Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
biographers have recorded him as a soldier, and he has gone down into
such, but his greatest efforts were not made while in the Army. Nature
Houston with a will, and with the courage of his convictions. He was
great in Congress;
great in a Cherokee camp; and great in the organization of his State
and of the
Born in Lexington,
Va., in 1793; son of an officer in the Revolutionary Army; an orphan in
mother with her nine children migrated to East Tennessee, near the
Sam attended school and must have been an apt scholar as he was
reported as reading
and translating from the Iliad at an early age. He was so popular with
that the Chief, Oolooteka, adopted him as a son. At the age of eighteen
six feet in height: was a famous hunter: taught school: and in 1813
the Army, to repel the British: was promoted to an Ensign: fought under
and in the battle of the Great Bend of the Tallapoosa, against the
wounded on March 24, 1814, and promoted to a lieutenancy, and stationed
and at New Orleans. In 1817 he was appointed Indian Agent, to carry out
with the Cherokees. He conducted a delegation of Indians to Washington,
were well received and where their complaints were satisfied.
were made against Houston for his opposition to the smuggling of
through the Spanish Territory of Florida into the United States, which
trouble to defend, but he was honorably acquitted. He felt, however,
that he had
not been treated fairly, and resigned from the Army. He then took up
in Nashville, studied law, was graduated; admitted to the Bar; then
general of the State, and, in 1819, was elected District Attorney.
In 1823 he
was elected to Congress where he served six years, and was then elected
of Tennessee. He afterwards took up his residence in Arkansas where the
Tribe of Indians (his old friends) were located, and as his old friend
had become the principal Chief, Houston was given a hearty welcome. He
In 1832 he
went to Washington to remonstrate against the frauds and outrages
practiced on the
Indians, which resulted in the removal of five Indian Agents from
office. But this
involved him in a series of personal and legal contests with the
and their friends. He was accused in the House of Representatives, by
an Ohio member,
of attempting to obtain a discreditable government contract for Indian
It was then, as now, the privilege of a Congressman to say, in debate,
what he chose,
and for which he was immune before the law. But it did not work in this
Sam damaged that member's face with his fists, for which he was heavily
the court, but the fine was afterwards remitted. It was followed,
however, by an
investigation of the alleged frauds, with the damaged member as
chairman of the
Committee, and, as nothing derogatory was discovered, Houston was
to Texas to live in 1832, at a time a revolution against the Mexican
was being agitated. He at once became a central figure; took an active
part in that war, reaching the rank of Commander-in-Chief of the Texan
was Houston's treaty with Santa Anna that secured the independence of
of Texas. He exercised a close scrutiny over the finances, and paid off
the debt of Texas, by 1845, when Texas lowered its lone star colors to
of the United States.
History of Holland Lodge No. 1, of Texas, I make the following excerpts:
Houston. His Masonic degrees were taken in Cumberland Lodge No. 8, at
Tenn., in 1817. Dimitting from that lodge he affiliated with Holland
Lodge No. 1
(originally No. 36, Louisiana) at Houston, Texas, in 1837… He presided
convention when the Grand Lodge A. F. & A. M., of the Republic
of Texas was
organized, Dec. 20, 1837, at Houston."
died at Huntsville in 1863, where the beautiful memorial, shown in the
marks his grave.
old Holland Lodge has borne on its roster some of the grandest names of
In its early, struggling days, these names are evidence that they were
because they were great men, and not because it was their turn, as now
happens all over the country. The lodge was originally chartered by the
of Louisiana. It was No. 1 at the formation of the Grand Lodge of the
Texas, and it passed, loyally and without dissent, to the Grand Lodge
of the State
of Texas, when that great State become one of the United States.
Grand Master was Anson Jones, who figured so unselfishly, so wisely and
in the early history of the Republic as well of the Lone Star State.
its roster we find such distinguished men among the Grand Masters and
work they did for the commonwealth, that there is no shadow of doubt
owes much to Freemasonry.
By Bro. Dudley Wright England
Part VIII – Conclusion
on the publication of the allocution the following circular was
addressed by the
Heidelberg lodge, Rupprecht zu den fünf Rosen, to its sister lodges:
"Venerable and beloved
"Doubtless you have all taken
of the allocution addressed on the 25th September by His Holiness Pope
Pius IX to
the Cardinals assembled in Rome. You know that in this address our
condemned and our Catholic Brethren threatened with the excommunication
of the Church.
This is not the first time that the Roman Catholic pontiff has launched
against our ancient Order. Clement XII did so on the 28th April, 1738
[Lib 1738], and Benedict XIV confirmed
amplified the fiat of his predecessors in the Bull of 18th March, 1751
[Lib 1751]. Pius VII [Lib 1821] and Leo XII [Lib 1826] have done likewise and with
same want of success as deplored by the present Pope.
"These decrees of the see of
Rome have no
similarity with the findings of the courts of law. They originate in
of which no notice is given to the accused. There is no public
prosecution and no
opportunity afforded for defense, either public or private. All
guarantees for impartial
jurisdiction and an unbiased judgment are wanting. Suspicion stands for
the guilt of the accused rests on conjecture. He is convicted without a
Is it a matter of wonder then if public opinion has no confidence in
and strongly deprecates them?
"The Masonic brotherhood is an
of freemen, subject to the laws of the State in which they are located,
to any clerical authority, it being no clerical institution and
adhering to no church
as such. For our federation the papal excommunication is therefore
devoid of all
binding power; but since the head of the Catholic Church condemns us
will in our turn, hear and examine the motives on which he grounds his
"The first and paramount reason
by all popes in justification of their edicts of condemnation is the
against us that Freemasonry unites as brethren men of divers
persuasions and religious
sects and that by this, as Benedict XIV has it, 'the purity of the
"The first and main grave
charge of all
brethren, let us avow it, is true and well-founded. If it be a crime
for men of
diverse creeds to assemble in peace and harmony, and hold friendly and
communications, irrespective of their religious persuasions, we own and
to this crime. It is certainly true that our Institution has, from its
and as it has progressed with increasing determination, professed that
in all creeds to be found good and honorable men, well adapted to
respect and love
each other as brethren. In all times Freemasonry considered as a crime
of humanity the persecution of man on account of his religious
every good and true Mason appreciates much more the man who acts up to
duty than he who merely professes the most orthodox tenets. But, these
which, for a long time had to be kept secret and harbored in the lodges
become patent, and, in spite of all admonitions of clerical zealots,
they are by
this time adopted and adhered to by men of education all over the
globe, and embodied
in the laws of all civilized nations. Should Masonry be condemned on
the whole civilized world and all cultivated peoples must needs
participate in this
"Thank God, a papal thunderbolt
from such foundation will produce no destructive effects but it will
serve to disclose
the nocturnal darkness of intolerance that has procreated it ‒ it will
world how very backward Rome is in the moral progress of mankind.
"The second head on which the
Bull of Benedict
XIV is based is the mystery on which our confederation is encircled;
mystery to which we pledge ourselves has at all times evoked much
been a pretext for misinterpretation. But you know how many gross
it has given rise to, unfortunately not outside the circle of our
Still neither the doctrines nor the objects of the Craft are occult,
existence ‒ nor are its adherents or their places of meeting unknown
the signs of recognition alone must remain secret, that the brethren
may the more
readily distinguish each other abroad, and the internal labors of the
be private that personal confidence may develop itself more fully, and
may be uttered more freely. The calm and personal action of the
the character and moral life of its members, necessitates this
precaution. But is
it other-wise in the Catholic Church? Is confession public or private?
Are the doors
of religious and monastic orders and authorities thrown open to the
their proceedings? Has not every family, every circle of intimate
social club and association secrets of its own? Perhaps, brethren, our
somewhat too strict in this respect, in an age that is very partial to
But surely, such timid solicitude can never be branded as a crime that
itself its condemnation.
"The old Masonic oath, with its
full of grave penalties, was Benedict XIV's third motive for the
of Freemasons, and in this also Pius IX joins his intolerant
predecessor. You are
aware, brethren, that this formula has been obsolete for a long time
past, and is
communicated to novices merely as a historical fact belonging to a
period that no
longer exists. You know that we trust more in the plain word of an
honest man than
in exaggerated oaths, that are liable to heat up imagination and cool
The third count, therefore, which was never very material, has but an
with us at the present day.
"As a fourth motive, Benedict
the Roman law, by which all associations and corporations are declared
have not obtained the previous acquiescence of the civil authority. But
nothing to do with the right of the Church. Most civilized governments
alone called upon to decide in this matter have tolerated and opposed
on the existence of our Order, before they ever recognized general
liberty of association,
which is not impugned by the Roman code of laws.
"The fifth motive alleged,
viz., the fact
of several governments having prohibited the Order, will collapse by
prohibitions of Freemasonry are decreed (and this is done but
is the duty of the lodges to dissolve forthwith, and prove thereby
to the law of the land.
"Benedict XIV alleged as his
that many wise and honest men entertain an unfavorable opinion of this
Forsooth, the Pope of Rome should be the last person in the world to
base a condemnation
on such a ground. No doubt, there is many a wise and honest man who
unfavorable opinion of religious orders and monasteries, nay, of the
"Of all the counts of the
the first alone is true and material; but the same grounds upon which
the Pope curses
us constitutes our highest glory in the eyes of the civilized world.
"Now, referring to the latest
Pius IX complains of the inactivity of the Bishops who, he thinks, have
and meek in carrying out the papal excommunication, and of the Catholic
who refrained from suppressing the Association by force; nay, he even
of having permitted such toleration on the part of the temporal rulers.
on Freemasonry are far more poignant than those of his predecessors. It
the Roman hierarchs have at no time been at a loss for expressions of
but the present edict of Pius IX surpasses all former maledictions by
irruptions of bile it denotes. This we must consider as a further proof
of the baneful
influence our worst and most uncompromising enemies, the Jesuits, have
over the mind and judgment of one whom we believe to be a good-natured
"Our Federation he calls a
although no other 'crime' but human toleration is proved against us,
and an immoral
sect, though the moral law is essentially the vital principle of
kindling of revolutions and desolating wars he lays at our door, though
is fully aware that the commotions and wars in this quarter of the
in forces far different from, and more powerful than, those we command,
it is well known that our Association asks of every one of its
obedience to the laws of the State, that, by virtue of our
must abstain from all and every participation in the political
struggles of the
time, and pursue none but humane and moral objects; that our places of
abodes of peace and neutral ground, the threshold of which the passions
are not allowed to cross. The Pope next charges us with entertaining
towards the Christian religion, although we accept on principle every
and the vast majority of brethren profess the religion of Christ, and
idea revealed to the world by Christ in His life, as well as in His
possibly be upheld by a moral association but with admiration and
goes so far as to call us hostile to God, though our prayers are
addressed to God,
and the whole of our moral strength drawn from the divine and eternal
"Let us not follow, brethren,
of the Roman hierarchy. Let us not return the unjust accusation. We may
our malediction to the course of the Church. Let us pity the sad
blindness of the
venerable old man whose mind is imposed upon and misled. Let us pray
Omniscient God to destroy the phantom that has caused the fury of the
allow his mind to see simple truth, that his curse may be turned into a
In the course
of an article dealing with the allocution and the letter just quoted,
Allgemeine Zeitung" said:
"The Pope has delivered himself
rude phillipica against Freemasonry, that 'reprobate society' and
that 'aims at nothing but reversion of religion and human society.' It
useless to reason with Rome, which remains eternally the same, and we
to remind the Pope that to this 'reprobate society' and 'criminal sect'
amongst others, several powerful potentates, as, for example, the King
At a time when the last remains of the power of the Pope draw nearer
their final elimination, every friend of intellectual liberty and human
may hail with delight the allocution that is calculated to accelerate
and even secure
At this time
also Herr Franz Spiegelthal, Master of the Lodge Zur festen Burg an der
Cable, wrote to the "Freimauerer Zeitung" that the allocution of the
had caused him to secede from Roman Catholicism and join the Protestant
and, he added, that many of his Catholic friends were likely to follow
In 1869 Cardinal
Cullen threatened to excommunicate publicly any Catholics who were
a Masonic Ball, and the Earl of Derby, the representative of a family
generations among Freemasons, speaking in the House of Lords in the
debate on the
Irish Church Bill, referring to this threat remarked:
"I can only say if his
that the Freemasons of England stand on the same footing with the
other secret societies, if he imagines that they are leagued against
that it is a signal proof of the ignorance of infallibility."
On 14th March,
1870, at Madrid, some Roman Catholic priests refused to perform the
rites over the body of Don Enrique de Bourbon because of the presence
Masonic emblems on the coffin. On perceiving these the clergy, with one
withdrew, taking with them the paraphernalia of their religion. The one
priest consented to accompany the body to the cemetery where he
performed the funeral
In 1871 a
pamphlet was published by L'Abbe Joseph de Sousa Amado, entitled
Documents et Reflexions,
in which he stated that three or four Freemasons had been appointed to
One of these, he said, was Dr. Joseph Marie da Silva Torre, Archbishop
of Goa, who
had been initiated in the Lodge Urbionia de Coimbra. The author also
that it was the government's intention to present to the Holy See the
names of two
well-known Freemasons for consecration to the episcopacy, these being
Cardoso Napoles and Dr. Antoine Aires de Gouveia.
In 1873 the
Jesuits, driven from most of the European countries, selected Brazil as
for their enterprise. For a long time the Church and Freemasons had
lived in peace,
and the population of Pernambuco had always been recognized as a type
piety. But the Bishop of the diocese, a young man of only twenty-three
age, at the bidding of the Jesuits, attempted to enforce the Papal Bull
the Freemasons. The prelate had counted on the support of the people,
but his high-handed
measures turned the tide of popular feeling. The Bishop was mobbed in
his own palace,
and the military had to be called in to protect him.
1874, the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Molines, Primate of Belgium,
issued a pastoral
in which he excommunicated all Freemasons in the kingdom, however
position. This, notwithstanding the fact that the Constitution of
freedom of conscience to all religious communities so long as they do
the law of the State.
In the same
month, says the Valparaiso Mail, quoting from the Opinion Nacionale of
"the Bishop of Rio Grande excommunicated and anathematized the
that province, cursing them in the name of God the Father, God the Son,
the Holy Ghost, of St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. Andrew, of all the
disciples of Jesus Christ, of the four Evangelists, of all the Martyrs
beginning of the world to the end of time. He cursed them all by the
the earth, all the things therein, in their houses, when travelling on
on water, in church, coming, going, eating, drinking, playing, when
asleep and awake, walking, riding, sitting, working, and resting. He
the power of their bodies, interior and exterior, their hair, eyes,
jaws, nose, teeth, throat, shoulders, arms, legs, feet, all the joints,
wound up as follows: 'Curse them, Jesus Christ, Son of the Living God,
the power of Thy majesty, and may they be delivered up to eternal
they do not repent and confess their faults. Amen. Amen."'
In May, 1875,
Pope Pius IX sent the following letter to Monsignor Dupanloup:
"Venerable Brother: Salutation
Benediction. In this war waged on all sides against the Catholic Church
by the Masonic
sect, your publication was most useful and opportune, especially
because this sect,
long secret, has now unmasked itself. It avows its designs, and in a
not under the pretext of public rights, but in its own name, does
with the Church. It is useful, because the nefarious character of the
known, there is no honest man who must not turn from it with horror,
many members who do not know the secret mysteries will now withdraw.
What is particularly
useful is the perspicacity with which you demonstrate to all attentive
real tendency of the taking words 'Fraternity and Equality,' which have
and seduced so many, and the true origin and object of the much boasted
of conscience, of public worship, and of the press. After reading your
can doubt that all this came from Freemasonry to overturn civil and
and consequently the Church has wisely condemned those who practice and
liberties. It is manifest that all partisans of these liberties, albeit
to themselves, favor the Masonic sect, and the more honest they are,
the more disastrous
is their support to such principles. We therefore wish you many
for it is no small advantage to perceive the snare, and as a pledge of
and our special goodwill we give you, Venerable Brother, from the
bottom of our
heart, to you and your diocese, our Apostolical Benediction. In the
year of our Pontificate. Pius IX, Pope."
on the occasion of the anniversary of the consecration of Pope Pius IX
of Spoleto, the Catholics of Portugal, particularly the Michaelists, to
reference has been made in these columns, falling in with the practice
by other countries, organized a pilgrimage to Rome. About three hundred
joined in the excursion. They were received at Rome, when, in response
to an address
presented to him, Pope Pius IX said, among other things: "You have a
and terrible enemy, that is violent Freemasonry, which wishes to
annihilate in you
all vestiges of Catholicism."
In 1878 Monsignor
Besson, Bishop of Nîmes, issued an edict forbidding the intrusion of
into the churches of his diocese and ordering the priests to remove
On 20th April,
1884, Pope Leo XIII issued his famous Letter Humanum Genus "To all
Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, and Bishops in the Catholic world
who have grace
and communion with the Apostolic See."
will be found on pages 287-293 of the 1919 bound volume of THE BUILDER
[Lib 1884], and Albert Pike's comment
on pages 314-319 of the same volume. Pike's reply to the Letter was
the 1920 bound volume of THE BUILDER, on pages 13-19 and 35-41.)
of Ascalon, Vicar-Apostolic of Bombay, in a pastoral letter
promulgating the Encyclical
"In the performance of their
duty the parish
priests and confessors must not admit as valid or reasonable the common
Freemasonry, in India and England aims at nothing but social amusement,
and charitable benevolence. Such objects require neither a terrible
oath of secrecy
nor an elaborate system and scale of numerous degrees, nor a connection
Masonic lodges of other countries, about whose anti-Christian,
revolutionary character and aim no doubt nor further concealment is
Masonic lodges all over the world are firmly knitted and bound together
If all of them share in the pleasure of a triumph achieved by a
or by the lodges of a particular country, all must likewise submit to
of an anti-Christian, anti-social, and revolutionary sect, as which
is in many countries already openly known, and even unblushingly
confessed by its
It goes without
saying that the Jesuits proclaimed against "Freemasonry the same
as the heads of the Roman Church, and this is demonstrated by the
letter signed by Vincent Ficarelli, Provincial of the Jesuits in
was sent in 1884 to all the houses of that Society in that country:
"Reverend Fathers and very dear
The Peace of Christ be with you. The Very Reverend Father
to the appeal made by the Holy Father to all Catholics to combat secret
has addressed to all the Society an Encyclical Letter, in which he
invites all his
children to take part in this glorious campaign.
"Indeed," says the Reverend
Vicar," it is not sufficient to read but once that admirable Encyclical
Genus, but it is necessary that it be meditated upon with attention in
to impress upon the mind what is contained in the same and this, up to
point, is what concerns this letter. That also is why I wish all those
to whom this
has reference, shall not remain content with hearing it read in the
that they shall consider it attentively and strive well to make it take
a firm grip
of their minds.
"It is a question of combatting
terrible enemy of the Church, which boasting in the victories obtained
up to the
present, believes itself to be altogether the conqueror, and proclaims
further can come into opposition with its dark designs. To us, as
it should suffice to enlist courageously in the fight, knowing what is
of the Vicar of Jesus Christ, whom Divine Providence has given to us as
mother, and guide of our actions. Having therefore courage, and with
the cry 'God
wills it' let us hasten to enlist in this glorious crusade.
'It is a question of agreement
with the Sovereign
Pontiff and all good men will attend to us. Let all, in obedience to
the voice of
Leo XIII, take up arms against the common enemy. Let not the
us: such do not lessen the zeal of our enemies. Let us count on the
God and go forward.
"We must all contribute to the
the enterprise. Let confessors and spiritual directors, particularly of
by their counsels and opportune remonstrances, endeavor to form the
minds of their
penitents and pupils by insinuating the principles of the Faith and of
philosophy, by opposing the doctrine of naturalism professed by this
sect. Let preachers and writers profit by every prudent opportunity by
directly or indirectly the secret societies and combatting their
always by obedience and prudence, let none lose a single opportunity of
hatred to Freemasonry, in conversations and in private letters, in
and sermons, in the exercises of the clergy and others of the faithful,
and particularly in colleges, let us seek seriously to counteract its
"Let us exert ourselves to warn
against the maneuvers of Freemasonry, making them to see its abominable
in order that they may detest it as much as it deserves. Let us have a
care of Confraternities, particularly those composed of men and
attached to our
Society, by opposing those diabolical societies and contrasting them
with our own,
where the Gospel maxims are inculcated unceasingly, and thus we shall
or rather, engrave by degrees in the hearts of our members the mind of
and the love of the Christian virtues.
"It is for the Superiors to
movements, that the excessive zeal of the indiscreet may be put down
and the valor
of the more indolent stimulated, in order that prudence may not be
relaxed nor courage
reach to indiscretion and temerity.
"I desire that this letter in
which I have
sought to do my utmost to assemble the principal ideas of the
of our Reverend Father Vicar-General, should come to the knowledge of
all, and in
order that it may produce the good which I desire let us invoke the
wisdom and the
grace of the Holy Spirit.
"I commend myself to your
"Lisbon, 15th July, 1884.
(Father) "Vincent Ficarelli, S. J."
with the commands of the Provincial, the Jesuits compelled their
entering the Congregation of the Holy Virgin to make the following
"Obeying with a filial love the
of the Vicar of Jesus Christ, clearly expressed in the Encyclical
by His Holiness, Leo XIII, who, as well as the Sovereign Pontiffs, his
has frequently condemned Freemasonry and all other secret societies, I
and promise never to enroll myself in any one of these sects, no matter
name it may be called. On the contrary, I will valiantly combat, always
its traditions, doctrines, and influence. So help me God."
it must be remembered, was frequently taken by young children. An
to the Bishops of Italy, entitled Ab Apostolici was issued by Pope Leo
XIII on 15th
October, 1890, in which he said:
"It is needless now to put the
upon their trial. They are already judged, their ends, their means,
and their action are all known with indisputable certainty. Possessed
by the spirit
of Satan, whose instrument they are, they burn, like him, with a deadly
hatred of Jesus Christ and of His work; and they endeavor by every
means to overthrow
and fetter it: … It is more than ever clear that the ruling idea which,
as far as
religion is concerned, controls the course of public affairs in Italy,
is the realization
of the Masonic program. We see how much has already been realized; we
know how much
still remains to be done; and we can foresee with certainty that, so
long as the
destinies of Italy are in the hands of sectarian rulers or of men
subject to the
sects, the realization of the program will be pressed on, more or less
to circumstances, unto its complete development. The action of the
sects is at present
directed to attain the following objects, according to the votes and
passed in their most important assemblies, votes and resolutions
by a deadly hatred of the Church: (1) the abolition in the schools of
of religious instruction, and the founding of institutions in which
even girls are
to be withdrawn from all clerical influence whatever it may be; because
which ought to be absolutely atheistic, has the inalienable right and
duty to form
the heart and the spirit of its citizens, and no school should exist
its inspiration and control. The rigorous application of all laws now
which aim at securing the absolute independence of civil society from
The strict observance of laws suppressing religious corporations, and
of means to make them effectual. The regulations, of all ecclesiastical
starting from the principle that its ownership belongs to the State,
and its administration
to the civil power. The exclusion of every Catholic or clerical element
public administrations, from pious works, hospitals and schools, from
which govern the doctrines of the country, from academic and other
companies, committees, and families, the exclusion from everything,
and forever. Instead, the Masonic influence is to make itself felt in
all the circumstances
of social life and to become master and controller of everything.
Hereby the way
will be smoothed towards the abolition of the Papacy; Italy will thus
be free from
its implacable and deadly enemy; and Rome which, in the past, was the
universal theocracy, will, in the future, be the center of universal
once the mocking charity of human liberty is to be proclaimed in the
face of the
world. Such are the atheistic declarations, aspirations, and
resolutions of Freemasons
or of their assemblies."
Day, 1891, Pope Leo XIII issued another Encyclical Letter, one clause
of which ran
"Permit us, then, in addressing
point to Masonry as the enemy at once of God, the Church, and our
we are dealing with a sect which has spread itself everywhere, it is
to be on the defensive towards it, but we must go courageously into the
meet it, as you will do, dear children, by opposing press to press,
school to school,
association to association, congress to congress, action to action."
Cardinal Vaughan was one of the most affable of men, who seldom ‒ in
other members of his family ‒ entered the public arena of verbal
conflict and discussion.
His knowledge of Freemasonry must have been extremely limited, even for
the Order, to imagine that the Third Order of St. Francis, admirable
though it may be, could ever rise to the equal of the Craft of
on one occasion, the Cardinal wrote in one of his pastoral letters:
"Who, when he beholds the
enemies of Christianity
leaguing together in a world-wide Freemasonry, in order to attain by
that which they feel they could never otherwise achieve ‒ who will not
at once admit
the wisdom of founding the Third Order of St. Francis, which binds
together in every part of the world in a holy confederacy, having for
its sole object
the service of God and the conversation and reformation of society."
saying is that often-misquoted one ‒ De mortuis nil nisi bonum (Of
say nothing but good) ‒ but it is a remarkable fact that when
a system or creed the opponents will, not infrequently, commit
themselves to the
most outrageous statements and still persevere in them, even when their
has been proved most conclusively. This is particularly the case with
critics of the Roman system. Certainly this feature is not met with so
among Catholic apologists, but that it is not unknown may be proved
from the statement
in the next paragraph.
at the Hempstead Town Hall in March, 1898, the late Dr. Luke Rivington
any one acquainted with the history of Italy achieving her unity could
if he had a spark of Christian feeling in him. It was only during the
last few years
since we had seen the letters of Garibaldi that we had become aware of
the disgrace, and the positive barbarism of all that matter, and of the
lies told by the Freemasons of Italy. Christians must blush to think
bearing the name of Christian should enter upon a course of such
and shocking falsehood. There was no nation under heaven at that moment
down by oppression and tyranny as the Italian poor. As one who, had
them he knew how heavily they were taxed. It was something too dreadful
about, and he looked upon the matter as a blot upon our civilization.
As one who
had been a Freemason, he could say that most of them believed, and he
number, that once when Crispi was admitted to a certain degree, he
began to worship
the devil himself. The whole state of Italy was something so perfectly
most people felt they were on the verge of a revolution. They had
succeeded in introducing
secular education for a whole generation, and they had no right to
speak of a nation
as being in the undisputed possession of the Roman Catholic Church
when, as a matter
of fact, Freemasonry had got into that country. Freemasonry was a
which walked in darkness, and had put in its program secular education
to destroy religion. . . . So far as history went when the Roman
had perfect possession of a nation, then that nation rose to the top.
That was the
case with Spain. It was the leading power of Europe. The Freemasons had
there then, and so long as the Roman Catholic Church had possession of
so long it would find its way upwards and upwards. Dismiss the
Freemasons and bring
back the Pope and they would have the best governor in the whole of
is taken from a Roman Catholic newspaper report of the lecture,
published in the
following week, but the outrageous statements made therein do not
appear to have
been brought to the notice of the Masonic press at that date. Otherwise
it is certain
that a challenge would have been issued to Dr Luke Rivington, member of
of Freemasonry though he may have been at an earlier date, to have
proved the statements
made. At any rate the opposing statement may, here be made in issue ‒
that in no
degree in Freemasonry recognized by the United Grand Lodge of England
or in any
of the Jurisdictions with which she is in communion will there be found
approaching to the worship of the devil, nor is there single degree
into which any
one can be admitted and remain a member who does not acknowledge and
equivocation, his sole dependence upon that One Great, Supreme Power ‒
Almighty Creator and Preserver of Mankind.
Pastoral Letter, entitled Annum in gressi was issued by Pope Leo XIII,
on 18th March,
1902, which may be regarded as complimentary to Freemasonry, inasmuch
as if the
Craft had not made rapid and increasing strides, there would not have
been the need
for these frequent diatribes. Referring to the charges of political
against the Church in France and Italy, the Pope said:
"It is then, assuredly, with a
intention that accusations such as these are hurled against the Church.
and disloyal task this, in the pursuit of which the leading part is
taken by a certain
secret sect, which, for many years past, society has carried in its
which, like the germ of mortal disease, saps its health, its
fruitfulness, its very
life. A enduring personification of revolutionary principles, it
constitutes a kind
of perverted society, whose object is to exercise a hidden suzerainty
society, and the very reason of whose being is nothing else than to
wage war against
God and against his Church. It is needless to name it, for by these
ever one must have recognized that we mean Freemasonry of which we
spoke in express
terms in our Encyclical Humanum Genus of the 20th April, 1894, wherein
its destructive tendencies, its erroneous doctrines, its wicked work.
as it does, in it vast net almost all the nations, and allying itself
sects which it sets in motion by means of hidden springs first
attaching and then
keeping its hold on its members by means of the advantages which it
secures to them,
binding governments to its purposes, now by promises, now by threats,
has succeeded in permeating all classes of society. It forms a kind of
and irresponsible state within the legitimate State. Filled with the
spirit of Satan,
who, as the Apostle tells us, knows how, on occasion, to transform
an angel of light (II Cor. xi, 14) it puts prominently forward a
but, in fact, it sacrifices everything to its sectarian designs. It
it has no political aim, but, in truth, it exercises a profound
influence over the
legislative and administrative life of states. And, whereas, in words
respect for authority and even for religion, its ultimate purpose (as
its own constitutions) is a limitation of the sovereign power and of
in which it professes to see enemies of liberty. "Now, it becomes daily
manifest that to the instigation and active consultants of this sect
must, in great
measure, be ascribed the continual vexations wherewith the Church is
the renewed attacks which have, quite recently, been made upon her. For
of the assaults which have been delivered, the suddenness of the
has broken out in these last days, like a storm in a clear sky, that is
to say without
any cause proportioned to the effect produced; the uniformity of the
carried out by means of attacks in the press, in public meetings, and
representations; the employment in every country of the same arms,
aid popular risings ‒ all these unmistakably betoken an identity of
a word of command which is issued from one only center of direction.
is a mere episode in a preconcerted plan of campaign, which is
into action on a stage that grows ever wider and wider, in order to
ruinous consequences which we have heretofore enumerated. Its very
purpose is first
to restrict and afterwards entirely to abolish religious education, and
to bring up generations of unbelievers or indifferentists; to combat,
by means of
the daily press, the morality of the Church; to ridicule her practices
and to prevent
her sacred festivals. "Nothing is more natural, then, that the Catholic
whose mission is no other than that of preaching religion and
sacraments, should be attacked with special fury. Having chosen the
an object to be aimed at, this sect seeks to diminish in the eyes of
its prestige and authority. Already, with a boldness which increases
in proportion to the impunity which it believes itself to have secured,
a malign interpretation on all the acts of the clergy; it mistrusts
them on the,
slightest pretext, and harasses them with the basest charges. And these
are added to those under which the clergy already suffer, in spite of
which it must pay to military service, a serious obstacle to the
its members for the priesthood, as well as the consequence of the
the patrimony of the Church, which the faithful, out of their pious
had voluntarily created."
1913, Pope Pius X recommended to the League of the Sacred Heart, as the
of the members for the month, the battle against Freemasonry. A Roman
announcing the fact, said:
"In offering to the associates
of the League
of the Sacred Heart, and thereby to the entire Catholic world, the
Freemasonry as the primal intention of their prayers and practices for
Pope Pius X is in unison with all his predecessors from Clement XII in
Pope Leo XIII in 1890, who condemned Freemasonry as anti-Catholic,
and immoral, and pronounced excommunication against Catholics who
should enter it.
"This alone is proof sufficient
is to be avoided and combatted as a thing essentially evil; yet it has
persuaded many that its object is merely social and fraternal, and a
of 'outer' Masons in English-speaking countries are kept ignorant of
its real designs."
in the course of an address at the fourth annual meeting of the
Federation at Melbourne, Archbishop Mannix said:
"I wish that the Federation
in its report that it had at some point met, unmasked, and overthrown
the most insidious
enemy of God and country, the Freemason Brotherhood. Catholics who know
life better than I can pretend to know it, assure me that the sinister
of that body is felt at every turn ‒ in polities, in trade, in
commerce, in the
professions. From the making of a law and the shaping of a policy to
of a contract and the hiring of a wharf laborer, the secret grip of the
makes itself felt, and not for the common good, but for the exclusive
good of the
Freemasons. Already in this young democratic country we have,
apparently, this secret
aristocracy fastened upon the neck of Australia, a huge tumor, feeding
very vitals, the blood, and the life of the country. The Prime Minister
used strong language about those whom he described as parasites upon
the Labor Party.
He is a strong man and a man of courage. I wish that he felt himself
and strong enough to deal with those that are not parasites upon any
but who are poisoning the public life of all parties, who are
in commerce, and who are battening not on a party, but on the
If the Federation could only unmask some of the brethren it would be
purify Australian life. Perhaps, for a small beginning, the Federation
a list of the Freemasons who sit as Federal or State members. The list
great interest for all democratic Australians at election times. For I
have no doubt
that the secret understandings among the Masonic brethren would explain
is done behind the backs and against the will of the people."
is quoted only as a sample of the many utterances of Catholic priests
who certainly cannot know what they are talking about. Certainly no
be placed in this particular utterance when the career of Archbishop
Mannix is considered,
along with his treasonable utterances and his lack of respect for
would "purify" life.
list was compiled by the NEW AGE magazine from information received
from Grand Secretaries
of Grand Lodges, and is approximately correct with the exception of one
or two States
whose Grand Secretaries did not answer letters asking for lists of
Masons in Congress
from their States.
of our readers find any errors or omissions herein we shall be glad to
is published with the permission of Brother John H. Cowles,
the A. & A. S. R., Southern Masonic Jurisdiction.
Senators Oscar W. Underwood and J. Thomas Heflin. Representatives John
Henry B. Stegall, William B. Oliver, Lilius B. Rainey, Edward B. Almon,
Arizona ‒ Senator Ralph H. Cameron. Representative Carl Hayden.
‒ Senators Joseph T. Robinson and Thaddeus H. Caraway. Representatives
John N. Tillman,
Otis Wingo, Hence M. Jacoway, Tilhan B. Parks, Wm. J. Driver.
‒ Senators Hiram W. Johnson and Samuel M. Shortridge. Representatives
John E. Raker,
Charles F. Curry, Julius Kahn, Henry E. Barbour, Arthur M. Free, Walter
Henry Z. Osborne, Phil D. Swing. Colorado ‒ Senator Samuel D.
William N. Vail, Charles B. Timberlake, Edward T. Taylor.
‒ Senator George P. McLean. Representatives E. Hart Fenn, Richard P.
‒ Senator L. Heisler Ball. Representative Caleb R. Layton.
Senator Duncan U. Fletcher. Representatives Herbert J. Drane and
William J. Sears.
Representatives Frank Park, Charles R. Crisp, William C. Wright, James
Gordon Lee, William C. Lankford, William W. Larsen.
Idaho ‒ Senator
Frank Gooding. Representative Burton L. French.
‒ Senators Medill McCormick and William B. McKinley. Representatives
Sproul, Adolph J. Sabath, M. A. Michaelson, Fred A. Britten, Ira C.
E. Fuller, John C. McKenzie, William J. Graham, Edward J. King, Frank
H. Funk, Joseph
G. Cannon, Allen F. Moore, Guy L. Shaw, William A. Rodenberg, Edwin B.
Yates, Clifford Ireland.
Senators James E. Watson and Harry S. New. Representatives Oscar E.
W. Dunbar, John S. Benham, Richard N. Elliott, Fred S. Purnell, William
Milton Kraus, Louis W. Fairfield, Andrew J. Hickey.
Iowa ‒ Senators
Albert B. Cummins and William S. Kenyon. Representatives W. F. Kopp,
Harry E. Hull,
Burton E. Sweet, Gilbert N. Haugen, James W. Good, C. William Ramseyer,
C. Dowell, Horace M. Towner, William R. Green, L. J. Dickinson, William
Senator Arthur Capper. Representatives Edward C. Little, Philip P.
Hoch, J. N. Tincher, Richard E. Bird. Kentucky ‒ Representatives David
Robert Y. Thomas, Jr., Charles F. Ogden, Arthur B. Rouse, James C.
‒ Representatives Whitmell P. Martin, John N. Sandlin, Riley J. Wilson,
Maine ‒ Senator
Bert M. Fernald. Representatives Carroll L. Beedy, Wallace H. White,
Jr., Ira G.
‒ Senator Ovington E. Weller. Representatives Thomas A. Goldsborough,
Blakeney, J. Charles Linthicum, Frederick N. Zihlman.
‒ Representatives Allen T. Treadway, Wilfred W. Lufkin, Frederick W.
Charles L. Underhill, George Holden Tinkham, Robert Luce, Louis A.
William S. Greene.
‒ Senators Charles E. Townsend and Truman H. Newberry. Representatives
Codd, Earl C. Michener, William H. Frankhauser, John C. Ketcham, Carl
Patrick H. Kelley, Louis C. Cramton, James C. McLaughlin, Roy O.
D. Scott, W. Frank James.
‒ Senator Frank B. Kellogg. Representatives Sydney Anderson, Frank
R. Davis, Oscar E. Keller, Walter H. Newton, Harold Knutson, Oscar J.
Steenerson, Thomas D. Schall.
‒ Senators John Sharp Williams and Pat Harrison. Representatives John
B. G. Lowrey, Benjamin G. Humphreys, Thomas U. Sisson, Ross A. Collins,
Johnson, James W. Collier.
‒ Martin E. Rhoades.
Senator Henry L. Myers.
‒ Senator George W. Norris. Representatives C. Frank Reavis, Albert W.
Robert E. Evans, Melvin O. McLaughlin, William E. Andrews, Moses P.
Senators Key Pittman and Tasker L. Oddie. Repesentative Samuel S. Arent.
‒ Senator Henry W. Keyes. Representatives Sherman E. Burroughs, Edwin
‒ Senators Joseph S. Frelinghuysen and Walter E. Edge. Representatives
Patterson, Jr., Isaac Bachrach, T. Frank Appleby, Elijah C. Hutchinson,
Perkins, Amos H. Radcliffe, Herbert W. Taylor, Frederick R. Lehlbach,
‒ Senators Jones and Bursum.
‒ Senator William M. Calder. Representatives Frederick C. Hicks, John
I. Lee, Nathan D. Perlman, lsaac Siegel, Albert B. Rossdale, James W.
Fish, Jr., Charles B. Ward, Peter G. Ten Eyck, James S. Parker, Frank
Bertrand H. Snell, Homer P. Snyder, Walter W. Magee, Norman J. Gould,
Sanders, S. Wallace Dempsey, Clarence MacGregor, Daniel A. Reed.
‒ Senator Frank M. Simmons. Representatives Hallet S. Ward, Claude
M. Brinson, Edward W. Pou, Charles M. Stedman, Homer L. Lyon, William
Robert L. Doughton, Zebulon Weaver.
‒ Senator Porter J. McCumber. Representatives Olga B. Burtness, George
James S. Sinclair.
Ohio ‒ Representatives
A. E. B. Stephens, Roy G. Fitzgerald, John L. Cable, Charles J.
C. Kearns, Simeon D. Fess, William E. Chalmers, Israel M. Foster, John
James T. Begg, Joseph H. Himes, W. M. Morgan, Frank Murphy, Miner G.
C. Gahn, Theodore E. Burton.
‒ Senators Robert L. Owen and J. W. Harreld. Representatives Thomas A.
Charles D. Carter, J. C. Pringer, L. M. Gensman, James V. McClintic.
Senators Charles L. McNary and Robert N. Stansfield. Representatives
Willis C. Hawley,
Clifton N. McArthur.
‒ Senators Boies Penrose and Philander C. Knox. Representatives William
George S. Graham, Harry C. Ransley, George W. Edmonds, George P.
Darrow, Henry W.
Watson, Charles R. Connell, Clarence D. Coughlin, Louis T. McFadden,
Edgar R. Kiess,
I. Clinton Kline, Edward S. Brooks, Evan J. Jones, Adam M. Wyant,
Samuel A. Kendall,
Milton W. Shreve, Nathan L. Strong, Harris J. Bixler, Stephen G.
Porter, Guy E.
Campbell, William J. Burke, Anderson H. Walters.
‒ Representative Clark Burdick.
‒ Senator Nathaniel B. Dial. Representatives W. Turner Logan, James F.
H. Dominick, John J. McSwain, Philip H. Stoll, Hampton P. Fulmer.
‒ Senators Thomas Sterling and Peter Norbeck. Representatives Charles
Royal C. Johnson, William Williamson.
‒ Senator John K. Shields. Representatives B. Carroll Reece, J. Will
L. Davis, Joseph W. Byrns, Lon A. Scott, Finis J. Garrett, Hubert F.
Texas ‒ Senators
Charles A. Culberson and Morris Sheppard. Representatives Eugene Black,
Box, Morgan G. Sanders, Joseph J. Mansfield, James P. Buchanan, Tom
G. Lanham, Lucian W. Parrish, Thomas L. Blanton, Marvin Jones.
Utah ‒ Representative
E. O. Leatherwood.
Senator Carroll S. Page. Representative Frank L. Greene.
‒ Senators Claude A. Swanson and Carter Glass. Representatives J. T.
J. Montague, Rorer A. James, R. Walton Moore, Henry D. Flood, James P.
‒ Senator Miles Poindexter. Representatives John F. Miller, Lindley H.
W. Summers, J. Stanley Webster.
‒ Senator Howard Sutherland. Representatives George M. Bowers, Stuart
F. Reed, Wells
Goodykoontz, Leonard S. Echols.
‒ Senators Robert M. La Follette and Irvine L. Lenroot. Representatives
Lampert, Edward E. Browne, David G. Classon, James A. Frear, Adolphus
Senators Francis E. Warren and John B. Kendrick. Representative Frank
A New International
international, a new and comprehensive institution in Masonry, was
created by a
special committee of the Sioux City High Twelve club, the only
organization of its
kind in the United States, at a meeting at the Chamber of Commerce.
became a Masonic institution about a year ago in Sioux City, Iowa,
through the efforts
of E. C. Wolcott, general secretary of the Y.M.C.A. The purpose of the
club is to
give the same opportunity to the younger Masons afforded by similar
of the city. Aims of business organizations were combined with the
ideals of Masonry
when High Twelve was created, according to William M. Morheiser,
secretary of the
Sioux City club.
elected Mr. Wolcott, who is a member of the Sioux City High Twelve
of the international organization. Mr. Morheiser was selected as
office of treasurer in the international was given to A. E. Rugg. Vice
elected by the committee include Carl T. Prime, president of the local
S. Earl Gilliland, C. T. McClintock, Edwin Fitzpatrick, Ray Larson,
Fred R. Struble
and Rex Hatfield.
Twelve clubs, by virtue of the inception of the international today,
will be organized
immediately in cities throughout the country having a population of
25,000 or more.
It is likely the clubs will be started on a small scale and developed
with the aid
of the Masonic influence, according to Mr. Morheiser. The local club
by twenty-four enthusiasts, growing within the year to a membership of
creation of the international organization here will be a great
Sioux City, as High Twelve will bring to the attention of Masons
country the birthplace of the organization," Mr. Morheiser declared.
of the international will be maintained here and all officers of the
club for this
year will be Sioux City men. The step taken today is an indication that
is rapidly assuming the same position as Rotary and Kiwanis, both of
influential international organizations.
Twelve has only begun its activities in a large way, making remarkable
since its organization a year ago. It will be only a question of time
when it will
become one of the most potent influences in Masonry. With this end in
effort will be made to make the club a success."
outlined the ideals and requisitions of the new organization at the
purpose of the international shall be to unite all members of Masonry
in the happy
bonds of a social hour and program," he said, "that thereby they may
themselves in the truths of Masonry, to inspire, encourage and expand
which will aid in the upholding of the principles of good government,
in the advancement
of education and in the upbuilding of its members in honorable and
membership of the international shall be limited to cities of 25,000
population and shall be for those groups of business, professional and
men organized in local High Twelve clubs.
number of charter members required for the organization of the local
clubs shall be determined by the international and shall be based on
of the particular city where the club is to be organized.
in the locals shall consist only of those men who have had three or
of Masonry and are in good standing at the time application is made.
While the club
is not a Masonic club inherently, yet it is composed of men who are
by the ties of Masonry.
of the international shall be a president, five vice presidents,
and five trustees, and, as the organization develops, the appointment
governors over certain areas of the country will be made. These
officers shall constitute
the governing board of the organization.
first annual meeting of the international shall be held on the second
in July, 1922, at a place designated by the governing board, and all
meetings shall be determined by a majority action of the convention
the annual meeting. The Headquarters of the club shall be in Sioux City
time as the governing board shall decree otherwise."
Hats Off! -- [A Poem]
Henry Holcomb Bennett
the street there comes
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums,
A flash of color beneath the sky;
The flag is passing by!
Blue and crimson and white it shines
Over the steel-tipped, ordered lines.
The colors before us fly;
But more than the flag is passing by.
Sea-fights and land-fights, grim and great,
Fought to make and to save the State;
Weary marches and sinking ships;
Cheers of victory on dying lips;
Days of plenty and years of peace;
March of a strong land's swift increase,
Equal justice, right and law,
Stately honor and reverend awe,
Sign of a nation great and strong
To ward her people from foreign wrong:
Pride and glory and honor ‒ all
Live in the colors to stand or fall.
Along the street there comes
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums;
And loyal hearts are beating high;
The flag is passing by!
hold it as a changeless law,
From which no soul can sway or swerve,
We have that in us which will draw,
Whate'er we need or most deserve."
Ella Wheeler Wilcox.
Symbolism of the Third Degree and its Application to Every Day Life
By Bro. George Dern, P.G.M.
Henry Dern was born in Dodge County, Nebraska, September 8th, 1872,
being the second
child of John and Elizabeth Dern, pioneer settlers of Nebraska, and
prominent citizens of Utah.
his education in the Hooper public schools, the Fremont Normal College
and the University
of Nebraska. At various intervals during his school life he had
experience in the
grain and lumber business, banking, and in the County Treasurer's
University he ranked high as a student and was prominent in athletics,
of the football team in 1894. In December of that year, however, he
to go to Utah and engage in business. Arriving in Salt Lake City he
employ of the Mercur Gold Mining and Milling Company as bookkeeper, and
became the treasurer of the concern. He became General Manager of the
Mercur Gold Mines Company in 1902 until these mines were worked out, in
which time he has been engaged in other metal mining enterprises.
Dern has been active in literary and public affairs. He served the town
as a member of its school board; and until several years ago was a
member of the
Board of Governors of the Commercial Club of Salt Lake City. He has
been a member
of the Utah State Senate for the past seven years, and is also one of
of the Holt-Dern ore roasting furnaces. He holds membership in the
of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers.
7th, 1899, Brother Dern was married to Miss Lotta Brown of Fremont,
have five children: Mary Joanna, aged 20, a senior at Vassar College;
18, a sophomore at the University of Pennsylvania; William Brown, aged
Ida aged 7 and James George, aged 5.
initiated in Wasatch Lodge No. 1, Salt Lake City, Utah, April 16th,
April 23rd, 1897, and raised May 7th, 1897. He served as Master of his
1902. While at Mercur, although retaining his membership in his mother
was the main cause of Rocky Mountain Lodge No. 11 becoming one of the
best in the
jurisdiction, and in recognition of his services, was made an honourary
a distinction very seldom conferred in Utah.
Dern has been Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Texas near the
of Utah since December 23rd, 1904. He received the Capitular degrees in
No. 1, February 2nd, 1898; was created a Knight Templar in Utah
Commandery No. 1,
March 22nd, 1898, and received the 32nd degree of the Scottish Rite in
No. 1, November 17th, 1904. In the Grand Lodge of Utah he was Grand
1910, and during the year 1911, while Senior Grand Warden, he also
duties of Grand Lecturer. In a jurisdiction where any kind of ritual is
his proficiency, his attention to details, his accurate memory and a
of instruction were great factors in raising the esoteric work to its
elected Senior Grand Warden, January 18th, 1911; Deputy Grand Master,
1912, and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Utah January 22nd, 1913.
* * *
IN OUR PROGRESS
through the three degrees we have all been told that Masonry is "a
progressive science." However accurate this statement may be, it is
a satisfying, practical definition, such as is called for by the
of the assigned subject of this paper. Masonry may be considered in two
first, in the light of its principles; and second, in the light of its
In the one aspect it is a great system of morals ‒ a series of
on right living. In the other aspect it is an association of men ‒ a
friends and brothers ‒ who receive these teachings, adopt them as their
rules of conduct, and thereby not only enhance their own mental, moral,
well-being, but also exert a salutary influence upon the world at large.
is Masonry a moral and progressive science, it is taught by degrees
only. The acquirement
of knowledge is always gradual and cumulative. One thing must be
another can be undertaken. We creep before we walk, and we walk before
we run. The
seeker after light passes through three stages, the beginner, the
workman, and the
master. A knowledge of the mysteries of Masonry comes to him step by
step, and is
acquired only through his own labor and study. The third degree
symbolizes his attainment
of such wisdom and experience as were the original object of his quest.
of Masonry are conveyed by means rituals, lectures and printed monitors
In each of the degrees symbols are freely used. Indeed, the entire
language of Masonry
is symbolical. It says one thing and means something else. A symbol is
that suggests an idea, whether it be a picture, image, a letter, a word
or a character.
Thus the olive branch suggests peace, the lily purity, the owl wisdom
the lion courage.
But a symbol often conveys different thoughts to different persons. The
of a clenched fist signifies force, and arouses a train of thought on
To one mind it may suggest war, to another the power of steam, to still
the energy of the human will, and so on through any number of
symbols very often have a hidden or covered meaning. The ignorant will
them into terms of trivial and ordinary things, whilst to the student
they bring sublime and profound thoughts.
of this paper covers a large number of symbols, and is therefore so
broad in its
scope and so fertile in its suggestions that it is difficult to confine
within reasonable bounds, and yet mention all of the symbols. Any one
of them is
capable of exciting ideas worthy of not one but several dissertations.
since the subject is entitled "Monitorial Symbolism of the Third Degree
its Application to Every Day Life," the discussion is definitely
extremely practical applications, and the temptation to roam far into
of speculation is inhibited at the outset.
symbols of the Third Degree are the Three Steps, the Pot of Incense,
the Book of Constitutions Guarded by the Tyler's Sword, the Sword
Pointing to the
Naked Heart, the All-Seeing Eye, the Anchor and Ark, the Forty-seventh
Euclid, the Hour Glass and the Scythe, We are informed that the
explanation of these
symbols may be found in any of the monitors that have been adopted by
as text books. We are then told that their symbolic teachings are
and are admonished to make ourselves familiar with the golden lessons
they contain. Perhaps it is time we were paying some heed to this
it has not been receiving the attention it deserves. How many times
have we heard
the Worshipful Master say, "Search diligently, my brother, and you will
their symbolic teachings almost infinite"? How many of us have sought
Nay, how many of us have ever once read the monitorial dissertations on
Furthermore, how often are these symbols so much as mentioned whether
in lodge meetings
or at our banquets where Masonic subjects are discussed?
study of the symbols has fallen into comparative disuse because their
to some extent incidentally taught to us in the lectures and rituals,
and we are
so busy with the required subjects that we have no time left for
yet, a re-reading of the monitor more than ever impresses one with the
deep significance of the things there printed. The reading of the
monitor may be
recommended to every Mason not as a duty but as a pleasure, for it
provides a mental
treat that cannot be found elsewhere. And if one can get "far from the
crowd's ignoble strife" long enough to reflect and ponder upon them, so
to draw out their deeper meanings, he will become fascinated by their
of another world of thought. But here we collide with the limitation
"The madding crowd's ignoble strife." That means our everyday life,
it not? And the present task is to discuss the symbolism of the Third
its application to everyday life.
life is, after all, simply life. What other life do we have? Our
with our fellow men in the rush and strain of business, our social
our family relations, our work, our play, our pleasures, our sorrows,
and our disappointments, ‒ that is life, and it is everyday life.
there is truth in the intimation that in order to study out the
application of our
symbols to that everyday life we must get away from it, and go into
may sound paradoxical, but most of the great things of the world are
out in the heat of conflict, but in the quiet of one's chamber or out
And so let
us not find fault with the solemn majesty of the truths expressed in
They are the beacon lights that guide us on our stormy voyage across an
sea, which many have sailed before us, but which we cannot really know
have explored it for ourselves. All hail to the mariners who have
preceded us, and
who have set up these beacon lights! But to translate them into terms
practical, everyday life, is a different task, although possibly no
The Three Steps
Steps are explained in three different ways in our lectures. Their more
and fundamental significance is that they symbolize human progress from
to a higher state.
now have very generally agreed that acquired characteristics cannot be
or in other words, that a parent cannot transmit to his child the
mental or moral
development which he may have achieved through earnest effort. The
child does not
begin where the father left off; he begins where the father began. It
scientifically correct to say that human nature does not change. So far
intellect and strength of character are concerned, the child today
comes into the
world with no more powers than the child at the time of King Solomon.
All men are
created equally ignorant but with unequal intellectual powers. The
heights to which
one will rise, and the range of his moral and intellectual development,
first upon his native traits, and then upon his environment and his
to profit by the accumulated wisdom and experience of the centuries.
The Greek philosophers,
when we take into consideration their limited knowledge of the natural
exhibited a power of reasoning that is the wonder and admiration of
The only difference is that in our age ‒ the age of books ‒ we have
to the store of human knowledge that has been piled up since the days
and Plato. With our capacity to learn we quickly assimilate this
are then equipped to go on still further into the unknown. What a
is ours to live in so wonderful an age! And this privilege imposes upon
a heavy responsibility, that of using his talents wisely so that they
instead of keeping them hidden and idle. The man who does not make the
use of the powers God has given him, and develop them to their fullest
false to his trust, and is wasting his life.
And so the
great lesson of the Three Steps is that they lead us ever upward to the
the light. Bacon says, "But no pleasure is comparable to the standing
the vantage-ground of truth." As Masons, let the Steps lead us up to
for the truth shall make us free.
application of this beautiful symbolism to everyday life is obvious.
When we see
the Three Steps there should come into our minds the thought that it is
to progress. That means education, mental and moral development, and
is a great fundamental requirement of human life. To stand still is to
we would live a healthy, helpful life, we must unceasingly strive to
in body, mind and spirit. If we want the community in which we live to
we must be interested in everything that pertains to the community
schools, higher standards of education, public morals, justice for the
and unfortunate, equality of opportunity, freedom of thought and
all of these things we should have a zealous interest. Every community
a collection of individuals. If each one does his part, collectively
they will accomplish
great things. But if they all depend upon someone else to do it,
nothing will get
done, and the community will draw shame upon its head.
The Pot of Incense
Pot of Incense is an emblems of a pure heart, which is always an
to Deity; and as this glows with fervent heat, so should our hearts
glow with gratitude to the great and beneficent Author of our existence
manifold blessings and comforts we enjoy." So says the monitor. A
so lofty is not easily applied to the practical, prosaic events of a
busy day. To
have a pure heart is to be true to yourself, true to your best ideals,
with your thoughts. "To thine own self be true; . . . Thou canst not
false to any man." Living a life of deceit and double-dealing never
one happy. Riches or pleasures acquired in that way bring only remorse,
the soul cries out in anguish for that peace of mind which is man's
possession, and which is the companion of a pure heart.
heart means conscientiousness, and that means sincerity. Without
can be no real character. But sincerity alone is not enough. There must
it a proper degree of intelligence and love of one's fellows. For
example, a man
may believe that the emotion of pity and the desire to relieve the
others is intrinsically noble and elevating, and he indulges in
without realizing the evil consequences, in the way of fraud, laziness,
and habitual dependence that his ill-considered acts produce upon those
intends to benefit. Again, a man may be perfectly sincere in talking
about the shortcomings
of another, and he may justify himself by saying he is telling nothing
but the truth.
But merely because they are true is no reason why unpleasant and
should be told. To destroy a reputation is no way to aid a brother who
Better far to overlook his mistakes, and extend him a helping hand.
examples, let it be understood that the truly conscientious man must
be sincere, but he must have high ideals and standards, and moreover he
be satisfied with those standards. Rather he must revise them from time
and that means self-examination, to see if he possesses the love and
must go with sincerity in order to make progress in building character.
For in this
direction again there must be constant progress. To be content with
what we have
accomplished is fatal. As James A. Garfield once said, "I must do
to keep my thoughts fresh and growing. I dread nothing so much as
falling into a
rut and feeling myself becoming a fossil."
is known to all of us, whether we be Masons or not, as an emblem of
no less than the bee, is a working animal. The obligation to work is
laid upon all
men, and upon none more strictly than upon Masons. Self-preservation is
first law, and that means work, for without work we cannot have the
and shelter necessary to preserve our lives. But work should not end
there. To improve
our opportunities, to achieve that mental and moral advancement which
is not only
the capacity but the duty of every man, means constant striving,
It has been
said that Masonry laid down the first eight-hour law, for as E.A.'s we
to divide the twenty-four hours of the day into three equal parts
whereby are found
eight hours for the service of God and a distressed worthy brother,
eight for our
usual vocations, and eight for refreshment and sleep. But this is not
day; it is a sixteen-hour day, for in addition to putting in an
on our regular jobs, we are commanded to devote another eight hours to
of God and our fellow-men. The chief reason for a short work day, such
as is prescribed
by our eight-hour laws, is that it gives the individual time to improve
in physique, intelligence and morals, the neglect of any of which is
bad for himself
and for the State of which he is a citizen. The man who uses the
him by a short work day to no better purpose than to sit around in
his time and gossiping about his neighbors is worse than a fool, and
would be better
off if he had to work twelve hours.
is the means of salvation and idleness is the sure road to damnation,
devil still some mischief finds for idle hands to do." The wise man is
keeps busy, but this does not necessarily mean that he should force
himself to do
drudgery. No man is happy unless he finds pleasure in his work, and an
task takes the joy out of life. But let a man become, interested in his
he will love it. An old banker was asked why he did not retire. He
should I retire? I do not know of anything else out of which I could
get half as
much fun as staying right here and running my bank." If you are so
(or unfortunate!) as to own an automobile, have, you never become so
doing a good job of washing the car that you had to be called half a
for dinner? I know a chemist who recently decided to forego a fine
because he became so interested in a line of experimentation that he
stay at home and work day and night in his laboratory.
not all men find their employment so interesting and fascinating, and
not the power to choose a different occupation. A very useful sort of
work for some
of these is play. The man who is engaged in a sedentary occupation can
better than to employ his spare time in some form of physical exercise,
benefit of his health, whether he does it by playing golf, or tennis,
or fishing, or by mowing the lawn and cleaning up his premises. There
quite so important to any man, rich or poor, as good health, and if he
has to play
to keep healthy it is his duty to play. He who sneers at you for
wasting your time
in play is not necessarily a good counsellor. A sound mind in a sound
body is the
old axiom. Inversely, a sickly body usually means a morbid, melancholy,
mind. Keep yourself healthy.
The man who
does manual labor all day, on the other hand, will be wise to employ
his spare time
in intellectual study, or stimulating social intercourse, such for
example as he
can obtain by attending his Masonic lodge regularly. A good plan for
any man is
to have a hobby, provided he keeps it within bounds, and does not let
with his business. If more of us made a hobby of politics to the extent
informed and doing our share as useful citizens, we should probably
have less occasion
to find fault with the way things are done. Among the fundamental
precepts of Masonry
is good citizenship. The Mason, above all others, should be alive to
the fact that
in a democracy the citizen has duties, as well as privileges. He who
liberty must help preserve it. The man who complacently pursues his
ease, or his busy chase of the dollar, and eschews or disdains public
be branded as a slacker. It is the solemn duty of the citizen to answer
and even at a sacrifice to himself, to do his part in conducting the
of his school district, city, county, state and nation. He who fails in
is no true American and does not measure up to the standard that
Masonry sets for
question, as it is termed has many angles, but Masons, who meet upon
the level regardless
of rank or station, will surely agree that every man is entitled to
as a human being. He is entitled to an opportunity to earn a living,
and hence unemployment
is a public sin, which all of us should seek to eradicate. He is
entitled to fair
wages, so that he and his family may be able to live decently, and
hence a living
wage is a matter of justice, not of charity or benevolence. He is
entitled to reasonable
hours of work and proper working conditions, for it is neither right
to require him to ruin his health while he is earning his living. He is
to a decent home, for the home is the foundation of our civilization,
and how can
we expect to produce good citizens unless the home is reasonably
attractive? And he is entitled to the opportunity to play, to learn, to
and to live. These things should not be the privileges of the rich, ‒
be the rights of every man without question. And when they are fully
to the workingman there will be less strife between labor and capital,
division of the people into classes.
The Book of Constitutions
Guarded By the Tyler's Sword
of Constitutions Guarded by the Tyler's Sword symbolizes silence and
Masonically it refers to keeping inviolate our secrets, but in a
general way silence
is a virtue to be cultivated. Talk less and think more is often good
Maeterlinck and others have written inspiringly of silence and the
men, and from childhood we have been told that "still, waters run
Like many other things, however, silence can be overdone, and it is
to be a cloak for ignorance and stupidity than a sign of deep thinking.
has a reputation for wisdom that is wholly undeserved. We learn by
talking no less
than by listening. One of America's greatest educators once said, "Tell
how to do a thing, and he will not know how to do it; show him how by
doing it before
his eyes, and he still will not know how to do it. The only way for him
learn is by doing it himself." Scientific educators have similarly
that although a man may have thought out a proposition by pondering
over it long
and deeply, he never really knows it thoroughly until he has expressed
verbally or in writing. The desire to express our ideas is a natural
one, and it
should be fostered and encouraged. To be sure, we should all do well to
that our ideas are sound and well matured before we utter them. The
indulges in incessant chatter without telling me anything new or
only wastes his own time but mine also, and he has neither reputation
I soon get his measure, and am apt to jump at the unfair conclusion
that he who
talks most has least to say. But this does not change the general truth
is not only one of man's innate desires but it has a great educative
The Sword Pointing To the
Pointing to the Naked Heart is calculated to remind us that no matter
what we do,
justice will sooner or later overtake us. Many people seem to think of
the law of
compensation is a pretty fancy evolved by Ralph Waldo Emerson, but in
time they will learn that this is one of His inexorable laws. It never
operate, and a day of reckoning is sure to come to the man who does not
act on the
square. To undertake to evade the law of compensation is to try to
cheat the Almighty,
and the man who has no better sense than that is hopeless.
of justice carries with it the thought of punishment for wrong-doing,
which is one
of the unsolved problems of the race. The old theory was to make the
fit the crime, and most people still instinctively put punishment on a
rather than on a corrective basis, and also subscribe to Montaigne's
"we do not correct the man we hang; we correct others by him." These
the orthodox beliefs, but their validity has begun to be challenged.
There are those
who insist that it is unjust to treat A with undue harshness in order
to deter B
from committing a crime, but that each should be answerable only for
his own acts.
there has been gradual improvement in the matter of punishment, on the
it is better to reform an offender than through excessive severity to
make him a
confirmed, vicious evil doer. Juvenile delinquents in particular are
in a more enlightened manner. Training and opportunity are taken into
in determining their guilt. Also, it is now deemed proper to pass upon
of the law-breaker, youthful or adult, as well as upon his act.
and punishing older criminals progress is being made in several
the old system every prison might as well have had inscribed over its
hope, all ye who enter here." Indeterminate sentences and paroles have
that barbarous motto. Dividing offenders into classes according to the
of their transgressions and separation of those who are guilty of a
first or a more
or less accidental offense from the old and hardened criminal, are also
some of the evils of the old-fashioned jail and penitentiary. Further,
of education, industrial training and recreation into prisons, and
for the released, are features of the new reformative spirit.
very few so-called criminals who are wholly bad. This fact is being
and the tendency is not to embitter and harden the offender by the
is meted out to him, but through intelligent, humane and sympathetic
regain the more deserving ones to useful citizenship.
The All-Seeing Eye
Eye is a symbol of an omniscient and omnipresent Deity. There are many
conceptions of what God is. To the mind of one person He may be a
reigning as a king from throne in Heaven, from whom we may seek special
to the wishes or whims of our feeble human judgments. To another person
He is an
infinite spirit of truth and justice, ruling through fixed laws, and
the way to
serve Him is learn and obey those laws. Any sort of a theological
be highly improper in a Masonic discourse, still the All-Seeing Eye is
a very practical
emblem. If it teaches us to live in the consciousness that our every
act, our most
secret thought, is beheld by that All Seeing Eye whose favor we crave,
call it God or conscience, then alone can we have that purity of heart
are presumed to possess.
The Anchor and Ark
explains that "the Anchor and Ark are emblems of a well-grounded hope
well-spent life. They are emblematical of that Divine Ark which safely
over this tempestuous sea of troubles, and that Anchor which shall
safely moor us
in a peaceful harbor, where the wicked cease from troubling the weary
are at rest."
life would not be worth living. We all perform tasks in the hope that
holds good things in store for us. When we are beset with troubles and
still have to some extent the attitude of that ancient philosopher
whose motto was,
"This too will pass away." But the man who simply lives in hopes
putting forth the necessary effort to make his hopes come true is a
"God helps those who help themselves," is an old adage that is apropos
in this connection. Or, as Haliburton puts it, "Hope is a pleasant
but an unsafe friend. Hope is not the man for your banker, although he
may do for
a travelling companion." There is a world of practical wisdom in that
quotation. Depend less on hope or luck and more on your own efforts,
and you will
The Forty-Seventh Problem
Forty-Seventh Problem of Euclid teaches Masons to be general lovers of
and sciences." Herbert Spencer once asked the question, "What knowledge
is of the most worth?" and then he proceeded to answer it proving that
every standpoint science is the most valuable knowledge.
days are over, but our whole life is a school. We are learning every
day, and our
education is never complete. Many of us have no teacher but experience,
all teachers, if not the only teacher. The miner who does not somehow
with the fundamentals of geology and the theory of ore deposits will
not make much
of a success in seeking out the treasures of the earth. The boilermaker
not study expansion and contraction, and stresses and strains, will not
safe boiler. The painter who does not make a study of the chemical
his pigments and their effect upon the substance he is supposed to
never be more than a smearer, who will have a poor chance of satisfying
The bookkeeper who does not understand the science of accounting is of
to his employer. The farmer who does not recognize that agriculture is
scientific and technical pursuit is rapidly becoming a back number.
When a man has
acquired a scientific knowledge of his work it becomes interesting to
him and he
loves it; and when a man loves his work he will succeed in it.
The Hour Glass
Glass is an emblem of the flight of time and the wasting away of our
lives. At first
the grains of sand are all in the upper compartment, and they seem to
run very slowly.
Gradually it dawns upon us that they are running faster and faster
until we can
imagine with a sort of terror that they are going with a rush and a
roar to the
end. Oh, those priceless hours! How we cherish them then!
Of all our
symbols there is none more practical than the Hour Glass, and none
which bears so
directly upon our everyday life. Every one of us has twenty-four hours
of time each
day, no one has more, no-one has less. It is the most precious of all
for out of it, as Arnold Bennett says, man must get health, pleasure,
respect and the evolution of his immortal soul. "Its right use, its
use, is a matter of the highest urgency and of the most thrilling
happiness ‒ the elusive prize that you are all clutching for, my
friend! ‒ depends
on that." Wasting time is a greater folly than wasting money, for
may be regained, but an hour waged is lost forever. Then how important
it is so
to regulate our lives that every hour will count. There is nothing so
as to be constantly haunted by the sense of wanting to do something and
it done. It shows that one's time is not being properly economized,
one's life is
not correctly adjusted. It is futile to say that we will do this or
that when we
have a little more time, because we have all the time there is right
now, and we
shall never have any more.
of us think of the hours we spend in the office or shop as the day.
hours, plus the eight we spend in sleep, make only sixteen hours, hence
have another eight hours which are just as much a part of the day, and
just as much
a part of our lives as the shift we put in on our jobs. These precious
we are largely free to devote to the cultivation of our minds, souls,
fellow men. And so the Hour Glass not only teaches us to be efficient
in the tasks
out of which we make our living, but it also teaches us wisely to
employ those other
hours in which we do a large part of our living.
reminds us that the Grim Reaper is steadily drawing nearer, and that
sooner or later
we must fall before his strokes. Death always has a sort of morbid
humankind, and even our Masonic ceremonies frequently and eloquently
refer to this
and obeying the laws of health and deducing rules for the prolongation
life, we may ward off the fatal day for a little while, and possibly
terrors which death has for every normal person. And this is a duty to
of which we all should devote our energies. The average man owes it to
at least, to give it his support and counsel as long as he possibly
can. The fatalist,
who says the hour of every man's death is predetermined is a lazy,
who refuses to put forth the necessary effort for his own
when his family is needlessly robbed of the subsistence which it is his
provide, he has the audacity to shift the responsibility to the
Almighty. To neglect
or wilfully disobey the rules of health is therefore nothing short of a
no good man will commit.
But the end
must come to all:
a few days, and thee
The all-beholding sun shall see no more
In all his course."
And how are
we using the few days that are given us and that are so soon to pass
"We live in deeds, not years;
In feelings, not in figures on a dial.
We should count time by heart-throbs. He most lives
Who thinks most, feels the noblest, acts the best."
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs ‒ From the questions following each section
of the paper
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the tenet of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
* * *
‒ Initiation and Secrecy
MANY a man
has left the Masonic lodge room after the last night of his initiation
feeling that what he has seen and heard has all been very interesting
but also very queer: it has been so entirely different from the other
of his life that it all seems unreal, a strange piece of formality, as
had devised it as an ornate but formal way of getting a man inducted
It is no wonder that many who go away with such impressions never again
interest in the ceremonies of initiation. What such a man needs is to
home to him that which is the main contention of this present series of
namely, that initiation, along with all the more important features of
is not a strange thing arbitrarily devised by somebody for ornamental
purposes, but normal, and natural, and inevitable, just as natural as
wind or the falling snow. Initiation is something that has been in
from the beginning of the world and it is therefore as human a piece of
as anything that we do, albeit not so common perhaps.
approaching the matter in the abstract it is well to begin by observing
happens to a candidate during the process of his initiation into
of all, he signs a paper setting for certain important facts about
he participates in the "work" for three nights: he binds him by a
obligation to do certain things and not do certain other things: he
takes the oath
of secrecy which covers the ceremonies and also what may be said or
done in lodge
at any time: he contracts to give financial support to the Craft
according to its
laws thereon: he enters into a new relation with a large group of men
who have been
similarly initiated and sworn; and he places himself for life under a
set of very
definite and very noble influences. One could add to this list but as
it is it is
sufficient to recall to our minds just what is actually done through
of initiation; and it is perfectly plain that, except for some words
in the ceremonies, there is nothing in all this to give anybody the
that it is strange or formal: it is all as real and as natural as
conducting a day's
business. This is something worth remembering because many who have
subject of initiation from a merely abstract and theoretical position
are very apt
to give us impossible theories of the matter, land us in difficulties,
us believe that Masonic initiation is something very esoteric or
occult: as a matter
of actual fact it is nothing of the kind.
I have said
that during the ceremonies incidental to initiation some things are
done and said
that do see queer to any man when first he encounters them. But even
in our "mysteries" are not there for any fantastic or unreal purpose:
they are there because we have inherited them from the past, and
because they still
have for us such valuable meanings that we continue to hold to them. If
anything in the ritual that seems fantastic to a man he needs only to
history of the same to have such an impression obliterated.
thing is that many candidates pass through the entire process of
being affected to any depth at all. Why is this? Very often it is the
own fault. Before entering, or even seeking to enter, such an
institution as Freemasonry
he should learn something about it; at least a little of its history,
and as much
as possible about its present activities. And then, after he has passed
the initiation ceremonies, he should stop long enough to find out what
it all means.
A man to be impressed by anything must do his own part: nothing can act
as a substitute
for his own brains, feelings, and actions. Moreover, Masonic initiation
is a blessing,
carrying with it many precious privileges, and it is therefore worth
an effort on the part of a man who seeks it.
In all other
cases the poor effect of initiation is due to the carelessness of the
lodge. A ritual
cannot be satisfactorily administered in a mechanical way, as if all
one hid to
do was to turn the crank of a mill. Nor can it ever be a cut-and-dried
needs no thought and initiative behind it. No lodge has a right to
shove a man through
three degrees and then turn him loose without first endeavoring to
in the meaning of it all, without trying to bring home to him what it
to do. The whole process should be made one of the most crucial
experiences of the
candidate's life, one that he can never forget, one that will change
him to the
center of his being, else it is not a real initiation at all, but an
what takes place inside a man when initiation has been a success. The
suggests a "new birth." The experience, whenever it actually occurs, is
a profound one. It is like the crisis of adolescence when a boy finds
through a mysterious change that throws his whole being into turmoil;
he grows moody;
his beard makes its appearance; his voice changes; he gets a new
expression in his
face; his muscles develop; his interests change; he begins to take more
in the opposite sex; he is no longer a boy but a young man. Or it is
like the moral
and spiritual change which comes over a man who passes through the
known as "conversion" or "regeneration"; he finds himself with
a new set of interests; he behaves differently to his family and his
forms new habits, such as prayer and church attendance; he has a new
God; new beliefs about the great questions that concern man; he calls
"new" man. He has been initiated into the religious life, which is to
him a new world of experience, and he can never again become what he
was, even though
all these new interests fade away.
is intended to be quite as profound and as revolutionizing an
experience. As a result
of it the candidate should become a new man: he should have a new range
a new feeling about mankind; a new idea about God; a new confidence in
a new passion for brotherhood, a new generosity and charity. The whole
the ritual, of the symbols, of all that is done and said, is solemnly
to bring about
such a transformation in the man. If initiation does not accomplish
this it is a failure; if it does accomplish it, that fact should
those who have looked upon it as an elaborate and expensive piece of
so prominent a characteristic of Freemasonry that often in literature
we find the
latter word used as a synonym of the former, as when we read how a
circle of friends
were so intimate that there was a "kind of freemasonry" among them. To
some this is most objectionable because they deem it beneath the
dignity of a great
Order to conceal its functionings behind so opaque a veil: or they
think that what
must be so effectually hidden must contain some taint, or have
"If it is good and noble," so they say, "why hide your light under
a bushel? If your hidden actions are reprehensible then is all your
secrecy an elaborate
hypocrisy! or it may be that all your secrecy is merely an elaborate
bit of child's
play designed to appeal to curiosity mangers. In any event our best
the church, school, public hospitals, libraries, and even our political
have no need of such a veil." The fallacy underlying these objections
the objectors do not know that Masonic secrecy is a peculiar kind of
and preserved expressly for the needs of such an institution.
is nothing objectionable or unfamiliar about secrecy; it is a human
everywhere, and often where it is not apparently in evidence it will be
examination to equal or even exceed that which lies about the gateways
of our Fraternity.
Nothing is more zealously guarded than the home. The directors of a
keep their deliberations to themselves. Friendship is based on mutual
and that means much secrecy. Governments are very public in function
but they are
still obliged to carry on many of their activities behind the scenes.
would life be without this honorable kind of concealment! How would any
to go about in the world with all his inner life exposed to view like
in a show window!
partakes of the nature of this more common kind of secrecy, but there
and secrecy, and one variety of it is one about which we do not often
think: I refer
to that which is as yet unknown to us, not because we are shut out from
because we are not yet prepared or equipped to learn it. Music is a
to one who knows not one note from another, and cannot recognize a
is a vast unknown to the illiterate. Chemistry, physics, geology,
any of the sciences, what a "freemasonry" is it in which they exist!
they are revealed only to the initiated. They are not hidden from us by
authority: they are hidden because we wear the hoodwink of ignorance.
Much of our
Masonic secrecy is of this character. As a matter of fact it is
surprising how little
of it there is that cannot be published to outsiders: the contents of
from month to month bear witness to that! but there is a vast deal of
it that remains
unknown even to its own initiates because they have as yet made no
effort to learn
secrecy exists for certain definite purposes. The Fraternity itself
exists in order
to keep fixed on a man a certain set of influences, and in order to
certain changes in the world, etc.: its secrecy is a means to that end,
to make such a purpose possible. If a lodge room were as open to the
as a street corner all that goes specifically by the name of Masonry
vanish and the very purpose for which the Order exists would be
teaches this fact as well as reflection. The Order has existed in one
form or another
for we know not how many centuries, and it has always been a secret
modern fraternities have found secrecy equally necessary. So also with
in earlier times. The Mysteries hedged themselves about in the most
The Collegia held their meetings behind tyled doors. The Christian
church, in at
least one period of its history, did the same; and so did the
of Medieval Europe.
a psychology of secrecy, the discussion of which is recommended to
to study club though little space is available for it here. What we
value we instinctively
guard. Curtains are drawn before the more intimate things of life. Even
to a majority of individuals, is a thing for the closet rather than for
stage, and many a man would rather be thought an infidel than be caught
In all these, and in scores of cases like them, secrecy is used as a
to protect sensitive feelings. In many other equally familiar cases
to awaken the desire to explore, the curiosity to know; it stimulates a
man to make
search for that which is presented to him as a mystery. One may see
affecting the minds of brethren in the lodge room in both these ways:
some are happy
to be there because they can give expression to thoughts, to ideals,
and to aspirations,
often religious, among trusted brethren: and some are there because the
about our mysteries has enticed them to try to lift it.
To my own
mind the noblest effect of Masonic secrecy is found in the atmosphere
which it throws about all the operations of brotherly aid and charity.
member is often helped almost without himself knowing whence his succor
is no publishing abroad of the affliction; the thing is not bragged
the object of this charity does not even make an application: like the
forth of a gentle hand he feels himself supported in such wise that his
not to sink to the level of his fortunes. If Masonic secrecy did
nothing else it
would be abundantly justified to every delicate and charitable mind.
all this in mind it is also well to remember that, after all, Masons
sometimes do not understand this, the secrecy of the Craft, aside from
matter of its charity, is almost wholly concerned with method rather
than with matter.
If one will carefully consider the oath of secrecy he made while taking
he will find that he is not in anywise to reveal to others aught of the
ceremony, or of what may be said in lodge: but he is not sworn to keep
which Freemasonry really is! Its principles, its history, its spirit,
its purposes and programs, he may publish to the world and the more he
them the better.
- How many reasons can you think
of for the general indifference to the ritual
- Did you accept the ritualistic
part of your initiation as a perfunctory ceremony?
- Does the ritual sound to you
like a manufactured thing?
- Do you believe, as Albert Pike
seemed sometimes to believe, that certain
things in the ritual were devised to conceal Masonic teachings?
- How would you define
- Can you furnish examples of
initiation drawn from general society outside
- What do you consider the most
important features of Masonic initiation?
- Do you consider the obligation
legally binding on a member?
- Did initiation strike you as
being "queer"? If so, what parts of
- Do you accept Brother Haywood's
explanation of the strangeness of some parts
of the ceremony?
- What did you know about
Freemasonry before you sought admission to it?
- Do you recall anything in the
ritual which assumes that you made a study
of Masonry before submitting your application?
- Can you furnish examples of a
"new birth" other than adolescence
and religious "conversion"?
- Do you suppose that some men
went through a genuine "conversion"
during the Great War so far as regards their allegiance to the German
- What brought about such
- Can a genuine change in a man's
life be brought about by a mere ceremony,
a mere formality?
- If many Masons in your lodge
are worthless as Masons how do you explain their
lack of the Masonic life?
- Why did initiation fail in
- Have you ever heard men argue
against the rightness of secrecy in Masonry?
- What arguments have you heard?
How did you answer them?
- What part does secrecy play in
your business? In your home? In your friendships?
- Why did Operative Masons hedge
themselves about with secrecy?
- What is a "trade" secret?
- Did you ever try to remove the
hoodwink of Masonic ignorance from a brother
Mason? How did you go about it?
- Has Freemasonry anything to
conceal from its enemies? What?
- What things in Masonry,
according to your own understanding of it, are necessarily
- Could Masonry continue to exist
without secrecy? Why?
- What are the attractions of
secrecy to the human mind?
- Can you name a great political
party that once existed in the United States
that was organized as a secret society?
- Why was it thus organized?
- Why did it abandon its secrecy?
- Can you name a great political
movement in Italy of the mid-nineteenth century
which was similarly organized?
- Do you think that the example
of Masonry had anything to do with these political
- Would you call the Order of the
Jesuits a secret society?
- Do you believe that in the
Study Club department of THE BUILDER we have discussed
the ritual too openly?
- Just what does the obligation
to secrecy cover?
- Do you know about the
charitable activities of your own lodge?
- Do you believe the charity
should be secret? Why?
- Could public charity be
similarly veiled? How?
- Can you think of a single
teaching or principle of Masonry that has not been
given to the world over and over again?
you explain why the whole Order would pass out of existence if its
were to be destroyed?
* * *
Advancement, p. 31;
Candidate, p. 131;
Darkness, p. 196;
Definition of Freemasonry, p. 202;
Degrees, p. 203; I
nitiation, p. 353;
Labour, p. 419;
Literature of Freemasonry, p. 448;
Secrecy and Silence, p. 675;
Secret Societies, p. 677;
Sign, p. 690;
Symbol, p. 751;
Symbolism, The Science of, p. 754.
* * *
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to
of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three
in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under
the following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge
and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and
"Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st, 1921,
are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919
and the remaining papers of the series may be had in the 1921 bound
will be ready for delivery early in December. Single copies of 1921
are not obtainable, our stock having become exhausted.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Havwood:
A. Reasons for a course explaining what the "teachings
of Masonry" mean.
B. How one can arrive at his own Philosophy of
Conclusion. The Philosophy of Masonry is not
a study of philosophy in general, but a study of Masonry such as a
to any great intellectual problem.
1. ‒ The
Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
2. ‒ The
Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
3. ‒ The
Masonic Conception of Education.
4. ‒ Symbolism.
5. ‒ Secrecy.
6. ‒ Masonic
7. ‒ Democracy.
8. ‒ Equality.
9. ‒ Liberty.
10. ‒ Masonry
11. ‒ The
Brotherhood of Man.
12. ‒ The
Fatherhood of God.
13. ‒ Endless
14. ‒ Brotherly
15. ‒ Schools
of Masonic Philosophy.
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopaedia. [Lib 1914]
* * *
HOW TO ORGANIZE
AND CONDUCT STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
1. Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
2. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
3. Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
4. The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
5. Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
Nature's Best Both then and Now -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
And Moses went out to
meet his father in law and did obedience and kissed him; and they asked
of their welfare; and they came into the tent. ‒ Exodus 18:7.
they asked each other anxiously the old "how
do you do,"
The other's welfare seemed to be the thought that thrilled them through
They seemed to be just common folks before the throng that day,
And greetings over, to the tent they straightway took their way.
And this, so beautiful because so homelike and so sweet
And rare of those who held such trusts upon this precious meet
Stands out as nature's best expressed when it was just the same
As it is with us all today who play its splendid game.
And somehow, too, this greeting brings a message that reveals
The humanness that goes so far, though too oft 'tis concealed
Behind the rush of every day, behind the sordid care
Which, broken through would bring a bit of heart most anywhere.
And really what is there of earth that holds so much of cheer
As what we find in other's lives while "faring on" right here?
Does it not hold the best that is to human nature given
To make of any place a place that's worth the names of heaven?
Peace on Earth
an unspeakable mockery that now after nineteen centuries of
Christianity the world
seems as far as ever from the realization of that old haunting poetry,
on earth, good will to men!" At the moment of writing, all the superior
nations, with the possible exception of our own, are struggling to
strength after the most terrible war in the annals of the race: and
that have never known the cross are also struggling in the maelstrom
the war. And as for the future, it is as dark, and perhaps darker, than
In spite of the bitter lessons of 1914, European statesmen went into
and patched up a so-called peace that is as full of the seeds of strife
as the most
dishonest pact barbaric tribes ever entered into. It is all a huge pity
and a shame
and it is little wonder that at this moment there is more skepticism,
pessimism, and despair in the earth than there has been since Napoleon
a hundred years ago.
why should we despair! Manhood is not exhausted, nor is wisdom less
than in the morning of the world, and God still reigns. The times need
sagacity, and a persistent application of intelligence to the problems
relations. Not by supernatural means, or by good luck, or by the
leadership of any
one individual, will things be righted, but by wisdom and righteousness.
Conference, whatever may be its ultimate outcome, is one ray of wisdom
the darkness, and in its light will Christmas seem a brighter time to
our fellows. There is no need to rehearse the evils of war: it is not a
good to put blood into peoples as the Junkers taught; nor a method
whereby the backward
spaces of the world may be brought under the sway of civilization; nor
is it, as
politicians with such pitiable fatuity seem still to believe, the one
means of settling
differences between nations: it is a criminal and quite useless
to compare for folly with the old practices of witchcraft and burning
of war are felt quite as much in times of so-called peace as during the
actual fighting, albeit in a different form: for it is necessary to
keep on drilling
soldiers, building battleships, and making guns. What is needed is to
thing as a whole out of our civilization and frankly admit to ourselves
that nothing could be more foolish than such a business.
As long as
armies and navies exist diplomats will play a dirtier game than they
because they use their military power as one of their trump cards. The
itself is a demoralizing thing, especially where militarism is made a
as was the case in Germany and is now in Japan. Predacious wealth,
it has an army to back itself withal, is ten times more unscrupulous
than it would
otherwise be. The being prepared for war, like battle itself, is a
not to be computed: the value, created by labor and brains for such
utterly lost, and the world is behind just that much. The life of the
in peace-time barracks is quite as much lost to civilization as if he
in fighting, because he consumes much but produces nothing. Compared
with war and
the keeping ready for war, all other evils are mere peccadillos.
we are all in it, and, like Laocoon [Lib 1887], have its coils tightly about
and much wisdom is needed to escape from the dragon. As things now are
be very ill considered, it would appear, for our own nation to lay down
arms so long as all the other great powers keep theirs. Would not a
land so rich
and so defenseless inflame militaristic people with irrepressible
desires for conquest?
Our helplessness might of itself become a cause for more strife. The
is President Harding's plan: let all the powers agree to disarm
together. If after
such a step as that the lesser nations were to cling to their guns and
can easily be brought into line by economic means, which are quite as
in their way as blowing up cities with dynamite.
of war is a virus that spreads to every part of the world's organism.
No one mind
is capable of tracing its ramifications hither and thither, because its
effects are as wide and as complicated as civilization itself. War is
to the world
as a whole what drunkenness is to an individual: nothing can be normal;
can there be the joy, the power, the wisdom, and the nobility of human
there might otherwise be.
Robertson has well said that "Civilization progresses by the contact of
Each nation has something to give to its sister nations and will give
hatred and strife, such as now divides Europe, blocks the way.
Freemasonry has ever
held that fact in the center of its vision. It has prayed and worked
for a united
world for it knows that not otherwise will the nations be blessed
because it is
only when sister peoples live in harmony with each other that
blessedness can exist.
"How good and pleasant a thing it is for brethren to dwell together in
The kingdom of heaven is the human race living happily together. To
that consummation is quite possible, and it is possible along the lines
in the Masonic philosophy. What is needed is not miracle or militarism,
human wisdom and good sense: in other word, Light. God speed the day
when that simple
available Light will come, when it will all come, when it will come to
may this Christmas season remind us all how easily it may come, if only
one and all open our minds to receive it!
* * *
In one of
the many rich pages from the pen of Brother Delmar D. Darrah we have
come upon this
"It is unfortunate that we have
in the Masonic
fraternity men whose knowledge of Freemasonry is limited to that which
acquired and learned within the borders of their own jurisdiction."
it is, and that for many reasons. These same men are often so ignorant
at large that they do not even know that Grand Lodges are each one
its own jurisdiction and that among themselves they all differ in a
no to ritual, practice, landmarks, laws, and what not. Consequently
they judge Masonic
practice the world over by their own local practice because they
believe it to be
everywhere the same; and when some large movement is born, fraught with
of great good to the Craft, they may like as not oppose it for no other
the mere fact that in their own state they have not been doing it.
unfortunate, so it may be believed, is the ignorance of such men
history of the Fraternity. Acting on the supposition that what is
always has been,
because Masonry cannot change, they become obstructionists and servants
the letter of which always kills, and lift up their voices against some
of the solidest
proposals that our wisest leaders can propose because such things are
new to themselves.
If the Masonic
leaders in all our states would read one good history of Masonry, and
for three years hand running take the trouble to read the Report on
in the Proceedings of each Grand Lodge, what a boon it would be to all!
"The Evolution of Freemasonry"
a quiet nook for refreshment, especially if he be a Mason, can discover
in Delmar Duane Darrah's book, The Evolution of Freemasonry [Lib*]. I
but a little way ere I became impressed with the charm of it. The
author has succeeded
in his endeavor "to lift the society out of the realm of speculation
and to account for it as the result of those natural causes which have
all the great ethical institutions of the world."
of this character are eminently desirable. Those interested in Masonic
antiquity may find for themselves in any Masonic library many
and authentic, for their information. But facing practical problems and
of having a rational concept of the service that Freemasonry may render
in our own
times it is well, perhaps, to seek those common-sense works that will
for their lucidity and directness by the highly trained intellect, as
well as plainly
understandable by the average man.
in the serviceability of Freemasonry for our times makes me somewhat
those obscure treatments of Freemasonry that seem to promise a mystical
of the problems of human life and society.
Delmar Darrah, out of his long Masonic experience and acquaintanceship
learning of the Craft, has rendered an inestimable service in his
of the rise and growth of modern Masonry. The readableness of the
volume, so charmingly
descriptive of the romance of Masonic growth, will, I believe, commend
all who are desirous of an introduction to the history of the Craft.
actuating the author and his attitude toward those who are ever
desirous of enshrouding
Freemasonry in the cloak of mysticism may be deduced from the
is a matter of sincere regret," he says, "and not at all to the credit
of Freemasonry that there are many Masons who seem to prefer to have
draped in tradition and mysticism rather than to have the truth
elicited and understood."
And further one may read, "It should not be overlooked that much of the
and alleged history of Freemasonry consists mainly of abortive attempts
the Fraternity through its symbolism with the mysteries of the ages,
and in many
instances a direct association has been made with crude ceremonies of
forgotten past. It is quite easy to understand the reason for this. The
loves the marvelous, and one of its greatest susceptibilities is to try
the vague and unknown with some supernatural agency and, as far as
it with a mystical past thereby taking it out of the commonplace and
it in a sort of ethereal atmosphere."
too, is his statement regarding the conception of Freemasonry as a
"The student who is to study Freemasonry," writes Darrah, "must divest
himself of the idea that it is a secret society. There is a marked
a secret society and a brotherhood or institution designed for the
of mankind. A secret society is merely the outgrowth of primitive
a brotherhood is the result of culture and refinement." "A secret
is merely the outgrowth of primitive conditions" is a striking rebuke,
to me, to those who are endlessly asserting that the lineage of modern
to primitive times. Turn to page 49 and you read this very luminous
brotherhood grows out of social relationship. Fraternity is a world in
faces of man are turned toward each other. It means the science of
upon the fact that we have a common origin, and a common destiny, and
that God is
the Creator and Father of us all, and that from this relationship
evolves the civilization
of the human race. In the evolution of man, we have passed from the
the family, to the community, to the state and inter-state alliance,
and in due
time will pass to a united group of nations; the dream of Freemasonry;
of God's plan; in the parliament of man; the federation of the world."
something thrilling in this. It causes one to weigh carefully his own
Masonry and our faith in her potential greatness as a national and
chapters are those devoted to architecture under the caption "Frozen
and the "Cathedral Builders," in which the author goes back to a rapid
study of those Operative Masons whose genius erected those monumental
His treatment of the relationship of the old Operative Masons and the
of today while not coldly analytical is certainly clear in its
emphasis, that (other
than the old operatives being possessed of those elemental things of a
making possible for modern Masonry to utilize many of their tools and
symbols and emblems for their esoteric teaching) small claim can be
laid to the
speculative Mason being the logical heir of the operatives.
does he speak of the influence of Gothic art when he says: "The Gothic
its sky-piercing spires, pointed arches, vaulted roofs, lifts the soul
of man to
higher conceptions and aspirations. One may stand in the Prophyliaea of
in the pillared halls of the academies of philosophy, but there is
awakened no such
lofty thought or grandeur of faith as comes from the contemplation of
ever pointing upward, drawing the vision onward as if for far reaching
and a glimpse of that faith which is lost in sight."
the cathedrals were strictly the expression of the religious faith of
he is ready to deny, for, he says in a sentence or two relative to this
claim has been made by some Masonic enthusiasts that the cathedrals
which were the
product of these medieval builders gave expression in a symbolic way to
faith of the builders. This, however, is purely imaginative."
On the whole
I feel that his treatment of the medieval builders is sincere, logical
But I desire to clings to moo conviction that those old cathedrals had
of connection with the religious aspirations of the builders.
and of absorbing interest are his references to the good old days, the
customs and ye old tavern. But whatever the antecedents Freemasonry is
most powerful institution among men for international righteousness
Mason would find the author's dissertation on the growth of the ritual
valuable and especially serviceable ought it to be to those hoard
have little conception of the evolution of anything in this world.
Speaking of the
ritual the author has the following to say: "It must not be for gotten
all the so-called work of which Freemasonry today boasts is purely
modern. It is
the product of ritual builders of the nineteenth century."
but marvel, as he continues reading the book, at Brother Darrah's
ability to retain
the deed interest of his reader. Almost half of the book is devoted to
in America, and I feel that it is eminently justifiable, for, as the
"it is in America that we find Masonry to have reached the highest
and where it has assumed the institutional character of those great
contribute to the upbuilding of humanity." Several pages are given to
affair, and both that interesting chapter and the one dealing with the
movement give a moving picture of the Masonry of a former day. It must
heroic characters to have been Masons openly in the years 1825 to 1830
for as we
read again, "so intense did the Anti-Masonic feeling grow that it
parties, sundered churches and religious organizations and was carried
social life of many communities. Even little children took it up and
boys were sometimes
beaten and abused because they were children of Freemasons."
of usefulness to the new initiate, descriptive of the purpose and value
of the Symbol
in Masonry, is found in the chapter on the Symbol. The following few
the meaning of the symbol, and the whole chapter is in equally
"A symbol is a visible sign with which a spiritual feeling, emotion, or
is connected. It is the vesture of thought, philosophy and art, the
which preserves things for widespread use. It may be likened to the cup
of the flower,
which holds the unseen forces and sweetness of light and air. Symbols
are to be
found everywhere. God threw a rainbow over the sky and the evanescent
follows in the wake of a summer shower will always be a symbol of his
covenant." "The symbolism of Masonry then is simply human life in
‒ an illustrated picture gallery of the heart, a complete compendium
of man's constant duty to the God who made him and his fellow traveler
enjoyed the reading of this book. It was an inspiration and a prophesy
of the type
of literature that is going to be of exceeding great value and service
in the fraternity
in the future. "Masons," says our author, "are fast finding out that
Freemasonry is not finished but that it is just commenced. For years
been expended in perfecting laws and rules and getting ready to do
a result the fraternity has now arrived at that point in its evolution
when it must
move forward or forever lose its prestige as a vital force in human
* * *
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to where
obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than those listed
on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the publications
wanted have been
out of print for years. Believing that many such books might be in the
other members of the Society willing to dispose of them we are setting
column each month for the use of our members. Communications from those
Masonic publications will also be welcomed.
addresses are here given that those interested may communicate direct
other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the Society.
It is requested
that all brethren whose wants may be filled through this medium
the Secretary so that the notices may then be discontinued.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake,
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship
of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson,
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine,
By Bro. Henry
H. Klussmann, 310 Monastery St., West Hoboken, New Jersey:
Masonic Eclectic," volumes
1 and 2, published by Masonic Publishing and Manufacturing Co., New
York, N. Y.;
Historical Landmarks and Other
Evidences of Freemasonry," by George Oliver, D.D., published by Masonic
Co., Wm. T. Anderson, 3 East 4th St., New York, N. Y.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California;
Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and
7, with St. John's Cards, also St. John's Cards for volumes 4 and 5;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
of Masonry," early volumes;
Proceedings Grand Council of California
for the years 1877, 1878 and 1879;
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction
for the years 1882 and 1886.
By Bro. David
E. W. Williamson, P. O. Box 754, Reno, Nevada:
Perdiguier's "Livre du Compagnonnage,"
‒ W. H.
Rylands' "Freemasonry in the
Seventh Century," quoted in Gould's "Concise History of Freemasonry."
By Bro. H.
Sandelands, 9258 91st St., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada:
Spirit of Freemasonry,"
by Wm. Hutchinson;
and Symbols," by Dr. G.
"Symbolical Teachings of Masonry and
Its Message," by T. M. Stewart;
"Sidelights on Freemasonry,"
by J. T. Lawrence.
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin,
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library
of Samuel Lawrence,"
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations
For Sale or Exchange
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin,
Leaves from a Freemason's Note
Book," by George Oliver. This volume also contains "Some Account of the
Schism showing the presumed origin of the Royal Arch Degree." Univ.
edition. Price $3.00.
"Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry,"
by Robert Morris. (Fiction and anecdotes.) Price $3.60. By Bro. F. R.
East 61st St., Kansas City, Mo.,
History of Freemasonry,"
by Robert Freke Gould, published by the John C. Yorkston Co., silk
first-class condition, four volumes, $17.00;
""History of Freemasonry,"
by J. W. S. Mitchell, P. G. M. of Missouri 1844-45, full morocco
History of Freemasonry,"
by Albert G. Mackey, seven volumes, practically new, $30.00;
Standard History of Freemasonry,"
by J. Fletcher Brennan, published in 1885, one volume;
from the Quarry,"
by John H. Brownell, Editor of the American Tyler, 1893, $6.00;
"Antiquities of the Orient Unveiled,"
by M. Walcott Redding, 1877, $5.00;
"History and Cyclopedia," by
Oliver and Macoy, full morocco binding, $10.00.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
"Order of De Molay"
And "Order of the Builders" For Boys
please publish in an early issue of THE BUILDER information regarding
of De Molay?
I am informed
that there is a movement on foot to establish throughout the Middle
West a society
called "Junior Masons," having as its object to interest the younger
and boys in the work of the Masonic Order. This has been discussed at
of our local Masonic Club and I am taking the liberty of addressing you
on the subject.
H. E. C., Massachusetts.
descriptive sketches of the "Order of De Molay for Boys" and the "Order
of The Builders for Boys" have been furnished by officials of these two
as material for answering the above and other inquiries from members of
Masonic Research Society:
Order of De Molay for Boys
originated in a boy's club of a dozen members, fostered by Brother
Frank S. Land
of Kansas City, Missouri, in March, 1919. It swept over Kansas City so
within two years it numbered almost two thousand members. In the
far-seeing brother, from his knowledge of boys' problems, knew that
such an organization,
to be successful, must have more than a mere organization. He conceived
of a ritual and his ideas were utilized by Brother Frank A. Marshall in
ritual which they now use.
this formative period the attention of neighboring cities was attracted
it came a demand for similar chapters. The Scottish Rite Bodies of
proud of its success, as they might well be, generously gave every
to its spread until 1921 when they felt the movement should become
national in scope
and asked that it be relieved from the management and that it be turned
some organization which could make it national in character. The
of De Molay here ends.
of the Order of De Molay is to make better boys, better men, and better
The degrees teach reverence, patriotism, filial love, clean living, and
Surely one could ask no more.
work is embodied in two degrees ‒ the initiatory and the De Molay. The
the cardinal virtues of the Order, which are deeply impressed upon the
a symbolic journey splendidly portrayed. The latter degree is
historical and spectacular,
affording opportunity to the boys with dramatic ability to display
The whole is embellished with tableaus and effects calculated to make a
Master Masons and their chums, between the ages of sixteen and
twenty-one are eligible
to membership. Naturally good morals and other fundamental requirements
Masonic Body of either York or Scottish Rite may sponsor a chapter of
It has not been found feasible for lodges to act as sponsor in cities
are more than one lodge. The organization must agree to give moral and
support, if necessary, and supervise its operations, through an
of nine men, nominated by them. Many matters of local difficulty have
to be solved
and methods that work in one locality may fail in another, hence, the
for a strong local Advisory Council.
of De Molay is not a Masonic organization; its rules prohibit the
these young men along the line of their future affiliations.
Freemasonry is interested
in its success, just as it is interested in the success of schools,
good citizenship. If a Chapter of De Molay contributes one good
citizen, it is well
worth the expense of organization.
man with good red blood in his veins but what has a desire to join a
club, a lodge,
or social organization? De Molay provides this organization; its
insuring its character. The value of any organization depends upon the
quantity of its membership. De Molay offers both of these requisites.
It has its
own distinctive pin, its emblems, its colors, flowers and songs, just
and older fraternal orders. With chapters already formed at a number of
universities, it is placed in a position to afford opportunity for the
acquaintances with a choice selection of manhood. In this order, all
are welcomed as visitors; when a member becomes twenty-one, he becomes
life member, exempt from dues but not entitled to vote or hold office.
derives its name from Jacques De Molay, the last military Grand Master
of the Order
of Knights Templar, an eminent martyr of Freemasonry, who on the
evening of May
18, 1114, as the bells of the Cathedral of Notre Dame tolled the hour
was burned at the stake on an isle in the Seine River. Modern names
might have been
employed. Scenes from American history might have been utilized but
with the prospect
that De Molay might become universal it was believed best by its
founders not to
do so. The name of Jacques De Molay is closely associated with the
of Knighthood, and the selection of his name seems eminently proper.
Our boys should
be taught that our forefathers fought for all our inalienable rights;
that our freedom
was purchased with blood, fire and sword; that forces are existent
today which would
destroy all that we now have and that eternal vigilance is the price of
of organization is nominal; local Masonic bodies are already furnished
of the necessary paraphernalia; most of it, in fact, can be made at
information be furnished when desired. Letters temporary are granted
of $15.00. Should charter be issued $25.00 additional is required.
$1.00 is collected
upon each member receiving both degrees, 50˘for patent, and 40˘per
on all members. This money goes into the hands of the Grand Council and
by them in extension work and supervision. But one salaried officer is
by the Grand Council. Far-sighted Masonic leaders need not hesitate to
this great boys' movement; men with wide vision are behind it. Boys
delight in ceremonials
and ritualistic work and no one who has witnessed the work and the
activity of the
Order could for moment doubt it worthy of the support of all members of
regarding the work of the organization should addressed to Ray V.
Supervisor of De Molay Kansas City, Missouri.
Order of the Builders for
years an organization of Masonic service, maintained by the Masonic
lodges and bodies
of the Chicago district and known as the Masonic Bureau, in connection
many characters of service to the unfortunate, has been interested in
counsel and assistance for boys and sons of members of the fraternity,
the courts on various charges of delinquency; and in most instances has
to be constructive fraternal service, and through its resources to aid
these boys into higher paths of morality and good citizenship.
natural with the success of its primary efforts in behalf of boys, that
should seek broader fields service, and to individualize its efforts in
direction, in order to both insure its permanency and to make it of
value to the widest possible number.
in the year of 1920, through the cooperation of the Honorable Victor P.
Judge of the Juvenile Court of Cook County, Illinois, the opportunity
for the Bureau to assume supervision over the boys of Protestant
before the Juvenile Court on various charges of delinquency, where the
the offense, or the surroundings and conditions of the boy or his
parents, did not
warrant or indicate the immediate advisability of confinement in one of
institutions ‒ provided that constructive supervision over his we fare
guidance might be fully assured. In other words, these boys were
through the Masonic
fraternity to be offered another chance.
this responsibility and assuming supervision over these boys, and
individualizing its work, each case, with its full history, was passed
the Bureau to the master of the lodge located nearest the boy's home,
assignment to one of the lodge's membership; and in each case the
member to whom
the boy was assigned was specifically charged, for an unlimited period,
boy's moral guidance and development; to currently visit the boy at his
entertain him at his own, and to report periodically the Bureau on the
of this fraternal undertaking was beyond the widest expectations of
both the Court
and the officers of the Bureau; and fully assured from its inception.
The boys needed
and wanted a friend and a big brother; Masons individually were anxious
to do; and it is a significant fact that out of hundreds of boys
assigned only three
were reported back as incorrigible, while with the majority the highest
was attained in leading them to higher and better paths. Lasting
formed between men and boys which are of the highest constructive
values ‒ not alone
to the boys, but to the men as well; and many cases have been reported
to the Bureau
indicating that not alone had the boy ‒ and the Mason ‒ been materially
benefitted, but that through the Mason's efforts, the boy's entire
family had been
placed upon higher planes of respectability, good citizenship and
continuance of this undertaking and the broadening of its scope it was
again the question of a broader field of service should present itself;
the lives of those boys, brought under destructive influences, might be
into constructive paths through the guidance and interest of the
membership of the
Masonic fraternity, how much greater would be the constructive results
same forces directed as well toward aiding our own boys, already
surrounded by uplifting
influences, to develop morally, socially, physically and spiritually,
as a preventative
of those conditions which in the present day are ever confronting them,
too frequently lead, without proper guidance, to the moral, social,
spiritual degeneration of our otherwise best and most dependable young
for many reasons impracticable for the Bureau to undertake the
of the work indicated, the President of the Bureau, then in the
official line of
Van Rensselaer Lodge of Perfection, A. A. S. R., Valley of Chicago,
upon his advancement
to the office of Thrice Potent Master, presented the entire subject to
membership, at a meeting held on June 3rd, 1920; with the suggestion
be set in motion for the formation of an organization or association,
made up of
sons and brothers of members of the Masonic fraternity, and their
between the ages of fourteen and twenty-one, which would aid the boys
guidance of their Masonic elder brothers, in the development and
betterment of all
that pertains to their moral, mental, social, physical and spiritual
that such organization or association, with the co-operation of the
Masonic lodges and bodies, be multiplied into as many units or groups
as might seem
desirable, and perpetuate itself with a ritualistic form of ceremony
purpose aimed for and indicated.
made met with the unanimous and enthusiastic endorsement of the Lodge
membership, and a committee was appointed to consider the subject and
As a result
of the meeting and the committee's later report, plans were, set in
motion for the
promotion of an organization to be made up of boys between the ages of
and twenty-one, sons of members of the Masonic fraternity, and their
companions, and grouped into Chapters, the Chapters to be governed by a
central body; each Chapter formed to be under the guidance and
supervision of a
volunteer advisory council of Master Masons, chosen or appointed from
membership of Masonic lodges and bodies willing to give the Chapters'
and progress their individual attention and continued supervision, and
the greatest number consistent with the volunteer Masonic forces at its
should aid in no uncertain manner in building up the mental, moral,
spiritual development of the boys grouped in its membership.
an additional organization made up of volunteer members of Van
of Perfection, was formed for the promotion and financial maintenance
of the boys'
Order, and to function as a Central Council for its government, until
as it could be made self-governing and self-supporting; a Constitution
and an impressive ritual exercise, made up in two degrees, were
provided, and the
Order of the Builders for Boys became an established institution.
ceremonial or ritualistic exercises of the Order were conferred by the
of the Central Council upon a group of thirty-three boys, sons of
members of Van
Rensselaer Lodge of Perfection, at a meeting held in the Masonic Temple
on the second day of March, 1921, at which time a limited and honorary
instituted and its officers installed under the name of Van Rensselaer
Perfection Chapter Number One, Order of the Builders for Boys.
ceremonial exercises were conferred upon 43 boys making up Nelson D.
Number Two, at Joliet, Illinois, on Saturday evening, March 19th, 1921,
Advisory Council of Master Masons, made up from the membership of Mount
Matteson lodges, A. F. & A. M., at Joliet
evening, April 6th, 1921, the first ceremonial exercises to be
conducted by a degree
team of boys were held in the Preceptory of Oriental Consistory, and
of the Order were conferred by Van Rensselaer Lodge of Perfection
One, before a large audience of Master Masons, upon 165 boys
representing 8 Chapters
formed by the membership of various lodges and bodies in and about
present, August 1st, 1921, 45 Chapters representing approximately 4,500
in active operation, while many others are in process of formation.
in brief, is the history of the Order of the Builders for Boys in this,
infancy. Its work, its exercises, its ideals and their binding force,
themselves; while the genuine enthusiasm with which it has been
welcomed, both by
the boys and their parents, indicates that it is built upon the
soundest of foundations,
and demonstrates the need of an allegiance to which its members may
turn when in
doubt, through the impressive teachings of a simple faith and rule of
the boys can understand and apply.
solicits no membership and has no other organizing force than the
testimony of those
who, seeing and hearing, bear witness to its merit; it welcomes,
however, into the
bonds of fellowship and brotherhood those boys qualified for
membership. It welcomes
the formation of new Chapters, wherever they may be located; and freely
plans, its cooperation, its fraternal relationship, and, with a
opens wide the gates of its organization to all Masons, who, imbued
with the spirit
of progression, interested in the constructive development of the boys
the men, the Masons, the fathers and citizens of tomorrow, cooperate in
boys into fraternal association and bonds of righteousness, and in them
builds for the ever living present and for a higher and better future;
for a present
standard of high Masonic ideals and a future fulfilment of Masonry's
Order of the Builders for Boys, Masonry has "opened the gates," and lo,
the advance army of the builders of a new, a more righteous manhood, of
and mightier nation have crossed their boundaries; and, spreading in
circles, like the ripples produced when a pebble is cast into the deep,
through the very force and influences of its teachings will be welcomed
for to these boys will be allotted the task of completing that work
upon which as
Masons our hands have been permitted to labor for a season.
exercises are made up in two impressive degrees ‒ the Apprentice
Builder and the
Builder ‒ the Apprentice Builder outlining the lessons and pathway of
Builder being historical and patriotic; combined, they impart in a
the principles outlined in the Order's object.
as they are with appropriate music and singing the conferring of the
about one and one-half hours.
Masons are always welcome at the ceremonials of the Builders.
of a Chapter are as follows:
Deputy Master Builder
Organist, who may be a member of the Chapter or a Master Mason.
* * *
I was asked this question: "What did Jesus write upon the ground, when
being tempted by the scribes and Pharisees, who had brought before Him
a woman charged
with adultery, a crime punishable under the old Mosaic law by being
(John 8, 1-11.) I was also asked: "Where was Jesus, and what was He
between his thirteenth and thirtieth years?"
M. L. G., Ohio.
will consult any good Introduction to the New Testament you will
discover that Biblical
authorities believe the incident referred to in your first question to
incorporated in the Fourth Gospel long after it was originally written.
found at all in the earlier and more authentic manuscripts, therefore
look upon it as an interpolation, and without historical value. But if
to believe that the incident occurred exactly as reported in the eighth
of John he is not forwarded any toward an answer to your query, for
there is absolutely
no way in which anybody can ever know what Jesus wrote "upon the
to your second question may be expressed in two words, Nobody knows.
Christianity began men have wondered about it, and thousands have been
to discover the answer, but these theories are all valueless, because
any facts bearing upon the case. If a man wish to hold a theory about
it he may,
but his theory is of no worth to any but himself, because he has no
* * *
The American Creed
from a paper a copy of The American Creed and carried it about with me
to read to
my friends, and now I have lost it. Can you furnish me with a copy? I
value it very
highly, and believe it might be a good thing if the Masonic Order would
publicity to it.
A. R. O., Georgia.
in the United States of America as a government of the people, by the
the people, whose just powers are derived from the consent of the
governed; a democracy
in a republic, a sovereign nation of many sovereign States; a perfect
and inseparable, established upon those principles of freedom,
and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed their lives and
believe it is my duty to my country to love it; to support its
obey its laws; to respect its flag; and to defend it against all
* * *
An "Order of Physicians"
ever such a society as "The Order of Physicians"? I ran across a
to such in a recent issue of one of our lodge papers. Being a physician
am naturally curious to learn something about this brotherhood.
H. D. S., Idaho.
that you read doubtless referred to a religious cult better known as
This name means "Physicians," it is true, but usage has made it more
The Therapeutae, or the Therapeutes, as some writers spell the name,
were a sect
of Jews, more or less of a secret character, who lived near Alexandria
near the beginning of our era. The treatise of Philo Judaeus on "The
Life," [Lib 1895] is our principal source of
on the matter, and it is believed by some authorities that Philo
himself may have
been the founder of the sect, for it strove to carry into practice his
A few authorities, Gratz and Lucius for example, have argued that
is a fourth century forgery and that no such sect ever existed, but
and others have effectually destroyed this argument. The Therapeutae
from wine, flesh and luxuries; worshipped virginity; lived in voluntary
wore white garments, and cultivated community singing. They made a
of the Jewish sacred writings and gave to them an allegorical
as Mrs. Eddy [Lib 1917] has made familiar to our day.
reprobated slavery, would hold no private property, would not take
oaths, nor make
blood sacrifices, and they paid, like the Essenes, especial reverence
to the sun.
They further agreed with the Essenes in expecting the speedy end of the
in making an effort to be prepared for that event. But they were very
from them in that instead of practicing an active life of farming, bee
and weaving, they lived a leisurely, contemplative life, and sought
purity of mind
rather than practical righteousness. The Therapeutae never wielded much
and their teachings were absorbed by the larger streams of religion. It
that anything in Freemasonry has come from them, though Dr. Mackey
* * *
Why is it,
that little or nothing is said in the Blue Lodge work about
In our building in Chicago, the greatest care has to be taken to secure
foundation for our Temples and skyscrapers. Hasn't the work suffered
of teachings that could be derived from the subject of "foundations"?
in their various uses the Blue Lodge ritual has much to say. There is
represented by the Entered Apprentice when he stands in the Northeast
is the cubical stone, or perfect ashlar; there is the imperfect, or
etc., but there is no direct teaching concerning foundations, and that,
it may be,
is our loss. Why so important an idea did not receive more attention in
of symbolism originally derived from the building arts it is impossible
In the so-called higher degrees, however, and notably in the Chapter,
is made good by a most impressive interpretation and dramatization of
of Foundation. You may be interested to know that George William Speth
the drama of Hiram Abiff to have been originally a ceremony of human
when a human being was buried under the foundation of a new structure
the deity to whom the ground was sacred. An excellent article on
Stones" appeared in the first volume of THE BUILDER, for July, 1915
Mackey's Encyclopedia, volume II, page 722, [Lib 1914] carries a very complete
of the subject, worthy to be well recommended to a student. Very
idea of the necessity for a solid foundation of the Masonic life is
the head of the Northeast Corner.
* * *
"Oath” and "Obligation"
What is the
difference between an "oath" and an "obligation"?
H.T.R., New Hampshire
practice there is very little difference, nor is there much distinction
to be made
in definition. It may be roughly said that an oath may be made
privately with no
thought of another, as when the movie hero makes an oath to himself
that he will
be avenged for the loss of his sweetheart. An obligation implies
and is therefore social in its nature. Also, an oath usually carries
with it a reference
to deity, or to some supernatural power, whereas an obligation may be
in its nature. These distinctions must not be pressed too far because,
as said above,
in actual use the two words are not always distinguished.
* * *
Whom do you
consider the best Masonic writer ‒ Mackey, Gould, or Oliver? Some of my
who have read after Oliver say that he gets off the subject too much,
or he lets
his thoughts run wild without facts to back up his statements. Is this
L. B. P., Arkansas.
Mason who cares anything about the literature and traditions of the
Craft has a
warm spot in his heart for Dr. Oliver. He was so noble in soul, so
in a cause which was sacred to him because it was a religion, so
prolific in writings
and in good deeds, that one is averse to uttering a word that may sound
of one of our Masonic fathers: but it is unfortunately true that his
work now belongs
to a past time and doesn't have very much weight with present day
your friends have told you is true, though it must not be therefore
Oliver is completely discarded ‒ far from it. Many of his pages will
His works are misleading to one that has not previously grounded
himself in the
subject ‒ to one that knows Masonry and therefore knows what allowances
Oliver is still quite worth reading.
is equally venerable and venerated. He is one of our institutions. His
his works on Jurisprudence, Symbolism, and on Masonic History are
widly read than any other equal number of books. But he came on the
scene too early
to be trained in the ranks of modern scholarship, so that he must
read with caution.
Freke Gould is, perhaps, the most typical and well-rounded
representative of the
best schools of present day scholarship.
all depends on what you mean by "best." If you are looking for exact
Gould will easily head your list. If you mean "best" in the sense of
greatest influence made, or the finest spirit shown, then it must
a matter of opinion or taste.
* * *
The Entered Apprentice's
I have often
wondered why we can't have more singing in our lodge rooms. I don't
believe I ever
heard assembled Masons sing anything except a kind of funeral dirge.
Don't our English
brethren do differently? I read an old "Apprentice's Song" which,
to some notes printed with it, has been sung by them a long time. Does
who wrote that famous song?
not the only one who has wondered the same: perhaps it is due to the
fact that we
are a busy people who begrudge the time necessary to cultivate the
of which singing is one of the chief. Masons are in no worse condition
so far as
singing goes, than others; nor is Masonry essentially a funereal
must needs be solemn. Quite the contrary, as its history proves.
the song of which you speak it has been called by various names, "The
Tune," and "The Apprentice's Song," being the most popular. It begins
with the same stanza always:
"Come let us prepare,
We are brothers that are
Assembled on merry occasions;
Let's drink, laugh and sing;
Our wine has a spring.
Here's a health to an Accepted Mason."
stanzas vary, both as to order and number, but the old song has an
that has preserved it despite the numberless liberties taken with it.
written by Matthew Birkhead, who was a singer and actor at Drury Lane
and a Master of a lodge there at the time that Dr. Anderson was busy
with the first
edition of the Constitutions. He died on December 30, 1722. His song
was first published
in Read's "Weekly Journal" for December 1, 1722, and later received the
rare distinction of being printed by Anderson in the first edition of
1723 [Lib 1723]. Since then it has been sung
endless number of times.
* * *
Quakers and Masonry
to me a fact that the Quakers, or Friends, decline to use the word
in their oaths as is evidenced by a provision made in all courts and
all documents. We are assured and have reason to believe that Masonry
of us that can conflict with our duty to God. The Quaker bases his
using the word "swear" on the teaching of the Bible as found in Matthew
5:33-37. Now my question. Are or are not Quakers members of Masonic
lodges or have
they been in the past, and if they have been, has their "affirmation"
been accepted in their obligations? It has been my impression that a
Quakers, famous in American history, were Masons.
C. O. B., Oregon.
searched in vain for records of any men famous in American history who
Quakers and Masons with the exception of one Esseck Hopkins, who was
the first commander-in-chief
of the Colonial Navy. Of any reader chances to know of others let him
through the Correspondence Department. The Friends Church prohibits an
oath in the
usual sense of that term, and it seems that the Masonic O. B. is, in
an oath: therefore is it that they have not entered Masonry. Several
have acted on the matter to the effect that the O. B. cannot be changed
to permit the use of the Friends' "Affirmation." Mackey's Encyclopedia
carries an article on this subject (entitled "Affirmation") in which it
is said that the American Masonic form cannot be changed to accommodate
but that in the eyes of our English brethren the matter is different,
for they have
often initiated Friends. It may be that local lodges have had some
in this direction. Any information on the matter will be appreciated.
* * *
Books on Philosophy and
a complete set of the bound volumes of THE BUILDER and am now
undertaking to read
it all through. Do you suppose that very many have done that? I find it
and in many places quite stimulating. One thing that struck me much in
volume was Prof. Pound's lecture on "A Twentieth Century Masonic
especially where he deals with "the current philosophies." Can you
me to a few books that will help me to learn more about these?
especially the books
that deal with psychology and philosophy together?
W. P., Alabama.
general introduction to the entire field of philosophy you would not
err in turning
to Rudolf Eucken's "The Problem of Human Life." [Lib 1909] Josiah Royce's "The Spirit of
Modern Philosophy" [Lib 1926] deals with the more recent
developments, though not including the most
recent, in a luminous manner, surcharged with beauty and a rare
the books of the day it is difficult to make choice, especially since
has narrowed his field down to almost infinitesimal proportions, but
the list given
below will serve well to introduce you to the general field, and more
to that part of it where philosophy and psychology join hands:
by William James. [Lib 1891; Vol
James. [Lib 1907]
Psychology, ' by McDougall.
Behavior," by Loyd
Morgan. [Lib 1900]
Instinct," by Trotter.
Principles of Psychoanalysis,"
by Freud. [Lib*]
Freudian Wish," by
Holt. [Lib 1916]
Great Society, ' by Graham
Wallas. [Lib 1914]
by John Dewey. [Lib 1930]
Idea of God in Modern Thought,"
by Pringle-Pattison [Lib 1920]
* * *
Masonic College Fraternities
Can you tell
me how many Masonic College Fraternities there are? I have reason for
touch with them and would greatly appreciate this as a personal favor.
are two, one of which, The Acacia, has long been familiar; the other,
and Compass, being a new organization which has not been much brought
to the attention
of the Craft. The former is one of the Greek Letter fraternities with
regulations similar to the Phi Gamma Delta, etc. The latter is of very
nature. It is essentially a non-secret society. Any Master Mason in
is welcomed to its meetings, and it has no ritual. College Masons may
membership on their own initiative, and a member of any other college
is eligible. Its aim is to propagate in college life and among college
spirit and principles of Freemasonry.
* * *
The "Ahiman Rezon"
I have been
much surprised that some Grand Lodges describe their book of statutes,
etc., as "The Ahiman Rezon," instead, as is the custom everywhere else,
as "The Book of Constitutions." Can you explain this? and will you
tell me what is the meaning of the strange name?
necessary to remember that when Masonry was established in this country
two rival Grand Lodges in England, the Modern, and the Ancient, and
that some of
our Grand Lodges descended from the one, and some from the other. The
Lodge had as its book of Constitutions a volume to which Laurence
Dermott gave the
title "Ahiman Rezon," and this name very naturally passed into use in
those Grand Lodges which derived from Dermott's institution. Mackey's
lists nine American editions of the Ahiman Rezon, as follows:
Scotia, Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina,
and New York. After a great deal of ingenious research "Ahiman Rezon"
has been interpreted as meaning "Worthy Brother Secretary." See the
in Mackey's Encyclopedia, volume I, page 37.
* * *
What Is A Gentleman?
You may be
surprised to be asked the question I am writing about but, even if it
come under the head of Masonry, I should like for you to answer it. In
Club last week we got into an argument about the question, What is a
and I said that I would write to THE BUILDER about it.
A. K. S., Minnesota.
welcome to our opinion always whether the matter has to do directly
or not. It appears to us that the idea is defined by the word, for he
who is gentle
in all his dealings would surely be a gentleman in all the best senses
of the word.
To be gentle in speech, thought, word and deed, can anything be better
And isn't gentlemanliness a great thing? A great power? How long would
wars, schisms, and the thousand-and-one things that divide us all
endure among us
if each and every man were thus constituted? You may be interested to
an authority has said that in modern literature there are three perfect
David Copperfield, D'Artagnan, and John Halifax. It is interesting also
connection to recall that the famous Beatitude, "Blessed are the meek
shall inherit the earth," should be more literally translated as
are the gentle for they shall inherit the earth." The saying is the
and prophecy of the gentleman.
Profanity among Masons
to the subject of "profanity among Masons," mentioned in the letter of
Bro. C. A. L. (Nebraska), which appears in the August number of THE
me to relate a little personal experience.
Back in 1899,
shortly after taking the "Third," the writer went to New York City,
a number of years. Now while I met Masons there addicted to a species
so far as recollection serves it was of a limited character, ‒
conspicuous by its absence. Only once do I recall it being so used, and
quoting a remark made by another man, a non-Mason.
additional Charge sometimes used in that jurisdiction, on the E.A.
degree, may account
for this desired reverence. I shall never forget the impression it made
on first hearing it delivered in Metropolitan Lodge by our late
Brother, Louis Stamper,
although it was over twenty years ago. Sometimes I wish this Charge was
in our own
Monitor. The Charge follows:
Brother, whatever may hitherto have been your moral attitude toward the
God of man,
you, by your voluntary action this evening, have proclaimed openly your
He really is, and rightfully rules.
title by which I have just addressed you is Masonically given because
of His Fatherhood.
You have now entered upon a new tie with Him; you look upon Him as our
God. As such you have, at yonder altar, sworn in His name and asked His
be an upright man and Mason. That means your duty to Him, and duty
means a debt.
not your former estimation of the reverence due to Him. I do know that
time forth your oath of allegiance demands steadfastly fealty to His
laws, and extreme
reverence for His great and sacred Name.
world itself styles him who knows no God a heathen. He is a menace to
a moral blank in himself. The Mason who acknowledges God in the lodge
room and ignores
or blasphemes out of it insults the Craft as he violates his oath. Your
must be proven by your real attitude towards our Supreme Grand Master.
which takes the obligation of the Mason should not demean the Mason's
the curse against your Father in heaven as you would resent a curse
father on earth. Strive to be a Mason who will fashion bravely his
Care little for the jibes of man, but heed the sting of conscience.
out from this evening's ceremonies a loyal Mason a worthy brother, an
entered upon a new field of labor, with a new sense of duty, and bound
by a solemn
vow ever to walk and act uprightly, and speak reverently His name
before whom all
Masons should humbly, reverently and devoutly bow."
V. M. Irick, New Jersey
* * *
Point within a Circle
In the June
issue of THE BUILDER, Brother Hunt, in reply to certain questions of
some interesting suggestions concerning the point within a circle. The
saying was absolutely new to me. May I venture an interpretation in
the two given?
through drawn the circle overall" is a circumscribed square. By
sides into four units and numbering the interior points as shown, we
in four stand." "Through one in center go. Also again the center in
that is, connect points 1 and 3 with the opposite mid-point or "center"
(2). "Through the four in the circle quite free" means that the same
in each is to be performed in each of the four sides. The diagonals
circumference at the required points. Through these we draw the sides
of a square.
We have now squared the circle ‒ not roughly, as might be supposed, but
perfect exactness. (This will be recognized as Rufus Fuller's method of
W. W. Caffyn, Indian
* * *
An Interesting Letter
not often that so informing a letter as the following comes to hand;
nor is it often
that we encounter Masonic students of such scholarly qualities as Bro.
W. Williamson, of Reno, Nevada. Can you blame us for using all our arts
him into writing a series of articles for THE BUILDER? They would be as
country cream. The letter is left in its personal form in order that it
I have not
plunged into Kabbalism as yet because the firm which I have ordered
what is said
to be the latest analysis of the whole subject has not sent the book
yet. But I
have read the Jennings volume on Rosicrucianism ‒ read it some years
ago and still
have it. The trouble about Jennings is that he is flirting with
the greater part of the book. He sees in all things symbols of
Phallicism and ‒
well, I do not. Besides, he falls into the bad habit of supporting his
by derivations of very doubtful scholarship. As a word etymologist he
but in no way convincing. The point within the circle, for example,
attention from Jennings, as it has received from various Masonic
writers, in a phallic
way, the point being that it is a Brahman symbol of the lingam and
yoni; but they
forget that Western Europe knew nothing about this Hindu symbol until
Jones made Hindu works accessible to us. It was a Masonic symbol at
least a century
before that time and probably several centuries. As a representation of
it is very old in Western civilization, of course, but every solar
symbol is by
no means phallic. If they want to see Phallicism gone mad, they want to
work on the Psychology of Dreams. The notes to Jung's rhapsody, though,
more on the subject of Mithraism than I have found in any other writer
suggestion about getting books from the Library of Congress was
I took advantage of at once. The state librarian at Carson sent for the
by the nun Hritswotha of Gandersheim and I received the book last
Wednesday ‒ quick
work. At the same time the librarian at Carson sent me one of the best
the Miracle Plays that I have seen ‒ Pollard's. [Lib 1898] He has also on the way from
Clarendon Press at Oxford, Miss Lucy Toulmin Smith's "York Plays." [Lib
I have worked through the comedies of Hritswotha. There are six of
in very excellent Latin for her time, ostensibly based upon Terence's
quite obviously, as I had been led to expect from Tunison's book,
with Byzantine Greek thought. This might be expected, as is pointed out
because the abbess at Gandersheim was Sophia, daughter of Constantine
of the East. In none of the comedies is there anything whatever that
on the origin of our ritual or of the tradition on which the legend of
degree is unquestionably founded, which is disappointing.
I did find
one thing, however, that suggested something. At the risk of wearying
you, let me
quote this from the original ("Conversio Thaidis Meretricis," commonly
quoted as "Pafnutius," first scene, opening with a long dialogue
Pafnutius and his pupils, of which this is part):
PAFNUTIUS ‒ Si tamen dialecticos sequimir, nec
illa contraria esse fatemur.
DISCIPULI ‒ Et quis potest negare?
PAFNUTIUS ‒ Qui dialectici scit disputare; quia
usiae nihil est contrarium,
sed receptatrix est contrariorum.
DISCIPULI ‒ Quid sibi vult, quod dixisti 'secundum
PAFNUTIUS ‒ Id scilicet, quod sicut pressi
excellentesque, soni, armonice, coniuncti,
quiddam perficiunt musicum, ita dissona elementa, convenienter
DISCIPULI ‒ Mirum, quomodo dissona concordari vel
concordantia possint dissona
PAFNUTIUS ‒ Quia nihil ex similibus componi
videtur nec ex his, qu ae nulla
rationis proportione iunguntur et a se omni substantia naturaque
DISCIPULI ‒ Quid est musica?
PAFNUTIUS ‒ Disciplina una de philosophiae
DISCIPULI ‒ Quid est hoc, quod dicis quadruvium?
PAFUNTIUS ‒ Arithmetica, Geometrica, musica,
In the old
charges (Buchanan MS., Gould's History of Masonry, Volume 1) we read:
. For it is one of the seven Liberall Sciences: And these be the names
The First is Grammar: that teachesth a man to speake truly and to write
Second is Rhetorick and that teacheth a man to speake fair and in
the third is Dialectica that teacheth a man to decerne and know truth
the fourth is Arrithmetike and it teacheth a man to reckon and count
the fifth is Geometrye and it teacheth a man to mete and measure the
Earth and all
other things of which is masonry; the sixth is Musicke and it teacheth
of Songe and voice of tongue orggann harpe and trumpett: the seventh is
and teacheth a man to know the course of the Sunne Moone and Stars...."
In our jurisdiction
we hear the same thing expanded in the Webb lecture in the Fellow Craft
that occurred to me when reading Pafnutius talk was at what date did
the old quadrivium
of the Roman educational system become expanded into the Seven
Sciences. It is clear
that the writer of the original old charges had in hand or mind a book
time in the course of say two centuries had altered the well-known
Hritswotha knew into the "syens sevenne" of the Regius manuscript by
the "trivium" to the "quadrivium." If I can get a book on the
history of education that will fix this date, perhaps I can obtain a
clew to something
worth while. Small chance, but even at that it is worth trying.
undoubtedly experienced the trouble, Brother Haywood, that any
is in earnest runs into. Writers in reputable histories make certain
and you look for the authority. There isn't any! Green's "Shorter
the English People" [Lib 1894] is full of that sort of thing
and so is Lecky
[Lib 1882/90; (8 Volumes, see Bibliography)], although Lecky is not so bad
as Green. That is the trouble I am having
in the York Plays, from Adolphus W. Ward down. Prof. Ward is not half
as he should have been. However, I hope to have Miss Toulmin Smith's
book soon and
get at firsthand information.
David E. W. Williamson.
* * *
Freemasonry in Ireland
very valuable letter was written to answer a series of questions
addressed to Brother
McCaughey by THE BUILDER. These questions were as follows:
are thousands of Masons in this land who would give much to know with
what Masonry is now doing, and what is being done to Masonry, in
Ireland. Is there
a split between South Irish Masonry and North Irish? What attitude do
take toward the Republic?"
Helens Bay, County Down, Ireland.
of the present troubled state of Ireland, Freemasonry was never so
now. New lodges and chapters are being constituted in large numbers.
The young men
are streaming into the Order at such a rate that in the two Masonic
Antrim and Down the Provincial Grand Lodges have very considerably
raised the initiation
fees in order to try to keep out undesirables. Masonry here is most
You ask is
there any split between South Irish Masonry and North Irish. The answer
emphatically, No. The true spirit of brotherhood still exists between
Southern Masons, the Northern brethren doing all in their power to help
distressed brethren in the South ‒ of course, this kind of thing has to
quietly, so as not to draw down on the Southern brethren the vials of
wrath of the
Roman Catholic Church. Although we have two Parliaments in Ireland, the
of Irish Masonry are in the South as hitherto, viz., at Freemasons'
Street, Dublin, and will continue there.
your last point, the lodges do not take any notice of the so-called
are all Protestants, and as Protestants are violently opposed to the
political divisions in Ireland are also religious. The Protestants are
the British Empire. The Roman Catholics are disloyal to the British
Fein and the Republic are a move of the Roman Catholic Church to
disrupt the British
Empire. It hates, and is determined to overthrow, the free institutions
of the British
Empire, and of America too, for that matter. Freemasons are loyal to
of the Empire, and at all Masonic dinners, etc., "God Save the King" is
sung. (It will interest you to know that the king's two eldest sons are
viz., the Prince of Wales and the Duke of York.) Freemasons, as such,
take no part
in politics here, but they are true Britishers, and the enemies of
are the enemies of all Freemasons. I may add that the Protestants.,
i.e., the loyalists,
live mostly in the North, and that the Roman Catholics, i.e., the
live mostly in the South, though there are some Roman Catholics in the
some Protestants in the South.
Rev. Charles F. McCaughey.
A Short History of England
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Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Bull - Ecclesiam
Pop21 / auth. Pope Pius VII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1821. - Vol. 1
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Bull - Humanum Genus
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Bull - In Eminenti
Pop38 / auth. Pope Clement XII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1738. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 4. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Providas Romanorum
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Bull - Quo Graviora
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1 : p. 22. - 0.2 MB.
Democracy and Education
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English Miracle Plays
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Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 324. - 12.1 MB.
History of England in 18th
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Lec87HE1 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
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History of England in 18th
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Company, 1887. - Vol. 2 : 8 : p. 720. - 19.8 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 3
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History of England in 18th
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History of England in 18th
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History of England in 18th
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Company, 1887. - Vol. 6 : 8 : p. 630. - 17.8 MB.
History of England in 18th
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Company, 1890. - Vol. 7 : 8 : p. 493. - 14.6 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 8
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Company, 1890. - Vol. 8 : 8 : p. 673. - 20.9 MB.
Humanum Genus Reply
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Instinct of the Herd
Tro21 / auth. Trotter Wilfred. - London : Fisher Unwin Ltd, 1921. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 263. - 9.1 MB.
Les87 / auth. Lessing Gotthold E / trans. Frothingham Ellen. - Boston :
Roberts Brothers, 1887. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 268. - 8.3 MB.
Philo about the Contemplative
Con95 / auth. Conybeare Fred C. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1895. -
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Jam07 / auth. James William. - New York : Meridian Books, 1907. - Vol.
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McD16 / auth. McDougall WIlliam. - London : Methuen & Co, Ltd,
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For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
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The Freudian Wish
Hol16 / auth. Holt Edwin B. - New York : Henry Holt and Company, 1916.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 218. - 6.0 MB.
The Great Society
Wal14 / auth. Wallas Graham. - London : The Macmillan Company, 1914. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 418. - 14.0 MB.
The Idea of God in the Light of
Set20 / auth. Set Pringle-Pattison Andrew. - New York : Oxford
University Press, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 463. - 17.8 MB.
The Principles of Psychology
Jam91PP1 / auth. James William. - London : Macmillan and Co, Ltd, 1891.
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The Principles of Psychology
Jam91PP2 / auth. James William. - London : Macmillan and Co, Ltd, 1891.
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The Problem of Human Life as
Viewed by the Great Thinkers from Plato to the Present Time
Euc09 / auth. Eucken Rudolf / trans. Hough Wilson S and Gibson Boyce W
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The Spirit of Modern Philosophy
Roy26 / auth. Royce Josiah. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1926.
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Unity of God
Edd171 / auth. Eddy Mary B. - Boston : Allison V. Stewart, 1917. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 77. - 4.2 MB.
York Plays, the Plays Performed by the Crafts
Smi85 / auth. Smith L Toulmin. - Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1885. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 634. - 14.0 MB.