Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
Stephen Van Rensselaer
RENSSELAER, "the first of the Patroons" in the State of New York, was
born in the City of New York, and was Grand Master of Masons of that
State for four
years. We excerpt the following from the History of the Grand Lodge of
Van Rensselaer, known as the Patroon, an American statesman, and patron
was born in New York, November 1, 1769, the fifth in descent from
Killien Van Rensselaer,
the original patroon or proprietor of the Dutch Colony of
Rensselaerwick, who in
1630, and subsequently, purchased a tract of land near Albany,
long by twenty-four wide, extending over three counties. He was
educated at Princeton
and Harvard colleges, and married a daughter of General Philip
Schuyler, a distinguished
officer of the Revolution. Engaging early in politics, at a period when
the pursuit of men of the highest social position, he was, in 1789,
elected to the
State Legislature; in 1795, to the State Senate, and became Lieutenant
president of a State convention, and Canal Commissioner. Turning his
military affairs, he was, at the beginning of the war of 1812, in
command of the
State militia, and led the assault of Queenstown; but the refusal of a
his troops, from constitutional scruples, to cross the Niagara River,
British to repulse the attack, and the General resigned in disgust. As
of the Board of Canal Commissioners for fifteen years, he promoted the
system of internal improvements; as Chancellor of the State University,
over educational reforms; and as president of the Agricultural Board,
aided to develop
the resources of the State. At his own cost, he employed Professors
Eaton and Hitchcock
to make agricultural surveys, not only of his own vast estates, but of
a large part
of New York and New England, the results of which he published in 1824;
paid Professor Eaton to give popular lectures on geology through the
State. In 1824
he established at Troy an institution for the education of teachers,
with free pupils
from every county. Widening the sphere of his political interests, he
went to Congress
in 1823, and served several terms, exerting a powerful influence, and
election of John Quincy Adams as President of the United States. After
useful, and honorable career, worthy of his high position, he died at
foregoing shows a splendid record, one to make the fraternity feel
proud, it omits
so much that the fraternity ought to know. Van Rensselaer received the
LL. D. at Yale in 1825.
has always believed that teaching, particularly teaching the laws of
the grandest occupation of man; that the laws of nature are the laws of
nature never makes mistakes; that she will make intelligent answer to
intelligently asked, and will repeat her replies indefinitely.
So when Grand
Master Van Rensselaer established the great Polytechnic Institute at
Greek and Latin from the curriculum, and made a point of applied
Mechanics and mechanical
engineering, he laid a foundation for the skill and science that made
grow, more than any peaceful move that has ever been made. It was the
the degree of mechanical engineering, and though the Institute was not
to establish that chair, per se, it produced the graduates who were the
of M.E. in the colleges when establishing that degree. Early in the
time of the
civil war many of the Troy men entered the engineer corps of the Navy,
the beginning of turning the art of marine engineering from a trade to
A number of these left the Navy to be professors in colleges, and today
recognized more than twenty kinds of engineers.
had advised discouraging all immigration, save such as could bring us
trade or art, which made it imperative to produce machines to do the
work of men.
The wisdom of Grand Master Van Rensselaer may be appreciated when we
He builded wiser than was dreamed of in our philosophy. Machine design,
and operation has developed the Nation. By it the air is navigated; the
and the depth of the sea, as well as the land are traversed. A factory
spins as much as several hundred girls did, when the work was all done
Transportation has been rushed over iron rails, while other nations
were using pikes.
Machine design is today an exact science, instead of a tentative art,
and for blazing
the way to make this possible we must hail Grand Master Van Rensselaer
as the pioneer.
He was lenient
to the poor among the tenants on his vast estates, whose arrears, for
aggregated about $400,000 when he died, which resulted in the complete
up of the estate. (See E. P. Cheyney's "Anti Rent Agitation," 1887
By Bro. Dudley Wright, England
IN THE "GACETA"
of the Spanish Government, dated 23rd February, 1826, the execution of
accused of Freemasonry is thus referred to:
"Yesterday was hanged in this
Caso (alias Jaramalla). He died impenitent and sent into consternation
concourse present at the spectacle; a terrible whirlwind making it more
this taking place while the criminal was expiring. He came forth from
blaspheming, speaking such words as may not be repeated without shame,
gagged, he repeated as well as he could 'Viva mi secta! Viva la
So he was dragged by the tail of a horse to the scaffold.
Notwithstanding the efforts
which priests of all classes had made, they had not been able to induce
him to pronounce
the names of Jesus and Mary. After he was dead, his right hand was cut
dragging his body, they took it to a dung-heap. Thus do these
proclaimers of liberty
miserably end their lives; and this is the felicity which they promise
who follow them ‒ to go to abide where the beasts do."
In 1828 the
French troops evacuated Spain, though without stamping out Freemasonry,
1829, fresh signs of its existence in Barcelona being discovered,
was hanged and two other members of the Craft were condemned to the
at Sligo, one Thomas Mulhern died. He was a zealous Freemason and an
member of the Church of Rome, treasurer of his parish church as well as
in the same capacity for certain Roman Catholic charities. In every
respect he was
regarded as one of the most attached and intelligent lay assistants in
Catholic Church in his district. When he was seized with the illness
in his death, his wife sent immediately for the parish priest, the Rev.
to administer the Sacraments, but that privilege was refused on the
the dying man was a Freemason. He was permitted to pass from this world
the consolation of these Sacraments and no Roman Catholic priest would
read the burial service over his mortal remains. His body, therefore,
to the earth without any religious ceremony, in the presence of several
same time M. Motus, director of the Luxembourg Iron Works, died of a
last rites of the Roman Catholic Church also being denied him on his
he was a Freemason. He died at Mersch, where Catholic burial was
refused him, and
the body was conveyed to Fischbach, where he had lived. The priest
that he would not allow the corpse to be buried in any place other than
unbaptized children were buried, to which the Burgomaster replied that
cause the grave to be dug where he thought fit, and the deceased
Brother was buried
alongside the Burgomaster's daughter.
the monk Fortunato de Saint Bonaventure wrote in his periodical
"The remedy for Freemasons is
simple: every time they attempt to assemble, meet them with the
bludgeon, the memory
of which would be very lively on the backs of some and on the
imagination of others,
and it would come sometime to bring peace to the kingdom."
in his History of the Pontificate of Pius the Ninth, is responsible for
"The Centurioni were a gang of
vagabonds enlisted in bands after the revolution of 1831. They were
headed by priests
and monks, who preached to them that to kill a liberal was the surest
heaven. They did not wear any uniform, but were a sort of secret
and paid for by the government."
of the famous liberator, Daniel O'Connell, has frequently been
mentioned in Masonic
journals and newspapers, but the full circumstances have not, as yet,
at one time. O'Connell, the greatest orator, as well as the greatest
logician that Ireland ever produced, was initiated into Freemasonry in
1799 in Lodge
189, Dublin, of which he became Master in the following year. It is
said that no
one ever carried out the duties of his office with more brilliant
success than he,
who himself acknowledged that he felt deeply interested in his Masonic
was proved plainly by his unceasing activity. O'Connell was standing
the Grand Lodge of Ireland in some tedious litigation caused by an
Grand Secretary and the Irish Rolls bears his signature under date of
1813, as Counsel representing the Grand Lodge of Ireland. Bro. William
was Deputy Grand Master of Ireland from 1830 to 1840, used to declare
that he had received his degrees at the hand of the great liberator. It
to conceive with what skill a man so highly gifted as he was would
perform his work
and how attentively the brethren would listen to that fascinating voice
the Courts of Justice and the Senate. In addition to his membership of
Lodge, he was founder of a lodge in Trales, of which he became the
Warden and a joining member of Lodge No. 13, Limerick. He afterwards
all his lodges because of the enforcement of the Papal Bull in Ireland
and, on 19th
April, 1837, the following letter from his pen appeared in the "Pilot"
newspaper of London:
"To the Editor of the 'Pilot:'
"Sir, ‒ A paragraph has been
going the rounds
of the Irish newspapers purporting to have my sanction, and stating
that I had been
at one time Master of a Masonic lodge in Dublin and still continue to
"I have since received letters
to me as a Freemason and feel it incumbent on me to state the real
"It is true that I was a
Freemason and a
Master of a lodge. It was at a very early period of my life and either
censure had been published in the Catholic Church in Ireland
prohibiting the taking
of the Masonic oaths, or, at least, before I was aware of that censure.
I now wish
to state that, having become acquainted with it, I submitted to its
many, very many, years ago unequivocally renounced Freemasonry. I
offered the late
Archbishop, Dr. Troy, to make that renunciation public, but he deemed
I am not sorry to have this opportunity of doing so.
"Freemasonry in Ireland may be
said to have
(apart from its oaths) no evil tendency, save as far as it may
counteract in some
degree the exertions of those most laudable institutions ‒ deserving of
‒ the temperance societies.
"But the great, the important
is this ‒ the profane taking in vain the awful name of the Deity ‒ in
and multiplied taking of oaths ‒ of oaths administered on the Book of
in mockery or derision, or with a solemnity which renders the taking of
any adequate motive, only the more criminal. This objection, which,
perhaps, I do
not state strongly enough, is alone abundantly sufficient to prevent
Christian from belonging to that body.
"My name having been dragged
public on this subject it is, I think, my duty to prevent any person
he was following my example in taking oaths which I now certainly would
and, consequently, being a Freemason, which I certainly would not now
"I have the honour to be,
"Your faithful servant,
At the next
meeting of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, on the 4th May following,
attention was drawn
to the letter by Deputy Grand Master White, when two resolutions were
the first that a committee be appointed to take into consideration the
to report on the same to a subsequent meeting of the Grand Lodge; the
rather, the amendment, was that the Grand Secretary be instructed to
write Mr. Daniel
O'Connell to ascertain if he was the author of the letter in question,
or, in other
words, to make certain of the genuineness of the communication. The
passed by a large majority, and O'Connell's reply to the query of the
was short, but to the point. He merely wrote in his own hand: "
I am the author of the letter
above alluded to.
"28th May, 1837."
it was proposed, seconded, and carried by the Grand Lodge of Ireland
without a division:
Brother Daniel O'Connell formerly of Lodge 189 be excluded from all the
benefits of Freemasonry," the ground being the misleading character of
to Dr. Troy, whose name was mentioned in Daniel O'Connell's letter, it
frequently stated in the public press, particularly of the period at
wrote, that Dr. Troy, the Archbishop, and Dr. Tuohy, the Roman Catholic
Limerick, were both respected members of the Order. The Freemasons
of 1842 said that "it was at a levee at the Duke of Richmond's court,
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, that the secret was discovered. As Dr. Troy
near the vice-regal chair, he happened, by mere accident, to make one
of the old-cherished
signs which was caught up by another brother, who immediately
responded. An introduction
took place immediately after and in the course of the conversation
Dr. Troy said, 'You shall ever find me Brother Troy, but not as priest
The Rev. John Thaer, a native of Boston, U. S. A., formerly a
but afterwards a Roman Catholic priest in Limerick, was also a
given to O'Connell's letter seems to have instigated a series of petty
or, as they may be appropriately termed, "pin-pricks." On 27th March,
1842, to quote one illustration, the parishioners of St. Michael's
Church were, publicly cautioned not to attend the Masonic ball to be
held in aid
of the Masonic Orphan Charity on the following Thursday "under penalty
and denunciation from the altar" on the following Sunday, when the
those attending would be duly published.
It was about
this time that the Archbishop of Tuam addressed the following letter to
J.U. McDonough, a Roman Catholic priest in Canada:
"Rev. dear sir: ‒ Having been
you that there are in Canada some misguided Catholics who would strive
the practices of Freemasonry, scruple not to assert that it was
sanctioned by priests
and Bishops in Ireland, allow me to tell you that this was never the
case; and that
these men are only aggravating their disobedience to the Church by the
guilt of calumny. I have had extensive acquaintance, not only with the
of ecclesiastics, but also with some of those venerable men of more
some of whom are no more, and I can confidently state that neither in
nor in any other part of Ireland, was the bond of Masonry sanctioned by
of the clergy. That Freemasons' lodges were then more numerous and
now, may be true; but their existence, in contempt and defiance of the
denunciations of the clergy, cannot be brought as an argument of their
of the same, more than the prevalence of other evils against which they
do not cease
to raise their voices, could be adduced as a proof of similar
Francis Xavier Carnana, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Rhodes and Bishop
issued a Pastoral Letter against Freemasonry, which he ordered to be
posted on the
doors of, and read in, every Roman Catholic Church in Malta. The
Letter, which is
a vile document and speaks for itself, was as follows:
Nos Don Franciscus Xaverius Carnana, Venerabilibus
Fratribus et Dilectis, Capitulo,
Clero, Populoque Diocesis Melitensis, salutem in Domino Sempiternam.
"We feel it to be a duty of our
ministry to conceal as much as possible such sins as may be committed
by a few persons
in secret, so that the bad example of these may not be known to, or
other, to the scandal of the Church and corruption of good manners. Up
to this period
this policy has been followed by us, for our ecclesiastical doctrine
through the Holy Spirit, to listen for a time silently, and meanwhile
audi tacens simul et quaerens.
"We now draw your attention to
congregation, that detestable lodge; for we are at a loss by what
epithet to denounce
a meeting held in a building in an obscure corner of the city of
long suffering, we are still grieved to see that the several means
which, with evangelical
prudence, we have hitherto adopted to overturn and eradicate this
have proved futile; so that at length we feel ourselves under the
necessity of publicly,
loudly, and energetically raising our voice to exhort, in the name of
all our beloved diocesans, to keep far away from this infernal meeting,
is nothing less than to loosen every divine and human tie, and to
destroy, if possible,
the very foundation of the Catholic Church. We also threaten with the
that Church any persons who, unhappily for them, may belong to any
whether as a member, or in any way connected with, helping or
or indirectly, such society or any of its acts.
"We, with anguish of heart,
heard long ago,
almost immediately on its first assemblage, of the creation of this
and being very desirous that the land under our spiritual dominion
of Malta and Gozo) should continue in ignorance of what was doing under
of darkness, in an obscure part of the city of Senglea, by a few
and that none of our flock should by chance, or from motives of
interest, be tempted
to join this pestilential pulpit of iniquity and error ‒ we have as yet
the evangelical advice of secretly warning and admonishing, leaping
the attacks made on the human and divine laws established among us
mislit be foiled,
and become harmless; but seeing now, that, in spite of all our silent
the meetings of this lodge still continue, we openly, and with all that
frankness, characteristic of the Catholic clergy, in the name of God
of His only true Roman Catholic and Apostolic Church, and authorized as
we are expressly
by the papal authority, denounce, proscribe, and condemn in the most
the instalment, union, meetings, and all the proceedings of this lodge
as being diametrically opposed to our sacred Catholic religion, as
every celestial law, every mundane authority, contradictory to every
maxim, and as tending to disorganize, put to flight, and utterly
of religion, of honesty, and all good there may be in the Holy Catholic
among our peaceful citizens, under the deceitful veil of novelty, of a
philanthropy, and a specious freedom.
"We therefore believe it to be
most beloved diocesans, to address you under these deplorable
incite you to entertain the most profound horror and the deepest
this lodge, union, or society, which endeavors, although as yet in
vain, to vomit
hell against, to stigmatize the immaculate purity of our sacred
Its pernicious orgies anticipate the overthrow of that Order which
reigns on earth,
promote an unbridled freedom of action, unchecked by law, for the
of the most depraved and disorderly passions. Do not allow yourselves
to be deceived
by their seducing language, which proffers humanity fraternal love,
but, in reality,
tends to discord, universal anarchy, and total ruin, the destruction of
and the subversion of every philanthropic establishment. Their agents
hide their malignant intentions by deceitful and never-to-be-redeemed
The great solicitude evinced to conceal every action of this society
under a mask
will make you distrust its word, for honorable undertakings are always
and open, courting observation and inquiry; sins and iniquities alone
in secrecy and obscurity.
"Fathers of families, and you,
whom is entrusted the education of youth, be diligent and be careful of
charge; see that they be not contaminated by this plague spot, which,
confined to one domicile, yet threatens to spread the pestilence
amongst us; scrutinize
the books they read, examine the character of their associates. It is a
practice of this secret society to seduce over youth, under the
of communicating to them, disinterestedly, scientific knowledge. Flee,
then, O beloved
diocesans, as from the face of a venomous serpent, the society, the
of, and all connection with these tutors of impiety, who wish to
and darkness, trying, if possible, to obscure the former, and make you
follow the latter. You cannot possibly gain anything good from
disturbers of rule
and order, who show no veneration for God and His religion, no esteem
for any authority,
ecclesiastical or civil: ‒ men, deceitful and fashioning, who, under a
show of social
honesty, and a warm love for their species, are stirring up an
atrocious war with
all that can render human society honorable, happy and tranquil.
"Consider them as so many
to whom Pope Leo XII, in his often-repeated Bulls, ordered that none
hospitality, not even a passing salute.
"Instead of such persons, bring
honest and just men, who give 'unto God that which is God's and unto
which is Caesar's,' endeavouring to do their duty to God and to their
"Finally, we absolutely
of any grade or condition from having any connection with this lodge,
even indirectly, in its establishment or extension. We order them to
from frequenting it, or giving to its members a place of meeting, under
We place every one under an obligation to denounce to us all persons
who may belong
to this lodge in any capacity, either as members or agents of a secret
by the devil himself.
"Datum Valettae, in Palatio
die 14 Octobris, 1843."
be explained that the lodge referred to was the Union of Malta, No.
407, which was
constituted in Bermola in 1832, although the first minute extant is
dated 3rd November,
1840. It was removed to Senglea in 1843, where, as evidenced in the
epistle, it aroused the ire of the Roman Catholic Bishop. On the
Bishop Carnana's Apostolic Letter, the secretary of the lodge wrote to
Secretary of the Malta Government, lodging a formal complaint, in which
"We make our proceedings in
officially known to you, not as a Fraternity of Freemasons, well
knowing that as
such we are not recognized by the government, but as British subjects
be protected by the law from molestation."
communication was also sent to the Grand Secretary of England:
"Dear Sir and Brother: ‒ The
the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Rhodes and Bishop of Malta, Don
Carnana, having recently issued a pastorale, the object of which was to
and suppress the meetings of Freemasons and other secret societies, and
is more particularly directed against the Union Lodge, 588 established
one of the suburbs of Valetta, Malta, holding their warrant from the
Lodge of London:
"A meeting of the brothers was
held at their
lodge on Monday, the 13th instant, when the following resolutions were
"1st. That in consequence of
of a pastorale by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Malta on the 14th
to bring into disrespect the Masonic body and endeavour to suppress
it is imperiously necessary to appeal to the United Grand Lodge in
London for such
assistance and aid as the circumstances of the case may, in their
"2nd. That the original
document, if procurable,
together with a translation of the same, be forwarded to the Worshipful
Master, for his perusal, with as little delay as possible.
"3rd. That, knowing the
feelings of her
Majesty's Judges to be opposed to, the proceedings of Freemasons, no
redress shall be sought in the Malta courts of law.
"In pursuance of the above
we beg to forward for the perusal of the Worshipful Pro Grand Master
copy of the
original document, and a translation of the same, praying that
from him which the case so manifestly urges.
"By order of the W. M., at the
of the officers and brethren of the Malta Union Lodge,
"To Brother Wm. White G.S.,
"United Grand Lodge of England, London.
"Malta, 15th November, 1843
to those communications have hot, however, been placed on record.
in his Encyclical Letter, Qui pluribus, [Lib 1846] dated 9th November, 1846,
IX did, not refer to the Freemasons by name; it is undoubtedly to that
his fulminations are directed when he says:
"For you already know,
that there are other deceits and frightful errors with which the
children of this
age contend against the Catholic religion, and the divine authority and
of the Church, and endeavour to trample under foot all laws, as well of
as of the State. Such is the tendency of those wicked enterprises which
undertaken against this Roman See of Blessed Peter, in which Christ
laid the impregnable
foundation of His Church. Such is the aim of those secret societies
which have emerged
from their obscurity to devastate and destroy all that is most
venerable, both in
the Church and in the State, and which have been repeatedly
anathematized and condemned
by the Roman Pontiffs, our predecessors, in Apostolic Letters, which
in the plentitude of our Apostolic authority, confirm and command to be
It is interesting
to know that these "secret societies" are in this Encyclical Letter
on the same level of iniquity as "those most crafty Bible Societies,
reviving the old device of the heretics, do not cease to put forth an
of copies of the books of the Sacred Scriptures, printed in various
and often filled with false and perverse interpretations, contrary to
of the Holy Church, which they continually circulate at an immense
expense and force
upon all sorts of persons."
It is interesting
to note that, notwithstanding the many Papal Bulls and Encyclicals, the
of the Grand Orient of Lusitania has the names of the Archbishop of
Evora and D.
Januaire, Bishop-elect of Castello Branco, as being present on the
occasion of the
election of a successor to the Comte de Tomar, Grand Master.
from the time of Leo XII have condemned all secret societies, but,
the specific character of the condemnation, this prohibition did not
extend to societies
limited in membership to members of the Roman Catholic Church, or
formed for the
propagation of aims sanctioned directly or indirectly by the
authorities of that
Church. 'History records the formation of many such societies,
the date of the first sweeping condemnation. About 1850, or earlier,
there was formed
in Portugal a secret society which was called the Order of St. Michael
of Ala. This
Order, according to the first article of its Statutes was essentially
and political. It had for its aim, according to its articles, the
the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman faith, and the restoration of the
legitimacy. One of its political means of action was recourse to arms
Its members took an oath or obligation to preserve inviolably the
secrets of the
members and the things done in and out of lodge. The Order consisted of
degrees: Novices, Chevaliers, Commanders, Grand Crogs, Master, and
Each group of Novices, with its Chevalier, formed a College; a group of
with a Commander, formed a Chapter; a group of Chapters, with a Grand
a Province, of which the Masters and Grand Master were the Superiors.
constitution notwithstanding the fact that the Popes and Catholics
Freemasonry of being secret and say to Freemasons, "If the acts which
in association are innocent, why do you stipulate for secrecy?" Or, as
Cullen, in his Lenten Pastoral of 1859, said: "As secret societies are
cause of the greatest evils to religion, tending to promote impiety and
and are most hostile to the public good, the Catholic Church has
all her children who engage in them. Hence, no Catholic can be absolved
who is a
Freemason, a Ribbonman, or enroled in any other secret society."
On the 11th
February, 1857, at a meeting of the Grand Lodge of England, presided
over by the
Earl of Zetland, Grand Master, the Earl of Carnarvon moved: "That the
Lodge having seen with regret the antagonistic position assumed by the
Church towards Masonry, desires the Board of General Purposes to draw
up a statement
of the principles of the Order, that the same may be sent to the
Masters of all
lodges under the Grand Lodge of England in Roman Catholic countries, to
by them as they shall think fit." After much discussion, however, the
was negatived, and if comment may be made upon the outcome, may it not
be said that
the negative decision was a wise one. The Earl of Carnarvon, however,
Stonehouse the following month, said that at Malta, the Mauritius,
Hong Kong Freemasons had been deprived of their civil and religious
had been interdicted from baptism, marriage, and burial by the Roman
Freemasonry was introduced into the Republic of Ecuador by the Grand
Orient of Peru,
which organized lodges in Guayaquil and Quito. Three years later, the
Garcia Moreno, sought admission into the Fraternity. His application
on account of his notoriously immoral character; and, in revenge, he
called in the
Jesuits, who ruthlessly suppressed all the lodges. Moreno was
assassinated in 1875,
but twelve months elapsed before the population were able to shake off
yoke of the priesthood.
All's Well -- [A Poem]
And Right is Right;
And Right is Might.
In the full ripeness of His Time,
All these His vast prepotencies
Shall round their grace-work to the prime
Of full accomplishment
And we shall see the plan sublime
Of HIs beneficient intent.
Live on in hope!
Press on in faith!
Love conquers all things,
Joins the Mitawin
By Bro. Alanson B. Skinner,
Alanson B. Skinner is one of the most widely known of the younger
and his numerous books and scientific articles have secured for him an
reputation. He has traveled extensively and made detailed studies of
race from the Isthmus of Panama to Hudson Bay. With the natural
instincts of a Mason
seeking "more light" he has joined numerous Indian fraternities and
in their rites. He is the recognized authority on the Menominee Indians
and has published three interesting works covering their material
organization ceremonies and mythology. His book on the "medicine
[Lib 1920] of the northern forest
just been published by the Museum of the American Indian of New York
City. His services
have been given to the American Museum of Natural History, the Museum
of the American
Indian and to the Public Museum of Milwaukee. In the last named he is
article that follows, Brother Skinner relates an account of one of the
ceremonies that he has experienced. In explaining the article he states
story is a combination of two or three experiences rather than of one,
the convenience of the article he has written it as of one continuous
I – In the Lodge of the
the Terrible Eagle, sat dozing in the dusk in his round rush-mat
wigwam. The fire
smoldered, but random drafts slipping in through the swinging mat that
door encouraged little dancing flames to spring up, and these
illuminated the far
interior of the lodge, so that it was possible to observe its
furnishings down to
the mustiest cranny. Around the inner circumference of the wigwam ran a
bench, supported by forked sticks and thickly strewn with balsam boughs
lay bearskin robes. The inner wall of the home was hung with woven reed
curious, antique designs in angular figures and conventional floral
Terrible Eagle's head, on smoke-stained poles, swung several
mat-covered oval bundles,
festooned with age-blackened gourd rattles, war clubs, and utensils and
of unusual portent. These were his sacred war and hunting bundles,
packets of charms
whose use and accompanying formulae he had obtained personally from the
fasting, or purchased at a great price from others more fortunate than
he. For Terrible
Eagle was a renowned partisan or war leader, a hunter, and the greatest
of all Matc
Mitawuk, or Masters of the Grand Medicine Society, a secret fraternal
organization, to which, in one form or another, nearly every Indian of
in all the Great Lakes and Central Western region belongs.
covering was quietly thrust aside and Anam, a wolf-like dog, trotted in
up by the fire, while after him, first dropping a load of faggots from
stumbled Wabano-mitamu, the Dawn Woman, wife of Terrible Eagle, who
grumbling to enter the lodge and turned on her time-gnarled knees to
in after her.
the noise, Terrible Eagle stretched and yawned, then reached over his
head and took
down a calabash shell rattle, and began to shake it gently, while Dawn
aside the birch-bark boxes that cluttered the floor, stirred up the
fire in the
round, shallow pit where it was glowing, and set among the hot embers a
deep, pointed-bottomed kettle of brown earthenware, the base of which
into the ashes by a quick circular motion of the rim. Into this she
water from a birch-bark pail; when it began to simmer she added a
quantity of wild
rice, smoked meat, and as dried berries, which she stirred with an
wooden paddle. The random swish of Terrible Eagle's rattle now began to
itself in the form of a tune, the motif of which might have been
borrowed from the
night babblings and murmurings of a woodland trout brook. It rose in
like the prattle of water racing down the stony riffles; it fell to the
monotone of a little fall burbling into a deep pool. Then, suddenly,
raised his voice in song ‒ a song without meaning to the uninitiated ‒
to the ears of youths and lovers ‒ yet a song potent with the powers of
and ancient as the pine forests.
manituk, hawatukuk, ke'neaminum" ‒ "You, my gods, I am singing to you!"
kina, ketcinau!" "Look you, old fellow," cried the Dawn Woman,
beside her cooking, "why do you sing that sacred song? There is no need
rehearse the chants of the manitous when ice binds the rivers and snow
the land! When new life dawns with the grass blades in the spring, then
need to refresh our memories; not now, while the gods sleep like bears."
‒ silence, ‒ old partner! You do not know everything! Even now there
comes one seeking
the knowledge of the path our brethren and fellows have trod before us.
was hushed; outside the heavy silence of the Wisconsin forest in
the ears. Then came the crunch and squeak of approaching snowshoes
the crusted drifts.
Dawn Woman! Prepare the guest place, spread robes behind the fire, dish
out a bowl
of soup! Some one of our people desires to enter!"
ceased before the doorway, and Terrible Eagle, now hunched before the
before dropping a hot coal on the tobacco in his redstone pipe, to bid
came the hearty response, and a tall, dark warrior, bareheaded save for
of otter fur around his brows, ducked under the doorway and silently
the fire, on the left, to the guest place, where he seated himself,
on a pile of robes. He was clad in a plain shirt of blue-dyed deerskin,
along the seams; in flapping leather leggings; high, soft-soled
moccasins; and a
leather apron handsomely embroidered with colored porcupine quills,
wrought in delicate,
flowered figures. He bore no weapon, and on his swarthy cheeks two
round spots of
red paint were seen in the firelight.
newcomer had devoured a bowlful of steaming stew with the aid of a huge
he lay back among the robes, puffing comfortably on a long-stemmed pipe
of redstone, filled and lighted for him by the old man. As the cheerful
tobacco and kinnikinick permeated the lodge, the stranger began to
speak. He informed
the old people that his name was Muhwase, the Little Wolf, of the Wave
clan of the
Menominee; that he had come all the way from Matc Suamako, the Great
Sand Bar village
on the Green Bay of Lake Michigan; that the young men had opened their
and danced preparatory to going to war against the Sauk, but that the
heard the news and fled southward; and ended with all the gossip and
of his band.
It was not
until Dawn Woman slept and the stars were visible in the winter sky
smoke hole of the lodge, that Little Wolf went out abruptly; he
a huge bundle which he dumped on the floor at the feet of Matcikineu
took his place on the lounge once more.
hands the old man undid the leathern thongs, unwrapped the bearskin
with which the
bundle was enclosed, and spread before him an array of articles that
avaricious sparkle to his red-rimmed eyes. "Nima, nekan! Well done, my
he exclaimed. "These are valuable gifts, and in the proper number. Four
four spears; and four knives of the sacred yellow rock (native copper);
of white wampum; and four garments of tanned deerskin, embroidered with
and much tobacco. Surely this gift has a meaning?"
You to whom nothing is hard," replied the visitor, "It is true that I
am nobody. I am poor ‒ the enemy scarcely know my name. Yet I am
desirous of eating
the food of the Medicine Lodge, as all the brethren have done who have
way before me!"
my grandson! I shall call together the three other Pushwawuk, or
Masters, for their
consent. What you have asked for may seem as nothing to you ‒ yet it is
songs may appear to partake of the ways of children ‒ yet they are
powerful. I understand
you well ‒ you desire to imitate the ways of our own ancient Grand
who was slain and brought to life that we might gain immortality! Good!
done well; in the morning I shall send invitation sticks and tobacco to
leaders here, that your instruction may begin at once!"
II – The Instruction
It was an
hour after sunset. In the rear of Terrible Eagle's lodge sat Matcikineu
other old men, with Little Wolf at their left. Before them lay the pile
gifts, and on the white tanned skin of an unborn fawn stood the sacred
deep drum, hollowed by infinite labor from a short section of a
basswood log, holding
two fingers' depth of water, to make its voice resonant, and covered
with a dampened
membrane of tanned buck hide. Across its head was balanced a crooked
its striking end carved to represent a loon's beak. Before the drum was
wooden bowl-in the shape of a miniature log canoe, heaped with tobacco,
shishikwunun, or gourd rattles with wooden handles, which shone from
age and usage.
A youth tended the fire and kept the air redolent with incense of
grass and cedar. Dawn Woman and Anam, the dog, guarded the door.
his hands over the sacred articles before them, Terrible Eagle began a
invocation, calling on the mythical hero and founder of the Medicine
on the Great Spirit, the Sun, and the Thunderbirds, the good God Powers
of air and earth, and also upon the Evil Powers who dwell in and under
and waiter hidden in the dismal places of the world, to appear in
spirit and accept
the tobacco offered them and dedicate the fees presented to the
prayer was ended, all those gathered in the wigwam ejaculated "Hau,"
the other three elders commenced to smoke and listen, while Terrible
the instruction by relating the history of the origin of the Medicine
the drumstick in his hand, Matcikineu gave four distinct strokes on the
recited in a rhythmic, but solemn tone, hushing his voice to a whisper
when it became
necessary to mention any great Power by name.
He told how
Mate Hawatuk, the Great Spirit, sat alone in the Heavenly Void above
the ever extending
sea and willed that an island (the world) should appear there; how he
that there should spring up upon this island an old woman, who was
known as "Our
Grandmother, the Earth," who was the earth personified. He recited how
Earth Grandmother, through a divine mystery gave birth to a daughter;
how the Four
Winds, desiring to be born as men, entered this daughter's body and
how, when the
hour of their birth came, so great was their power, the mother was torn
and they were not born. This made women forever after liable to death
Terrible Eagle, our Earth Grandmother gathered up the shattered pieces
of her daughter,
and placed them under an inverted wooden bowl, and prayed, and on the
through the pity of the Great Spirit, the fragments were changed into a
who was named Mate Wabus, or the Great Hare, since corrupted into
who was to prepare the world for human habitation.
grew in human form to man's estate, when he was given as a companion
brother a little wolf, but the Powers Below, being jealous, slew the
Then, Ma'nabus in his wrath attacked them, and, being the child of the
they could not resist him. In fear the Evil Powers restored his younger
to life, but, since he had been dead four days, the flesh clave from
his bones and
he stank, and Ma'nabus, in sorrow, refused to receive him and sent him
to rule the
souls of the dead in the After World at the end of the Milky Way in the
Heavens. Hence, human beings may not come back to life on the fourth
wits' end to appease Ma'nabus, the Evil Ones called on the Powers Above
of good portent. They erected a Medicine Lodge on the high hilltops,
facing east and west. The Power of the Winds roofed it with blue sky
and white clouds.
The pole framework was bound with living, hissing serpents instead of
the food for feasting was seasoned with a pinch of the blue sky itself.
Powers entered. The gods of Evil took the north side where darkness and
the good Powers Above sat on the south. Then they all stripped off the
with which they were disguised and hung them on the wall of the lodge,
and all appeared
in their true forms, as aged persons.
guided by the admonitions of the Great Spirit, they decided to give to
tho ritual of the lodge, with its secret ‒ long life and immortality
‒ as a bribe to cease his molestation. But Ma'nabus refused to receive
until the otter volunteered to go and bring him, when he came, and was
and raised, by being slain and brought to life again, thus showing the
of the Powers who opened the lodge.
very ceremony, just as it was given Ma'nabus and later transferred to
and aunts, the Indians, with its rites, rituals, formulae, medicines,
is the same," concluded Terrible Eagle, "as we perform today, as all
brethren and fellows have done who passed this way before us, since the
came out of the ground in the dim mystical past."
As he ended
the old man struck the drum four times, crying, "My colleagues, my
my colleagues, my colleagues!"
Eagle had concluded his part, there was a recess for refreshment and
which lasted until each had smoked. Then another old pushwao or master,
the work. He related to the candidate the identity of the Powers Above
who had given the Medicine Lodge to mankind through Ma'nabus. There
were, he said,
four groups of Evil Powers, who sat on the north side of the lodge.
First were the
Otter, Mink, Marten, and Weasel; second the Bear, Panther, Wolf, and
third the Banded Rattlesnake, the little Prairie Rattlesnake, the Pine
the Hognosed Snake. The fourth group was composed of lesser birds and
Upper World, which had not offended Ma'nabus, was not so well
represented, and was
composed of various predatory birds, such as the Red Shouldered and
These sat on the south side, and in ancient days human lodge members
had been seated
according to the nature of their medicine bags.
of any of these animals might be used as containers or sacks for the
of the craft, but the Dog and Fox, which were formerly associated with
had by their cunning and their custom of eating filth and carrion,
become too closely
associated with witchcraft and were now taboo.
The old master
then told the candidate that each of these animals had severally
donated some special
power to aid mankind. Thus the weasel gave cunning and ferocity in war
and the chase;
the snapping turtle, probably one of the vague fourth group of Evil
given his heart which beats long after it is torn from his bosom to
grant long life.
Each animal had four songs sung in his honor during the session of the
the elder, and the third instructor would teach these to the candidate.
The old master
informed his pupil that in his opinion the Medicine Lodge and its rites
far to the east, in the country by the Great Sea where the dawn rises,
for he had
once met a party of warriors from the far-off Nottowhy or Iroquois, who
a society and its ritual given them by the animals, which had for its
life and immortality for men.
now fetched steaming rice and fat venison, marrow bones, and dried
the little party feasted. The hour was very late; yet none thought of
the feast the third elder did his part. He selected a calabash rattle,
rattling, sometimes drumming an accompaniment, taught the songs of the
Little Wolf. There were songs of opening and songs of closing, as well
as the animal
songs, each repeated four times ‒ the sacred number ‒ and each in
groups of four.
Each was made obscure and unintelligible to eavesdroppers by the
addition of nonsense
syllables. Some, indeed, were so ancient and so clouded by vocables
but their general meaning was remembered even by the brethren. These
songs in a secret magic language. Some chants were in other languages,
Ojibway, and all ended with the mystic phrase, "We-ho-ho-ho-ho," which
meant, "So mote it be." The songs had titles, but these names, too,
magic, and often gave no inkling of the meaning or wording of the song,
of them avoided naming the animals or gods to which they referred,
except by circumlocution
or by merely mentioning some prominent characteristic or attribute of
songs for the "shooting of the medicine" ‒ an act which was so secret
and mysterious that the candidate was as yet kept in the dark as to its
‒ and others for dancing, for thanksgiving, and for dedication.
third elder had ended his synopsis of the songs, which the candidate
had later to
purchase and learn at leisure, the fourth and last past master took him
His part, he said, was short, yet important. He showed the neophyte
which the candidate would be ceremonially given when the proper time
and place were
at hand. The articles the eider had provided were the tanned skin of an
nostrils of which were stuffed with tufts of red-dyed hawk down; the
of the four feet and tail were adorned with fringed rectangles of
leather, embroidered with conventional flower designs in colored
and quills. This was to be the medicine bag of the new member. Through
‒ a slit in the chest of the otter ‒ one could thrust one's hand and
find in the
little pouch made by the skin of the left forefoot of the animal a
small sea shell,
called the Konapamik, or medicine arrow, by which the essence of all
objects contained in the bag was ceremonially "shot" or transferred to
the bodies of a members' lodge brethren during the performance of the
skin contained three other medicines. These were sacred, blue face
paint, the color
of the sky; a mysterious brown powder holding a seed, wrapped in a
packet with a
fresh water clamshell; and another mixture of pounded roots called "the
was a sacred ancient cup, in which the accompanying powder and seed
with a little water and given to all candidates to drink. The mystic
seed was supposed
to be the badge of the Medicine Lodge and was to remain in the
forever, even until he had followed the pathway of the dead along the
to that bourne from which no traveler returns, eternal in the heavens.
or reviver, was a powerful drug for use at all times when life ebbed
sickness or magic.
then," said the last instructor, "are the ways and sacred things of
given us Indians to have and to use, as long as the world shall stand!"
he in turn retired, and the party rolled in their blankets to sleep
before the sun
could look in through the smoke hole of the wigwam.
III – Initiation
It was the
season when buds burst and the young owls, hatched while the snow was
yet on the
ground, were already taking their prey. The discordant croaking of the
as a roar from the marshlands. The arbutus was blooming.
the top of a warm, sunny knoll was an oblong, dome-roofed structure of
with bark and rush mats. It was oriented east and west, and its length,
a full hundred
feet, contrasted oddly with its breadth of twenty.
It was the
evening of the fourth day of the Mitawiwin, or Medicine ceremony. The
three days and nights had been spent by the four masters, led by
in preparing Little Wolf within a room formed by curtaining off one end
of the lodge
proper; in giving him his ceremonial sweat bath of purification; and in
the initiation fees ‒ four sets of valuable goods: clothing, robes,
utensils -on the ridgepole at the eastern end of the lodge, and in
As the sun
set the four old men and the candidate entered the lodge, followed by
the men and
women of the tribe who were already members of the society. Going in at
door the procession filed along the north side, and passing once
the people seated themselves on the right of the door, with the
candidate on the
west side of them, next to Terrible Eagle.
having largely passed in quiescence and instruction, towards dawn an
the lodge approached Little Wolf and stood before him, facing the east.
his hand into his medicine bag he drew forth his sacred clamshell cup
and the powder
containing the seed, which he compounded into a drink, while he sang a
"What Otter Keeps."
preparing the thing that was hung (the little seed), and that which was
When he had
finished and Little Wolf had swallowed the draft, this officer retired,
came forward and took his place, singing. As he ended, he stooped over,
and retched violently until he cast forth a sea shell; this he held in
of his hand, and, chanting, displayed it to the east, west, south, and
then caused Little Wolf to swallow it that it might remain in his body
the Symbol of immortality, and the badge of a lodge member. When this
had been accomplished
the assistant gave place to a third, who sang his four songs and
painted the candidate's
face with the sacred, blue paint. Then a fourth and last assistant came
candidate and the masters, bearing an otter skin medicine bag, which he
Little Wolf's feet, while he sang four songs concerning Ottel, the most
which was entitled Yom Mitawakeu, or "This Medicine Land," but which
no reference to otters whatever!
Now the old
men conducted the candidate four times regularly around the lodge,
while they related
to him somewhat of the story of the ancient Master Ma'nabus, whom he
On the last circuit Terrible Eagle led him to a seat near the western
end of the
lodge and there placed him with face toward the east, remaining with
standing behind, and holding his shoulders.
The men and
women seated around the walls of the lodge sat tense. The silence was
save for the woods' noises outside; the great dramatic moment had
assistant masters, who had just performed before Little Wolf, now
assembled in the
east, facing him, and the first, taking his medicine bag in his two
hands and holding
it breast high before his body, sang to the rapid beat of the drum a
"Shooting the New Member." At its end he gave the usual sacred cry of
"We-ho-ho-ho-ho," blew on the head of the otter skin, and rushed
as though to attack the candidate.
of the neophyte impersonator of the ancient hero the attacker paused
the head of his otter upward, crying savagely, "Ya ha ha ha ha!" The
essence of the bag supposedly striking the candidate, he staggered
was steadied by his faithful friend, only to meet the feigned attacks
of the second
and third assistants, at each of which he reeled once more. But the
charge of the
fourth fellow was so violent that the candidate fell flat on the
the last man laid the medicine bag across the back of the apparently
brother, to be his thereafter. At a sign from Terrible Eagle the four
approached the prostrate candidate, and, raising him to his feet, shook
to remove their shots and restore him to life.
And now all
was rejoicing. Steaming earthen kettles, filled with delicious stews
and soups of
bear and turtle flesh, partridges, and young ducks, were carried in.
and good-natured banter filled the lodge until the last wooden bowl was
clean, when the utensils and scraps were carried out and the drummer
struck up a
lively dancing tune. After the men and women had had each four sets of
general dance took place, wherein the members circled the lodge, the
among them, shooting each other promiscuously with jollity, vying with
to rise and point their bags or fall prone on the earth. All the time a
lively chant was sung:
"I pass through them!
I pass through them!
I pass through even the chief!"
"Ye Gods take part, invisible though ye be beneath us!"
was over, and Keso, the sun, was almost noon high, the four assistants
the initiation fees from the ridgepole and distributed them to the four
and the others who had taken prominent part in the ceremonial, and all
filed out of the western door, singing:
my brethren, I pass my hand over you! I thank you!"
the Little Wolf, watched the last of his erstwhile companions strike
saw the coverings stripped from the lodge structure; saw the last party
He was a
Mitao! A member of a great fraternal organization, who might travel
the foothills of the Rockies, north to the barren lands, south to the
of the Iowa and Oto, east to the land of the Iroquois, and find
brethren who had
traveled the same road, or at least one fundamentally similar. He had
fortitude and fidelity, those two great cardinal virtues of the
and he had come through the sacred mysteries alive and in possession of
rites that had been handed down by word of mouth since the days when
first came out of the ground!
Learning by Doing
way to learn how to do a thing is to do it.
If you would
learn to run an automobile, get behind a steering wheel and put your
foot on the
If you would
learn how to play baseball, put on a mitt and take your turn at bat.
says we learn how to do more things in the first six years of life than
in all remaining
for this is that as children we aren't afraid to tackle anything.
If we would
apply the same will power to our tasks in later life that we applied in
to walk we could make a success of everything.
a new job the only way to proceed is to roll up your sleeves, and do
the job itself.
It will do you little good to discuss the job abstractedly. In three
hours of actual
conflict with the problems you will learn more than in three weeks of
with your predecessor.
men recognize this principle. Officers spend the best part of a
the art of war as an abstract proposition. One year of actual warfare
more than a life-time of study. In the roar of the battle the
general is retired.
We are beginning
to recognize this principle in our educational system. Purely academic
being supplemented by practical work in elementary, high school and
inner side of every cloud
Is bright and shining;
And so I turn my clouds about
And always wear them inside out
To show the lining."
‒ Their Predecessors and Their Successors
By Bro. W. Ravenscroft,
from these four worthies, it may with safety be said they were
undoubtedly the patron
saints of the most important section of the building communities during
of medieval operative masonry, and until the period of its decay. We
come now to
what may be considered the central and most important part of our
study, and shifting
the scene from Rome ‒ that city of splendor, with its teeming
population, many times
larger than in the present day, its pomp, luxury, and pride ‒ we find
on a little lonely, but very lovely island, in what is perhaps the most
in all Europe, the Island of Comacina in the Lake of Como. It is, I
only island the lake possesses, and rising abruptly from its blue-green
covered with foliage, all but uninhabited, it rests on the bosom of the
spring like an emerald gem.
side the shores of the lake slope sharply up and up, rich in foliage of
and plentifully dotted with villages, all picturesque and all teeming
of the past in architecture, legend, and old customs, which survive to
day; while away to the north-east over Bellagio and beyond lie the
which link on the scene to the great Alpine ranges. To stand on an
of this little island, so near the mainland, yet so far removed from
the sound of
human voice or industry (its silence, indeed, broken only by the song
a not too common thing in Italy at the present day, however plentiful
such may have
been in the days of St. Francis) and to look east west north south ‒
in glorious sunshine with every detail reflected in the water of the
lake as in
a mirror, or when the black clouds roll up from the mountains and sweep
the lake, the thunder breaking on the stillness and echoing from hill
to hill ‒
is a thing not to be forgotten; and then to think of its story, of the
characterized with sunshine and tempest, and the great influence the
men of this
tiny island exercised on Western Europe, is to realize that here is one
of the rare
spots where Nature and man have combined to put their indelible mark.
I am indebted
to Dr. Santo Monti of Como for some interesting notes he kindly lent
to the island, from which, by his permission, I extract the following:
isle itself, called Cristopoli by the Longobards, measures about a mile
'and has a long, glorious, and sad history. . . . There were monuments
as far back as to the fifth century of our era. Now the island is
uncultivated, and contains a few vestiges of the old fortifications and
The population of the island must have been extremely numerous then,
the chronicles; the churches thereon were not less than nine (chapels
included). One of them was dedicated to S. Euphemia with a chapter of
including Bishop Litigerio, in 1031. Of all these churches only the
three are left. One of them is at the east end of the isle, it has been
a story and actually serves as a barn or shed for the cattle; the
ancient part of
it inside as well as outside is of well-wrought stone, so closely
inside) that it seems of a single piece. The portion of the outside
wall is decorated
with semicircular arches alternately supported by 'Mensolac' and
with capitals of cubicular form and square bases. Under the last of
there is a window. The church with the north facade finished in two
with a window towards east in each; outside the choir presents a sole
(which contains the two absides).
second remnant, little rising above the earth, is that of a very
called the Dome, and the spot where it stood still conserves the name,
but no other
traces remain of it. Judging by the foundation it must have been
A little farther toward the north are the vestiges of the third,
consisting of the
choir, which, semicircular in shape, is decorated with the cord design
composed alternately of stone and 'terra cuite.' The bases of these
cords is simple
flat stone. The inside of the edifice is filled with debris. In one of
churches, probably in the one dedicated to S. Euphemia, there was a
1.84 x 0.70 metres, in round characters comparatively well executed
the period. It was in praise of Bishop Agrippino, of the first half of
century. When the island was devastated and the church and other
in 1169, the above named slab was transferred to the opposite shore,
where it found
a place in the parochial church on the main altar, where it served as a
A few years ago it was taken away and moved into the basis of the said
the inscription can be read without any difficulty."
was consecrated in 606. He prepared for himself a tomb in the church of
on the island, and was buried in it in 620.
concludes from the foregoing and other evidence in his possession that
of the churches in the island are previous to the seventh century. It
has been my
good fortune to pay two visits to this island, the second of which was
June 1, 1907, and one was gratified subsequently to learn what Dr.
Monti had to
say respecting the little sanctuary, the discovery of which occasioned
visit and subsequent correspondence with him.
Isola Comacina and the Comacines
of the island is very little known to English-speaking people, albeit a
and it may be of interest here to give a few details, without
pretending to do more
than that. We are first introduced to the Island of Comacina as a very
fortified place, built by the Gauls, and afterwards rebuilt by the
Romans, as a
defense against the people of Grisons, one of the Swiss cantons lying
north of the
Lake of Como, and at no great distance therefrom.
year A.D. 480, when the Emperor Zeno sat upon the throne of the East
Ostrogoth, practically master of Italy, took a good deal of interest in
on account of its beauty and habitableness, and, as we are told,
this extension meant further fortification, since it would have
required a considerable
amount of strength to render it the desirable spot for habitation which
would require it to be. Not only so, but being in a convenient
situation some twenty
miles from Como, and surrounded by water, it had from time to time
become a storehouse
of treasure, so that we read it had within its walls a vast
accumulation of wealth.
association is with the great General Narses, through whose action or
as the case may be, the island fell to the Lombards.
It came about
in this way:
eunuch, short of stature, bent and ugly, was at the age of sixty
selected by Justinian,
the Emperor of the East, and placed in command of the army in Italy as
although he had never seen service before. And, notwithstanding this,
such marvelous skill and discernment as to skill and discernment as to
justify the extraordinary step the Emperor had taken. Indeed, after
once recalled to Constantinople, he was found to be the only man
capable of carrying
on the wars in Italy against the barbarians, and in a second campaign
mastered the kingdom. Goths, Huns, and Vandals had successively been
or amalgamated; and when Narses was a second time recalled, the only
on the horizon was the Lombard. Narses was apparently recalled because,
the failure of means of support for his army from the capital, his
taxes on the
people bore so heavily that they petitioned the Emperor to remove him
from the command.
to obey the order of the Emperor (then Justin II) to return, and hence
that the Empress Sophia cried: "I know what to do with the old eunuch:
be confined to his proper place in the women's quarters, and forced to
with the maids."
this insulting message, Narses is said to have replied: "Then I shall
such a coil for the Empress as she will never unravel so long as she
not Narses took his revenge by inviting the Lombards to come into Italy
but doubtless, if their coming was not due to his action, it was more
or less encouraged
by his inaction.
in the year 568, when Narses was ninety years of ago The Imperial
held the city of Como, together with the Island of Comacine and the
country, for the Empire, and one of the fast results of the attitude
taken by Narses
was a Lombard attack upon Como under Alboin, which for some time it
when, after a time, it fell, Francilio retired to Comacine, where, with
bravery, he entrenched himself. This also was in the year 568.
appears to have kept his hold on the island until the year 584, when,
attacked by the Lombards, under Antaris, who naturally found in this
holding by the Empire, when all around was slipping away, a menace to
of his kingdom. After a six months' siege, the island fell into their
Francilio, having secured honourable terms, retired to Ravenna.
was accomplished by a fleet of boats, which surrounded the island and
had called the island Christopolis, because, like Christ, it had become
of the hopeless, a very sanctuary of the destitute and fugitive, gentle
The vast treasure stored in it by many cities fell into the hands of
close of the sixth century we find Comacina again undergoing a siege.
it is held by an insubordinate chieftain, one Gardulf, Duke of Bergamo,
been already subdued once, rose in arms against his King, Agilulf, who
was in some
sense the founder of the Lombard Kingdom. Agilulf besieged and captured
took the Duke prisoner, and, contrary to all expectation, spared his
from chivalrous, and partly from diplomatic considerations. In the year
686 a conspiracy
was made against King Guiniperto, the sixteenth King of Lombardy, by
to drive him from the throne. While the King was gone to the chase,
up sedition in the royal city of Pavia, whence the King was obliged to
to the Island of Comacine, where be fortified himself strongly. But the
to the conspiracy made a voyage to the island unknown to Alahis, and
King to pardon them for the wrong they had committed; and Alahis being
at that time
absent from the city, the conspirators restored Guiniperto to his
reigned over Lombardy until the year 700, when at his death the
succession of his
son Liutperto was disputed by Regimperto, Duke of Turin and cousin of
Liutperto was a minor in the care of Arisprando, a faithful warrior.
With a large
body of troops Regimperto defeated Arisprando at the Battle of Novara,
the throne, which soon passed to his son, Aribert II (701-712). (One
this man was the son of Alahis, who had recently died.) He took
and put him to death, and Arisoprando fled to Comacina.
Here he was
pursued by Aribert, and, dismissing his own forces, fled into Bavaria,
the island was levelled by the soldiers of Aribert. The latter took
Arisprando by blinding his wife and children, and depriving them of
their ears and
tongues, but allowed one infant, Liutprando, to escape with his father,
him to be too young to be dangerous. Little did he imagine what the
be, for Arisprando, collecting forces in Bavaria, descended into Italy
like a bolt
from the blue, and defeated Aribert at the moment when his power seemed
to be at
hurried to Pavia, seized as much gold as he could carry, and in his
flight was drowned
by the weight of his treasure in attempting to cross the River Ticino.
then ascended the Lombard throne, and, dying shortly after (712),
to his son Liutprando, who became the most illustrious of the Lombard
about the year 718 rebuilt Comacina.
of peace for the island may then have set in, for the star of
Charlemagne was in
the ascendant, and the time for the foundation of the Holy Roman Empire
of quiet must have been periodically enjoyed, or the devastation with
island was overthrown time after time could not have been effaced so
as it evidently was. Moreover, it is stated that Charlemagne restored
it, and probably
from that time onward for a considerable period the Comacine Guild
would be able
to mature and develop and exercise its ever-widening influence in both
West. Final peace for Comacina, however, was not to be, and its
downfall was brought
about in a quiet incidental way.
grown in pride and splendor, and in her imperial haughtiness she was
upon the smaller cities of the neighborhood, particularly Lodi and Como
two of the men of Lodi laid their case before the Emperor, Frederick
who swore to avenge their wrongs. On their return these ambassadors
as fools, for no one believed in the promise of the Emperor, and all
in consequence of what they had done, the yoke of Milan would be
heavier than before.
But, although delayed, the Emperor's threat was ultimately carried out
with a vengeance
on Milan, which awed and terrified the whole of the district, and Lodi
for the time at least, were relieved of the oppressor.
took side with the Milanese, and hence incurred the bitterest hatred
from the men
of Como; thus, when the opportunity came, they took their revenge. They
sacked the island in 1124, had seen their own city destroyed in 1127,
in 1152; and now, about the year 1160, or shortly after, they attacked
again, setting fire to it after a desperate struggle. Still the
not come to terms, and so the neighboring country was put to fire and
also Borgo di Menagio.
and other things the Milanese besieged Como, when the latter was
succored with provisions
by the confederate lands of the Lario, to the great detriment of the
who forbade them the passage. Moreover, the siege of Como was shortly
then they reassembled their forces and took their revenge on the
capturing also the fortress of Nesso. The hour had come for vengeance,
took care it should not pass unheeded, while at the same time the blow
dealt so effectively as to remove all possibility of recovery. A decree
from the Emperor that it should never be rebuilt, and practically that
held good to this very day.
says it was in 1169 the final blow was given. And so its tragedy
closes, and, indeed,
except for the one church now standing on the island, it has remained
probably much in the condition in which it is found today ‒ destitute
save the one cowherd who looks after his few head of cattle, and shorn
of all dwellings
except the one ruined chapel now used to house both cattle and cowherd.
What a thrilling
story could be told if only details of the history of this stubborn
were available! And how strangely it reflects in miniature the way in
the Middle Ages, especially in Italy, the arts of peace and the horrors
flourished side by side.
II or his successor, Rudolf I, gave the island to Leo, Bishop of Como,
in the year
1253, with conditions restricting him not to fortify it; and in 1467
of Como restored the ancient church on the island in honour of St. John
and placed in it a marble having a badly-constructed inscription,
runs as follows:
"It is in the year 1160.
"When the island was destroyed
a great pestilence. The ancient church being restored saved the lives
of those bringing
sacred gifts when overwhelmed by a hailstorm. The first day of May saw
of the work, and the last day put the finishing touch to it, in the
year 1400 ‒
add 67 and all will be understood."
sentence probably refers to two, if not more, different periods, and it
from Ballarini's Compendio delle croniche della Citta di Como,
published in Como
How far the
present church on the island can be identified with this restored
building it is
difficult to say, but the present building dedicated to St. John the
according to Dr. Monti, of the sixteenth century.
in 1559, wrote concerning the Island of Comacina, and the following is
of what he says:
"Over against this portion of
shore there stretches an island facing it lengthwise, displaying as one
the ruins of an ancient city, [destroyed] by order of the people of
Como, that the
Larian people, warned by this punishment, might be admonished to
fidelity to their parent city of Como. This city was famous in the time
of the Goths,
who had such confidence in its fortifications that they stored in it
of all their nation."
writes in his History "that the Isle of Comacina, in the Larian Lake,
and overthrown by Aripertus, King of Lombardy, when Arisprandus, who
up and trained Liutperties, the boy-king, had by chance fled thither
after his defeat
in the battle by Novaria. However, after the arrival of Charlemagne,
the kingdom of Lombardy, I found the island restored. From this island
of the Jovii derives its origin, and there are extant evidences of the
our ancestors ‒ to-wit, the Church of Mary Magdalene in the town of
over against the island across the Eudipus by the very short passage of
These ancestors of the Jovii contributed fields from their estates with
for the succor of the needy and of travelers, and for 600 years there
in our family the uninterrupted privilege of nominating the prefect and
we bear today also on our coat of arms, as proof of our descent, the
castle of the
island, superimposed an the Larian waters, with the addition of the
with which Fredericus Ahenobarbus honored our family, just as lately we
the Columns of Hercules, by the gift of the Emperor Charles I, who
looked with extremely
favoring eyes on our zealous efforts.
the destruction of Milan, however, the people of Como, aided by the
Ahenobarbus, in revenge for the recent treachery of the islanders,
the island, ordering the inhabitants to remove to Varena, adding the
a severe public example, that no one should ever build again on the
so it has remained for 400 years, hideous with its enormous ruins; and
merely the church remaining, which was spared through superstitious
awe, it remains
a habitation for the rabbits."
And who were
the masters who lived at Comacine? Mention has already been made of the
of the Architectural College in Rome after the other guilds had been
and to this college probably belonged some at least of the nine martyrs
we have been alluding. But when Rome fell under Goth and Vandal, and
reached a condition
such as is pictured by Gregory the Great, there was no further call for
in Rome, and, accordingly, about A.D. 460 they, being now entirely
and travelling northwards, settled themselves in the district of Como,
for their headquarters the Island of Comacina, where they fortified
and in the sixth century held their own against the Lombards for twenty
being subjugated; while in the twelfth century again they held their
until overthrown by Como, and condemned to desolation by Frederick
It is, of
course, impossible to fix the exact date of their coming to Comacina,
but it is
noteworthy that it was in 480 that Theodoric interested himself in the
caused building work to be done upon it. This is the more suggestive,
since it points
to the probability, not only of a connection between Theodoric and the
masters, but also suggests their association with Ravenna. Further, it
that when Belisarius entered Rome, after it was besieged by Totila in
he found people willing to help with the rebuilding, but none skilled
to guide them.
evidence, dating back to A.D. 643, refers to them as the Majestri
although it is not certain whether this appellation located them on the
is intended to apply to the district around Como, it is clear that by
they were a compact and powerful guild, capable of asserting their
rights, and that
the guild was properly organized, having degrees of different ranks and
at their head. Now, when we consider that during what historians have
regarded as the Dark Ages, between A.D. 500 and 1200, there was a
perfect and consistent
link between the old and the new, and a perfect and consistent
development of architecture
‒ be it Lombard Byzantine, as at Ravenna and Venice; Romanesque, as at
Gothic, as at Milan; Norman Saracen, as in Sicily and the South, each
its individuality, and yet at the same time its relation to the other ‒
we can form
no other conclusion than that to a well-organized body of men such
order must be
when we further consider that in the twelfth century the round arch
Italy, Germany, France, and England, with details having wonderful
practically Lombard in character; that in the thirteenth century, when
mingled with the round ones in Italy they did so in all the other
and that the art of church building was in full power when other arts
were but just beginning, we are forced to the conclusion that nothing
short of a
sound organization can have brought about such a result. And our
to the Comacine Masters are mainly due the mighty achievements spread
Western Europe is borne out by fact. To them can be traced the churches
of S. Ambrose
at Milan, the cathedral at Monza, S. Fidele and S. Abbondio at Como, S.
at Pavia, S. Vitale at Ravenna, S. Agnese, S. Lorenzo, S. Clemente and
Rome, as well as the more ornate cathedrals of Pisa, Lucca, Milan,
etc., and the cloisters and aisles of Monreale and Palermo. Through the
architecture and sculpture spread to France and Spain, Germany and
there developed into new amd varied styles, according to the exigencies
material, etc. It was from these brethren at Como that Gregory sent
England to accompany St. Augustine, and Gregory II sent such to Germany
while Charlemagne fetched them into France to build his church of Aix
the prototype of French Gothic, and, as some say, modelled on S.
It is really
wonderful how little seems to be known of these Comacine Masters, and,
Leader Scott [Lib 1899] drew attention to them, what
little was known
appears to have been confined to a small circle. This is what the late
Kingsley says in his lecture on the Roman and the Teuton [Lib 1864] (1891): "Then follow some
laws in favor of the Masters of Como, Magistri Comacines, perhaps the
of the great society of Freemasons, belonging, no doubt, to the Roman
who were settled about the Lake of Como, and were hired on contract (as
themselves express) to build for the Lombards, who, of course, had no
skill to make
anything beyond a skin tent or a log hall."
Jackson, R.A., in his review of Le Origini dell' Architettura Lombarda
Vol 1, Vol 2] (Architectural Review for
August, 1907) says:
"Signor Rivoira traces a reminiscence of the old Etruscan art which
that of Rome, coexisted for a long time with it, and to which there is
to think Roman art owed a much larger share of its peculiar character
than has been
generally admitted. In Germany it is recorded that Bishop Rufus of
artificers from Italy to repair his cathedral ‒ possibly among them
of the mysterious Guild of Magistri Comacine, of whom so little is
known with exactitude."
indeed so little known with exactitude, but a great deal may be, and,
and verse can be given for a large part of what we claim for the
Comacines. We have
already noted that they were called into England, Germany, and France,
is no reason to doubt that to a very large extent, whenever some
building of importance
was wanted in Western Europe one of the lodges of Comacines was applied
notion so common amongst us that the great cathedral and church
builders were the
ecclesiastics may be true in the sense that they promoted these works,
they were the chief architects, except in rare instances, cannot be
borne out by
the facts of the case. Doubtless some were admitted to the Guilds of
lay members, while others qualified as architects, but in the main
skilled and properly
organized workmen were called in. They were even summoned back to Rome,
their hand is to be found in all the great buildings of the ages
between A.D. 500
and 1200, and in many after that.
good illustration of this it fell to my lot to find. The interesting
church of S.
Ambrogio at Milan has a very fine atrium, and on the outside there is a
ARCIVESCOVO DU MILAN
DAL DCCCLXVIII AL DCCCLXXXI
ERESE QVEST ATRIO
English reads, "Auspert of Bissone, Archbishop of Milan from 868 to
this atrium." But Leader Scott says, Look amongst the foliage and you
find the real name of the architect, "Magister Adam." So on two
I did look with all the care I could bring, and, not withstanding two
of the custodians
of the church, one of whom had been there for forty years, told me
there was no
such person as Magister Adam concerned with the building, but that
the atrium, my search at the last moment, and just as I was giving it
up as vain,
was rewarded, not where Leader Scott said exactly, but not far off.
There on the
top of one of the shafts of the main entrance to the church were the
"Magister Adam," but upside down.
It was no
small pleasure to fetch one of the men who had denied Magister Adam's
with the church, and to see the undisguised surprise with which he
regarded my discovery,
and the truly amusing way in which he reluctantly abandoned his
explanation of the "Magister Adam" being upside down may be that,
to some critics, the atrium of St. Ambrogio was rebuilt some two
hundred years after
his time, and that in replacing this particular stone it got put in the
up. But this is only one case among many ‒ for instance, on a monument
in Sta. Maria
in Trastevere one reads the name of "magister Paulus,"* and on the
Ragione in Milan there is a little equestrian statue of the Podesta
1233, by Benedetto Antelami, chief of the Comacine masters. I quite
careful research would demonstrate the custom of calling in the guild
the design as well as to execute the work. Moreover, it is a
significant thing that,
after the removal of the lodge of Lucca to Florence, on December 14,
1321, no great
work in architecture arose either in Lucca, Pistoja, or Pisa, while all
Florentine buildings date after this time.
as to the development of architecture under the Comacines. The Romans
an art in which architectural treatment largely masked real
when the latter was in cement or brick. Their adornment was
superficial, and it
was for the Comacines to develop the style which chiefly in Italy
became a treatment
of real arches (round) on real columns (the latter often taken from
buildings) and slightly pitched wooden roofs, which they afterwards
into barrel vaults. Then came upon them the side influences from the
East and South,
that from the East bringing the Dome and Byzantine ornamentation, and
the South (Saracenic) developing into the Italian Gothic or Pointed
matured into the completeness of our Northern cathedrals both in France
until the whole succumbed to the enormous sweep of the Renaissance,
all the Roman orders, together with the vault and the dome, and
the architecture of the Middle Ages.
is to a Cardinal who died in 1407, and on it is written "Magistri
boc hopus." Magister Paulus must therefore have probably worked this
1407, the date of the Cardinal's death.
(To be continued)
You've Got To Stoop To Lift -- [A Poem]
lots of good in this here world,
And lots of folks are fine;
They want to straighten what is knurled
For me, and mates of mine.
They'd like to help us, but a few
In one great error drift:
They never seem to see that you
Have got to stoop to lift.
Some female taxis to the slums
To labor for the Lord
And shows her satins to the bums,
Who satins can't afford.
If we don't fully understand,
Or care, then she is miffed;
But, when you lend the helping hand,
You've got to stoop to lift.
There is no satin-slippered way
To reach a human heart;
You cannot be the finer clay
And us a thing apart.
To raise men up it will not do
To pray, and let them shift.
Your Christ got down, and so must you ‒
You've got to stoop to lift.
The Teachings of Masonry
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
paper is one of a series of articles on "Philosophical Masonry," or
Teachings of Masonry," by Brother Haywood, to be used for reading and
in lodges and study clubs ‒ From the questions following each section
of the paper
the study club leader should select such as he may desire to use in
particular points for discussion. To go into a lengthy discussion on
question presented might possibly consume more time than the lodge or
may be able to devote to the study club meeting.
the study club meetings the leader should endeavor to hold the
to the tenet of the paper and not permit the members to speak too long
at one time
or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident that the
is turning from the original subject the leader should request the
members to make
notes of the particular points or phases of the matter they may wish to
or inquire into and bring them up after the last section of the paper
should be closed with a "Question Box" period, when such questions as
may have come up during the meeting and laid over until this time
should be entered
into and discussed. Should any questions arise that cannot be answered
by the study
club leader or some other brother present, these questions may be
submitted to us
and we will endeavor to answer them for you in time for your next
references on the subjects treated in this paper will be found at the
end of the
* * *
‒ The Masonic Conception Of Education
no schools when Freemasonry came into existence. Medieval Europe had
but no great public institutions for the diffusing of it. There were a
where men might receive an "education" for the priesthood, and there
here and there, a few monasteries, nunneries, brotherhoods, lay
what not which dispensed to a handful of young people the rudiments of
Of schools as they now exist, and have existed for two or three hundred
were none. Nor was there in any community a daily press, or weekly
or a library, or cheap books, or a learned society, or a correspondence
was such a thing as education, often of a high type, and sometimes of a
afterwards excelled for the Medievalists gave us the greatest
has ever been known, and some of the greatest pictures, and much
not to mention the flowering out of the religious spirit: these gifts
come from an ignorant and debased people, such as the medievalists are
by many often
supposed to have been. To erect a St. Mark's or a St. Peter's, to build
such a city
as Venice, or to paint such pictures as those of Tintoretto, or to
ideal and spirit of the Franciscan Movement required a trained
intelligence, a directed
and fruitful genius, which can only come from that discipline of the
that we know as "education."
If the people
had no schools whence came such an education? The answer to this
question is found
in the system of apprenticeship which was in universal use with those
brotherhoods that built Venice, and erected the cathedrals, and painted
and created the sculptures. Instead of going into a public school the
into a guild. Instead of studying from a teacher who sits behind a desk
with a book
in his hand, the medieval student learned from a master in the very
work. Instead of receiving a diploma on sheepskin he was given the
means of proving
to anybody that he was himself a master workman, entitled to receive a
wages wherever he might go.
into the place of some medieval architect entrusted with work on one of
cathedrals which became at once the wonder and despair of all
You had to have skilled workmen. You were compelled to find men who
knew how to
hew stone properly out of a quarry, how to dress it in the rough, how
to read plans,
how to solve geometrical problems, how to carve, to erect scaffoldings,
an arch, throw up a spire, and also, in many cases, how to organize and
workmen. Where would you find such men? You would draw from the ranks
youths such as gave promise of skill and you would very carefully have
in all these processes, and, because many of these processes were
secrets, you would take great care to bind these youths to you in a
which knowledge might not escape clandestinely to the outside world.
for educating youths into the extremely difficult arts of fine building
of the causes which led to the founding of Freemasonry. Because of this
the trade union grew into a lodge. Members were bound together by
solemn ties, and
local organizations were compelled to affiliate themselves together
into a wide
Brotherhood of workmen.
was called an "apprentice," or "learner," for such does the
word mean in nearly all languages. There were no books wherewith to
teach him, so
his masters taught him by means of the work itself, and the tools and
used in the work. And since these students had to live together in
it was necessary also to train them in morality, for without morality
be no permanent association. And because these young men were to work
buildings being erected by religious organizations it was inevitable
should come to have a central place in the scheme of education. In all
this we have
the beginnings and the conditions out of which Freemasonry arose.
Masonry reached that stage in its history wherein it became transformed
into Speculative, or Symbolical Masonry, learning, or knowledge, or
(one may use any of these terms), had come to be at the core of it. But
knowledge of actual building arts was no longer of any purpose to the
the Fraternity the old "work" was gradually transformed into symbols
allegory, and the "apprentice" in the new order of things was set to
the art of building manhood and brotherhood.
- Is apprenticeship
still in use?
- By whom?
- Would you like to see it return
- What was a guild?
- How did the guild differ from
our modern "trade union"?
- Were the early builders
"ignorant stone masons"?
- How did they secure the
knowledge to do what they did?
- What did a "lodge" mean to them?
- What did initiation mean?
- Why was the lodge kept in such
- What was a trade secret?
- In what way did the necessity
for educating youths to be builders bring about
the organization of Operative Masonry?
was the teaching of morality so important in Operative Masonry?
In the early
eighteenth century when the old Operative Craft was made over into the
institution as we now know it, it happened that one of the major
prophets of the
new day, William Preston, was burning with an enthusiasm for education.
schools in England for the sons of a few rich, but no school for the
among those young men who found their way into the transformed Masonry
few with any education at all. Preston said, "Let us then make the
a school room. While we are making Masons of these youths let us at the
give them the rudiments of knowledge." So he worked out an elaborate
of lectures in which were set forth something of all the subjects
between the five
senses and the fine arts. The Second degree as it now stands is to a
the result abiding memorial of that noble endeavor. When Freemasonry
into existence in the form recognized as such by us it was very largely
institution. When it found its great rebirth in England during the
Grand Lodge era
it rapidly became a center of knowledge. It has searched for "light"
the beginning; it has always inculcated in its devotees a desire for
light" ‒ today it continues to hold up as its ideal of human perfection
man of "enlightenment." Therefore this emphasis which to we place on
need for light is not a hatched-pseudo-emphasis, but a passion deeply
very nature of our Order, and inseparable from it.
What is true
of Masonry's attitude toward education, is equally true of its attitude
institution which is the custodian of education, the public school.
Those who wonder
why we should keep so watchful an eye upon every educational enterprise
satisfy their wonder by a careful study the birth, the growth, and the
of our Fraternity.
be quite useless, to many another essayist has learnt to his sorrow, to
to fashion a definition of education, for it is one of those
conceptions which defy analysis and escape words: but even so it is a
we recognize without understanding it and describe without defining.
There was a
time when by "education" men referred to a fixed body of knowledge,
from past times, crowned by tradition and approved by authority, which
into the minds of students by a certain fixed method. This quantum of
was supposed be invariably suited to all minds, whatever their cast or
the boy who could not master it was thereby catalogued among the
dunces, or the
shirks. There was a great deal more truth in that old conception of
the present day reformers are willing to admit but even so it is a
we must abandon. There is no such thing as a quantum knowledge the
which constitutes education, for education, so the psychologists have
made us see,
is quite another kind of thing.
A human being
comes into this world quite helpless and quite ignorant. He is so
dependent on others
that the word "baby" is almost synonymous with the word "helplessness."
He cannot talk, or read, or walk, work, or feed, or clothe himself ‒ a
abjectly helpless it would be hard to imagine. An adult man, if he be
all ways, must be able to work so well that the world will pay him
money for it.
He must be able to make his wants felt, his thoughts known, and his
He has a wife to cherish, a family to support, a home to maintain. He
something of the functions of citizenship. He must be able to take his
his fellows in all the thous and activities of normal life.
It is education
that bridges over the wide gulf between the helplessness of the babe
and the manifold
richness of the adult nature. Parents, insofar as they are tutors of
their own children,
schools, books, teachers, and the individual's own experience, are all
so many instruments
of education, and it matters little how a man secures education so long
as he is
an adult able to fulfil all his normal functions in the various
life. What particular kinds of knowledge a man must have, whether it be
Greek, literature, science, philosophy, civics, what not, depends on
of any particular man and upon the conditions under which he has to
live his life.
Anything is good education that enables us to be happy in our life
it will be seen that education is by its own inherent nature a social
is something that prepares a man to live with his fellows, to work with
for them, to understand them, to get on well with them. It is a thing
possible the fulfilment of the fragrant saying to the effect that it is
a good and
beautiful thing for brethren to dwell together in unity. And since
by its nature a social thing, a thing fraught with all the fates of
it is perfectly self-evident that education must be defined and managed
itself, and for society's own good. To permit any group to turn
education into an
anti-social engine, so that it functions against all in the favor of a
few, is as
foolish a thing as to turn loose upon society all the hordes of
It is because
of this fact that Freemasonry is so keenly interested in and concerned
education of all the children of all the people." The "Temple" which
the Craft is building is nothing other than the human family living
The equality and democracy for which it has ever stood is nothing other
preaching of the fact that men and women are by nature brethren and
together as such. If there are any educational agencies, or any types
upon which Freemasonry wages a tireless war, it is because those
agencies are promulgating
an education which teaches men that we are not all brethren, and that
it is not
wise for us all to try to live together in harmony. Any institution
upon democracy as Freemasonry insists upon it must everlastingly be
with the institutions of education. Like schools, like people.
which demands so high an educational ideal on the part of the outside
so it would seem, itself set a shining example. This is the whole pith
of the National Masonic Research Society. There is no known way
a kind of magic, we can find light in Masonry. If a man wishes to learn
of history, he studies it; so, if a man would learn Freemasonry he must
Initiation is no occult process whereby, without the exercises of his
and minus the necessary acquisitions of knowledge, a man may be
conducted into the
full glow of truth, Masonic or otherwise. Those who would become real
work to that end ‒ the light does not come miraculously but at the end
of a toilsome
way. There is a vast deal – far, far more than most men dream ‒ of
truth hidden away in our traditions, our history, our customs, our
laws, and, above
all, in our incomparable ritual, but a man can no more become possessed
treasure without working for it, than he can come into an understanding
without studying it. Masonic Research does not mean a delving into the
of antiquity for rare lore ‒ it means a digging out of Masonry that
is now in it for truth, and for light.
may sound like broad generalizations, but if so, they are
generalizations of facts
that are real enough. To some of us it seems a sin and a shame that
lodges do not scruple to push a man from one degree to another until he
them all, and all the badges that go with them, without so much as an
to tell him what it all means, without so much as a step taken toward
into a realization of all that he has experienced. No wonder that there
are so many
Masons who have nothing of Masonry save the name!
Before you begin a discussion
of the subject endeavour to define your own
conception of "education."
- Could you tell how
youths were educated five hundred years ago?
- What was a nunnery?
- A monastery?
- A lay brotherhood?
- A seminary?
- When did printing first bring
knowledge into the reach of the poorest?
- What was the greatest thing
produced by the Middle Ages? ("Medieval"
means "Middle Ages").
- What did the church of that day
have to do with education?
- Does the church still foster
- By whom were most of our
American colleges founded?
- How was a cathedral built?
- What kind of an education did
that process require?
- What does the Second degree
mean to you?
- What can you tell about Preston?
- Could you now improve the
Second degree how?
- How could the modern lodge be
made into a school?
- Do you know what Masonry has
done toward upholding our American school system?
- What agencies are at work to
tear down that system?
- Do you agree with the
definition of education given in the paper?
- Do you believe yourself to be
an educated man?
- What has education to do with
- Why is there a vital
relationship between the principles of Masonry and the
principle of public education?
can Freemasons set a good example to the outside world?
Encyclopedia ‒ (Revised Edition):
p. 70. There are twenty-one references under this head which should be
the one treating of
p. 353, and
and "Mysticism," pp. 496-500.
most suggestive information relative to the instruction and meaning of
steps in educating the candidate.
"Preparation of the Candidate," p. 578, and
"Preparing Brother," p. 578.
Bridge Builders of the Middle Ages, p. 117.
Comacine Masters, p. 161
Fellow, p. 261
Fellow Craft, p. 261;
Fellow Craft Perfect Architect, p. 262. These references should be read
one dealing with
"Degrees," p. 203, and
"Desaguliers," p. 207. Of the latter to whom we may not unreasonably
some service in the science of the Second degree, it has been said that
two gracious kings to view all Boyle ennobled and all Bacon knew."
Gilds, p. 296.
Lodge, p. 449. On pages 449-452 there are twenty-two references to the
or the Masonic terms of which it is a part. It is not surprising that
the word dealing
with congregations of Freemasons solemnly convened for work and worship
so prominent and frequent a use by the brethren.
Preston, p. 579. See also "Prestonian Lecture" and "Prestonian
on p. 582;
"Harodim," p. 319. Preston, a most methodical student and writer, laid
down the monitorial portion of the work which was later concisely
arranged by Thomas
Smith Webb whose biography on page 841 should therefore be read in
that of Preston.
Roman Colleges of Artificers, p. 630.
Travelling Masons, p. 792.
* * *
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study," of which the foregoing paper by
Haywood is a part, was begun in THE BUILDER early in 1917. Previous to
of the present series on "Philosophical Masonry," or "The Teachings
of Masonry," as we have titled it, were published some forty-three
in detail "Ceremonial Masonry" and "Symbolical Masonry" under
the following several divisions: "The Work of a Lodge," "The Lodge
and the Candidate," "First Steps," "Second Steps," and
"Third Steps." A complete set of these papers up to January 1st, 1921,
are obtainable in the bound volumes of THE BUILDER for 1917, 1918, 1919
and the remaining papers of the series may be had in the 1921 bound
will be ready for delivery early in December. Single copies of 1921
are not obtainable, our stock having become exhausted.
is an outline of the subjects covered by the current series of study
by Brother Haywood:
A. Reasons for a course explaining what the "teachings
of Masonry" mean.
‒ B. How
one can arrive at his own Philosophy
Conclusion. The Philosophy of Masonry is
not a study of philosophy in general, but a study of Masonry such as a
gives to any great intellectual problem.
1. ‒ The
Masonic Conception of Human Nature.
2. ‒ The Idea of Truth in Freemasonry.
3. ‒ The Masonic Conception of Education.
4. ‒ Symbolism.
5. ‒ Secrecy.
6. ‒ Masonic Ethics.
7. ‒ Democracy.
8. ‒ Equality.
9. ‒ Liberty.
10. ‒ Masonry and Industry.
11. ‒ The Brotherhood of Man.
12. ‒ The Fatherhood of God.
13. ‒ Endless Life.
14. ‒ Brotherly Aid.
15. ‒ Schools of Masonic Philosophy.
course of Masonic study has been taken up and carried out in monthly
meetings of lodges and study clubs all over the United States and
Canada, and in
several instances in lodges overseas.
of study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information, THE
and Mackey's Encyclopaedia.
* * *
HOW TO ORGANIZE
AND CONDUCT STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
may be organized separate from the lodge, or as a part of the work of
In the latter case the lodge should select a committee, preferably of
members who shall have charge of the study club meetings. The study
should be held at least once a month (excepting during July and August,
study club papers are discontinued in THE BUILDER), either at a special
of the lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular communication at
which no business
(except the lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to study club purposes.
lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the lodge over to the chairman of the study club committee. The
be fully prepared in advance on the subject to be discussed at the
members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned
prepared with their material, and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Haywood's paper by a previous reading and study of it.
STUDY CLUB MEETINGS
1. Reading of any supplemental
papers on the subject for the evening which may
have been prepared by brethren assigned such duties by the chairman of
2. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper.
3. Discussion of this section,
using the questions following this section to
bring out points for discussion.
4. The subsequent sections of the
paper should then be taken up and disposed
of in the same manner.
5. Question Box. Invite questions
on any subject in Masonry, from any and all
brethren present. Let the brethren understand that these meetings are
particular benefit and enlightenment and get them into the habit of
asking all the
questions they may be able to think of. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, send them in to us and we will endeavor to
to them in time for your next study club meeting.
information should enable study club committees to conduct their
difficulty. However, if we can be of assistance to such committees, or
member of lodges and study clubs at any time such brethren are invited
to feel free
to communicate with us.
Sundown -- [A Poem]
my sun of life is low,
When the dewy shadows creep,
Say for me before I go,
"Now I lay me down to sleep."
I am at the journey's end,
I have sown and I must reap;
There are no more ways to mend ‒
Now I lay me down to sleep.
Nothing more to doubt or dare,
Nothing more to give or keep;
Say for me the children's prayer,
"Now I lay me down to sleep."
Who has learned along the way ‒
Primrose path or stony steep ‒
More of wisdom than to say,
"Now I lay me down to sleep?"
What have you more wise to tell
When the shadows round me creep?
All is over, all is well....
Now I lay me down to sleep.
"By Being a Man"
who studies carefully all that is said and done at the entrance to the
the candidate seeks admission thereto, will find food for long
in the whole circle of ideas suggested by the Ritual, not another one
is more worthy
of the carefullest thought than that which is taught by the entrance
in that ceremony the Fraternity declares, in the plainest words and
it requires, by way of qualification, of its devotees. What it requires
far more than most Masons perhaps have ever realized, but even so it
may be summed
up in this, that Masonry demands of candidates sound manhood, nothing
more and nothing
It is not demanded that the candidate be rich, or that he be famous, or
or that he be of one race rather than another, or that he be old or
young: nor is
he asked if he believes in any one or the ten thousand creeds which vex
or if he belongs to this school of philosophy rather than to that. He
by none of these things, but "by being a man," and by possessing the
and qualifications which normally go with being a man."
is meant force of character; good judgment, ability to work, to carry
to fulfill one's duties; manhood is the salt of the earth, the hope of
the foundation of government, the guarantee of progress, and the
salvation of man.
The race is not to be saved, if ever it is saved, by opinions,
and creeds, but by men and women who together know how to use good
and experience. The special abilities that give men prominence, and the
graces that lend them distinction, are all secondary to that. And what
is true of
the world at large is true of that world within the world, Freemasonry.
can do all that is its mission to do if it have enough manhood within
without manhood it can do nothing.
* * *
The High Fees Danger
carries with it its own dangers, in Masonry as well as in the world at
the great advance now being made by the Fraternity there lurks one of
which a wise Mason will do well to consider. This advance means, in the
of cases at least, the shouldering of debts for ambitious building
the raising of fees for initiation, and the increase of dues. In some
brought to the attention of the writer Blue Lodges have raised their
fees to one hundred dollars, and a few to one hundred and fifty
dollars: along with
these high fees naturally go high dues of fifteen, twenty or
a year. Consider what this means! How can a man who works for three
dollars a day
afford to pay one hundred dollars initiation fees? If he already
chances to be a
member of the Order how can he afford to pay yearly dues of fifteen or
The thing cannot be done, and this means that as the Fraternity raises
of entrance in just that proportion will it shut out an ever increasing
otherwise worthy men.
uphold the tendency to increase fees beyond a reasonable limit urge
that it helps
to shut out undesirables, and that the Fraternity is growing too
But that is not the point. Among the laboring classes are men quite as
membership and quite as capable of Masonry as can be found in any other
and if these men chance to be already in the Order it is working an
on them to raise the annual dues beyond their ability to pay.
and this is the gravest matter of all, this action which shuts out a
of American life endangers the genuine democracy and equality of the
Order. As things
now stand, the Order appears to be quite as rich and powerful in the
goods of this
world as is healthy for it.
At the entrance
to the lodge the candidate is made to understand by the way in which he
and by the state of his pockets, that it is his manhood and not his
that count; and that it is out of his manhood that real Masonry is to
What an inconsistency it is to tell him this at the door and then to
tell him the
exact opposite at the secretary's desk!
"When I Have Time" -- [A Poem]
I have time, so many things I'll do
To make life happier and more fair
For those whose lives are crowded now with care;
I'll help to lift them from their low despair,
When I have time.
When I have time, the friend I love so well
Shall know no more those weary, toiling days;
I'll lead her feet in pleasant paths always,
And cheer her heart with words of sweetest praise,
When I have time.
When you have time! The friend you hold so dear
May be beyond the reach of all your sweet intent,
May never know that you so kindly meant
To fill her life with sweet content,
When you had time.
Now is the time! Ah, friend, no longer wait
To scatter loving smiles and words of cheer
To those around whose lives are now so dear;
They may not need you in the coming year ‒
Now is the time.
The Papal Index
A GREAT many
Protestants believe that the famous Index Expurgatorious of the Roman
is now a thing of the past, and soon to be buried, like the coat of
mail and the
castle moat, in the merciful oblivion of everlasting forgetfulness.
is not the case. The Index is now what it has ever been, and as
Indeed the late Pope, Leo XIII, took pains to have it overhauled, its
and its constitutions revised and republished. These Leonine
Constitutions are published
herewith for the benefit of the faithful in our own fold who may have
about such things.
has been taken from an excellent work on the subject: "The Censorship
Church of Rome," [Lib 1906/07; Vol 1, Vol 2] by George Haven Putnam, Litt.
and published by G.P. Putnam's Sons, 2-6 West 45th Street, New York, N.
Y. The author,
who is a man of great erudition, and has had a lifelong penchant for
has canvassed his subject to the last limits of detail and interest,
and he who
would produce anything to supersede it must be prepared for great
labors. Not the
least admirable of the many admirable traits of Dr. Putnam's two
volumes is his
good humored fairness, his desire to prove loyal to the truth as well
as to his
theme; to an intelligent man, himself experienced in the history and
art of publishing,
this has been doubtless no easy virtue while dealing with such
materials as comprise
the history of The Censorship of the Church of Rome.
of prohibiting publications not favorably received by the lords of the
performed by a bureau known as the Congregation of the Index. The
this body may be left to the pen of Dr. Putnam who, on page 427 of his
writes as follows:
"The Congregations date in
their final organization
from Sixtus V (1585). The series now comprises eighteen. These
be compared in the nature and in the exercise of their functions to the
committees of the United States Senate, excepting that their decisions
do not have
to be referred to any general body for action. These decisions are
disapproved by the pope. The pope retains for himself the official
headship of the
Congregation of the Index on the ground that the work of this
Congregation has to
do directly with matters of doctrine. The working body of the
Congregation of the
Index comprises ten or twelve members with votes, including always a
group of cardinals.
In addition to these voting members, there is a varying number of
who are called in as experts in different divisions of knowledge, but
who have no
votes in the decisions arrived at. The Congregation which bears the
is charged with the responsibility of receiving and sifting
referring each division of such business to its appropriate
Congregation. The Congregation
of the Index has from the outset been conducted under the influence and
practical control of the Order of the Dominicans. The secretary, who
bears the name
'commissaries' and who is always a Dominican, has the general
the selecting and the shaping of the business of the Congregation. It
is to the
commissaries that suggestions are submitted by ecclesiastics or others
books which, in their judgment, call for the consideration of the
The commissaries is also himself under obligation to submit titles of
of which he has personal knowledge."
(20th) edition appeared
in 1948, and it was formally abolished on 14 June 1966 by Pope Paul VI.
General Decrees Concerning the
Censorship of Books
Article I - Of the Prohibition
I. – Of the Prohibited Books
of Apostates, Heretics, Schismatics, and Other Writers.
1. All books condemned before the
year 1600 by the Sovereign Pontiffs, or by
Oecumenical Councils, and which are not recorded in the new Index, must
as condemned in the same manner as formerly: with the exception of such
as are permitted
by the present General Decrees.
2. The books of apostates,
heretics, schismatics, and all writers whatsoever,
defending heresy or schism, or in any way attacking the foundations of
are altogether prohibited.
3. Moreover, the books of
non-Catholics, ex professo treating of religion, are
prohibited, unless they clearly contain nothing contrary to Catholic
4. The books of the
above-mentioned writers, not treating ex professo of religion,
but only touching incidentally upon the truths of Faith, are not to be
as prohibited by ecclesiastical law, unless proscribed by special
II. – Of Editions of the
Original Text of Holy Scripture and of Versions not in the Vernacular.
5. Editions of the original text
and of the ancient Catholic versions of Holy
Scripture, as well as those of the Eastern Church, if published by
even though apparently edited in a faithful and complete manner, are
to those engaged in theological and biblical studies, provided also
that the dogmas
of Catholic Faith are not impugned in the prolegomena or annotations.
III. – Of Vernacular Versions
of Holy Scripture
6. As it has been clearly shown by
experience that, if the Holy Bible in the
vernacular is general permitted without any distinction, more harm than
is thereby caused, owing to human temerity all versions in the
by Catholics, are altogether prohibited, unless approved by the Holy
See or published
under the vigilant care of the Bishops with annotations taken from the
the Church and learned Catholic writers.
7. All versions of the Holy Bible,
in any vernacular language, made by non-Catholics,
are prohibited and especially those published by the Bible Societies,
been more than once condemned by the Roman Pontiffs, because in them
the wise laws
of th Church concerning the publication of the sacred books are
these versions are permitted to students of theological or biblical
the conditions laid down above (No. 5).
IV. – Of Obscene Books.
8. Books which professedly treat
of, narrate, or teach lewd or obscene subjects
are entirely prohibited, since care must be taken, not only of faith,
but also of
morals, which are easily corrupted by the reading of such books.
9. The books of classical authors,
whether ancient or modern, if disfigured
with the same stain of indecency, are, on account of the elegance and
their diction, permitted only to those who are justified on account of
or the function of teaching; but on no account may they be placed in
the hands of,
or taught to, boys or youths unless carefully expurgated.
V. – Of Certain Special
Kinds of Books.
10. Those books are condemned which
derogatory to Almighty God, or to the Blessed Virgin Mary or the
Saints, or to the
Catholic Church and her worship, or to the Sacraments, or to the Holy
See. To the
same condemnation are subject those works in which the idea of the
Holy Scripture is perverted, or its extension too narrowly limited.
moreover, are prohibited which professedly revile the Ecclesiastical
or the clerical or religious state.
11. It is forbidden to publish,
keep books in which sorcery, divination, magic, the evocation of
spirits, and other
superstitions of this kind are taught or commended.
12. Books or other writings which
new apparitions, revelations, visions, prophecies, miracles, or which
new devotions, even under the pretext of being private once, if
the legitimate permission of ecclesiastical superiors, are prohibited.
13. Those books, moreover, are
which defend as lawful dueling, suicide, or divorce; which treat of
or other societies of the kind, teaching them to be useful, and not
the Church and to Society; and those which defend errors proscribed by
VI. – Of Sacred Pictures
14. Pictures, in any style of
of our Lord; Jesus Christ, the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Angels and
Saints, or other
Servants of God, which are not conformable to the sense and decrees of
are entirely forbidden. New pictures, whether produced with or without
may not be published without permission of ecclesiastical authority.
15. It is forbidden to all to give
in any way to apocryphal indulgences, and to such as have been
proscribed or revoked
by the Apostolic See. Those which have already been published must be
from the hands of the faithful.
16. No books of indulgences, or
pamphlets, leaflets, etc., containing grants of indulgences, may be
permission of competent authority.
VII. – Of Liturgical Books
And Prayer Books.
17. In authentic editions of the
Breviary, Ritual, Ceremonial of Bishops, Roman Pontifical, and other
books approved by the Holy Apostolic See, no one shall presume to make
whatsoever; otherwise such new editions are prohibited,
18. No litanies ‒ except the
common litanies contained in the Breviaries, Missals, Pontificals, and
as well as the Litany of Loreto, and the Litany of the Most Holy Name
already approved by the Holy See ‒ may be published without the
approbation of the Ordinary.
19. No one, without license of
authority, may publish books or pamphlets of prayers, devotions, or of
moral ascetic, or mystic doctrine and instruction, or others of like
though apparently conducive to the fostering of piety among Christian
issued under license, they are to be considered as prohibited.
VIII. – Of Newspapers and
20. Newspapers and periodicals
attack religion or morality are to be held as prohibited, not only by
but also by the ecclesiastical law.
Ordinaries shall take care,
whenever it be necessary,
that the faithful shall be warned against the danger and injury of
reading of this
21. No Catholics, particularly
shall publish anything in newspapers or periodicals of this character,
some just and reasonable cause.
IX. – Of Permission to Read
and Keep Prohibited Books.
22. Those only shall be allowed to
and keep books prohibited, either by special decrees, or by these
who shall have obtained the necessary permission, either from the
or from its delegates.
23. The Roman Pontiffs have placed
power of granting licenses for the reading and keeping of prohibited
books in the
hands of the Sacred Congregation of the Index. Nevertheless the same
power is enjoyed
both by the Supreme Congregation of the Holy Office, and by the Sacred
of Propaganda for the regions subject to its administration. For the
city of Rome
this power belongs also to the Master of the Sacred Apostolic Palace.
24. Bishops and other prelates with
jurisdiction may grant such license for individual books, and in urgent
But if they have obtained from the Apostolic See a general faculty to
to the faithful to read and keep prohibited books, they must grant this
discretion and for a just and reasonable cause.
25. Those who have obtained
faculties to read and keep prohibited books may not on this account
read and keep
any books whatsoever or periodicals condemned by the local Ordinaries,
the Apostolic favour express permission to be given to read and keep
books by whomsoever
prohibited. And those who have obtained permission to read prohibited
remember that they are bound by grave precept to keep books of this
kind in such
a manner that they may not fall into the hands of others.
X. – Of the Denunciation
of Bad Books.
26. Although all Catholics,
the more learned, ought to denounce pernicious books either to the
Bishops or to
the Holy See, this duty belongs more especially to Apostolic Nuncios
local Ordinaries, and Rectors of Universities.
27. It is expedient, in denouncing
books, that not only the title of the book be expressed, but also, as
far is possible,
the reasons be explained why the book is considered worthy of censure.
whom the denunciation is made will remember that it is their duty to
the names of the denouncers.
28. Ordinaries, even as Delegates
Apostolic See, must be careful to prohibit evil books or other writings
or circulated in their dioceses, and to withdraw them from the hands of
Such works and writings should be referred by them to the judgment of
See as appear to require a more careful examination, or concerning
which a decision
of the Supreme Authority may seem desirable in order to procure a more
Article II – Of the Censorship
I. – Of The Prelates Intrusted
with the Censorship 0f Books.
29. From what has been laid down
(No 7), it is sufficiently clear what persons have authority to approve
editions and translations of the Holy Bible.
30. No one shall venture to
books condemned by the Apostolic See. If, for a grave and reasonable
particular exception appears desirable in this respect, this can only
on obtaining beforehand a license from the Sacred Congregation of the
observing the conditions prescribed by it.
31. Whatsoever pertains in any way
Causes of Beatification and Canonization of the Servants of God may not
without the approval of the Congregation of Sacred Rites.
32. The same must be said of
of Decrees of the various Roman Congregations; such Collections may not
without first obtaining the license of the authorities of each
observing the conditions by them prescribed.
33. Vicars Apostolic and
Apostolic shall faithfully observe the decrees of the Sacred
Congregation of Propaganda
concerning the publication of books.
34. The approbation of books, of
the censorship is not reserved by the present Decrees either to the
Holy See or
to the Roman Congregations, belongs to the Ordinary of the place where
35. Regulars must remember that, in
to the license of the Bishop, they are bound by a decree of the Sacred
Trent to obtain leave for publishing any work from their own Superior.
must be printed either at the beginning or at the end of the book.
36. If author, living in Rome,
to print a book, not in the city of Rome but elsewhere, no other
required beyond that of the Cardinal Vicar and the Master of Apostolic
II. – Of the Duty of Censors
in the Preliminary Examination of Books.
37. Bishops, whose duty it is to
permission for the printing of books, shall take care to employ in the
of them men of acknowledged piety and learning, concerning whose faith
they may feel sure, and that they will show neither favor nor ill-will,
aside all human affections, will look only to the glory of God and the
38. Censors must understand that,
matter of various opinions and systems, they are bound to judge with a
from all prejudice, according to the precept of Benedict XIV. Therefore
put away all attachment to their particular country, family, school, or
and lay aside all partisan spirit. They must keep before their eyes
the dogmas of Holy Church, and the common Catholic doctrine, as
contained in the
Decrees of General Councils, the Constitutions of the Roman Pontiffs,
and the unanimous
teaching of the Doctors of the Church.
39. If after this examination, no
appears to the publication of the book, the Ordinary shall grant to the
in writing and without any fee whatsoever, a license to publish, which
printed either at the beginning or at the end of the work.
III. – Of The Books To Be
Submitted To Censorship.
40. All the faithful are bound to
to preliminary ecclesiastical censorship at least those books which
treat of Holy
Scripture, Sacred Theology, Ecclesiastical History, Canon Law, Natural
Ethics, and other religious or moral subjects of this character; and in
all writings specially concerned with religion and morality.
41. The secular clergy, in order to
an example of respect towards their Ordinaries, ought not to publish
when treating merely natural arts and sciences, without their knowledge.
also prohibited from undertaking the management of newspapers or
the previous permission of their Ordinaries.
IV. – Of Printers and Publishers
42. No book liable to
may be printed unless it bear at the beginning the name and surname of
author and the publisher, together with the place and year of printing
If in any particular case, owing to a just reason, it appears desirable
the name of the author, this may be permitted by the Ordinary.
43. Printers and publishers should
that new editions of an approved work require a new approbation; and
that an approbation
granted to the original text does not suffice for a translation into
44. Books condemned by the
are to be considered as prohibited all over the world, and into
they may be translated.
45. Booksellers, especially
should neither sell, lend, nor keep books professedly treating of
They should not keep for sale other prohibited books, unless they have
leave through the Ordinary from the Sacred Congregations of the Index;
such books to any person whom they do not prudently judge to have the
right to buy
V. – Of Penalties against
Transgressors of the General Decrees.
46. All and every one knowingly
without authority of the Holy See, the books of apostates and heretics,
heresy; or books of any author which are by name prohibited by
also those keeping, printing, and in any way defending such works;
incur ipso facto
excommunication reserved in a special manner to the Roman Pontiff.
47. Those who, without the
of the Ordinary, print, or cause to be printed, books of Holy
Scripture, or notes
or commentaries on the same, incur ipso facto excommunication, but not
48. Those who transgress the other
of these General Decrees shall, according to the gravity of their
offence, be seriously
warned by the Bishop, and if it seem expedient, may also be punished by
that these presents and whatsoever they contain shall at no time be
impugned for any fault of subreption or obreption, or of Our intention,
or for any
other defect whatsoever; but are and shall be ever valid and
efficacious, and to
be inviolably observed, both judicially and extrajudicially, by all of
rank and preeminence. And We declare to be invalid and of no avail,
be attempted knowingly or unknowingly contrary to these, by any one,
under any authority
or pretext whatsoever; all to the contrary notwithstanding.
And We will
that the same authority be attributed to copies of these Letters, even
provided they be signed by the hand of a Notary, and confirmed by the
seal of someone
in ecclesiastical dignity, as to the indication of Our will by the
No man, therefore
may infringe or temerariously venture to contravene this document of
ordination, limitation, derogation, and will. If anyone shall so
presume, let him
know that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God, and of the Blessed
St. Peter's in Rome, in the year of the Incarnation of our Lord one
hundred and ninety-seven, on the 25th day of January, in the nineteenth
A. Panici, Subdatary
Curia: J. De Aquila Visconti.
Registered in the
Secretariat of Briefs,
Schedule of Indexes
of Indexes Which Were Issued Under the Authority of the Church, or
Been Compiled by Ecclesiastics, Were Published Under the Authority of
Henry VIII, the Archbishop of Canterbury.
1543, Paris, the Sorbonne.
1544, Paris, the Sorbonne.
1545, Lucca, the Inquisition.
1546, Louvain, Theol. Faculty, Emperor Charles V.
1549, Cologne, Synod.
1549, Venice, Casa.
1550, Louvain, Theol. Faculty, Emperor Charles V.
1551, Valentia, Inquisition.
1552, Florence, Inquisition.
1554, Milan, Arcimboldi.
1554, Valladolid, Inquisition.
1554, Venice, Inquisition.
1558, Louvain, Theological Faculty.
1559, Valladolid, Valdes.
1559, Rome, Paul IV.
1564, Trent, Pius IV.
1569, Antwerp, Theological Faculty of Louvain.
1570, Antwerp, Theological Faculty of Louvain.
1571, Antwerp, Theological Faculty of Louvain.
1580, Parma, Inquisition.
1583, Madrid, Quiroga.
1584, Toledo, Inquisition.
1588, Naples, Gregorius.
1590, Rome, Sixtus V.
1596, Rome, Clement VIII.
1607, Rome, Brasiehelli.
1612, Madrid, Sandoval
1617, Cracow, Szyskowski
1624, Lisbon, Mascarenhas.
1632, Seville, Zapata.
1640, Madrid, Sotomayor.
1664, Rome, Alexander VII.
1670, Clement X.
1682, Innocent XI.
1704, Rome, Innocent XII.
1707, Madrid, Volladores.
Namur and Liege,
1729, Koniggratz, Bishop.
1747, Madrid, Prado.
1754, Vienna, Archbishop and Emperor.
Rome, Benedict XIV.
1767, Prague, Archbishop.
1790, Madrid, Cevallos.
1815, Madrid, Inquisitor-General.
1835, Rome, Gregory XVI.
1841, Rome, Gregory XVI.
1865, Rome, Pius IX.
1877, Rome, Pius IX.
1881, Rome, Leo XIII.
1895, Rome, Leo XIII.
1900, Rome, Leo XIII.
two schedules of Church Indexes or even of papal Indexes could be
would be in precise accord with each other. An Index of one date would
some years later with a later date, but sometimes without change of
text; in the
majority of instances, these later issues carried with them supplements
were summarised the prohibitions of the years succeeding the original
above schedule, which may be taken as approximately complete, is
intended to cover
only those Indexes which were issued under the authority of the Church
and the State,
and which, having included, in addition to the classified lists of
separate 'constitutions,' decrees, or briefs, may be accepted, at least
of reference, as constituting each a separate Index publication."
Publications Wanted, For
Sale, And Exchange
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to where
obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than those listed
on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the publications
wanted have been
out of print for years. Believing that many such books might be in the
other members of the Society willing to dispose of them we are setting
column each month for the use of our members. Communications from those
Masonic publications will also be welcomed.
addresses are here given that those interested may communicate direct
other, no responsibility of any nature to he attached to the Society.
It is requested
that all brethren whose wants may be filled through this medium
the Secretary so that the notices may then be discontinued.
By Bro. George
D. MacDougall, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, Canada:
"History and Cyclopedia," by Oliver and Macoy;
"A Concise Cyclopaedia of Freemasonry," by E. L. Hawkins;
"Masonic Facts for Masons," by W. H. Russell:
"Genius of Freemasonry," by J. D. Buck;
"The Traditions, Origin and Early History of Freemasonry," by A. T. C.
"Illustrations of Freemasonry," by Wm. Preston;
"The Spirit of Freemasonry," by Wm. Hutchinson.
By Bro. D.
D. Berolzheimer, 1 Madison Ave., New York, N. Y.:
"Realities of Masonry," Blake, 1879;
"Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," Condor, 1894;
"Masonic Bibliography," Carson, 1873;
"Origin of Freemasonry," Paine, 1811.
By Bro. Ernest
E. Ford, 305 South Wilson Avenue, Alhambra, California;
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, volumes 3, 6 and 7, with St. John's Cards,
also St. John's
Cards for volumes 4 and 5;
"Masonic Review," early volumes;
"Voice of Masonry," early volumes;
Proceedings Grand Council of California for the years 1877, 1878 and
Transactions Supreme Council Southern Jurisdiction for the years 1882
By Bro. Henry
H. Klussmann, 310 Monastery St., West Hoboken, New Jersey:
"The Masonic Eclectic," volumes 1 and 2, published by Masonic
and Manufacturing Co., New York, N. Y.;
"The Historical Landmarks and Other Evidences of Freemasonry," by
Oliver,.D.D., published by Masonic Publishing Co., Wm. T. Anderson, 3
East 4th St.,
New York, N. Y.
By Bro. David
E. W. Williamson, P. O. Box 754, Reno, Nevada:
Perdiguier's "Livre du Compagnonnage," and W. H. Rylands' "Freemasonry
in the Seventh Century," quoted in Gould's "Concise History of
By Bro. H.
Sandelands, 9258 91st St., Edmonton, Alberta, Canada:
"The Spirit of Freemasonry," by Wm. Hutchinson;
"Signs and Symbols," by Dr. G. Oliver;
"Symbolical Teachings of Masonry and Its Message," by T. M. Stewart;
"Sidelights on Freemasonry," by J. T. Lawrence.
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin,
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel Lawrence,"
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry."
For Sale or Exchange
By Bro. Silas
H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin, "Stray Leaves from a Freemason's Note
by George Oliver. This volume also contains "Some Account of the Schism
the presumed origin of the Royal Arch Degree." Univ. Mas. Lib. edition.
$3.00. "Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry," by Robert Morris. (Fiction
and anecdotes.) Price $3.50.
Masonry's Right Of Way -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
come to us in numbers now where once there
was but one,
The trail that leads up to our doors seems fairly overrun;
And so the question comes to us, how can the Craft today
Be popular and still maintain its old-time mystic sway?
A new and faster age is here and we're of it a part
And there's so much in this old world that tends to win its heart
Away from what once seemed to be held more in Brotherhood,
And from what we have always taught to be man's highest good.
So let us welcome to the Art all who are qualified;
The things that they most need should not be to them now denied;
They've nowhere else to go to find what we in Truth can give,
Our mission is to teach to them that Brotherhood must live.
And much within the past has come to us to do and dare, ‒
To help to keep this world of ours in fairly good repair,
And it may come to us again as in our country's past
When it was ours to forge the dies that were for freedom cast.
So in these days of dire unrest we're finding but our own
To help to build the Temple walls that henceforth may be known
As that one place where truth and love in altruistic sway
Displayed the beauties of its Art by its own right of way.
no greater sign of a general decay of virtue in a nation, than a want
of zeal in
its inhabitants for the good of their country.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication m this department.
George B. Foster
article on "The Finality of Masonry" aroused my curiosity to know
about Mr. George B. Foster to whom he refers.
BUILDER for August, last, page 222.) George Burman Foster was a
professor of theology
in the University of Chicago until his death a year or so ago. He
became the theological
storm center at three separate times: first, by his publication of "The
of the Christian Religion" [Lib 1906]; second, by the publication
Function of Religion in Man's Struggle for Existence" [Lib 1909]; and third, by the heresy
trial in which his brother Baptists of Chicago
tried to oust him from his ministerial fellowship on account of certain
in the last mentioned book.
* * *
of THE BUILDER for August last has interested me much. But what is
meant by "Mopses"?
I see that it has some reference to "female Freemasons," but what is
L.B.D., District of Columbia.
refers to the dog. If you will return to the picture you will note that
one of the
ladies is handing a dog to the candidate. That animal was used by those
lodges as a sign of faithfulness, and it was that use which won for
them the sobriquet
"mopses." The term, so it is supposed, came from the German "mops,"
which means a pug dog.
* * *
I have never
been able to get clear in my mind just what is meant by Masonic
you can help me out. Also, maybe you can recommend a book or two on the
so that I can get posted.
Jurisprudence has to do with all matters pertaining to Masonic Law, and
customs and usages, the Landmarks for example, as have to do with
Masonic law. Mackey's
Manual of Masonic Jurisprudence [Lib 1872] may be recommended as,
the best work on the subject. THE BUILDER has published a number of
Jurisprudence, notably the series prepared by Bro. Atchison which ran
III, beginning with the January issue; and the articles by Bro. Roscoe
pages 105 and 211 of the same volume, and pages 117, 136 and 317 of
* * *
The "Four Old Lodges"
And What Became of Them
I have wondered whatever became of those "Four Old Lodges" which
so conspicuously in the rise of modern Speculative Masonry? Did they go
out of existence?
absorbed by other bodies? If they are still working they should be
for Masons the world over, and I think we should hear more about them.
G. L. C., Indiana.
for us Bro. R. F. Gould devoted one of his most valuable essays to this
This essay was read at an installation meeting of "Fortitude and Old
Lodge, No. 12," on March 5, 1900, and may be found in its published
his "Collected Essays and Papers Relating to Freemasonry" [Lib 1913] which was published by
William Tait, 1913. The following paragraph, on
page 186 of that volume, answers your query:
"All Four of the Time
have had their mutations of fortune. Antiquity seceded, became a Grand
eventually returned to the fold. Original No. 2 is dead. Fortitude and
has lost its rank; and the Royal Somerset House and Inverness was
erased from, but
after a lapse of a few years restored to the roll. Nevertheless, the
which survive, given if they were at the bottom of the list of lodges
where they are, would always have connected with them associations
to no other lodge, so that if they have not priority of rank they stand
of estimation over all other lodges. It is somewhat remarkable that no
of these lodges have been written. But the fame of Old Antiquity, the
of Fortitude and Old Cumberland, and the galaxy of worthies who were
Somerset House and Inverness, may yet, let us hope, serve as founts of
from which future chroniclers may draw freely, and as freely record in
the eminent services rendered to Freemasonry by previous generations of
Craftsmen, whose names adorn the rolls of either of the three still
of Immemorial Antiquity; or, to vary the expression, the three living
of whose existence "the memory of man runneth not the contrary."
* * *
The Cryptic Degrees
I had an
argument with a Brother Mason which we have agreed to leave to you to
said that the Cryptic Degrees of Masonry included all those that belong
Arch Masonry. He said that the term refers to only three of those
degrees is he
right, or am I?
G. J. H., Georgia.
we mistake your inquiry you are neither one right, for the term
should be used only of the two degrees known as Royal, and Select
Master. The word
"Crypt" comes from the Greek term "Krupto," which means "to
hide," and it was early used of a vault or underground cavern, such as
catacombs where the persecuted Christians were wont to hide.
Masonry is that which has to do with the vault. There was a vault, it
Solomon's Temple; stones were hewn out there, it is probable, and much
of the work
done in preparing stones for the building was carried on in it.
* * *
Books on The Cross
Can you recommend
a book on the cross as a symbol?
L. B. T., North Dakota.
making of such books there has been no end. The French savants have
time to the subject than any other group of scholars: if you read in
write us again and we shall give you a list of titles. In English you
probably find what you are looking for in the two following volumes:
in Tradition and History," [Lib 1898] by W. W. Seymour, Putnam's,
and "The Cross in Ritual, Architecture and Art," [Lib 1900] by George S. Tyack, William
Andres and Company, London, 1900.
* * *
Free and Accepted Americans
Can you tell
me something about "The Free and Accepted Americans"? I think they were
a kind of secret political body in the early days of the last century,
is as much as I can learn about them.
was formed about 1853 as a native American patriotic secret society.
was a man named William Patton and its first meeting was held in a
stable, the second
in Convention Hall, New York City. In 1855 there were fifty-nine
temples in New
York City and Kings County. It later was absorbed by the Know Nothing
did not survive the Know Nothing movement. Its original name was
It was afterwards known as Wide Awakes but the most common name was the
Order of the American Star, Free and Accepted Americans. The form of
the name indicates
that many of its members or at least its founders were Masons but I
to show that the organization itself was ever affiliated with the
See McMaster's History of the United States in chapters dealing with
Some Pertinent Comment and
In an entirely
friendly spirit, but none the less emphatically, I must make protest
third paragraph of your editorial on "A Pressing Masonic Need" in the
May issue of THE BUILDER. I am surprised that you should use such a
word there as
"evil," where it is so uncalled for.
In your second
paragraph, you use the word "shame" in the positive degree to describe
a condition of mind, and rightly so. The cheerful ignorance of very
placed brethren, let alone the undecorated masses, is only equaled by
attitude in these matters.
In your fourth
paragraph, you use the word "evil" in the superlative degree, and
so. With many of us in Canada the term "American Masonry" is becoming
a synonym for all that is inaccurate, unreliable, and fanciful to the
in work and word. Your presses seem to turn out "literature" somewhat
as Lenin prints ruble notes; you know the results.
But you have
no justification for using the word "evil" in the comparative degree ‒
or any other ‒ to describe the condition so well set forth in your
It might be styled "regrettable," but I do not concede even that, for
why should the young man be blamed for having less wisdom than his
opportunities have United States Masons had to develop Masonic
field of original research is much more limited than that of your
English and European
brethren; you have of native origin, only that referred to by Bro.
Parker in your
issue for last November ("Freemasonry among American Indians"); of
subjects you have little besides the quarrel as to seniority between
the Grand Lodges
of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, which is of only local interest at
the various methods of work due to brethren, immigrants from the
British Isles and
Europe, uniting as best they could in territories where no Grand Lodge
jurisdiction, and without any standard save their memories and good
is it "unfortunate" that "the chief treasure of Masonic learning"
is of English origin? It will then be equally unfortunate that your
stocks, with their genius for self-government are also imported from
origins, and that you have strayed so far from the standards of your s
American (Indian) predecessors.
You put the
cart before the horse in stating that "the Masonry of England is so
from ours that . . . their books are misleading to an American reader."
fault is more properly a reflection upon American ritualists. Our
work which dates from 1814 at least, is still available for comparison
but to assure themselves, since 1776, that
"Daughter am I in my Mother's
But mistress in my own"
have "improved" the work much as the village choir did Handel. The
fact now is that the Masonry of the United States is so very different
of England that your books are misleading to an English reader, and
that has application
as between your own Grand Lodges, too.
I must, however,
admit the truth of your closing sentences in this objectionable third
The editions of our good books are too small for all but contemporary
always will be so long as the degree mills work and men have the
Freemasonry is but a pleasant social order with some funny trimmings.
Even in 1878,
the learned author of Kenning's Cyclopedia writes that our literature
is often "a
drug on the market," which would indicate that the proportion of those
take Masonry seriously, to the general membership who don't, was no
than it is today.
I think Most
Wor. Bro. Schoonover, in support THE BUILDER, is doing just what you
ask for, and
that from your readers ‒ helped thereto by your united efforts, past
and to come
‒ will appear those able to carry on the ideals set up by Quatuor
if it takes three generations to make a gentleman, how long will it
take to make
a scholar in a line of thought that is not associated with commercial
needs? I think you will admit that this requires a type of mind and
that your young nation has not yet produced.
N.W.J. Hayden, Ontario
of the words in the editorial in question can, by any fair
interpretation, be construed
to mean that I have described English Masonic literature and
scholarship an "evil"
then all those words are at once and in toto recalled and recanted: but
that was not the point of the paragraph at all. The "evil" lies in the
fact that we American Masons are so largely compelled to depend on a
that is foreign to us. What would your English brethren, say Brother
they suddenly to be deprived of their own literature and as suddenly
on American books and writers? American Masonry is in many ways quite
from the English variety, and I can well imagine that English Masons,
an imagined condition, would feel like walkers in a fog as they would
try to make
their way through the chapters written about American Masonry and by
Some of us, by dint of keeping everlastingly at it, have gotten English
more or less straightened out in our minds, but the great majority of
readers are in a different way: some of the very best books ever
written on Masonic
themes are shut to them simply because they can't find their way about
in the fields
of English Masonic life. It is that state of affairs that is the
not the fact that we have access to English literature. As to that
BUILDER has been second to none in recommending it, and using it, and
and promoting it.
I do not
believe for a moment that the mere fact that we are "a young nation"
are young only in a certain very restricted sense as your Gilbert
pointed out in a valuable essay) has anything to do with our Masonic
any more than it has had anything to do with our American scholarship
in other lines.
The fact that Henry Charles Lea was an American did not prevent him
the best histories of the Inquisition ( see what Lord Acton says about
have ever been written, and the fact that Motley was born here did not
make it impossible
for him to write a history of the Rise of the Dutch Republic. We have
the same facilities
for Masonic scholarship that we have for any other. scholarship; also,
we have here and there in the great body of American Masonry many minds
capable of the highest performances in the subjects in question as
minds bred by
any other nation.
this "evil" about which I wrote? Why haven't we something adequate by
way of a national Masonic literature? I believe it is because American
eighty or ninety years ago took a certain "set," or fell into certain
ruts, one of the results of which is that it has been indifferent to,
actually hostile to, any attempt to spread abroad the true light
own history and character. To this very day, and in some Grand
well as in subordinate lodges, the mere suggestion that something be
done by way
of encouraging Masonic study and Masonic literature will be greeted
with a great
hue and outcry, as though some unhappy brother were about to abolish
landmarks. It is because our traditions have so long looked in a very
direction that we have no body of Masonic literature worthy of us, and
to anybody to try to produce such a literature.
that we have little Masonic background and few Masonic traditions. Is
it your thought
that all Masonic literature should be antiquarian in its nature? It
does not seem
so to me. We need first-class histories of the Masonry of each and
our Jurisdictions; we need a reliable one-volume history of Masonry in
States; and we need a general clearing up of origins as a whole: but we
and as badly, a body of literature that can describe, appraise, and
as it now exists, here and abroad.
wish me to say that "the Masonry of the United States differs very much
the Masonry of England," instead of vice versa, very well; it is merely
of words. The fact remains that, for one or a thousand reasons, the
there: and by token of that fact is it that we need a literature that
conditions as they are here and addresses itself to our own Masonic
mind in such
a way that we can understand "what it is all about."
* * *
The First Recorded Freemason
Dudley Wright's article in the June issue of THE BUILDER it is
suggested, in the
second sentence, that Sir Robert Moray who was initiated five years
prior to Ashmole
‒ which would be in 1641 ‒ was the first speculative brother of whom we
It may be of interest to know that in "Two Centuries of Freemasonry,"
[Liv*] published by M.'.W.'. Brother Ed Quartier-la-Tente, of
appears on page twenty-one this statement:
"At a fairly early date
had themselves received into the guild of Masons. The first of whom
mention was a Scotchman, Mr. John Boswell of Auchinleck, who signed the
a meeting of the lodge of Edinburgh on June 6, 1600."
then gives us a little more information about Sir Robert Moray by
"The first to be admitted on
was also a Scotehman, viz. Robert Moray, a general of the Scotch Army,
May 20, 1641, by members of the ancient lodge of Edinburgh who were
serving in the
Scotch Army. As Moray was not a member of the guild, he at once became
much to interest United States brethren in this book of Brother la
Tente, but if
he issues a second edition I hope he will rectify the numerous errors
which should have never been allowed to pass.
N. W. J. Haydon, Ontario.
* * *
Spirituality among the Early
In the June
number of THE BUILDER appears an interesting and instructive paper on
Freemasonry," by Brother Arthur E. Waite, and while one feels indebted
for the courteous way in which he differs in some of his conclusions
from what certain
of us hold, it is rather astonishing to find him drawing those
and perhaps the principal one of which I am thinking, is contained in
words of Brother Waite:
"In Dionysian Architects, Roman
Comacines and Building Guilds of the Middle Ages I have failed to
discover any traces
of an art of building spiritualized."
Now if Brother
Waite means that in these he has failed to find the Legend of the Third
might be difficult to show that he is wrong. But although that may be a
part of our speculative system it is not the whole, and many good
Masons are of
the opinion that it has no great antiquity and that without it our
still be one veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols. And, if so,
to suggest that there is abundant evidence that the Medieval Builders
their art. Naturally I turn to the Comacine Masters in whose columns at
Brother Waite only sees evidence that the Cathedral Builders were
they derived their information with regard to the Temple of Solomon
or from other sources surely the association of mystical names with
a purpose quite outside of mere historical fact or architectural
of their use of the Lions, especially in positions architecturally
wrong where they
carry columns on their backs ‒ or of their grotesques ‒ meaning nothing
spiritual? Why do they carve on their lodge at Assisi a rose in
the open compasses? What do they everywhere mean by their interlaced
if for ornament only, would come very near being a vain repetition?
I do not
wish to labor the point but I think I could show by many more
throughout the work of the Comacine Masters there are evidences of a
Leader Scott who, as Brother Waite says, was the first authority on the
may I mention she was Mrs., not Miss Baxter, and she had, I believe, a
was a Freemason of some learning, so that her knowledge of modern
was not exclusively derived from Italian sources, as Brother Waite
suggests. I think
this brother, if I remember aright ‒ I have not the book at hand for
‒ wrote one or two chapters of the "Cathedral Builders."
W. Ravenscroft, England.
* * *
The Oldest Lodge Secretary
A party sent
me a clipping from THE BUILDER for June 1921, to the effect that
F. Chase of Siloan Lodge No. 780, A. F. & A. M., of Chicago,
Illinois, was the
oldest active secretary in the United States if not in the world, and
that he was
born February 25th, 1831.
Now my father-in-law,
Robert Vickers, a member of Virginia City Lodge No. 1, Virginia City
1, and Virginia City Commandery No. 1, was born February 15th, 1830
making him a
year and ten days older than Bro. Chase.
He has been
secretary of the Chapter and recorder of the Commandery for over twenty
still holds said positions and I think you will not find more neatly
kept record, than his.
He very seldom
misses a meeting and walks from his home to the lodge room more quickly
of younger men.
Geo. E. Gohn, Montana.
* * *
An Appreciation of Brother
Block's Article in the August Issue
I have just
finished reading "The Finality of Masonry" by Brother Louis Block,
in "THE BUILDER" for August. In my opinion this is the most valuable
contribution to Masonic thought that has been published for a long
is it valuable under the conditions created in the fraternity by the
of so many Masons during the past five years, whereby the fraternity is
with problems that seriously threaten its influence in society. We have
brethren whose conception of Masonry does not extend beyond the word of
and who are therefore unable, even if they desire, to exemplify in
the spirit of Masonry. It is the spirit, not the word alone, that makes
a living force needed now more than ever before in my Masonic
experience for the
salvation of Masonry itself.
be well if Brother Block's contribution were read in every Masonic
lodge in the
United States. At the earliest opportunity I shall present it to the
School of Instruction
in this Masonic District.
Frederick E. Manson, Pennsylvania,
A Textbook of Masonic
Mac721 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Clark, Maynard,
Publishers, 1872. - 7th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 571. - 28.1 MB.
Bull - Qui Pluribus
Pop46 / auth. Pope
Pius IX. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1846. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 14. - 0.3
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Lombardic Architecture Vol 1
Riv10LA1 / auth. Rivoira G T / trans. Rushforth C McN. - London : William Heinemann,
1910. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 262. - Illustrated - 32.2 MB.
Lombardic Architecture Vol 2
Riv10LA2 / auth. Rivoira G T / trans. Rushforth C McN. - London : William Heinemann,
1910. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 371. - Illustrated - 62.8 MB.
Ski202 / auth. Skinner Alanson. - New York : Museum of the American
Indian, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 389. - 21.8 MB.
The Cathedral Builders
Sco99 / auth. Scott Leader. - London : Sampson Low, Marston &
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The Censorship of the Church of
Rome Vol 1
Put06CC1 / auth. Putnam George H. - New York : G P Putnam's Sons, 1906.
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The Censorship of the Church of
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Put07CC2 / auth. Putnam George H. - New York : G P Putnam's Sons, 1907.
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Sey98 / auth. Seymour William W. - New York : G P Putnam's Sons, 1898.
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The Cross in Ritual,
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Tya00 / auth. Tyack George S. - London : William Andrews & Co,
1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 240. - 9.5 MB.
The Finality of the Christian
Fos06 / auth. Foster George B. - Chicago : University of Chicago Press,
1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 528. - 24.4 MB.
The Funcion of Religion
Fos09 / auth. Foster George B. - Chicago : University of Chicago Press,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 305. - 8.4 MB.
The Roman and the Teuton
Kin64 / auth. Kingsley Charles. - London : Macmillan and Co, 1864. -
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