which
men have been denied religious equality.
- How would you define religious
equality? What does Masonry teach about religious
- Can you give specific examples
to illustrate what Brother Haywood says about
equality being a necessity of human nature?
- In what way does that make the
problem a pressing one, and resting on the
shoulders of every man?
- Can you narrate the history of
the winning of such political equality as
we know have?
- What is political equality?
- Do you have equality before the
- Do you have it as much as the
Standard Oil Company?
- What should be done about "the
- Does not the man who can hire a
good law firm stand a better chance than
the poor man who cannot hire a lawyer at all? Is that right?
- What can be done about it?
- Tell what you can about Masonic
- How long has Masonry taught the
- How much equality is there in
the lodge room?
is it the duty of Masons to enforce equality everywhere?
* * *
Equality, p. 247;
p. 442. Freemasonry, holding to
a democratic course, avoids that anarchy-begetting confusion and
asserts that equality
of the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man.
Russia, p. 655;
Russia, Secret Societies of, p. 655. Reference
to the Soviet control of Russia suggests consideration of the Masonic
that country. For many years the inactivity of Freemasonry has added
one more curious
phase to the peculiar current events of that country.
* * *
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to
of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three
in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under
the following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge
and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and
"Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st, 1921,
are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919
and the remaining papers of the series may be had in the 1921 bound
will be ready for delivery early in December. Single copies of 1921
are not obtainable, our stock having become exhausted.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Havwood:
Reasons for a course explaining what
the "teachings of Masonry" mean.
‒ B. How
one can arrive at his own Philosophy
Conclusion. The Philosophy of Masonry is
not a study of philosophy in general, but a study of Masonry such as a
gives to any great intellectual problem.
1. ‒ The
Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
2. ‒ The Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
3. ‒ The Masonic Conception of Education.
4. ‒ Symbolism.
5. ‒ Secrecy.
6. ‒ Masonic Ethics.
7. ‒ Democracy.
8. ‒ Equality.
9. ‒ Liberty.
10. ‒ Masonry and Industry.
11. ‒ The Brotherhood of Man.
12. ‒ The Fatherhood of God.
13. ‒ Endless Life.
14. ‒ Brotherly Aid.
15. ‒ Schools of Masonic Philosophy.
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
* * *
HOW TO ORGANIZE
AND CONDUCT STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
1. Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
2. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
3. Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
4. The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
5. Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
The Sword Pointing to a Naked
By Bro. Frank C. Hickman,
thought, a mental picture, queer!
A waking dream; as I recline
And think upon its message clear:
The truth of which survives all time.
The picture is a two-edged sword,
It points toward a naked heart,
Then there's the eye of God our Lord
Watching the planets as they dart.
The moral which they demonstrate,
The lesson that they teach to us;
Is, justice whether soon or late,
Will certainly overtake us.
And, though our thoughts, from man concealed,
To God will ever be revealed.
contribution which any man can make for the benefit of posterity, is
that of a good
character. The richest bequest which any man can leave to the youth of
land is that of a shining, spotless example.
Masonic World Unity
ISSUE of an English Masonic journal announces that the Prince Hall
Grand Lodge of
New York had just celebrated its Diamond Jubilee, and then goes on to
"our colored brethren" for the earnestness with which they "enter
upon their Masonic duties." Here is a typical example of the anomalous
that exists throughout the Masonic world. English Masons acknowledge
of Negro Masonry and welcome the Negroes into their fraternal circles;
Masons refuse to extend the fraternal hand and declare with an almost
voice that Negro Masonry is clandestine; and yet English and American
in the closest affiliation, and almost all the Masonry in this country
from the Mother Grand Lodge across the sea.
Thus is it
with a score of equally important matters. Some of our Grand Lodges do
Swedish Masonry because it is specifically "Christian," and others
turn the cold shoulder to the Grand Orient because, forsooth, it is
One Grand Lodge refuses to recognize the Grand Lodge of Panama because
it has no
legitimate ancestry: another Grand Lodge extends a fervent welcome
because the Masonry
of Panama is legitimate. And so it goes.
no need that anybody feel much concerned about this. The same anomalous
may be found among churches, governments, and every other human
makes any attempt to establish an international comity. An ideal and
unity is, and always will be, an impossibility. But what of it? There
is a unity
now existing, in spite of all the differences above suggested, and it
is quite sufficient
for all Masonic purposes, albeit this must not be understood to mean
that no attempt
should be made to bring all members of the Brotherhood into closer
advocated by The National Masonic Research Society from its inception
is one of
the surest methods for bringing a common mind and spirit into the great
Masonic world. The large number of our differences and divisions spring
uninformed comprehension of Freemasonry; its history, nature, and
the majority of Masons know the history and evolution of the Order, and
the A B C's of its philosophy, and know a little about Masonry as it
developed in the countries of the world, there will be less dogmatism
in their souls
and more fraternalism.
* * *
A Great Definition of Freemasonry
have been the attempts to capture in words that meaning and spirit of
and almost as countless have been the failures, for he must be a master
indeed who can succeed in such a task. For the which reason a success
in this difficult
undertaking is something to make note of, and preserve, and study, all
will surely be done with the definition offered herewith. It was given
W.N. Ponton of Canada, in one of those address that have made him
"Masonry, whose condition and
are considering, is something more than a secret society (though
secrecy is an element
in esoteric work); more than ritualism (though the ritual, simple in
and quaint and rhythmic in expression, is a factor); more than
symbolic teaching is significant and transfigures the commonplace);
more than philosophy
(though it speculatively teaches how to live wisely and well); more
(but not greater than religion, yet discerning the divinity in
humanity); more than
mere landmarks (though these have their defining, historical, and
more even than brotherhood (for as in the Pythagorean days, it is
intellectual as well as social and fraternal); more than constructive
philanthropy (though love crowns all); yet it is all of these together
something more of which language is inadequate to express the subtle
to those few choice spirits who seek to penetrate to the heart of its
power, and the span of life too brief to enable those who endeavor to
ideal perfection of that living organism, whose countersign is
inspiration is the God-head ‒ that Masonic edifice of which love and
base and spire ‒ Nisi Dominus frustra."
* * *
The Religion of Freemasonry
recently appeared with an editorial in which occurs these astonishing
"A Mason owes every conceivable
to support and uphold the church. There is probably not as much need of
this upon our Hebrew friends as the rest of us. They seem to have a
of their obligations and responsibilities, but as they stand for their
God as revealed in the old testament dispensation, we who are
be as faithful and zealous in upholding the new dispensation as
revealed to us in
the life and work of Him whom we call Son of God and the foundation of
"The more degrees one receives
the stronger is the truth impressed that religion as revealed in God
and His son,
Jesus Christ, is the basis of the Masonic order."
words unless the present writer has misinterpreted the somewhat
of the above, Freemasons are either Christians or Jews! Shades of the
not this brother scribe know that there are millions of men and women
in this land
who are neither but who for all that are good people and true, with a
in the one God and in the life everlasting, not to mention brotherhood
And has he forgotten that there are thousands and thousands of Masons
who are Mohammedans,
Brahmins, Buddhists, Confucianists, Behaists, etc., etc?
the old, old question of the religion of Freemasonry, which is not a
all to one who will take the trouble to read a little history. As plain
can be are the words "Concerning God and Religion" in the Constitutions
fundamental to Craft Masonry the world over, which tell us that a Mason
to the moral law and will never be a stupid atheist, but that for the
rest may choose
what religion he will, or no religion.
is not Christian; neither is it anti-Christian; nor is it Jewish, or
or Buddhist. It is itself. It has its own unique place in the world
with its own
unique work to do, and sadly does he misconstrue its mission who would
have it made
an appendage of any one faith. To its own principles only does it hold
and if they wish to add other tenets to their faith so be it, that is
of Masonry. And if a Mason is free of all religious connections, will
sign no creed,
and offer no fealty to any revelation or dispensation whatsoever, but
to a firm faith in God, in Immortality, and in Brotherhood, also so be
* * *
The Masonic Burial Service
signs here and there, if one may trust THE BUILDER'S correspondence,
are beginning to make some attempt to revise the Masonic burial
service. It is surely
time! The stiff, cold, cheerless form so widely in use, which sounds
like the wailing
of a winter day, and gives expression to a philosophy of death that is
as it is bleak, has seen its day and should cease to be.
service should above all things be sincere, for hypocrisy in religious
is never more deadening than at a funeral. If brethren do not believe
that the dead
lie in the earth they should not say so, and they should not convey the
of believing that the deceased will molder away in the dirt until some
If they really believe in the immortality of man they should let that
belief suffuse the entire ceremony with a dignified and noble
confidence. If they
believe that the ceremony is performed in behalf of the living, and
that mourn, they should not address it to the corpse in the grave.
Also, and much
intense earnestness goes into this "also," no mawkish poetry should be
brought in merely to give a tone of sentimentality, or to dress the
in colors that do not belong to it. A burial service should be brief,
and heartening; and it should draw its power from the adequacy with
which it expresses
the hopes and faiths which enable us to conquer the fear of death.
Two or three
years ago the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts appointed a Committee on
which submitted a report that embodied the true principles to govern
such a rite:
they are worth pondering over:
The Masonic burial service
should be complete in itself. That is to say,
it should be so arranged that it could be used as a complete service in
were no church or other service held. It should, however, be so
arranged that it
could be readily shortened so as to be used in connection with a church
should be simple and should
be accompanied by sufficiently full directions
to make it easy to be conducted by those not much experienced in such
should be deeply religious,
but not exclusively Christian.
should not be a repetition,
in whole or in part, of any church service
which might be used in connection with it.
emphasis should be laid on
life, hope, and immortality.
endeavor should be to
comfort and to convey the assurance of sympathy."
Nature's Open Book -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
heaven shall be made up of those, who, by
the way of creeds
Seemed to get through St. Peter's gate, though somewhat shy on deeds ‒
Or those dear pious ones who find salvation in their way
More than they do in things that bring life's best into its play,
I shall be disappointed much, for sentiment and cheer
Is, after all, what makes the place worth living in down here.
But this, of course, presumes that I, so human here on earth
Might be among the company that by creeds measure worth;
If not, I shall be satisfied to find, among the rest
Those who "rubbed elbows" with me here in ways that gave me zest;
And it may be that to the place where I shall have to go
I'll find the Lodge Celestial of the ritual here below.
And the Concordant Orders too may in the place be found, ‒
The place the most delightful where the Brothers hang around;
Then, too, the Sisterhoods so blest, the White Shrine and the Stars
May be nearby to fashions swap with Sisters right from Mars;
So it may be that those Book-made old Jew-forged streets of gold
Will be the lonesome part of heaven when time its tale has told.
If we are ever changed from what we are by nature made
And placed in the environment the "good folks" have essayed,
We ne'er can "carry on" the things that gave to life its cheer,
For we must as ourselves reflect the things made precious here.
And this is my apology for what herein you see,
For nature's open book, as read, seems as the truth to me.
borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
For loan oft loses both itself and friend,
Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
Masonic Legends and Traditions
Legends and Traditions," [Lib*] by Dudley Wright. Published by William
& Sons, London, 1921. Copies may be had through the National
Society, Anamosa, Iowa. Price $1.50, Postpaid.
WRIGHT'S is a name that has become a household word among the
of THE BUILDER, so there is little need to introduce him at length to
of these columns. He is a Masonic scholar, a writer, an editor, and a
gentleman, who devotes his time to Masonic research, for the which he
opportunities and facilities, seeing that he resides in the ancient and
town of Oxford, England. Out of the great research libraries of that
he has excavated an immense mass of materials relating to Freemasonry
and to cognate
subjects, but all this weight of lore and learning he carries lightly,
so as not
to let it bear down too heavily upon his readers. He writes with ease
and never tries to put on airs, as is often the fashion with authors in
neither has he ever permitted himself to go mad with occultism and
like Churchward and others of his colleagues that might be named.
good British sense for fact and for straightforward narrative shows to
in "Masonic Legends and Traditions," a little book of 152 pages, done
in blue cloth, and printed on the light and attractive paper that
use. Besides the Introduction there are nine chapters, all of which
with those materials that may be described as "our own mythology." In
the first chapter is an account of some of the legendary origins of the
among which is the Noahic account which Dr. Oliver so loved to talk
about. In chapter
two ‒ one of the most valuable in the book ‒ is a collection of
the beginnings of Freemasonry in Britain: these various accounts are
the Harleian Mss. No. 1942; the Lansdowne Mss. (circa 1560); Prichard's
Dissected"; and so on, with a very long account reprinted in full from
Wilson Ms., which A. F. Woodward dated at 1650. The chapter concludes
with a list
of the traditional and historical Grand Masters of England, beginning
in 292 and concluding with H. R. H. the Duke of Connaught and
Strathearn, K. G.,
recounts several of the legends that have come to cluster about
‒ I imagine that some of this material may be new to THE BUILDER
four is a kind of supplement to chapter three, and gives an
accumulation of "Solomonic
Lore and Legend," a theme of peculiar interest and human appeal. In
five and six Brother Wright has pieced together all the traditions
King of Tyre, and concerning Hiram Abiff. Chapter seven is devoted to
the Queen of Sheba; chapter eight takes up a number of the Christian
chapter nine is devoted to "Miscellaneous Legends," among which are the
traditional origins of the Winding Stairs, the Golden Fleece, etc.
does not clothe all these varied materials with a dress of verbiage but
out one after another in rapid succession so that a busy man need not
to get at the meat of the matter. The usefulness of the book lies in
the fact it
that assembles in compendious form so many things that elsewhere lie
in scores of volumes, so that one is saved much labor. Also, one has a
mass of traditions
set before him in order, and this enables him to understand the thing
as a whole,
like a picture. The one fault with Brother Wright's work is that it
lacks an index!
Where would Brother Wright himself have got to by this time had he not
* * *
The Children of the Sun
Islanders of the Pacific, or The Children of the Sun," [Lib 1921] by Lieut.-Col. T. R. St.
late District Commissioner of the Lau Islands, Fiji. Published by D.
Company, 29-35 W. 32nd St., New York, N.Y., 1921, at $6.00.
amid the multitudinous prophecies collected into our Book of Isaiah
there lies a
sentence like a pearl which reads "The isles shall wait for his law.”
back of the mind of ye present scribe there lies a memory of the
on him by the first reading of that beautiful and very poetical saying;
up an image of something very large and remote, of far and alien folk
sea-washed islands in the ends of the earth, and of dim multitudes
for a friendly and superior people to come to them with light and
the pages of this ample volume I found myself confronted by the
and saw in veridical photographs the strange faces of these sometime
dream, these people who, since Captain Cook pushed his way amid their
have dwelt more in romance than in reality, but who are at last being
"discovered" by the white man and his laws. If anyone supposes because
these folk live in islands that therefore they are few in number and
in consequence, let him turn to an accurate map of that part of the
covers the equatorial zone, and stretches from Queensland to Hawaii,
from the Ladrone
Islands to Paumoto Archipelago. He will find there great swarms of
across a vast stretch of sea, forming a kind of bridge, half marine and
almost to South America. It is a mighty empire of land and people, the
which is as yet almost as completely sealed as "the Lamb's book of
of this three-hundred-page volume spent many years of his life as a law
amid the Pacific Islands and he is glad of it, for he has enjoyed his
Also he has accumulated, throughout all these years, a respectable
amount of erudition,
as the present volume bears witness to. However, he does not bore one
learning, or with priggishness ‒ he is no learned pundit. "This book
intend to be more than a popular treatise," he candidly writes, "it is
'Ethnology from an Easy Chair,' if you will ‒ and dealing, for the
first time I
believe, with the Pacific as a whole." There are chapters on the
from Asia and Europe, by means of which the Pacific archipelagoes were
chapters on religions, myths, secret societies, burial customs, tabus,
totems, dolmens, languages, and what not, along with three or four
dozen very excellent
illustrations, all from photographs.
eccentric painter, by a kind of spectacular gesture, called our
attention to this
world of islands; then came O'Brien with his now famous book, "White
in the South Seas." [Lib 1924] Hawaii has become a popular
resort. In Tahiti
is a lodge of Masons. The Sunday Supplements have begun to make the
the Sun their property, along with other primitive and half-dressed
folk from New
York and Paris. The National Geographic Magazine and numberless books
floods of information into our ears. But it is as yet too soon for us
to come to any very real acquaintance with the Pacific Islanders,
though every such
book as the present is to be welcomed as assisting to that end. They
are still living,
most of them, their ancient life unbothered by the white man and the
laws, and one of the charms of learning about them is that one may see
being as he must have been before he learned how to civilize himself,
six or eight
thousand years ago.
In this connection
lies the appeal of the present volume to the Masonic reader. There is
far as I have been able to find, of any direct interest to a Craftsman,
is much of an indirect interest, such as the pages on primitive
and secret societies. More and more it is coming to be realized by our
though it may be true that much of what we now know as Freemasonry came
in 1717 or since, there is very much else in it that is as old as man
this applies not so much to any one symbol, or emblem, or rite, as to
and oft concealed psychological roots out of which such institutions as
grow. If anyone would discover how it comes about that a secret society
of what it is made, how it functions, and why it has its rites and
let him acquaint himself with primitive man. There he will have the
process of origins
going on before his eyes; and with that in mind he can all the better
the highly developed and very sophisticated Fraternity of which he is
member. Alike for the light it throws upon the simple psychology of the
and for the information it gives relative to the most primitive uses
of some of our own symbols and myths, Colonel Johnston's "Pacific
[Lib 1921] will have its own angle of
for those who may care to read it for such a purpose.
* * *
The Life Story of Albert
Life Story of Albert Pike," [Lib 1920] by Fred W. Allsopp. Published
Parke-Harper News Service, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1920.
genius of literature bestowed on Albert Pike living all her choicest
gifts of authorship
and fame; but on Albert Pike dead she has not, alas, showered so many
of her favors.
Pike's works have never yet been carefully edited or adequately
the fact that he wrote so many thousands of pages which should be
the most priceless treasures of Freemasonry; and Pike's life has not
yet been written.
Indeed, he is the most inadequately biographized of all great Americans.
of the little volume named in the caption will not cause the Masonic
reader to modify
the sweeping statement just made, for Mr. Allsopp's volume is anything
but a "life
story of Albert Pike." It is little more than a collection of rough
enough fitted to serve as a magazine article but painfully insufficient
uses of a volume on such a subject.
is evidently a prentice at the game of writing. Note the following
sentence as it
appears at the top of page eleven: "He was of the same staunch stock as
Pike, author of the first arithmetic published in America and the
friend of George
Washington; as Zebulon Pike, who explored the Rocky Mountains, and
Americans." One grows curious to learn what other eminent Americans
On page 129
Mr. Allsopp describes the Pike monument erected by the Scottish Rite in
in 1899 as "with a book in his right hand." If one will refer to the
of the monument published on page 112 he will see that Pike holds the
book in his
left hand. There are a score or more of such minor errors through the
of this little volume, and they tend to distress the reader, who
wonders why the
author did not take more pains with his work.
as a whole is most disappointing to the Masonic reader, especially if
he has waited
long for a Pike biography. Consider the fact that in a book of only 130
six pages are devoted to Pike's Masonic career, and of these, four are
two long quotations from Masonic orations! The same lack of proportion
in the first portion of the work wherein 24 pages, or three chapters,
to Pike's adventurous trip across the Staked Plains, an interesting but
episode in an important career.
On page 108
occurs this very curious paragraph:
"A biography should be entirely
and, with a respectful consideration for the honored dead, it must be
while most of the old settlers who knew him speak of Pike with greatest
there are some who do not. A few are inclined to shake their heads, and
that maybe Pike in his younger days did not always practice what he
however, have been found who could cite definite instances of
remissness on his
part. Every forceful man makes some enemies, and everybody will not
speak well of
anybody. None of his few detractors will gainsay that Pike was
be more irritating than that? Why doesn't Mr. Allsopp give us something
instead of leaving in our minds a vague suspicion that Pike may have
of some serious fault or other which had better be hushed up at the
same time that
it is acknowledged? And what a curious thing to toss aside such
suspicions by saying
that Pike "was intellectually an unusual man." What has his being
to do with such a matter, and why say anything about it, unless one
as a whole is amateurish, poorly written, disproportioned, and
and all such strictures to the contrary notwithstanding, it is a volume
Masonic student will care to own, because, unsatisfactory as it is, it
a number of references and items of fact not previously gathered into
with which the present scribe is familiar. The literarily inclined will
to learn that "the Pike home (in Little Rock, Arkansas) afterwards
property of Colonel John Gould Fletcher, a prominent banker of Little
his son, John Gould Fletcher, the 'imagist' poet, has given a picture
of this house,
which was built in the style of the old south and 'fronts foursquare
with its six white columns,' in his 'Goblins and Pagodas.' It is to
this day one
of the finest old southern homes to be found in the state." The
will care to make notes of the following items: W. E. Woodruff, Jr., in
the Light Guns," [Lib 1903] tells of some of Pike's
experiences with Indians.
Hempstead's "History of Arkansas" [Lib*] treats of Pike as a political
character and as a writer. John Hallum's "Biographical and Pictorial
of Arkansas (1887) [Lib*] tells the famous story of Pike's series of
to the Gods." Mr. Allsopp refers to "The Book News Monthly" as
an article on Pike and Edgar Allan Poe but does not give the date.
Volume 3 of the
Publications of the Arkansas Historical Society contains a sketch of
by Judge U. M. Rose which includes reminiscences of Pike. The
biographer of the
future (may he come speedily!) may find these references of value.
of Pike's Masonic affiliations and offices is given briefly beginning
on page 113.
Inasmuch as this account may be of interest to readers of THE BUILDER
purposes the paragraphs will be given in full:
was initiated in Western Star Lodge, Little Rock, in 1850; received the
Worshipful Master (sic. Mr. Allsopp here betrays his membership among
in the following July; was created a Knight Templar in 1853; served as
Priest of the Grand Chapter of Arkansas in 1852-1854; received the
degrees of the
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite from the 4th to the 32nd degree in
in January, 1859, was elected M.P. Sovereign Grand Commander of the
of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States.
the instituting of the Provincial Grand Lodge of the United States of
the Royal Order of Scotland, Sir and General Albert Pike was named in
from Edinburgh, Scotland, bearing date October 4, 1877, as the
Master ad vitam.
was an honorary member of the Supreme Councils of the Northern
Jurisdiction of the
United States, England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Franc Belgium,
Hungary, Mexico, Brazil, Egypt, Tunis, Peru, Canada, Colon, Nueva
Granada, and Honorary
Grand Master and Grand Commander of the Supreme Councils of Brazil,
Tunis, and Egypt.
daughter, Mrs. Lillian Pike Roome, states that Sovereign Grand
H. Honou his predecessor, resigned that office expressly that General
be elected as Sovereign Grand Commander. General Pike held that office
until his death, a period of thirty-two years, which is a remarkable
book is graced by a kindly Introduction by Charles E. Rosenbaum, 33°.
published a revised
and expanded edition in 1928 [Lib 1928] - rhm)
* * *
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to where
obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than those listed
on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the publications
wanted have been
out of print for years. Believing that many such books might be in the
other members of the Society willing to dispose of them we are setting
column each month for the use of our members. Communications from those
Masonic publications will also be welcomed.
addresses are here given that those interested may communicate direct
other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the Society.
It is requested
that all brethren whose wants may be filled through this medium
the Secretary so that the notices may then be discontinued.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
""Realities of Masonry,"
""Records of the Hole Craft and
Fellowship of Masons," Condor, 1894;
Carson, 1873; "Origin of Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California;
Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes
3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards, also St. John's Cards for volumes 4
""Masonic Review," early
""Voice of Masonry," early
"Transactions Supreme Council Southern
Jurisdiction for the years 1882 and 1886;
"Original Proceedings of the General
Grand Encampment Knights Templar for the years 1826 and 1835.
Bro. David E. W. Williamson, P.O. Box 754, Reno, Nevada:
Perdiguier's "Livre du Compagnonnage,"
Rylands' "Freemasonry in
the Seventh Century," quoted in Gould's "Concise History of
By Bro. E.
A. Marsh, 820 Broad Ave., N. W., Canton, Ohio:
Traditions of Freemasonry,"
by A.T.C. Pierson, published at St. Paul, Minn., January 1865.
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin,
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library
of Samuel Lawrence,"
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations
By Bro. H.
H. Klussmann, 310 Monastery St., West Hoboken, N. J.:
"Traditions of Freemasonry,"
by A. T. C. Pierson;
"Illustrations of Masonry," by
For Sale Or Exchange
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin,
Leaves from a Freemason's Note
Book," by George Oliver. This volume also contains "Some Account of the
Schism showing the presumed origin of the Royal Arch Degree." Univ.
edition. Price $3.00.
""Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry,"
by Robert Morris. (Fiction and anecdotes.) Price $3.50.
By Bro. F.
R. Johnson, 3425 East 61st St., Kansas City, Mo.,
History of Freemasonry,"
by Robert Freke Gould, published by the John C. Yorkston Co., silk
first-class condition, four volumes, $17.00;
"History of Freemasonry," by
J.W.S. Mitchell, P.G.M. of Missouri 1844-45, full morocco binding,
History of Freemasonry,"
by Albert G. Mackey, seven volumes, practically new, $30.00;
Standard History of Freemasonry,"
by J. Fletcher Brennan, published in 1885, one volume;
from the Quarry," by John
H. Brownell, Editor of the American Tyler, 1893, $6.00;
"Antiquities of the Orient Unveiled,"
by M. Walcott Redding, 1877, $5.00;
"History and Cyclopedia," by
Oliver and Macoy, full morocco binding, $10.00.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
College of Allied Masonic and Christian Degrees of America ‒ The
Rite Of Memphis ‒ Cerneauism ‒ The White Shrine of Jerusalem
kindly answer the following questions in THE BUILDER?
read in the New International
Encyclopaedia that there exists in the United
States an institution by the name of the Sovereign College of Allied
Christian Degrees of America. This institution, according to the
article, has a
charter empowering it to confer academic as well as ritualistic
degrees. The highest
of the academic degrees is that of Doctor of Universal Masonry which
to only five Masons. Can you tell us something more about this college?
I am sure
that many brethren would be interested in it.
is the rite of Memphis? Is
it practiced in the United States?
is Cerneauism? Where is it
practiced? Is it recognized in the United
is the White Shrine? How
far is it recognized by Masonic and Eastern
Star bodies? Can you give a short history of the same?
M. F., Wisconsin.
1. The Sovereign College of Allied
Masonic and Christian Degrees of America
was organized at Richmond, Va., in 1890, by Hartley Carmichael, William
C. A. Nesbitt, all 33rd degree men. It is an assemblage of various and
drawn from various sources, and has never become very widely patronized
country. It is in fraternal relations with the Royal Ark Council, the
of Secret Monitors, and the Grand Council of the Allied Masonic
Degrees, all of
England. The five Masons to which you refer as having received the
of Doctor of Universal Masonry are Josiah Drummond, W. J. Hughan, D.
the Earl of Euston, and Prince Demetrius Rhodocanakis of Greece. This
not "academic" in the sense that it would be so accepted by a
but in the sense that it is similar to degrees conferred by
institutions of learning.
2. On page 255 of THE BUILDER for
August 1916 a member of the Rite of Memphis
gives an explanation of the nature and functions of the Order which you
to read. He says that it "is a branch of Masonry devoted to the study
and Comparative Religion and the explanation of the ritual ceremonies
of ancient Craft Masonry. As organized in the United States, it does
or work, the three symbolic or fundamental degrees, but receives into
only Master Masons of good standing. The organization has been in
existence in the
United States since 1867. The late Brother John Yarker was its
Sovereign Grand Commander
in England. The ritual work in this country was one time coordinated
with the Scottish
Rite of 33 degrees, but was later restored to its original ninety-five
It is to be found in several states of this country. See THE BUILDER,
Vol. II, pages
30, 210, 250, 255 and 285.
3. Joseph Cerneau was a Masonic
charlatan, born in Villeblerin, France, in 1763,
who moved to New York in the first years of the nineteenth century. In
1807 he launched
a body claiming to confer the degrees of Scottish Rite Masonry. By 1813
had grown to some proportions, and was opposed most vigorously by the
Council at Charleston, and also by a few Grand Lodges, whose
jurisdiction it flouted.
After a vigorous struggle of forty years it at last gave up the ghost.
left of it was absorbed by the regular Consistory at New Orleans. This
is no longer practiced anywhere.
4. The Order of the White Shrine
of Jerusalem was founded by Charles D. Magee
of Chicago. In its early years it made the claim of being to the Order
Star what the so-called "higher bodies" are to Ancient Craft Masonry
this absurd claim brought it into conflict with the O.E.S., with the
the White Shrine was compelled to reorganize itself. It is now very
seems to flourish in the majority of states. It is an order composed of
and women who must be members in good standing of the O.E.S. Where the
deistic, or theistic, the White Shrine is a Trinitarian Christian body.
* * *
to the clipping I am enclosing there must be such a thing as "Masonic
is that true?
H. C. F., Colorado.
Rite uses a ceremony which is sometimes called "baptism" but should
correctly be known as "the rite of lustration." It is an inheritance
the Ancient Mysteries, wherein the candidate had to bathe his hands or
in consecrated water as a symbolical act signifying inward purity and
fitness for the ceremonies. The Scottish Rite bodies of a western city
had a rather large affair in which quite a number of youths received
the rite of
lustration. Some of the members and all of the newspapers described it
baptism." There is no such thing in Masonry as "baptism." The use
of that term gives needless offense to churchmen.
* * *
Two Queries About Pius IX
Is it true
that Pius IX, prior to his election to the office of pope, was a
that he was expelled from the Order?
L. E. D., California.
I am enclosing
a clipping which tells that Pius IX was Freemason before he became
pope. Is this
W. F. G., Kentucky.
to the account which has enjoyed a wide currency Mastlai Ferritti,
as Pope Pius IX, was made a Mason in Sicily and was later expelled by
Lodge which met at Palermo on the 27th of March, 1873. The Masonic
Journal of Cologne
Germany published the minutes of the lodge of which Ferretti had been a
they read as follows:
"A man named Mastlai Ferretti,
who was initiated
in Freemasonry, and solemnly pledged his love and membership of the
same, has, now
he has been crowned as Pope, and King, cursed all his former brethren
all members belonging to the Order. He, Mastlai Ferritti, is hereby
the Order by the Grand Lodge of the East of Palermo on the grounds of
has an apocryphal odor about it, as one will detect after several
for all that it may well be true. We are writing abroad for accurate
information and will publish the same as soon as it is received.
* * *
The Order of the Eastern
Star in England.
Is the Order
of the Eastern Star recognized in any way by the Grand Lodge of
England? I sometimes
hear that it is, and then again that it isn't. Perhaps you can set me
S. O. R. Alabama.
to be brought before the United Grand Lodge of England are first sent
to the Board
of General Purposes, which acts as a sifting committee. After it has
every proposal the Board makes a report of recommendations and
disapprovals to the
next ensuing Quarterly Communication of the United Grand Lodge. In its
of this nature the Board dealt with the Eastern Star. In examining the
the "Star" the Board found that it touches Masonry very closely at two
points, though it is in no valid sense a Masonic body: (1) its
membership is limited
to Master Masons in good standing and to their wives, daughters,
and sisters; ‒ (2) it is provided in the regulations of the O.E.S. that
Patron must preside at meetings that confer the degrees and that this
be a Freemason "in good standing." The Board considered that the latter
condition, especially, is reprehensible from the standpoint of the
of the Grand Lodge, for, according to those customs, it is irregular
for the Secretary
to tell anybody outside the Order whether a man is a Freemason in good
or not. As we may quote: "As there are various bodies of great and
growing popularity in the United States and some parts of the British
while not formally claiming to be Masonic are, at the least, imitative
of the Masonic
institution, the Board thinks it necessary to state the general
which it feels bound to act in regard to them. The Craft is not
concerned with bodies
‒ whether composed entirely of men, of women, or of both sexes ‒ which
do not claim
to be Masonic in either ritual or practice, and do not make Masonry a
test of membership
or of participation in their ceremonies. But it is clear that a grave
risk is incurred
by Brethren who enter into association with bodies making Masonry in
any way a test
of admission to membership, while admitting as members persons who
would not be
qualified to join a Lodge under the jurisdiction of the United Grand
Lodge of England.
Freemason is entitled to attend, as such, any non-Masonic meetings at
by direct implication is introduced, or to participate in any ceremony
quasi-Masonic or is held under some pseudo-Masonic and unauthorized
Secretary or any member of a Lodge who gives to anyone outside, and
to a non-Mason, information on Masonic matters known to him because of
connection, commits a breach of discipline which, when proved, will be
* * *
A Guide to an Investigating
kindly refer me, through the Question Box of THE BUILDER, to some book,
or paper that will aid an Investigating Committee in making an
an applicant for Masonry?
F. J. E., South Carolina.
of no book devoted to this subject, though it is possible that some
THE BUILDER has published a score or so of articles on "Qualifications"
which you will find listed under that caption in the various annual
in the bound volumes. You may get some help from some of those Grand
Jersey is one of them, that make use of a formal printed questionnaire.
Secretary of that state will be glad to send you a copy on request.
better, however, for you to make a careful study of the laws and
your own Grand Lodge and of the bylaws of your local lodge, because
lodges and Grand
Lodges differ much among each other as to specific requirements for
For your own Grand Jurisdiction you will find the requirements very
in your "Blue Book" or Constitutions and Regulations. Write to your
Secretary: he will give you the references.
find a carefully compiled list of the requirements in most general use
Encyclopaedia, Vol. II, page 603, in an article entitled
* * *
The Kaiser Not A Mason
Is the Kaiser
‒ or rather the late Kaiser ‒ of Germany a Mason?
L.O.P., District of Columbia.
not. His father was a Mason, and so was his grandfather, Wilhelm der
the Great, his great uncle, was a most enthusiastic Mason.
* * *
Hindus in Masonry
May I ask
if natives of India are permitted to unite with Masonic lodges? I have
a letter from a friend who has been visiting in India to the effect
that the English
lodges are too aristocratic to admit natives, and I am writing to ask
if this is
correct, for I have had a different impression.
H. F. G., Vermont.
is mistaken. Since 1842, when H. R. H. the Duke of Sussex was Grand
Master of England,
natives have been received into Masonic lodges. English Freemasonry was
in Calcutta, which is still its center, in 1740, by the Grand Lodge of
At the present time all lodges under that obedience form a Provincial
The Scotch Grand Lodge established the Provincial Grand Lodge of
Western India at
Bombay in 1836. In 1846, so prosperous were the Scottish lodges,
Grand Lodge was organized.
two worked side by side until 1883 when they were consolidated in The
of All Scottish Masonry (don't confuse this with what we call "the
Rite). Accordingly there are now two Grand Lodges in India, one Scotch,
English; and the subordinate lodges of both bodies receive natives into
including both Hindus and Mohammedans.
* * *
When Did Speculative Masonry
I have often
read and heard the statement that Speculative Masonry began in 1717.
rather inaccurate? It appears to me from what reading I have been able
to do that
there was quite a Speculative element in the old Operative lodges.
J. V. B., Kentucky.
quite right, and the brethren who make the statement about which you
all agree with you, for the term "Speculative" is used in a very broad
sense to denote a period in Masonic history, and it is therefore not to
be too rigidly
applied. Neither should one take in too narrow a sense the distinction
that is made
between Operative and Speculative Masonry in the Ritual. There was a
rich element of Speculative Masonry in the earliest Operative lodges of
have any record, and it was that Speculative element which survived the
era of transition
and revived to propagate itself in modern Masonry, enlarged and
* * *
Works on Alchemy
How can I
get some good dope about the Alchemists? I don't want something soft
written by a poet, but the real thing, done in prose, and dependable.
C. H. K., Indiana.
You are evidently on the right track, but don't
fear lest you will overdose yourself with poetry
on that subject! Consult any good history of Medieval Europe. The
History is as good as any. One of the best volumes on the subject, one
exactly fit your requirements, we believe, is "A History of Chemistry,
the Earliest Times Till the Present Day," [Lib 1920] by the late James Campbell
Brown. This is truly a noble work, and one that
may be implicitly relied upon, for there have been few better qualified
with the subject. Dr. Brown was one of the patriarchs of science in
at the University of Liverpool, he was Professor of Chemistry for many
book was published by J. & A. Churchill, London, 1913. You can
bank on what
he says, and you need have no fear of encountering any "poetry"
* * *
The Secrets of Freemasonry
understand that I am not opposed to Masonic education. I am a reader of
and have been for two years, and I enjoy, now and then, a Masonic book.
there danger that all this lecturing and writing about Masonry may tell
world too much about the secrets of Freemasonry?
all. It is our business to read a good many Masonic periodicals, and
and to listen to a good many Masonic speeches, and these, as a matter
of fact, are
almost always well within the obligated bonds of discretion. It is
seldom that the
most loquacious Mason ever talks too much in public about forbidden
it is well to remember what are the secrets of the Craft. Masonry is
opinion to the contrary notwithstanding, in the strict sense of the
words a secret
society; for a secret society per se is one that keeps from the public
and methods. Freemasonry does not keep from the public any of its aims
The only thing secret about it is its mode of conferring initiation;
with the matters pertaining to the business of the order and to the
of the brethren, is to be kept within the faithful breast. But of the
activities, and principles of the Fraternity too much cannot be said.
And it is
about these last mentioned matters, you will surely agree, that most
books are written,
and speeches made.
* * *
A long dispute
about French Masonry at a recent lecture given in our lodge started
some of us to
arguing about the various kinds of belief and unbelief so far as God is
But we get all muddled up about the varieties of such. Won't you
please, if it isn't
wandering too far from the subject, set us right about this?
R. O., Idaho.
Ye scribe is neither a
theologian nor the son
of a theologian and his suggestions in these premises may lack official
but such as he knows on the matter is freely offered, and quite as
freely does he
ask the theologians among THE BUILDER readers to supplement or to
correct his statements
on a matter of such palmary importance.
There are many men, and these
usually are found
in countries having a low degree of culture, who believe that
everything has a soul
in it. The elementary distinction between the living and the non-living
yet established itself in their minds. These folk are known as
For a long discussion of this consult "Primitive Culture" [Lib 1920; Vol 1, Vol
2] by Tylor, the savant who, if
I remember aright,
was the first to use this word.
Some believe that back of the
phenomena of the
world there are many gods, or ruling spirits, or divine powers: these,
as the etymology
of the word would itself suggest, are "Polytheists." Polytheism is in
the background of Homer's Iliad.
When a people select out of all
the gods which
they believe to exist one favorite god whom they choose to rule over
their own tribe
or nation, they are known as "Henotheists." The Hebrews, during an
stage of their evolution, are to be so designated. They believed that
belonged to them in a peculiar sense, and was their god, but they at
the same time
believed in the reality of other gods.
The ancient Persians believed
that the universe
was ruled by two gods or powers of almost equal divinity who divide
all existing things and who, because of their opposite characters, make
each other. This is known as "Dualism." The popular notion about a
devil belongs to this category.
Those who believe that there is
but one divine
being or power in existence that rules over all things and is to be
"Monotheists," which word, according to its Greek origin, means "one
Those Monotheists who believe
that God created
the world, and that in some sense He is present in it to rule and to
who believe that God may be in some relation with us men, and that He
may be implicated
in our struggles, joys, and sorrowings, are known as "Theists," while
those who believe in one God but hold that He is far "above the battle"
and neither suffers nor is in any way implicated in our human fortunes,
During the eighteenth-century in England and parts of Europe Deism ran
poet, Alexander Pope, was a Deist, and so was Voltaire.
There are some, like the
Spinoza, who hold that there is but one Reality, and that all existing
but more or less illusory and phenomenal appearances, and that this one
is God. These are known as "Pantheists," which term means that "God
is the sum total of all existences," or that "God is all."
Those who deny that there is
such a being as
God, and who believe that they can demonstrate the same, are
The famous Latin poet Lucretius was an atheist; so was Charles
Those who say that they don't
believe that God
exists but that there is no way of proving whether He exists or not are
which word means "I do not know." Thos. Henry Huxley and Robert
Those who believe that God
exists in the form
of three persons, one of whom is the Eternal Son, and that this Eternal
incarnated on this earth as Jesus of Nazareth are Trinitarian
Christians who accept Jesus as a great moral teacher but deny his deity
There you have it. If I have
missed any variety
about which you have been disputing let me know.
* * *
On Magic and Alchemy
of the Sun degree has set me to wondering if there has really been a
between Magic and Freemasonry. Isn't that degree connected with Magic
in some fashion,
and am I right in believing that Magic and Alchemy were originally the
I have read the article on Alchemy in Mackey's Encyclopedia but need
on the subject than he gives me.
G. L. R., Ohio.
we may quote the following from "A History of Chemistry" by Dr. James
Campbell Brown, an authoritative work on the subject:
"alchemy," or, as it was spelt until the nineteenth century, "alchymy,"
derived from the Arabic, is said to have come originally from a Greek
signifying things melted and poured out. It is more probably derived
"the land of Egypt," which was so named from the dark color of its
composed of crumbling syenite. Alchemy, according to this derivation,
is the "art
of the black country," the Black Art. In Egypt it was carried to a high
of development, and consequently this theory of the origin of the name
support from the philological character of the derivatives, al, the
article, and Khem, dark ‒ because the term first came into use when the
Mohammedans dominated Egypt, learned the secrets of the temple
spread throughout the civilized parts of Western Europe the knowledge
they had thus
application of the term has frequently, but wrongfully, been restricted
to the pretended
arts of making gold and silver, and the more profitable arts of
of imitating gold. It had, however, a wider application, and ought to
as including all the arts known in ancient times, which dealt with
things now comprehended
in the science of chemistry."
* * *
Lodges and Immorality
It may seem
like a question that I should ask of somebody else for it may not be in
but I should like to ask you if you do not think that our lodges should
to stop the great amount of immorality that is going on in our cities,
among young people. I am an old man, soon to get out of this world, but
still worry me.
G. F. T., California.
things" should worry us all. Moral rottenness seems to have filtered
colleges, public schools, the press, magazines, books, and the streets,
not to mention
the home which seems everywhere to be losing its old moral authority.
But it does
not appear that Masonic lodges can do more than they are doing ‒ more,
in the sense of performing more functions. The responsibility rests
parents. If a father and mother can't keep a sixteen year old boy or
girl off the
streets at night, and out of vile places, who can? Parents, it would
appear to us,
have delegated altogether too much of their own responsibility to other
* * *
Craft Guilds and Trade Unions
I have long
had the impression that our modern Trade Unions have descended from the
Craft Guilds, but it has recently come to my mind that there may be
some doubt about
the matter. Can you give me some information on this question?
H. G., Texas. There is very much doubt about
the matter. Modern economists believe that there never was any real
between the Craft Guilds and our Trade Unions, and that the latter
have come into being had the former never existed. The recently issued
of "The History of Trade Unionism" [Lib 1920] by Sidney and Beatrice Webb,
whom there are no better authorities, gives an emphatic negative to
On page 13 of that work we may read:
supposed descent in this country [England] of the Trade Unions from the
Craft Guilds rests, as far as we have been able to discover, upon no
The historical proof is all the other way."
is not room to repeat "all the historical proof” as given by these
but it may suffice to say that they hold that the Craft Guilds were
always in the
hands of Masters and that mere apprentices and journeymen seldomly had
in their management; and that whatever origins of modern Trade Unions
can be found
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are identified with the
often attempted by journeymen and apprentices, but seldomly with much
* * *
a strange thing to me that the Pelican should be a Masonic symbol. It
is a bird
strange to us and also strange, I should suppose, to the English. In
degree is it used, and what does it mean?
In the Middle
Ages, when Europe was rife with occultism, mysticism, esotericism, and
"The Physiologus,” [Lib*] by Epiphanius, Bishop of Constantia, in the
of Cyprus, was so widely used and believed that it may be described as
one of the
bibles of the time. On page 30 of the edition printed by Plantin in
1588 (you will
find the book in any large library you will find an account of the
we may believe, is the fountainhead of the popular beliefs concerning
Here is his account:
"Beyond all birds the Pelican
is fond of
her young. The female sits on the nest, guarding her offspring, and
caresses them and wounds them with loving; and pierces their sides and
After three days the male pelican comes and finds them dead, and very
much his heart
is pained. Driven by grief he smites his own side, and as he stands
over the wounds
of the dead young ones, the blood trickles down, and thus are they made
believed all this very literally and so did his readers. One old writer
to account for this nature history myth by saying that the pelican's
bill is tipped
with red, and that this may have suggested the blood-letting to an
There are many variations of the myth, into which there is not space to
uses the idea many times, as when he makes Lear say; "And like the kind
pelican, Repast them with my blood." He uses it similarly in Richard
Henry VI, and in "As You Like It.” Paper-makers used the bird as a
Printers works it into their symbolical headpieces and tailpieces.
fond of using it in church ornamentation, most of which was emblematic,
as in St.
Savior's Church, Reading, England, where the lectern has the pelican
refers to Christ as "nostro Pelicano," ‒ "Our Pelican."
of the symbol is apparent. It refers to self-sacrifice, the giving of
blood, or life, to another. The great example of that, in all the
is the self-giving of Jesus. Also, it carries with it the idea of a
from the dead, for the young pelicans were resuscitated by the blood of
It has both these meanings in the Rose Croix Degree of the A. &
A.S.R. in which
* * *
of a man that he be "free," or "free born.” Why is it necessary in
this day when all men are free born? That requirement would seem to be
Why shouldn't it be abandoned?
is well made, but even so why drop the requirement? It is one more
thing that cements
us to our past, and that past is one of our greatest treasures. Also,
are you quite
sure that every man who knocks at our gates is really "free"? Free,
is, in the Masonic sense? Aren't many men already members of other
which would seriously interfere with their lives as Masons? The whole
point of the
requirement is that a man shall not be in any kind of bondage that will
Masonic activities. It is not enough that a man shall not be a bondman
or a slave
in the old sense ‒ it is equally necessary that he be not bound by
other interests that would conflict with his Masonic duties and
* * *
Material on the Corner Stone
I have been
asked by our Study Class to prepare a paper on "The Northeast Corner,"
including some materials on Corner Stone Laying. Can you furnish me
with some information?
H. R. B., New York.
to the Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, care Newton R. Parvin, for
a copy of
the Quarterly Bulletin for October 1920. The entire number is devoted
Stone Laying, and matters connected therewith. On the Northeast Corner
see THE BUILDER
for December 1918, Correspondence Circle Bulletin, page three.
An Interesting Masonic Medal
Lodge No. 3. A. F. & A. M., of Laramie, Wyoming is the
possessor of the original
of the very interesting medal here shown. It was presented to the lodge
J. A. Mc Heffey, Hantsport, Nova Scotia, who received it from a Mr.
once acted as his guide on a fishing trip. Bro. McHeffey had it in his
for thirty years. The medal bears the date "Octr, th 21, 1784," and
the initials "G. B." Among the familiar emblems assembled in this
little medal, which was made of silver, are a few not so well known,
the Key, the
Fire, the Hand holding the Line, the sharp Hammer, and the Latin motto.
the meaning of the queer little house, and of what appears to be a
cluster of stars
just above it? Why are there fourteen stars scattered at the top? What
the position of the square and compasses? Will some antiquarian among
throw some light upon these emblems?
* * *
Christian Science Monitor for May 21st last in an article on "Trade
in Old Mexico" the statement is fount that "The earliest guild
in America was that of the Stone Masons of the island of Santo Domingo,
constructive work in 1510." Can any brother throw more light on this?
was the history of this guild? Was it a fraternity? Did it have
* * *
Daily News, for February 17, 1881, has an article in which it is stated
that a certain
Herr Pietsch made "elaborate investigations of Goethe's fifty years of
This undoubtedly refers to Goethe's membership in Freemasonry, and is
of some interest to Masonic students. Does any brother know of this
or of his book? Has any one a copy of the Daily News in question and,
if so, will
he forward us the clipping? Information on this matter will be welcome
to THE BUILDER.
* * *
"Satire in Stone"
story I clipped from a daily paper of August 29th, and it was given to
by the Associated Press:
STONE NOW HUNTED AS "FAD"
YORE, Aug. 29. ‒ Devoting spare hours to careful inspection of public
in the hope of finding satire in stone has become a fad. It began with
by a reporter that architects had carved a dollar-sign as a twin motif
to the lovers'
knot over the 'bridge's entrance' to St. Thomas’ church on Fifth
Avenue. A few days
later someone leaving the Sunday services observed for the first time
faces of modern men and maids of the avenue had been chiseled above the
of the edifice. A congregation that went to pray remained to laugh.
of these caricatures wore monocles, others wore smiles; some were
surely tired business
men and good housewives, while others manifestly were flappers and
Everybody conceded that they represented modern Fifth avenue 'types.'
face was not so modern, however. It was a year or two behind the times.
On its nose
was the unmistakable bulge of a 'rum blossom.' Another had such a bored
were sure it was a man who just went to church to please the wife.
that many well-known buildings in New York had been subjected to jocose
by the artisans who worked upon them moved whole flocks of people to
some with spyglasses or lorgnettes, to look for sculptured jokes.
interviews explaining how serious the satire was; this sort of humor
has been practiced
since the Middle Ages, not in a spirit of levity, but with the design
to the people examples of right and wrong in thought and action, they
persisted in believing the architects had just had their little joke,
and none would
have been surprised in finding a bust of Lenine concealed in the
the New York stock exchange, or a carving of Falstaff at the
headquarters of the
New Haven it was noted that Harkness Memorial Quadrangle ‒ which every
considers the last word in college architecture in America ‒ sheltered
nooks of its buildings many faces, figures and symbols of college life.
the placid bulldog with horned rimmed spectacles and a grim-visaged
a football helmet, and there were many shades of Blue history revived
students, unlike some of the parishioners of St. Thomas church, were
the decorative work. It is believed no Yale student will raise a single
objection unless somebody discovers a Harvard man graven in the
of Gothic buildings always have been possessors of a humorous drafting
satiric chuckles at clergy and laity have come down through the
centuries in the
stone of many of the sober old cathedrals of Europe. The medieval
downright boisterous in some of their caricatures. Gluttony is
portrayed in clerical
robes on the battlements of Magdalen College, Oxford. In a Yorkshire
Sincerity' is rendered by two foxes, representing the sporting clergy
of the Middle
Ages listening to a bishop's instructions. Out of their hoods peep the
century fun-makers guffawed mightily at all orders of clergy in an
of the Strasburg cathedral depicting 'The Funeral of the Fox.' This
so many irritating embroglios among churchgoers that it was demolished
in the middle
of the 19th century. Wandering minstrels of the Middle Ages were
satirized for the
fondness of free meals, one of the stalls of Westminster cathedral
showing a fiddling
have said that many churches of America, unknown to their
humorous decorations. Prevailing interest in finding them is expected
has a peculiar interest to Masons, it would seem to me, for every
student will recall
how in the Middle Ages the Masons would poke fun at the monks and
priests by carving
satirical pictures of them ‒ cartoons in stone ‒ here and there amidst
If one is exceedingly well versed in these matters he could, I have no
a great deal of that sort of thing as a silent (and contemptuous)
attack on the
ecclesiastics on the part of the builders. In short, it would give us a
in the long warfare between workers and monks, between the Fraternity
for free thought and liberty and the old hocus pocus institution that
tried to destroy
free thought, free speech, and liberty.
F. J. H., Montana
Albert Pike a Biography
All281 / auth. Allsopp Fred W. - Little Rock : Parke Harper Co., 1928.
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An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
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Articles of Faith
Tal99 / auth. Talmage James E. - Salt Lake City : The Deseret News,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 499. - 12.3 MB.
Defense of the Faith Vol 1
Rob07DF1 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1907. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 515. - 16.5 MB.
Defense of the Faith Vol 2
Rob12DF2 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1912. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 532. - 18.7 MB.
Doctrine and Covenants
Smi80 / auth. Smith Joseph. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News Company,
1880. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 512. - 40.4 MB.
Family Memoirs Vol 1
Stu82FM1 / auth. Stukeley William. - London : Whittaker & Co,
1882. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 572. - 23,6 MB.
Family Memoirs Vol 2
Stu83FM2 / auth. Stukeley William. - London : Whittaker & Co,
1883. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 435. - 18.3 MB.
Family Memoirs Vol 3
Stu87FM3 / auth. Stukeley William. - London : Whittaker & Co,
1887. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 576. - 21.4 MB.
History of Chemistry
Bro201 / auth. Brown James C. - London : J & A Churchill, 1920.
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History of the USA Vol 1 -
Rho20HU1 / auth. Rhodes James F. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 9 : p. 568. - 16.5 MB.
History of the USA Vol 2 -
Rho20HU2 / auth. Rhodes James F. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1920. - Vol. 2 : 9 : p. 588. - 14.8 MB.
History of the USA Vol 3 -
Rho20HU3 / auth. Rhodes James F. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1920. - Vol. 3 : 9 : p. 539. - 15.2 MB.
History of the USA Vol 4 -
Rho20HU4 / auth. Rhodes James F. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1920. - Vol. 4 : 9 : p. 572. - 18.8 MB.
History of the USA Vol 5 -
Rho20HU5 / auth. Rhodes James F. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1920. - Vol. 5 : 9 : p. 534. - 16.2 MB.
History of the USA Vol 6 -
Rho20HU6 / auth. Rhodes James F. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1920. - Vol. 6 : 9 : p. 508. - 25.0 MB.
History of the USA Vol 7 -
Rho20HU7 / auth. Rhodes James F. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1920. - Vol. 7 : 9 : p. 372. - 18.6 MB.
History of the USA Vol 8 -
Rho20HU8 / auth. Rhodes James F. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1920. - Vol. 8 : 9 : p. 633. - 28.4 MB.
History of the USA Vol 9 -
Rho29HU9 / auth. Rhodes James F. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1929. - Vol. 9 : 9 : p. 441. - 20.6 MB.
Inside of Mormonism
Mac03 / auth. MacMillan Henry G. - Salt Lake City : The Utah Americans,
1903. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 99. - 2.2 MB.
New Witnesses for God Vol 1
Rob11NW1 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 482. - 17.6 MB.
New Witnesses for God Vol 2
Rob20NW2 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1920. -
Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 476. - 19.0 MB.
New Witnesses for God Vol 3
Rob09NW3 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1909. -
Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 582. - 28.2 MB.
Outline of Ecclesiastical
Rob85 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1885. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 425. - 14.6 MB.
Primitive Culture Vol 1
Tyl20PC1 / auth. Tylor Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 1
: 2 : p. 517. - 24.1 MB.
Primitive Culture Vol 2
Tyl20PC2 / auth. Tylor Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 2
: 2 : p. 481. - 16.2 MB.
Testimony at the Smoot Hearing
Sal05 / auth. Salt Lake Tribune. - Salt Lake City : Salt Lake Tribune,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 257. - 14.1 MB.
The Book of Mormon
Smi60 / auth. Smith Joseph. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1860. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
396. - 11.5 MB.
The History of Trade Unionism
Web20 / auth. Webb Sidney. - New York : Longmans, Green, and Company,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 806. - 33.0 MB.
The Islanders of the Pacific
Joh211 / auth. Johnston Reginald. - London : T Fisher Unwin Ltd, 1921.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 339. - 11.5 MB.
The Life Story of Albert Pike
All20 / auth. Allsopp Fred W. - Little Rock : Parke Harper Co., 1920. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 145. - 9.0 MB.
The Mormon Doctrine of Diety
Rob03 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1903. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 302. - 6.1 MB.
The Pearl of Great Price
Smi131 / auth. Smith Joseph. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News Company,
1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 112. - 4.1 MB.
The Thatcher Episode
LDS96 / auth. LDS Church. - Salt Lake : Deseret News Publishing Co,
1896. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 51. - 4.3 MB.
White Shadows in the South Seas
OBr24 / auth. O'Brien Frederick. - New York : The Century Co, 1924. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 469. - 27.7 MB.
With the Light Guns
Woo03 / auth. Woodruff W E. - Little Rock : Central Printing Company,
1903. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 122. - 2.0 MB.