Masonic Research Society
the Great, And His Relations with Masonry and Other Secret Societies
From the Autobiography
of the Lady Craven
the youngest daughter of the fourth earl of Berkeley, was born on
December 17, 1750.
A sprightly and beautiful girl, she had many love affairs, and was
to William, 6th Lord Craven. She was unfaithful to him, having
relations with the
French ambassador, Count de Guines, but was pardoned by her indulgent
Lord Craven's death she went to Germany and found a place in the train
of the Margrave
of Anspach, to whom, after an unseemly friendship, and within three
the death of his wife, she was married. There is no need to detail her
or print the long codicil of her titles, save to say that, after having
in many courts, among them Russia, and after having had a most mixed
career of love
affairs and intrigues, the Lady published her "Autobiographical
[Lib ] in 1826, when she was in her seventy-sixth year. From these
Memoirs the following
chapter, with a few irrelevant paragraphs omitted, has been taken: for
the Masonic reader will immediately discover for himself.
edition of the "Autobiographical Memoirs" of the Margravine is
by John Lane under the title of "The Beautiful Lady Craven"; [Lib 1914;
the two volumes are attractive in appearance,
as most of Lane's books are, and have been very ably edited by A. M.
a courier forward, after whose arrival at Berlin the King sent eight
to draw us through the sandy plains of Prussia. The frost and snow in
much damaged the springs and wheels of our carriage; but we arrived
serious injury or accident, from a journey which was the most terrific
I ever underwent;
for if anything had ever happened to the Margrave, I and I alone,
should have been
accused of doing him harm.
we arrived at Berlin, the Carnival being ended, all the Royal family
were gone to
their different villas; but His Majesty returned to meet the Margrave
at his palace;
while I was left to the discretion of the Princess Royal, afterwards
York, who had her own establishment in the Royal Palace.
here only four days, during which time I saw but little of the
Margrave, for he
was constantly with the King. He informed His Majesty that there had
existed a mysterious
correspondence among some of the nobility of Bareith, and others at
object of which he supposed was to form more distrusts between Austria
William II had succeeded to the throne on the death of his uncle
Frederick the Great,
in 1786. He made many salutary regulations for his subjects and
established a Court
of Honour to prevent the horrible practice of dueling in his dominions.
was willing to gain all the information possible respecting so great a
as Frederick the late King, it may easily be imagined that I lost no
which could be afforded me during my residence among the Royal Family,
together with the Margrave's knowledge of this illustrious man, and
that of Prince
Hardenberg, afforded me much satisfaction.
my marriage with the Margrave, we brought out from Anspach a
of the late King, for which he himself sat, for the Margrave, whom he
another of his father, Frederick William. The countenance and whole
figure are striking
resemblance of His Majesty. The expression is surprisingly fine. I had
under a canopy at Brandenburgh House, and those who have seen it can
Frederick ascended the throne he was only twenty-eight years of age. It
known to all Europe how this great Prince profited by the army left to
him by his
father, and the riches which he had accumulated. He had been detested
by the late
King when he was Prince Royal, because he appeared to apply himself to
and fine arts rather than to military affairs. Having followed his
father to Wesel,
he conceived the project of passing into a foreign country. He had
motives than those of gaining instruction by travels; no doubt it was
the tyranny of his father: but the latter had gained information of his
and arrested him at the moment of its execution. He was tried by
had the firmness not to condemn him to lose his head. It might appear
to be a light
crime for the presumptive heir of a kingdom to quit the realms without
of his Sovereign; but such was the law. Of four-and-twenty judges, only
found who voted for the sentence of death, and that was a person named
yet such was the magnanimity of Frederick when he came to the throne,
man never experienced from him the slightest vengeance.
his father, was on the point of renewing on the theatre of Europe the
scene of Don
Carlos, or more recently that of Czarowitz. The Prince was pardoned;
but the unfortunate
companion of his flight, his friend and confidant, was decapitated.
has been accused by his enemies as having neither shed a tear nor used
to induce his father to save this victim from destruction. But I have
from those who were present at the scene, that when the unfortunate man
to the scaffold, the Prince Royal demanded his pardon with the
effusions of a heart
broken by grief; and that he fainted more than once during the
punishment, and in
fact experienced the greatest anguish. Before the execution he had
tried every means
in his power to save him. In his despair, he had offered to his father
the throne forever, in order to preserve the life of his friend whom he
the inflexible Monarch, not satisfied with the sentence of the judges,
who had condemned
him to the galleys for life, with his own hand signed his
that there was no justification for the crime of high treason, and
son's entreaties with indignation and contempt. Katt was the grandson
of a field-marshal,
and son of a general of that name at that time both alive and in the
the Great was born with sensibility, but he learned to suppress his
his feelings; he saw how necessary it was to be just, as well as
his long military career; and perhaps the firmness which has been his
was the greatest triumph of his nature.
this event he retired to Rheinsberg, applying himself to all kinds of
and here he learned to play on the flute, on which instrument he
excelled, not as
a prince, but as an amateur of the first rank.
was extremely moderate, and his father had vigorously forbidden any one
him money. This order was, however, ill observed, and it has been
him that when King he never repaid the obligations of his creditors.
But the fact
was otherwise; he paid them in secret. The Minister of his father's
refused to advance him money, and when the Prince ascended the throne
this man was
supposed to be ruined, and on his coming to give in his accounts
to retire; when the young King, to the astonishment of all round him,
fidelity, begged him to continue his services, and doubled his salary.
a different fidelity from that of the judges of poor Katt, who
obedience to the commands of their Sovereign as a proof of fit
submission to his
a singular circumstance in the history of the House of Bradenburgh,
the space of 370 years, in which time the sovereignty was in their
was never experienced one minority.
enjoyed an immoderate reputation, and to a certain point even the
adoration of his
contemporaries, not only as a warrior, but as a governor of his empire,
and as a
profound politician. His assiduity was indefatigable, and his skill in
government transcendent. The Government of Prussia appeared to rise
from the seeds
of despotism, and formed a lesson of instruction to the world.
exactness and his inflexibility in war, he obtained the affections of
who always denominated him their Father Fritz. It was the name by which
he was familiarly
called through the army.
of his conduct towards Baron de Trenck (1) has excited the indignation
and has been considered as a blot on his escutcheon; but arbitrary
order and rigorous
detention have to be exercised in other countries as well as in
pleading this as an excuse, I shall endeavour, with impartiality, to
remark on the
leading points of the justification of Frederick's conduct, derived
from those who
were acquainted with the cause of such a punishment.
Trenck had been forbidden by the King, whom he acknowledged not only as
but as his benefactor, to write to his uncle, who was a chief of the
were violated. The King demanded of him personally whether he was in
with his uncle. M. de Trenck denied it. "Do you give me your word of
of it?" said the King. "Yes, Sire," was the answer. It was at the
very time that Trenck had just written to his uncle, that this dialogue
The discovery was made, and M. de Trenck was sent to the fortress of
it was a punishment usual in the Prussian service. M. de Trenck plotted
and fled with an officer whom he had seduced to desert, he killed those
him. The King's Resident at Dantzic, whither Trenck had fled, sent him
back to his
Sovereign. Trenck had certainly violated every law ‒ he had at first
then perjured ‒ a rebel, and a murderer.
Baron de Trenck recommenced his devices: his imprisonment was in
more severe, and his confinement lasted for ten years.
was six feet two inches high, and squinted: he was popular, and always
by thousands. After the death of Frederick he published his Memoirs. At
all who were acquainted with the groundwork of his history were dead:
on his own
testimony depends the whole of his relation. Those whom he cites in his
have probably forgotten the circumstances of so distant a date, but
to vague conjectures regarding the truth of this affair, or of the
against him, M. de Trenck avows that he had intrigued with a person of
rank. If that person, as has been generally supposed, and which from
I know to be the case, was the Princess Amelia, sister of the King; if
connection there were children who were deprived of life by means the
‒ what strong inducements might not the King have had for visiting on
Trenck a punishment
of the severest kind, without being under the necessity of explaining
of decorum and decency) the reasons which influenced him to such an act.
frequently broke his officers for causes light in appearance; but he
heavier charges against them, which were unknown to the rest of
mankind, and which
he concealed for the purpose of preserving military discipline. As soon
ascended the throne, he invited into his kingdom all those who were
called les esprits
forts: Voltaire, le Marquis d'Argens, the Abbe de Prade, Maupertuis,
and even the
impious La Metrie. This example encouraged the literary Germans to
sentiments, Berlin became the asylum of the persecuted, and the nursery
of the secret societies of Germany was at that time little known. It
might be interesting
to a philosopher, but the generality of people might regard it as a
well-informed persons can attest the reality of it.
the end of the last century an association, or secret society, existed,
daily gaining ground. It was the Order of the Illumines. The chiefs of
had resolved to form an association which was to unveil the mysteries
to enlighten mankind, and to render them happy. Their object was to
gain a superiority
over the lodges of Freemasonry, (2) and to turn these institutions from
to the benefit of humanity. They proposed to extend the sphere of
not so much in depth as on the surface; to introduce reason and good
sense; to ameliorate
the condition of men by an insensible operation. No Prince, however
great or good,
was to be admitted. They swore to preserve, as much as was in their
from the perpetration of crimes, and from the commission of errors; to
slavery of despotism, to destroy ecclesiastical jurisdiction, to favour
of the press, and to unveil mysteries of every description.
was great noble and sublime; but prudence was wanting in its execution.
to see a sudden effect, whilst they forgot that the edifice was only
society enlarged, the wicked and designing were admitted; the powers of
and superstition saw the force of their enemy, and the arm of
Government was called
to their assistance. Many of the chiefs were driven from Germany,
others were imprisoned,
and everything but death and torture inflicted on them.
members of this association soon formed another assembly; they were
their papers taken, and their doctrines published, without regard to
which they might produce. Many sects arose from these, which rendered
throughout Germany. Their different Orders had little resemblance to
‒ they were visionary, mystical, and cabalistic.
had too sound an understanding to be caught in the snares of
enthusiasm. It is not
known whether the attempt were made to conquer him, but it is most
he was never tried. Nor is it certain when the area or how the nature
of the misunderstanding
between this Monarch and the superiors of the Order of Freemasonry
he was ignorant of the machinations of modern Masonry, of the visions
and the horrors
which were latterly raised, or of the general tendency of these
or whether having once adopted the Masonic costume, and having openly
its Orders, he did not wish, even after having seen its evil
tendencies, to retract
and to separate from a society into which he had erewhile not disdained
‒ he refrained from excluding from his dominions these secret
of every denomination ‒ Rosicrucians, Centralists, Illuminate ‒ had
all, under his
reign, the liberty of establishing lodges and societies according to
provided they did not disturb the public order.
Berlin became the receptacle of sects, of parties, of conjurations, of
mysteries, and of extravagances of every kind.
meantime instruction was not neglected, and Frederick supported and
institution which might extend education throughout his kingdom.
Rousseau had written
his Emilius [Lib 1763; Vol 1,
‒ a work the most perfect of
its kind, and which places the author incontestably in the rank of the
benefactors to mankind; in Germany this production became as a torch
its light throughout; it opened to the system of education new views.
taught not by words alone, and those in an unknown language ‒ but he
gave them clear
ideas of natural things, of moral and physical relations, of mechanism,
and of geography.
did not lose sight of the good effects of such a system of education;
and to promote
it, established a Consistory, which was to superintend every
institution, and at
the head of which he placed himself. He procured masters, and did not
blush to render
homage to the superiority of the institution which he had promoted. The
of the Sovereign excited the nobility and gentry of the nation, and
in his subjects an admirable and laudable competition.
in one of those moments which in human life are so contradictory to the
sentiments of the mind, that Frederick, hearing the news of the
the Jesuits in France, by the public functionaries, exclaimed, "Pauvres
ils ont détruit les renards qui les défendaient des loups, et ils ne
qu'ils vont être dévores."
had sanctioned and approved the writing of the philosophers; he had
become a philosopher
himself. Heveltius had published his work De l'Esprit [Lib 1807]
in France, and to avoid punishment
had fled to England. Le Contrat Social [Lib 1923]
of Rousseau had found protection
among the magistracy; and the Parliaments had defended Diderot's
despotism. The Court and Clergy had admired Voltaire's ridiculing the
There has been exaggeration, when it has been said that the
by a regular plan to subvert the foundations of societies and thrones:
to that effect without being sensible of it. They did not wish to be
but the preceptors, of monarchs: and had Montesquieu only produced his
les Romains, and his Esprit des Lois; had Beccaria only written his
Traite des Delits
et des Peines; had Voltaire only refuted Machiavel, and defended Calas,
and Lally; had pleaded the cause of nature, of morality, and of
religion; and had
the Encyclopedists respected the principles of religion alone ‒ they
been entitled to the indulgence of the world. But the discussion of one
led to a another, and in the correction of abuses they proceeded beyond
which they had prescribed. Then it was, that one of the greatest Kings
wore a crown figured in the correspondence of philosophy: then it was,
that he pronounced
in his Academy the eulogy of the man who wrote L'Homme Machine, ("Man,
- Ed. [Lib 1912])
and that he compelled his churches to
celebrate obsequies of the man who had endeavored to undermine the
influence spread throughout Europe: it penetrated into every class.
and Condoreet, united their forces in the operation. Then the sects of
who had associated for the destruction of revealed religion, overthrew
as far as regarded themselves, and introduced a new code founded on
which led to the system of primitive equality.
Frederick himself proved that a king, though a man of letters, could
with dignity the sceptre of literature. Some unfortunate members
defiled the character
of his Academy; but Euler and La Grange were an eternal honour to it.
Some men of
high estimation were associated with others of obscure and even
their inequalities were great.
a prejudice generally spread throughout Germany, that the province of
Berlin in particular, was peopled with Atheists. Because Frederick
of thought in his dominions; because he collected and united about his
of genius; because, under his reign, some irreligious books escaped
from the Prussian
press ‒ this conclusion, as absurd as precipitate, was adopted. M.
Nicolai, a distinguished
writer and bookseller of Berlin, (a union very rare, though it were to
that it were more general,) had depicted Berlin in a romance with great
his work displays excellent notions on the manners of Germany. He has
if, in general, there are some Freethinkers in the Prussian provinces,
at large are attached to the national religion.
the end of the seven years' war, a man named Rosenfeld, in the service
of the Margrave
of Schwedt, quitted the service of that prince, and began to inform the
that he was the new Messiah; that Jesus had been a false prophet; that
were rogues and liars, who preached death; that for himself he preached
his adherents never died; that the King of Prussia was the Devil; that
approached when he (Rosenfeld) should assemble together the twenty-four
and should obtain the sword, and govern the world with their assistance.
prevailed on some of his adherents to deliver over to him seven girls,
of whom the
zealous fanatics were the fathers. It was, he said, to open the seven
he required seven virgins. With these he formed a seraglio: one of them
favorite Sultana; he made the others work, and lived upon the profit of
After having carried on the trade of a Messiah for twenty-nine years,
mischances; first poor, then imprisoned, afterwards entertained by the
of his votaries, and living habitually by means of the wool which his
spun; after acquiring disciples in Berlin and its environs, in Saxony,
at Mecklenburg ‒ one of his faithful followers, who had in vain
expected to reap
the fruit of his splendid promises ‒ even one of those who had
delivered over to
him three of his daughters, accused him before Frederick; that is to
his Messiah, who he believed to be the true God, before the King, whom
to be the true Devil. This very accuser always regarded Rosenfeld as
the real Messiah,
and only wished that the King could compel him to realize his
sent Rosenfeld to a natural tribunal, which condemned him to be
whipped, and shut
up for the remainder of his days at Spandau. The Supreme Tribunal
sentence, and pronounced that this new Messiah should be sent to the
House of Correction,
where he should be flogged as often as he at attempted to have an
adventure of gallantry,
and after two years that a report should be made of his manner of
The defenders of the accused appealed: the King revised the process,
the severer sentence of the first tribunal. He imagined, without doubt,
was necessary that Rosenfeld should be punished in the sight of the
people, to prevent
them from being in future deceived through similar visions.
most absurd opinions are often the most tenacious, because they have no
basis by which they may be measured; and this spectacle did not
undeceive any of
the adherents of Rosenfeld, a great number of whom remained attached to
afterwards to preach his doctrines at Charlottenberg, hardly a mile
from the capital;
but he found that this theatre was too small for two fanatics like
himself and Musenfeld.
The Government, without doubt, tired with his persevering enthusiasm,
his folly and left him in repose…
Ferdinand of Brunswick, (3) the conqueror of Creveldt and of Minden,
by the persuasion of the Baron de Hund, who was a Reformer, to place
the head of the reformed Lodges of Freemasonry, which has taken the
of the Strict Observance. It was supposed to be an Order of Freemasonry
a continuation of the Society of Knights Templar: the highest step was
that of a
Templar, with all the ceremonies of ancient chivalry. Doctors of
divinity and professors
of Physic were received as Chevaliers d'Epee. It is hardly possible to
that reasonable beings could lend themselves to ideas so ridiculous;
did everything, and enthusiasm was contagious. In this branch of the
reigned a monastic despotism, and men who led away by rites and
members alone possessed the secret; those out of the Order could never
or what it was.
woman can possibly be a Mason, every woman has a right to endeavor to
the mystery. (4) It is admitted that Adam was the first Mason; he
founded the first
lodge ‒ he had all the instruments necessary for the purpose ‒ he
produced the mortar;
‒ without Eve there would have been no lodge. Where is the mystery of
the idea be followed up? Having created the lodge, he made members for
members created others, and the society extended over the globe; and
while the globe
exists, members will never be wanting. Over this secret I will throw
the minds of men were sufficiently heated, the actor of this drama
caused to appear
upon the scene the Thaumaterges, or miracle-workers. These appeared to
no relation with Freemasonry in general, but attached themselves to
for rank or fortune. One of the first of these charlatans was
Schroepfer, a coffeehouse-keeper
of Leipzig, on whom Duke Charles of Courland (5) had inflicted
but who afterwards so fascinated this Prince, and a greater part of the
personages of Dresden and of Leipzig, that he compelled them to act a
part with him.
time were reproduced on the theatre of Europe the follies of Asia and
of China ‒
the universal medicine ‒ the art of making gold and diamonds ‒ the
beverage of immortality.
The peculiar qualification of Schroepfer was the invocation of manes;
spirits, and caused the dead and the invisible powers to appear at his
denouement of his drama is well known. After having consumed immense
he obtained from his adherents, and alienated their senses, when he
found that he
could no longer sustain the imposture, he shot himself through the head
with a pistol,
in a wood near Leipzig.
succeeded Saint-Germain, who had been before announced by the Comte de
This Saint-Germain had lived a thousand years; he had discovered a tea,
all maladies disappeared; he made, for his amusement, diamonds of
He attached himself to Prince Charles of Hesse; (6) but, like his
he forgot not to die. In the meantime Gessner, religious
in the environs of Ratisbon. He did not belong to the Freemasons, nor
did he attach
himself to any of the principal members of the Order; but he was
to it, ‒ for all the prodigies of which he was heard to speak
corroborated the general
faith of miracles, which was one of the great springs of the machine.
In the heart
of Switzerland lived a preacher of an ardent imagination ‒ of a
‒ of immeasurable ambition ‒ of undaunted pride; an ignorant man, but
the talent of speech ‒ intoxicated with mysticism ‒ eager after
prodigies ‒ and
made up of credulity. He imagined that, with faith, miracles might at
be effected. Servants, peasants, Roman Catholic priests, Freemasons ‒
in his mind as contributing to the gift of miracle-working, whenever he
the slightest appearance of anything extraordinary.
(7) [Lib 1866]
gained a great party, particularly among
the women; these brought him the men ‒ and he had soon thousands, and
millions, of followers after his visionary ideas.
these, succeeded Mesmer (8) [Lib 1841]
and Cagliostro (9) [Lib 1910]
(whose tricks and extravagances
are well known), without reckoning the crowds of madmen, of charlatans,
of every kind, who sprang up on all sides.
concourse of knaves, far from appeasing the divisions of Freemasonry,
the fermentation. A new branch arose in the dominions of Frederick: it
the Lodge of Zizendorf, from the name of its founder. This Zizendorf
had been formerly
a member of the Templars, from which Order he detached himself, and
formed a great
party, assuring them that he alone had the true rites and the true
of these branches decried the other. This new agitation attracted the
of men of sound understanding (at least of the Order), who immediately
new association under the name of Eclectic Masonry. They professed a
of all sects of the Order; and this system, which was the only solid
one (if any
system of the kind can be so), gained in a short time many partisans.
This was the
cause of the fall of the Order of Templars, who soon saw their machine
Frequent Chapters were held, where the deputies of the provinces
with surprise, the first question they found they had put to the Grand
What is the true end of the Order, and its real origin? Thus the Grand
all his assistants, had labored, for more than twenty years, with
for an object of which they neither knew the true end nor the origin.
and perplexed, the system of the Templars was abandoned, and an Order
of the Chivalry of Beneficence.
secret association has something of resemblance to a conspiracy, and it
on every Government to watch over it. But some consideration must be
paid to the
characters of the members. If they will not bear the test of
measures should be taken to prevent their increase, with moderation and
And when it is more-over remembered that Sweden lost its constitution
associations, which are frequently composed of men profound in design
in perseverance, no means should be laid aside which may develop their
(1) Frederick von der Trenck (1726-1794), a native
arrest at Danzig in 1754 caused a great sensation throughout Europe. He
liberated until 1756. He was denounced as a spy in France, and
(2) Frederick the Great was, however, an ardent Freemason, and as such
in arranging the initiation into the Order of more than one member of
(3) Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (1735 ‒ 1806) killed
at the battle
of Jena. He was an ardent Freemason, and entered into friendly
relations with the
English Grand Lodge.
(4) The Margravine in this instance is mistaken. Masonry of Adoption,
Freemasonry, was extensively practiced in France and on the Continent.
and her sister Caroline, Queen of Naples, both belonged to the Order of
unfortunate Princesse de Lamballe was for a time Grand Mistress.
(5) Charles, Duke of Courland (b. 1728).
(6) Brother of the reigning Landgrave William IX. Born 29 Dec, 1744.
(7) Johann Caspar Lavater (1741-1801).
(8) Friedrich Anton Mesmer (1734-1815).
(9) Alexander Cagliostro (1745-1795). His connection with Freemasonry
but not exhaustively, described in Mr. W.R. H. Trowbridge's biography
(10) La Metrie wrote a book called "Man, a Machine." It was published
in this country by the Open Court Company of Chicago.
Preachment by the Editor:
begs indulgence of the veteran Masonic student while he administers a
to the young students in the Craft, using the above as a text for the
young students are asked to use the Lady Craven article as a kind of
task whereby to examine two or three rather important canons of
They are asked, nay, urged to sharpen their young critical faculties on
paragraphs of the Beautiful Lady, for they will not soon encounter
again so useful
are asked to note first, that the Lady Craven received nearly all her
at second-hand, and then not often from authoritative sources. This, at
removes her narrative, which is so well-informed upon the surface of
it, from the
class of genuine historical sources, and renders all she says (with all
to the memory of the clever grande madame) more or less suspect. What
worth as evidence? Nothing! In history gossip is almost useless, more
in those passages whereabout much controversy has raged. When you
study of Masonic authors bear in mind that you are ever to stand on
your guard against
the easy sin of accepting gossip at its face value. Ascertain first of
all if your
author had access at first-hand to his sources of information: if he
did not, next
ascertain, if you can, how reliable were his informants. Accounts of
more than any other chapters of history, are not to be taken on
anybody's mere say-so,
even though the say-soer himself wore the apron. In other words, the
laws of evidence
are in full force in the Masonic province. Masonic Scholarship! what
been committed in thy name by those who have forgotten this simple
fact! In the
second place, it is always necessary to ascertain the competency of the
(or herself) to deal with the matter in hand. Facts themselves are
useless to one
incapable of thought. What impression of the intellectual capacities of
Lady do you gain from the above, especially from that diverting
paragraph in which
she develops a quite Jesuit bit of argument drawn from the eventful
of Adam and Eve? Does it anywhere appear that she knows anything about
Would a well-informed writer have mixed together the Illuminati, the
the Messiah Worshippers and all that into one whole and dubbed the
It is evident that the Beautiful Lady knew nothing about her subject,
more than once she clearly attempts to make the reader believe that she
behind the curtains of it all. When one is being invited to receive a
it is well that he become skeptic at once and read on with a grain of
another thing, not closely connected with the above. Suppose that you
another account of Frederick's doings in Masonry, etc., and that, as
would be very
sure to happen, your author's account would violently disagree with
by the Beautiful Lady: how would you decide in your mind which of the
two to believe,
or whether either one might be true in his (or her) statements? In such
it is wise to refer the matter to the experts. The experts may
disagree, that is
true. They often do, and in that case one must let his judgment hang in
but usually on important matters, and where there is much available
data, the experts
are sure to be in general agreement, and if so it is seldom difficult
to learn what
are their conclusions. (THE BUILDER exists in order, among other
things, to make
accessible to Masonic students the work of Masonic experts). It happens
BUILDER published recently an opinion by an expert on some of the very
which Lady Craven writes so engagingly. In the month of December for
last year you
will find Arthur Edward Waite's reply (and what a thrilling reply it
was!) to the
canards against Freemasonry published by the London Morning Post. Look
up that article
and read what that "master of those who know" had to say about
the Great, and the Illuminati, etc. (Wouldn't it be "rich" to read a
from Brother Waite to the article on Freemasonry published in the Roman
Encyclopedia? Such a reply would surpass the one referred to above, and
worth going miles to see!)
when the beginner makes his debut into the field of Masonic lore he
soon grows dizzy
at the complexity of it all, begins to realize too keenly his own
is tempted to abandon it all at the start. Brother Beginner, do nothing
of the kind.
Put up with your helpless sense of bewilderment while you doggedly wade
six or seven volumes of Masonic history: After a while the country will
gradually to disclose itself; you will see the great landmarks emerging
mist; and finally the highways will stand clearly revealed. After that
it is no
trouble to walk therein. You will gain confidence in yourself; you will
yourself any more at the feet of every author you encounter; you will
come at last
to have an informed judgment on Masonic matters and to trust that
before you have reached that satisfactory stage you will have learned
see that any writer who lumps together a great variety of secret
cults, and private fanatics and calls the whole thing Freemasonry, is
not a writer
whose pages are to be taken seriously.
Catholicism and Freemasonry
Bro. Dudley Wright,
the author of the History of the Inquisition [Lib 1827],
who was himself secretary of
one of the Inquisition tribunals, canon of the Primatical Church of
of the University of that city, Knight of the Order of Charles III, and
the Royal Academies of History and of the Spanish Language at Madrid,
has left on
record the following lengthy statement concerning M. Tournon's
the Inquisitors.. He says:
Tournon, a Frenchman, had been invited
into Spain and pensioned by the government in order to establish a
brass or copper buckles and to instruct Spanish workmen. On 30th April,
was denounced to the Holy Office as suspected of heresy by one of his
acted in obedience to the commands of his confessor.
charges were: (1), That M. Tournon
had asked his pupils to become Freemasons, promising that the Grand
Orient of Paris
should send a Commission to receive them into the Order, if they should
the trials he should propose, to ascertain their courage and firmness;
their titles of reception should be expedited from Paris; (2), that
some of these
young workmen appeared inclined to comply if M. Tournon would inform
them of the
object of the Institution. That, in order to satisfy them, he told them
extraordinary things, and showed them a sort of picture on which were
of architecture and astronomy. They thought that these representations
sorcery and they were confirmed in the idea on hearing the
imprecations, which M.
Tournon said were to accompany the oath of secrecy.
appeared from the depositions of
three witnesses that M. Tournon was a Freemason. He was arrested and
on 20th May, 1757, at Madrid, The following conversation which took
place in the
first audience of monition, is of interest. After asking his name,
his reasons for coming to Spain, and making him swear to speak the
truth, the Inquisitor
you know or suppose why you have been arrested by the Holy Office?”
suppose it is for having said that I was a Freemason.
do you suppose that?"
I have informed my pupils that I was of that Order, and I
fear they have denounced me, for I have perceived lately that they
speak to me with
an air of mystery, and their questions lead me to believe that they
think me a heretic.
you tell them the truth?"
are then a Freemason?
long have you been so?"
you attended the assemblies of Freemasons?
you attended them in Spain?
I do not know if there are any lodges in Spain.
there were, would you attend them?
you a Christian, a Roman Catholic?
I was baptized in the parish of St. Paul, at Paris
as a Christian, can you dare to attend Masonic assemblies, when
you know, or ought to know, that they are contrary to religion?
do not know that; I am ignorant of it at present, because I never
saw or heard anything there which was contrary to religion.
can you say that, when you know that Freemasons profess indifference
in matters of religion, which is contrary to the Article of Faith which
us that no man can be saved who does not profess the Catholic,
Apostolic, and Roman
do not profess that indifference. But it is indifferent
if the person received into the Order be a Catholic or not.
the Freemasons are an anti-religious body?
cannot be, for the object of the Institution is not to combat
or deny any religion, but for the exercise of charity towards the
any sect, particularly if he is a member of the Society.
prove that indifference is the religious character of Freemasons,
that they do not acknowledge the Holy Trinity, since they only confess
whom they call T.G.A.O.T.U., which agrees with the doctrine of
who say that there is no true religion but only religion, in which the
of God, the Creator only is allowed, and the rest considered as a human
And as M. Tournon has professed himself to be the Catholic religion he
by the respect he owes to our Saviour, Jesus Christ, true God and true
to His Blessed Mother, the Virgin Mary, our Lady, to declare the truth
to his oath, because, in that case, he will acquit his conscience, and
it will be
allowable to treat him with that mercy and compassion which the Holy
shows towards sinners who confess; and if, on the contrary, he conceals
he will be punished with all the severity of justice, according to the
of the laws of the kingdom.
mystery of the Holy Trinity is neither maintained nor combatted
in the Masonic lodges; neither is the religious system of the natural
approved or rejected. God is designated as T. G. A. O. T. U., according
to the allegories
of the Freemasons, which relate to architecture. In order to fulfil my
speaking the truth, I must repeat that, in Masonic lodges, nothing
takes place which
concerns any religious system, and that the subjects treated of are
foreign to religion,
under the allegories of architectural works.
you believe, as a Catholic, that it is a sign of superstition
to mingle holy and religious things with profane things?
am not sufficiently acquainted with the particular things which
are proscribed as contrary to the purity of the 'Christian religion;
but I have
believed till now that those who confound the one with the other either
or a vain belief, are guilty of the sin of superstition.
it true that in the ceremonies which accompany the reception of
a Mason, the crucified image of our Saviour, the corpse of a man, and a
other objects of a profane nature, are made use of?
general statutes of Freemasonry do not ordain these things: if
they are made use of, it must have arisen from a particular custom, or
arbitrary regulations of the members of the body, who are commissioned
for the receptions of candidates; for each lodge had particular customs
is not the question; say if it is true that these ceremonies
are observed in Masonic lodges.
or no, according to the requirements of those who are charged
with the ceremonies of initiation.
they observed when you were initiated?
oath is necessary to take on being received a Freemason?
swear to observe secrecy.
things which it may be inconvenient to publish.
this oath accompanied by execrations?
consent to suffer all the evils which can afflict the body and
soul if we violate, the oath.
what importance is this oath, since it is believed that such formidable
execrations may be used without indecency?
of good order in the Society.
passes in these lodges which it might be inconvenient to publish?
if it is looked upon without prejudice; but as people are
generally mistaken in this matter, it is necessary to avoid giving
cause for malicious
interpretations; and this would take place if what passes when the
was made public.
what use is the crucifix, if the reception of a Freemason is not
considered a religious act?
is presented to penetrate the soul with the most profound respect
at the moment that the novice takes the oath. It is not used in every
only when particular grades are conferred.
is the skull used?
the idea of death may inspire a horror of perjury.
what use is the corpse?
complete the allegory of Hiram, architect of the temple of Jerusalem;
who, it is said, was assassinated by traitors, and to induce a greater
of assassination and every offence against our neighbors, to whom we
ought to be
as benevolent brothers.
it true that the festival of St. John is celebrated in the lodges,
and that Masons have chosen him for their patron
worship is rendered him in celebrating his festival?
that it may not be mingled with profane things. This celebration
is confined to a fraternal repast, after which a discourse is read,
guests to beneficence towards their fellow creatures, in honor of God,
Architect, Creator, and Preserver of the Universe.
it true that the sun, moon, and stars are honored in the lodges?
it true that their images or symbols are exposed?
are they used?
order to elucidate the allegories of the great, continual, and
true light which the lodges receive from the Great Architect of the
world, and these
representations belong to the brethren, and encourage them to be
Tournon will observe that all the explanations he has given of
the facts and ceremonies which take place in the lodges are false and
from those which he voluntarily communicated to other persons worthy of
he is, however, again invited by the respect he owes to God and the
to declare and confess the heresies of indifferentism, the errors of
which mingle holy and profane things, and the errors of idolatry which
led him to
worship the stars: this confession is necessary for the acquittal of
and the good of his soul; because if he confesses with sorrow for
these crimes, detesting them and humbly soliciting pardon (before the
him of these heinous sins) the holy tribunal will be permitted to
him that compassion and mercy which it always displays to repentant
because he is judicially accused, he must be treated with all the
against heretics by the holy canons, apostolic bulls and the laws of
have declared the truth and if any witnesses have deposed to the
contrary, they have mistaken the meaning of my words, for I have never
this subject to any but the workmen in my manufactory, and then only in
sense convey by my replies.
content with being a Freemason, you have persuaded other persons
to be received into the Order, and to embrace the heretical pursuits
and pagan errors
into which you have fallen.
is true that I have requested these persons to become Freemasons,
because I thought it would be useful to them if they travelled into
where they might meet brethren of their Order who could assist them in
but it is not true that I encouraged them to adopt any errors contrary
to the Catholic
faith, since no such errors are to found in Freemasonry, which does not
any points of doctrine.
has been already proved that these are not chimerical; therefore
let M. Tournon consider that he has been a dogmatizing heretic, and
that it is necessary
that he should acknowledge it with humility, and ask pardon and
absolution for the
censures which he has incurred; since if he persists in his obstinacy
he will destroy
both his body and soul; and as this is the first audience of monition
he is advised
to reflect on his condition, and prepare for the two other audiences
which are granted
by the compassion and mercy which the holy tribunal always feels for
was taken back to the prison and persisted in giving the same answers
in the two
remaining audiences. When brought before the court when the fiscal
act of accusation he confessed facts but explained them as he had done
refused to choose an advocate on the ground that Spanish lawyers were
with the Masonic lodges and were as much prejudiced against them [as]
He therefore thought it better to acknowledge that he was wrong and
might have been
deceived from being ignorant of particular doctrines; he demanded
offered to perform any penance that might be imposed on him, adding
that he hoped
the punishment would be moderate on account of the good faith which he
and which he always preserved, seeing nothing but beneficence practiced
in the Masonic lodges without denying or combatting any article of the
condemned to be imprisoned for one year after which he was to be
an escort the frontiers of France; he was banished from Spain forever,
obtained permission to return from the King or the Holy Office. He also
abjuration with a promise never again to attend the assemblies of the
He went to France at the termination of his imprisonment and it does
that he ever returned to Spain.
same year that the foregoing occurred ‒ 1757 ‒ the Associate Synod of
to disturb the peace of the Fraternity. Happily, these bigoted
dissenters did not
possess a fraction of the power of the Church of Rome, or of the
Council of Berne,
but their proceedings were prompted by a like fanaticism, and would
have been marked
with the same severity, but, fortunately for the Order, their power
to the spiritual concerns of those delinquents who were of the same
sect as themselves.
At the beginning of 1745 a complaint was lodged before the Synod of
that many improper things were performed at the initiation of
Freemasons and requesting
that the Synod would consider whether or not the members of that Order
to partake of the ordinances of religion. The Synod referred the matter
to the Kirk
Sessions under their inspection, allowing them to act as they thought
1755, they ordered that every person who was suspected of being a
return an explicit answer to any question that might be asked
concerning the Masonic
oath. In the course of these examinations the Kirk Sessions discovered
seem hitherto to have been ignorant of it) that men who were not
admitted into the Order. On this account the Synod, in the year 1757,
necessary to adopt stricter measures. They drew up a list of foolish
which they commanded every Kirk Session to put to those under their
questions related to what they thought were the ceremonies of
Freemasonry and those
who refused to answer them were debarred from religious ordinances. The
Act of the
Associate Synod was in the following terms:
the oath is one of the most
solemn acts of religious worship, which ought to be taken only upon
necessary occasions; and to be sworn in truth, in judgment and in
without any mixture of sinful, profane, or superstitious devices:
whereas the Synod had laid before
them, in their meeting at Stirling on the 17th March, 1745, an overture
the Mason oath, bearing that there were very strong presumptions that
an oath of secrecy is administered to entrants into their Society, even
capital penalty, and before any of these things which they swear to
be revealed to them; and that they pretend to take some of these
secrets from the
Bible; beside other things which are ground on scruple, in the manner
the said oath; and therefore overturning, that the Synod would consider
affair, and give directions with respect to the admission of persons
that oath to sealing ordinances.
whereas the Synod in their meeting
at Stirling on the 26th September, 1745, remitted the overture
concerning the Mason
oath, to the several Sessions subordinate to them, for their proceeding
as far as they should find practicable, according to our received and
and the plain rule of the Lord's word and sound reason.
whereas the Synod at their meeting
at Edinburgh on the 6th March, 1755, when the particular cause about
the Mason oath
was before them, did appoint all the Sessions under their inspection,
all persons in their respective congregations, who are presumed or
have been engaged in that oath, to make a plain acknowledgement,
whether or not
they have ever been so; and to require that such as they may find to
have been engaged
therein, should give ingenious answers to what further inquiry the
or cause to make, concerning the tenor and administration of the said
that the Sessions should proceed to the purging of what scandal they
may thus find
these persons convicted of, according to the directions of the
of Synod in September, 1745.
whereas the generality of the Sessions
have, since the afore-mentioned periods, dealt with several persons
inspection about the Mason oath; in course of which procedure, by the
made to them, they have found others, beside themselves of the Mason
Craft, to be
involved in that oath; and the Synod finding it proper and necessary to
particular directions to the several Sessions, for having the heinous
of the Lord's name by that oath purged out of the congregations under
"Therefore the Synod did and hereby do appoint that the several
to them, in dealing with penons about the Mason oath, shall
them ‒ if they have taken that oath, and when and where they did so? If
taken the said oath, or declared their approbation of it, oftener than
being admitted to a higher degree in a Mason lodge? If that oath was
to them without letting them know the terms of it, till in the act of
the same to them? If it was not an oath binding them to keep a number
none of which they were allowed to know before swearing the oath? If,
beside a solemn
invocation of the Lord's name to that oath, it did not contain a
of having their tongues and hearts taken out in case of breaking the
same? If the
said oath was not administered to them with several superstitious
as the stripping them of, or requiring them to deliver up, anything of
they had upon them ‒ and making them kneel upon their right knee, bare,
up their right arm bare, with their elbow upon the Bible, or with the
before them ‒ or having the Bible, as also the square and compasses in
way applied to their bodies? And if, among the secrets which they were
oath to keep, there was not a passage of Scripture read to them,
Kings vii, 21, with or without some explication put upon the same for
the Synod appoint, that the
several Sessions shall call before them all persons in their
congregations who are
of the Mason Craft and others whom they have a particular suspicion of
involved in the Mason oath, except such as have been already dealt
with, and have
given satisfaction upon that head; and that, upon their answering the
first of the
foregoing questions in the affirmative, the Sessions shall proceed to
put the other
interrogatories before appointed; as, also, that of persons of the
applying for sealing ordinances, and likewise others concerning whom
there may be
any presumption of their having been involved in the Mason oath, shall
by the ministers if they have been so; and upon their acknowledging the
declining to answer whether or not, the ministers shall refer them to
be dealt with
by the Sessions, before admitting them to these ordinances; and that
all such persons
offering themselves to the Sessions for joining in covenanting work,
shall be then
examined by the Sessions as to their concern in the aforesaid oath.
the Synod further appoint, that
when persons are found to be involved in the Mason oath, according to
in giving plain and particular answers to the foregoing questions and
their sorrow for the same; the said scandal shall be purged by a
and admonition ‒ with a strict charge to abstain from all concern
afterward in administering
the said oath to any, or enticing into that snare, and from all
practices of amusing
people about the pretended mysteries of their signs and secrets. But
who shall refuse or shift to give plain and particular answers to the
questions, shall be referred under scandal incapable of admission to
till they answer and give satisfaction, as before appointed.
the Synod refer to the several
Sessions to proceed unto higher censure as they shall see cause, in the
persons whom they may find involved in the said oath with special
taking or relapsing into the same, in opposition to warnings against
the Synod appoint that each of
the Sessions under their inspection shall have an extract of this Act,
to be inserted
in their books, for executing the same accordingly:'
Catholic countries, in particular, the persecution of Freemasons
unabated vigor. In Portugal brethren were exposed to the penalties
ordained by its
bigoted rulers. In 1766 Major Francois d'Alincourt, a Frenchman, and
Don Oyres de
Ponellas Pracao, a Portuguese nobleman, were imprisoned by the governor
solely because of their membership of the Order. They were conveyed to
they were confined in a fortress for fourteen months until they were
the generous and persistent efforts of other members of the Craft.
the end of 1770 the governor of the Isle of Madeira, Jean Antoine de Sa
persecuted several Freemasons, his action being said at the time to be
His despatches to the Marquis de Pombal, some of which are now in the
the Bibliotheque Nationale, are couched in bombastic and splenetic
may be seen from the following specimen:
discharge of my duty and as a faithful
subject, I am compelled to describe to you the horrible scheme of the
crimes concocted by the most diabolical of sects and the most barbarous
such as in this enlightened age have never been placed before the pious
His Majesty. I call this sect diabolical, because under the title of
they open their arms to embrace all the nations of the world. They obey
head who bears the specious title of 'Very Worshipful,' who is said to
elected to this position in Scotland, of which nation he is a subject."
November, 1770, the enraged Governor Funchal informed the Marquis de
Pombal of the
discovery of a group of Freemasons, which he proved to him by
forwarding the documents
seized, among which were some Masonic catechisms. He added that these
followed the anathematized maxims posed by Father Joseph Torrubia in
his book Sentinelle
contre les Francs-Macons [Lib*], a copy of which he also sent. Aires de
Frazao, head of the Funchal custom house, and a very large number of
in the island were the first to be arrested. When interrogated, Frazao
a strict silence, but in a letter to the magistrate, he indulged in
endeavoured to outwit him with subterfuges. However, his wife, when she
declared than an engineer, Sergeant-major Francis d'Alincourt and
both Frenchmen, were also members of Craft. They were at once arrested.
gave the names of other persons whom she believed also be associated
with the Order,
among whom were Julien Fernandez da Silva, a physician; Eumolpo
Stanislas; and Joachim
Antoine Pedroso, who, in a letter sent [to] London addressed to
had referred to "the memory of our good brothers." Frazao and
were sent to Lisbon but Andrieux asked to be interrogated again, when
heresy, and having told the Governor all he wished to know, was
released. This man
had previously been denounced to the Inquisition as a libertine,
because he had
set the soldiers the bad example of eating meat on the fast days
prescribed by the
Church, not attending Mass, and belonging to the Freemasons.
Januarius' Day in 1776 the blood of saint is said to have refused to
the customary manner and the agents of Tanucci, an unscrupulous and
of the Craft, attributed this to the machinations of the Freemasons and
immediately followed. But Ferdinand's queen Caroline, who is said to
Masons well," interposed and in consequence of her advocacy the edict
and Tanucci dismissed from office.
Lodge of John of Scotland founded France in 1778 on a warrant and
the Grand Orient of Paris had as its first Master the Abbe Bartolio,
its members were the Abbe Robinson, the Abbe Durand, Prior of Entraigne
a Benedictine of the Monastery of Cluny.
was the scene of a severe persecution of Freemasons in 1779. A
Dominican monk named
Ludwig Greinemann, a lecturer in theology, endeavored to prove, in a
course of Lenten
sermons, that the Jews whom he held to be responsible for the
crucifixion of Jesus,
were members of the Masonic Order; that Pilate and Herod were the
Wardens of a Masonic
lodge; that Judas before he betrayed his Master was initiated in a
lodge held in
a synagogue; and that when he returned the thirty pieces of silver he
did no more
than pay his fees for initiation into the Order. A commotion was raised
among the people by these discourses, and the magistrates of the city
issued a decree which provided that "if any one shall offer a refuge in
house to Freemasons, or allow them to assemble there, he shall be
punished for the
first offence with a fine of one hundred florins; for the second
offence, two hundred
florins; and for the third offence, with perpetual banishment from the
however, the Craft continued to grow. In 1787 a lodge was again
established in Rome,
but the members were surprised by the officers of the Inquisition on
1789, but the brethren succeeded in making their escape though the
archives were seized. On the same day the Inquisition captured that
Cagliostro, whose evil repute had acted very prejudicially upon
lodges in Lombardy issued a manifesto ‒ which was laid before the
College of Cardinals
‒ disclaiming all connection with him and defending the Craft from the
against it by the Papacy.
Finality of Masonry
Bro. Louis Block,
YEARS ago a great thinker and teacher, one George Burman Foster, now of
memory, wrote an epoch-making book which he called "The Finality of the
Religion." [Lib 1906]
By this he did not mean the end of the
Christian Religion in the sense of its coming to a termination, but
what he did
mean was an effort to set forth the true meaning and purpose of this
in its last and final analysis.
this book this brave preacher performed a great service for
Christianity, for he
rescued it from being smothered to death by the caking and
with which the creed-mongers were trying to encase it. This he did by
real Christianity ‒ the Christianity that Christ taught ‒ was no mere
fixed formulae, of rigid legalism, of hard and fast creeds. That on the
it was a natural religion, taught by reason and inspired by nature,
which is after
all but the visible garment of God. It found its voice in the song of
and the brooks, in the murmur of the breeze and the majestic roll of
It was a thing which, as Emerson put it, was in tune "with the blowing
and the falling rain." It was a living, breathing force, one that could
more be confined within a creed, than a rose could be kept from
bursting from its
bud. Christ cared naught for creeds but He was careful to "consider the
how they grow." He knew that forms and ceremonies, creeds and churches,
and temples are not themselves religion, but the mere trappings of it ‒
of expression by means of which human souls have striven since time
began to make
confession of the presence of God in the heart of men.
fade and die away, creeds change and disappear, churches crumble to
dust, but the
Spirit abides, for it is not they.
a great and far-reaching cry responds from the Craft, calling for a
leader who shall
perform for Masonry the same great service that Prof. Foster rendered
face two things that are fraught with menace for our institution. One
of these is
a growing superstition that worships the ritual like an idol ‒ that
tends to look
upon it as a thing and an end, in and of itself.
is a woeful failure of many so-called Masons to get any sort of real
the great lessons the ritual strives to teach, and a consequent
to make its meaning, manifest either in the life of the individual
Mason or of the
nation in which he lives.
it so many Masons continue to think that Masonry was not only brought
but continues to exist, for the sake of the ritual and for that alone?
seem to talk about, or think about, or care about is "getting the
In their effort to become perfect in the letter of the ritual they
would fain memorize
the punctuation marks if that were possible. Among them that man is the
who comes nearest a phonograph in the perfection of his word memory.
All too few
of them make much, if any, effort to understand the spirit of the
ritual or to let
that spirit have its perfect work in their thoughts and lives. Ask one
what a certain part or phrase of the ritual means, and he is not only
at a loss
to know, but even wonders what is the matter with you, that you should
really had a meaning, or that he ought to know that meaning. He has
his lines, repeated them without a mistake, and for him that's enough.
And it he
can say them with fewer errors than you can, he thinks himself a better
you are ‒ despite the fact that he has little or no idea what those
an institution that exists for the sole purpose of putting a premium
upon the mere
ability to memorize?
time immemorial we have been taught that the design of the Masonic
to make its votaries wiser and better and consequently happier, that we
are to receive
none knowingly into our ranks except such as are moral and upright
before God and
of good repute before the world, because such men when associated
naturally seek each other's welfare and happiness equally with their
own. In order
that they may do so upon a common platform and become not weary in well
obligate them by certain solemn and irrevocable ties that serve to bind
in this great and glorious work. Now it must be perfectly clear to
anyone who will
give it a moment's thought that the mere ability to commit words never
made a man
wiser and better, nor himself or his neighbors any happier. But that it
when he comes to grasp the noble meaning that those words teach and
makes that meaning
to live in his daily life, that any real good gets done.
a wonderful world this would be ‒ what a heaven ‒ life we would have on
if every Mason would try half as hard to know the meaning, and to live
it, as he
does to get the words of the ritual.
painfully careful about a new brother's committing the words ‒ we force
him to learn
them ‒ won't be decent to him till he does ‒ but once he's got them, we
go hang as far as their meaning goes. As far as the words went he was
to forced feeding, but when it comes to getting the meaning, he must
himself. Having ground the words into him we let him grope for the
he thinks his betters know what they are about, and noting where they
put the emphasis,
he gets the words and ‒ quits. Or if he goes on doing anything it is
simply to help
some other brother to get the words, words, words. In lodges where this
thing prevails real live men soon lose their interest and stay away,
for there is
much better food for hungry souls to be found elsewhere. That is the
causes so many lodges to die of dry rot.
is something in the very nature of formalism that tends to
fossilization. The charm
of novelty is a thing that cannot last, and endless repetition soon
unless there is repeatedly brought to the mind of the Mason a
that there lies hidden within the ritual great thoughts and meanings to
know which means comfort in hours of care, an inspiration that rescues
becoming a dreary mill-round of fate, and reveals a path of individual
to follow which is to sweeten and sanctify the whole life of the
the Mason comes to see these things, unless he gets the vision, unless
that lies within the letter be eternally made manifest, the ritual
a system of electric light wires from which the current is cut off, so
while crying for light, we grope in darkness, and Masonry fails in her
avails our elaborate system of "types, emblems, and allegorical
if these have become as "sounding brass and tinkling cymbal" that
upon deaf ears and stir no life in our sodden souls?
I know ‒ we are busily engaged in caring for our distressed, housing
clothing their nakedness, and filling their bellies, nevertheless, and
that, and until we go one step further, and systematically feed their
our own included, Masonry will continue to fail in her function.
is a great hunger in the souls of men today ‒ a lack and a want that
clothes, or shelter can fill. If Masonry is to save herself it must be
to satisfy this want. To succeed it must be done systematically.
always has, and always will, fail. The only salvation that really saves
salvation. The only way to rescue and revive the ritual and restore it
to the brethren
is by a systematic scheme for educating them in the things for which it
Masons must be made to know that the ritual is no mere magic sing-song
words, but is the stern story of the struggle and travail of a human
to attain light ‒ that "Light that never was on land or sea."
has just come fresh from reading the thoughts of the leaders of the
will find a wonderful accord among them concerning the thing they think
is meant to teach ‒ things that make for nobler human life, in the
home, on the
street abroad in the nation, and round about the globe. It is like a
singing, in unison ‒
to their voices, they utter one
Name One Lord, one Hope, one Brotherhood proclaim!"
these things which when taught systematically that have in them the
power to save.
And it can be systematically done, is even now being so done. You will
to learn how hungry the Masons are to go to school ‒ all they want is a
them a course of study and broad-mind deep-thinking, forward-looking
men ‒ men with
soul aflame with their faith in human brotherhood, to teach them, and
cannot drive them away from the Masonic study class.
own town, with my own eyes I have seen it. Have seen a Masonic college
lecture night after night to an audience of three hundred brethren ‒
men from all
the walks of life ‒ "the butcher, the baker and the candle-stick maker"
‒ they were all there, they simply ate up that "high-brow stuff" and
for more. Sat for over an hour, hearing him talk about such a thing as
of Architecture" forsooth! And the discussion and live debate that
the interest and enthusiasm that were show and the new friends that
were made ‒
friends of mind, heart, and soul! Why it would make you think Brother
"Mother Lodge out there"! And out of it all there has grown a great
of Masonry throughout the community. Interest in the ritual has
revived, for now
the brethren are coming to know what it is all about. Even the
Mason has profited ‒ has ceased being a mere mechanical mouth piece and
a living voice of the spirit.
lecture dealt with the subject of the Mason's civic and patriotic duty,
and an audience
of over a thousand Blue Lodge Masons were stirred to enthusiasm as
The spirit which ruled our brethren of the "Boston Tea Party" is now
itself felt in the civic life of our community, in a cleaner, a better,
and a nobler life.
my brethren, let us render honor where honor is due. Be it known that
we are achieving is due in larger measure to the real service we have
the hands of the Masonic Service Association. Its plain and practical
its clear and carefully prepared courses of study, its helpful
literature, and its
prompt response to our every need have been for us a source of great
and have set our feet in the path that has led us to doing sums thing
is free for the asking and lodges everywhere, both within and without
do themselves no greater kindness than to avail themselves of it.
in Iowa its work is well seconded and furthered by the enthusiastic
support of the
Masonic Research Committee of the Grand Lodge, whose Speaker's Bureau
speakers and lecturers, who have put vim and snap, and fire and punch
into the promulgations
of this Great Work.
power to the movement!
Bro. Joseph H. Fussell,
of the Universal Brotherhood and Theosophical Society at San Diego, is
one of the
show-places of Southern California, so beautiful is it for situation,
in its arrangements, so manifold in its interest. The educational
carried on there have attracted a more than curious interest from
for the doctrines of Theosophy they are known everywhere. Many of the
men in residence
at the Headquarters, and also a number of those holding official or
are active and interested Freemasons, who find in the Fraternity much
of the spirit
of universality and toleration, and some of the tenets, which comprise
of doctrines that they hold. Among these is the Secretary, of the
Fussell, whom it is a pleasure to introduce to our readers.
article is written in response to a letter received from Brother Robert
33 degree, Editor-in-Chief of the Masonic History Company, Chicago,
whom I learned of an Esperanto Masonic Convention held last year at The
the object of bringing about a closer relationship among Freemasons all
world. At the Convention a Committee of Freemasons was appointed from
It was felt best that the President and Secretary of the Committee
should be residents
of some neutral country. Accordingly the new President is from Holland.
Secretary is from Antwerp, concerning whom Brother Clegg writes, "much
sorrow I note that he represents a lodge of Co-Masons. I have just
written to the
Chairman to tell him frankly that this will be a very serious handicap
as well as American, Freemasons. So far as I am concerned I fail to see
how I can
possibly have any Masonic correspondence with any individual having
Nevertheless it may be that when they find out how unfortunate is this
will do something to correct it."
Clegg, knowing that I had given some attention to so-called
asked if I had any information that I could give. I was happy to
respond to his
request, and in addition it has occurred to me to write the following,
which I now
offer for the consideration of the brethren.
of "Co-Masonry," so far as I know, has been treated hitherto mainly, if
not entirely, from its outer aspect, on the supposition that the
exclusion of women
from Freemasonry is merely a matter of tradition and of rules and
outer ceremonial; in other words, that it is a matter of form and not
basic ‒ superficial
and not fundamental.
it will generally be conceded that some women who advocate "Co-Masonry"
may be actuated by a desire to learn something of the deeper spiritual
of Freemasonry which, apparently, they are convinced it possesses,
others ‒ those
who are most insistent in their efforts to enter its portals ‒ appear
their exclusion as an expression of man's selfishness, or as a
by which he seeks to maintain a (fancied) supremacy over the so-called
and on these grounds they are determined to assert their rights and
break down this
exclusion. Others perhaps are actuated by other, more hidden, motives
or ‒ what?
of the first class who, it is assumed, are sincerely seeking for light,
I hold that
something more is due than merely to say that Freemasonry is a
Fraternity for men
only; and if there is a deeper and basic reason for excluding women
which may properly be made known, surely they are entitled to know it.
a reason exists, I hold, and the position taken in the following
discussion is that
women are excluded from Freemasonry for fundamental ‒ not formal or
reasons, and that because woman is not and can never become man, so she
become a Freemason.
believe in the equality of the sexes; but I hold that man has a mission
woman has also a mission, and that these missions are not the same. If
to understand the duties of real wifehood and motherhood, and to reach
of ideal womanhood, she must cultivate her femininity. She was born a
she must BE a woman, in the truest sense; and the contrasts between man
exist in life… these contrasts hold within themselves, in the very
of human life, a superb and glorious harmony. Woman in her true place,
hand in hand with man in his true place, would bring about such a new
order of things
that we can hardly speak of, much less realize, the resulting
hold that man has a mission, and that woman has also a mission and that
are not the same." "Woman in her true place, hand in hand with man in
his true place."
are the words of one of the foremost thinkers and educators of the day,
Tingley, Leader of the Theosophical Movement ‒ successor in that office
of H. P.
Blavatsky and W. Q. Judge. I have chosen them to introduce the subject
first, they are from a woman; and, second, they are in entire harmony
with the spirit
as well as the letter and practice of Freemasonry, as I understand
be the ultimate origin of Freemasonry, whether to be searched for in
as some claim, and as I believe, or in comparatively recent times,
there is no question
as to modern Freemasonry and its practice ‒ that it is an organization
for men only,
with the object (among others) of teaching and fitting the neophyte for
and true place in life as a man.
true that the great moral principles of Freemasonry are universal,
all life, to the life of woman as well as to that of man, and equally
basic. There is no secret made as to the moral teachings of
Freemasonry; they are
published openly and are for all who care to inquire into and study
them. The secrets
of Freemasonry do not consist in these.
do these secrets consist? Many different answers have been made to this
and I venture to make one more, and to say that the secrets of
Freemasonry are such
as pertain to the full knowledge of man's nature and his mission as man
more complete than, generally speaking, is to be found outside the
ranks of Freemasons,
and which is had in varying degrees even within its ranks. In this
must be confessed that not all Freemasons comprehend, or even apprehend
of, the secrets of Freemasonry, which can only become known and be
the individual Freemason as and to the degree that, through his own
becomes worthy and well qualified, duly and truly prepared. Such
preparation are not outer but inner, and must be the work of himself
fruit of his own efforts.
secrets of Freemasonry do not have reference to physiological so much
as to psychological
differences which exist fundamentally between men and women ‒
distinctions of inner
qualities which may be summed up and regarded as the foundation of true
in contrast to true womanliness. The one is not and never can be the
are fundamentally different, being aspects of the root-differentiation
of all nature,
all manifestation and existence, and yet when rightly developed they
are in complete
harmony. It is to be noted that harmony does not result from identity
but is a certain relation existing between two dissimilars; and on the
and character of those dissimilars will depend the nature of the
of Freemasonry then, as I understand it, is to fit man as man to fulfil
in life and to make possible his contributing his due share to that
harmony on which
alone not only a true home but the true state and civilization itself
can be established
and maintained, for the foundation of the state and of civilization is
it, then, that certain women seek to invade the Masonic Fraternity? (1)
Is it out
of mere curiosity? (2) Are they jealous because for centuries men have
met in their
Masonic lodges from which women are excluded, and have faithfully kept
of Freemasonry from women; or (3) Do they imagine that in Freemasonry
there is certain
knowledge which they are entitled to have and which men have been
one of these possible reasons worthy of true womanhood? Certainly not
(1) or (2);
but what of (3)? Is there certain knowledge in Freemasonry to which
women are entitled?
and ethics of Freemasonry, as already stated, are not secret; they have
and again publicly proclaimed. If women feel themselves entitled to
it is for them to take it and apply it to their own lives as women,
just as Freemasons
are taught to apply it to their lives as men. There is nothing to
from doing this, but such application must be made by themselves; for
and rightly, I take it, they would object to any line of application
which men might
lay down and insist upon for them. Hence what need for women seeking
Freemasonry to obtain such knowledge when it is open to them?
therefore, it cannot be the principles of Freemasonry that they are
yet these are at the very heart of Freemasonry and are the essential
make Freemasonry such a power. What is it, then, that women seek in
to invade Freemasonry? Is it to participate in its ritual, to learn its
and, doubtless, other secrets which they are convinced must exist? But
woman should participate in the ritual of Freemasonry and its
obligations, she would
be just as far as ever from being a Freemason, for it has secrets which
can never know. Leaving aside, therefore, mere curiosity and jealousy,
I am convinced
that the desire of any good woman to enter the ranks of Freemasonry
a misunderstanding; and it is my endeavor, in writing this, to remove
womanly attitude, in my estimation, is that expressed by Katherine
Tingley in a
statement which she made on "Co-Masonry," published in "The New Age
Magazine." June, 1914, from which I quote:
cannot understand how any true woman
would wish to intrude into an order held to be exclusively for men.
There are lines
of work which I hold are exclusively in the province of men, just as
there are lines
of work which are exclusively in the province of women. I hold that
woman can only
wield her full share of influence in the world from a knowledge gained
and fulfilling her opportunities as a woman and in her own sphere. I
she steps away from her true position and greatly lessens her influence
to invade the sphere of man. Why should women be disturbed that men
have an organization
which is exclusively for men?
is needed today by both men and
women is a greater respect, first for themselves, in their true natures
as men and
women, and following that a greater respect each for the other ‒ of
women for men
and of men for women. Such respect implies no invasion of one another's
but the very contrary, and in fact can only suffer terribly from such
it were possible to conceive of
the secrets of Masonry being given to a woman, from my understanding of
it could be only through some one unfaithful to his vows as a Mason,
and no true
or self-respecting woman would think of availing herself of such
could it, by the nature of things, be held to be reliable, for he who
in one thing will be unfaithful in others, and I prophesy that this
attempt of certain
women to seek admission where they do not belong can result only in
and serious embarrassment for all such women."
and contrast are to be found throughout manifested life; they are the
sine qua non
of manifested existence and of all Progress. It is relativity, contrast
these are rightly balanced, the subsequent harmony, between man and
woman that make
not only for the happiness of home but for true civilization. The
"Man, know thyself," must be, to a degree at least, fulfilled, and
"Woman, know thyself," if that harmony is to be attained. If there is
an invasion, or attempted invasion, of the rightful sphere of man by
woman, or vice
versa, the result can only be, not harmony but confusion.
the greatest stabilizing forces of the present day, as it has been in
is Freemasonry. It is, in the best sense, conservative, in that it is
and teaches the highest ethics, the loftiest ideals, and fairest
and practiced by the noblest in all ages. It is progressive in that
to, the highest traditions of the past, it relates those traditions to
welfare of humanity, and by seeking to develop the highest qualities of
it works for the spiritual up-building of the race.
assumption of "Co-Masonry" is that the woman nature is not different
but identical with the man nature and that therefore woman should have
and be whatever
man has and is. But woman can never be man, nor can she ever have what
man has in
the same way that he has it. Even the woman mind is different from the
As said above, it is a psychological difference, of which the
physiological is merely
an outer aspect. In the normal man reason governs, in the woman
does not mean that woman has no power of reason, or man no faculty of
but in man the relation between reason and intuition is different from
between these in woman.
earliest years of life there is apparently no marked difference between
girls, and very naturally and properly they may be educated together.
But to develop
the best in their natures as they pass through the period of youth and
that of manhood and womanhood, while certainly they should not be
deprived of mutual
association, yet boys and girls should receive distinctive and separate
and a part of their lives should be kept sacred to themselves
throughout life if
their finer distinctive traits are to be preserved.
normal man desires, and with reason, to associate at times with man
alone; and so
too, I take it, every normal woman with woman alone; and every normal
man and woman
desires and, in the deepest sense, requires recurring opportunities for
"And thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet (into solitude) and
pray" ‒ to that "Deity" which can be approached only in secret, and
in the inner solitude of the heart.
as practiced today may be far short of the ideal, but if Freemasons
the value of meeting with their brother Masons for the purpose, and in
a sense the
highest purpose, of attaining self-knowledge, of studying and
practicing the noblest
virtues, and of preparing themselves to fulfil all the duties of life,
therefore be jealous and seek to invade their ranks? Is not the way
open to them
to do likewise, but in their own womanly way?
but little of the ancient Mysteries. There were the Lesser Mysteries ‒
all who fulfilled the preliminary requirements were permitted to enter.
Mysteries were only for those who successfully passed through the
lesser. From a
careful study of the subject I have come to the conclusion that while
Mysteries were open to men and women alike, and while some of the
for men and women together, there were also those into which men alone
into which women alone, were admitted. In Freemasonry men have kept
alive, or have
at least revived a part (however small or great) of their phase of the
whereas the women of our Western civilization seem to have lost touch
This conclusion is borne out by the fact that among the North American
certain other so-called primitive or savage races there are still
lodges for men
and lodges for women which are wholly distinct, no woman being admitted
to the former
and no men to the latter. (2)
is an attempted intrusion; it is a virtual confession on the part of
who advocate "Co-Masonry" that they have neither the wit to discover,
nor the intelligence to devise and carry out, a system and organization
in its inspiring teachings, profound symbolism and uplifting influence
parallel and complementary to the Masonic Fraternity and become, like
it, a beneficent
power not only in woman's life, but through her in the life of the
world. This attempted
intrusion is, in fact, a virtual confession that men have discovered or
for themselves something which women have not in this age been able to
or evolve or parallel
the cardinal teachings of Theosophy, especially accentuated by
is that there are two natures in every human being: a higher nature,
divine in essence
and immortal, and a lower nature, mortal, passional, self-seeking. I
but question if it be the true womanly nature that actuates the
advocates of "Co-Masonry."
I question whether it may not be that some of the advocates of
have failed to find and take their true place as women, and that,
failure (though doubtless they would indignantly deny it), they seek
not their own. And I question whether they could do this were it not
that the finer,
truer side of their womanliness has been stunted.
true man, and certainly every true woman, knows that woman loses more
her influence if she seeks to put aside her womanliness. Reference is
not made here
to the domestic virtues and affections, though these have their place
charm, but to the deeper aspects of womanliness which have made so many
from all sex influences) the inspirers and helpers of men. It has often
but may well be repeated again and again, and men will always be ready
that their greatest achievements in life would never have been
for the inspiration of mother, wife, sister or woman friend. I put
for "the hand that rocks the cradle rules the world."
other hand, can it be gainsaid that the present unrest of the world,
before the war, is in great measure the result of woman's failure to
true womanly influence in the home, in society and in the nation? "The
that rocks the cradle rules the world" ‒ and it is the mother who has
and fateful opportunity of striking the first keynote of her son's life
‒ by her
own thoughts, her own attitude, her self-control and purity and true
And the sweet, refining, and inspiring influence of these continue with
through life, even when she has passed on.
true mother, too, knows that her son will have to meet problems which
he must solve
for and by himself, and the wise mother, however her heart may ache for
at such times leave him to himself and let him have his solitude. She
that he needs a father's influence and the companionship of other boys.
she will not intrude, for that would mar the fineness of his manhood
and the sweet
relationship between them. Yet, if she has struck the keynote aright,
will be with him still, a gentle and unbreakable restraining power,
in the path of true nobility and chivalry, in the path of purity, honor
manliness. This, I take it, is the influence that the true mother
wields, and the
true wife and sister ‒ the influence of the true womanly nature.
worthwhile bartering away that influence for the sake of the very
that might accrue from any attempted intrusion upon an organization
which is for
men alone? Assuredly no! And were the intrusion to become a fact, it is
woman who would suffer, but man too, and the home and civilization.
Such an intrusion
would but add to the already appalling confusion of the present day ‒
is indeed but another indication of the confusion.
if the doors of Masonic lodges were opened to women, it would still be
victory for them they would forever miss the inner meaning which,
concerns man as man. Indeed, I think that the women who advocate
have looked far enough ahead, they look only at the possible and
of their desires ‒ the opening of Masonic lodges to them ‒ but have no
conception, if any conception at all, of what would result. In other
do not know what they are doing; they are working wholly from wrong
me venture a suggestion, first premising that all true men and all true
and welcome opportunities for closer cooperation ‒ such cooperation
superiority or inferiority, either of the one or of the other, but a
equality and harmony. Here then is the suggestion which I venture as
towards a solution. Freemasonry is a Fraternity for men; let women
Sorority with its appropriate name ‒ it cannot be Freemasonry nor
as already shown, and I am not disposed to think that women are so
lacking in resourcefulness
that they would have to copy a name which has its distinctive
application to an
organization of and for men alone, or that by copying they would wish
to show their
dependence on men. I use the term Sorority as the exact complement of
and as best describing an organization of and for women alone, as a
of and for men alone.
therefore revive the lodges for women which undoubtedly existed in the
times with their appropriate ritual and ceremonial, which women
re-discover or devise. Such appropriate ritual and ceremonial, if these
are to be
parallel and complementary to Freemasonry, must be based upon the
the noblest moral teachings and be applicable to woman's true
development as those
of Freemasonry are to man's. Let them prove their organization, as
been proved, to be a beneficent power in the life of the world, and
then they will
not have to ask, for Freemasons will be ready to join with them, for a
a greater harmony in which each shall play an appropriate part, man as
woman as woman-partners and coworkers for the world's good.
to this new cooperation will be on the one hand women who have passed
portals of their Sorority and have proved themselves (how ‒ it is for
women to determine)
worthy and well qualified; and on the other hand men who have passed
portals of the Masonic Fraternity, and have likewise proved themselves
well qualified. Such a step forward, assuming it to be practicable,
years of preparation, or it might be possible to take it quickly. And
depends, in the first instance, upon the women, and not upon the men.
is an instance to which Katherine Tingley referred when she said, "Let
find her true place and man will find his." Such a step, made possible
new cooperation, might lead indeed to the finding of the door to the
Mysteries. Who can tell?
says Mme. H.P. Blavatsky, in her great work The Secret Doctrine (II,
153) [Lib 1893/97;
"is the guiding law in
Nature, the only true Ariadne's thread that can lead us, through the
paths of her domain, toward her primal and final mysteries." It was
woman, through our mothers, that we gained entrance into this physical
impulse, the seed, is from the father, but the mother opens the door of
life. And, by analogy, may it not be, that though man may give the
perhaps provide the seed, he must wait for woman to open the door into
life. Underlying this conception there is, I think, a profound mystical
discussion of which must be deferred until a future occasion. If this
and analogy be correct, does it not show that true progress can come
the cooperation of man and woman, through which alone can come into
true home, the true state, and a true civilization?
this be accomplished by either man or woman assuming the superior role.
As in the
true home neither is superior, and neither inferior, but each with his
or her own
sphere, with his or her own part to play, they are partners and
coworkers; so in
the world's life, for which Freemasonry is a preparation for men, while
is their organization? If women feel the need of similar opportunities,
preparation, let them be true to themselves, to their own womanhood,
cannot be if they leave their own sphere and seek to invade that of men.
is, however, this to be remembered and seriously considered:
to many students, traces its lineage back to the ancient Mysteries
Lesser Mysteries, as already said), and our modern Freemasonry is a
or revival of part of the symbolism and of a few of the teachings of
Mysteries which were enacted in Egypt, India and Greece. It may be, and
it certain, that a hidden thread may be found whereby women may link
with the past and rediscover a part of the symbolism and teachings of
Mysteries that relate to their life and opportunities as women.
for this reason that it is held that the establishment of an
organization for women
which shall be complementary and parallel to the Masonic Fraternity
must be a re-discovery
or revival and not an invention. Further, as Freemasonry in no sense
takes man away
from the path of duty, or the fulfilment of his obligations to his
family, his fellow
man or society, but accentuates the importance of such fulfilment, so a
or parallel Sorority must in no sense take woman away from the path of
duty or the
fulfilment of her obligations in the home, to her family or society,
but will accentuate
the importance of such fulfilment.
a complementary and parallel Sorority, it will be clear, cannot be
any woman or group of women who are actuated by ambition or fancied
can be established, if it is to be indeed complementary and parallel to
by finding the Ariadne's thread that shall lead the woman of the
present to the
rediscovery of the teachings of Antiquity, ‒ of some, at least, of the
of the Lesser Mysteries pertaining to woman's true place in life and to
of her spiritual nature. And when woman takes her true place, as
has said: "Woman in her true place, her true position, hand in hand
in his true place," may we not look confidently forward to the coming
a new order of things we can hardly speak of, much less realize, the
then depends upon woman in this day and generation! And the question
is: shall it
be co-operation and a resulting harmony or attempted intrusion and
confusion? Shall the door to the Greater Mysteries of Antiquity once
more be found
and humanity enter upon its spiritual inheritance? Does it not depend
"Katherine Tingley on Marriage and the Home" ‒ An Interview by Claire
Merton ‒ Theosophical Publishing Co., Point Loma, California.
(2) Further corroboration of this conclusion is given by Professor
(Membre de I'Tnstitut, Paris), a distinguished archaeologist and author
Mysteries of Mithras." [Lib 1903] In a letter,
April 17, 1921, he writes: "The evidence of the numerous inscriptions
have been gathered prove that women did not partake in the Mysteries of
which were derived from the old religion of Persia. We never find them
offering, receiving any degree of initiation, or mentioned in the list
of the confraternities. But the excavations have proved that the
of Mithras were often connected with temples of the Great Mother of the
and we have other proofs that the two cults were closely associated.
Women of course
could worship this goddess and partake in her mysteries. If they were
the men's colleges of the 'Invincible' Sun, they could have their
devoted to the Mother Earth."
Clubs in the
District of Columbia
D.C., now has nineteen Masonic clubs, with a membership of nearly
6,000. They embrace
the employees of Government departments and various institutions as
Club, State, War and Navy, White House and Civil Service Commission;
Treasury Department; Trestleboard Club, Government Printing Office;
Department (of the Interior; Triangle Club, Department of Agriculture;
Club, Bureau of Engraving and Printing; Lambskin Club, Navy Yard;
Circle Club, District
Government employees; Compass Club, Pace and Pace Institute employees;
University Law School Masonic Club; George Washington University
Masonic Club; Craftsman
Club, War Risk Insurance; Anchor Club, Shipping Board; Gavel Club,
profession men of Washington; Italian-American Masonic Club; Railroad
Washington Terminal employees; Southgate Club, Southern Railway
Club, Department of Commerce; Cable Tow Club, City Postoffice.
club was organized in the Geological Survey in 1909, known as the
Trowel Club, and
its formation was prompted by a brother in that Department being sick
and the Masons
getting together to look after him.
meet once a month and the proceedings are of a social character and for
of getting acquainted. The Advisory Board of Washington consists of the
and two members from each club and meets four times a year for the
purpose of exchanging
views and to combine action for the good of Masonry. They install the
the clubs when requested to do so. Brother W.R. Metz is president of
the board and
Brother W.J. Dow is secretary and treasurer.
Bro. Charles F. Irwin,
number of brilliant Masonic leaders in France to their membership roll
American brethren as remarkable. The cultivation of the social
friendship of French
Masons opened the way for the exchange of information which proved of
worth to us.
The brethren of French Masonry form the very foundation of the genius
The leaders in constructive thought in all departments of public life
will be found
identified with some branch of Freemasonry. Every sound law placed on
statute books for twenty-five years has been placed there through the
the war opened the man toward whom France turned to lead the army and
the Republic was General Joffre, the idol of France, or, as he is
"Papa Joffre." General Joffre had a plan speedily formulated which
held for the duration of the war.
never publicly expressed, General Joffre was retired from active
command of the
Armies early in the war. He was practically in retirement for the
balance of the
fighting. Yet the genius of this remarkable man permeated the councils
of the Allies
and influenced their deliberations.
inevitable that we should wonder why General Joffre was thus retired.
age and physical weakness were given as ostensible reasons for his
continued activity contradicted such reasoning.
observers know that a wave of reaction swept Europe and came close to
shores during the war. This reaction changed many things which had
to liberty and intelligence.
Joffre is a 32nd degree Mason. He is a Protestant. He represents the
attained by French intelligence and culture in the early years of the
century. He was persona non grata to elements in France who have always
assailed our Fraternity. And it cannot escape our minds that the
of General Joffre were matters of serious dissatisfaction to this
element in the
Joffre had a great reluctance to needlessly sacrificing his men in
developed to its high degree of perfection the trench warfare. There
are many who
believe that, had he retained command, scores of thousands of French
now sleep would be alive and aiding in the constructive policies of
the great celebration of the Victory Day Parade ‒ July 14, 1919 -was
the curiosity of the French people was aroused as to the place General
occupy. So they inquired of the government who announced that due to
his age and
feebleness he would occupy a seat beside President Poincare in the
did not satisfy the populace who demanded that Joffre should ride
beneath the Arch
de Triomphe. Never since 1812, or in 107 years, had a French victorious
beneath the arch, and French emotion could not contemplate this great
deprived of a place in such a great event.
then announced a change in plan, and declared General Joffre should
the Arch de Triomphe and dismount at the tribunes, where he would take
the French public demanded the presence of Papa Joffre at the head of
And such was the pressure that the government yielded.
at the Place de la Concorde that morning amid a host of French people.
the roar of applauding voices in the distance, up Champs Elysée.
Cannons were booming
in the distance, aeroplanes were gliding; and captive balloons hung,
still and stationary,
overhead. Everyone was under highest tension.
the head of the parade came into sight. The applause was so great as to
attempts to speak to one's neighbor. What was the burden of tumult? The
found in the erect, graceful figure of an old warrior who rode at the
right of that
historic march ‒ "Papa Joffre! Papa Joffre! Bravo, Papa Joffre!" The
warrior ‒ the Freemason ‒ who was supposed to be too feeble to sustain
exposure, was passing by!
have gone and many later experiences have come to pass. But the day and
stand out in my memory like a monument of marble against a sky of azure.
the Cincinnati Enquirer printed an editorial on this great man, which
is so timely
a summary of his life that I am quoting it. The editorial was headed
Greatest Figure," and reads as follows:
much the world owes to Marshal
Joffre gradually is being disclosed through belated publications of the
of the incidents in which he was central and important. The very recent
of one of the aides who accompanied him to America in May, 1917,
reveals the warrior
is a skilled diplomatist and master of the knowledge of mass psychology.
was he who suggested to President
Wilson that the most profound effect upon the morale of the Allies
would come from
the prompt sending of an American division to France and the twining
the Stars and Stripes with the Tricolor and the Union Jack.
mind also caused the dispatching of Pershing in advance to make ready
for the millions
that were to come. From his experience, too, came the warning to the
send none but competent Generals and to be prepared for the failure of
cent of them under the real test of war.
fact, it was Joffre who made the plans for the disposition of the
troops we sent
abroad, and it is to the credit of the War Department and the General
it possessed the sound discretion to accept his counsels and follow the
he mapped out with meticulous care. But the greatest value in these
is the proving that the old Marshal's concept of the defense against
attack was the ablest of all the theories of the war councils. It was
of persistent nibbling at the apparently impregnable lines before the
until the foe was brought down to the same level with his opponents.
Then was to
follow the grand assault and victory.
that campaign was followed by Foch, and it was a proud part that the
played in the concluding drive, pantomimed by the Marshal by delivering
blow with his left and then with his right hand, and following both
with a kick
to the front. The story of the aide also gives a better light upon the
by the President in preparing for the invasion of Europe by the
Apparently he was guided by the veteran of the Marne, who was also good
pay a high tribute to Secretary of War, Newton D. Baker, for his rapid
of the plan of action brought from France and his clear understanding
of the situation.
this record it is difficult to reconcile the stories of haphazard plans
Mission of the Masonic Press
The Late Bro Robert
Freke Gould, England
first issue of this journal its editor laid on the trestleboard a
scheme of the
plan of work proposed for the National Masonic Research Society:
therein was indicated
a purpose to republish already printed works that may not be accessible
to the majority
of students. The best that has been thought and said about Masonry, by
as well as inside the Craft, should not fall into oblivion merely
because it may
chance to have been written a year ago, or ten years ago, or twenty. We
republished a number of essays and chapters of such a character: we
many more. Among these may be listed the following characteristic essay
by one of
the masters of Masonic lore: the article, which I able to speak for
first printed in The London Freemason in 1906.
of ink, and reams of paper,
and disputes infinite might have been spared, if wrangles had avoided
torch at the wrong end; since a tenth part of the pains expended in
prove the why, the where, and the when certain events have happened,
been more than sufficient to prove that they never happened at all."
Colton. POPULAR errors of the moment, mischievous and extensive in
observes Sir Egerton Brydges, "are always in operation; truth prevails
rarely than is assumed, and false opinions, let alone, will obtain
The enlightened intellect which can correct them, and dissipate
delusions, is a
copies of books, as many will be aware, are called in trade
and with this prelude I proceed to quote from an interview with one of
dealers in those wares, of which an account was given some years ago in
"Remainders in Law and Physic," Mr. William Glaisher, the well-known
of High Holborn, is reported to have said, "would be of little use.
who want legal and medical works must have the latest editions – they
must be up-to-date.
I'm afraid, therefore, that surplus copies of legal and medical works
much waste paper, and are sent back to the mills."
contrast with this the fate of unsold copies of works relating to
by year, the early history of our ancient Craft is being gradually
unfolded to us.
But no Masonic book ever seems to grow out of date. The visionary
writings of past
times, and the more scholarly productions of our own, are perused with
faith. Old texts are found to yield new readings, but the old readings
are not thereby
displaced. Popular fallacies are exploded, i.e., within a limited
circle ‒ but within
a larger circle their vitality, remains unimpaired.
therefore, is most wanted in the true interests of Masonic study, or,
will be better to say, in the diffusion of genuine Masonic knowledge,
is a tabulation
of results. The wisest man may be wiser today than he was yesterday,
than he is today. New facts are constantly becoming known, while old
facts are as
rapidly disappearing, and (as it seems to myself) an efficient
registration of these
phenomena should be included among the duties or obligations which we
associate with the Mission of the Masonic Press.
been well said, that it is not so difficult a task to plant new truths,
as to root
out old errors; for there is this paradox in men, they run after that
which is new,
but are prejudiced in favor of that which is old.
the title of A Masonic Curriculum [Lib 1901],
the late George William Speth
wrote an interesting pamphlet which was designed to be "A Course of
Freemasonry." It was almost the last essay he lived to complete, and
a small and unpretentious contribution to the literature of the Society
so faithfully and well, it is full of sage reflections and interesting
on the then published works and ephemeral writing of all Masonic
authors of repute,
and these critical remarks will always be attractive, not for their
also for their felicities of style.
the object of the late Bro. Speth to point out what books and pamphlets
be read. A similar duty, of course, devolves on the Masonic Press, but
of far greater importance (as it strikes my own mind) is the urgent
the literary organs of the Fraternity to speak with no uncertain sound
as to the
books and writings (of all classes and descriptions) which the student
will be well advised to leave severely alone.
of justly merited obloquy under which the entire literature of the
owing to the foolish writings of so many enthusiastic but uncritical
it would be impossible to exaggerate.
of illustration, let me quote some passages from a long forgotten
article on "Ancient
and Modern Freemasonry," by the late Dr. Armstrong, Bishop of
who observes: "The Livys of the Masonic Commonwealth are far from
let their Rome have either a mean or unknown beginning. According to
the commencement of the world, we may trace the foundation of Masonry';
Dr. Oliver, 'ancient Masonic traditions say, and I think justly, that
existed before the creation of this globe, and was diffused amid the
with which the grand empyreum of universal space is furnished."'
pointing out in a strain of severe satire that the Freemasons were not
in the least
joking, in what many men considered as a joke, the Bishop continues:
for instance, at the Rev. G. Oliver, D.D. He is quite in earnest. There
really wonderfully refreshing in such a dry and hard-featured an age as
find so much imagination at work. After having pored through crabbed
and mouldy MSS., with malicious and perverse contractions, ragged and
illegible and faded diaries, &c., it is quite refreshing to
drive along the
smooth and glassy road of imaginative history. Of course, where there
is any dealing
with the more hackneyed facts of history, we must expect a little
some looseness of statement ‒ we cannot travel quickly and cautiously,
the Doctor of Divinity before mentioned somewhat startles us by an
the destruction of Solomon's Temple: 'Its destruction by the Romans, as
was fulfilled in the most minute particulars; and on the same authority
we are quite
certain it will never be rebuilt.' He is simply mistaking the second
further observes: "There are minds which seem to rejoice in the misty
of doubt, which see best in the dark, which have a sensation of being
when they are tied to proofs and documents; they despise those stubborn
mules of history, on which safe historians are content to ride down the
precipices of olden times, 'Inveniam viam aut faciam' ‒ I will find my
make them; so say the Masonic writers. They have the same contempt for
historians which we can conceive a stoker of the Great Western dashing
out of Paddington
would feel for an ancient couple, could such be seen, jogging leisurely
out of town
in pillion-fashion on their old somber mare, with the prospect of a
to Bath. They drive the 'express trains' of history. While we are
groping and floundering
amid the fens and bogs of the seventh, eighth and ninth centuries, they
such times as the mere suburbs of the present age ‒ 'the easy distance
They dash past centuries, as railroad trains whisk past milestones. For
we see nothing of Freemasons before the seventh century; we cannot even
breath of a reasonable rumor. But if we put ourselves under the charge
of the most
sober and matter-of-fact Masonic historians, away we are scurried from
to the sixth, from the sixth to the fifth, from the fifth to the
fourth, to the
third, to the second, till dizzy heads and our breath gone, we find
down by the Temple of Solomon.
of course, was not the only, but he may justly be styled the worst,
matters of the kind, as of all the vast array of authors who have
written on the
subject of Freemasonry, he was the most prolific, and in the quantity
of the publications
that issued from his pen, there has been no one to compete with either
in the Old
World or the New.
works of Dr. Oliver would be put into an Index Purgatorius, that is to
say, if the
scholars of Masonry were empowered to draw up "A Catalogue of Books
to be read." The book of his that has probably done the most harm is
of a Square, a sort of Masonic Romance, professing to detail, though in
form, many of the usages of the last centuries, with anecdotes of the
of that period. Most of the articles on the English Ritual of the
written since the publication of this work, have been based on the
of Dr. Oliver's imaginary "Square."
remarks, however, with which I am now proceeding, space would fail me
were I to
attempt to enumerate the books and pamphlets which should be carefully
left unread by all serious students of Freemasonry. The utmost I can do
is to present
in a small compass a body of specious but radically unsound doctrines,
resolutely stamped out by the combined action of the Masonic Press,
in a purification of our sources of knowledge, and tend to remove the
that Freemasonry is wholly unworthy of the attention either of scholars
or men of
fictions have been common in all ages, and the particular branch of
in which Masonry is contained, has its full share of them.
is nothing from which we have reason to infer, that the cathedral (or
were a separate class from the Masons of the City Guilds or companies;
Manuscript Constitutions belonged to the Church-building Masons; or
that the Church
builders were a single fraternity, travelling from place to place as
were required and making themselves known by means of secret grips,
words, and signs.
Bulls were not given to the Freemasons, nor had they an annual
Parliament of their
own. The first Grand Lodge was formed, and the first Grand Master
elected in 1717.
Sir Christopher Wren was not a Grand Master, nor is there any proof
that he was
a Freemason at all. The Grand Lodge of England (1717) was not founded
Anderson, and Desaguliers, or any one of them. Two degrees and not
three were recognized
by the Grand Lodge of England in 1723. Neither Martin Clare nor Thomas
revised the Ritual, and the labors of Thomas Dunkerley in the same
equally imaginary. Andrew Michael Ramsay did not invent a single one of
Rites that have been fathered on him. The young Pretender ‒ Charles
Edward ‒ was
not a Freemason. There has never been ‒ except in the imagination of
writers ‒ a York Rite; nor are there any Prerogatives, which are
inherent to the
office of a Grand Master. The dogmas of Perpetual Jurisdiction,
and Exclusive (or Territorial) Jurisdiction, have been evolved since
of Masonry into what has become the "United States," from England,
the first or second quarters of the eighteenth century. No alterations
by the Original Grand Lodge of England in the "established forms." The
story of Mrs. Aldworth, the alleged "Lady Freemason," is of no
value whatever, and to bring my list of delusions to a close (though
could be greatly multiplied) the now familiar mot
du guet, "the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man"
would have been both unmeaning and unintelligible to the Masons living
in the era
that preceded that of Grand Lodges, as their conception of a creed
would have been
a strict belief in the Trinity; and probably nothing would have more
ancient brethren than to hear it mooted that persons of other than
were qualified for admission into the Society.
scarcely be denied by anyone, that owing to the loose and inaccurate ‒
not to say
extremely foolish ‒ manner in which Masonic history has been written,
there is much
that the present, and possibly a later generation will have to live
down. That the
efforts of the true lovers of Freemasonry in this direction will be
I have myself no doubt whatever, but the period of time that may be
lapse before this aspiration is fulfilled must necessarily vary in
as enlightened assistance is rendered, or not rendered, by the
of the Masonic Press.
immediately before us is to show, that with the disappearance of its
there emerges a real history, of which every intelligent Freemason may
is an anecdote of Lord Chesterfield, so much to my present purpose,
that I cannot
refrain from relating it, as I conceive that it will be deemed in point
readers, and to some may possibly be new. We are told by Horace
Walpole, in one
of his letters, that on a certain occasion Lord Chesterfield exclaimed
to John Anstis,
Garter King of Arms, "You foolish man, you do not understand your own
foolishness." Without doubt, there are points of resemblance ‒
a family likeness ‒ between the Herald and the Freemason, when each of
them is clad
in full panoply of his regalia, which strikes the eye of the ignorant
observer; and while I do not for an instant wish it to be supposed that
the "business" of a Freemason to be a "foolish" one (which,
indeed, would be in direct opposition to the view I am seeking to
I shall venture to affirm that the profound ignorance of the generality
of the Craft,
with regard to the history and antiquities of our venerable Society,
extenuate, if it did not entirely excuse, the words of Lord
Chesterfield, if peradventure,
instead of being addressed to the Garter King of Arms, they had been
used with respect
to the "business," as commonly understood, of a Freemason.
boys that grind my colours," said Apelles to one of the priests of
upon you with respect, while you are silent, because of the gold and
purple of your
garments; but when you speak of what you do not understand, they laugh
do men study ancient history, acquire
a knowledge of dead languages and decipher illegible inscriptions? What
to the study of antiquity? What compels men, in the midst of these busy
sacrifice their leisure to studies apparently so unattractive and
useless, if not
the conviction, that in order to obey the Delphic commandment ‒ in
order to know
what Man is, we ought to know what Man has been?"
are the words of the late Professor Max Muller, and they are applicable
to the study
of Masonry, as to the investigation of any other branch of historical
The authentic history of our ancient Craft can be traced, by the
evidence of existing
documents, to the fourteenth century, and without the shadow of a doubt
it had then
attained a hale and vigorous old age.
labors of many learned men have brought to actual demonstration what
only matter of strong probability, that a state of society highly
refined, existed in various parts of the globe, prior to any written or
documents transmitted to us. Are we justified in supposing that the
connect Masonry with those ancient peoples, among whom that advanced
civilization is found to have prevailed, are entitled to any real
evidence, indeed, it has been said by an old writer whose name I
a great cloud of smoke argues at least a little fire."
observation is a shrewd one, and I have reminded the reader of it, as
‒ Written or Unwritten ‒ of Freemasonry, are its chief glory, and in
its superiority over all other Associations.
what you will against Tradition," wrote the learned Selden; "we know
Significance of Words by nothing but Tradition. You will say the
Scripture was written
by the Holy Spirit; but do you understand the Language 'twas writ in?
for example, take these words, 'In principio erat verbum." How do you
these words signify, 'In the beginning was the word,' but by Tradition,
some Body has told you so?"
before the discoveries of recent times, there were monuments in many
fairly justified the belief that has now ripened into actual knowledge.
ruins of ancient cities, of which no record remained, the Pyramids,
the remotest antiquity had nothing to depose, the advanced state of the
of Geometry and Astronomy amongst the Egyptians and the Babylonians
the presumption that a high state of cultivation and knowledge did
to any written documents or historical records.
literate of our Craft it will be unnecessary to explain either that the
signs now called Masons' Marks, were originally developed at a very
in the East, and have been since used as distinguishing emblems of some
the Middle Ages, in Persia, Syria, Egypt and elsewhere; or, that the
Geometry as taught by Euclid to the Egyptians, was the fons
et origo of the Craft of Masonry, that is if we may repose
confidence in what is distinctly affirmed by the most ancient
Manuscripts of our
are many further points on each of which I should like to say a few
words, but as
this cannot be done, I shall make the best selection I can for
treatment in the
present article. To begin with, there is a certain amount of drudgery
with the acquisition of the rudiments of Masonic knowledge, which may
why it is that no one who enters upon the study of Masonry late in life
it to an entirely satisfactory conclusion. "More, therefore (to
the words of Dr. Johnson, when speaking of the natives of Scotland),
may be expected
from a Mason, who has been caught young." Lengthy works, however, are
esteemed by any Masonic readers, who, in this particular, remind one
convict ‒ the story is told by Macaulay. He was given the choice of the
or reading through Guicciardini; he chose Guicciardini but stuck fast
in the wars
of Pisa, thought better of it, and took to the oar.
author of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, has spoken of "the
space which every ray of light has to traverse before it reaches the
eye of the
common understanding." But since the days of Edward Gibbon, many things
happened, and at the present day intelligibility is not considered by
as a sort of reflection on their intellectual status. It is no longer a
to be "popular." On the contrary, it is generally understood that the
savant who is unable to make the abstruse moderately simple is not
gifted with a
very clear intellect, or is deficient in that literary ability which is
a characteristic of the leading latter-day writers on subjects of
or of any other special character.
to which the history of our own Craft has been critically and
with by writers of the present generation, is a question on which, for
I should hesitate to pronounce any judgment at all. But wherever they
to bring down to the level of the ordinary mind the bearings of the
let us hope that what Proctor did for Astronomy, what Huxley and
for Natural History, what Tyndall accomplished for Physics in this
Helmholtz in Germany, may be done for Masonry by the organized labors
of the Masonic
the Landmark Question
along with such knowledge of things Masonic in general that we receive
Masonic journals and newspapers, shows that ever and anon the Landmark
bobbing up. Grand Lodges and private individuals, students and
it a real question on occasion, and many are their attempts to solve
surface it would appear that this is a thing of hair-splitting. What
does it make to anybody whether there are three Landmarks, or thirty?
it be of concern to know what Pike thought on the matter? or Mackey? or
should Masonic journalists show so much alarm when some Grand Lodge
again to define, name, and number Landmarks?
of all this, of course, lies behind the details, and that significance
be this, that Masons are ever trying to discover what is Masonic
of their minds is the belief that somewhere in the past there has been
a classic Masonry; that what that classic Masonry was all Masonry
should be; and
that it is our duty to keep testing our present day Masonry by the
of all this lies in the fact that there never has been a classic
once has the Order developed into a stage which we may refer to as the
of what all Masonry should be. The Masonry of the Grand Lodge of
England in the
first half of the eighteenth century cannot be accounted the norm,
Masonry became changed out of all recognition, and was itself always in
of flux and uncertainty, as witness the history of the Holy Royal Arch.
we look back to the same Grand Lodge during the latter half of that
in that period it was compelled to divide the field with the Masonry
by the Ancient Grand Lodge, which had a very different system. During
quarter of a century there came the Union of 1813 when both sides
when the Hemming Lectures were adopted. But in this land those lectures
receive favor, having to give way to the system inaugurated by Webb.
And so it goes.
And if in our search for a strictly standard Masonry we turn back to
the era of Grand lodge's we find ourselves in a worse case still, for
was then in such a state of flux as has since given the period the name
of the Era
of Transition. Masonry before that was of the Operative variety. Nearly
has at some time or other, by some one of the numerous Grand bodies,
abolished. In the Ritual there have been innumerable changes. Of
its principles and practices, the same may be said.
also how things lie in the Masonic world at present. The Masonry of the
of France has so far departed from the Landmarks as defined by American
that a great number of our Grand Lodges refuse to affiliate with the
But, except in regard to two important matters, American Masonry
differs from English
Masonry by almost as wide a gulf. It is a well-known fact that our
always go away in a daze after witnessing our Work, it varies so much
And of brethren in Latin countries one may say as much.
this need disturb no one. It has been so from the beginning, and that
effect on the growth and character of the Fraternity. It is so in every
of life: in government, in religion, in education, in literature, in
is so with the individual. He grows from babyhood to boyhood, thence
from which he springs up to manhood, and thence to old age, and all the
his identity unchanged, so that despite all changes he remains the same
still, and recognizable as such by all his friends.
difference does it make if American Masonry differs so much from
What matters it if the customs of Pennsylvania are very unlike those of
Masonry is a great living organism, waxing ever more vigorous, and all
within itself are signs and tokens of its own power and everlasting
need fear that it can ever change its character or lose its identity.
In a thousand
years from now it will have become something unrecognizable to us; but
antiquarians will look back to the Order as it was in 1921 and say: It
is the same
great Fraternity still!
New Masonic Scholarship
excellent paper, The Masonic Reporter, of Chicago, there appeared some
an editorial in the midst of which are these lines:
do we hear of a lodge engaging
a Masonic lecturer or encouraging the study of Masonry. Its traditions
its beautiful system of morality and science, all, all are a closed
book to the
average Mason. Where are our Masonic libraries? The few books that may
in some of our lodge libraries are covered with dust, undisturbed for
the editor goes on to tell what a store of information and of
inspiration is to
be found each year in the Grand Lodge Proceedings, and laments the fact
few of the brethren ever look into the volume, published at so great
cost of money
and time. He says that this indifference to what Masonry really is and
to do seems to indicate that a vast number of the young men who throng
come for the less worthy purposes of social or business aggrandizement.
that brought the Masonic Reporter in which this editorial appeared
a letter from a kind brother in which was enclosed the following,
clipped from a
brethren hold that the art and
mystery of the Masonic Order was first introduced at the building of
the Tower of
Babel, thence handed down by Euclid, who communicated it to Hiram
Abiff, under whom,
at the building of the temple of Solomon was an expert architect named
who, according to legendary lore, introduced it into England."
well! well! It may be that a great deal of the lack of interest
complained of above,
(and complained of in every issue of THE BUILDER) may be due to the
sort of stuff
that is peddled about by some Masonic talkers and writers. It is true
and masters are to blame for the dearth of intellectual activity; it is
true that those who seek to minister to that activity are equally to
so much has been said and written about Masonry which is mere stuff, so
a child can see through its pitiable ignorance. Men of sense and
not waste their time on such trifling. We need a new Masonic
scholarship in America:
a new standard for our great host of Masonic speakers: a new knowledge
of the real
history of, and of the true interpretation of the teachings of our
When members once begin to understand that to accomplish all this is
one of the
principal purposes of Masonic study and research, they will cease to
look upon that
enterprise as the plaything of a few brethren with a certain
about things far away in time and importance.
something for somebody gladly,
'Twill sweeten your every care;
In sharing the sorrows of others
Your own are less hard to bear.
Do something for somebody always,
Whatever may be your creed;
There's nothing on earth can help you
So much as doing a kindly deed.
‒ Venie Whitney.
Burns and Freemasonry
the Masons of an older day might have been like is sensed in yet
volume that has come to our desk; this time the work of the
Masonic scholar, Brother Dudley Wright, Associate Editor of THE
Burns and Freemasonry," [Lib 1921]
by our worthy brother ought
to find room upon the shelves of all who are collecting a Burnsiana, or
matter, upon all library shelves, and particularly the Masonic library
suggested its indication of what the Masonic life of a bygone day was
like. We may
read this interesting information on page thirteen of this well printed
"Freemasonry influenced his (Robert Burns) thoughts; inspired his muse,
nurtured that stern love of independence and brotherhood which became
characteristic of his manhood." And then a little later we have this
in Burns' companionships, "with very few exceptions all his patrons and
were members of the Brotherhood." We have today in our midst as lodge
many distinguished men, but no doubt many of us who belong to lodges
the names of these eminent men on their rosters have never had
with them in the body of the lodge room. It is interesting to note how
were constantly present at lodge meetings in the Poet's day. We have
on page sixty-one to those names associated with literature which
figure in the
register of Lodge Canongate Kilwinning, No. 2, among them John Wilson
North), J. Gibson Lockhart, and Lord Brougham. We are informed that
this lodge possesses
the most ancient lodge room in the world. "It is one of the most active
lodges of the present day, keeping alive the traditions of nearly eight
volume of Dudley Wright's makes us feel that Burns is indeed the
eternal Poet Laureate
of Masonry, and through the marvelous poetic quotations in the volume
we get new
glimpses of the wonder and everlasting worth of Masonic teaching, as
sung by him.
Completing the book is an address delivered by our own Dr. Newton
the toast to the immortal memory of brother Robert Burns at the Burns
Scotts Lodge, No. 2319, English Constitution, on the 24th of January,
We cannot refrain from quoting what Brother Newton says: "If ever of
it can be said of Robert Burns that his soul goes marching on, striding
and years, and trampling tyrannies down. He was the harbinger of the
century, the poet of the rise and reign of the common people of whom it
said God must love, because he made so many of them."
time of our reading of Robert Burns we chanced to be dipping into a
John Wesley, written under the caption "Wesley and His Century," [Lib
by an Australian Methodist minister named Fitchett. We could
not help but wonder whether there was any relationship between the
revival of modern
Masonry and the great religious revival of the eighteenth century in
was the predominant figure. We have been assured that Wesley was not a
we should not fail to note that the marvelous spiritual awakening
the progressive strides of the nineteenth century can never be
Wesley and we believe Freemasonry had no small part in the strife with
atheism of the century.
we are inclined to a depressing pessimism the antidote that we require
is a reading
of history that will reveal to us what the great, luminous souls of
to contend with and how they attempted, achieved, and triumphed.
England in the
eighteenth century is a morbid, dark picture. "A new century was
says Dr. Fitchett, "but it seemed as if in the spiritual sky of England
very light of Christianity itself was being turned by some strange and
into darkness," and a little farther we read that, "judges swore on the
bench; chaplains cursed sailors to make them attentive to sermons; the
incessantly and at the top of his voice.
and blatant deism then ruled the world; religion was a mockery; and
moral and exemplary, were regarded with contempt. Rejuvenation or
attended such a condition. Across the channel the phrase "disaster"
itself in revolution; in England the Wesleyan revival and the fertile
brain of John
Wesley caused a light to shine throughout the Empire which brought
healing and ultimately
that light shone to the far corners of the globe. "When one thinks of
figure," says a recent writer, "athletic both in body and soul, and the
wonder of his evangel which saved England from revolution, one must not
stern culture of soul which made it possible."
John Wesley was a sacramentarian and a high churchman he was a
Protestant of the
Protestants and if modern Protestantism is to play the part we believe
in the rejuvenation of modern life, it must evolve men of the vision,
and the daring of Wesley.
will never fail to militantly support the spiritual idealism expressed
in such men
as Wesley, that culminates in the finding of benevolent institutions
for the service
and then, usually at far distant periods, a personality appears in the
such commanding character that all other formative elements are subject
to his supremacy.
He is a creative power, and then something totally new appears." Of
Luther who stood before the Diet at Worms, and whose 400th anniversary
celebrated this year, were these words spoken. But the words may be
used with equal
force relative to John Wesley. So mote it be.
Burns and Freemasonry, by Dudley Wright, price $1.75, postpaid. Copies
may be secured
through the National Masonic Research Society, Anamosa. Iowa.)
For Sale, And Exchange
constantly receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others
as to where
they might obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than
each month on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the
have been out of print for years. Believing that many such books might
be in the
hands of other members of the Society willing to dispose of them we are
apart this column each month for the use of our members. Communications
having old Masonic publications will also be welcomed.
addresses are here given that those interested may communicate direct
other, no responsibility of any nature to be attached to the Society.
requested that all brethren whose wants may be filled through this
with the Secretary so that the notices may then be discontinued.
George D. Macdougall, Grand Master, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, Canada:
"History and Cyclopedia," by Oliver and Macoy;
"A Concise Cyclopedia of Freemasonry," by E. L. Hawkins;
"Masonic Facts for Masons," by W. H. Russell;
"Genius of Freemasonry," by J.D. Buck;
"The Traditions, Origin and Early History of Freemasonry," by A. T. C.
"Illustrations of Freemasonry," by Wm. Preston;
"The Spirit of Freemasonry, by Wm. Hutchinson.
Avery P. Lord, 537 Champlain St., Berlin, N. H., a copy of "The
Directory," published in 1912 by the Fraternal Directory Company, of
N. W. J. Haydon, 564 Pape Ave., Toronto, Ontario, Canada, a copy of Da
Artificers." Brother Haydon has been trying for years to find a copy of
work, but without success, and will gladly enter into an arrangement
with some more
fortunate brother for the temporary loan of a copy.
E. A. Russell, 751 Linwood Place, St. Paul, Minn.
"Symbolism East and West," Aynsley;
"The Gods of Egypt," Budge;
"Dionysian Artificers," Da Costa;
"Secret Tradition in Masonry," and "Studies in Mysticism," Waite;
"The Cathedral Builders," Scott;
"Freemasonry and the Great Pyramid," Holland, and
"Egypt the Cradle of Freemasonry," De Clifford.
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin,
"Catalogue of the Masonic Library of Samuel Lawrence,"
"Mystic Masonry," by J. D. Buck,
"Second Edition of Preston's Illustrations of Masonry."
Sale or Exchange
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin, "Stray Leaves from a
Book," by George Oliver. This volume also contains "Some Account of the
Schism showing the presumed origin of the Royal Arch Degree." Univ.
edition. Price $3.00. "Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry," bv Robert
(Fiction and anecdotes.) Price $3.50.
L. Finch, Broadalbin, N. Y.: "The History of Freemasonry," by Robert
Gould. The London edition, six volumes, 4to cloth, full gilt, 1884.
"Discourse on Masonry," by Thaddeus Mason Harris, D. D., 1801. Price
"Tales of Masonic Life," by Robert Morris, 1860. Price $3.00.
"Digest of Masonic Law," George W. Chase, 1859. Price $1.50.
"Practical Masonic Lectures," by Samuel Lawrence, 1874. Price $2.00.
in This Country
who see the roots of revolutionary radicalism only in the Old World
will find cause
for second thought in the report of the Lusk Committee of the New York
The modern radical movement began with Karl Marx and the Communist
1848, [Lib 1970]
since which revolutionary radicalism has
been more or less evident in Europe.
Lusk Report, in four large volumes of more than a thousand pages each,
Americans to look to their own country for some roots of radicalism. It
an amazing review of revolutionary efforts that have been cradled here.
these are a by-product of the growth of machine production and large
to charge the changing industrial order with the whole responsibility
radicalism is to go astray.
Report finds two great causes for the movement. The first is economic
and the second
is moral. The infection of radicalism has spread from the ranks of
labor to churches
and universities, because our acquisitive society has left the
underpaid. Except for teachers and clergymen of the highest rank,
been allowed to drop far below industrial wages. The result has been to
and bitterness. More reward and honor should be given where they are
maintain balance and good feeling.
this economic factor, the lack of religious and moral training has
for revolutionary radicalism. When high moral standards fall into
of acquisition, ruthless consumption and display are quick to take
This country has in the past generation enjoyed marvelous material
without a corresponding quickening of moral responsibility and good
instincts are still sound, but there has been, on the part of many, a
loss of perspective
and balance. The Lusk Report presents a picture whose moral is evident.
radicalism does not spring up without reason or cause. It is the result
conditions. These are not irremediable.
adjustment and the revival of the moral element in American life will
do much to
check the spread of radicalism. Because the normal way out has seemed
many have resorted to a quick and dangerous philosophy of escape.
‒ Minneapolis Journal.
-- [A Poem]
it is a gladdening thing:
White birds against a morning sky,
Blowing poppies, nodding grasses,
Light that grows and fades and passes,
Young-leaved poplars shining high.
And God be thanked that gave us hearing
For children's laughter, sweet and bold,
For winds that whisper old hills round,
For every intimate sweet sound
The quiet golden evenings hold.
But oh, 'tis scent that makes immortal
The little lives of mortal men!
Roses with haunting sweetness riven,
Incense, to lift men's hearts to heaven,
Lilacs, to draw them home again.
BUILDER is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions.
a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research
as such, does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over
but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction,
leaving each to
stand or fall by its own merits.
Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the
all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly
our members, particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs
which are following
our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will
be answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
preparing a paper on Landmarks I have gone through all the bound
volumes of THE
BUILDER, and have read every reference to the subject. It all confuses
me. It seems
that Landmarks are and they are not. From your own article which was
the May number for 1918 I gain the same impression. Won't you confess
that you were
not yourself sure what Landmarks were when you wrote that paper?
‒ G.A.W., Rhode Island.
Most Excellent King Solomon"! and I might add also, as a sop thrown to
"As many a friend and brother has done before" me! I have never yet
a Landmark. I could no more make up a list of the Landmarks of
Freemasonry now than
I could when I wrote the article in 1918. There is however one way out,
as simple as it is practicable:
you approach the subject from a philosophical or historical point of
view you must
form your own judgment as to what the Landmarks are: that judgment will
for you but it cannot be binding on any other. It is not often,
however, that you
would think of them in that way.
the only time a Mason thinks about the Landmarks is when someone
proposes a change
in the Fraternity, in its ritual, its jurisprudence, its symbols, its
what not. In that event it is the duty of Grand Lodge arbitrarily to
the Landmarks are. When your Grand Lodge has so decided them, for you,
what are and what are not, Landmarks.
all practical purposes, then, we could define a Landmark as a
or tenet, or policy of the Order having the sanction of universality
Lodge has decreed to be a Landmark.
of profanity among Masons has been on my mind for some time and it
would seem that
if this could be brought before the brethren in the proper manner, and
seen in the right light, that much improvement could be accomplished in
proud to be a Mason, and to be connected with so great and good a
it sometimes makes one blush with shame to be in a gathering and hear
good and worthy brother (one who would perhaps give his last dollar for
of widows and orphans, and do all in his power to help a brother in
blaspheme, and take the name of God in vain, that God whom we as Masons
and serve. Surely it is inconsistent, as well as sinful and shameful.
absence of profanity among Masons could be made a distinguishing
feature, it would
not only be a wonderful improvement to our Fraternity, but would have a
impression on the world outside, especially among men who at some time
unite with us.
may not be in line with your research work, but I believe that this
be agitated through THE BUILDER and would in that way reach a great
who would be ready and willing to cooperate, and perhaps later it could
before the Grand Lodges, and then before every lodge in the country.
have contributed to the cause of a more reverent manhood, Brother
Larsen, by printing
your excellent letter, which is in itself as eloquent a plea as men
will often hear.
Like yourself, ye scribe has heard Masons use profanity ad lib, and how
do it is ever a mystery, for surely he who has passed through the
to any purpose and with any sincerity must know that God is, and that
to keep His
name pure and clean is an ever present necessity. What can be done
about it? Apparently
nothing except to leave it to each man, for it is by its nature a
and one difficult to deal with in the large. It may be that other
the matter from another angle, or have a word to add to the good words
of Bro. Larsen's
letter; if so, let them speak up!
New Testament Apocrypha
tell me where I can get a copy of a New Testament Apocrypha? what was
is it of any interest to a Mason?
‒ H.F.T., Georgia.
standard edition of the New Testament Apocryphal writings has long been
of the "Ante-Nicene Christian Library" [Lib 1870]
published in 1870 by T. &
T. Clark of Edinburgh, the translation was made by Alexander Walker.
You can secure
a copy of this book through any book dealer or publisher: you should be
find a second-hand copy at a very reasonable figure.
New Testament Apocrypha was not, properly speaking, a book, but rather
of books which had a wide circulation in early Christian times but
which, for one
reason or another, were omitted from the New Testament canon, and which
believed to have much value from an historical point of view. These
naturally into three groups: the Gospels, such as the Gospel of Thomas,
of Nicodemus, etc.; the Acts, such as the Acts of Paul and Thecla, of
of Philip, etc.; and the Revelations, such as the Revelation of Moses,
of Paul, of John, etc.
writings have no value to the Masonic student save as they throw light
on the religious
thoughts of the early Christians and Jews, and as they explain some of
doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church.
great living authority on things Apocryphal is Canon R.H. Charles; he
several very excellent works on the matter, besides numerous
contributions to the
Encyclopaedias. The last work from his pen is a two-volume commentary
on The Book
of Revelation. [Lib 1920; Vol 1,
believe that Masonry faces a Christian Science peril?
‒ A.L.M., Massachusetts.
are we face to face with another peril? They come thick and fast these
Ford would have us believe that we are all to be eaten by the Jews:
is equally alarmed at the Japanese: in England there are those who
can't sleep o'
nights, for fear of the Masons!
does not face any Christian Science peril. Many Masons good and true
are of that
sect, of which they can be as proud as any other man his sect, and
these have come
as others have, because there is that in the Order which draws them.
This is only
another example of the universality of Freemasonry, and shows that it
does in truth
lay its foundation beneath all the creeds. If many Masons read the
Monitor it is because it is so excellent a newspaper and prints, among
of more than local and sensational interest, many articles about Masons
doings. If many Christian Scientists come to our doors to seek
entrance, it is our
gain and theirs, and thrice welcome are they all, as members of any
church are welcome.
As for a peril, that is of a piece with the giraffe which the
backwoodsman saw for
the first time: "there a'int any sech animal!"
Ancient Belief Concerning
refer me to a good book that tells about the constellations, and what
believed about them?
Star Lore of
All Ages," [Lib 1911]
by William Tyler Olcott, is
doubtless the very book you need. It is published by G.P. Putnam's of
and has a deservedly wide popularity. The sub-title gives a condensed
of its contents: "A Collection of Myths, Legends, and Facts Concerning
Constellations of the Northern Hemisphere." In the course of 400 pages
author brings together the beliefs concerning each of the
constellations held by
all the races of men, and with it all furnishes the reader with a mass
information on astronomy in general. Scattered through the volume are
beautiful illustrations, most of-them photogravures of old
masterpieces; many of
them photographs of sculpture. The book is a companion to "Sun Lore of
Ages," [Lib 1914]
which is published in a binding
uniform with it.
Our Issues Too Small?
long been a booster for THE BUILDER. The only complaint I have ever
heard is that
it is too small. Now that the war is over can't you give us more bulk?
‒ E.W.R., Oregon.
there! Don't you recall Mr. Dooley's definition of a magazine? "An
littrachoor in an ochean of advhertisin!" You must remind your friends
THE BUILDER carries no advertising, and that it is even larger than the
of journals in its own field and class, as you can prove for yourself
if you will
measure its reading contents and make comparison with its
you can also remind them that when they "subscribe" to THE BUILDER, it
is not merely a magazine they receive, but a membership in the National
Research Society, and also an unlimited service, free of charge, in any
Masonic study, not to mention other things that we gladly do for our
day of the year, such as buying books for them, helping them with
study club we have several times discussed things pertaining to the
their temple, and their capital city. Our leader has several times
"Talmud": will you please explain to me what this is?
‒ J.T.K., Florida.
speaking, The Talmud [Lib 1876]
is a book composed of those
comments on the Old Testament, of traditions and legends having to do
and of the sayings of wise teachers made in its spirit, which came to
in Jewish literature next to the Old Testament itself. I advise you to
the articles in the Jewish Encyclopsedia and in Hasting's Encyclopsedia
and Ethics. Also, I recommend a volume called "The Early Christians in
by the Very Rev. H. D. M. Spence-Jones,
and published in 1911, by the John Lane Company. Book V of this volume
devoted to the Talmud and gathers into a few pages of clear prose
you may care to learn about the matter.
this connection I am tempted to write a little review of this volume,
since it is
one that deserves a wide reading, not only by those interested in
but also by Masons, for here and there through the book are many
matters of concern
to the Masonic student. It is divided into five books, the first of
the story of the "Beginning of Christianity in Rome." Much is given in
this part about the private life of Christians then, about their habits
writing (of which many remains are still in existence), and about a few
of the Emperors
who took most notice of them. Book II is an account of those elements
in early Christian
private life which led to asceticism, and to the subsequent formation
of monks and nuns. Book III is an account of "The Inner Life of the
which relates how the early Christians worshipped, and how they met
Book IV, a very interesting section, has to do with the Catacombs, how
discovered, how their story has been deciphered, and what light they
throw on the
history of those times. The final book, as said above, deals with "The
and the Talmud." The author narrates the story of the last three great
of the Jews: that of A. D. 70 when the Romans, under Titus the son of
Vespasian, destroyed Jerusalem and slew about two million Jews: that of
the Zealot Party led the Jews in a forlorn hope against the Roman
Power, were defeated,
and suffered losses of about two hundred thousand; and the final war of
when, led by a pseudo-messiah named Bar-cochab, the Jews attempted to
the yoke, only to meet a terrible defeat, with the loss of about one
The author then describes Rabbinism and what it did for the nation; the
the Haggadah, and the Halacah. In so short a space details are
from the discussion of so many large matters, and the volume is not
to those who need such treatment, but for those who need a brief and
into the field, "The Early Christians in Rome," will prove a very
Martin Luther A
documentary evidence have we that Martin Luther after his heroic stand
at the Diet
of Worms, was rescued and kept in seclusion by Masons? I have often
heard this statement
made, and have been assured that it was authentic history. Recently I
made the statement
here, and in this strong Lutheran community my statement was naturally
Now I want the facts, if they may be had. Can you help me out?
‒ C.L.F., Iowa.
is hard to give you the facts because
the particular episode of which you speak is still shrouded in
was excommunicated in 1520. He was called to the Diet of Worms in 1521.
He had been
given a "safe conduct" before leaving for Worms, else he could never
reached the place, but this expired before he could return and he was
to go into hiding. It is supposed, but nothing can be certain about it,
friend and patron, Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, sent soldiers
him in an old castle. And it is supposed that it was during this
Luther began his famous translation of the Bible into the German
will find these matters carefully traversed in any good life of Luther,
the lives by President McGiffert [Lib 1911]
and by Prof. H.P. Smith [Lib 1911]
may be especially recommended.
Any Of The Popes
Members Of The Masonic Fraternity?
tell me if any of the Popes of the bygone age have been members of the
any of the dignitaries of the Roman Church today members?
‒ M.L., Alberta.
far as is known no Pope has ever been a member of the Fraternity. This
happened a thousand years ago when Masons were builders of church
by the Papal See, and all loyal churchmen, but, so far as we can
discover, it has
never occurred. No church dignitary of today is or could be a member,
is now a law of the church, and has been for a century and more, that
in the fraternity is punishable by excommunication, and in many cases,
as the papal
bulls express it, "the heavier penalties" of the church. A certain
bishop in charge of Santiago, Cuba, was, a long while ago, a Mason, but
he was taken
in charge by the Inquisition, and paid the price therefor.
is proper to use, "Masonry" or "Freemasonry"?
‒ M.L.P., Georgia.
dictates that "Freemasonry" is the more correct, though the other term
is not banned, even by the carefullest writers. In nearly all
histories it is "Freemasonry"; that is more accurate and therefore
recommend to me a good and not too long history of the Society of
known as the Jesuits?
‒ C.S.M. Oregon
such histories there are many, some of them in many volumes and full of
it is probable that, your own wants can best be satisfied by a one
volume work written
in 1908 by G.B. Nicolini [Lib 1889],
an Italian writer who has also
published other works on various phases of Romanism. The fact that this
published by George Bell & Sons, of London, and issued as one
of the numbers
of the famous Bohn's Library is its highest recommendation.
true that the Theosophists have organized a branch of Masonry for women?
‒ H. F. D., California.
Theosophical Society exists in two opposed sects, one headed by Annie
in India, and the other led by Madame Katherine Tingley, of Point Loma,
Under the Besant faction there exists an order described as "CoMasonry"
which is supposed to be Masonry for women. It is not Masonry for women
can be no such thing.
Majorem Dei Gloriam
Jesuit weekly "America" for April 9th is the following interesting book
Pike ‒ Fred W. Allsopp has written
an interesting 'Life Story of Albert Pike,' [Lib 1928]
(Parke-Harper News Service,
Little Rock, Ark.), the well-known American Freemason. Born in Boston
in 1809, he
went West at twenty-one, following the Santa Fe Trail. He fought in the
and Civil Wars, became 'Sovereign Grand Commander' of Scottish Rite
died in Washington in 1891. In reply to Pope Leo's Encyclical,
Albert Pike protested that Freemasonry makes no war upon the Roman
and said that it is not true that 'English-speaking Freemasonry will
Catholics into its bosom,' but 'It will not receive Jesuits because no
oath it can
administer would bind the conscience of a Jesuit.' Yet how remarkably
is the impression that the Church and Masonry are hardly bosom friends,
no Catholic, let alone a Jesuit, can be a Mason without giving up the
his religion, an impression which is strengthened, strange to say, by
of the 'New Age,' the Masonic periodical. AD MAJOREM DEI GLORIAM is the
on a Masonic temple in Mr. Allsopp's book."
is the date and history of origin of the Latin phrase given above?
‒ A.H.V., Pennsylvania.
Loyola, the founder of the Order of Jesuits, was born in Spain in 1491,
the year before the discovery of America. He took up arms as a
profession, and was
wounded in a battle against the French in 1521. While convalescing he
a profound religious conversion during which, amid many visions, he saw
inner eye a great army of Jesus Christ advancing against the enemies of
and he pictured himself at its head, as its general. His life was an
fulfill this vision. Like other "armies" his was to have a flag, and
device he chose for that flag, the device which has ever since been the
the Order, was "Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam." "To the Great Glory of God."
Masons at Sight
in "The Masonic Herald" of Rome, Ga., an article entitled "Bishop
Made Mason at Sight" which relates how that the Rt. Rev. William A.
of Charleston, was made a Mason "at sight" at Columbia on Tuesday,
18, by Grand Master Lanham of Spartanburg.
sorry that Bro Guerry, by this haphazard method, has been deprived of
required by Masonry, of having "made suitable proficiency in the
degree," before advancing to the next, and sincerely hope that his
in Masonry may be strong enough to cause him to make diligent study of
which a number
of years are usually necessary, and thus learn at least a part of that
this method, has been denied to him.
discussed this subject at some length, I think in 1916, and the writer
of this article
wrote under the caption of "Prerogatives" an article in strong
of this apparent un-Masonic practice, receiving letters of commendation
of the article, from representative Masons in various parts of the
I shall not in this brief article, attempt to reiterate, nor in any
the articles written upon the subject at that time, but I cannot help
conclusion, that as the article says it was the first time in the
history of the
Fraternity in South Carolina that such a thing had been done, let us
that it may also be the last.
‒ Lewis A. McConnell,
observed that many, if not a great majority, of the members of our
local lodge neither
wish nor expect anything to be brought up at our meetings except the
work. Some time ago we elected a young, ambitious brother as Master and
as he was installed he announced that he hoped to have the meetings
made more interesting
and that they would attract more members by having talks on various
Immediately one of the older brethren got up and said that we did not
of the kind ‒ that if we learned the ritual that was all that was
is needless to say that this Master's term of office was not
characterized by any
great advance in the work.
not be polite, but it seems to me that some of these self-satisfied
be overruled and a broader view of Masonry spread abroad among the
magazine, THE BUILDER, (I say "our" because I expect ever to be a
student), should be placed in the hands of every newly made brother and
should be required to subscribe for him for one year. If the brother
light" this will show him where and how to get it and will do more than
else to make him active in his lodge.
‒ F.H.O., Iowa.
April issue of THE BUILDER Brother Ellison, in his article "Whence Came
"proves" that Masonry is a relic of medieval guilds and trades unions,
which are synonymous with our present-day labor unions.
his theory by "authentic" history, which reminds us of Brother Dupuy,
who vouched for a number of brethren, but no one could be found "who
there is no unbroken chain of written history to show that Masonry
existed in remote
ages of the world, but corroborative, circumstantial and self-evident
up the historical and prehistorical periods, show conclusively an
History of Masonry, 1841, quotes from Preston's "Illustrations," Book
4, Section 2: "About the year of our Lord 690, the Picts and Scots
their depredations with unrestrained vigor, till the arrival of some
from Wales and Scotland, when many of these savages, being reconciled
Masonry got into repute."
in the Bodlein Library, which is a copy of one written in 1440 A. D.,
"Maconnes techedde mankynde relygyonne."
there is some spirituality about Masonry, that the great pedestal of
religion, and without belief in a supreme being there can be no Masonry
Masonry to the contrary.
ministers to the needs of man. As man is a dual being, physical and
could not do that, were it not spiritual.
first made Masons at heart ‒ if not, we are "physical" Masons similar
to the medieval Guilds, Operative and Trade Union Masons, as Brother
we are, plus more or less morality.
physical dies ‒ the divine only is deathless.
Masonry ceases to be divine it dies.
the spiritual, or heart part of Masonry, is eliminated Masonry will
‒ A. K. Bradley Texas.
the most gigantic problems before our people is the stupendous question
of how to
make permanent and patriotic citizens of the aliens upon our shores and
are to come.
are three great factors, the perfection of which will accomplish the
American Public Schools.
Boy and Girl Scout Movement.
and foremost is the American Public School System.
be of interest to know that the Ancient Greeks were the first people to
a system of education based upon scientific principles to prepare its
citizenship, rather than upon religious beliefs and ecclesiastical
"Gymnastics for the body, music for the soul," was supplemented by the
rhetorical and philosophical teachings of Socrates and Aristotle.
the fall of the Roman Empire, however, this excellent system of
education was declared
pernicious by the priests; the church assumed control of education in
any encroachment of the state on its domain and education again became
of religious beliefs and mediaeval ecclesiastical rites.
the Reformation, the multiplication of sects brought about so much
religious instruction that in most of the advanced nations, education
is now mainly
secular and controlled by the State.
Public School System obtained its greatest impetus during the forty
the Revolutionary War and has constantly developed until now its
advantages are second only to those of France.
of our states have compulsory school laws but these are not well
in 1918 Montana children wasted 25.8 percent of the time they should
in school by non-attendance.
means that Montana children wasted 39.2 days out of the 152 school days
provides for them. The expense to the state was as great as though they
the full 152 days.
were upon the outbreak of the war, whole communities in our country and
in our state
where language, schools, churches, newspapers and all literature was in
tongue. In the case of Lutheran colonies, of Mennonite colonies, of
their sympathies were naturally with the home land, for we had given
to make them American at heart.
localities it is claimed that radical principles were openly advocated
at their most impressionable age and the school house was sometimes the
a hotbed of alien propaganda.
these were not foreign schools, these were American schools, attended
America entered the war, thousands of American boys were inducted into
who could not understand a word of our language!
the amazement of your Grand Master in inspecting whole companies of
who could not comprehend an American command!
boys were born in America, educated in American schools and had grown
in America with a knowledge only of the language spoken by their
foreign born parents!
pity of it!
is not the fault of the alien immigrant nor of his American born son.
the result of criminal negligence of the United States Government and
we are that
United States Government.
called them wops, bohunks, kikes, svenskas, pollocks, dagos and square
we have considered their patriotism as we considered their labor: of
us only as it could be used.
been long on nicknames, but short on sympathy.
with ridicule but stingy with sentiment.
begets not love but rancor.
light of Liberty's torch that welcomed them to our harbor only served
the shadow of our National indifference.
by this neglect, chilled by indifference, ridicule and frequently open
is it any wonder they formed colonies, started schools, established
worship and kept green the hallowed memories of the home land from
which still were
stretched yearning arms of loved ones left behind?
any wonder that our pre-war apathy for our own flag lighted no
patriotic fire in
renounced his own flag and finding only ridicule and contempt under
ours, is it
surprising that his hungry heart sometimes sought sympathy under the
now proposed to establish night and special courses at which the adult
may learn to speak and if he cares to do so, to write the American
children of foreign born parents of course, come under the same laws as
children and all these from the ages of six to fourteen, without regard
nationality, political, religious, or financial conditions, should
attend the American
Public Schools, which schools should be under the joint supervision of
will all interests be national; then will our patriotism be
spontaneous; then will
the "little red school house" cease to be a healthy habitat for the
Red school teacher.
feel that the learning of the language by the adult should be made
Masonry rebels at forced Americanism.
the government borne upon the back of compelled patriotism.
the implied ignorance of a lack of its knowledge will force the
unwilling to its
many sects oppose this plan, it is interesting to note that the
vicious in its denunciation is the one which stands accused of the
during the war, namely: the German Lutheran.
may we question and even suspect the motives of any organization that
distinction in a democracy.
pledged to patriotism, must insist upon the learning and use of the
by alien immigrants and upon the compulsory attendance at our public
all children during the years of school age. Not a factional school,
not a private
school, not a parochial or denominational school of any kind, but the
School, the greatest of present day factors for making Americans.
‒ Robert J. Hathaway, Grand
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