Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
General Henry Dearborn
physician, soldier, patriot and statesman, was one of those remarkable
who covered much ground and did it well. He rose to the rank of Major
the Army of the Revolution, and yet the rising generation probably can
tell us less
about him than they can about the champion boxer or the stroke oar in
which we hear lauded in many Fourth of July orations, owes as much to
as it does to any division commander in the Revolutionary War. General
was born in New Hampshire, in 1751, of English ancestry, and died at
in 1829, where he was buried. Past Grand Master Melvin M. Johnson, of
informs the writer that the remains of General Dearborn, and those of
were removed to Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, in 1834. No memorial
to mark either burial site.
was a man of great endurance, powerful, enthusiastic and sanguine. When
of the Battle of Lexington he immediately organized a company of sixty
to Lexington, making sixty-five miles the first day, but unfortunately
late to get into the fight.
He was made
a Captain in Stark's Brigade, and was at Bunker Hill on the 17th of
He accompanied General Arnold to Quebec, going through the dense woods
was taken prisoner at Quebec, paroled, and soon afterwards exchanged.
under General Gates at the capture of Burgoyne and distinguished
himself and his
regiment by a gallant charge at the battle of Monmouth, in 1778. He
with General John Sullivan (who was afterwards Grand Master in New
the expedition against the Indians in 1780, and also with the Army in
in 1781, and the following year was on garrison duty at Saratoga. He
Marshal of the District of Maine, by General Washington.
two terms in Congress and was Secretary of War for eight years. He held
Republic expected every man to do his duty and was remiss if he did
less, that the
reward for the performance of a great act was in the pleasure one
having performed it.
In 1809 General
Dearborn was Collector of the Port of Boston, and in 1812 was
commissioned the senior
Major General in the Army and Commander of the Northern Department. In
of 1813 he captured the town of York, in Upper Canada, and also Fort
George at the
mouth of the Niagara, being afterwards recalled and placed in command
of the military
district of New York City.
in 1815 resigned his commission in the Army to accept the position of
the kingdom of Portugal, where he remained for two years, being then
his own request.
was published by General Henry A. S. Dearborn who was a prominent
member of the
Bar in Boston.
It is a pleasure
to note what a great number of our Revolutionary ancestors were
pure and upright they were, but it is a pity their biographers have
failed to record
their Masonic membership.
memorials to this great man and patriot are a street in the city of
after him, and Fort Dearborn, at Chicago, shown as the frontispiece in
of THE BUILDER through the courtesy of the National Geographic Society.
The War Department
will furnish gratuitously small markers for the graves of Revolutionary
and even one of these modest and inexpensive stones would afford some
the descendants of Revolutionary sires.
which was but a block house, has vanished, and the rising generation
their way through the curves and tangents of Dearborn Street probably
known whence or why the street received its name.
was made a Mason in St. Johns Lodge, Portsmouth, N. H., in 1777.
The Craft in the British
Isles in 1920
By Bro. Dudley Wright, England
YEAR opened, the Craft in England had to regret the absence of its
the Duke of Connaught, who had been compelled to seek convalescence,
after an acute
bronchial attack, in the south of France. The year ends with the Grand
absent from the country, but this time, he having been restored fully
he is on his way to India as the accredited representative of his king
and the latest report to hand, coming exactly at the moment these words
written, is that the Duke of Connaught is “enjoying better health than
he has enjoyed
for some time.” Deo Gratias.
year has witnessed the foundation in England of a record number of
having been granted for the consecration of no fewer than 162, as
129 in 1919; 88 in 1918; 39 in 1917; 24 in 1916; 21 in 1915; 30 in
1914; and 68
in 1913; this last being the average pre-war figure. The growth of the
England and the increase in the number of lodges has necessitated the
of a second Deputy Grand Director of Ceremonies in the United Grand
Lodge and of
Assistant Provincial and District Grand Masters in the larger Provinces
Arch Masonry, the progress has been marked in proportion, 71 chapters
warranted during the year. Six Grand Superintendents have been
appointed to provinces
and two to districts: W. Lascelles Southwell to Shropshire, Lord St.
Levan to Cornwall,
Edward Holmes to Leicester and Rutland, Dr. E. H. Cook to Bristol, Rev.
Dr. E. C.
Pearce to Cambridgeshire, Major R. L. Thornton to Sussex, Sir George
Munn to Punjab, and James Mac Kenna to Burma. Here, as in the Craft, it
found necessary to appoint a second Deputy Grand Director of Ceremonies
of the increasing number of Chapter consecrations.
change in the government of Mark Masonry has been the appointment of
Vassar-Smith as Deputy Grand Master in succession to Mr. R. Loveland
C., who has rendered long and valuable service in this degree in
in all branches of Masonry in general.
story is told by the Scottish Masonic authorities. New lodges are being
some in very remote districts, and the enthusiasm for the Craft and its
apparently is deep-rooted and sincere. Certain restrictions as to the
candidates that may be initiated at one time have been introduced which
to the introduction of “waiting lists,” thus affording an additional
test for the
neophytes. The Earl of Eglinton and Winton has been installed as Grand
in succession to Brigadier General R. Gordon Gilmour, Scotland being
in its constitution than England, the Grand Mastership, in normal
annually. One of the most important Masonic events of the year was the
visit of a deputation from the Grand Lodge of Scotland to the Grand
Lodge of England.
Colonel Claude Cane has succeeded the veteran Sir Charles Cameron as
Master, who has devoted some seventy years of his life to Masonic work
Ireland also, during the year, has lost its Grand Secretary, H. E.
was also well known as an indefatigable worker.
given to the three central Masonic institutions has been well
maintained, the aggregate
amount collected at the annual festivals totaling up to no less a sum
pounds from 16,056 Stewards; while the Mark Benevolent Fund also
enjoyed a record
festival, 975 stewards being up to the sum of over 10,050 pounds. All
have once more accepted the whole of the qualified candidates without
them to the ordeal and expense of a ballot. The Freemasons Hospital and
Home, placed at the disposal of the military authorities for the
purposes of a War
Hospital, has, during the year, reverted to its original purpose and
well justified its existence, despite the doubts of many, when the
scheme was first
propounded, as to its necessity. There was no formal opening ceremony,
but the Grand
Master paid an informal visit at the time of the transfer and gave a
the first patients. The Old Peoples' Institution has now 1400
annuitants on its
books, while 777 girls and 905 boys are being educated and maintained
in the other
institutions. During the year, R. Percy Simpson has resigned from the
of the Girls' School, and, just at the closing of the year, comes the
news of the
passing of James Morrison McLeod, who, for more than twenty-seven
the affairs of the Boys' School in a masterly and highly successful
politic and civic, have fallen to the lot of prominent Brethren during
but none gave greater pleasure than the Baronetcy conferred upon the
Master, Sir Frederick Halsey. The Earl of Stradbroke, Provincial Grand
Suffolk, has now left to take up his duties as Governor of Victoria,
but this is
the only province in England which is not under the direct government
of its appointed
head. During the year three Provincial Grand Masters have been
installed into office:
F. M. LaMothe, Isle of Man; Louis S. Winsloe, West Lancashire; and the
Thetford, Norfolk. Four District Grand Masters have also been
Sir George Fletcher MacMunn, Punjab; James MacKenna, Burma; John
and the Soudan; and Henry J. Hyde-Johnson, Nigeria.
Million Memorial Fund, originating with the Grand Master, is making
an impetus having been given to the scheme during the year through the
by Grand Lodge of the long line of premises adjoining the existing
in Great Queen Street. The Duke of Connaught has now expressed a wish
to meet all
the Provincial Grand Masters in conference upon the scheme immediately
return from India.
One of the
most notable events of the year has been the formation of the grand
of Queensland, which promises to be one of the strongest of the
attack on the Craft was made during the year by a prominent London
daily, but the
readers of THE BUILDER have already been made familiar with the
trenchant and effective
reply of Brother A. E. Waite.
list of the year has not been heavy, but it contains some noted names
of hard workers
in the Masonic cause. Four Grand Wardens have passed away: Lord Egerton
(who was also Past Provincial Grand Master for Cheshire); the Earl of
Sir Gerard Smith (Past District Grand Master Western Australia); and
Vezey Strong. Two Grand Chaplains in the persons of the Rev. Richard
Peek and Bishop
Stevens have also joined the Grand Lodge Above. Other notable names in
are Judge Woodfall, the Rev. C.E.L. Wright (who bequeathed his Masonic
to the Grand Lodge Library), Sir Gabriel Stokes, R. G.; Venables, Sir
and Riehard Luck, all Past Grand Deacons, Percy F. Wheeler and James
Assistant Grand Registrars; Dr. Hill Drury, J.R. Cleave, William
Lestocq, and James
W. Mathews (founder of the Genesius Club of Instruction), Past
Assistant Grand Directors
of Ceremonies. But not all the ardent lovers of the Craft and workers
in the cause
are included in Grand Lodge lists. Many names could be mentioned, but
to the writer
and to many others, the passing of Frederick Henry Buckmaster, London
Rank, an ardent
student of Masonry in all its branches and one who was a thorough
of what a Mason should be in practice as well as in idealism, will be
felt for many
days and years.
And the future?
As a body we are the admiration of the world for our noble
exemplification of our
Masonic principles of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth. We can honestly
to that achievement as a body. Have we the same right to claim it as
Do those who are dependent upon us regard us individually with the same
and respect as the world at large appreciates us a body? By the
populace we are
acquitted as possessing high ideals and acting up to them; what is our
position? It is a personal question, and the answer cannot here be
written. It must
be answered individually.
Grand Lodge of Arizona Adopts
N.M.R.S. Study Club Plan
At the Annual
Communication of the Grand Lodge of Arizona the Committee on Foreign
made the following recommendation to the Grand Lodge, which was adopted:
recommends that each and every Master of a Subordinate lodge in this
be directed to immediately proceed to the formation of a Study Club
one has not already been formed in his lodge), to meet at least once
and on a date when no degree work is in progress; that each lodge
decide for itself
the manner of carrying out the objects of this recommendation, but we
that each lodge follow the general outlines of the Study Club plans as
by 'THE BUILDER' of Anamosa, Iowa. Further, that the incoming Grand
Master see that
this recommendation is carried into effect at the earliest possible
date and that
each lodge be required to report to this Grand Lodge at its next annual
the progress and results of the formation of the various Study Clubs.
H. D. Aitken, Member
Lloyd C. Henning, Member,
February 8, 1921. Committee.
is human nature in its best form. It is moral order embodied in the
Men of character are not only the conscience of society, but in every
state they are its best motive power; for it is moral qualities which,
in the main,
rule the world.
By Bro. E. Ellison, California
A Review of the Historical
Forces Which Tended
to Give the Fraternity its Present Character
IT IS AN
ambitious undertaking to attempt to compress the history of this
within the limits of a brief article. Let me say at the outset, that it
is not my
intention to enter into details. Rather, I propose to draw a brief
sketch, or, more
accurately, an outline of the historical forces which tended to give
its present character. Let me add that I do not lay claim to original
discovery in Masonic history. I shall only try to piece together
from a general reading, not only of Masonic, but also of so-called
of Freemasonry is unknown. All attempts to penetrate the veil which
birth-place and cradle of the institution have proved fruitless. True,
informs us that “it has existed from time immemorial,” but is not that
an admission that we do not know when or where it originated? Probably
have to content ourselves with Topsy's philosophy and say that it “just
I mean by that, that it has sprung into existence in response to that
impels man to seek the association, the friendship, and the protection,
of his fellow
Up to a generation
or two ago, it seems to have been the accepted belief among Freemasons
Fraternity was in no particular the work of man but of divine origin;
that is to
say, it was believed that at some time in the remote past the
G.A.O.T.U. had handed
down the peculiar mysteries of Masonry to some of the personages of
whom we read
in the Old Testament, and that these mysteries had been minutely and
down through succeeding generations. There was, of course, some
question as to who
first received the divine revelation. That honor has been variously
King Solomon, Moses, Noah, Tubal Cain and even to Adam. But, in either
belief rests upon a foundation no stronger than the legends which we
in the so-called Ancient Charges or Gothic Constitutions, or in Dr.
and History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity of Free and
and has been discarded because it could not stand the test of
Human Origin of the Fraternity
We now look
upon the Fraternity as of purely human origin ‒ the product of the
minds of those
who comprise it and have comprised it. In other words, it is a reflex
of the hopes
and ideals, the aims and aspirations of its membership. At the same
time, it has
been subjected to pressure from without, because the men who comprise
are also members of the larger surrounding human society, and their
Freemasons is consciously or unconsciously influenced by the education,
and the experience they have acquired in the outside world.
We know that
there is a constant change in the current of thought with reference to
subject and condition of life. As science advances and knowledge
increases we are
gradually throwing off many beliefs which our forefathers religiously
just as, by the swine law of progress, many of the things to which we
our faith will be disproved and rejected by our descendants.
other human institution, Freemasonry has been affected by this change.
of the Fraternity, therefore, in a measure runs parallel to the history
of the intellectual
development of humanity. On its long march down the centuries, each age
its seal and imprint upon the institution; it has been impressed with
characteristic of successive ages; and it has accepted, absorbed and
its system many customs and usages, many forms and ceremonies, many
in the outside world during different periods. With the passage of
time, some of
these have become obsolete and have been discarded, others are being
in the body of Freemasonry, although the original significance of them
lost sight of or forgotten, and still others have been invested with
‒ new symbolism.
Moral Philosophy Divine
one thing divine and immutable about Freemasonry, namely, its moral
But in that respect it does not differ from other organizations which
to teach men their duty to God and to their fellows. There is no
progress in moral
doctrines. The Moral Law ‒ the Ten Commandments ‒ is as true today as
on the day
it was handed down to Moses in thunder and lightning at Mount Sinai.
Rule of the Carpenter of Nazareth is as truly a living ideal in our day
as on the
day He first gave it to the world in His Sermon on the Mount.
Old Belief Abandoned
Why has the
old belief in the divine origin of Freemasonry been abandoned? In the
tremendous strides have been made upon every field of knowledge,
of history. Within the memory of living men, the sites of the cities of
civilizations have been relocated and their ruins excavated. The
languages of peoples
who have long since vanished have been reconstructed and translated
tongues. The pyramids of Egypt have been explored and their hieroglyphs
The temples of Ancient Greece and the catacombs of Rome have given up
The gravemounds of the Scandinavian chieftains have been opened and
have laid bare
their wealth of historical treasure. Travelers have explored the
countries of Asia,
where no white man formerly had set foot, and have returned with the
of religions established centuries before the Christian era. From the
obtained, coupled with the fragments of ancient learning which have
come down to
us, the modern historian has presented to us a reconstructed history,
to form a clearer conception of the lives and habits, the religious,
political institutions of the ancient peoples.
in Ancient Times
things, we have learned of the existence in highest antiquity of secret
societies, similar in some respects to our present day Freemasonry.
fact has received close study at the hands of Masonic students, who
years of labor in an endeavor to establish the descent of our
Fraternity from the
mystic brotherhoods of ancient times. Some of our learned brethren have
the task of tracing the pedigree of Freemasonry back to the birth of
and in order to demonstrate the ancient origin and high descent of that
have attempted to reconstruct the rites of the Ancient Mysteries. I
shall not attempt
to examine the various elaborate pedigrees that have been traced, or
arguments that have been advanced in support of them. The fact is, that
written or other authentic record has come down to us concerning the
of these Mysteries. Consequently, the efforts made to reconstruct them
references available are not likely to have met with better success
than would the
attempt on the part of a profane of our day to give to the world the
our Masonic ceremonies.
be remembered that we are here dealing with the customs and usages of
have long since disappeared from the earth, with whose institutions we
all, but imperfectly familiar, and whose viewpoint it is difficult if
for us to obtain. Let us also bear in mind that the secrecy of present
is as nothing when compared with the jealous care with which the
their secrets from the profane. The laws the Brahmins, for instance,
if an uninitiate was caught listening to the reading of the sacred
books, he was
to be punished by pouring hot oil into his ears, and if he had
succeeded in committing
to memory any portion of the text, his throat was to be cut.
Legendary or Traditional
divide the history of the Fraternity into two parts. The first, we
shall call the
traditional or legendary period, by which we mean the time before
accounts of current
events were committed to writing; when all information was perpetuated
by oral communication
from father to son, and from generation to generation. The second, we
the historical period, and by that, we, of course, mean that part of
the life of
the Fraternity concerning which we draw our information from authentic
whether found in lodge books, in the public archives, or in the
literature of the
day. The first period is like a desert “without milestone or finger
post,” and the
Masonic explorers who have attempted to trace the path of the
Fraternity by its
“footprints upon the sands of time,” have traversed so many divergent
have arrived at so many conflicting conclusions, that their labor is of
to us. Each succeeding writer has torn down and destroyed the
hypotheses of those
who have preceded him, in order, as it seems, to make room for his own
period we shall again roughly divide into three eras. The first,
the year 1200 and ending about the year 1550), we shall call the
The second, (commencing with the Reformation and ending in the year
1717), for want
of a better name, we shall designate as the Operative-Speculative
period. The third,
(commencing with the so-called Great Revival, the formation of the
first Grand Lodge,
and carried down to our own day), let us call the Speculative period.
We will now
consider these eras in the order named.
Operative Period (1200-1550)
mind the proposition we laid down at the outset of this discussion,
that the character
of the Fraternity has been largely shaped by surrounding conditions,
let us briefly
review the social and political institutions of the time.
Formation of Guilds
Roman Empire fell before the invasion of the barbarians of the North,
built upon its ruins a number of small tribal states. The people were
and quarrelsome, and these states were in constant warfare with one
centuries might was the only law. Anarchy reigned supreme. The great
of the Romans became engulfed and disappeared. This is the period known
as the Dark Ages.
painfully civilization had a new birth. The tribal governments gave way
authority. The people fell under the softening influence of
Christianity. Wars became
less frequent, and men again began to practice the arts of peace.
disturbed period of the Dark Ages, the artisans and workmen of the
cities, in order
to obtain protection from the rapacity and cruelty of then feudal
themselves together into trade guilds, or corporations, and step by
step, by means
of bribe, purchase, and quite often by open rebellion, succeeded in
their lords paramount the privilege of regulating the affairs of their
crafts, and, later, established the complete self-government of their
Masons, like their brethren of other crafts, also formed corporations;
their employers and feudal lords, in the majority of cases, were
dignitaries, Princes of the Church, it was to them that the Masons
applied for their
charters of privileges. References to these instruments have been found
in the fabric
rolls and archives of medieval churches.
But the most
interesting information concerning the organized life of our forefather
medieval times is to be found in the so-called Ancient Charges or
The originals of these curious documents were drawn at a time when the
art of writing
was known only to the members of the theological profession, and they
bear the imprint
of the credulity and ignorance which characterizes all the literature
of the period.
Their contents are usually divided into two parts. The first, purports
to be a history
of the craft from its inception down to date, and is valuable chiefly
what was the belief of our Masonic fore-fathers concerning the origin
of their craft. As a chronicle of actual events it has no value at all.
existing document of this kind is the so-called Halliwell Poem [Lib 1390], composed about the end of
century, although it bears internal evidence of having been compiled
from much earlier
MS., a seventeenth-century Scotch Constitution, may be taken as the
type for all
these documents. In it we are told that God gave the Seven Liberal Arts
to Jabal, Jubal and Tubal, the three sons of Lamech; that when He was
about to take
punishment upon the world for its sins by the Flood, the sciences were
in two pillars; one made of wood, that it might not sink; the other of
it might not burn; that after the Flood the pillars and the secrets
were found by Hamarynes (Hermes), the father of all wise men, who
taught the sciences
to Abraham, and were by him brought into the “Londe of Egypt,” where he
them to his “Goode Clerke Euclid.” From Egypt the sciences were in due
time introduced into Palestine.
of King Solomon's Temple pays an important part in the narrative, and
we are told
of Hiram, the King, and Hiram, the Builder, the latter being referred
to as the
King's Son of Tyre. We are told, further, that in the days of Charles
science of Geometry, which our operative forefathers regarded as
synonymous to Masonry,
was brought into France by one Naymus (Mamon) Grecus, who had been
employed at the
building of the Temple. Now that edifice was erected about one thousand
Christ. Charles Martel ruled in France nearly eight hundred years after
so that our good brother Grecus must have attained the rather unusual
age of nearly
eighteen hundred years. Of course, the matter of bridging the span of
by the life of an individual did not trouble the legend writers of the
I am citing these things to show that the “legendary” history of
Masonry is simply
a compendium of sacred and profane history colored by the romance so
during that period.
part of these documents contained the rules and regulations of the
Craft, and taught
members their duty to God and to one another. Many of these ancient
have come down to our own time and are a part of the body of our laws
name of Ancient Landmarks.
be added that in the days before Grand Lodges had been formed, the
status of a lodge
was determined by it having in its possession a copy of these Ancient
therefore, served the purpose of our present day charters.
Claim to Divine Origin
Craft is unique in the respect that it is the only one of the medieval
which divine origin was claimed, or which itself laid claim to have
by Biblical personages. The probable explanation of this claim is to be
the fact, that the Masons were almost exclusively employed upon
and therefore in close contact with the writers of history, as it was
and were especially favored by the historians by having ascribed to
high antiquity and a long line of royal patrons and protectors. We
should bear in
mind that in the Middle Ages high descent was regarded as of great
that many families, and nations even, claimed to be able to trace their
back to the flood and even to a more remote period.
association of the Masons with the members of the religious order, also
give to their craft that semi-religious character which it has
maintained ever since.
guilds also differed from other medieval trade corporations in the fact
the former masters, journeymen and apprentices remained members of the
In other trades, especially in the commercial pursuits, the guild
wealthy and arrogant, and made use of their power to oppress their
apprentices, with the result that the latter formed guilds of their own
from their masters.
In the Masonic
craft there was no opportunity for great financial gains. The masters
did not undertake
work on their own account, as do our modern building contractors. The
owner of the
building to be erected furnished all the material entering into its
and the craftsmen, from master to apprentice, were engaged to supply
the skill and
labor required in preparing plans and specifications, shaping the
material and assembling
it in the edifice. The master was the executive head of the job ‒ the
‒ and labored side by, side with his “companions and varlets”
apprentices) in the lodge or on the scaffold.
The pay was
modest, considering the character of the work and high requirements of
not only in manual dexterity, but technical training and scientific
artistic sense. Still the craft had high standing among the trades, and
the most honorable of professions; and its members enjoyed certain
immunities which may account for the fact that they assumed the name
Black Death-Statutes of
year 1340 Europe was scourged by a dreadful contagious disease, known
as the Black
Death. So virulent was the contagion and so frightful its ravages that
in many countries was decimated, and in certain districts completely
In consequence, there existed a great scarcity of labor, especially in
trades. The workmen, as might be expected, took advantage of this
scarcity to improve
their wages and conditions of employment. Their efforts met with strong
from the employing classes, who complained to King and Parliament
against what they
regarded as exactions on the part of the workmen. Drastic legislation
prohibiting and punishing any attempt to increase wages above the level
prior to the pestilence. This and kindred legislation has been
classified in history
as the Statutes of Laborers.” It did not have the desired effect, as is
the fact that in every succeeding Parliament the Commons renewed their
and grievances, but the only remedy proposed was to increase and
sharpen the penalties
of the law. Finally, a statute was enacted outlawing all forms of
having for their object the regulation of wages and denouncing such
as conspiracies. This was intended as a death blow to the guilds; but
signally. The guilds formed themselves into burial societies and
continued in existence
under that guise.
of the Masons under the Statutes of Laborers were especially vigorous
and the members of the lodges, therefore, were compelled to assemble in
It is an interesting question whether this may not be the period
referred to in
the Monitor, where we are told that “our ancient brethren assembled on
hill and in the lowest vales, the better to observe the approach of
cowans and eavesdroppers.”
Prior to this time, according to the Ancient Charges, the Masons in
met openly in Annual Assembly, and their meetings were attended by
members of the
nobility as well as the civil magistrates. It may be well to explain
here that a
“cowan” in Masonic language is one who attempts to practice the craft
a member of a regular lodge, and having been duly apprenticed to the
the oldest lodge minute extant, that of Edinburgh Lodge No. 1,
an account the trial of one George Patton, who had vexed the souls of
by putting a cowan to work for two days and a half. The minute is dated
also adopted the expedient of admitting to membership men of high birth
and placing themselves under the patronage and protection of these new
This gave to the lodge an air of respectability, enabled its members to
on public buildings in preference to cowans, and insured them a measure
from the severity of the Statutes of Laborers. The number of
gradually increased, and they became known in the Fraternity as
It was during
this era that the beautiful Gothic style of architecture was developed
and the noble churches erected which distinguish the ancient cities of
they stand as eloquent witnesses to the skill and industry of those who
and the art and science of those who planned and designed them. The
succeeding ages have copied and imitated, but have never been able to
either the style or construction of these famous edifices.
Decline of Gothic Architecture
was followed by a decline in church building. The property of the
church was confiscated
by the temporal powers, and Freemasonry as an operative science became
Operative ‒ Speculative,
We have now
arrived at the most interesting period in the life of Freemasonry, the
the societies of builders and architects were transformed into
speculative or philosophical
this era is closer to our own day than that of Operative times, the
are extremely meagre and fragmentary. True, they bear sufficient
testimony to the
fact that Freemasonry had a continuous existence from earlier times,
and also to
the dual character of the membership of the lodges; but the lodge books
upon the subject we are most interested in, namely, how the so-called
element became superimposed upon the operative.
to form an opinion on that subject, it is necessary to consult
supplemented by information concerning the lives, habits and
of men who were prominent in the Fraternity. Assembling all the
made available, we can form a tenable theory.
Power of the Church
Let us first
briefly survey the social and political and life of the people. The
power of the
Church had advanced so rapidly during the last centuries of the Middle
it had become the dominant factor, not only in religion, but in the
affairs of state.
So powerful had it become politically, that the Pope of Rome could
compel a German
Kaiser to stand barefoot in the snow for three days, clad in the
shirt, while begging forgiveness. The Church proudly proclaimed the
“as the sun is a greater light than the moon, so is the spiritual
greater than the
temporal power.” Kings and princes ruled only at the will and pleasure
of the Holy
Father at Rome. The influence of the Church extended to every detail of
from the cradle to the grave.
Middle Ages the Church had been the repository of all learning, and it
the patron of the arts and sciences. This position suited it, because
to glorify religion and to exalt the power of the Church. In its
capacity as Keeper
of the Public Conscience, the Church was also the censor of public
morals and beliefs,
and no one was permitted, except by its sanction, to give utterance to
any new idea
upon any subject. As is always the case with irresponsible power, the
arbitrary, despotic and tyrannical. Its sole care was to preserve the
and it therefore prohibited the publication of any innovation. It
mattered not whether
a new idea or scientific discovery conflicted with the dogmas of the
fact that it was contrary to the accepted belief was sufficient to
exclude it. The
author was haled before the ecclesiastical tribunal and ordered to
recant. His books
were burned by the common hangman, and the author himself was indeed
he did not share the fate of his work. History records the names of
many men who
were thus compelled to deny great scientific discoveries they had made,
and of others
who refused to recant and sealed their conviction with their blood.
changed all this. That event was not only a protest against the many
perpetuated by the Church, but was a revolt against the mental bondage
the people. No sooner was the yoke lifted than men began pursuing
every field and in every direction. They threw themselves with especial
upon the study of the natural sciences in an effort to solve the
mysteries of Nature's
wondrous laws. Having no previous experience, and no rules of reason to
they indulged themselves in the wildest speculations and the most
studies which occupied the time of the scientific men of that day were
They studied the heavens, believing that in the courses of the
they could foretell coming events. They experimented with the
transmutation of the
base metals into gold. They tried to compound a salt, or panacea, which
a sovereign remedy in all diseases which flesh is heir to. They
travelled in search
of the fountain of eternal youth. They practiced magic, white and
black. They endeavored
to form a “word,” or combination of letters, which when properly
enable them to command the spirits, which, as was then believed,
inhabited the sea
and air, etc. The generic term for all these studies was the Hermetic,
philosophy. Although we may smile at the vagaries of these sages, we
must not forget
that humanity owes them a debt of gratitude. Upon their labor and
industry our modern
sciences rest. The astrologer, who studied the stars and cast
horoscopes, is the
progenitor of the modern astronomer. The alchemist, who labored to
base metals, is the forerunner of our chemist. Much of our medical
science is founded
upon the experiments of the Hermetics who tried to produce the
Rosicrucianism and the Kabala
philosophy of the Brotherhood of the Rosy Cross and of the Hebrew
Kabbala was given
to the world about the middle of the sixteenth century and were widely
the learned men of the day.
days there were no universities in the modern acceptation of that term.
philosophers, who were as a rule poor men, attached themselves to the
of men of high rank, who provided them with the necessary materials for
their experiments and also afforded them protection from the ignorant
populace. In those times it was not quite safe to be known as a seeker
The common people regarded the Philosophers with superstitious dread,
they were in communion with evil spirits, a belief which was no doubt
by the peculiarities of dress and habits affected by the Hermetics.
Many of them
lost their lives at the hands of enraged mobs who believed they were
God and humanity a service by ridding the world of them. It might be
the noble patrons of the Philosophers were not actuated by any desire
the general knowledge. They sought their help, believing them capable
the outcome of wars and intrigues. Greed for gold was no doubt their
patronizing the science of alchemy.
Transformation of the Society
of these facts upon the history of Freemasonry, is obvious. We have
that in the Middle Ages a number of lodges placed themselves under the
of powerful princes and nobles, and we stated the reasons which
impelled them to
this step. Many of these high and mighty men also became employers of
and we are not overstepping the bounds of probability in stating that
patrons introduced the Hermetic philosophers into the craft societies,
the seal of secrecy imposed by the obligation, they exchanged views,
progress of their experiments, and thus gradually transformed the
lodges into speculative
or philosophical societies, finally incorporating in the ritual the
element, which ultimately gave to Freemasonry its present character.
At this point
it will be noted that, while Freemasonry as an operative art was
practiced in nearly
every country of Europe during the Middle Ages, it is in the British
that we find the speculative element embodied in the Masonic system.
and France the operative societies continued to exist until the middle
of the last
century, when they were imperceptibly merged into the modern
In point of efficient organization the German “Steinmetzen” were in
advance of their
brethren in other countries, having in 1549 organized their craft under
government, with headquarters at Strasburg, the Master of Works of the
of that city being the Grand Master.
Early “Accepted” Masons
“accepted” Mason on record is John Boswell, a Scotch nobleman; who was
of a lodge in Edinburgh in the year 1600. Earl Morey (Murray) is also
an early “accepted”
Mason. He was only the patron of the Masons in his domain, but also
rated a great
Hermetic philosopher. He was admitted in the year 1641. Elias Ashmole,
a great English
antiquary and Hermetic and Rosicrucian writer, was “made” in Warrington
Speculative Period (1717
We have now
arrived at the last period of our review, at the opening to which the
“threw off the trammels of the operative art” and evolved into a
society, in which form it has spread to every quarter of the globe and
practiced in every country where the people have arrived at a
sufficient high state
of civilization to appreciate its beauty.
Let us again
take a view of the social and political conditions, as they presented
during the first decades of the period we are now considering.
Absolutism in Government
had broken the power of the Church, but in doing so it had helped to
build up another
power which, in course of time, became an even greater menace to human
progress. As the Church declined in importance, the authority of the
Step by step, the king became absolute, both in state affairs and in
of the Church. The latter became the handmaid of the temporal power.
control by both pulpit and press, and other means of public expression,
it difficult and dangerous for the people to air their grievances, and
they were deprived of every right and privilege. “The King can do no
the principle by which the nations were governed.
country in which the people had maintained in their own hands a share
and where the personal rights of the citizens were respected, was
the king of that country attempted to make himself absolute, the people
rebellion and assumed the reins of power into their own hands. England,
was regarded with great admiration and respect by the people of
and her institutions were studied and praised by the reformers of other
time the effects of the revolution in England made themselves felt on
About the beginning of the eighteenth century the system there had
become so rotten
and corrupt that it was ready to fall of its own weight. The “forward
of the time boldly condemned and denounced the existing order and
demanded its overthrow.
Art and science had a new birth. This was the so-called Golden Age of
period a new religious cult sprang up, known as the Deists. They took
that all religious dogmas are the invention of the priests with a view
the people in ignorance and subjugation, and they declared that the
only right way
to worship God was in his wondrous works. They also preached the
Man” and gave to the world the slogan: “Freedom, Equality and
is no doubt that Freemasonry became deeply impressed with the new
of the chief tenets of our Fraternity being religious toleration, its
being belief in the Supreme Architect.
In the early
days of the eighteenth century, a number of the foremost men of science
of continental Europe visited England, some to study her institutions
to escape persecution at home. Naturally, they associated themselves
with men of
their own views and pursuits. At this time the most prominent members
of the Royal
Society, a body of British scientists, were members of the Masonic
introduced their visitors into the mysteries of the Craft. When the
to their own countries, they came as missionaries for the new
Spread of Freemasonry
spread rapidly from England and Scotland to other countries of Europe
and also to
America. The men who were laboring to establish the new principle in
government made use of the fraternity to propagate these principles,
and did so
most effectively. It was not long, however, before the powers of the
to recognize in Freemasonry a menace to the existing order and took
steps to suppress
it. Kings pronounced banishment and death penalties upon its votaries.
hurled its anathema against them. And the blindly bigoted populace
in frantic fury. To this rule there were some exceptions. King
Frederick II, of
Prussia, who, as Crown Prince, had been made a Mason, on his ascension
to the throne
took the Fraternity under his immediate protection and raised it to the
of a semi-public institution. A king of Sweden had prohibited the
practice of Freemasonry
under pain of death. His successor repealed the edict and bestowed
upon the Fraternity. This monarch was at the time engaged in a struggle
old nobility. Accordingly, he sought to make use of Freemasonry in his
securing the admission of men who had made their mark in art, science
thus creating a new nobility of mind and attainment with which to
combat the old
aristocracy of birth and wealth. The impress thus left upon the
Fraternity in Sweden
has persisted to our own day. The Craft was introduced to America in
the year 1738,
and here it found fruitful soil. We shall, perhaps, never know the full
the part played by the Fraternity in establishing upon this continent
of justice and democracy. We know that a number of those who signed the
of Independence were Freemasons, and among those who were in the
forefront of the
struggle for independence were men who had taken the oath upon the
In short, the early history of this nation is intimately associated
with the history
of the Masonic Fraternity.
Establishment of the Mother
of Freemasonry during the period we are now considering commences with
of the Mother Grand Lodge. On St. John's Day, 1717, the Masters and
Wardens of four
lodges meeting in London assembled at the “Goose and Gridiron” tavern,
put the oldest Master Mason in the chair, they erected and proclaimed
Lodge of England, which is the mother and model of all grand bodies.
a committee was appointed to examine the Ancient Charges and to “digest
a new and better form.” One of the members of this committee was Dr.
a Scotch Presbyterian minister, author of the first printed work on
His “Constitutions and History of the Ancient and Honorable Fraternity
of Free and
Accepted Masons” was published by order of the Grand Lodge and was
It passed through a number of editions; but it is no longer regarded as
since more recent investigation has shown it to be historically
inaccurate and in
other respects unreliable.
doubtlessly introduced a number of innovations in the ritual as well as
in the form
of government of the Craft; but they simply built a new superstructure
upon an old
foundation. The basic principles of the Fraternity have remained
all vicissitudes of time.
discussion, I would express the hope that the members of the Fraternity
to its history a more close study. It will enable them to understand
many things about their glorious Craft which are now a sealed book to
them. It will
tend to increase their respect and admiration for their ancient
that can but result in making them better Freemasons ‒ and that means
Clubs in the A.E.F.
By Bro. Charles F. Irwin.
entrance of the United States into the World War, the several Grand
carefully the advisability of issuing charters to Military lodges. Most
declined to do so. Since the war and our return to peace-time
conditions, the wisdom
of this decision is apparent to those who were in the army and who were
with the Masonic activities which were carried on through the Masonic
Although the writer assisted in the conferring of the several degrees
which came over to France from several Grand Lodges at home, yet I am
that in most cases it would have been as well both for the candidate as
Craft in general had the postulants waited till they returned to
there sprang up in the minds of soldiers a sudden desire to enjoy
or benefits might flow from Masonry. They were hastily entered, passed
without time to consider the several steps or to familiarize themselves
lectures. They therefore could in the nature of the case get but the
view of the Fraternity and not the underlying principles.
to refrain from issuing military charters or dispensations left the
the army to their own devices. The heroic struggle of the Grand Lodges
to send a Commission to France to provide for the Craft in the A.E.F. ‒
to break through the “invisible government” which hedged in those who
had the authority
to grant the passports, is embodied in the report submitted by the
the leadership of Justice Scudder, of New York. The Justice presented a
of this report to me in Paris and it made fine reading not only for us
but also for my British and French Masonic brethren. I took pleasure in
it to numbers of both these classes.
One of the
evidences of the vitality of the Craft is found in the spontaneity with
Craft got together under the most unusual and unpromising circumstances
intercourse and for comradeship.
for foreign service, groups of the Craft had gravitated together in the
cantonments and embarkation camps. Aboard many transports of British
registry were found Masons in the crews. By the courtesy of these
and brethren, cabins were thrown open for our use and we held
conferences and rallies
as we passed through the strain of expected submarine attacks.
in France the natural places for Masonic Clubs to open were at the
ports of entry
and the centers of largest concentration of troops. Consequently the
clubs of Brest,
St. Nazaire, Bordeaux, Le Mans, Paris, Tours, etc., were the earliest.
as the fall of 1917 these clubs were coming into existence. Being left
to our own devices, and under the severe strain of fighting conditions
we were in
no shape to turn our attention as actively toward Masonic club life as
we were after
the signing of the armistice. Yet, early in the spring of 1918, the
to appear in the training camps and even in individual units. The
latter were invariably
itinerant clubs and suffered a more severe strain for support than the
clubs of the camps and depots.
Army of Occupation, the Masonic Clubs entered the Rhine Valley and
the centers for relaxation and fellowship for Masons of high and low
Club at Coblenz was a fine example of these. With its commodious
parlors and its
fine spirit of fellowship it has left an indelible record on the
members of the
Craft who enjoyed its hospitality. This club still ministers to the
It is to
be noted here that four of the welfare organizations which worked with
abroad were strong supporters of our clubs and rendered us splendid
support. I refer
to the Red Cross, Salvation Army, Jewish Welfare Board, and Y.M.C.A.
especially gave us invaluable assistance for which American Masonry
cannot be too
appreciative. This organization was offered and manned to an unusual
degree by Master
Masons. One club ‒ the Overseas Club of Paris ‒ was composed almost
of secretaries and officers of the Y.M.C.A. The earliest attacks upon
sprang from sources which have ever been opposed not only to the
which the Y.M.C.A. has stood but also opposed to Masonry. To attack the
meant to attack Masonry at the same time.
where the clubs should assemble were matters of grave importance.
could not be held in military buildings. Actually many of them were
held in military
buildings and were patronized by those in high command. The clubs
usually came into
existence in the same way. A few enthusiastic Masons met together and
club. Investigation discovered who were Masons and an invitation was
those to assemble in a certain place on a specified date. Usually this
be a Y.M.C.A. hut. For in every hut you could find one or more Masonic
The club contained the usual officers ‒ president, vice-president,
treasurer. In addition to these came several committees, the number
to the strength of the club. Meetings were held weekly and programs
were put on.
These were made up of music, oratory, and reminiscences. Later in the
overseas life, contact was had with the Entertainment Section of the A.
E. F. and
troupes were assigned to the Masonic clubs just as they were to the
huts and other
places of troop meetings.
also organized the work of the clubs in several of the bases so as to
have the presence
of the American girls working in the several welfare organizations.
Thus an element
of the home life proved invaluable. At these special social meetings
other forms of entertainment prevailed. One thing was by common consent
and that was the deposit of military titles as we entered the door. It
in the American Army to hear a buck private greet a Brigadier General
Smith.” It was even more illuminating as to the democracy of Masonry to
aforesaid buck private tag an officer of high rank in a “Paul Jones”
and sail away
with the fair prize. I really think for the first time we understood
why this American
custom was called “Paul Jones.” When our French guests beheld it for
the first time
they were amazed. For in their country it meant the height of rudeness
to part a
couple in the midst of the dance.
regular meeting of a club much attention was given “for the good of the
The sick, the distressed, those who were staggering under burdens
imposed by the
war, such received our attention. Flowers were sent to the sick in the
and laid upon the caskets of the dead. Masonic emblems were placed on
The cases of Masonic soldiers were investigated and their desires
forwarded so far
as military custom would permit. We ministered to the dead in several
ways. In all
parts of our overseas army brethren who died were laid to rest by
we could not use the formal ceremonials, yet we employed ceremonies
the Craft. One of many incidents comes to my mind. A Richmond,
had died in the camp in which the writer served as Camp Chaplain. At
arose in the minds of the club the thought that he might be laid away
A regiment was in camp whose Chaplain had at one time been Grand
Chaplain of the
Grand Lodge of New Jersey. I refer to that prince of men, Captain
of the Episcopal Church. I trust his many friends may read this and let
of my humble tribute to his merits. Brother Chaplain Dubell chose for
soldiers who were Masons. The officer who commanded the detail of
troops was a Mason.
In fact every man who had anything to do with the funeral was a Mason,
with his inimitable skill, Brother Chaplain Dubell committed this
brother to the
bosom of mother earth with words which were understood to every Master
The writer had occasion to bury a Surgeon, the head of one of the
Units at St. Nazaire, and in the sight of many soldiers, he laid away
having as Wardens two Jewish brethren, and improvising much of the
of our Craft. One of these Wardens by the way was a Captain and the
other a Sergeant.
also came frequently to forward the interests of brethren who were sick
An officer, a member of an Illinois lodge, lay with his hip encased in
cast. He was headed back to America and indications were unfavorable
for his recovery.
Ascertaining that he was aboard the hospital ship I secured a pass,
ship, and entered the hospital bay. There, as they loosed the cables
that held the
ship to France, we placed our arms about this brother and whispered in
words of cheer and fellowship. And before we were able to leave the
ship in the
lower harbor, we sought the ship's surgeon, found him one of our
number, and said
good-bye with the assurance that our brother who lay in weakness would
care. Later correspondence establishes the fact that this occurred.
of this time the several clubs were self-supporting. When you consider
“free money” possessed by the average doughboy per month was $5 or $6,
he paid 25 cents a week dues and an assessment of 25 cents whenever
to be ordered, you can measure faintly the hold Masonry had on its
But a new period came with the arrival of the Overseas Commission
headed by Justice
Scudder and Merwin E. Lay representing the Grand Lodges, and of Charles
representing the southern jurisdiction Scottish Rite. These separate
established headquarters in Paris, under the same roof. They worked in
opened club rooms which were used by scores of the brethren sojourning
or passing through that city. They endeavored to secure a list of the
which had been formed throughout the A. E. F. and I believe they have a
of the clubs. It would be well for members of the many A. E. F. Masonic
forward their club names, locations, and further information to THE
BUILDER to be
added to the list.
found many of the older clubs to be heavily in debt. This grew out of
the fact that
these older clubs at the old ports of entry were now the centers of the
of troops homeward. By this time, the spring of 1919, the Masons were
of the worth of their clubs and they availed themselves of them at the
embarkation. Thus Bordeaux, St. Nazaire, and Brest faced serious
deficits in their
treasuries. The Commissions as soon as they discovered this condition
moneys and erased the indebtedness. Moreover they financed the
secretaries over these clubs at the ports of embarkation. Secretary
Witte at Brest,
and Secretary Huntley at St. Nazaire were two of the number. They were
in the uniform
of the Y.M.C.A. but were supported entirely by the Masonic Commissions.
clubs proved to be the breeders of friendships that have spread clear
American continent. The brethren who met amid the shock of battle, who
the back areas, and who endured that long strain when all hearts turned
and all feet marked time, and who sailed the Atlantic toward the
all these cemented friendships which today are ripening into the
richest of experiences.
My own most pleasant memories cluster around hundreds of these Masonic
and I am sure that scores from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from
Gulf to Canada
will recall those days we spent together when they see my name at the
head of this
itch to create side degrees appeared everywhere at home and abroad.
degrees appeared, to flourish for a day in some one locality and then
The Order of the Frog was one which the writer helped to exemplify.
Amid this transient
growth, there emerged one degree which will remain as the flower of
in France. It originated in the aviation camps at Ramorattin, in the
brain of Secretary
Charles Huntley, of Schnectady, N. Y. Its beauty and the potential
power in its
imagery were so apparent that it was impossible to hold it within the
the one camp. Thus it slowly spread to neighboring camps. It is called
the “S. O.
L.” Degree. Its similarity to our army “hardluck” slang proved a little
But since these letters have no connection with the army slang, the
name will doubtless
prevail permanently. Unfortunately most of the troops had begun to
return home before
the worth of this degree was recognized. It was when the Commissions at
its value and financed the project of sending Brother Huntley to the
centers to impart it, that it began to grow in numbers. The degree is
Its one lesson is exalted patriotism. It is Masonry militant. It can be
only by Master Masons who served overseas. Also by any overseas soldier
a Master Mason, and by the sons of any former overseas Mason. Thousands
it, the number being now probably between 5,000 and 10,000. It would be
for any brother eligible to receive it to correspond with Brother
Schenectady, N.Y., who is the Adjutant General of the Grand Dugout of
writer provided the 6 ritual and administered the degree to 400 in
Brest in August
of 1919, in the space of two afternoons and evenings. And literally
others were asking for the degree when the writer sailed with his
touched the soldier life on every side. It gave him entertainment; it
him friendships; it ministered to him when sick, and laid him away when
it spread its arms about him so that space and time lost their meaning
to him; it
has perpetuated itself on the tablets of a thousand hearts. The emblem
of the Square
and Compasses for the soldier of yesterday has become today the symbol
of a brotherhood
that is invincible, true, glorious, eternal.
Keep Me Striving -- [A Poem]
By Bro. G. A. Nancarrow, Indiana
keep me striving after Thee, my God,
I ask no lighter way to tread;
I seek not flowers but e'en the rod,
And feed my soul on hunger's bread.
For I would grow to Thee in nature's part;
Not at a bound to scale the heights
But by the hungerings of my heart
Reach up to Thee through days and nights.
To win to Thee though eons intervene,
Though I shall labor through the dust
A thousand groping lives which lie between ‒
I shall for Thou hast said I must.
Liberty only to those who love it and are always ready to guard and
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 46
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "Third Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
* * *
on “The Emblems”
The Hour Glass
- Recite the monitorial lecture
on “The Hour Glass.”
- In what manner was the Hour
Glass symbol commonly used by operative Masons?
- Is the emblem a modern one?
- How was it used in funeral
ceremonies in early days?
is the lesson we should learn from this emblem?
- Recite the monitorial lecture
on the “Scythe.”
you any answers to the questions asked by Brother Haywood in this
of his paper?
Emblems of Mortality
- Recite the ritualistic lecture
on these emblems.
- What does the First degree
symbolize? The Second?
- What does the drama of the
Third degree symbolize?
- Did you realize the
significance of the Hiramic Legend the night you were
its meaning entirely clear to you at that time, or did you have to
it out later?
* * *
Vol. IV. ‒ Acacia, p. 323;
Glass, p. 325;
Scythe, p. 325;
Setting Maul, p. 323.
Acacia, p. 7;
Hour Glass, p. 337;
Scythe, p. 674, etc.
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Part IX ‒ The Emblems ‒
The Hour Glass
of Masons' Marks, Brother Gould notes that one of the commonest has
ever been the
figure of an Hour Glass. “The Hour Glass form, very slightly modified,
used in every age down to the present and in almost every country.
some good authorities, it was a custom (at the period immediately
era of Grand Lodges) to inter an Hour Glass with the dead, as an emblem
of the sands
of life having run out.” What could more clearly prove the hold which
eloquent symbol has ever had on the imagination of man? “The sands of
are swiftly running away. Be up, mortal, and about your task. Soon the
when no man can work. In the grave man will seek him out no more
you do you must do while it is still called Today!” Such is the message
of the Hour
Glass, too simple to need any interpreter. He who has learned how to
into life, how to make the years leave behind them that which perishes
lives the Eternal Life in the midst of time ‒ such a one has learned
of the Glass.
If the hour
Glass is the symbol of the fleetingness of a mortal life in which all
do fade as
doth the leaf, in which the sands are ever running out, the Scythe is
of Time which is itself that stream in which the sands are borne along.
a mighty theme! The libraries of the world could not hold the books
that might be
written about this eternally fascinating, eternally elusive mystery!
least of all
would it be possible in a page or two to capture its secret, so
infinite are the
suggestions of one small symbol in Masonry's House of Doctrine.
Time is ever
with us, flowing through our minds as the blood courses through our
veins, yet does
it mystify us; and the more thinking we do, the more mysterious does it
We divide it into Past, Present, and Future, but what is the Past? has
to exist? If so, why does it continue to influence us; if it continues
why do we call it the Past? What is the Future? Is it something already
us Out There as the land waits for its explorer? What is the Present?
We feel that
it exists said “Now” it is still future; the moment I have said it, it
the past. How can one's mind lay hold of that which is always becoming
is? If one's mind cannot apprehend it how can it be said to exist? It
is such puzzles
as these that have led our most opulent minds to despair of ever
secret from it.
Time is here, a part of the scheme of things, for good or for bad;
indeed, it seems
to be the very stuff of life itself, as Bergson has shown so
convincingly in his
“Creative Evolution.” Existence itself is a process of duration and man
die the moment he is born.
solemn words of the Lecture, offered in elucidation of the symbol,
leaves the mind
saddened, and weighted, with a sense of the frailty, or even futility,
Wm. Morris, who is in so many ways the poet of the Builder, felt in the
about it. All through his pages one feels its presence like a shadow,
life's little events become etched into brighter relief, so that the
of the day became all the dearer in that they flutter so fragilely over
of eternity, all the more precious because “the sweet days die.” But
there is no
need that we be shadowed by the sadness-sweetness of this melancholy.
Time is a
part of the scheme of things, it is the very form of life, so that he
life must also accept Time and look upon it as friend and ally rather
Time helps to solve our problems, assuages our griefs, and always does
us farther into the strange advantages of existence. The most
triumphant minds have
trusted themselves to it, as a child to its mother, learning how to
into ever richer life, not lamenting the past, nor impatient for the
living in an Eternal Now which must be such Time as heaven knows. “Man
or remembers,” complains Emerson; “he does not live in the present, but
eye laments the past, or, heedless of the riches which surround him,
stands on tiptoe
to foresee the future. He cannot be happy and strong until he too lives
in the present above time!
live many an eon in Man's brief years, ‒ To him who dreads no spite of
Fate or Chance,
Yet loves the Earth, and Man, and starry spheres, Life's swiftness is
of life's romance; And, when the footsteps fall of Death's advance He
feet; he quails not, but he hears.”
Emblems of Mortality
It is above
all things fitting that the ritual which began with the candidate's
birth into the
world of the lodge should end by bringing him to that death which is
but a larger
birth into the Grand Lodge above; thus does our sublime symbolism, like
gather all things into its embrace and over-arch the end as well as the
So also is it fitting that the ritual throws about the instruments and
of the grave the memories of the slain Master, thus reminding us that
be transfigured by a great soul into a paean and a triumph.
To die is
as natural as to be born. Death is no interloper in the universe, but
one with its
laws and its life; in truth, it is itself the friend and servant of
life in that
it keeps fresh the stream and removes the out-worn and the old “lest
one good custom
should corrupt the world.” The very act of death proves this, for,
we shrink from its approach, we yield peacefully to it when it comes.
Of this all
our physicians testify, as witness these words from one of the noblest
“I have careful notes of about
five hundred death-beds,
studied particularly with reference to the modes of death and the
the dying. Ninety suffered bodily pain or distress of one sort or
showed mental apprehension; two positive terror; one expressed
one bitter remorse. The great majority gave no sign one way or another;
birth their death was a sleep and a forgetting.”
it is, death will ever remain solemn, and even sad, not only because of
after, or “because of the body's masterful negation,” but because, as
reminds us, the day of death is a kind of judgment day, for it brings
to an end
and sets a lasting seal upon, the life of a man. The world with its
imperious needs, its gray tragedies, and ancient heart-breaks, is left
man's career is ended, and the influences of his life, the harvest of
‒ all these are now taken from his control. What he has done he has
done, and death
places it beyond his changing. Surely, it must be an awful thing for a
to realize at the last that, so far as he has been concerned, there is
less love, less kindliness and honor among men than before he entered
life. To so
live in the midst of this mystery-haunted world, to so work among the
that little children may be happier, youth more joyous, manhood more
old age less lonely; to so live that men will hate less and love more,
in public dealings as in private acts, create more than destroy; to so
the great Kingdom of Brotherhood may be brought near and man be bound
man, and woman closer to woman; that it is to be a Mason!
* * *
A New Series of Study Club
Articles to Begin in the April Issue
issue of the Correspondence Circle Bulletin is concluded Subdivision E
I of the Main Outline of the Bulletin Course of Masonic Study, “Third
In the April
issue we shall publish the first instalment of a new series of articles
Masonry,” or, in plain words, “The Teachings of Masonry.” It has been
to deviate somewhat from the plan of the Main Outline as originally
laid out for
the reason that early in 1918, after having published a number of
papers by Brother
Clegg, it was found that a series of articles on the three degrees had
completed by Brother Haywood who had written them with the intention of
published in book form. These articles proved to be just what we needed
Subdivisions C, D and E of Division I of the Main Outline of the Course
and arrangements were accordingly entered into with Brother Haywood for
in this series Brother Haywood had covered not only “Ceremonial
Masonry,” but also
“Symbolical Masonry,” thus combining Divisions I and II of our Main
is for this reason that the Outline has been re-arranged and we are
taking up the
study of “Philosophical Masonry.”
article of the new series, which appears next month, will give the
reasons for such
a series in explanation of what “the teachings of Masonry” mean, and
tell us how
we may each of us arrive at our own “Philosophy of Masonry.”
What is Freemasonry?
What is its function in the world? What is it trying to do? How did it
come to be?
What is it like as a whole? Such are the questions to be answered by
such a course
his Fraternity the Mason himself needs to know it in its general
no authorized interpretation of Masonry ‒ it is the duty of each Mason
it out for himself. “Thinking Masonry out” ‒ this is to make for one's
self a “Philosophy
of Masonry.” Each of us requires the help of a Philosophy of Masonry in
a world-wide institution, centuries old, which is as complex as a
In order to find one's own proper place, one should know the
Fraternity's own life
and development as a whole.
an international organization which annually costs the world nobody
knows how many
millions in men, money and effort. To justify such a society and such
is one of the purposes of a Philosophy of Masonry.
How can one
arrive at his own “Philosophy of Masonry?”
He can study
its development through the past, plot the curve of its tendencies, and
learn what it has Factually been doing.
a great deal in the various activities of the Order ‒ speeches, books,
etc. ‒ which appeals directly to the mind. The philosopher of Masonry
these activities as they actually are.
about a few great ideas. These are readily got at and must be studied
of human society at large can be studied from Masonry's point of view ‒
one way of arriving at a Philosophy of Masonry.
We can study
the works of Masonic philosophers in the past: Oliver, Preston, Pike,
in the present: Waite, Pound, and others.
One may study
the monitorial interpretations, and lectures in the various degrees.
as it now stands is to a certain extent self-interpreting.
the points to be covered by Brother Haywood in this new series of
supplemental references to articles in back numbers of THE BUILDER and
Encyclopedia will be given prefacing each of Brother Haywood's papers
the members of lodges and study clubs to prepare additional papers on
covered monthly by Brother Haywood, and this new series will have just
if not more, interest to every Master Mason as those that have already
in the study course.
in the Roman Catholic Church
By Bro. Dudley Wright, England
is made very frequently both in the Roman Catholic press and from the
members of that faith are not permitted by their church or papal decree
members of any secret society whatever may be their constitution or
their character. In accordance with such interpretation of Roman
consistent Catholics refrain from associating themselves with the
and also from such organizations as Druidism, Forestry, Buffaloism,
and the like. The Roman Catholic statement, however, demands
the prohibition applies only to societies not under the jurisdiction or
or oversight of the Roman Catholic clergy. For there are affiliated to
in all parts of the world certain societies to which only Roman
Catholics may belong,
which have certain forms of initiation or admission, which meet behind
their minutes of proceedings not being published; some of which,
in revolutionary propaganda, which constitutional acts are inhibited by
One of the
most famous and active of these societies at the present day is that
known as the
Knights of Columbus, which, as a body, has recently recognized
officially the existence
of an Irish republic, with Eamon de Valera as its president, and which
resolutions urging the United States Senate and House of
Representatives to do the
same without delay. The object underlying such resolution is apparent.
It is well
recognized that were the Senate and House of Representatives to do any
there would, at once, be an open break in the diplomatic relations
between the United
Kingdom and the United States, which might, and not improbably, result
outbreak of war. The Knights of Columbus, which is a very powerful
limited in membership to Roman Catholics, has been, not inaptly,
described as the
Pope's most powerful secret society in America; yet we do not read that
has received papal condemnation or disapproval, so that it may quite
fairly be assumed
that it has the papal sanction. There is ample proof in many published
that the members of this society work under clerical direction: the
will suffice. In 1916, Archbishop Munderlin, in an address to the
Knights of Columbus,
as reported in the Chicago Evening American of 9th March, 1916, said:
“I will expect
you to be ready. I am your leader, your thinker, and your director. I
you what to do and will expect you to do it. I need you men. Never
differ from your
bishop. He thinks for you.”
in Ireland, America, and other counties, another society of a similar
It is known as the Order of Hibernians, and it is a continuation of the
Society, which was prominent in Irish life some years ago. These
in the early part of the nineteenth century, after the suppression of
in 1798, and was formed from among the surviving members of the United
Whiteboys and Defenders, all of whom took an oath “to burn, destroy,
all heretics up to my knees in blood.” Each Ribbonman took an oath (see
Select Committee on the State of Ireland, 1832 [Lib 1825; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]) in the following words: “I
I will to the best of my power cut down kings, queens, and princes,
earls, and all such, with land-jobbing and heresy. I swear I will never
moans and groans of the dying from the cradle to the crutch, and that I
knee deep in Orange blood.” All these societies were under the
direction and control
of the Catholic clergy, confined in their membership to Roman
Catholics, and among
their objects were to assist Roman Catholicism and the visionary idea
as an independent nation. The system did not receive the support of all
Mr. A. M. Sullivan, his work, New Ireland, [Lib 1878] (seventh edition, pp. 41 and
“But alas! when one comes to
review the actual
results of the Ribbon system in Ireland ‒ to survey its bloody work
fifty years ‒ how frightful is the prospect? It has been said, and
some truth, that it has been too much the habit to attribute
erroneously to the
Ribbon organization every atrocity committed in the country, every deed
arising out of agrarian combination or conspiracy. An emphatic denial.
to proofs, have been given to stories of midnight trials and sentences
at lodge meetings. Very possibly the records of lodge meetings afford
no such proof,
though there is abundant evidence that at such assemblages threatening
warnings were ordered to be served and domiciliary visits for
were decreed. But vain is all presence that the Ribbon Society did not
the original design and intention of its members may have been, a
of outrage and murder. It is one of the inherent evils of oath-bound
of this kind, where implicit obedience to secret superiors is sworn,
that they may
very easily and quickly drop to the lowest level of demoralization, and
for the wreaking of mere personal vengeance.”
In the concluding
paragraph of the chapter devoted by Mr. A.M. Sullivan to “The Ribbon
(it must be remembered that Mr. Sullivan was a Roman Catholic and a
“From 1835 to 1855 the Ribbon
at its greatest strength. For the last fifteen or twenty years” (he
wrote in 1877)
“it has been gradually disappearing from the greater part of Ireland,
to say, betimes intensifying, in a baser and more malignant form than
ever, in one
or two localities. With the emigration of the laboring classes it was
to England and to America. At one time the most formidable lodges were
whither, it is said, the headquarters were removed for safety.”
the society became known under various names, such as the “Molly
etc., and there are some interesting details concerning its
machinations and iniquities
to be read in E. W. Lucey's book, The Moly Maguires [Lib 1882], particularly the sworn
of Detective McParlan. Membership was confined to Roman Catholics of
or parentage. At the time in its history of which Lucy wrote, it had an
organization, each lodge consisting of a president or body-master,
a vice body-master, secretary, assistant secretary, and treasurer,
making five officers
at the head of each lodge. Then there were higher bodies, which had
each a county
delegate, county secretary, and county treasurer, who were assisted by
committee. Above these were state officers, consisting of state
secretary, and state treasurer; while, above these again, were national
consisting each of national delegate, national secretary, national
president of the Board. But the over-ruling body was known as the Board
which consisted of representatives from England, Ireland, and Scotland,
at various intervals, in one or other of the three countries. The
members of the
main body were known to each other by signs and pass-words, or
were issued by the Board of Erin and changed four times in the year.
Some of these
are given in Lucy's book. One ran:
The Emperor of France and Don
Carlos of Spain,
They unite together and the Pope's right maintain;
Will tenant right in Ireland
If the people unite and the landlords subdue?
That the trouble of the country
may soon be at
the answer was given:
And likewise the man who will
not her defend.
Beaconsfield's time, the greeting between members was:
What do you think of Disraeli's
Who still keeps Home Rule from our native land?
to which was:
But still with good words and
men at command
We will give long-lost rights to our native land.
During part of 1875 the greeting was changed to:
Gladstone's policy must be put down,
He is the main support of the British crown;
to which the fellow-member made reply:
But our Catholic lords will not support his plan,
For true to their Church they will firmly stand.
in his interesting novel, The Tithe Procter, [Lib 1881] a novel, be it remembered,
absolutely on fact, proof of which is given by him in the preface, and
a novel which
deals entirely with the machinations of a secret society, the
membership of which
was limited to Roman Catholics, says:
“The condition of all secret
and illegal societies
in Ireland is, indeed, shocking and most detestable, when contemplated
point of view whatsoever. In every one of them ‒ that is, in every
or branch of that conspiracy ‒ there is a darker and more secret class,
few in number, who undertake to organize the commission of crimes and
and who, in cases where they are controlled by the peaceably-disposed
to bloodshed, always fall back upon this private and blood-stained
clique, who are
always willing to execute their sanguinary behests, as it were, con
amore. In other
cases, however, as we have stated before, even the virtuous and
reluctant are often
compelled, by the dark and stem decrees of these desperate ruffians, to
crimes from which they revolt.”
important secret society, from the Roman Catholic point of view, is
that great and
wonderful organization, the Society of Jesus, better known, perhaps, as
It consists, not only of the clergy, and of these there are two
and unprofessed, but also of various branches of lay associations and
There are also various sodalities, meeting ostensibly for devotional
religious purposes, but which meet in secret conclave, initiated
members only being
admitted. The most important of these latter is that known as the Prima
This society was founded in 1563, and established canonically in 1584,
by a Bull
issued by Gregory XIII, and which bas attached to it a number of
branches in all
parts of the world. The suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1773,
in Pietas Mariana Britannica [Lib 1879], “did not affect the Prima
for the ex-members who continued under the name of the English Academy,
the sodality until they were driven out of Liege in 1794, in which year
to England and established themselves at Stonyhurst. Consequently, the
sodality, tracing an unbroken descent from the year 1617, is, perhaps,
existing branch in the world of the Prima Primaria.” In December, 1857,
was founded at the well-known London Jesuit church in Farm Street,
W, “for gentlemen only.” One of its rules is that “only those are to be
into the congregation who are in a respectable position in life and
with some pretensions
to a literary education.” Another runs: “Upon sodalists, moreover, it
that they should always obey, with a prompt and ready will, the
counsels and commands
of their directors.” Yet another says: “The immediate superior of the
of the Prima Primaria, by virtue of the Apostolic Constitution, is the
of the Society of Jesus. To him consequently belongs the government of
it is in his power to make laws; revoke or modify them, since
on his authority.” Another rule given in the Manual for the use of
to the Prima Primaria tells us that “those are excluded from the
suffer from epileptic fits, or are physically or accidentally deformed.”
also closely connected with the Jesuits, is that known as the “Holy
League of the
Heart of Jesus,” all members of which have to make the following solemn
“Freemasonry and all other secret societies having been condemned by
voice and authority of the Vicar of Christ. I … obedient to that
resolve and engage never to belong to any such secret association,
name it may be called; but, on the contrary, to oppose to the utmost of
their influence, their teaching, and their acts. Amen.”
is elaborated in the Handbook of the League, where part of the
set out as follows:
“Our reverend directors, our
promoters and associates,
will understand the motives which should prompt the Director General of
League to issue the following instructions: In order the more
thoroughly to enter
into the intention of the Holy Father expressed in the teaching of the
Letter, Humanum Genus [Lib 1884], (directed against
Freemasonry), we earnestly
beg of all our Directors, both diocesan and local, to require in all
of associates of either sex to the Holy League, and, in the case of our
as a necessary condition, the promise never to enter into any secret
not to give encouragement or help to any of them.”
It may not,
perhaps, be known generally that some of the branches of the Children
of Mary, the
members of which form an attractive and striking figure in many
open-air Roman Catholic
processions, now so frequent in the summer months, are branches of the
erected by a diploma of the General of the Society of Jesus, and enjoy
of indulgence attached to it in common with all other sodalists. A
says Waterton, must, therefore, be made between the Children of Mary,
or lady sodalists,
who are affiliated to the Prima Primaxia, and those local or convental
known by the same name.
Pope Pius IX organized the “Militia of Jesus Christ,” a Catholic
which had as its third aim: “to array against the powerful organization
of the secret
societies leagued against the Lord, and His own innumerable army of
ready to fight in open day, with all the means at its power, those who
work in secret
and in darkness.” It is unnecessary to point out that the objects of
were not the Jesuits and other Roman Catholic secret societies, who,
correspond thoroughly to the description given. According to a
the Daily News this Militia numbered more than a million members,
France and Belgium, within a very short time of its formation.
In the Memoirs
of Saint-Simon (Volume III, p. 268, 1902 ed. [Lib 1901; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]), we are told that “the
constantly admit the laity, even married, into their company. The fact
There is no doubt that Des Noyers, secretary of state under Louis XIII,
was of this
number, and that many others have been so too. These licentiates make
the same vow
as the Jesuits, so far as their condition admits: that is, unrestricted
to the General, and to the superiors of the Company. They are obliged
with the vows of poverty and chastity by promising to give all the
service and all
the protection in their power to the Company; above all, to be entirely
to the superiors and to their confessor. They are obliged to perform
such light exercises of piety as their confessor may have adapted to
of their lives, and that he simplifies as much as he likes. It answers
of the Company to ensure to itself those hidden auxiliaries. But
nothing must pass
through their minds, nothing must come to their knowledge that they do
to their confessor, and to the superiors, if the confessor thinks fit.
too, they must obey, without comment the superior and the confessor.”
This, of course,
is in accordance with the enormous claims made by the Church of Rome,
not only to
be the administrator of the laws of God, but also to be empowered to
laws, which must be obeyed with equal rigidity, under penalties and
This claim is well set forth by the Rev. Edmund J. O'Reilly, S. J., in
The Relations of the Church to Society [Lib 1892], wherein he says: “The
jurisdiction, like that of any State, comprises legislative an
The Church not only administers divine laws, but makes laws herself.
Some of them
are in great measure identified with her administrate of divine law.
on her subjects the obligation of receiving her declarations of faith,
less, under ecclesiastical penalties. But, besides doing this, she
obligations in connection with faith and morals. She commands and
forbids acts that
are not already respectively commanded or forbidden by God. All this
she does for
the better attainment of her end, which is the salvation of souls.
These laws of
the Church are human laws, enacted in virtue of authority received from
still human laws, liable to abrogation, mortification, and
dispensation, where circumstances
may so require or render expedient.”
The Awakening in Masonry
It is quality
and not quantity that Masonry seeks in her membership and we are not at
in acquiring members unless they shall be, or appear likely to become,
fact as well as in name.
I have the
courage to believe from my observation throughout the state, and my
with other jurisdictions, that a greater and more vital interest is
in what Masonry stands for than ever before, but whether or not that
interest in vital topics is a by-product or in any sense due to the war
is not really important. The salient thing is that there is this
awakening of interest,
and it is most decidedly a feature which must be taken into account in
and as we recognize the fact, we realize that more and more it is true
eyes of the world are upon us, and that our responsibility is
If we can
once get the great mass of the brotherhood to realize that there is
important than the recognition of the common bonds of humanity, that
of brotherhood means in very fact just what it says, that we are all
of one Almighty Father, that we are linked together in fact as well as
by an indissoluble tie of sincere affection, I venture the prediction
that we will
see the Masonic order take its rightful place as a dynamic force in the
and in the life of the people, and that it will command recognition not
its professions, not alone for the beauty of its doctrines, but
deservedly for its
solid, practical accomplishment in all constructive policies and
endeavors for the
uplift and unity of humanity.
P.G.M. Webster, California.
Gospel of Brotherhood, not according to any of the Four old
on men to amend each his own wicked existence, but a Gospel rather
a new Fifth Evangelist, calling on men to amend each the whole world's
and be saved by making a Constitution.” ‒ Carlyle, The French
Revolution. [Lib 1902;
Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]
will never be better than the men who inhabit it. Everything begins and
the individual. One man living a Brotherly Life is worth a thousand
Brotherhood. Men can make many things by wholesale, but great souls,
generous hearts are made one by one. Commonplaces! it will be said.
Even so. Bread,
meat, sunlight, night and day are commonplace, but by such things men
trouble is that we fly so high that we overlook what is nearby,
without foundation. Freemasonry is the realization of God and the
practice of brotherhood,
and it must begin with each of us in his own life.
all the Great Brother of Galilee set forth this fact with unforgettable
in a story that one can read in two minutes. He told of “a certain
man,” ‒ it might
be any man of any race who went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and was
by thieves who robbed him, beat him, and left him half dead. One can
see the hard
faces of the robbers silhouetted against the rocks ‒ low-browed,
cruelty in their eyes ‒ the plagues of society, desperadoes by calling,
the Priest and the Levite who journey that way, passing by the man in
They are not hypocrites; they are simply men who separate religion from
as most men do. They tried to unite devotion to God with contempt of
the need of
mankind. They thought God lived in the Temple, listening to songs and
knowing that He is out on the highways of life where men faint and
fall. It is the
old atheism which divides piety from humanity, and thinks of religion
as a sweet,
dreamy emotion, rather than a matter of practical service.
the Samaritan ‒ a heretic, an outcast, ‒ with divine instincts, quick
and keen sympathies,
responsive to human need, asking no questions, but doing the thing that
be done. There is the innkeeper, kindly but business-like, glad to
welcome the man
who has been unfortunate, but glad also to have a paying guest, and
happy to be
assured that everything will be settled on business principles. It is
picture of our human society, and in the living wisdom of the world
there is nothing
to surpass it alike in vividness and comprehensiveness.
for the sickness of the world, the way out of the blind alley into
which it has
run, the hope of a better day of justice and goodwill, lies in the
of brotherliness between man and man. Nothing can take the place of it.
no substitute for it. No plan, no scheme, no program for a better world
worth the paper it is written on, without men of the brotherly spirit.
the brotherly life, however obscure he may be, does more for the world
the orators. Professions of Brotherhood in a Masonic lodge are of no
than professions of religion in a church ‒ unless they are acted upon.
need to be said again and again, each man to himself, if only to keep
sense of solemn and high responsibility in our own hearts. No one may
matter, or shift it to another, without weakening the basis of society
all holy things less secure. The Samaritan did not report the case of
the man by
the roadside to the Society for the Relief of the Distressed. He got
down off his
donkey, picked the man up, and took care of him. He did not denounce
and Levite. He saw it as his duty, did it, and went on about his
But let us
go a little further. Someone has said that it is easier to give five
a beggar than it is to forgive a man who rides his logic ruthlessly
over our pet
prejudices. It is easier to help a man who is down ‒ whether by his own
the fault of another ‒ than to give a square deal to one who is in the
us for the prizes of life. Philanthropy is one thing; justice is
another. In time
of dire need men want charity; justice they want all the time. The
had the true order of things when he told us what is required of us:
“To do justly,
to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God.” Here is the idea in a
searching poem by Ina Coolbirth:
O Soul! however sweet
The goal to which I hasten with swift feet ‒
If, just within my grasp,
I reach, and joy to clasp,
And find there one whose body I must make
A footstool for that sake,
Though ever and for evermore denied,
Grant me to turn aside!
intention of forming societies is undoubtedly the uniting men in the
of love; for men, considered as social creatures, must derive their
each other; every man being designed by Providence to promote the good
as he tenders his own advantage; and by that intercourse to secure
their good offices,
by being, as occasion may offer, serviceable to them.”
Charles Brockwell, A Charge to Masons, 1749.
organized brotherhood. Because fellowship is a source both of joy and
because we can do together what we could never do alone, men are drawn
and joined together in a great fraternity the better to promote the
practice of brotherhood in their own lives and in the life of the
world. Such an
order of men, ancient, universal, beneficent ‒ made up of select men
sworn to help make righteousness prevail ‒ is a prophecy of that
spirit, that tendency,
that tie which at last
Shall bind each heart and nation
In one grand brotherhood of men
And one high consecration.
is an honor and an ornament to the Craft. It does the work of the Good
taking care of the widow, the orphan, the aged and infirm with a
beautiful as it is gracious. Besides, in ways innumerable and
untraceable the spirit
of Masonry mitigates the hard lot of many outside the order. Only the
art of an
angel could record the ways in which Masons help one another, showing a
truly practical in sickness and in difficulty. Wrought in secret, under
Masonic silence, only a tiny part of this untiring ministry is known to
‒ and that is as it should be.
the thieves who robbed the man on the road to Jericho escaped. Nothing
more is said
about them in the parable. No doubt they robbed other travelers. Here
is one of
the dark problems of the world, weaving a shadowy fringe on the borders
society. The Good Samaritan did not remove the cause of the misery he
heal. He could not do it alone. Hence the necessity of organized
together we may clean out the den of thieves, and make the highways of
safe for all who travel on lawful avocations. The State, in any great
of it, is an organized brotherhood, and Masonry labors unceasingly to
that idea. An unworthy citizen cannot be a good Mason.
organized patriotism. Neither a political party nor a religious sect,
it none the
less stands for just laws and the spirit of loyalty and co-operation
the state cannot be stable and effective. Patriotism is the translation
faith and individual righteousness into terms of public virtue and
Nothing less than this is worthy of the name. The crying need of today
is to extend
the spirit and principles of Masonry to the whole life and transactions
‒ and this must begin by extending them to all the transactions of
Masons. The failure
to do this accounts for the deficit between private morality and public
Men as a group, as a party, as a corporation will do what not one of
do as an individual. The responsibility is distributed until it
so we have a public and corporate life which is a reproach to the
character of the
community. When we are truly patriotic this will not be so.
brotherhood, if it has any meaning at all, means that all men,
regardless of race,
rank, or creed, shall have an opportunity to live and to live well ‒
that even the
humblest child, to the measure of its capacity, shall be admitted to
the full inheritance
of humanity. It will not merely be friendly to, but will help forward
effort in behalf of a full, free, happy, useful life for all classes,
and will seek
to organize civilization to that end. Masonry, in its organized
capacity, may not
formulate or support definite political and social programs; but it
and cultivate in its members the will and the passion to be champions
of every cause
which endeavors intelligently to build a better human order.
Applied Brotherhood -- [A Poem]
We are all blind until we see
That in the human plan
Nothing is worth the making if
It does not make the man.
Why build these cities glorious
If man unbuilded goes?
In vain we build the work unless
The builder also grows.
That is to
say, Masonry is the application of noble ideas to practical life. If it
in fine emotion or eloquent sentiment, it fails. Ideas do not work
automatically. Some seem to think that all we have to do is to throw a
into the world, and then by virtue of some magic power that truth
will begin to work and bear fruit of its own accord. It is not so.
There must be
soil for the seed, and hard work in its cultivation. Ideas by
themselves are ghosts
until they are incarnated in men, and the men are organized for the
service of the
are simple enough, but their application is complex and difficult. For
many men today ‒ men who are in no sense Socialists ‒ refuse to accept
industrial order as final. It makes money, but it mutilates humanity.
it may be a triumph, but humanly it is sadly imperfect, and its
injustice is only
equalled by its ugliness. We cannot see the next step, but there must
be a way to
bring back beauty and joy into the work of the world, which is now so
often a drudgery
and a grind. Ruskin was right when he said that life without industry
is sin, and
industry without beauty is brutality. He was also right when he wrote:
no wealth but life ‒ life, including all its powers of love, of joy, of
That country is richest which nourishes the greatest number of noble
and happy human
beings; that man is richest who, having perfected the functions of his
to the utmost, has also the widest influence, both personal, and by
means of his
possessions, over the lover of others.”
Operative Brethren came nearer solving these vexing questions than any
one has ever
come since. They worked as a fraternity; they had joy in their work,
and saw spiritual
meaning in it. Labor was a joy to them because it was constructive, and
they never lost the human touch ‒ which is the saddest tragedy of
Their labor was communal. Each man worked as a brother in a community,
not as a
cog in a machine. It was mixed with friendliness, comradeship, and
regarded their ingenuity ‒ both as artists and as artisans ‒ as a form
inspiration, a holy and consecrated skill, for which they gave thanks
as a community
on Whit-Sunday. The Master was not a Foreman or an Overseer; he was a
friend, a teacher.
industry is not the better for the loss of this spirit of reverence and
‒ brotherly leadership and communal responsibility ‒ which
distinguished the fraternity
of Operative Freemasonry. Today Master and Man are far apart. They have
contact. Social welfare work in factories is too much like a sop to the
‒ too much like a form of charity. Men go to their work as if driven,
joy in it, shirking it as much as possible. Our ancient Brethren never
getting all they could for as little work as possible. The whole idea
of using men
to make money, instead of using money to make men, is foreign to the
history of Masonry. No Mason was regarded as a “hand”; he was a fellow,
‒ not an animated tool but a human being. There is no hope of peace in
world until this spirit of humanity and fraternity is recovered ‒
status of labor, and also its high obligation. Masonry did it once;
help to do it again
an international fraternity. Its members are prepared to travel in
and work and receive the wages of a Master Mason. Each is enjoined to
be loyal to
his own country, without hatred of other lands ‒ knowing that other men
countries as he loves his. In all the teaching of Masonry there is a
of the human race as a family, a brotherhood ‒ a sense of the fact that
of humanity as a whole does actually exist ‒ and that is the one thing
The world is perishing for lack of Brotherhood, and though we have the
on our lips, it has not yet found its way into our hearts and hands.
Does it make you mad when you
Some poor, starved devil who flickered out,
Because he had never a decent chance
In the tangled meshes of circumstance?
If it makes you burn like the fires of sin,
Brother, you are fit for the ranks ‒ fall in!
Does it make you rage when you come to learn
Of a clean-souled women who could not earn
Enough to live, and who fought, but fell
In the cruel struggle and went to hell?
Does it make you seethe with an anger hot?
Brother we welcome you ‒ share our lot!
Whoever has blood that will flood his face
At the sight of Beast in the holy place;
Whoever has rage for the tyrant's might,
For the powers that prey in the day and night,
Whoever has hate for the ravening Brute
That strips the tree of its goodly fruit;
Whoever knows wrath at the sight of pain,
Of needless sorrow and heedless gain;
Whoever knows bitterness, shame and gall
At thought of the trampled ones doomed to fall;
He is a brother-in-soul, we know;
With brain afire and with soul aglow;
By the sight of his eyes we sense our kin ‒
Brother, you battle with us ‒ fall in!
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
tendency among men is to think in terms of their own calling. We recall
a time when
we were engaged in the vocation of mining. It was at an early period of
but we remember very distinctly that all things of import were in some
with reference to our own vocation. One felt that the importance of
mining was primary
in character. If men should cease to go down into the depths of the
earth and bring
forth coal, commerce would stop and households would perish. There
some recognition at times that the farmers were indispensable, but the
of complexity of civilization and a genuine dependence on coal of all
in civilization, gave us a sense of our immeasurable importance. We
think that this,
probably, was something of the emotion that possessed those engaged in
Steel industry when the strike was being carried on a little over a
year ago. Had
success come to the strikers, the country for a while would be thinking
in terms of Steel.
to our desk some time ago two or three books dealing with Steel. The
to interpret it, and the steel worker, a name much maligned by the
(justly or unjustly, it is not ours at this time to say), Em. Z.
Foster, told of
the struggle about Steel, and then a group of Churchmen, of whose
uprightness there is no question in the minds of any, sought to
indicate to the
people of the country the tragedy of Steel. To the first, of course,
the poems of
Strandberg, which in a subtle way incorporate both the struggle and the
will probably belong the credit, ultimately, of arousing the
consciences of men
to things nefarious in the industry, and what we may conveniently
designate at this
time as un-American.
We are not
unmindful at this juncture of a certain eastern minister, a man whom,
we have been
assured, can neither be bought nor bribed, resenting the criticisms and
of the commission of his fellow ecclesiastics, entered the ring of
conflict like some medieval gladiator, in defense of those practices of
corporations that governed steel whose privileges and prerogatives he
being unrighteously and unjustly assailed.
As our interests
here, however, are in books, and our chief anxiety is to have the
people at large
judge rightly on the question affecting in so marked a way the
happiness and prosperity
of the American people, we are but anxious to draw the attention of
to these publications, believing in that fair-mindedness that has
the fraternity that will enable its members to pronounce a just verdict
that will be consistently American and for the promotion of happiness
Our interest centering in such a specific way upon a program which we
designate as Americanization, we feel urged to say that in brief these
out that the major portion of those engaged in the steel industry, of
anxious to become Americans, cannot become so, under the conditions and
imposed upon them in the steel industry. Only a fair consideration of
will assure us of the justice of such a conclusion. That we might not
of partiality or prejudice, and that we might vindicate our position of
to have all Masons acquaint themselves with the vital problems whose
weal or woe for America, we but urge that these works be read and
a true, impartial, and Masonic spirit.
are: “Report on the Steel Strike of 1919,” (Inter-church Commission of
“Smoke and Steel,” [Lib 1920] and “The Great Steel Strike.”
* * *
genius and prolific powers of writings of H. G. Wells are again amply
to in his “Outline of History,” [Lib 1922] published by the Macmillan
66 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y., ($10.00). One wonders indeed how it
to undertake such a task in the face of the wide and searching reading
to produce such a work, especially when we consider the yearly output
of one kind or another that generates in the fertile brain of England's
novelist. That the “Outline of History” is infinitely more than a
of which the average educated man may be capable through his knowledge
is clearly shown by a perusal of the names of the collaborators of
Wells in his
marvelous achievement. Connected with his own name and revealed
throughout the book
as keen critics and admiring helpers are some of the leading
etc., of Great (?).
that to have written such a work, having its genesis in the misty dawn
find their field for speculation, and coming down through those
departments of life
of interest to the geologist, biologist, and archaeologist, even down
to the present,
climaxing with the Great War, Wells must have exhausted all sources of
which were of pertinent value in the writing of the “Outline.”
Not a little
of its charm is contained in its Wellsian phraseology, his brilliancy
being everywhere apparent. We feel that it is timely, bringing hope to
world through the revelation that progress is certain and sure, even
though it is
slow in development. Whatever cataclysmic disasters have befallen the
men in the attempt to mold the world, arising out of the ruins of the
has ever emerged the enthusiastic effort to renew and rebuild. War is
the fateful fallacy, and nowhere is this better emphasized than in the
of the ancient civilization of the island of Crete, where for a
thousand years because
of a general peace, the arts and all things conducive to human
to have flourished.
on closing these volumes, what Wells will attempt next; whether his
will prove to be as great as his capacity for accurate retrospection.
probably be proven when he writes a book that will be prophetic in its
it is deducted from the observances of his “Outline of History.”
* * *
We have just
had the pleasure of reading what is probably the most talked of novel
of the season
‒ ”Main Street,” by Sinclair Lewis. [Lib 1920] Our first pronouncement upon
book would be that it was a condition and not a place. Saying such
would be analogous
to the conception of Heaven that prevails in most minds today, but to
comparison is to at once realize that “Main Street,” as a condition, is
cognizable than Heaven. We venture to assert that no more daring
mediocrity in life has ever been made. It is so pertinently realistic
that one senses
it immediately as a delineation of those circumstances, conditions and
which the majority of us are most familiar.
western town, with its characters that have so much to do about
nothing, is but
a microscopic portrait of the whole United States. The rare soul, ever
power in the transformation of things from a condition of dull
mediocrity to an
advanced step of living, fighting against malignant forces disguised in
of respectability, is admirably portrayed here. The price of her
protest is sensed
in her defeat. “Main Street” does not become transformed from a place
of petty selfishness
and arbitrary notions to one of freedom and utmost good will toward
all, in a day,
but the hope that is perennial is that the Carol Kennicotts, with their
agitation, do succeed in lifting things a little higher and pushing
things a little
forward. The manner in which this is accomplished is probably best
the book where she leads her husband to look at the sleeping babes in
and says to him, “Do you see that object on the pillow? Do you know
what it is?
It is a bomb to blow up smugness. If you Tories were wise you wouldn't
you would arrest all these children while they're asleep in their
cribs. What that
baby will see and meddle with before she dies in the year 2000! She may
see an industrial
union of the world, she may see aeroplanes going to Mars.”
indeed, is not only a study but a challenge.
“Potterism.” [Lib 1920] Our first characterization
would be that it
was the English “Main Street.” Such is true as far as its analytical
phase is concerned,
but whereas “Main Street” is microscopic, we would feel like
as telescopic. We sense in it a very sane arraignment of the most
of our everyday life. Its description of the chaotic thinking of the
day is accentuated
as the author makes manifest the cause of such muddle-headed confusion.
little room left for believing anything but that we are all
representative of some
phase of Potterism, and that the genius whose sanity and respect for
truth and fact
is his greatest characteristic is a rare specimen in our midst and,
like the hero
of Potterism, he is likely to be killed.
It is a splendid
thing to be revealed just as we are, especially when what we are is but
of possibilities for further deterioration in matters of taste, ideals,
of living, for thereby desires might be created within that will crave
We sometimes feel that we are having more than our fill of the
literature that is
dubbed realistic, but of books of this character of which these days
there are a
multitude, there are books to some purpose and those that are utterly
that reveal but snobbery at work seeking the distasteful to exploit it,
erstwhile caters to the most base and vain in man.
in Potterism related by Arthur Gideon we feel to be worthy of second
is clear, erudite, and serviceable. The selfishness, greed, and love of
so alluring to the mass is here noted and understood in all its
the cheapness of life that is such a major quantity is the result of
the great convulsive
change in the world conditions one can hardly question.
book may in some measure be a ministrant to the regaining of right
concepts of living
and proper values is devoutly to be wished, and those critics whose
word is worth
hearing have spoken in some measure in regard to it. Delightfully
interesting, one is carried along catching the variety of viewpoints
and finally left in a frame of mind that ought to warrant better
things, if sufficient
numbers read the book.
* * *
has made a very subtle analysis of what is probably the most compelling
before the American people in her book, “Immigration and The Future.”
[Lib 1920] The clear-cut apprehension of
nature of the problem is at once ascertained when the author
what is the grave concern of both Europe and America. Here in America
is of amalgamation and assimilation of the various nationals that come
to our shores,
and Europe reveals her keen interest in preserving national unity and
A thoughtful presentation of the view taken by Europe of America is
given in a very
convincing way. Europe's concern will be in no small degree an effort
her hold upon those immigrants of their respective countries who come
to these shores,
if for no other reason than in some great emergency they may be found
to speak a
good word for them. An appreciation of this viewpoint will be
accentuated by recalling
the effort of Germany and her conception of dual citizenship. In plain
effort of foreign countries will be to keep those who come to these
in vital relationship to them. To continue such relationship will be to
the racial and national difficulties of Europe in this country, and the
of the war, brought about with those whose racial and national
not admit of them sensing the American viewpoint as readily as we
that the American policy shall be one of a severance of relationships
on the part
of the immigrant to old lands from which he came, and demand that he
to the assimilation process whereby he becomes Americanized.
advantages, and necessities relative to this problem the author has
The analysis clearly distinguishes the romantic aspect that largely
immigration in the past and the economic considerations that are to
in the future. Indeed, immigration is to be thrashed out purely on an
list of names cited by the author as advisers, and those whose
in the problem reveals their utmost concern for America's future? is a
one and comprises men from all walks of public life in America.
At this moment
of severe agitation regarding the immigrant problem the book will be a
instrument in the hands of all who are endeavoring to shape the
movement from a wise and sane basis.
further the character of the work and in order that our readers may
or not they need this book on their shelves we are appending an epitome
of the work
as it is presented by the publishers:
Labor wants immigration suspended for a period of years. American
expansion that requires immigration. American Public Opinion is for
Europe wants to control its nationals wherever they are.
the questions America must answer in its future policy:
essential to the economic development of this country?
a necessary asylum for the foreign-born?
troubles of Europe be solved in America?
savings be spent in America?
become a one-language country?
be done with the foreign-language press?
citizenship be compulsory?
be dealt with abroad?
the answer? ‒ Race Assimilation or Race Separation?”
For our part
we deem it indeed a most timely and indispensable work.
It is published
by the George H. Doran Company, 38 West 32nd St., New York, N. Y., and
may be had
at all first-class bookstores.
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and
fraternal discussion. Each of its contributors
writes under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions.
a unity of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research
as such, does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over
but offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction,
leaving each to
stand or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
“Bulletin Course of Masonic Study.” When requested, questions will be
by mail before publication in this department.
The Papal Warning Against
Non-Roman Catholic Organizations
number of requests have been received from our reader's for a full
the text of the warning against non-Roman Catholic organizations issued
by the Pope
of Rome through the Papal Secretary, Cardinal Merry Del Val, November
perusal of the secular press, supplemented by an examination of a
number of the
leading Roman Catholic journals, has thus far failed to uncover a
but we reprint herewith, in answer to our numerous inquirers, a textual
of the warning, which appeared in the Christian Science Monitor of
eminent and reverend cardinals who are, like the writer whose name is
inquisitors general in matters of faith and morals, desire that the
pay vigilant attention to the manner in which certain new non-(Roman)
by the aid of their members of every nationality, have been accustomed
now for some
time to lay dangerous snares for the faithful, especially the young
in abundance facilities of every kind which apparently aim only at
and intellectual and moral training, but in point of fact corrupt be
the (Roman) Catholic faith and snatch away children from the church,
enjoy favor, have at their disposal material resources and the zeal of
people, and render distinguished services in the different fields of
it is not surprising, then, that they impose on inexperienced people
who have not
made a close examination of these works.
"Intellectual and Moral
But no thoughtful
person can have any doubt of their real spirit; for if up to the
present they have
allowed people only gradually to obtain glimpses of the end whither
they tend, they
proclaim it today in the brochures, newspapers and periodicals which
are the organs
of their propaganda.
they state, is to insure by good methods the intellectual and moral
culture of the
young; and making this culture their religion, they define it as full
liberty of thought outside and independently of every religion or deity
On the presence of bringing light to young folk, they turn them away
from the teaching
of the church established by God, the light of truth, and incite them
to seek severally
from their own consciences and within the narrow circuit of human
reason the light
which should guide them. The principal victims of these snares are
of both sexes. These young boys and young girls who need the help of
others to learn
the Christian doctrine and to preserve the faith inherited from their
under the influence of people who despoil them of this precious
patrimony and lead
them insensibly today to hesitate between contrary opinions, tomorrow
to doubt all
things whatsoever, and in the end to embrace a sort of vague and
which has absolutely nothing in common with the religion preached by
Credit Given For Beneficent
cause much more considerable ravages in the souls ‒ would to God that
less numerous ‒ who, owing to the negligence or ignorance of parents,
have not received
at the domestic hearth that early instruction in the faith which is a
necessity for the Christian.
of the use of the sacraments and excluded from every religious
to regard the most sacred things only with the most complete
independence of judgments
these souls thus fall miserably into what is called religious
has been condemned by the church on numerous occasions, and which
implies the negation
of all religion.
sees these Christians in their bloom, on a road where they have no
in the darkness and torture of doubt; to make shipwreck of the faith;
is it not
enough to refuse the mind's adhesion even to a single dogma?
It will happen,
perhaps, that one may chance to hear from the lips of these young folk
and may find in their hearts some dying shadow of piety, or even that
more than ordinary ardor in their devotion to works of beneficence;
this may be
taken as the effect of a long habit, or of a more gentle temperament,
or of a more
sympathetic heart, or, in a word, of an entirely human and natural
of itself is devoid of all value in regard to eternal life.
Y.M.C.A. Is Named
societies it will suffice to mention that which, having given birth to
is the most widespread (by reason especially of the important services
rendered to a large number of unhappy people in the course of the
and disposes of the most considerable resources; we mean the society
Young Men's Christian Association and in abbreviation form the Y.M.C.A.
Catholics of good faith give it their support inadvertently,
considering it an organization
of advantage to all, or, at least, inoffensive to every one, and it is
by certain (Roman) Catholics who are too confident, and are ignorant of
is in reality; for this society professes a sincere love of young folk,
as if nothing
was dearer to it than the promotion of their corporal and spiritual
at the same time it shakes their faith, since, by its own confession,
to purify it and to impart a more perfect knowledge of real life by
"above every church and outside every religious denomination." ("What
the Y.M.C.A. Is and What It Proposes," brochure published at the
can be expected from those who, banishing from their hearts the last
their faith, go far from the cradle of Jesus Christ, where they enjoyed
and rest, to wander at the instigation of their passions and of their
New Zeal Implored
all of you who have received from Heaven the special mandate to govern
of the Master are implored by this congregation to employ all your zeal
young folk from the contagion of every society of this kind, whose good
in the name of Christ, endanger the most precious gift that the grace
has given them.
Put the imprudent
on their guard and strengthen the souls of those whose faith is
with the Christian spirit and courage the organizations of the young of
existing in your dioceses, and establish others like them; to provide
with the means of counteracting the conduct of their adversaries,
appeal to the
generosity of the more well-to-do Roman Catholics.
parish priests and directors of organizations for the young to fulfil
bravely, and particularly by the diffusion of books and pamphlets, so
as to raise
up barriers against the encroaching waves of error, to expose the
tricks and snares
of the enemy, and to give efficacious aid to the defenders of the truth.
It will be
your duty, then, at the regional meetings of Bishops to treat this
with the attention it merits and, after deliberation, to come to the
will appear practically suitable.
In this connection
the Sacred Congregation asks that in each region an official act of the
declare duly forbidden all the dally organs, periodicals, and other
of these societies of which the pernicious character is manifest, and
profusely distributed with a view to sowing in the souls of Roman
errors of rationalism and religious indifferentism.
Here a note
calls attention to Fide e Vita (Faith and Life), a monthly review of
the organ of the Italian Federation of Students for Religious Culture,
to Bilychnis, a monthly review of religious studies, Rome, and Il
Testimony), a monthly review of the Baptist Churches, Rome.
are charged with the duty of making known to the Holy See, within six
resolutions and decisions occasioned by the situation of each diocese.
the Palace of the Holy Office, Rome, on the 5th November, 1920.
R. CARD. MERRY DEL VAL, Secretary.
* * *
The Knights of Columbus
Memorial Offer to the American Legion
have reached us of late for full information concerning the Knights of
proposition to turn over to the American Legion the sum of $5,000,000
from the former's
“War Fund.” The following press reports give the status of the matter
at the time
we go to press with this number of THE Editor.
Knights of Columbus Memorial
Due to the
interest which is being manifested in the proposal of the Knights of
appropriate out of its war fund moneys the sum of $5,000,000, to be
used in the
construction and equipment of a building in Washington for the American
the terms of this offer, now under consideration by the National
of the Legion, are hereby published in full. They are as follows:
The K. of
C. propose and offer to appropriate the sum of $5,000,000 of its War
to and for the following uses and purposes:
million dollars, or as much thereof as may be necessary (any surplus
the principal of the Endowment Fund hereinafter referred to), to be
used to erect,
furnish, and equip a building in Washington, D. C., to be known as The
Legion National Memorial and to become upon completion the property of
Legion subject to the conditions and purposes hereinafter expressed.
is to be erected on a plot of land to be secured by The American
by Act of Congress devoting some public land in Washington for this
is to be devoted as far as possible to patriotic uses and the public
under the control of The American Legion shall be to serve as a
memorial to those
who have given their lives in the service of the nation at war; to
serve as an evidence
of the people's gratitude to those who enlisted but happily survive
to serve as an incentive to the coming generation to serve their
and bravely when war may come in the future.
Auditorium and Headquarters
provide for an auditorium to accommodate 10,000 or more people and
for gatherings of the public ‒ all free, if possible; if not, at the
commensurate with maintenance and upkeep. It shall provide free
the business and affairs of The American Legion and appropriate space
for the Spanish
War Veterans, the United Confederate Veterans, the Veterans of Foreign
Grand Army of the Republic, and a room for the Knights of Columbus;
for such other bodies devoted to similar purposes as may from time to
time be determined.
to be erected, furnished and equipped by a committee consisting of
to be designated by the Knights of Columbus; three members to be
designated by the
American Legion; and the Secretary of War, for the time being, if he
otherwise, by the Superintendent of State, War and Navy Buildings, if
he will accept;
otherwise, by such person, preferably a public official, as the
President of the
United States shall designate. The architects shall be Magenis
& Walsh, of Boston,
million dollars of said five million shall be set aside and known as
Legion National Memorial Endowment, to be held by a Board of Trustees,
powers to manage, to invest and reinvest said fund and consisting of
the head of
The American Legion, for the time being; the head of the Knights of
the time being; and the Secretary of the Treasury for the time being,
if he will
accept; otherwise, by such person, preferably a public official, as the
named shall designate. In case of vacancy the body represented shall
have the right
to fill, and a vacancy in the third place mentioned shall be filled by
the two remaining
Building and Funds to Revert
from this fund shall be devoted to the upkeep, lighting, heating, and
the building as in the discretion of said trustees seem best.
hereinabove designated and the trustees shall serve without
expenses shall be paid from the building fund and from the income of
In case The
American Legion shall cease to exist, then and in such event the title
to said building
and land shall revert to the nation for such purposes as the United
shall determine, and the Endowment Fund shall revert to the Knights of
to be subject to the same trust as the War Fund from which it is taken.
Capital News Service. Washimrton. D.C.
* * *
Legion Rejects Memorial
D.C., Feb. 8, 1921. ‒ The American Legion decided last night that,
while it could
not accept “in its present form” the offer of $5,000,000 from the
Knights of Columbus
for the construction of a war memorial in Washington, it would accept
if certain revisions in it were made.
committee announced the appointment of a special committee to confer
of Columbus officials to ascertain whether that organization is
“willing to revise
the offer so as to tender the fund unconditionally.”
of Columbus offer was made with provision for a building committee with
each to be appointed by that organization and the American Legion and
one by the
Secretary of War, and also for three trustees to administer the
of approximately one million dollars each organization to name one
trustee and the
Secretary of War the third.
the committee explained that there was no objection to the nature of
but that it was thought best to accept the offer only if made
were named on the committee to confer with the Knights of Columbus:
John J. Wicker,
Jr., Richmond, Va.; John G. Emery, Grand Rapids, and T. Semmes
Walmsley, New Orleans.
the proposal at a session which lasted until midnight, the executive
the legion, which convened here today for a three day meeting, issued a
in which it said:
the offer to the Knights of Columbus to donate $5,000,000 to the
for the erection and maintenance of a national memorial building in
the national executive committee of the American Legion decided that it
best to accept the offer in its present form.
committee is to be appointed by the national commander to confer with
Columbus to ascertain whether the Knights of Columbus are willing to
offer so as to tender the fund unconditionally. It was decided that if
is made the offer will be accepted.”
Capital News Service, Washington, D.C.
* * *
made in THE BUILDER several months ago of Jeremy Cross, to whom is
authorship of the lecture on the “Broken Column.” Since I do not have
any reference works on Masonry except my copies of THE BUILDER and can
about the life and activities of Cross in them, will you please give me
along this line?
F. H. K., Oregon.
Cross was a pupil of Thomas Smith Webb, who was practically the founder
of our American
system of Freemasonry, and who was Grand Master in Rhode Island in
1813. Cross was
born in Haverhill, New Hampshire, June 27, 1783, and died there in
1861. He was
made a Mason in 1808.
modifications of the lectures of Preston became generally accepted
United States, and Cross, who had become highly proficient as a pupil,
extensively and taught the work in several States. Webb having borrowed
from the works of Preston, Cross did the same from Webb and published
in 1819 “The
True Masonic Chart or Hieroglyphic Monitor.” [Lib 1826] In this work he published a
of engravings of the different emblems of Masonry as memory aids which
the work that it almost superseded the monitor compiled by Webb. Cross
a Knight Templar monitor.
says that Cross received the appointment of Grand Lecturer from many
and traveled for many years extensively through the United States
teaching his system
in lodges and other Masonic bodies.
later years he made an effort to establish a Supreme Council of the
Accepted Scottish Bite. His efforts along this line proved unsuccessful
and he shortly
thereafter retired to private life. He died at the age of seventy-eight.
* * *
Masonic Membership Statistics
kindly give me the statistics on the Masonic membership of the United
the English-speaking nations throughout the world?
W. B. F., Montana.
are difficult of exact compilation for the reason that the fiscal years
of the several
Grand Lodges vary. We give herewith, however, the figures for 1919 and
1920 as nearly
as it has been possible to compute them. This information has been
Brother Robert I. Clegg, one of the Board of Editors of THE BUILDER,
and just published
by him in the “Masonic Year Book” of the Masonic History Company:
reports of the Grand Jurisdiction in continental and insular America
for 1919 show
that at the end of the fiscal year there were 2,086,808 members in
Grand Lodge is that of New York, which then had jurisdiction over 872
a membership roll of 202,777; while the smallest is Nevada, with 22
lodges and a
membership of 2,078.
Kingdom comes second, with an aggregate of 5,130 lodges and a total
327,764; England contributing 3,442 lodges with 240,000 members;
lodges with 69,745 members; Ireland 530 lodges with 18,000 members.
seven Grand Lodges, with 1,025 private lodges and a membership register
while Canada has nine Grand Lodges, 1,057 private lodges and 118,112
figures were compiled by Brother C. C. Hunt, Deputy Grand Secretary of
Lodge of Iowa, and he has very kindly brought them up to date for us as
the United States. His revision follows:
of the Masonic fraternity in the United States, 2,246,724, furnished by
Secretary of each jurisdiction, from the last figures obtainable from
them, in December,
in a recent number of THE BUILDER contains an inquiry from Bro. Jeme M.
San Francisco, for “Masonic plays.” On the same page there is an
by Bro. Dudley Wright concerning the Knights of St. John. The proximity
two items is, doubtless, accidental; but there is, nevertheless, a
them. The history and symbolism of the Knights of St. John figure in
more than one
brand of Masonry; e. g. in the Commandery as the “Knights of Malta” and
in the Constantinian
Orders as the third and highest of the ordinary grades.
Syrian sect known as the Druses has also a certain connection with
25d of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, at least as worked in
jurisdiction, is based upon its history and symbolism.
Now it happens
that Robert Browning left us a five-act play entitled “The Return of
[Lib 1898] in which not only that
peculiar sect but the
Knights of St. John (of Rhodes) form the characters.
is laid in the fifteenth century on an island of the southern Sporades,
in the Aegean
sea, which had been colonized by Druses from Lebanon but was ruled by
of St. John from Rhodes through a Prefect. The particular prefect in
to the time of the play seems to have ruled harshly and to have
incurred the hostility
of the Druses, one of whom ‒ an initiate ‒ is made to say:
“I know our Nation's state? Too
As thou, who speak'st to prove met Wrongs like ours
Should Rake revenge: but when I sought the wronged
And speke, 'The Prefect stabbed your son ‒ arise!
Your daughter, while you starve, eats shameless bread
In his pavilion ‒ then arise,' my speech
Fell idly ‒ 'twas, 'Be silent, or worse fare.
Endure, till time's slow cycle prove complete.
Who may'st thou be that takest on thee to thrust
Into this peril ‒ art thou Hakeem ? ' “
it remembered, was the Druse Khalif or prophet who, some three
had disappeared (the Druses do not believe that he died) and whose
is one of the articles of the Druse faith.
initiate of the isle was Djabal who sought to rouse his people against
and lead them back to Mt. Lebanon and who took advantage of the popular
declaring himself Hakeem and announcing that he would presently be
the old Prefect having died
“The Knights at last throw off
the mask ‒ transfer,
As tributary now, and appanage,
This islet they are but protectors of,
To their own ever-craving lord, the Church,
Which licenses all crimes that pay it thus ‒
You, from their Prefect, were to be consigned
Pursuant to I know not what vile pact,
To the Knights' Patriach, ardent to outvie
His predecessor in all wickedness;
The pact of villany complete, there comes
This Patriach's Nuncio with this Master's Prefect
Their treason to consummate.”
arrival, which was to have been the signal for the Druse uprising, the
to persuade them of Djabal's imposture:
“What say ye does this wizard
Hakeem? Biamrallah? The third Fatemite?
What is this jargon? He ‒ the insane Khalif,
Dead near three hundred years ago, come back
In flesh and blood again?”
himself betrayed by a young Druse girl with whom he is in love but who,
at his reproaches, and believing him to be indeed Hakeem, falls dead
In sore distress Djabal tells the Druses:
“We shall henceforth be far
Out of mere mortal ken ‒ above the Cedars ‒
But we shall see ye go, hear ye return,
Repeopling the old solitudes, ‒ thro' thee,
My Khalil. Ye take
This Khalil for my delegate? To him
Bow as to me? He leads to Lebanon ‒
And as the curtain falls he states himself and cries
“On to the Mountain. At the Mountain, Druses.”
is full of dramatic episodes and stirring passages and provides a
for the best histrionic talent of our craft. It leads, too, into many
though half-forgotten by-paths of history, and appropriate scenery
might be found
by reproducing views of the Hospital of the Knights of St. John at
famous building, erected about the time covered by the play, has
recently been restored
by the Italian administration of Rhodes and converted into a museum of
has been said that none other “in the Near East can vaunt a residence
of such monumental
and historic value.”
we have a play which, if not strictly Masonic, deals with subjects of
to Masons and leads to a deeper study of the origins and ramifications
of our world-wide
Charles S. Lobingier, China
* * *
The International Language
as are the enterprises of the yeoman Catholic Church and of our ancient
is one feature wherein we Freemasons are fettered. The Church of Rome
has long encouraged
and required a common means of intercommunication between the
congregations of all
countries. Latin is the language employed for this purpose. We need not
the ecclesiastical dialect that is used by papal authority nor its
the worshipper in his devotions; these are matters of some importance
but we may
put them aside for the present. Suffice it to say that the Roman
has by universal choice of Latin enabled its priests and the executive
of all ranks and of all nationalities to have an intercourse that has
done much for uniformity of practice and the avoidance of
much we as Freemasons have lost by lack of the very same benefits, only
us may infer who seek to be informed of the work of the Fraternity the
reasons the several attempts at an international language have been
sympathetic interest in the hope that out of them there would arise a
means of reaching hands over the seas and the quicker gaining a
knowledge of the
status and aims of brethren abroad.
At the various
international language congresses attempts have been made to assemble
in attendance. Such was the case at the one held at the Hague last
fall. An English
brother learning of my desire to know what might have been
accomplished, was good
enough to bring me into correspondence with the presiding officer of
organized at the Hague. Synopsis of the business done there has been
me together with an announcement from the Secretary. These have been
and they are submitted herewith:
Universal League of Freemasons
of the report of the Convention of Esperantist Freemasons at The Hague
on the occasion
of the Twelfth Universal Esperanto Congress.
present at this convention thirteen Freemasons, male and female, from
and Scotland. Freemasons from Spain, Italy and France, although
registered for the
Hague Congress of Esperantists were not able to come to Holland.
was Brother Paul Blaise, of the Lodge Albert of Belgium, London.
of the day (program of procedure) was to reestablish the Universal
League of Freemasons.
was made that the Universal League of Freemasons be a League for the
spread of Esperanto
the question of who would be able to join the League, the President
said “We will
be as far as possible broadminded in the matter.”
the first proposition they unanimously accepted the following
of the various nations, convened at The Hague, on the occasion of the
Congress of Esperantists, express the desire that the Universal League
be re-established with the object of studying the best means of
spreading our language
among the Freemasons of all countries.”
the second proposition they decided to accept as members all
Freemasons, male or
female, of whatsoever Grand Orient, Grand Lodge, or Order, he or she
various causes, the conference was of opinion that it would be best
that the executive
officers should have the headquarters in a neutral country. All were of
opinion and Holland was selected as the headquarters home.
they elected Brother Dreves Uitterdyk, Hilversum (Grand Orient of
as Secretary Brother F. Foulhaber, Borgerstrant 103, Amsterdam (Lodge
II, No. 93, Universal Co-Masonry”).
inspiring address from the President, Brother Blaise, to zealously
language in the Lodges, in order that we should have a great and more
at Prague, the meeting was closed.
adds the following communication.)
Brethren and Sisters:
Here is a
resume of the report of our first after-the-war convention. Our League,
yet is found in a chaotic condition. As regards many of its former
members we do
not know whether they are living. This announcement is just to take
reunite the broken up fraternal organization in order that we may
for “our holy cause.”
to the needs of our International Language in an Order as important as
we ought not to have unlike opinions. The Masonic Fraternity throughout
world fain would have it. The Institution where we are missionaries,
asks for it.
Many other important organizations already very well understand its
turn it to account. We, as bearers of the new culture, should not
linger in the
rear ranks. Our duty is to go in the front of the civilizing agencies
and to show
mankind its ideal and for that ideal point the way.
of our labor is great and ought to be systematically cultivated. As
unity is the
requisite for harmonious cooperation, the headquarters advises you to
act as follows:
1. Make a translation of the above
report and write an article about our language
and get it printed in the Freemasons journal of your country.
2. Subscribe to the “Bulletin,”
the official organ of the International Bureau
of Masonic Affairs. (Five Francs, yearly). The editor, Brother
has promised to us a page dedicated to Esperanto. In that page will
appear all information
relating to our League.
3. Have your address printed with
the addition of the word “Esperantisto” in
the Masonic Year-Book issued from the same office (Rue Beaux Arto 26,
4. Send all news concerning
Esperanto in Freemasonry to the Secretary of the
Universal League of Freemasons, also the issues of your Masonic
publication in which
appear articles about Esperanto.
5. Let it be known when your Grand
Lodge or Grand Orient will have national
or international conventions in order that we may be able to consider
in what manner
our language may be better advertised during these meetings.
6. Translate the various technical
terms pertaining to our Order and if you
are able the whole ritual of the three first degrees. It is necessary
that we should
have as far as possible and very soon the terms and the whole ritual in
in order that we will be ready when the language shall officially be
Send these to the Secretary so that we may later on compare the
and eventually offer a choice of them.
7. Send as soon as you can your
subscription for 1920. (Fifty Cents). Kindly
forward it by international reply coupons. Following the payment you
your membership card. Seeing that this small sum at the present time
will not suffice,
and since the Treasury is in an empty state, gifts of money will be
8. Buy the very fine pamphlet “The
Liberty of Conscience and World-wide Freemasonry”
(La Libereco de la konscienco kaj In tutmonda Framasonaro), to be
Sinjoro F. Schoofs, Anwerpen Kl. Beerstrant 45, Belgium, (10 centimes).
9. Found a section of the
Universal League of Freemasons if in your neighborhood
there are some Brother Esperantists.
Between the several nationalities Brethren still find this great wall
of tongues, this wall of n thousand years which shall divide them. Help
us to destroy
that wall. The great success of our Twelfth Congress give to us the
Onwards, let each one fulfil the admonition of the Executive Officers
to his strength. If each bears n brick we shall be able to build the
salutations and handclasp.
reading the statements we are impressed by the fact that in the purpose
to be broad
the Committee has gone very far. We for example do not recognize as
organization of which the Secretary is a member. Therefore the project
is very seriously
handicapped at the very start and at headquarters. The reader will also
among the suggestions is the one of translating the rituals. Of course
this is out
of the question for an American Freemason. But the particulars are all
of much importance
to us and we hope that other attempts may bring results in which we
take an active part. This article will at any rate show the necessity
care in correspondence with foreigners claiming to be members of the
Robert I. Clegg, Illinois.
* * *
Haywood's “Vest Pocket History
Committee of the Cincinnati Masonic Library Association, after careful
has recommended that the Library purchase one hundred copies of “A Vest
of Freemasonry,” [Lib*] by H. L. Haywood, and acting upon this
have been authorized to make such purchase.
For a long
time we have been trying to locate some small pamphlet that would cover
of Masonry generally that could be read by the average young man in
less than an
hour, and yet contain enough detail to be interesting enough to carry
through to the end. Most short works have attempted to make the subject
through the use of fiction, or assertions based more on the imagination
of an unreliable
writer than on known facts, and it is a dangerous thing to place a work
kind in the hands of one who is reading his first book on Masonry, and
who, in nine
cases out of ten, will make the first book his last, through one excuse
It is the
beginner you have to coax to read, and it is usually harder to get him
to read the
second book than it was the first, and, I understand, this is true
to me that writers should have these things in mind when writing on the
Masonic subjects today. It certainly would be a big help to librarians
the circulation of books in their libraries, and, in the near future,
be generally the better informed. You cannot create interest in a dry
work of any kind, except in a book-worm, and there are very few
taken into the Masonic fraternity today. With all due respect to the
their membership, most of them are book-shy.
has carried out well the idea we have had for some time, and if I had
to offer, it would be that he should keep in mind the fact that a great
who should, at least, read the work, are men who for the first time are
of the persons, creeds, sects, times and places mentioned by him, when
these in his essay, and that particular care should be taken that
are added, wherever these appear, that the reader may not become
he is a little weak on history or literature. In almost every instance
seems to have had this in mind, and I felt that I wanted you to know
of his and the Research Committee's efforts along this line, and we
with interest the future efforts of these people as promised in the
the pamphlet referred to.
I do not
mean to discredit the need of larger and more detailed and
comprehensive works ‒
not at all, for they are necessary adjuncts to the library of any
but I am more concerned with the beginner in Masonry just now.
I might say
that it is our purpose to take up this pamphlet with the Masters of
each of the
lodges in this county, and those across the river in Kentucky, about
fifty in all,
and urge that each Master adopt the policy of presenting this pamphlet
to each Mason
as he is raised, having the lodges get their supply through us, selling
at the exact cost to us.
Bonham, Secretary and Librarian,
The Masonic Library Association, Cincinnati, Ohio.
* * *
Candidate Raised by Father
of Butte, Montana, had a unique experience of witnessing the conferring
of the degrees
in Masonry on the seventh son of one of the members of the fraternity
R. Gieser became a member of Butte Lodge No. 22, A. F. & A. M.,
the work of
all three degrees being conferred during sessions at which all of the
from Worshipful Master to Junior Steward, were filled by the father and
of the candidate. It is a record for Montana for the father and six of
to confer the degrees of Masonry on the seventh son. Another feature of
that was out of the ordinary is that only one of the members of the
has ever held office in a Masonic lodge, although they are all
and all members of Butte Lodge No. 22. George Gieser, Jr., is Senior
Warden of Butte
Lodge No. 22.
Warren E. Coman, Montana.
* * *
The Original Meaning of
Some of Our Symbols
It is a cardinal
principle in treating of Masonic symbols that most of them have been
our modern ritual minus the original explanation of their significance
any explanation at all worthy of the name.
whole treatment of the subject should resolve itself to this:
1. The establishment of this
2. Study of the question in each
case why the true meaning is lost. It is usually
conjectured that the early ritual mongers adopted the symbols not
knowing the meaning
and not caring much. An alternative conjecture, in many cases, is that
significance frightened them. They were very orthodox, very narrow,
and very unscrupulous with the unscrupulousness of highly moral,
3. Especially the study from
countless sources outside of Masonry as to what
Masonic symbols may be conjectured to have originally meant.
assigned in the modern ritual are almost invariably not worth
considering or learning
or passing an examination upon.
most striking illustration of point two is the sun and moon as symbols.
I do not
doubt but that they really meant something to our medieval brethren nor
Presbyterians who had Masonry in their charge in 1717 would have
altered that genuine
significance to the childish explanation of the ritual of today
purposely if they
did not do it ignorantly.
fact that one of the Scottish Rite degrees originally taught the
and that traces thereof can be found therein today. Not for nothing has
been denounced as devil worship. Of course the fire is in ludicrous
to the smoke but it is true here as often that where is much smoke
there is some
the explanation given of one symbol that “it teaches Masons to be
of the arts and sciences.” Can anyone doubt but that is a substitution
for the original
explanation? I believe that to have been almost the most significant of
symbols to the medieval ancestors of modern Masonry.
is suggested by the treatise upon the “Book of Constitutions” contained
in the February
I do not
doubt but that symbol originated in the practice in medieval times of
“book” as the warrant for constituting a new lodge. The treatment of
would consist in getting together all the information available as to
book consisted of and how the book was secured. I do not purpose
treating it but
to show what I mean I refer to that Chapter of Gould's History entitled
almost always in treating of this symbol wander down to the modern
of Grand Lodge. There is no analogy. The modern article which most
the “Book of Constitutions” is the lodge charter. The significance of
guarded by the Tyler's sword is obvious. Past Grand Master Upton
of the “ludicrous idea” that the modern Grand Lodge Constitution
the ancient Book of Constitutions referred to in the ritual.
A. G. Pitts, Michigan.
* * *
We are constantly
receiving inquiries from members of the Society and others as to where
obtain books on Masonry and kindred subjects, other than those listed
on the inside back cover of THE BUILDER. Most of the publications
wanted have been
out of print for a number of years. Believing that many such books
might be in the
hands of other members of the Society willing to dispose of them we are
apart this column of THE BUILDER each month for the use of our readers.
from those having old Masonic publications for disposal will also be
addresses are here given in order that those interested may communicate
By Bro. Elmer
G. Smith, Box 102, Tooele Utah,
“The Cathedral Builders,” by Leader Scott;
“Ancient Charges,” by W. J. Hughan.
By Bro. N.
W. J. Haydon, 564 Pape Ave., Toronto, Ontario, Canada,
a copy of
Da Costa's “Dionysiac Artificers.”
has been trying for years to find a copy of this work, but without
will gladly enter into an arrangement with some more fortunate brother
for the temporary
loan of a copy.
By Bro. T.
J. Fox, 638 East Water St., Princeton, Indiana,
“Mystic Masonry,” by J. D. Buck.
By Mrs. Albert
Clark Stevens, 80 South Clinton St., East Orange, N. J.,
Volumes l to 4 and 15 to 30, inclusive, Universal Masonic Library.
By Bro. H.
M. Jacobs, 10212 64th Ave. South, Seattle, Washington,
“Ahiman Rezon,” Mackey;
of Egyptian Symbols and Hebrew,” by F. Portal;
Account of Genesis, etc.,” by Geo. Smith;
of Solomon,” Open Court Co., Chicago;
of the Jews,” by Ferguson;
Antiquities of the Aryan People,” by Schroeder.
A Poem of Moral Duties
Reg90 / auth. Regius Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1390. - p. 70. -
Bull - Humanum Genus
Pop84 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1884. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 24. - 0.5 MB.
Immigration and the Future
Kel20 / auth. Kellor Frances. - New York : George H Doran Company,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 274. - 11.1 MB.
Lew20 / auth. Lewis Sinclair. - New York : Harcourt, Brace and Company,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 459. - 11.2 MB.
Memoirs of Louis XIV Vol 1
Sai01ML1 / auth. Saint-Simon
Duc de / trans. John
Bayle St. - London : M Walter Dunne, 1901. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 421. -
Memoirs of Louis XIV Vol 2
Sai01ML2 / auth. Saint-Simon
Duc de / trans. John
Bayle St. - London : M Walter Dunne, 1901. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 392. -
Memoirs of Louis XIV Vol 3
Sai01ML3 / auth. Saint-Simon
Duc de / trans. John
Bayle St. - London : M Walter Dunne, 1901. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 436. -
Sul78 / auth. Sullivan Alexander M. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincott,
1878. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 537. - 52.9 MB.
Pietas Mariana Britannica
Wat79 / auth. Waterton Edmund. - London : St Joseph's Catholic Library,
1879. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 600. - 22.8 MB.
Mac201 / auth. MacAulay Rose. - New York : Boni and Liveright, 1920. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 236. - 6.7 MB.
Report on the 1919 Steel Strike
Var20 / auth. Various. - New York : Harcourt, Brace and Howe, 1920. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 282. - 13.3 MB.
Smoke and Steel
San20 / auth. Sandburg Carl. - New York : Harcourt, Brace and Company,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 262. - 4.2 MB.
The French Revolution Vol 1
Car02FR1 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - London : George Bell and Son, 1902.
- Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 398. - 14.0.
The French Revolution Vol 2
Car02FR2 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - London : George Bell and Son, 1902.
- Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 394. - 14.3.
The French Revolution Vol 3
Car02FR3 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - London : George Bell and Son, 1902.
- Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 461. - 10.7 MB.
The Great Steel Strike
Fos20 / auth. Foster William Z. - New York : B W Huebsch, Inc, 1920. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 288. - 7.8 MB.
The Molly Maguires
Luc82 / auth. Lucey Ernest W. - London : George Bell and Sons, 1882. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 161. - 5.2 MB.
The Outline of History
Wel22 / auth. Wells Herbert G. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1203. - Illustrated - 35.8 MB.
The Relationship of Church to
ORe92 / auth. O'Reilly Edmund J. - London : John Hodges, 1892. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 414. - 15.9 MB.
The Return of the Druses
Bro981 / auth. Browning Robert / ed. Porter Charlotte and Clarke Helen
A. - New York : Thomas Y Crowell & Co, 1898. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
370. - 10.4 MB.
The State of Ireland 1825 Vol 1
- First Report
Var25SI1 / auth. Various. - London : House of Commons, 1825. - Vol. 1 :
3 : p. 173. - 18.9 MB.
The State of Ireland 1825 Vol 2
- Second Report
Var25SI2 / auth. Various. - London : House of Commons, 1825. - Vol. 2 :
3 : p. 124. - 13.0 MB.
The State of Ireland 1825 Vol 3
- Analytical Index
Var25SI3 / auth. Various. - London : House of Commons, 1825. - Vol. 3 :
3 : p. 73. - 9.1 MB.
The Tithe Proctor
Car81 / auth. Carleton William. - New York : P F Collier, 1881. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 225. - 2.1 MB.
The True Masonic Chart
Cro26 / auth. Cross Jeremy. - New Haven : Jeremy Cross, 1826. - 4th
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 313. - 19.2 MB.