Masonic Research Society
By The Editor
IN 1911 the
Congress of the United States appointed a commission to erect in the
city of Washington
a suitable memorial to Abraham Lincoln. President William Howard Taft
was made chairman.
By the time these words appear in print the Memorial will have been
opened to the
chose as chief architect Henry Bacon. Mr. Bacon selected as his
Chester French, who was given charge of all sculpturing; and Jules
Guerin, who was
appointed to make the mural paintings. From the very first these three
each of international distinction in his field, worked in a spirit of
unity so complete
that it sets at naught the cheap canards about the temperamental
egotisms of such
men. Each linked hands with the other two, and the three together,
after years of
daily familiarity with the mind and soul of Lincoln, at last produced a
which will remain in the long hereafter of this nation an adequate and
monument of him who is the chief treasure of these people.
stands in Potomac Park on a line due east and west with the Capitol and
Monument. There is nothing of vulgar display about it, and it cost only
million dollars, but every stone in it has been selected and wrought
care. Down to the last workman the great undertaking has come to
by break or accident: there was no strike; no man was killed, or even
injured; not even when the great caissons were sunk beneath the ground,
the twenty-three ton stones were brought from their quarries in the
Artists and workmen wrought together in the fraternal spirit of the
as though the kindly and human presence of Lincoln himself were somehow
every one of them.
is simple but impressive. The key to it is unity expressed through
beauty and preserved
in majesty. It is lovely to see from whatever point one may behold it,
and the view
from the old home of Robert E. Lee, as the writer himself will ever
singularly appealing, especially as one bears in mind how much alike in
the two heroes whose paths diverged so widely. It is good to know that
is planned to connect the site of the Memorial with the opposite shore,
the old north and the old south visibly and symbolically together, as
are in these new times.
and dominating space in the Memorial building is reserved entirely for
statue which has received from Lord Charnwood, the distinguished
of Lincoln, the encomium of being the statue. It exhibits Lincoln as
filled with unobtrusive but conscious power, a man who has grown up to
superhuman tasks, who neither shrinks nor blusters, and who easily
passes from repose
to action. The hands are expressive of capacity, but finely human; the
a little drawn together, as they always are in moments of urgent
thought; the clothing
is that of a man who cared little for the vanities, but who was not
the great sculpturesque head, with its wide but sunken eyes, its
and its deep lines, is that of the veridical man, unspoiled by any
attempt on the
part of the sculptor to appeal to us by melodramatic exaggeration. The
was not a man of over soft sentimentality and melancholy, with a weak
one consciously strong, whose secret was his magnificent mental power,
and it is
this Lincoln that inhabits the great Memorial.
Address and the Second Inaugural are engraved in the walls. Their
spirit and idea
are translated into paintings by Guerin, and altogether speak the same
this man, who was neither a demi-god nor a demagogue, somehow embodied
that which this nation most seriously reverences in its secret soul.
as a whole, with its trees, its gradings and terraces, will become one
of our national
treasures, along with the Capitol and the House of the Temple. It is
any exotic appeal, or by that which is merely flashy, temporary, and
is, as John Hay said it should be, "isolated, distinguished and
To eulogize it is as vulgar as it is to eulogize the man whose name it
set to commemorate forever.
ONE of the
valuable labors of the Overseas Masonic Mission was its energetic
campaign to secure
the names and records of Military Masonic Clubs. Unfortunately but a
few of the
itinerant clubs were secured. Unless some active member of each of
these clubs volunteers
to forward the name and history of his organization Masonic Club its
be forever lost. Many of these clubs had an existence and did a
splendid work. It
is to be hoped that a movement may be started to preserve their records
in the Roster of the Overseas Masonic Commission are not
the oldest in time I have discovered in my search is the Knights of the
102, Masonic Club. This club was within the 102d Regiment F. A. Its
designated as Chief-of-Section, Caisson Corporal, and Gunners. The club
at a camp in Brittany, on Oct. 30, 1917, during the final training for
As a part of the 26th Division, this regiment saw active service and
of this Masonic Club acquitted themselves in true Masonic manner.
Most of the
clubs were in permanent camps, depots, and headquarters cities. They
by brethren from high and low military rank, and from among welfare
club ‒ Gondrecourt Masonic Club, A.P.O. Kiowas offered by Salvation
Army men ‒ R.M.
Dilley and a brother Hale. These brethren together with other brethren
this welfare organization did awn active Masonic work for the Craft.
roster is as complete as any yet attempted by any Masonic writer. It
list secured by the Overseas Masonic Mission together with names of
by the writer through various channels. The rosters of these clubs are
the hands of the brethren of Sea and Field Lodge No. 1, New York, from
can be had.
| American Masonic Club
|| Nevers, A. P. O. 708
|| Lieut. Edgar Butler
|| Capt. Frank A. Starr
| American Consistory Club,
|| No. 1 Verneuil, A.P.O. 772
|| Maj. Earl H. Rosemere
| American E. F. Masonic Club
|| Marseilles, A. P. O. 5
|| C. M. Conant, Y. M. C. A.
|| F. G. Redwine, A. P.
| Acacia Club
|| Tours, A. P. O. 717
|| Lt. Col. G. E. Newell
| American Masonic Club
|| LeMans, A. P. O. 762
|| Harry B. Meek
| American Masonic Club of Beaune
|| A. P. O. 909
|| Maj. Hotchkiss
|| A. Peterson, Y. M. C.A
| Acacia Club, 110th Eng.,
|| Brest A. P. O. 716
|| O. W. McLanahan
|| A. L. Moon
| Masonic Club of Brest
|| A. P. O. 716
|| C. J. Irwin, Y. M. C. A.
|| H. H. Wallman
| Masonic Club of 503rd Eng.
|| Sgt. H. Stevenson
|| Pvt. L. C. Bowes
| Masonic Society, Infantry School
|| Clamecy, A. P. O. 78
|| Maj. S. A. Merril
|| H. C. Bishop
| Masonic Club, 114 Field Sig. Bn.
|| J. Cornish
|| W. C. Soab
| Masonic Club, Evac. Hosp. 1
|| Lt. H. B. Pool
| Masonic Club, Camp Hosp. 26
|| A.P.O. 727
|| Capt. C. B. Winn
|| B. Ettinger
| Masonic Club, Base Hosp. 63
|| A. P. O. 738
| Masonic Club of Vichy
|| Base Hosp. Center 5
| Masonic Club of Verneuil
|| A. P. O. 772
|| Capt. Van Hise
| Middle West Masonic Club
|| 3d Amer. Army, Gez
|| C. C. Kusick
| Masonic Club, Lamadon De Bains
|| A. P. O.
|| C. Ferguson, Y.M.C.A.
| Masonic Club of Camp Meueon
|| A. P. O. 779
|| W. E. Hunter, Y. M. C. A.
|| A. Wilson, Y. M. C
| Montoir Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 701
|| Chaplain C. F. Irvin
|| Charles J. Novak
| Montriehard Masonic Club
|| Lt. Wilkes, Q. M. C
| Masonic Club of Angers
|| A. P. O. 733
|| Maj. V. A. Hall
|| Lt. H. G. Finley
| Nettal Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 740
|| Lt. Col. S. B. Philpot
| 140th F. A. Masonic Club
|| Chas. O. Jasp, Jr.
|| C. B. Jones
| Peyru Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 949
| Paulliae Masonic Club
|| A. P. O.
| Riviera Masonic Club
|| Nice, A. P. O.
|| J. C. Gipe, Y. M. C. A.
|| Lt. E. R. MacDonald
| Overseas Masonic Club, Paris
|| A. P. O.
|| Col. H. H. Whitney
|| C. Connoway, Y.M.C.A.
| Level of Line Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 940
|| A. R. Hayes
| Square and Compass Club
|| A. P. O. 713A
|| Capt. Holmes
|| W. H. Rigby
| Square and Circle Masonic Club
|| Maj. Nels Rasmussen
|| Sgt. D. Jones
| Sojourners Club
|| A. P. O. 735
|| Cpl. Beard
|| Sgt. Williamson
| Social Ten Brothers
|| A. P. O. 730
|| R. S. Naresh
| Square and Compass Club
|| A. P. O. 713
|| W. A. Weidel
|| H. G. Bergdoll
| Stonewall Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 791
|| Cpl. E. Youngs
| St. Almond Masonic Club
|| A. P. O.C
| Sunset Overseas Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 727
|| Maj. W. R. McCathran
|| Capt. A. D. Hathaway
| Scottish Rite Club,
|| Tours A. P. O.
|| Col. Winton
|| Lt. Col. B. R. Gamble
| Trowel Club
|| A. P. O. 713
|| W. R. Bristow
|| A. B. MacBean
| Third Army Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 927
|| Maj. W. S. Solomon
|| E. M. Myers
| 316th F. A. Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 919
|| N. McMurry
|| Sgt. A. C. Stevens
| 23rd Engineers Masonic Club
|| A. P. O.
|| A. W. Provost
|| F. J. Welti
| Washington-Lafayette Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 712
|| L. A. Wilcox
| University de Toulouse Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 948
|| L. A. Berlin
| 42d Div. Masonic Club (Rainbow Div.)
|| A. P. O.
| The Trowel and Triangle Club
|| A. P. O.
|| J. G. Pollard
|| S. Morse
| S. O. L. Dugout No. 1
|| A. P. O. 713A
|| M. B. Carman
|| H. H. Porter
| S. O. L. Dugout No. 2
|| A. P. O. 713
| S. O. L. Dugout No. 3 (Gievres)
|| A. P. O.
| S. O. L. Dugout No. 4 (Paris)
|| A. P. O.
| S. O. L. Dugout No. 5 (St. Nazaire)
|| A. P. O.
|| Capt. Robt. Murphy
|| Chas. H. Huntley
| S. O. L. Dugout No. 6 (Brest)
|| A. P. O. 705
|| Chaplain C. F. Irwin
|| Lt. W. W. Preisch
| Acacia Club, University Grenoble
|| A. P. O. 923
|| H. Manheim, Jr.
| Amex. Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 705
|| W. Boaz
| Aix Masonic Club
|| A. P. O.C
|| Senator Benson
| Bourges Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 902
|| Lt. Col. E. G. Smith
|| B. W. Flack
| Camp Villebernier Club
|| A. P. O. 718
|| Maj. J. F. McGill
|| Sgt.-Maj. J. H. Hay
| Craftsman Club
|| A. P. O. 721
|| P. A. Calkins
|| M. Shaw
| Espoir Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 741
|| Lt. G. S. Schaller
|| W. E. Shephard
| East Sub-Post Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 713
|| M. T. Carr
|| E. S. Passwaiter
| Fellowcraft Club, A. E. F.
|| A. P. O. 705A
|| J. D. Hatch
|| F. A. Kampfer
| Fellowcraft Club, Montierchaume
|| A. P. O. 73
|| Sgt. T. J. Phillips
| Good Fellowship Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 73
|| Capt. A. C. Howard
| Gondrecourt Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 703
|| R. M. Dilley, Salv. Army
|| Hale, Salv. Army
| Gironde Club
|| A. P. O. 911
|| Capt. E. C. Lay
| Heather Hill Mas. Club (13th Eng.)
|| A. P. O.
|| Lt. Geo. S. Case
|| Sgt. A. G. Wyant
| Isseudun Fellowcraft Club
|| A. P. O. 724
|| Lt. R. J. Williams
|| A. C. Eizenach
| Knights of the Forest, No. 102
|| A. P. O. 709
|| F. W. Foss
|| Cpl. L. Pittman
| Laigne Masonic Club
|| A. P. O.
|| Maj. F. W. Butler
|| Pvt. B. C. Rounds
| Langres Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 714
|| F. J. Stone
| Libourne Craftsman's Club
|| A. P. O. 911
|| G. A. Nordgren
| Masonic Club, A. A. A. P. 1
|| A. P. O. 702
| Masonic Club, Base Sect. 1
|| A. P. O. 701
|| Dr. Jouett, Y. M. C. A.
|| Capt. R. C. Murphy
| Masonic Club of Blois
|| A. P. O. 726
|| E. Q. Jackson, Capt.
| Mon Rivage Masonic Club
|| A. P. O.
| Masonic Club
|| A. P. O. 740
|| Pvt. G. P. Eberle
| Masonic Club, 66th Eng.
|| A. P. O. 702
|| R. E. McKee
|| G. A. McCollister
| Masonic Society of Mars-sur-Allier
|| A. P. O. 780
|| Capt. James W. Loughlin
|| Cpl. P. Neu
| Camp Gren Masonic Club, Base Sect. 1
|| A. P. O. 701
The Pot of Incense -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Frank C. Hickman,
beauty this that I behold!
What means this burning, smoking urn!
This carved and tasseled pot of gold;
Its meaning I cannot discern.
How graceful, tho' inanimate!
So silent, yet bespeaking good,
How stately too: I venerate!
I would I only understood.
Ah! Now I hear a still small voice.
It whispers wisdom unto me.
Enraptured, oh, how I rejoice!
To learn the truth, to know, to see.
"An emblem of a pure heart;"
A token of fraternity.
"A sacrifice of good report;
"Acceptable to Deity."
"And as this glows with fervent heat,"
"Continually our hearts should glow," ‒
"With gratitude" and love replete,
To Him from Whom all blessings flow.
"Sketch for the History
of the Dionysian Artificers" Being Reprinted
We have had
many requests for copies of this work [Lib 1820], which was published in
1820. It has been out of print since a short time after its publication
have been unprocurable at any price. Now those brethren who are
interested in securing
a copy may do so by writing the publisher of The Montana Mason, Great
in which publication it being reprinted in serial form in the issues
December, January and February.
of beauty is the heart, and every generous thought illustrates the
walls of its
By Bro. Wildey E. Atchison,
IT IS OFTEN
noted that Masonic writers hesitate to offer any explanation of the
guard," averring that it is merely a form of words which was once in
is now grown obsolete, as if that were genuine explanation. Scholars
close the book of interpretation merely because a thing has fallen out
of use. Mackey's
Encyclopedia, so it seems, has dropped into this error. On page 222 of
volume of that useful compendium we read that "Due Guard" is a mode of
recognition which derives its name from its object, which is to "duly
the person using it in reference to his obligation. Dr. Mackey then
goes on to say
that this term is "an Americanism" and therefore of recent origin,
he refers to a ritual of 1757 in which it is used.
is reason to believe that "due guard" goes back to a time long prior to
1757, or to 1727, or to 1717, and that it came very reasonably from a
was once the name of a town, whereby hangs a long tale, too long for
here, though it may be attempted at a later date.
have read aught of the history of book-and paper-making know that these
were in the very van of those enlightened ones who led that great
the papacy, and all connoted thereby, which resulted at last in the
and the Renaissance. Now it happens, as has been shown conclusively by
working as specialists in this field, that these "Reformers before the
had to work in secret, and by means of signs and watchwords, lest they
by the authorities and therefrom suffer grievous evils.
was a movement against the seven tyrannies of Rome but it was not until
of the thirteenth century that this movement assumed such formidable
led the Holy Father to send out Bulls of destruction, which Bulls and
out, left on the pages of history the reddest and angriest scars that
Clio has to
wrote books, those who printed books, and those who manufactured the
paper and binding
of these books, were naturally in the closest federation so far as all
aims were concerned, and the members of these allied trades, so it may
said, formed a kind of great unorganized fraternity which worked
behalf of enlightenment. The paper-makers were in the habit of
stock with emblematic devices which were understood by the initiated;
and the printers
used for head-pieces and tail-pieces, and for initial ornaments, such
as, to those on the inside, meant very much; and the authors
themselves, by a clever
use of capital letters and such makeshifts, were able to flash to the
friends of Learning that they had many brethren here and there though
know it not. A watermark was very often a call across the dark by one
another in order to carry a word of hope, recognition, and
Now it happens
that one of the towns at the very centre of the French paper-making
trade was called
"Dieu le garde," which, in our more familiar speech, connotes "God
Guard It." In after years usage changed the name to various forms, such
Dulegard, Daulegard, etc., but it is evident that the French of that
forgot the origin of the unusual name.
natural thing than that the Albigensian paper-makers should hit upon
this name of
one of their towns as an excellent device to use in their water-marks!
watermarks exist. One of them, a copy of which lies before me as I
an elaborate symbolism in which one may detect the emblems of Light, of
Love, of the Bright and Morning Star, of the Spirit of Truth, etc.,
with a band
across the bottom in which are the letters that spell "Daulegard."
has this to do with Freemasonry? This, that it seems very reasonable to
that among the various institutions the members of which in those days
outgrown the puerile superstitions enforced by the papacy must have
been the Masonic
lodges. I believe that this will someday be proved by documentary
evidence. I am
convinced myself that others of the fraternities existing in secret at
such as the various schools of the Alchemists, and, later, the
some connections with the Masonic Fraternity, and left in its symbolism
emblems and ideas of their own. In other words, Freemasonry in the
and sixteenth centuries was one of many secret fraternities the members
were devoted to a campaign of enlightenment (which in those days meant
and it therefore fell heir to a whole stream of occult and symbolical
was devised to meet the situation at the time, which situation was that
not, except at the peril of their lives, speak in public what every man
knew in his private mind.
devices, symbols, or emblems thus inherited was this favorite
"Dieu le garde," "God Guard It." This hypothesis seems reasonable
to me; it has a host of facts behind it; and it gives to the expression
as we have
it a meaning and some significance, a thing that cannot be said of the
that "Due Guard" means to "guard duly."
I hold that Christian grace
Where charity is seen; that when
We climb to Heaven, ‘tis on the rounds
Of love to men
By Bro. Silas H. Shepherd,
adage that one cannot make rabbit soup until he has captured his rabbit
home to the Masonic student times without number, for if there is
to capture it is a Masonic Bibliography. And they who undertake to
fashion the same,
and who succeed therein, even in small measure, deserve the plaudits of
All this by way of introducing one of the most successful essays in
that has ever come to the ink-stained ye editor. The literary engineer
for the success of this venture is Bro. Silas H. Shepherd who has been
a member of the Committee on Masonic Research of the Grand Lodge of
whose name is familiar to our readers, albeit not as familiar as it
should be, and
will be, we trust. "Masonic Bibliographies and Catalogues" [Lib 1920] is published in paper
bindings by the above mentioned Committee, and is
number 11 in the series of their publications. Bro. Shepherd has been
Brothers Henry A. Crosby and George C. Nuesse, his colleagues on the
of Masonic study is more fascinating than to acquire an intimate
knowledge of its
books, their authors, or the several editions of the more important
as the "Book of Constitutions," "The Pocket Companion," Preston's
"Illustrations of Masonry," the "Old Charges" and the Webb "Monitors."
list of bibliographies and catalogues, and the few references to works
information of bibliographical nature may be welcome to those who
realize the importance
of securing this information, not only for their own pleasure, but that
be better prepared to lead those who are taking their first steps in
of Masonic knowledge. It may also be of assistance to lodge librarians
of the present list is the first of its kind since H.J. Whymper's
of Bibliographies, etc.," [Lib*] issued in 1891. Only 100 copies of
were printed, consequently it is very scarce and practically
unavailable. The following
list was first published in "Masonic Tidings" by our Committee, and has
since been revised and enlarged.
der Freimaurerischen Literatur," [Lib*] by August Wolfstieg, published
Hopfer, Burg, B.M. 1911-1913, 3 volumes, is the most complete Masonic
ever compiled. It is printed in Roman type, with the titles and authors
of the listed
works given in the language they were written in, which makes the
value even to those with a knowledge of English only. It was published
marks, but is now quoted to American buyers at 850 marks.
Thory, a French Masonic writer of the Nineteenth century, included in
Latomorum" [1815, Vol 1, Vol 2 (French)], a bibliography of the
Masonic works from 1717 to 1815, and was the pioneer in this field.
says: "The bibliography in Thory's Acta Latomorum is the first genuine
Dr. George B. F. Kloss, a distinguished German
Masonic writer, compiled "Bibliographie
der Freimaurerei und der mit ihr in Verbindung gesetzten geheimen
in 1844 [Lib 1844]. This contained a list of over six
thousand works in many languages, with critical notes on the more
it of great value even at present.
production of Wolfstieg's Bibliography culminates a series of
in France and Germany of which Reinhold Taute's "Maurerische
[Lib*] (Leipzig, 1896), and Paul Fesch's Bibliographie de la
[Lib*] (Paris, 1912) good examples.
translation of Wolfstieg's work would receive a warm welcome, but a
thorough bibliography of Masonic literature in English would be of
if it contained ISCONSIN (?) entary notes as have been given by Hughan,
Whymper, Parvin, Mackey and others.
Many of the
catalogues listed in this compilation are out of print and scarce.
Copies of those
marked * are possessed by the writer, and have only been acquired after
years of search and at considerable expense.
are not listed in the Bibliography – rhm)
Accepted Scottish Rite
Ancient and Accepted Rite See "Supreme Council." See "England, Supreme
Abell, A. G. See "California, Library of the Grand Lodge of." (No 10.)
Catalogue of works in the Library of St. Alban's Lodge No. 38,
Adelaide, So. Australia,
This catalogue is listed as "No. 295," in Wolfstieg's "Bibliographie."
Armitage, Edward See "England, Supreme Council." (No. 33.)
Catalogue of Masonic Books, Engravings, Medals, Jewels, Curios and
in possession of George Washington, Bain, Durham. With interesting
Notes by W.J. Hughan and J.R. Riley. 8vo. Sunderland, 1893, 39 pages.
Catalogue of Masonic Books offered for sale by Brother G.W. Bain.
Duplicate copies offered for sale.
Bangs, Merwin & Co.*
of Important Masonic Books.
G. W." (No. 147.)
R. (M. D.)
Bibliography of Freemasonry in America. New York, 1856. 8vo.
Baxter, Rodk. H.
See "Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076."(No. 125.)
Catalogue of the Library belonging to the District Grand Lodge of
Catalogus Manuscriptorum Angliae, Oxford, 1697, contains earliest known
the Regius MS.
Biggs, Rev. Henry S.
See "Leicester, England." (No. 84.)
Masonic General Library
Catalogue of the Bombay Masonic General Library, Bombay, 1868.
A list of special Masonic wants of Robt. F. Bower. (MS.) Keokuk, Iowa,
Classification of the Literature of Freemasonry and Related Societies.
L. Boyden, Washington, D. C.,
is not a bibliography, it shows the vast ramification of the
literature of Freemasonry, and is intimately connected with
system of card membership record for Masonic bodies and a scheme of
for Masonic books," by Frank J. Thompson, Fargo, N. D., 1903, and the
Report" of the Grand Lodge of Iowa for 1918 may also be noted as of
Library of the Grand Lodge
Catalogue of the Books on Masonry in the Library of the Grand Lodge of
October, 1872. By A. G. Abell Grand Secretary, San Francisco, 1872.
Library of the Grand Lodge
Catalogue of Books on Masonry in the Library of the Grand Lodge of
Francisco, April, 1879. 41 pages.
Library of the Grand Lodge
Catalogue of the Library of the Grand Lodge of California, 1881. 62
Library of the Grand Lodge
Catalogue of Books on Masonry and Transactions of Masonic Grand Bodies
in the Library
of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of
California, as compiled
by the Grand Secretary thereof. March, 1883. San Francisco, 1883. 59
The great fire
in San Francisco destroyed the library and the Grand Lodge
of California has not yet acquired many books.
A Bibliographical and Descriptive Catalogue of the rare and valuable
of Books, Pamphlets, Manuscripts and Engravings, on the subject of
other Secret Societies, to be found in the Library of Brother E. T.
was published serially in the American Freemason of Louisville,
Ky., in 1864, and is the earliest descriptive catalogue we have noted.
"Masonic Bibliography" (1874) is a more complete and longer work.
Masonic Bibliography, by Enoch T. Carson, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1874. 224
A to Picart.
this work was never completed from Picart to Z. Its title
is misleading, as it is a bibliography of the works in the Masonic
Library of Brother
Carson. His Library being one of the best of its time, it is a very
and made extremely so by the comprehensive and illuminating notes.
Bibliography of Books and Manuscripts on the Orders of Knights Templar
and of the
Knights of Malta, etc., by Enoch T. Carson. Prepared and edited for and
by the Grand Commandery of Knights Templar of Ohio. Dayton. Dayton
1879. 55 pages.
This is a very
complete and useful work to all who are interested In the
older literature pertaining to the chivalric orders.
Dr. Paula *
A Catalogue of Books on Sciences, Religions, and Philosophies.
Published by the
Open Court Publishing Company, Chicago, 1916. 118 pages.
is of particular assistance in the subjects closely allied
to Freemasonry, and while not strictly Masonic, may he of exceptional
value to many
A catalogue of the Manuscripts of the King's Library London, 1734. 8vo.
Contains a description of the Regius manuscript
Catalogue Masonic Library of Austin A. Cassill, Mount Vernon, Ohio,
1885. 65 pages.
"This is a pamphlet of 66 pages, mostly books, circulars, and
by Cassill. No great value. Collection now boxed up in Southern Iowa,
Caxton Celebration. 1877 catalogue, London. (Q.C. 681.)
Catalogue of Masonic Books, Magazines, etc., for sale by George Wingate
Mass., May 1,1860. Haverhill, 1860. 32vo. 16 pages.
Masonic Library Ass’n
Catalogue of the Masonic Library of the Masonic Library Association;
with an account
of its Organization and By-Laws. Cincinnati. Caleb Clark. 8vo. paper,
Masonic Library Ass'n
Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Cincinnati, Ohio. Masonic Library
One of the most
ardent Masonic students and bibliophiles was Brother Scott
Bonham, who for several years lent his real and ability to this
library had as its nucleus the small but well selected library of
H. See "England, United Grand Lodge." (No. 86.)
W. J. Chetwode
The Masonic MSS. in the Bodleian Library. Reprinted from "Ars Quatuor
Margate, 1898. 42 page
Fred J. W.
Catalogue of over 300 Masonic certificates in the collection of Brother
Crowe ‒ with archaeological not and introductory notices by Brother
and Brother J. Ramsden Riley. Torquay, 1894. 32 pages.
Masonic book-plates. (Reprinted from the Ex Libris Journal, December,
1903.) 8 pages.
and Cornwall Masonic Exhibition *
Masonic Exhibition for Devon and Cornwall, June 27th to July 1st, 1887.
of Exhibits. Edited by W J. Hughan. Catalogues 1s. each. 50 pages.
exhibition many rare volumes were included as loans from private
collections of R.F. Gould. John Lane and many others. The
are in Brother Hughan's incomparable style of furnishing much
information in few
of Columbia Grand Lodge Library
Classified catalogue of the Library of the Grand Lodge F.A. A. M. of
of Columbia. Wash., 1886. 48 pages.
See "Oriental Consistory Library." (No. 114.)
English Masonic Literature before 1751, with a tentative list of
to and works on, Freemasonry before 1751. By Edmund H. Dring, London,
1913. 41 pages.
Agnes M. See "Masonic Library Association of Allegheny Co., Pa” (No.
Catalogue of books in the Library of the Ancient and Accepted Rite of
the 33d, London.
Collated BIBLIOGRAPHY r the Supreme Council by Ill. Brother H. W.
1870. 32 pages.
Catalogue of Books in the Library of the Supreme Council of the Ancient
Rite 33d, London, 1874.
Catalogue of Books in the Library of the Supreme Council 33d, Ancient
Rite, London. By Edw. Armitage, London, 1900. 111 pages.
Catalogue of Books. (Masonic; in the Library of the Supreme Council,
with manuscript catalogue of Masonic books in the British Museum. (No
A list (MS.) of works on Freemasonry, in the library at Freemason's
United Grand Lodge *
United Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of England.
Books in the Library at Freemasons' Hall, London. Compiled by order of
Lodge, June 1st, 1887. Supplementary Catalogue containing the additions
1888 to 1895. Compiled by Henry Sadler, Grand Tyler and Sub-Librarian.
and 94 pages. The first part was compiled by Shadwell H. Clerke.
Catalogue of Scarce Books on Freemasonry. For sale by N. L. Finch,
Y. January, 1917.
Catalogue of the Library of the late Col. William E. Fitch of Albany,
N. Y., consisting
of a large collection of works on Freemasonry (etc.), to be sold at
4th and 5th, 1907, by the Merwin-Clayton Sales Co., N. Y. 52 pages.
Henry Tennyson See "Wigan Public Library, Reference Department." (No.
A Catalogue Raisonne of works on the Occult Sciences, by F. Leigh
3 ‒ Freemasonry. A Catalogue of Lodge Histories, with a preface by Dr.
Westcott. London, 1912. 37 pages.
F. L. *
A Catalogue Raisonne of works on the Occult Sciences. Vol. 1.
with an introduction by Wm. Wynn Westcott. London, 1903. 82 pages.
F. L. Catalogue of Books from the Library of Wm. Wynn Westcott. '
Dr. Wm. WYnn." (No. 168.)
Catalogue of Books on the Masonic Institution in public libraries of
states of the Union, Anti-Masonic in arguments and conclusions. By
literary gentlemen, citizens of the United States, with introductory
a compilation of records and remarks, by a member of the Suffolk
Committee of 1829.
8vo. pp. XI ‒ 270. Boston, 1852.
Frank See "Missouri, Grand Lodge of." (No. 103.)
A Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry, and Kindred Subjects, compiled by
New York, 1854. 33 pages.
A Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry and Kindred Subjects, by William
York, 1858. 59 pages.
List of books presented to the Gordon Lodge, 2149. Hanley, 1894. 7
Biographical and bibliographical catalogue of the Charlesworth Masonic
Hanley. Hanley, 1900. 122 pages.
Catalogue of the Haigh collection of Masonic Books, comprising the
of the library of the late John Haigh, 33d, of Somerville, Mass.; also
and prints, together with a small collection of Masonic pitchers
(etc.). 76 pages.
of C. F. Libbie & Co., Boston, Mass., 1901.
Catalogue of the Coombe Masonic Library, 1901. 22 pages.
H. W. See "England, Supreme Council." (No. 31.)
A Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry and Kindred Subjects, on sale by
Co., Sunderland, Eng. May, 48 pages.
A Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry. Hills & Co., Sunderland,
May, 1913. 31
Catalogue of an extensive Library of scarce and curious books ‒ sold by
by Messrs. Hodgson & Co., London August, 1885. 50 pages.
A Catalogue of the Library of the late F.W. Lavender ‒ comprising a
books on Freemasonry. Sold by Hodgson & Co., London. Feb.,
1917. 37 pages.
A Catalogue of the Library of A. M. Broadley, comprising the collection
on Freemasonry ‒ sold by auction by Hodgson & Co., London.
June, 1917. 35 pages.
Catalogue of a valuable collection of books on Freemasonry ‒ on sale by
London, 1876. 22 pages
Catalogue of a Valuable Collection of Books on Freemasonry ‒ on sale by
London, 1876. 10 pages
Catalogue of Rare and Beautiful Books, for sale at Frank Holling's Book
Great Turnstile, London. Cat No. 112.
William James *
Constitutions of the Freemasons. London: R. Spencer, 1869. 8vo. pp. XXX
William James *
The Old Charges of British Freemasons, by Wm. J. Hughan, with valuable
A Preface by the Rev. A.F.A. Woodford, M. A. London, 1872. 90 pages.
edition, 1895. 191 pages.
William James *
Masonic Sketches and Reprints.
of Freemasonry in York. 2. Unpublished Records of the Craft.
By William James Hughan, Hull and Truro, 1871 (American edition, New
Masonic Bibliography, London, 1892. 2 pages.
Histories of Lodges (England), by W. J. Hughan, London, 1892. 8vo. 20
Supplement to Histories of Lodges (England). Reprinted from The
21, 1893. 4 pages
Histories of Lodges (Scotland), 1892, by W. J. Hughan
Provincial Masonic calendars. (Reprinted from Freemason, December 22,
1894.) 4 pages.
William James *
William James *
Masonic Bibliography of Hughan. Chief Masonic Works. George Kenning
& Son, London,
1896. 8 pages.
Unidentified or missing MSS. (Reprinted from "Ars Quatuor
Margate, 1891. 4 pages.
See "Lane (John) Memorial Library." (No. 82.)
See "Worcester, England." (No. 170.)
See "Worcestershire Masonic Library and Museum." (No. 172.)
Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry and Kindred Subjects, and including
badges, aprons, baldrics, etc., belonging to Frazier W. Hurlburt, of
Utica, N. Y.,
1889. 20 pages.
Masonic Library of the late Leon Hyneman. New York, 1879. 46 pages.
Stewart Lodge No. 1960
A Catalogue of the Library belonging to "Stewart” Lodge No. 1960, E.
at Rawal Pindi and Muree, in the Punjab, compiled by Brother J. H.
Leslie, up to
November 30th, 1894. Calcutta, 1894.
A sketch of its collection of books and the contents of the museum,
with a brief
tribute to its founder, Dr. Theodore Sutton Parvin, by Herbert S.
Rapids, Iowa, 1899.
Catalogue of the Iowa Masonic Library. By T. S. Parvin. 1st edition,
1849. 4 pages.
Catalogue of the Iowa Masonic Library. By T. S. Parvin. 2nd edition,
1854. 9 pages.
Catalogue of the Iowa Masonic Library. By T. S. Parvin. 3rd edition,
1858. 22 pages.
Masonic Library *
Catalogue of the Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa. June 1st, 1873, by
S. Parvin, Grand Secretary, Iowa City, 1873. 144 pages.
Masonic Library *
Catalogue of the Works on Freemasonry and Kindred Subjects, in the
Library of the
Grand Lodge of Iowa, A. F. & A. Masons. Fifth edition. (1849,
'54, '58, '73)
June 1883. To which is prefixed a Separate Catalogue of the Bower
T. S. Parvin, Iowa City, 1883. 135 pages.
By-laws of the Jamaica Masonic Library and list of Masonic works
1884 16 pages.
Catalogue of Books and Manuscripts relating to Freemasonry, on sale by
London. 1878. 15 pages.
Catalogue of valuable Books and Manuscripts relating to Freemasonry,
etc., on sale
by Geo. Kenning, London. 1886. 8vo. 32 pages. Same, 1887, 15 pages.
28 pages. Same, 1889, 15 pages. Same, 1892, 31 pages.
A Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry, published or sold by George
office, 16 and 16a Great Queen St., London, W. C. March, 1893. 30 pages.
George & Son *
Illustrated Catalogue of Masonic Clothing, Jewels, etc., by Geo.
Kenning & Son,
London, 1915.139 pages
Dr. Geo. B. F.
Catalogue of the Library of Dr. Kloss of Frankfort, including many
unpublished manuscripts, and printed books with ms. annotations.
(John) Memorial Library
Catalogue of the John Lane Memorial Library, by Wm. J. Hughan, Torquay,
Catalogue of the Masonic Library belonging to Samuel C. Lawrence,
Printed by Carl H. Heintsmann, Boston, 1891. 320 pages.
A Catalogue of the Library in Freemason's Hall, Leicester. Compiled by
S., Biggs and J. T. Thorp. Leicester, 1891. 64 pages.
A. Lewis' Standard Masonic Rituals, London, 1916. 36 pages.
James & Co.
Catalogue of 4,000 volumes of works on Freemasonry, Astrology and
at auction by James Lewis & Co. London, 1885. 62 pages.
C. F. & Co.*
Catalogue No. 931 of Masonic Books, 1920. 78 Bedford St., Boston. 32
pages. me to
the I student times without number, for if there is anything difficult
Liverpool, 1909. 42 pages.
Catalogue of Library and Museum of Prov. Grand Lodge of West
90. Los Angeles
Catalogue of Los Angeles Masonic Library, Los Angeles Calif., 1914. 26
Catalogue of the Masonic Museum in connection with the Lurgan Masonic
F. C. Crosse, Newry, 1895. 15 pages.
Catalogue of standard and rare Masonic books, etc., contained in the
Z. C. Luse, Iowa City, Iowa, 1881. 40 pages.
A. G. *
Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry and Kindred Subjects belonging to the
of the late Albert G. Mackey, M. D., and now offered for sale at the
Washington, D. C. (no date). 46 pages.
Publishing & Masonic Supply Co. *
Books Masonic and Eindred Subjects, by Macoy Publishing and Masonic
New York, 1920. 24 pages.
Publishing & Masonic Supply Co.*
Books Masonic and Kindred Subjects (etc.), Macoy Publishing and Masonic
New York, 1913. 30 pages.
Catalogue of Marvin's sale of Masonic Medals, 1881.
Library Association of Allegheny. Co., Pa.
Catalogue of the Library of the Masonic Library Association of
Compiled and arranged by Agnes M. Elliott. Pittsburgh, 1897. 54 pages.
(To be concluded)
By Bro. N.W.J. Haydon, Ontario
who read this noble paper may care to pursue the meditation further by
"Our Eternity," [Lib 1913] by Maurice Maeterlinck,
by Dodd, Mead & Company, New York City; and to "The New Death
[Lib 1918]," by Winnifred Kirkland,
by the Atlantic Monthly Press, Boston. The latter first appeared as an
the Atlantic Monthly Magazine and there received so much commendation
that the author
enlarged her paper to make a book of it. In this day of the free mind
when men are
learning to think by means of facts and ideas rather than by means of
the great and sombre fact of Death is receiving an examination hitherto
of, FINALLY instructs us how to die." In common with the older
far as we have relies of their teachings, Masonry offers its votaries a
approach to this final test of our philosophy of life, one worthy of
and in harmony with our honored motto, "Follow Reason."
wrote for all of us:
"But I've a rendezvous with
At midnight in some flaming town,
And I to my pledged word am true ‒
I shall not fail that rendezvous."
have a rendezvous with the Reaper, by no means to be escaped, no matter
science may help us to postpone it. And though to but few is it given
to meet him
with those feelings voiced for us by Horatius
"How can a man die better
Than when facing fearful odds
For the ashes of his fathers
And the temples of his gods?"
yet we need
not watch his sure approach with only a bitter recognition of our human
Such an attitude is unworthy of those who truly follow reason, and have
a philosophy of life, which in death sees but a change of circumstance,
important that may be.
adapt to our own use the salute offered by the gladiators of old, save
of hailing a human Caesar who viewed their struggles as an amusement,
as bravely regard the Ancient of Days, saying each one of us "Ave,
Vitae, moriturus te saluto," and go forward fearing nothing.
been many noble expressions of attitude towards Death, and amongst them
poem, "Thanatopsis," written a century ago by a young man of 18, holds
a high place with its sonorous phrases, its confidence that finds in
facts a firm
foundation for faith. Naturally, it reflects at first the sombre New
of its author, but none surpass its conclusion in natural dignity:
". . . sustained and soothed
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave,
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams."
Let us examine
our grounds for this trust, that our hope may be reinforced by reason
as by iron rods and, to this end, let me draw attention to an essay by
to which I am deeply indebted. ("Death," [Lib 1912] published by Dodd, Mead
1912.) He writes:
were a salutary, thing for each of us to work out his idea of death in
of his days and the strength of his intelligence and learn to stand by
it. He would
say to Death: 'I know not who you are, or I would be your master; but,
in days when
my eyes saw clearer than today, I learnt what you are not; that is
enough to prevent
you from becoming my master.'
would thus carry, imprinted on his memory, a tried image against which
agony would not prevail and in which the phantom-stricken eyes would
comfort. Instead of the terrible prayer of the dying, which is the
prayer of the
depths, he would say his own prayer, that of the peaks of his life,
be gathered, like angels of peace, the most limpid, the most pellucid
his life. Is not that the prayer of prayers? After all, what is a true
prayer, if not the most ardent and disinterested effort to reach and
grasp the unknown."
Here is the
key to our problem; let us learn what Death is not; by this
we shall strip off the masks wherewith our imagination has disguised
it. It is not
sickness, nor suffering, nor the stern agony. It is not shroud, nor
pall, nor grave,
nor the horrors of disintegration. All these have to do with the
methods and usages
of life. The errors and weaknesses of nature or science caused their
Death emphasizes their futility. Should we convalesce, we forget them;
not, our survivors abuse Death that stops them.
so carefully explains, our life is a continual adjustment of internal
to external relations, of growth from within to pressure from without;
we can no longer adjust ourselves, why blame Death for clearing the
board and giving
us a new deal?
Do we accuse
Sleep for the fatigue which overwhelms us if we resist it? It seems
that all our
knowledge only helps us to die in greater pain than the animals that
and we add to our troubles by imputing to Death those salvaging
our elements are restored to usefulness in Life's workshop.
"... Earth, that nourished
thee, shall claim
Thy growth to be resolved to earth again,
And lost each human trace, surrendering up
Thine individual being, shalt thou go
To mix forever with the elements."
We do not
view with horror or anguish the fading flower, or the crumbling wall,
our bodies are concerned, we usually strive to delay by all means
natural dissolution. Embalmings, coffins, graves, and vaults are
brought into action,
and that which happens therein poisons our thoughts, offends our
our courage. Yet all this is of life and impossible without life. How
has our boasted civilization increased the ethical value of our funeral
but one terror associate with Death, that of the unknown into which it
force us; but this also can be dissolved considerably if not totally,
reason. There are at least four methods of solution open to us: Total
Survival with our present consciousness. Survival without
with universal consciousness.
nothing to be gained by including any religious dicta herein, for the
fact of Death
is no more-and certainly no less-subject to that mode of thought, than
of the activities of life. Birth is equally as important as Death, but
only in some
"pagan" and "uncivilized" peoples do we and the solemnity and
dangers of birth regarded as occasions for priestly action, so we have
is not only unthinkable, it is a blunder. Infinite change, yes, surely
"Nothing of him that doth fade
But doth suffer a sea-change
Into something rich and strange."
of place and condition, but to suppose non-existence is to try to limit
and since a state of nothingness cannot be at all, that at all events
make Death terrible. As Sir Edwin Arnold has written:
"Never the Spirit was born, the
cease to be never;
Never was time it was not, end and beginning are dreams.
Birthless and deathless and endless endureth the Spirit forever,
Death hath not touched it at all, dead tho the house of it seems."
alternative ‒ survival with our present consciousness involves that
"What am I?" For most of us, "I" becomes identified with memory.
"I" cannot be body or mind, for we know they are constant only in
The body provides, and the mind organizes, our sense perceptions,
whereas our conscious
memory preserves such residue of these as establish experience and
Memory seems to be a sheath for the "I," most easily disturbed by
yet most clamorous for an unbroken existence. What cares it that
through the alchemy
of Death, "I" can participate in the whole range of natural forces?
knowledge, nor beauty, nor power attract it, if they are not accessible
am greater than, and within, memory then bodily sufferings and desires
must be petty
to this surviving consciousness, for with the loss of body its services
too, deprived of sense perceptions on which to build them, mental and
and changes must go, and the personal mind is dissolved. Remains then
of our present
consciousness, only memory, so pitiably finite and, cut loose from its
how shall it continue to know itself? We know how easily it fades while
physical health, what then will it be like when the great change comes?
hope that this alternative conveys has done much good service to the
of our predecessors, and is well expressed in the "Song of Odysseus" as
he lay awaiting death by torture:
"Endure my heart; not long
shalt then endure
The shame, the smart.
The good and ill are done, the end is sure;
Endure my heart.
"There stand two golden vessels by the throne
Of Zeus on high,
From them he scatters mirth and moan
To men who die.
And thou of many joys hast had thy share,
Thy perfect part;
Battle and love, and evil things and fair;
Endure my heart.
"Fight one last greatest battle under shield,
Wage that war well,
Then join thy fellows in the shadowy fields
There is the kingly Hector, there the men
Who fought for Troy;
Shall we not fight our battles o'er again,
Were that not joy?
"Tho no sun shines beyond the dusky west,
Thy perfect part,
There shalt thou have of the unbroken rest!
Endure my heart."
by Andrew Lang.)
then, our third alternative, survival without consciousness. This also
nothing of terror, or even regret. Dreamless sleep we welcome as
sweet restorer," but not as a lasting condition. Such an expectation
consort with ideals fit for ordinary healthy men and women much less
A little further analysis shows us that by this alternative we imply
direct negative of our second alternative; rather we feel opening to
that which contains the only possible satisfaction for which all seem
to be struggling,
the only possible completion of that urge from within which is the
"Nay, but as when one layeth
His worn out robes away,
And, taking others, sayeth
'These will I wear today.'
So layeth off the Spirit
Lightly its garb of flesh,
And passeth to inherit
A residence afresh."'
we approach our fourth alternative, survival with the Universal
at this point Maeterlinck's own words alone are adequate:
begins the open sea. Here begins the glorious adventure, the only one
human curiosity, the only one that soars as high as its highest
longing. Let us
accustom ourselves to regard Death as a form of life which we do not
let us learn to look upon it with the same eye that looks upon birth;
and soon our
mind will be accompanied to the steps of the tomb with the same glad
that greets a birth. If, before being born, we were permitted to choose
the great peace of non-existence and a life that should not be
completed by the
magnificent hour of death, which of us, knowing what we ought to know,
the disquieting problem of an existence that would not end in the
of its conclusion? Which of us would care to come into a world, where
there is so
little to learn, if he did not know that he must enter it if he would
leave it and
learn more? The best part of life is that it prepares this hour for us,
is the one and only road leading to the magic gateway and into that
mystery where misfortunes and sufferings will no longer be possible,
shall have lost the body that produced them; where the worst that can
is the dreamless slumber which we count among the number of the
greatest boons on
earth; where, lastly, it is almost unimaginable that a thought can
survive to mingle
with the substance of the universe, that is to say, with infinity
which, if it be
not a waste of indifference, can be nothing but a sea of joy."
It is to
this that we, having "Followed Reason," make our approach, "sustained
and soothed by an unfaltering trust." Heretofore we have seen through a
darkly; the narrow limits of our being conceal infinity from our view,
has said, or, to use a Western idiom, we cannot see the forest for the
must prepare ourselves in advance by learning how to change our focus.
when we look through a screen door we see the garden through a faint
blur of lines;
or we can, instead, see the screen filling our vision with a faint blur
and greenery filtering through.
For all of
us Death is but a screen, and for most of us it fills our vision. Can
our focus, and strengthen our unfaltering trust, by attempting to
The effort, even if unsuccessful at present, will be as useful as those
of our talented
brother of Rochester (Mr. Claude Bragdon) in his illuminating books on
Fourth Dimension." [Lib 1913]
As an analogy
let us consider the experience of the human embryo when the time of
How limited is its experience of life! A little space and power for
in no other mode can its volition express itself! Sight, hearing,
choice of food,
protection from accidents, are all beyond its power. It knows nothing
but a soft,
warm, darkness, and even these qualities are not so known to its
for it has no basis of comparison with anything different. Could one
to it news of the great change soon to take place in its condition,
with what terror
and reluctance would it regard this entire loss of all it knows, for a
being so much more comprehensive as to be incomprehensible! Yet we
adults are in
the same position as we approach the gateway to another life. And if,
as we know,
the embryo by virtue of its inherent life-quality can change from a
speck of zooplasm
to a human being, there appears no reason at all why it should not go
on yet further
and enter into tune with the Infinite. Death to us can be no worse than
the embryo, and all evolution affirms that
"The soul's ephemerally housed
is this Infinite, as our reason tests it that is to say, as we compare
it with life
as we know it? Mostly negatives. It has neither beginning nor end. It
can have no
purpose nor destination, for the one would have been accomplished and
reached in the long train of ages that has passed, had it been other
If it be not conscious always, then it never will be, for it must know
all or nothing
since it has only itself to know.
we try to understand, Infinity through our senses, how different is the
At once the hard diamond becomes a mass of activities. Every part is
complete knowledge is endlessly experimenting for new discoveries,
purpose seeks continually some new fulfilment.
right, is this inconsistency real or only apparent? Here our limits
force us to
change from Operative to Speculative. We are, for the most part unable
exact knowledge in advance of the fact but we can hope, for we have
laid the foundation
thereof. We cannot deny infinity, but we can see that all its parts
(for lack of
a better word) must be of the same nature. There would then be, as yet,
finality of perfected knowledge or accomplished purpose. Rather an
of transformations and combinations, an ever growing consciousness
striving to know
itself, seeking to express an idea hidden in its own nature, requiring
all the worlds
of all the universes as fields for its experiments, all form of life as
as coworkers to that discovery as pioneers in that great adventure.
Here is our
as man and his thought may appear, he has exactly the value of the most
forces that he is able to conceive, since there is neither great nor
small in the
immeasurable. The mind alone, perhaps, occupies in infinity a space
do not reduce to nothing."
Is it not,
then, childish to talk of eternal happiness or sorrow, where it is
is in question? Our ideas of these conditions are so human so
are based so entirely on the implication that the laws of our life here
our life under all other conditions. Yet, we must admit that our ideas
from the sensibilities of our nervous system, which is tuned to but a
of perceptions, and which could as easily have felt everything the
and taken pleasure in what now makes pain.
then, is it to "Follow Reason," and recognize that it would need but a
trifle, a few papillae more or less to our skin, the least modification
of our eyes
and ears, to turn the temperature, the silence, and the darkness of
space into a
delicious springtime, an unequalled music, a divine light. We can,
persuade ourselves that the catastrophes we think we behold are the
acts of life
itself, that even the collision and pulverizing of worlds marks the
some new and marvelous, experiment, that all is but birth and rebirth,
into an unknown filled with the anticipation of that far-off divine
event to which
the whole creation moves: some immense festival of mind and matter in
the Liberator, thrusting aside at last our two enemies, time and space,
permit us to take our proper part, as Fellows of the Craft of which the
is the Master.
Relief Needed At Fort Bayard, N. M.
By Bro. Francis E. Lester,
Grand Master, New Mexico
relieve the distressed is a duty incumbent on all men, but particularly
who are linked together by an indissoluble chain of sincere affection.
the unhappy, to sympathize with them in their misfortunes, to
miseries, and to restore peace to their troubled minds, is the great
aim we have
in view. On this basis we form our friendships and establish our
AT FORT BAYARD,
New Mexico, is the largest government hospital of any kind in the
and yet it is confined to the treatment of tubercular patients, of
which there are
at present 1075 under treatment. These men are nearly all veterans of
the war and
they come from almost every state of the Union. They are given good
attention, so far as general conditions in Fort Bayard are concerned;
and they are
in all stages of tubercular condition. Masonic conditions at Fort
an appeal to the very heart and soul of Masonry.
is a permanent institution. It is a city in itself. For the coming
year, a total
of approximately one million dollars will be spent by the government
permanent buildings alone which are needed to relieve the present
It is anticipated that these over-crowded conditions will continue for
five years or more and the number of occupied beds increase to 1200;
it is hoped to reduce the number of beds to about 700.
who takes his teachings seriously can visit this institution without
Masonry is doing in the way of relief, for the need of the kindly word
the handclasp of brotherhood, the little attentions that do so much to
monotony of the invalid, and the assistance in a practical way that
many of these
boys need, was never greater, not even during the war that ruined their
The excitement and stress of warfare is past and is succeeded by the
of chronic invalidism; and many of these boys are thousands of miles
away from home
and relatives. The need for practical relief at Fort Bayard is a
challenge to the
Freemasonry of our country.
do we find? These brother Masons, flat on their backs in the wards, see
more evidence of relief measures carried out by the Knights of Columbus
their own brotherhood. The Knights of Columbus occupy one of the finest
of its kind at Fort Bayard, with large and well equipped entertainment
billiard tables and adjoining chapel, and a thoroughly organized relief
salaried men who keep in daily touch with the patients in all the many
fruit, and the many little attentions are dispensed by them to the
sick, and the
practical evidences of Knights of Columbus relief are seen everywhere.
Is it any
wonder that many a Masonic brother, helpless on his cot, seeing these
the sincerity of his lodge teachings about relief and concludes that
in truth for relief ‒ on paper and in the lodge room only?
I found case
after case where Masonic relief was needed. Here is one case typical of
brother comes as an inmate from a distant state, sent here by the
officer for tuberculosis, in the hope and expectation that his
application for government
compensation would be promptly acted upon and funds made available for
of his wife and children. His application is delayed, ‒ by red-tape and
conditions, ‒ and before long our brother Mason receives letters from
his wife back
home advising that she and the children are in need of the necessities
and worry in its worst form is added to this brother's afflictions. It
wonder that in some of these cases, the patient gives up his fight for
gets away, in one way or another, from the hospital in a last desperate
support his family.
may ask, is local Masonry doing for these men? In view of the fact that
of the United States are doing nothing, it is doing what it can. Some
a handful of loyal, large-hearted Masons organized what is known as the
Club" of Fort Bayard, similar in character to the organization by the
name at other government institutions. The Sojourners' Club of Fort
Bayard has at
present a membership of 165 Masons, representing forty-two different
pay their monthly dues to the club and work together as best they can
what help is possible to assist their brother Masons. All work is
given from the true Masonic hearts of these brethren, freely and
a member is unable to pay his dues, he still receives the benefits of
All members are active so far as their physical condition permits. They
funds for relief purposes by appeals to Masons, and entertainments at
and by any legitimate means at hand; but the aggregate receipts of a
year are but
a drop in the bucket in comparison with the urgent needs of the
Here is one
typical case of how these Masonic brethren work. A brother Mason
to receive the compensation due him from his government, was about to
let his insurance
policy lapse. The Sojourners' Club had no available funds, ‒ its
treasury is always
in an "exhausted" condition, ‒ so the boys went down in their pockets
to make up their brother's insurance premium. That case is typical of
what is going
on practically every day in the Sojourners' Club of Fort Bayard, N. M.
some 200 Masons among the patients at Fort Bayard and about an equal
more, who are sons or brothers of Masons. There are a still larger
number of those
who, normally, would like to become Masons someday, and there are a
number, ‒ all the remainder of the patients at Fort Bayard, ‒ who see
just how little
Masonry is doing for even its own members who have been made invalids
for their country. Is it any credit to Masonry to see the Sojourners'
to meet in a disreputable little shack, which constitutes its sole
the Knights of Columbus occupy ideal quarters? Is it any credit to
Masonry to note
the pitiably inadequate, though wonderfully faithful work of the
supported solely by voluntary local collections from men who can ill
expense, while the Knights of Columbus have ample funds, all kinds of
and paid workers with private automobiles? And is it any credit to
Masonry to find
that we have no organization through which the needs of these Masonic
are made known to their home lodges, and the crying need for organized
known to every Grand Lodge of Masons in our country? Conditions at Fort
they are today are enough to put Masonry to shame in the heart and mind
of any true
Mason who investigates them.
we do about it? For one thing, let's get back of the plan adopted by
the Fort Bayard
Sojourners' Club to erect a Club House. They have had their plans drawn
time for a permanent and attractive building, to cost $25,000. When
maintenance expenses of heat, light, water, sewer connections, etc.,
will be provided
by the government. We, the Masons of America, must see to it that not
only is this
building provided, but that finances are provided to properly conduct
the work of
relief. An appeal for aid in constructing the building has already been
every Grand Lodge of the country. It should not fall on deaf ears. This
is a national
problem, not a local or state question; the patients at Fort Bayard are
parts of the country. If Freemasonry does really stand for relief in
any other form
than a subject for ritualistic lip-service, here is a chance for its
big heart to
awaken and perform a real service.
when all life's lessons have been learned,
And sun and stars forevermore have set,
The things which our weak judgments here have spurned,
The things o'er which we grieved with lashes wet,
Will flash before us, out of life's dark night,
As stars shine more in deeper tints of blue,
And we shall see how all God's plans were right,
And how what seemed reproof was love most true.
of Masonic Service
last sessions of its Grand Lodge, North Dakota Freemasonry issued an
of belief and program of action well worth the careful attention of
in the land. The Craft in North Dakota is very much alive, as the
citizens of the
state are already learning, and the end is not yet, as this manifesto
The following Program of Masonic Service is a good one to model by, by
as well as by subordinate bodies:
Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted Masonry of North Dakota recognizes
its belief that the two great Masonic principles, the Fatherhood of
God, and the
Brotherhood of Man, form the only basis upon which social order can
exist; the happiness
of the individual and the welfare of the state depends upon the
of these principles to human conduct.
it is the purpose of this statement to bring to the Craft in a concrete
means by which Masons individually and collectively can properly serve
1st. Loyalty to country is a
yet too frequently this is construed to refer only to times of war and
crisis. The Grand Lodge of North Dakota believes that loyalty carries
with it the
highest obligation of citizenship; obedience to law, respect for
authority, a recognition of the right of every human being to the
enjoyment of life,
liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The rights we enjoy as citizens
them corresponding duties. Among these duties is the proper exercise of
the careful and intelligent consideration of men and measures coming
people for approval. No good Mason will fail to be a good citizen, and
to be found
on the side of Decency, Civic Righteousness and Public Order.
2nd. Masonry believes in
depends upon the wide-spread intelligence among the people.
in America upon the Free Public School system. The Grand Lodge desires
again its unswerving devotion to the American ideal of education;
equality of opportunity
for all children from kindergarten to university. We demand that in all
education one language only shall be used, and that the English as
spoken by Americans,
also that both private and parochial schools shall be subject to the
of the educational authorities, local and state. We record our
to the Smith-Towner Bill, now known as the Towner-Sterling Bill,
providing for national
recognition and leadership in American education, not national control,
and we pledge
the efforts of the Master Masons of this Grand Jurisdiction to secure
of this measure into law.
3rd. This Grand Lodge believes
that the hope
of any nation lies in its youth. In these days when there are so many
ways of corrupting
our youth, Masonry must stand back of any constructive effort to
furnish the boys
of our various communities the right kind of ideals and leadership,
whether it be
through the Order of DeMolay, the Boy Scouts movement or the effective
boys done by city or county Y.M.C.A.'s. Where there are Chapters of the
DeMolay care must be taken to have them properly sponsored. In large
the boys' work of the Y.M.C.A. and of the Boy Scouts is well organized.
be generous supporters. In the small towns Masonic lodges should not
take the lead in these splendid enterprises. Any Masonic lodge could
and propriety get back of a Father and Son banquet and make it an
The boys of today are to be the men and Masons of tomorrow, and in
saying this for
boys, we recognize also the special need of the same right ideals and
as well for our girls. The future of the race depends upon the
character of the
boys and girls of today.
4th. The first sentence of the
of a Freemason is that "A Mason is obliged by his Tenure to obey the
Law." The principle tenets of our order are Friendship, Morality and
Love. There can be no misconstruction or misunderstanding of the
meaning of these
Masonic Fundamentals. Therefore the Grand Lodge of North Dakota knows
of no better
way to serve than to summon its members to that high conception of
moral conduct which alone means stability in human society. Men and
recognize that the same standards of conduct are expected of them as
of our women, and if Masons fully realize the importance of high moral
they will not condone the conduct or retain the membership of the
5th. The Grand Lodge of North
in the doctrine of the square deal; in social justice as opposed to the
ideas of no God, and no law. Any theory, economic or governmental which
recognize the Supremacy of Almighty God and the rule of law is inimical
to the welfare
and happiness of mankind and ought not have the approval of intelligent
6th. Brotherly Love, the last
of that great Trinity
of Tenets of our Order, is not exclusive, it is inclusive. Brotherly
all mankind; it carries with it Good Will, Justice, Tolerance,
Forbearance and high
regard for the rights of others. With this thought in our minds we
spirit of mob violence that has flamed up in our country so often in
past. We are opposed to all efforts to stir up class or race hatred. We
that any effort that would involve this nation in war with a friendly
nations is un-American and calls for most vigorous protest and
has problems of her own to solve without attempting to solve the
of other nations.
We have just
come through a great World War, ‒ its cost in blood and treasure to us
enormous, but only a fraction of what it has cost other friendly
is not too proud to fight for a great principle, but she is too just,
and too honorable
to wage war for mere gain.
Lodge of North Dakota desires to record its unqualified approval of any
efforts designed to bring about World Peace and the reduction of the
of armament which are now taking the very life-blood of the people of
There will be no reconstruction, no return to normal life so long as
portion of the revenues of the nations of the world are absorbed by
and navies. Let us see and think straight. No one is so visionary as to
that the world has reached the stage when force is no longer necessary,
fact remains, that as Masons, we can at least show the power of Love ‒
Love ‒ among men.
7th. "Masons are to work and
wages," therefore it naturally follows that as a body of Masons the
recognizes the dignity of labor. No Mason is worthy of that title
unless he is making
a real contribution to the upbuilding of his community, his state and
We do not recognize any artificial distinctions, neither do we
those who work as the common laborer, the skilled mechanic, the
or the business man. So long as each acts on the square and is honestly
to take his part, that is sufficient.
8th. Community betterment is a
It includes the best schools, opportunities for wholesome recreation,
of cooperation and good will. Masons and Masonic lodges ought to
with any movement which means the improvement of the community of which
a part, and where Masonic lodges have Temples or commodious lodge
rooms, these should,
so far as consistent with the necessary work of the lodge, be offered
to the community. The more closely a Masonic lodge identifies itself
with the highest
welfare of the community the less will be the misunderstanding of and
to our great Fraternity.
9th. Leadership, not boss
control, is the crying
need of our day. Public Service needs real men. The Grand Lodge of
calls upon its membership to stand forth and lead the way to a better
day. Any Mason
who would refuse the call to serve has not learned the lesson which
to offer. The challenge to every Mason is clear-cut ‒ it is Service. We
serve our God by serving His children ‒ our Brothers.
part of beauty is that which a picture cannot express.
Redeemers -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Lewis A.
visions dark, and worldly strife,
Man's savage nature then instilled
With ignorance and passion rife
And mind with superstition filled;
Soon filtering through his teeming brain,
The Spirit, all pervading, spread
Until his faint, dim dream of God
From paths of savage nature led.
The firmament its lessons gave
With wonders to his eyes revealed;
Then man, from ignorance to save,
Evolved his mysteries concealed.
Then Isis sought her stricken spouse
As seeks the searcher after light,
And with her son, with typhon strove
And evil legions put to flight.
The Indian Prince renounced the throne
And with the lowly cast his life;
Inspired by that same spirit shown
Where peace and love have conquered strife.
And millions of his fellow men,
Redeemed by words and acts of love,
From sordid woes and vice, began
To raise their thoughts to things above.
And Brahma's faithful advocate
His mission served in love and peace;
'Mong shepherds born in humble state,
The world from bondage to release.
Redeemed by Chrisna's mission dear,
Who, dying on the cross of hate,
Made power of love and duty clear,
Mankind his chronicles relate.
Four centuries had passed away
And yet the Word was sparsely spread
When lo! Mankind beheld the light
Another fair Redeemer shed.
The Nazerene, like Chrisna born,
Through bigots' persecuting hate,
From love's sweet mission rudely torn
And shared the Brahmin's cruel fate.
Against Idolatry's conceit
The Moslem Prophet later strove
In Allah's name, his plans replete
With revelations from above.
Redeeming through their winning grace
The straying wanderers abroad
Of many a rude, benighted race
To worship one true, living God.
The fabled past the tale recites
In strange, mysterious writings shown,
And thoughts oft garbed in fancy's flights
Bring living truths to reason known
Yet though in allegory wrought,
They breathe of that inspiring power
Whose attributes are vainly sought
In meditation's holy hour;
And he who labors truth to prove
And spreads the light by tongue or pen,
Becomes the almoner of love,
Redeemer of his fellow man
count this thing to be grandly, true
That a noble deed is a step toward God,
Lifting the soul from the common sod
To a purer air and a broader view."
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs ‒ From the questions following each section
of the paper
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the tenet of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
* * *
‒ Masonic Ethics
A MAN can
never hurt or help natural forces. He can spread his sail, but that
does not affect
the wind. He can overturn the sod with his plow but the sod does not
at him with pain. He can send his wireless messages through space but
not change the structure of the atmosphere. A man does not have much
choice in his
dealings with nature. If he steps from a roof he immediately falls to
whatever be his opinions of gravity. The sun shines, night darkens,
rain falls, the ocean moves through its tides, but the will of man has
do with all this.
A man's relationship
with his fellow men is very different. He can hurt or help them, bless
What he says may change the course of another's fortunes: what he does
may be a
matter of life and death to a fellow. And all that he does to and with
is largely under the control of his own will, for he can choose to act
or not to
act, to think or not to think, to speak or not to speak, and he can so
he knows that his thoughts, words, or deeds will influence them greatly
or another. This is also true of a man's own self, and his relationship
he can make his own person the object of his thoughts and acts for good
and, as these thoughts and acts are of his own choosing, he is
they become a part of his conduct. All the ways in which a man affects
and in which men affect each other, for which men are responsible,
materials of morality, of which ethics is the science.
has its own interpretation of the principles of morality. It has its
of human conduct. For reasons of its own it emphasizes certain duties,
certain ideals. In order to persuade men to act in a certain way it
brings to bear
up them certain influences and strives to neutralize other influences
oppose its purposes. It knows what it wants a man to be, and human
society in general
to be, and it bends its efforts towards that end. Masonic Ethics is
from this particular point of view, in the light of Masonic principles
and in behalf of Masonic purposes. It is the study of ethics as it
bears on Masonry
and of Masonry as it bears on ethics. Such a study bulks large in
the Craft, in its philosophy, in its teachings, its ritual, and its
because Masonry is above all other things a moralistic institution,
to realize on earth a definite ideal of conduct, both private and
public. It is
unfortunate that no modern Masonic scholar has yet attempted to make a
of Masonic history and literature in order to build a System of Masonic
in the same way that numberless other students have built up systems of
ethics, or Chinese ethics, or Jewish, etc.
of men know as little of moral science as of any other science, and
of "right" and "wrong" are, accordingly, often as valueless
as their conceptions of astronomy, or physics. From tradition, from the
or from hearsay, without ever having submitted it to careful scrutiny
of sound thinking,
they have accepted into their minds a rough code of morals. This code
for the most part, of two contrasted lists of actions: one, of actions
the other, of actions forbidden. Whenever the question arises, Is such
a proposed action good or bad? they refer the matter to their "lists"
and act accordingly. A man says to himself, Shall I gamble? Shall I
send money to
the missionaries? Shall I tell this untruth to my neighbor? Shall I use
If he finds gambling to be listed with his mental category of things
will look upon it as a sin. If missionary gifts are in the list of
such gifts are right, etc.
works satisfactorily until the man comes into conflict with an entirely
code. One example of this will suffice. A Frenchman, let it be supposed
also, finds that drinking wine is permitted by his own moral code. An
on the other hand, finds wine among the things most violently forbidden
by his own
code. Who, or what, is to decide between them? The Frenchman may appeal
to the authority
of the New Testament: so may the Methodist. The Frenchman may say, My
long ago decided this matter: the Methodist may reply, Mine also has
matter. If the Frenchman appeals to the tradition of his group, the
retort in the same way, and to an opposite conclusion. It is plain that
"list" or code system of morality is one that breaks down the moment a
man seeks the ground that lies beneath it.
This is nothing
other than the age-old search for the seat of authority in morals. When
a man is
in moral predicament, and does not know whether or not a given course
is right or wrong, to what final authority can he refer his problem? In
opinion there can be but one answer. Human experience, of the
individual and of
the race, is the one final authority in morals. If a man does something
his own body; or needlessly, destroys something of human value; or
in any way; or deliberately makes himself or others unhappy, that man
Wrong is whatever hurts human life, or destroys human happiness; right
helps human life, and tends to sustain or increase human happiness.
There is but
one way to learn what it is that hurts or helps and that is by
experience, and whenever
one is not sure what experience has to say he is obliged to make a
Acts are not right or wrong intrinsically, but according as their
effects are hurtful
or helpful. The purpose of right living is not in order to render
obedience to some
code, or to some supposed authority, but to enable a man to live
happily. A wise man may therefore often do something that may not be
others, but the man who does something which his own experience shows
to be hurtful
is a fool.
not mean that a man can safely trust to his own experience alone: far
for often a man's own experience is too meagre to be of any value.
Others have lived
longer or more richly than he, or more wisely, and he can heed their
by virtue of some special training, may better understand the effects
of a given
course of action, and consequently have a right to direct conduct, as a
has a right to prescribe remedies. Nor can a man dare to set his own
against the experience of a nation, or of the race, as may be proved by
to slavery days, when many planters found in their own experience that
to be a good for themselves and their slaves, whereas the experience of
States as a whole proved slavery to be a curse to all concerned. But,
individual can trust to his own private experience, or must defer to
and wiser experience of the race, it is human experience which, in the
approves or condemns any given course of conduct.
of action have always and everywhere been found to be hurtful or
to deceive another will be found hurtful in China as in America, in the
as well as in the twentieth: so also with habits of gluttony or
destroy health; with extravagance, laziness, cruelty, etc. One, can't
any social condition under which men would not find these things to
make for unhappiness.
These permanent verdicts of human experience become at last
crystallized into principles
which nobody questions, and these principles, taken together, comprise
of morality. But, even so, all such principles are found to root in
and its verdicts. Should the constitution of man come under some
so that men would be made happier by gluttony, and life made richer and
then would gluttony become a good and not a bad.
majority of moral problems, however, have not been, and never can be,
settled: always the individual, so far as these things are concerned,
for himself. Is the use of tobacco injurious? Some physicians say it
say not: some men seem to smoke with impunity as well as pleasure:
others get headaches
and nights of sleeplessness after a few cigars: in such a case the
decide for himself, and, so long as the question remains strictly a
matter of private
experience, he has no right to decide for another. It is not the
submission to a
traditional code of action that sets one apart as a man of principle
the strong man, from the moral point of view, is he who, when
abides the verdict, though it may oppose many selfish interests and
many cherished pleasures.
of experience is equally valid when applied to the more religious and
questions of human conduct: self-sacrifices, heroisms, martyrdoms,
these, like the
more commonplace matters of daily life, are approved or condemned
according as they
make for or against human life. The monks who went off to live cenobite
the land considered themselves very holy men, but the verdict of the
centuries has been against them, for such a life proved itself to be
the healthfulness and happiness of the world. The thousands who went
away to the
Crusades considered themselves divinely commissioned, but today a saner
though it admires the element of heroism in the Crusaders, condemns the
as a whole as having been a useless piece of costly fanaticism. Emerson
inflamed by the enthusiasms of the hour, hailed John Brown as the hero
of the nation
after his wild attempt on Harper's Ferry: James Ford Rhodes, in the
light of the
full consequences of the old Puritan's campaign, shows that John Brown
a train of bloody and unfortunate consequences, from which the slaves
were the chief sufferers. All this is to say that ideals, aspirations,
self-sacrifices, and all other similar acts and aims are not in
themselves any more
"righteous" than are other more familiar matters of conduct, and that
they are to be adjudged "right" or "wrong" only in light of
the conditions under which they are done and the consequences that flow
about moral conduct is of great value to us in our periods of leisure
but a man can't stop to philosophize, often he cannot even stop to
and to balance motives, while he is in the midst of his daily living,
decisions must be made on the spot, and often they are made
an instinctive action. The thing that determines a man in all such
his moral "nature," and that nature is the man's fixed system of
reactions, judgments, emotions, etc., that has been built out of all
his past experience.
A good man is one who has in the past so lived that he habitually acts
so as to
be happy himself and make others happy (the word "happy" here is used
in tis widest possible meaning). He may now and then do something that
to be wrong, but his "nature," the constant bias of his will, is toward
those things that make for the welfare of human life. A bad man is one
nature is such that he instinctively does things that hurt others or
he often be capable of tenderness, self-sacrifices, or so momentary
A man acts
from his nature. This fact is recognized in the account of the
had with Nicodemus whom the Master told that he had first be "born
This phrase has passed into theology as the doctrine of "regeneration,"
or "new birth," it is a sound doctrine, for many men are so ingrained
with badness that their whole nature must be radically changed before
they can be
trusted to live in harmony and happiness with their fellows.
of a "new birth" seems to lie at heart of Masonry's great drama of
Abiff. Masonic interpreters have differed greatly among themselves as
to the meaning
of that acted parable, but they nearly all hold in common the belief
that it somehow
means that, in order to be a just and true brother a man must be "born
so that his nature is changed to act in unison with a new world. How
can this be
brought about? It is one of the points where morality melts into
religion, for nearly
all the religions have applied themselves to creating a new nature in
all seek to do it by bringing Divine Power to be upon the individual.
is here at one with religion, for it also resorts to prayer, to the
will of God. It also makes use of the powers brotherhood, of reasoning,
and all the offices of fraternity. The whole ceremony is in itself an
create a new nature in the candidate, and it is also, from another
point of view,
a symbol of those influences in this world which have such regenerative
these influences, of course, are numberless, and many of them have no
with religion, as for example, the affection for a parent, education,
etc., any one of which may, under certain circumstances, bring about a
change in some individual's moral nature.
been said of the individual's moral life may be said, in some degree or
society at large. How is a great social institution judged? By social
by its influence on the life of the community. If some institution,
established, or however venerated, begins to cause unhappiness among
unrest, poverty, or what not, that institution, though it may be
sanctioned by the
law of the land, becomes evil, and all right thinking men must become
Whatever social force makes against the welfare of men and women, that
is evil, though it wear the name of morality itself; whatever social
for the welfare of society, that is good, though it be as new as the
an institution is old, or religious, or legal, a fact to be taken into
but such a fact has no weight as against the plain influences of that
as it works among men. For this reason there is such a thing as a
It is the study of social forces in the light of their results and
effects in the
community; it is the moral appraisal of social institutions. It is the
of the forces that make for common welfare, and the opposition of those
is for the sake of men and women: it is here in order that they may
have life and
have it more abundantly. Each man lives in a community where he acts
and is acted
upon, where he is influenced by others and himself influences others.
His own nature
is a bundle of energies and influences upon which happiness depends. To
one's self to others, to so learn to govern one's self, and to so
adjust one's life
to the forces of nature, in order that one's life may be full, rich,
is the aim of morality. It is also the aim of Masonry, for that great
exists in order that men may live happily together and in order that
individual or social, may evermore rise to high and higher issues.
- Is there a difference between
"morality" and "ethics"?
- Do you agree with the
definitions given in the paper?
- Do you believe that every man
is responsible for his acts?
- Could a man's acts be
blameworthy or praiseworthy if he had no choice about
- What has the human will to do
- Does the Bible define morality?
- Does it anywhere define
- How would you define "right"
- Does the Masonic Ritual
anywhere define "righteousness"?
- How would you describe "Masonic
- What duties are emphasized by
- What ideals are encouraged?
- Is there such a thing as a
Masonic Code? What is it?
- How do you yourself determine
whether or not a thing is "right"?
- What is the conscious?
- Do you consider it a separate
- Should the paper have discussed
the conscience in order to present the subject?
- Have you been unconsciously
making use of the mental "lists" of
right and wrong actions?
- Is that the wisest moral
- Or should a man prefer to trust
his own "moral judgment" from time
- What is meant by "moral
- Are you acquainted with any
Masonic book that interprets Masonic Ethics?
If so, will you write to THE BUILDER about it?
- How have you been in the habit
of adjusting your own moral code to the moral
code of others when the two conflict?
- How would you settle the
controversy between the Frenchman and the Methodist
given in the text?
- Do you agree with the paper in
its description of "the seat of authority
- Would the churches agree with
such an interpretation? If not, why not? If
so, which churches?
- Do the Roman Catholics teach
such a doctrine?
- What moral authority is
recognized by the Society of Jesus?
- Why do you disagree with it?
- Do you believe the Bible to be
the final court of appeal in moral questions?
If so, why?
- How would you justify that
position to an intelligent Buddhist, Mohammedan,
Confucian, or to one who rejects the supernatural character of the
- Are all the moral teachings of
the Bible consistent with themselves?
- What is meant by "experience"?
- How many thing, can you think
of that have always and everywhere been wrong?
- Has slavery, according to the
"experience doctrine" given in the
paper, always been wrong?
- Has polygamy?
- Make a careful study of some
important moral problem, such as the problem
of the double sex standard, in the light of this doctrine.
- Do you believe that John Brown
did more harm than good?
- How would you decide on the
prohibition question in the light of the interpretation
of right and wrong given in the paper?
- Have you ever been "born again"?
- Are men ever born again as the
result of Masonic influences?
- What is Masonry's ideal for
human life? For society at large?
it make men and women happier?
Ethics of Freemasonry, p. 253. Treats of the
service of the good, the teaching of moral duties, their formation, the
between acts obligatory and acts offending, the essence of initiation,
and the vast
scope of the lodge.
Eleusinian Mysteries, p. 237;
Initiation, p. 353;
Mysteries, Ancient, p. 497;
‒ Mystery, p. 500.
the earliest uses of drama to teach philosophical truths by the rite of
the obviously probable entrance to any secret society. The power and
of such ancient organizations related to some extent with Freemasonry
and in purpose are described up to their decline when the work was
other agencies of like objects and of more successful plans.
Alchemy, p. 44;
Morality of Freemasonry, p. 492.
Both of these
relate to the lesson of Divine Truth and the formation for a system of
taught by the old philosophers with whom we Freemasons are so much in
the use of a similar symbolism and having a like objective, the
Fatherhood of God,
the Brotherhood of Man.
Bible, p. 104;
Scriptures, Belief in the, p. 672;
Scriptures, Reading of the, p. 672.
references emphasize the meaning of the Bible to a Freemason, the Book
being to him a symbol and a guide setting forth the Divine Will as
revealed to mankind.
Resurrection, p. 621;
Landmarks, p. 421;
of the Third degree, p. 437;
Aphanism, p. 68, ‒ Euresis, p. 254.
references treat of the essential features in the climax of the Craft
the summing up for the individual candidate of the experience and the
aims of those
who are faithful even unto death. Freemasonry rightly understood gains
and monitor the spur of endeavor and the solace sure of reward.
* * *
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to
of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three
in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under
the following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge
and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and
"Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st, 1921,
are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919
and the remaining papers of the series may be had in the 1921 bound
will be ready for delivery early in December. Single copies of 1921
are not obtainable, our stock having become exhausted.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Havwood:
The Teachings Of Masonry
A. Reasons for a course explaining what the "teachings
of Masonry" mean.
‒ B. How
one can arrive at his own Philosophy
Conclusion. The Philosophy of Masonry is
not a study of philosophy in general, but a study of Masonry such as a
gives to any great intellectual problem.
1. ‒ The
Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
2. ‒ The Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
3. ‒ The Masonic Conception of Education.
4. ‒ Symbolism.
5. ‒ Secrecy.
6. ‒ Masonic Ethics.
7. ‒ Democracy.
8. ‒ Equality.
9. ‒ Liberty.
10. ‒ Masonry and Industry.
11. ‒ The Brotherhood of Man.
12. ‒ The Fatherhood of God.
13. ‒ Endless Life.
14. ‒ Brotherly Aid.
15. ‒ Schools of Masonic Philosophy.
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopaedia.
* * *
How To Organize and Conduct
Study Club Meetings
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
Program for Study Club Meetings
1. Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
2. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
3. Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
4. The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
5. Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
Past Accomplishment and
dignified and conservative an organization as The National Masonic
may for once be pardoned if it flourish its own trumpets, especially if
so good cause as now. When the movement was launched in 1914 it was not
at all certain
that such an attempt could succeed, for there were many stumbling
blocks in the
path that led to the future, even ad numberless wrecks bestrewed the
But the brethren who dedicated themselves to the attempt were of stout
daring spirit, so they went forward fearing nothing and working hard.
with the official endorsement of one Grand Lodge, and with only a few
pledged to its support, the Society manifested remarkable signs of
the first, so that within two short years it had become the largest
of Masonic students ever before enlisted under one banner, and THE
BUILDER had made
a distinctive place for itself. And all this was not a flash in the
pan, or a sudden
burst of sensationalism, for the stewards and editors had set before
in the very beginning the highest practicable standards and to these
adhered, even though there came times when it appeared as if less
might attract more attention. The temptation to ride the pages of other
was always resisted. The custom of publishing materials without consent
authors was outlawed. No resort was made to advertising; and in the
of the war the typographical attractiveness of the journal was
some dark days during the war, especially after the United States had
begun to mobilize
its own forces. Prices on print paper, ink, and labor began to mount
until it seemed
at last as if the sky itself would be the limit. Multitudes of the
young men among
whom THE BUILDER had won its largest number of friends were drafted for
of service, civil or military, so that their attention became focused
on other matters,
and heavy drains were laid upon their purses. Many Study Clubs
out of existence, and lodges everywhere became too absorbed with the
press of initiation to have time or thought for Masonic education. Nor
all, for the war robbed the Society of the active assistance of some of
valued and needed helpers. Nevertheless, work went forward in The House
at Anamosa, Iowa, and THE BUILDER appeared as regularly as any other of
solidly established magazines. It is a record of which every member of
may feel justly proud: and when to all that is added the fact that the
just reached its very highest peak of membership, and THE BUILDER
entered the lists
thereby of the larger journals of the world, it is a record that should
manner of enthusiasm the future.
If the reader
could go through the editor's manuscript files would discover that
there are now
in existence very substantial reasons for such cheerful anticipations.
already has on hand awaiting publication a larger outlay of high class
than has ever before appeared in THE BUILDER, and there is more in the
results of an intensive effort to mobilize the most expert group of
possible under the circumstances has met with success, and forthcoming
this journal will demonstrate as much.
will remember with pleasure the very interesting articles on Mormonism
published early the 1921 issues. In the February number we shall print
by the author of the preceding ones, Brother Sam H. Goodwin, Grand
the Grand Lodge of Utah, to treating the subject from a different
are being made with the Grand Lodge of Utah to reprint the entire
series of these
articles in pamphlet for for the benefit of members of the Society who
may so desire
A few of
the subjects to be covered in the 1922 issues are as follows:
The Divine Mystery.
Sketch of the Life of Confucius.
The Duke of Connaught, Grand Master of England
Further Notes on the Eleusinian Mysteries.
The Anglo-Irish Grand Lodge
American and French Masons Together
The Bulls of the Popes.
The Cable Tow.
The Egyptian Influence on our Masonic Ceremonial and Ritual. (With
about 50 illustrations)
The Great Lights of Freemasonry.
The Apprentice's Part.
A Short Sketch of the Life of Buddha
The Temple of Solomon.
The Masonic Career of Franklin.
for itself so happy a New Year THE BUILDER can wish for all its
readers, and that
with the most sincere cordiality, a Hail and Good Luck for the twelve
be. May they discover anew how good and pleasant a thing it is for
to dwell together, to work together, and to joy together, the while our
lends its assistance to the rebuilding of the world.
* * *
The Master as a Social Engineer
Master of Blue Mound, Illinois, read a letter to his members which
very wide awake, as one may guess from this typical paragraph:
"Out of these 134 members I
the names of ninety-six who live within easy distance of the lodge. NOW
STATEMENT! Out of those ninety-six I count nine men who have done ALL
capitals) ALL the degree work this year and I am counting myself as one
of the nine.
Do you not believe me when I say there is something wrong! What is it
that is wrong?
‒ that is what I have been asking myself all this year. Is it the
Master? It might
be the case this year but the Master was not the reason during the few
and these conditions existed then.... The degree nights show an average
Then out of the fourteen count out the nine who do the work. What does
How many of you members attended lodge just once during the past year?"
be impossible to put the problem confronted by the Master of the
average small lodge
more forcefully or more simply. It is almost entirely a question of
membership in action.
When a Master
finds his lodge lagging behind, it is a good thing for him to remind
human nature is as much subject to the laws of cause and effect as
and that men and women, for all the capriciousness of their behavior,
can be depended
upon to react in a certain way under certain conditions. For this
reason is it true
that the management of a lodge may be considered as a piece of
mechanics, and the
Master as a social engineer. If he rightly understands the materials
with which he deals, and understands how to bring the right kind of
‒ bear on that material, he will always gain a certain response and
thing will work with the inevitability of a natural law.
of social mechanics is as yet in its infancy, but it is one of which we
can know something, and it may be that a few suggestions of that order
be altogether thrown away. Let it be supposed that a Master takes
charge of a lodge
in a city of 5,000 inhabitants, and that he is desirous of succeeding:
arises, What can he do to succeed?
He can begin
by ascertaining the just standard of success. What sized lodge should
he have in
a city of 5,000? Let him learn the total membership of his State, and
let him divide
that by the number of lodges to get the average size. In all
probability he will
discover that there is one Mason in every fifty of the total
population, which would
indicate a lodge of one hundred members for a city of 5,000. If a
of 3,000 lies contributory to his lodge's territory he can add sixty to
he wishes to discover if he is getting out a normal number of visitors
let him learn what is the average in his State. It will very probably
ten per cent. Therefore if out of a membership of 160 all his meetings
in attendance he can feel that he is up to standard.
can learn from his Grand Secretary what is the total income of all the
his State. Dividing this by the Masonic membership he can ascertain the
contribution of every Mason. This will very probably average about ten
so that if his lodge has an income of $1600 per year it is doing what
be asked of it. The overhead cost of maintaining a lodge, the average
expenditures, etc., etc., all these figures may be discovered in the
should make these investigations in order to know where he stands and
what he should
rightfully ask of himself for it is as unwise to ask too much as too
When it comes
to the amount of work that he can justly require of his brethren it is
not so easy
to be guided by the law of averages, for conditions differ too much
communities. But even so there is no need to trust to chance in this,
and an intelligent
Master can rather easily make out a form chart for his lodge.
He can go
over his membership roll member by member and ascertain the number
still in good
standing but no longer residents: adding to these the infirm, the old,
so situated otherwise as to make participation impossible, he can
number from his total membership and thereby learn what is the amount
of live material
Then he can
take a good street map of his community and by a system of pins can
form a graphic
chart of the accessibility of his membership to the lodge room, and
who could come, other things being equal, if they had the incentive.
can analyze individual by individual the corps of potentially active
men and, by
conference with a group of brothers, preferably his wardens and
deacons, can classify
this list according to the character of the men so as to learn how many
he can depend
on for ritualistic work, how many for social activities, how many for
etc., etc. Having made this classification he can next write letters to
thus classified and place upon his shoulders responsibility for doing
done the Master can next make a thoughtful analysis of the general
his town in order to discover what form of service his lodge can most
and fruitfully engage in. The town may have an unemployment problem;
the lodge can
undertake that: or it may have a poverty problem; or, if it should
chance to be
a health resort community, it may have an illness problem; or it may
or its politics may be of the dirty variety; or it may lack a chamber
or what not: each and every one of these conditions constitutes an
a lodge imbued with the Masonic spirit, and it is at one of these
points that a
Master should attack.
Men are very
much averse to wearisome repetition, to idly sitting about doing
nothing: they take
pleasure in activity, they like to see difficult things attempted, and
the zest of a conflict. It is not to be expected ‒ for it is not in
human nature ‒ that grown men will attend a lodge night after night
that does nothing
but grind at the degree mill. Moreover, such a lodge becomes selfish,
reclusive, and that is the flattest contradiction to the spirit of
every real man in the membership will have the half-repressed feeling
that his lodge
(as a lodge) is a hypocrite, professing as it does an ideal of
but DOING nothing for the community which it professes to serve.
is to say that the majority of Masters fail (our energetic brother at
is nowise included in this for he belongs to the successful side of the
because they undertake their tasks blindly, vaguely, and without due
investigation of the conditions. A business man knows that a business
be carried on "sight unseen": a lodge is equally subject to the
laws of human society, and will fail as surely as any business despite
ideals, if it is not governed by the same common-sense, scientific
manner. The wise
Master will study social mechanics, and train himself to be a good
* * *
The Office of the Grand
as we now know it is only two hundred years old, which period though it
long in the life of an individual, is a brief hour in the life of a
race. It is
difficult for us to realize how rapidly the Fraternity has grown, or
from what meagre
beginnings it has won its vast and indomitable power. We who belong to
perhaps, a thousand members, and who dwell in a jurisdiction which may
hundred subordinate lodges, find it difficult to imagine how it was in
days of the eighteenth century when all the members living anywhere
under the authority
of the first Grand Lodge could be gathered together under one roof:
when the Grand
Master, as was often the case with any one of the first five or six of
made it his habit to go about from lodge to lodge and in his own person
the officers thereof! Oftentimes the Grand Master in those first
even concern himself with the duties of his office but left them wholly
to a deputy,
known as the Acting Grand Master. In many, many cases the Grand Master,
‒ and this
holds true of many Grand Masters of this country as some of the old
still remember ‒ was chosen, not for his abilities, but because of the
of his family, or because he was a fluent speaker, or a man of wealth
or what not.
was a secret of principle of growth in early Freemasonry; what that
secret was a
Freemason knows but finds it difficult to describe; and he finds it
to convey it to another. It is one of the mysteries which belong, not
to the ritual
or to the obligation, but to the very nature of Freemasonry itself.
is, that principle of growth was there, and a mighty thing it proved,
a century of its origin this Fraternity was become a world power. It
a part in the liberation and the consolidation of the Italian States
that Pope Leo
firmly believed it to have been wholly responsible for the isolation of
and the complete loss of the church's temporal power. It was a leaven
through the German States until there arose the Kulturkampf, the war of
a free culture
against the culture propagated by the Jesuits at the behest of the
It worked like nitroglycerine in the hidden life of the French people
at last to wrest them loose from the dead ground of the Ancient Regime.
its influence helped, to gain constitutional governments, or at least
of such, for Portugal, for Belgium, and Spain; and to gain
self-government for Brazil,
Mexico, and many of the Latin countries to the south. It was a factor
in the beginnings
of the American Revolution. It would have broken the hands of the czar
had it ever
succeeded in gaining a foothold in Russia. It became a world-shaping
about the roots of modern civilization to gain for the masses their
honor, and the freedom for the normal exercise of their human faculties.
To some it
may seem that the entire history of this irresistible influence is one
that is complete:
one that may be written in the past tense. Not so. Masonry knows no
Its work is scarcely begun. And that work is by no means to be confined
is known as lodge work; for though Masonry is the Mother of
Fraternities, and in
this country alone has been the direct or indirect source of more than
other societies, its real arena is in the great world, where men live
in the open, and struggle to gain or to preserve their rights, their
and their goods. In the larger areas of the world there is still a
tragic lack of
liberty; of enlightenment; of schools for the young, and
self-government for the
adults: there are still vast mountain ranges of ignorance and
like titanic nightmares upon the lives of men. And in the more favored
there is still, God knows, enough of the spirit of strife, of the law
of the tooth
and the fang, and brutish ignorance; there is still enough strength
left among the
enemies of constitutional government; there are still abroad so many
the common weal; centuries of work remain before the Fraternity.
Freemasonry is a world power, a national power, a social influence of
potency. And such a power, as Freemasonry itself is ever teaching to
each of its
devotees, is something that must be thoroughly understood, sagaciously
and wisely applied. The energy tied up in the brains and the muscles of
will wreak havoc if left without direction: there must be a design upon
Board; there must be a Master to oversee and to direct.
Master, to a pre-eminent degree, occupies such an office. He is no
longer a figurehead,
a mere title bearer, to lead an idle parade; no longer a merely amiable
with grace to propose the toasts at table; he is a man called to be a
for a statesman is nothing other than a wise leader who understands to
shape the forces at work in society. He must be a social engineer. He
the Spirit of the Age. He must know the human world as it now is, so
that he can
know when, and how, and where to apply the titanic force of which he is
Gould's Concise History
History of Freemasonry" [Lib 1904] holds a unique place in our
It is far the best known of all the histories of the Craft: it is
quoted more frequently
than any other; and as a reference book it is more widely used, no
doubt, than any
other work save Mackey's Encyclopedia. Its sale, in spite of the dry
repellent nature of its style continues ever to increase. These facts
an enviable position it holds in the minds of Masonic students the
and how great will be the interest in this "Revised Edition."
Gould bore the same name as his father, who was rector of Stoke Pears,
He was born at Ilfracombe, Devon, in 1836. At nineteen he entered the
army and saw
many years of service, some of it in war time. He was variously
stationed at Malta,
Gibraltar, Cape of Good Hope, in India, and in China; while in the last
country he took part in the famous Taiping Rebellion.
In the same
year that he entered the army he was made a Mason at the Royal Naval
Lodge No. 429
of Ramsgate, and during his military career was active in the affairs
of the Craft
wherever fortune might lead him. In 1870 he left army life to engage as
in London, but abandoned this career at the end of ten years in order
all his time to the study of Freemasonry, a task made easy by the
nearness of the
Grand Lodge Library and the fact that the subject had become a ruling
was in 1880 or thereabouts that his Masonic career, specifically so
and it did not end until his death, March 26, 1915. It was during this
he won his fame as a Masonic leader of the first rank, as much by his
personal activities in English Masonic lodges as by his writings, for
he was one
of the nine men who founded the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research, an
in the modern history of Freemasonry. Many honors were conferred upon
him in recognition
of these labors, among them Grand Lodge rank and honorary membership in
Grand Lodges. He died full of years and greatly honored, and left
behind him a name
that will endure in our circles for generations to come.
hear it said that Gould is hard to read. This is true and untrue. He is
in the same sense as Kant or Marx, both of whom were unable to clarify
sufficiently to achieve that simplicity which is the last grace of
he is difficult in the sense that his style is obscure. He seemed
of the reader. He was a savant who wrote for savants ‒ the generality
who require of a book that its style flow on like a stream which floats
much effort of their own, were always absent from his mind. "If you are
in this, and know enough," he seemed to say within his own mind, "you
can follow me. If not, so much the worse for you." But what of all
a man puts more effort into one day's fishing than is required for the
Gould. After one has become accustomed to him and grown familiar with
twists and quirks of his mind there is no difficulty in following him,
one has read and reread him there is a pleasure in being able to keep
him. His style is abrupt, pebbly; he loves to take sly digs at others;
usually has a barb in it; he takes sudden leaps from topic to topic;
and is never
happier than when wandering off in remote digressions. He is possessed
of a hard
Yankee-like shrewdness and dreads nothing so much as being taken in a
Like a man crossing a swamp he stops ever and anon to stamp the ground
foot to see that he has something to stand on. The bishop who had
carved on his
tombstone that he had been an enemy to all enthusiasm was not more
Always he leaves a gate open behind him so that he can escape from an
position, and he has a horror of selling himself out to any theory. His
of mind permitted him to accept any probability as such but forbade him
it a fact. The great jury of critics, who are always there ready to
judge a learned
book, seemed ever before his mind's eye, and no casuist could have been
not to transgress upon the canons of strictest reasoning and
is it that often one is hard put to catch his point, as is well
illustrated by the
fact that one of our own most prolific American writers not long ago
misinterpreted his well-known chapter on the Rosicrucians. But he was
as one critic has described him: nor was he a utilitarian preaching the
union theory of Freemasonry." He was a firm believer in the antiquity
spirit and symbolism of the Craft, but he would commit himself to no
did not base itself upon reasoning and sufficient proof.
One is astonished
at the range of his Masonic interests. All phases and branches of
‒ ancient, medieval and modern ‒ and anything and everything having a
upon the same: folklore, mythology, medieval law, occultism, theology,
lore, one always finds him dealing with some one or more of these, or a
subjects, and always as a man who knows whereof he speaks.
the range of his interests is the volume of his output. Beside his
of which appeared in six volumes; there are "Four Old Lodges" [Lib 1879]; "The Atholl Lodges" [Lib
"Collected Essays," [Lib 1913] and numerous magazine
boot. To this must be added the great amount of work he did in the
Lodge of Research. To the Transactions of that learned body he
contributed a dozen
or so treatises of the first class, not to mention a score or more
letters of critical
comment, etc.; and in helping to organize it, in assisting in the
it, and in his share of steering it through the first years of
difficulty, he did
enough real work to set up an ordinary man in a first-class reputation.
this was accomplished after his fortieth year. Measured by volume and
this output, taking into consideration all the factors involved,
reveals Gould as
a tireless worker; measured by the effect it produced it proves that
Gould was the
maker of a new epoch in the intellectual life of the Masonic Fraternity.
once wrote that "The curious history of Freemasonry has unfortunately
treated only by its panegyrists or calumniators, both equally
If that famous jibe has lost its sting it is owing to Gould more than
to any other
one man. When he arrived on the scene there had been no Quatuor
Coronati at work,
no group of scholars such as Hughan, Crawley, Lyon, Waite, Sadler, etc.
only the jungle that had sprung up so luxuriously in the wake of Dr.
What Niebuhr was to the writing of Roman history, Gould was to Masonic
and the passing of our Dark Ages coincides with the advent of his
of our indebtedness to Gould has not been often noted, and this is of
to those of us who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society. When he
laid the true foundations for Masonic history, he at the same time and
by the same
act, laid the true foundations for Masonic symbology and Masonic
he himself somewhere says, the study of the symbols and of the history
of the Craft
must be proceeded with conjointly. It is no longer in order for our
to catch up with any idea that may chance to appeal to their fancy and
to a Masonic symbol: the truly Masonic meaning of a symbol, wherever
that is possible
of discovery, can be learned only through the history of its use by the
of our symbols have been, or are, in universal use: surely it stands to
what one of these symbols means to us is determined by the
interpretation that has
been put upon it by the Craft itself.
the various parts of his complete "History of Freemasonry" between the
years 1882 and 1887 [Lib 1884-89, Vol
4]. This magnum opus almost immediately
won a place among scholars and thereby gained the respectful reverence
of the laity;
but the work was too long for the latter, who demanded something more
the compass allowed by the reading time of busy men. To meet this
prepared the "Concise." [Lib 1904] As he himself wrote in the
"There has been a demand for an
edition, or for a History of the Society on the same lines, but in a
form." And then he goes on to say: "In the meantime, moreover, the
of the historic domain embraced in my own work have been greatly
enlarged, by the
successful investigations of many distinguished contemporaries, and by
labor of the Quatuor Coronati lodge. In the preparation of the present
my object has been to reconsider those portions of the original Work
been carefully criticized by careful writers since its publication, to
and elucidate some passages which were imperfectly or obscurely
treated, to incorporate
the results of the latest discoveries, and to acknowledge with candor
my own mistakes.
In the execution of this design the whole subject matter has been
rewritten and brought up to date."
was written in 1903. The reader's attention is particularly called to
the last sentence
which makes it clear that the "Concise Edition" was not a mere
of the former work but a new book, complete in itself, and resting on
its own foundation.
This should correct the misapprehension, which is not uncommon, to the
the one-volume work is a mere abstract of the larger work, and is
to be taken as seriously as the six volume History.
the larger number of Masonic savants with whom Gould was associated had
between 1903 and 1920, by the latter year a vast amount of research
work had been
done in addition to that done when the Concise History first appeared.
the Masonic Fraternity grew more rapidly during those seventeen years
it had grown before and this rendered useless, save for purposes of
the statistics included in the Concise in 1903. This progress in
knowledge and growth
very naturally created a demand for a new edition of the work in 1920.
the publishers, Gale & Polden, secured the services of one of
the premier Masonic
authorities of the day, Fred J. W. Crowe, and published "The Concise
of Freemasonary, by Robert Freke Gould, Revised and Brought up to Date
by Fred J.
W. Crowe," [Lib 1951] F. R. Hist. Soc., Author of
Mason's Handbook," [Lib 1890] "Things a Freemason Should
[Lib*] "What is Freemasonry," [Lib*] etc., etc., (Bro. Crowe's little
book on the Apron should have been listed.)
own preface, dated June 1920, makes perfectly clear what he has done:
request of the publishers, I have brought the Concise History up to
date, and made
certain alterations in the body of the work. The alterations are mostly
in the way
of condensing the matter of the earlier chapters, which was often in
danger of becoming
tedious and irrelevant, but the principal change I have made is to
rewrite the first
part of Chapter VII. Since Mr. Sadler made his most valuable researches
in the archives
of the Grand Lodge and elsewhere, it has become clear to all students
of our history
that his view of the Irish origin of the Grand Lodge of the Ancients is
one, and I feel sure that I shall be supported by all lovers of truth
in the changes
that I have made.
regard to the 'Higher' or 'Additional' degrees, the notices of them are
and so scattered that I have thought it advisable to add Chapter VIIa,
compact summary of the degrees usually worked in Europe and America and
One can freely
and safely award this venture one compliment in the very beginning: the
is a handier and more attractive book than the old; it is not so
it contains twice as many illustrations. Also, one can compliment Bro.
his brevity; he has succeeded in the art of condensation as well as
As regards other compliments one cannot be so certain.
It was Chapter
seven to ten inclusive which chiefly called for a "bringing up to
for it is in these chapters that recent history and statistics are
history and statistics have necessarily changed during the past
Brother Crowe's changes consist, for the most part, of alterations in
except in a few cases very little history is added to the meagre facts
Gould. The figures so far as I have been able to check them up, are
the exception of an item on page 349 where in the text Western
Australia is given
a total of thirty-six lodges while in the table above it is credited
I believe that a date should have been prefixed to the U. S.
statistical table on
page 345 which is described as "of date of writing": the reader has no
way of knowing whether Brother Crowe wrote this in 1919 or in 1920. It
been better still had he incorporated in the table itself the date for
because in this country the Grand Lodge sessions overlap the New Year,
some of the membership data that he gives will fall in one year, some
He has made very few changes in the chapter on Masonry in the Far East;
as one reads
this section he has the feeling that much more has happened in that
part of the
world than is indicated in the Revision. Moreover, there are a few
left as incomplete as when Gould wrote, Negro Lodges, the Fiji Islands,
Islands, etc.: surely, with a little more work the definite facts for
if they may be so considered, are in themselves trifling. I believe
that the revisions
made in the above mentioned chapters are in themselves of value
sufficient to warrant
a student in purchasing the new volume, even though he already
possesses the old.
But I am sure that the student (I here speak for the American) will in
degree welcome the changes made in "the first part of Chapter VII," and
that for two or three reasons. The work done by Sadler has not yet made
through the rank and file of American Masonic readers, and therefore
readers will receive a distinct shock to find Gould's own
interpretation set entirely
aside and a new, and to them strange, account put in its place. I
believe that Brother
Crowe's innovation (it is the major change in the volume) would have
met with a
more kindly reception on this side had he left Gould's account to stand
as it was
and relegated his own newer version to an appendix: or, had he
preferred the device,
to a footnote. Also, many of these same readers have read Sadler's
Facts and Fictions" [Lib*] but are not convinced that Sadler was right,
they will feel that Brother Crowe is taking undue liberties with their
by so summarily deciding the matter as to completely throw out the
older, and more
generally held theory. I speak here for the generality of readers, and
I may presume
on knowing something of what this generality reads and thinks because
my work is
of a character to put me in constant touch with the same. I myself
agree with Sadler;
and I am sure "that all lovers of truth" who are well informed on the
matter will welcome the dissemination of the new theory. But even so I
but think that these same men will believe that the new account should
placed alongside of the old instead of being made to replace it.
A far more
damaging criticism of the Revision is that it mixes up Gould and Crowe
in such wise
that one can't be sure whether he is reading one or the other. The
reviser has done
something that very few revisers of books that are of such a standing
have had the
temerity to do: he has not added his corrections and revisions in
appendices where such matter should normally go; he has rewritten much
of the text
itself, and done it in such wise as to leave the reader quite in the
dark as to
which is the new and which the old. A quotation from each edition will
own story: The following is from page 349 of the original:
"In 1870, Lord Zetland retired
Grand East, and was succeeded by Earl de Grey and Ripon, who, however,
became a Roman Catholic, retired from Masonry in 1874. The office of
was then accepted by the Prince of Wales, who had been initiated by the
Sweden in 1869, and the Heir Presumptive to the throne was installed
amid the plaudits
of a vast assemblage of British Masons in 1875. Two years later the
Dukes of Connaught
and Albany were invested as Senior and Junior Grand Wardens
respectively, and in
1885 Prince Albert Victor, eldest son of the Prince of Wales, was
initiated by the
Grand Master in person. King Edward VII, on his recent accession to the
laid down the Grand Mastership, in which he was succeeded by the Duke
but graciously consented to act as the Protector of the Craft.
"The number of lodges on the
roll at the
present time is 2,350. Of these 512 are held in the London District,
1,374 in the
Provinces, and 464 (which includes three in Military Corps) in places
So far Gould.
In Crowe's edition the following paragraphs are inserted between the
as given above:
"On his death in 1910, King
George V became
Patron of the Boys' and Girls' Institution, whilst Queen Mary became
and Queen Alexandra Chief Patroness of the Girls' Institution. Prince
Connaught was initiated in 1911.
"In 1913 Grand Lodge acquired
Collection of historical documents, warrants, diplomas, etc., the
of nearly thirty years' world-wide search and study.
"The Freemasons' War Hospital
in Fulham Road in August, 1916, and after doing invaluable work during
period, is now a permanent Masonic Nursing Home. "Especial Grand Lodges
held in the Albert Hall on June 24, 1917, to commemorate the
bicentenary of the
forming of the First Grand Lodge of the World in 1717; and in 1919 for
of peace; each being attended by some 8,000 brethren, and many
other English-speaking Grand Lodges in the Colonies and America.
"The connection of our Royal
the Craft was further strengthened by the initiation of H. R. H. the
Prince of Wales
in 1919, followed after a short interval by his brother Prince Albert."
It will be
interesting to note the changes in statistics since Gould wrote: "The
of lodges on the roll to June, 1920, 3,566. Of these 810 are held in
District, 2,028 in the Provinces, and 728 (which included two in
in places beyond the seas."
of the Revised Edition will doubtless be grateful enough for the new
but what about the ethics of the thing? What right has one author to
own material, without explanation or identifying marks, into the pages
man's book? Once a reader of the Revised Edition learns what trick has
on him he will be suspicious all through, and feel uncomfortable from
at any given point, whether he be reading Crowe or Gould. Brother Crowe
placed all his new facts and figures in foot-notes and left the
original text untouched,
as it should have been especially since the man to whom it rightfully
now have a say concerning his own.
A more unfortunate
thing still, according to my own view of the matter, is the fact that
has cut out of the original text some seventy-five or so pages of text!
to be a rather extraordinary liberty to take with a man's book! a book
become a classic in its own field! Moreover, the ethics of the matter
pages excised were entitled of their own right to remain where their
them. I cannot agree with Brother Crowe that they were "tedious or
Consider, for example, the closing pages of Chapter II, which deals
Operative Masonry: Brother Crowe has completely dropped out there whole
Gould's text which dealt with the very important matter of the decline
of the Operative
Guilds and the reasons therefore, along with a brief criticism, often
the views of Fergusson's "History of Architecture." [Lib 1891; Vol 1, Vol 2]
From the "great chapter" on the Rosicrucians ‒ or
rather the section
of that chapter which deals with them ‒ Brother Crowe has dropped
Why, it is hard to guess, and I am sure that the great number of
in this country, who have access to few books, and who so frequently
have only the
Concise History to refer to, and who read so often in our journals that
in modern Masonry have come from the Rosicrucians, will have just cause
when they discover that the new edition gives them less information
than ever on
a subject on which it is so difficult to get any information at all.
the excisions just noted include most of what Gould had to say about
(Cabala, he spelled it), and that also is unfortunate, especially since
to be a tendency on the part of scholars of the day to believe that
we have received certain of the major items of the Master's Degree, The
Solomon's Temple, The Great Pillars, etc. Ever since I first tried to
symbols of the Craft I have been convinced that we are greatly indebted
strange literature, and I have been glad recently to see that gifted
and well equipped
contemporary students are holding the same positions. From a regular
the Masonic press of this nation I know that the Kabbala comes up for
and discussion, and I feel sure accordingly that many who purchase the
of the Concise will feel a disappointment that Gould said so little
about it, that
most of what little he did say has been excised, and that the erudite
not added something on the subject by way of footnote or appendix.
thing may be said about the Comacini. Gould himself believed the whole
hypothesis to be a cloud castle, at least such is the impression I have
his too brief remarks on the subject. In the Revised his remarks are
they are brief almost to the vanishing point. Considering how the
come to the front of Masonic attention (I am speaking for this country)
much has been said about them in recent books and outstanding
treatises, it is a
matter for regret that Brother Crowe, in bringing the Concise History
up to date,
did not give us a brief appendix on the matter. His presentation of the
would have been richly worthwhile.
I came to
the reading of the Revised Edition entirely predisposed in favor of
efforts: first, because I was glad to see the old Concise once again
the attention of Masonic readers: secondly, because I have read enough
Crowe's pen, and heard enough about his Masonic activities, to believe
capable of doing such a task as the Revision of Gould with entire
credit to himself
and satisfaction to us all. My dissatisfaction with his work, now that
I have gone
through it (and that with considerable care, if I may be permitted to
say as much)
rests not on grounds of personal feelings but on grounds of fact. He
have mutilated Gould's own original work: changes, comments,
should have been placed in footnotes and appendices, as is the rule in
He should not have dropped anything from the original and should not
anything in the body of the text. To bring the work "up to date"
something more than merely changing the statistics. There has been
growth in fact
and theory as well as numbers. I can't use the Revised Edition with any
because I can no longer feel that it is Gould's book that I read: it is
Gould nor Crowe, but a hybrid compilation that has done violence, I
can't help but
believe, to one of the master works of a Masonic teacher whose fame
broadens from year to year.
as much, and turning from the unpleasant matters of criticism, the
reader is asked
to compare the Masonry of 1903 with the Masonry of to-day, as the
latter has been
made possible by Brother Crowe's revision. On relations between English
lodges he writes (on page 283) as follows: "Owing to the Great War, and
attitude adopted by the German lodges, no intercourse between them and
is allowed at present (1920), nor is this likely to be quickly altered."
interest is this paragraph describing the fortunes of Masonry in
"Since the foregoing was
written the present
(1920) Government has suddenly closed all the lodges, and forbidden
in Hungary. The furniture and properties have been seized, and the
in other directions, whilst all officials found to be members have been
in Sweden has fallen off in membership but gained in number of lodges.
in 1903: "The Crown Prince of Sweden and Norway is the National Grand
and there are in the jurisdiction twelve St. Andrew's and twenty-one
Lodges, with a total membership of 10,985." On page 304 of the Revised
we read: "The King of Sweden, Gustav V, is the National Grand Master,
Crown Prince his Deputy; there are in the jurisdiction thirteen St.
twenty-eight St. John's Lodges, with a total membership of about 8,000."
belongs to the Masonic family as an equal among her peers: "The Grand
however, became independent again when the Kingdoms separated in 1905.
is no longer Grand Master, but the rule is democratic. There are three
Lodges and thirteen of St. John, with a membership of 5,812" (Page 305).
furnishes an interesting contrast between 1920 and 1903: on the earlier
wrote, page 387, as follows:
jurisdiction of the Grand Orient extends over ninety-three lodges, of
are in South Africa, and seventeen in the Dutch Colonies. The
membership is estimated
Edition, page 307, gives the present statistics:
jurisdiction of the Grand Orient extends over 108 lodges, of which
in South Africa, and twenty-two in the Dutch Colonies. The membership
In 1903 Belgium's
Grand Orient governed nineteen lodges with a membership of about 3,500:
are twenty-four lodges under its jurisdiction, with a total membership
4,100. There is also a Supreme Council 33/ which controls a few Craft
addition" (Page 308).
Brother Crowe writes: "The resuscitated Kingdom of Poland may again
a Grand Lodge, [the reader will recall that Freemasonry was destroyed
in 1821. ‒ H.L.H.] but at present things are in abeyance."
Freemasonry is on the up grade: the Grand Orient, with headquarters at
482 lodges with 20,000 members. Freemasonry in Greece has dropped from
1,000. Since Gould wrote, Bulgaria has joined the circle, with a Grand
was founded in 1917, eleven lodges, and a membership of about 1,000.
has joined the family of Grand Lodges: in 1903 there were a few private
Belgrade but no Grand Lodge: in 1919 the Grand Lodge of Serbia,
Croatia, and Jugo-Slavia
was formed, with seven lodges and 270 members.
It is of
interest to note, on the basis of the new statistics furnished by
that in Europe the tendency seems almost everywhere to be toward
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to where
obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than those listed
on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the publications
wanted have been
out of print for years. Believing that many such books might be in the
other members of the Society willing to dispose of them we are setting
column each month for the use of our members. Communications from those
Masonic publications will also be welcomed.
addresses are here given that those interested may communicate direct
other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the Society.
It is requested
that all brethren whose wants may be filled through this medium
the Secretary so that the notices may then be discontinued.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake, 1879;
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873;
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 30S South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California;
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards,
also St. John's
olumes 4 and 5;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
"Voice of Masonry," early volumes;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1882
Original Proceedings of The General Grand Encampment Knights Templar
for the years
1826 and 1835.
By Bro. David
E. W. Williamson, P. O. Box 764, Reno, Nevada:
Perdiguier's "Livre du Compagnonnage," and
W. H. Rylands' "Freemasonry in the Seventh Century," quoted in Gould's
"Concise History of Freemasonry."
By Bro. E.
A. Marsh, 820 Broad Ave., N. W., Canton, Ohio:
"The Traditions of Freemasonry," by A.T.C. Pierson, published at St.
Minn., January 1865.
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin,
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel Lawrence,"
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry."
For Sale or Exchange
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin,
"Stray Leaves from a Freemason's Note Book," by George Oliver. This
also contains "Some Account of the Schism shoveling the presumed origin
the Royal Arch Degree." Univ. Mas. Lib. edition. Price $3.00.
"Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry," by Robert Morris. (Fiction and
By Bro. F.
R. Johnson, 3425 East 61st St., Kansas City, Mo.,
"The History of Freemasonry," by Robert Freke Gould, published by the
John C. Yorkston Co., silk cloth binding, first-class condition, four
"History of Freemasonry," by J. W. S. Mitchell, P. G. M. of Missouri
full morocco binding, $15.00;
"The History of Freemasonry," by Albert G. Mackey, seven volumes,
"The Standard History of Freemasonry," by J. Fletcher Brennan,
in 1886, one volume;
"Gems from the Quarry," by John H. Brownell, Editor of the American
"Antiquities of the Orient Unveiled," by M. Walcott Redding, 1877,
"History and Cyclopedia," by Oliver and Macoy, full morocco binding,
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
MacNider, National Commander of the American Legion
Is the newly-elected
National Commander of the American Legion a member of the Masonic
good many of us in the Legion are anxious to know this.
D. F. W., New York.
MacNider, the newly-elected National Commander of the American Legion,
at Mason City, Iowa, October 2, 1887. He attended the public schools in
and graduated from Milton Academy, Milton, Massachusetts, in June 1903,
Harvard University in 1911.
was a member of the Iowa National Guard, and served as First Lieutenant
in the Second
Iowa Infantry on the Mexican Border. At the beginning of the World War
he went to
the Officers' Training Camp at Fort Snelling, Minnesota, and was given
as Second Lieutenant and assigned to the Ninth Regulars, U. S. Army. He
to France and arrived there September 20, 1917. The Ninth Infantry
all the great battles of the War, alongside the famous Sixth' Marines,
being in the Second Division of the U. S. Army.
promoted from Second Lieutenant to Lieutenant Colonel and Divisional
the Second Division, and remained with the Army of Occupation,
returning with his
regiment at the same time that General John J. Pershing returned.
received many decorations, among them the following: Distinguished
and One Cluster, Chevalier d'Legion Honneur, Croix de Guerre (five
palms, one gold and one silver star), Fourragere, and the Italian War
addition to these he was given three other citations in General Orders.
MacNider is a member of Benevolence Lodge No. 145, A. F. & A.
Chapter No. 46, R. A. M., Antioch Commandery No. 43, all of Mason City,
Kahir Temple A. A. O. N. M. S., Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and DeMolay
Consistory, A. &
A. S. R., Clinton, Iowa. He is a Past Eminent Commander of his
* * *
Senator Medill McCormick's
Can you advise
me whether or not Senator Medill McCormick is a Mason and, if so, the
name and number
of his lodge?
J. B. F., Pennsylvania.
Medill McCormick is a member of Albany Park -Lodge No. 974, A. F.
& A. M., located
in Chicago. Illinois.
* * *
Thomas Nast, "Father
of the American Cartoon"
Nast, "Father of the American Cartoon" (1840-1902), a Mason?
Nast," [Lib 1904] by Albert Bigelow Paine, (The
1904), contains many interesting cartoons. There are several of
one on page 457 commemorating his life and career. Nast fought in the
expedition. On page 451 is another cartoon, "After All," commemorating
the death of President Garfield. Can you tell me the name of the author
of the poem
contained in it, which is as follows:
After All -- [A Poem]
the prayers and tears and earnest pleading
And piteous protest o'er a hero's fall,
Despite the hopeful signs our hearts misleading,
Death cometh after all!
O'er the bright scenes are clouds descending;
The flame soars highest ere its deepest fall;
The glorious day has all too swift an ending;
Night cometh after all!
O'er bloom or beauty now in our possession
Is seen the shadow of the funeral pall;
Though Love and Life make tearful intercession,
Death cometh after all!
too, is the cartoon on page 191, "The American River Ganges." Of this
Paine says "Nast summed up the Ring's (Tweed) attempt to retain power
concessions to the Church in the 'American River Ganges' which stands
today as the
most terrible arraignment of sectarianism in the public schools, as
well as one
of the most powerful pictures that Thomas Nast ever drew."
J. J. T., Ohio.
of Thomas Nast does not appear on the membership rolls in the Grand
offices in either New York or New Jersey.
some of our members can enlighten us as to whether or not Nast was a
and also as to the author of the poem quoted by Brother J. J. T.
* * *
Operative and Speculative
efforts Masonry has been traced far back. Was original and ancient
Masonry the same
as we have it today? I understand the ritual is not so old, but were
the same and the lessons the same when it existed only in an Operative
V. D. R., Illinois.
covers so large a field that it is necessary to answer it in a very
Speaking in that fashion it may be safely said that the Operative
Masons, so far
as we have knowledge of them, taught the same things that we now teach:
a high standard
of morality; trust in a personal God; the brotherhood of man, and life
But in a more specific way they differed much from us. They were
attached to the
Roman Catholic church, and accordingly made oath to be true thereto.
They did not
stress democracy and equality in political and social life as we do;
they strive to become a universal fraternity. The principal purpose of
lodge was the erection of a building, and all other matters were
subordinate to that. With us, on the contrary, the building process has
to a system of symbolism, and our principal purpose is the building of
men in moral,
spiritual, and social life. Also, it should be ever borne in mind, at
the time of
the formation of modern Speculative Masonry many things came into
Masonry from non-Masonic
sources, and these greatly enriched the ritual and philosophy of the
so that, as compared with the Order as we now know it, the Freemasonry
of the old
Operative days was very meager.
* * *
The "Blue Lodge"
how, and by what authority did the first three degrees come to be known
C. P. D., Missouri.
no man can be certain, though it is said, on the authority of Dr.
Oliver, that blue
was made the official color by action of the first Grand Lodge in 1717.
lined with various colors in those days and it appears that all
officers of Grand
Lodge were ordered to wear aprons lined with blue silk. It is quite
the term "Blue Lodge" thus originated. The majority of Masonic scholars
believe that the blue used in this connection came more or less
use, and that the Fraternity never took formal action as to its
official color symbolism.
See THE BUILDER, Volume II, page 236, and Volume V, page 178.
* * *
is going the rounds with us that Admiral Sims is a Mason. Have we any
way of being
sure of this?
W. R. A., Oregon.
Sims has answered this question for himself in a letter addressed to
Chronicler of Chicago. The pertinent portion of it is as follows:
"I am not a Mason. This is
mistake (on my part), but I have never joined the Society.
"I do not think the error of
consequence; nor do I think that the Sinn Fein attack is chiefly based
upon a belief
that I am a Mason. I do not even know that they have assumed this.
Insofar as I
am concerned, their stock criticism is that I have attacked the Irish
a whole, both in Ireland and in America, which of course is wholly
untrue. My criticisms
were directed solely against the Sinn Feiners in Ireland and in America
our enemies during the Great War.
"No American citizen who is
to his own country can have any cause to complain of the manner in
which I have
denounced the disloyalty of those of our citizens whose activities
peace of the world."
* * *
The Papal Bull
I have been
enjoying Bro. Wright's articles on Roman Catholicism and Freemasonry.
In that connection
may I inquire what is the meaning of the word "bull," as used by the
A. W. R., Maine.
is derived from the Latin "bulla" which means a globular object.
as the leaden seal used by the Pope is of that general shape it is
called a "bull"
and the document as a whole has come to take its name from that.
Dictionary, than which there is no higher authority defines it as
follows: (1) A
seal attached to an official document; especially, the leaden seal
attached to the
Pope's edicts. (2) A papal or episcopal edict or mandate.
* * *
I am quite
a hero worshipper of Cecil Rhodes. Was he a Mason? Also, while I am
should like to ask if Dr. Jameson was a Mason.
of The Masonic Journal of South Africa informs us that Cecil Rhodes was
but that Dr. Jameson was not. Also, he says that he has been informed
Hays Hammond was a member of Columbia Lodge, Johannesburg, but that of
this he cannot
* * *
Why Were These Verses Dropped
From Our National Anthem?
E. M. Johnston of Texas, has sent the four stanzas which follow
accompanied by a
clipping from The Cambridge Tribune, Cambridge Massachusetts, which
when first sung there were eight stanzas in "America" and that these
were afterwards eliminated. A search through biographies and histories
and songs has failed to give us the slightest evidence to show that
this is true,
but it may be that our sources of information were inadequate. Can any
further light on the matter?
Our glorious Land today,
Neath Education's sway
Soars upward still.
It's halls of learning fair,
Whose bounties all may share,
Behold them everywhere
On vale and hill.
They safeguard Liberty,
The school shall ever be
Our Nation's pride!
No tyrant hand shall smite,
While with encircling might
All here are taught the Right
With Truth allied.
Beneath Heaven's gracious will
'The stars of progress still
Our course do sway;
In unity sublime
To broader heights we climb
Triumphant over Time
God speeds our way.
Grand birthright of our sires,
Our altars and our fires
Keep we still pure.
Our starry flag unfurled,
The hope of all the world,
In Peace and Light impearled,
God hold secure!
* * *
The Old Problem of Exclusive
Can you please
explain to me why it is that our American Grand Lodges get so huffy
when a foreign
Grand Lodge tries to start a lodge in our territory, whereas our own
New York and Massachusetts, for example, don't hesitate to charter
lodges in other
countries? It appears that what is sauce for the goose is not sauce for
D.W.A., New York.
a rather saucy question. In some cases it is quite true that our Grand
not consistent with their own practices, but after all there is usually
in their madness. If an American Grand Lodge establishes a subordinate
a foreign country it is in order to take care of American citizens who
live in a
locality where they could not otherwise enjoy Masonic fellowship. You
speak of New
York: I suppose you have in mind their Sea and Field lodges. Those
lodges were organized
in France because our American soldiers could not possibly have joined
lodge, owing to the fact that so few of our Grand Lodges recognize the
Furthermore, the question is one of those that cannot be decided
offhand or by means
of a huge generalization: the fairness of it must be decided in each
case, for in
the last analysis it is really a question of Masonic efficiency. Each
in this nation is quite abundantly able to care for all residents
inside its own
jurisdiction, and any duplication of sovereignty would make for
confusion and cross
purposes. Usually the same facts and conditions that compel exclusive
in this land, will justify one of our Grand Lodges in chartering a body
in a foreign
land. The inconsistency is more apparent than real.
* * *
Can a Grand
Lodge prohibit a Mason from belonging to some other organization?
D. F. H., Vermont.
a matter for Masonic common law, and therefore must be decided by each
in accordance with its own statutes. That it is constitutional for a
thus to act is affirmed by the Grand Lodge of England which in the
famous case of
Sir Robert Stout ruled that it constitutes a Masonic offense for a
Mason to belong
to an organization proscribed by Grand Lodge laws.
* * *
I have often
wondered why Masonry is so strict in forbidding any use of printed
a man in my own situation for example. I have a poor memory and in
order to learn
even a small portion of the work I must go over it again and again. But
up too much of my friends' time and too much of my own. After coming
home from a
hard day's work I am too weary to go off down town again to study. But
if I had
the use of a key the matter would be much easier.
R. E. G., Iowa.
that so many thousands of other busy men have learned the work without
a key proves
that your difficulties are not insuperable, and that you are not quite
in asking for a complete reorganization of the laws, rules, and customs
of the Fraternity.
It may interest you to know the will of the Craft at large on this
he was Grand Master Joseph W. Morris, of Oklahoma, made exhaustive
of the subject, during which he wrote to Grand Secretaries of all the
A catena of the replies he received was printed in the Oklahoma Grand
you will care to see the result. The question was, "Does your Grand
the use of Cipher Keys?" The answers are condensed: Washington ‒ I am
to say we do not.
North Carolina ‒ We have no
such thing and know
nothing about it.
Massachusetts ‒ Possession of one here is sufficient grounds for
California ‒ No, the obligation prohibits it.
Arkansas ‒ No, we are drastically against it.
Wyoming ‒ Yes, we have it. Don't like it very well.
Nevada ‒ No, No, No!
Louisiana ‒ Forbidden in this jurisdiction.
Alabama ‒ No key of any kind is used.
New Jersey ‒ We have none.
New York ‒ Its use is prohibited.
Missouri ‒ No.
Pennsylvania ‒ Not in Pennsylvania.
Nebraska ‒ An offense to use it.
Virginia ‒ Our work taught orally. Opposed to key.
Delaware ‒ We swore we wouldn't and we won't.
Maryland ‒ We have no key in any shape or form.
New Mexico ‒ Illegal in this state.
Minnesota ‒ We have it here. The brethren in general know nothing about
I doubt if one in a hundred could make anything out of it.
Iowa ‒ We have none.
Utah ‒ Very much opposed to its use.
Illinois ‒ If you decide to accept it, well and good, but we have
on such action.
Wisconsin ‒ I know my advice as Grand Secretary of Wisconsin does not
a great deal, but I would suggest to the brethren of Oklahoma to think
a great many
times before they permit an official key to the work.
Florida ‒ Don't have it. Always voted down.
Colorado ‒ Yes, we use them, but they are a ghastly thing.
down here to stick to the old way.
Kentucky ‒ Grand Lodge has never authorized its use, and I hope it
Morris summed the whole question up in a forceful manner: "To adopt a
our esoteric work would mean that eventually the conferring of the
have little effect on the initiates and they would be possessed with
the idea that
Masonry is not such a hidden treasure after all; that their conception
of its having
been handed down to us from mouth to ear through the centuries past, is
but a myth,
and not a reality. Adopt a key; do away with our lecture force and
schools of instruction
and you will have dealt Oklahoma Masonry a blow from which it will
I was very
much interested in Brother Skinner's article in the October number of
on "Little Wolf Joins the Mitawin.” It certainly would be interesting
the names of Indians who were and are members of the Fraternity. We
know that Red
Jacket, Chief of the Six Nations of New York, was a Mason; and Eli S.
descendant of Red Jacket, was a Mason and at one time Grand Orator of
Lodge of Illinois. The Indian Chief Tecumseh was also a member of the
the members of the Research Society add names to this list?
this has nothing to do with Brother Skinner's article, but the thought
came to me
as I read his article.
I have wondered
if Black Hawk, Shabbonee, Logan and other prominent characters in
history were members
of the Fraternity.
O. B. Slane, Illinois.
* * *
Masonry in South Africa
to learn something about the status quo of Grand Lodges and other
in South Africa, we wrote for information to Brother William Morster,
the Masonic Journal of South Africa, who was kind enough to send us the
District Grand Lodges in Capetown, Natal, The Eastern Division of the
(known as the Eastern Division, South Africa), the Central Division,
at Kimberley, and Johannesburg, which takes in the whole of the
Division has one lodge, I think, in the Free State, and is chiefly
the northern part of Cape Colony ‒ Vryburg, Mafeking, etc. The Eastern
of South Africa takes in as far as Matatiele, in Griqualand East, and
in the Free State. The Western Division (Capetown) naturally takes in
portion of the Cape Province. Natal, of course, takes in Natal, but has
lodges in the Free State, at Ficksburg, Bethlehem and Lindley. The
in only the Transvaal. Bulawayo and Rhodesian lodges work direct from
or Ireland (I am not sure if there are any Irish lodges there), while
lodges work from Capetown.
District Grand Lodges of the Cape, Natal, the Eastern Districts (called
Grand Lodge of the Eastern Province, Cape Province), and the Transvaal.
In the Transvaal
we take in all the Free State as well. Natal sticks to Natal, and the
to their respective territories.
a Provincial Grand Lodge with headquarters at Johannesburg. There are
(some Cape lodges dealing direct with Ireland), but otherwise the whole
Africa comes under R.’.W.’. Brother Dr. William Russell, Provincial
for South Africa.
Grand Master is Worshipful Brother Silberbauer, at Capetown, and he has
of the Union, excepting Transvaal which is under Provincial Grand
William B. M. Vogts. There is also a Provincial Grand Master at
MARK AND EXCELLENT MASTER DEGREES
worked variously. For instance, there are District Grand Chapters under
but Grand Superintendents, only, (as far as the Transvaal is concerned,
in the Scottish. I am at present M. E. Z. of a Chapter under the
Scottish, a member
of the Alpha 18d under the English, and a member of various Craft
lodges under the
English and Scottish Constitutions. We get somewhat mixed in the Royal
the Irish one has to take the Mark before the Royal Arch, but does not
get the Excellent
Master. In the Scottish you must have the Mark and take the Excellent
you can take the Royal Arch. Or, if affiliating, you must have the
given you before you can remain in and see the degree worked in full.
In the English
you need not take either Mark or Excellent Master (in fact the latter
not worked at all) before taking the Royal Arch. A lovely mix-up, and
my idea is
that one of the most useful things a Grand Lodge could do would be to
standardize these things.
Wm. Morster, South Africa.
* * *
Who Was Counsellor Schott?
I have in
my possession an old map of King Solomon's Temple that has been in my
over seventy years, and as far as I know is the only one in existence,
but I have
been unable to obtain but very little information regarding it.
It is a map
about 30 x 36 inches, and at the top is the following: "A BEAUTIFUL AND
ELEVATION OF THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMON, TAKEN FROM THE CELEBRATED MODEL
ERECTED BY COUNSELLOR
SCHOTT AT HAMBURG, ORNAMENTED WITH THE MOST INTERESTING PASSAGES IN THE
KING DAVID AND SOLOMON HIS SON."
Can any reader
give me information as to who Counsellor Schott was, or regarding this
It is considered
a rare relic here, and I am desirous of learning more of its history if
John F. George, Pennsylvania.
* * *
Division of Time in the
Reign of King Alfred
I have in
my library an edition of Hume's History of England, a work of nine
volumes, by David
Hume, and I find on page 77, of volume 1 [Lib 1854; Vol 1, (for remaining 8
account of the reign of King Alfred, the following:
"He usually divided his time
equal portions; one was employed in sleep and the refection of his body
and exercise; another in the dispatch of business; a third in study and
and that he might more exactly measure the hours, he made use of
of equal length which he fixed in lanterns."
W. H. Stowell, Iowa.
* * *
The Tupelo Crosses
good and how pleasant it is for brethren to work together! Ye editor,
who is not
an ethnologist or the son of an ethnologist, was unable to explain the
the crosses concerning which a letter appeared on page 336 of this
November last, so he passed the problem on to the members of the
Society. And now
witness the results. Brother Thorp B. Jennings, Past Grand Master of
the Grand Council
of Royal and Select Masters of Kansas, writes that "The two crosses
page 336 of THE BUILDER for November, are religious crosses. The one
arms is a Bishop's cross; the one with two arms, that of a priest, and
such a cross
with one arm is a layman's cross."
letter on the subject is from the Assistant Curator, Department of
of the Milwaukee Public Museum on whose article in the October issue of
entitled "Little Wolf Joins the Mitawin," a large number of
letters have been received from members of the Society:
In the Correspondence
Department of THE BUILDER for November there is an interesting
of some silver crosses excavated near Tupelo, Miss., with some
speculations as to
their origin and use. As the writer has had the good fortune to see and
number of similar specimens in the course of his ethnological and
investigations he is taking the liberty of offering a little further
light on the
this type came into considerable vogue among all the North American
French domination about the close of the seventeenth century, and were
by silversmiths resident in Montreal for the Indian trade, and were
not, as one
would naturally suppose, given out by the early Roman Catholic
at least not to any extent. They were made to be attractive to the
without regard to religious significance, and were presented by traders
alike to Indians of influence, who were often pagans. A few of these
in the hands of living Indians, to whom they have descended as
by far the greater part of them have been found, as were the Tupelo
graves or on old Indian village sites. I have myself known them to have
in the possession of Iroquois, Ottawa, Miami, Peoria, and Sioux
Indians, and there
are several double and single silver crosses in this Museum (Milwaukee
mainly from Wisconsin and Michigan. I have seen a few that were
by native Indian silversmiths in imitation of the Montreal French work,
have the hallmark, or in some cases the word "Montreal" stamped on
The triple cross figured by Brother Riley from Tupelo has an indistinct
it, which may well be a hallmark.
Malhiot, in charge of the North West Fur Company's Trading Post at Lac
Wis., in a statement of goods sent for trade with one Snsuans, mentions
list of silverware, "9 large double crosses," and "6 medium-sized
do." Of these it is said that three of the former were brought back to
post by the trader's agent in May 1805, the Indians having bartered for
In his journal
for Sept. 17, 1761, Sir Wm. Johnson notes that among the silver
he left at Detroit to be forwarded to Lt. Gorrell at the British
Military Post at
Fort Mackinac were ninety large silver crosses. Lt. Gorrell left
Mackinac to take
charge of the similar post at Green Bay, Wis., on the twelfth of the
and probably brought many of the crosses with him.
on these interesting relics may be found in the Seventy-third Bulletin
of the New
York State Museum, "Metallic Ornaments of the New York Indians," by
Wm. M. Beauehamp, and in Vol. 9, No. 4, (p. 104) of the Wisconsin
where there is an article entitled "Silver Trade Crosses,'' by Chas. E.
In this connection
it is interesting to note that the Iroquois Indians of New York State
many Masonic brooches, beaten out of coin silver by their native
smiths, two of
which are even now in the possession of the writer. These emblem were
without knowledge of their significance in most cases, the Indians
them upside down. They also vary from realistic squares and compasses
the two immortal columns to such highly conventionalized examples, with
that the extreme forms are hard to recognize.
It is well
known that the famous Mohawk Iroquois chief, Joseph Brant, who
the period of the American Revolution, was a Mason, raised, if I
in England, and it is also known that he was prompt to rush to the aid
distressed brethren in time of battle or Indian raids. Red Jacket, the
(Seneca Iroquois), is often claimed as a Mason, although I am not
certain upon what
authority, and doubtless there were others at a very early date.
At the present
time the members of the Craft among various Indian tribes are legion,
but I am not
aware of any exclusively Indian lodge of Masons, all the Indian
brethren whom I
know personally belonging to regularly constituted white lodges. As I
in a recent number of THE BUILDER (for October) the elements of
a primitive, and I do not in the least doubt, ancient sort, are
our native tribes, quite independently of white influence.
Alanson B. Skinner. Wisconsin.
we go to press comes another letter on the subject from a brother in
In the November
issue of THE BUILDER an article entitled "Crosses Excavated Near
notes the finding of several crosses and asks opinions as to their
origin and historical
value. The writer has made a considerable study of American Archaeology
collected about five thousand or more articles from field and mound in
county, ranging from broken arrow points to copper knives.
in question are undoubtedly of Roman Catholic origin, and similar
those with two cross bars, are not infrequently taken from mounds or
places from Maine to the Mississippi, and from the Ohio to Duluth, with
found in the Spanish portions of the South, and up and down the
the source to the mouth.
I know of
at least four or five that have been found in this (Saginaw) county,
and these finds,
as in other places, have given rise to foolish tales of buried hoards
and even gold. The crosses were distributed by missionary priests, and
in more or less esteem by the Indians as charms or amulets. They were
to favored "converts" of influence or power, and were then, as now,
of the Christian faith.
Catholic faith appealed to certain tribes of Indians, as it does to
of white people, for the Indians were as different, tribe from tribe,
as the French
are different from the Germans, the English from the Russians, etc.
To some Indians
the ceremonies of the priests were more or less mummeries. Others
grasped the spiritualistic
significance of that same ritualism, this depending, as among the
whites, upon the
type of mind of the individual or tribe.
may be assured that there is no Masonic significance in these crosses,
Masonry universal is not and cannot be sectarian. No Order which lays
lambskin and adopts so purely a sectarian emblem as the Latin cross can
in its best and noblest aspect.
Fred Dustin, Michigan.
A Department Of Indian Affairs
This is to
announce an addition to our staff of editors in the person of Brother
Skinner, Assistant Curator of the Anthropological Department of the
of the City of Milwaukee. Brother Skinner is exceptionally well versed
lore, especially as regards secret societies, initiations, and all
that, and he
is an earnest Masonic student.
If you have
any question to ask about the American Indians and any connections they
with Freemasonry and allied themes, address your queries to Brother
A Concise History of Freemasonry
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History of England Vol 3 - AD
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History of England Vol 8 - AD
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History of England Vol 9 - AD
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History of Freemasonry
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History of Freemasonry
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History of Freemasonry
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History of Freemasonry
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History of Modern Architecture
Fer91MA2 / auth. Fergusson James. - New York : Dodd Mead &
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The Atholl Lodges
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The Four Old Lodges
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The Fourth Dimension
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The Master Mason's Handbook
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The New Death
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Thomas Nast, His Period and His Pictures
Pai04 / auth. Paine Albert B. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1904.
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