Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
AT THE FOOT
of the stairs in the main corridor of the United States Senate is a
marble statue by Horatio Stone, of John Hancock, the first signer of
of Independence. On the plinth of the statue are these words: “He wrote
where all nations should behold it, and time should not efface it.”
was born in Quincy, Massachusetts, on January 23d, 1737, and died there
8th, 1793. He had the advantage of a good early education and was
Harvard in 1754. He entered the “counting house” of his uncle, John
had adopted him, and at the death of this uncle, in 1764, fell heir to
business. Hancock married Miss Quincy of Boston, and their one son
lived only a
short time. This seemed to weigh heavily on the great patriot and while
lost interest in public affairs, years did not lessen his grief over
the loss of
entrance into public affairs was at the time of the riots in Boston in
history has recorded as the “Boston Massacre.” A committee was created
at this time
of which he was a member and leader, and they demanded of the Royal
removal of the troops from the city. There were several killed in the
riot and at
the funeral Hancock delivered “an address so glowing and so fearless in
of the conduct of the soldiery and their leaders as to greatly offend
In 1774 and 1775 he was president of the first and second Provincial
sent by General Thomas Gage of Massachusetts to Lexington and Concord
on the 18th
and 19th of April, 1775, had for its object besides the destruction of
of war at Concord, the capture of Hancock, who was expressly excepted
in the proclamation
of pardon, for it was said that his offense was “of too flagitious a
nature to admit
of any other consideration than that of condign punishment.”
He was a
member of the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1780, was the president
of it from
May, 1775, until October, 1777, and was the first man to sign the
Independence. When asked why he wrote his name so boldly he replied,
“So that George
III may read it without putting on his glasses.” His congressional
everything he did, were executed with wisdom and dignity.
In 1776 Hancock
was commissioned a major-general of militia in Massachusetts and in
he commanded the Massachusetts troops in the effective Rhode Island
He was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of
the first governor of the state, serving from 1780 until 1785, and
again from 1787
until the time of his death. In the execution of that office he set an
the long line of splendid men who followed him.
was a member of St. Andrews Lodge in Boston and became Grand Master of
in the State of Massachusetts. He was not the kind of a Past Master to
lodge but was a faithful attendant as long as he lived. He was ever a
education. Yale, Princeton and Brown Universities conferred degrees on
him and in
his will he left a handsome sum to Harvard University. He was a member
of the Congregational
Church and a regular attendant, though there is no record of his taking
a very active
part in the church work. His life is the more admirable when we know
that it was
not necessity that stimulated his industry and thrift in youth, and
that he never
presumed on his superiority of education, birth or fortune, as is so
often the case.
Such a man deserves much more credit than the one who is compelled in
to acquire the habit of industry. It is the difference between choice
Marks and Mark Masonry
By Bro. Charles A. Conover,
From the January Number)
Old Guilds and Their Marks
I WILL close
this series with a very interesting lecture delivered before the Grand
Massachusetts, in 1912, by Companion Waterman S. C. Russell, of
If we turn
to almost any history of Masonry, we shall find illustrated in it one
of the old
monoliths of Egypt. There will be a line beneath it saying that when
of the old Needle of Cleopatra were dug up there were found upon the
emblems, engraved four thousand years before Christ, of the Masonic
is the myth, and the legend. It was there, and it was there for some
with this preface, to take you for a little while through one or two of
cities on the other side of the water, and ask you to review with me,
if you have
seen these things before, what has recently come to my mind.
the week I spent in the ancient city of Bruges, and I thought of all
and the terrible struggle that had centered there; of that wonderful
the Silent, who labored in the Low Countries. Then I sought out some of
guilds, for that was my special mission at Bruges. Having tried to
enter some of
the guild houses in Brussels, and failing, I set my face toward Bruges
I found, after several days of searching, a man who belonged to one of
and who was also a Mason; and in a mixture of broken English and broken
we succeeded in getting along very well together.
I want to
take you for a few moments into one of the guild halls, but before we
portal let us take a moment in review of them. The guilds in the
ancient days were
nothing more nor less than trade unions, exactly the same as we have
today. We find
them in England, back long before the Conqueror; far back to the sixth
and the beginning
of the seventh century. We find that they were divided on exactly the
and for about the same reasons, that our trade organizations are today.
Then a little
later we find them on the Continent, and there they spread with great
Throughout that busy section, Holland and the Lowlands, after the great
Philip when the Dutch Republic rose, we find that the trade unions, or
became the center of the trade activities which rebuilt that
So, if we should stand in the city of Brussels, down in the old square
of that fine old Hotel de Ville, looking around on three sides we would
old guild houses; one erected for archers, another for mariners,
another for bakers;
in fact, nearly every trade and line of shop-work that we can find in
When we step over to Bruges, to Amsterdam, or any of the old cities, we
the old hall of the archers, I was impressed with its antiquity; with
number of portraits of its presiding officers for past centuries upon
but particularly with the form of gavel used: an iron ring hanging in
front of the
presiding officer's chair, and down in the center of the hall a
the altar. As he took hold of the ring and pulled it, it corresponded
with the use
of the gavel with us. I was impressed with the fact that that old ring,
over an inch in diameter, had been worn down in the lower part where
the hand was
placed so that it was less than half its original diameter; evidently
use and the action of perspiration upon it. I examined the old
and then, while my companion was busy examining the pictures, I took
to get behind the great tapestry that hung behind the king's seat, for
officer was called the king. There was a space behind there of some ten
feet, with a fine old fireplace, long disused. On exploring the
fireplace, I found
a board perhaps five feet long and two and a half to three feet wide. I
out of its dusty corner, took it to the light, where I could look at
it, and this
is what I found in that old guild house; painted in pictures about 10 x
in rows clear across the top from side to side of that old board, I
position at the altar that you and I are familiar with in the Blue
Lodge. I found
practically every picture represented on that which is illustrated to
us in the
various lessons that are taught in all three of those degrees. Pushing
it back into
its dusty place, with just half the chance to look at it that I
desired, I came
out from behind the curtain and walked down the side. There I examined
of that guild, written in French, and, with but one or two exceptions,
Lodge of this state would sanction it for any subordinate lodge. I will
you with those exceptions. Permit me to say, however, that the man who
membership in that particular guild (and I was told by one of the
that it was true of them all) must literally serve his apprenticeship,
his first degree, for not less than three years. You see from whence
came. In the ancient days of the guilds a man actually served an
of seven years. One black ball deposited against a candidate settled,
once and for
all time, his admission to that or any of the allied guilds. There was
no six months
of grace for a reconsideration, and the hope that somebody might be
absent; it was
settled. Questioning my friend upon the use of the ballot, I found that
if he represented
the men of whom he was talking there was a far greater spirit of
charity shown in
the reception of a candidate through the ballot than sometimes has been
in our American Rite of Masonry.
many other things connected with those old guilds which time will not
to touch upon, which show that out of those ancient days came our
You know that in our histories of Masonry we can go back comparatively
to a very short time, indeed, before the Revolution, when we can find
the shape of a ritual; anything in the shape of work that is recognized
while we claim to go back to the days of Solomon, we sometimes, after
we have said
it, wonder if it is true. Speculatively, we are sure of telling the
truth when we
in the time of the building of the old abbeys in England and in
Scotland, we have
always had a legend that those structures were built by the Masons, and
degree that we have spoken of so many times seems to tell us that there
was an origin
for these Marks. We know, for instance, that every workman in England
today, whether he belongs to the Masons or not, has a private Mark
which he places
upon his tools in his bag. I presume many of you have seen the same
thing in this
country. We also know that in the old days in Scotland every man must
have a Mark
before he could partake of the communion. I examined this summer
of those old pewter checks which were hanging on the wall and had been
industriously by someone. I mention these two things only. They have a
with our Mark degree, if we had time to trace it.
a moment in one or two of these great buildings which were built by
men. I have not come to dwell tonight upon the beauties of Melrose in
or upon that wonderful fabric just a little way from Edinburgh, old
nor that greater ruin of old Dryburgh. Nothing have I to say about its
beauty in the early days or what it represented, but only to call to
a few things. We stand there tonight and you who have entered the west
gate of Melrose
have been impressed, if but a little, with the somber beauty of that
old pile. You,
fellow Masons, have wondered about the lives that toiled there; why
they did it;
and then, when you have gone away, if you have drunk in a little bit of
of the scene, you have said, “At least they wrought well who wrought
“If thou would'st view fair
Go visit it by the pale moonlight.”
So said the
great Sir Walter Scott, himself a Mason and at one time a member of
this old Kilwinning
Lodge of Melrose. There, within the chancel window he sat and mused
upon these things.
I was told by the Secretary that he did a large amount of work in
along the same line. I would give days of my life if I could get into
some of the
old papers in Sir Walter's library, locked up there, where he put down
of his Masonic findings. I believe it is due the Fraternity that the
of some of the bodies over there ascertain just what Sir Walter found.
An old tradition
lived for many years in Melrose that the first Masonic lodge in that
was instituted at the time when Melrose Abbey was built. The
townspeople said it
was a tradition; many other people said, “It is a tradition,” and I can
cite a Masonic
history which says it is a tradition. It was said that the first man
who was Master
of this lodge was John Morvow or Murdo, or two or three other ways in
which it was
spelled. Now it chanced but a very short time ago that a portion of the
the old wall inside one end of the transept fell out, and there was
exposed to view
an old inscription in ancient Anglo-Saxon. While I have the Saxon here,
I will read
what perhaps some of you have already read, the inscription that stands
MORO : SUM TYME : CALLIT :
WAS : I : AND BORN : IN PARYEE :
CERTAINLY : AND HAD : IN : KEPPING :
ALL : MASON : WORK : OF : SATAN :
DRUYS : YE : HYE : KYRK : OF : GLASGU :
MELROS : AND PASLEY : OF :
NYDDYSDAYLL : AND : OF : GALWAY :
I : PRAY : TO : GOD : AND : MARY : BAITH :
AND : SWEET : ST : JOHN : KEEP : THIS : HALY :
KIRK : FRAE : SKAITH :
with a square and compass about ten inches long crossing in due form
inscription and this one which is to follow, we find this:
GAES YE COMPASS EVEN ABOUT,
SA TRUTH AND LAUTE DO BUT DOUTE.
BEHALDE TO YE HENDE Q JOHN MORVO.
casing fell away and they found the old inscription, the Masons in
“Surely Melrose Kilwinning Lodge is as old as the foundations of
If this inscription which I have called to your attention tonight is
as inscriptions of the past are, and you remember that Melrose was
founded in 1136,
we have carried the use of our operative Masonry far back. We have also
our speculative Masonry far back by means of these recently discovered
I had the
extreme pleasure this summer of going into that old lodge one evening
with the Secretary,
when there was no one present but my traveling companion, who is also a
the Master of that lodge. He opened the old iron chest, and took out
the old records
for my examination. I could not read them all; many of them were in
period of Latin and Anglo-Saxon, and they had passed into a very bad
but I recall one that impressed me wonderfully; an old scroll of
parchment at least
eighteen feet in length and twelve or fifteen inches wide. What do you
was? It was the roster of the Masons who were captured at the fall of
those prisoners were taken to Melrose and there kept for many months.
In that day
they had an army lodge, and the Melrose Lodge opened to them its own
know how prisoners were held in those days in the army, but these
allowed free access to the little village of Melrose and the use of
and over against every one of those names was recorded a Mark.
I have just
a word or two to say about the Mark, and that is that practically every
that building, with the exception of the main window in the chancel,
Apprentice's Window, has a Masonic Mark of some kind upon it. My first
of the abbey, three years ago, led me to a little skepticism, but last
I went down into the old crypt under St. Wilfrid's shrine in Hexham and
the crypt, also in the old Glasgow Cathedral, and began to think about
and to get a little bit of the history of the church, I became as
that those Marks were placed there by the men who wrought the stones as
I am that
you are listening to me at the present time.
well take lessons Mom the way those men recorded their Marks. I am
aware that you
have in your chapter rooms, as we have in Morning Star, magnificent
They are works of art; picture galleries. Everything that a man can
think of in
the way of ornamentation which is a little bit different and perhaps a
better, he gets an artist to inscribe upon that page. How many of you
can sit down
now and put your Mark on paper and have it anywhere near like the Mark
in the lodge
book? What is the Mark for, if it is not to identify our work? We found
of the Marks on the stones in Melrose, and in fact all the cathedral
of a definite number of points; three, five, seven, nine.
I want to
talk to you about one particular Mark, and it is a peculiar thing. You
that Pompeii was destroyed in 79 B.C. You will recall, also, that David
of Scotland, over a thousand years after the destruction of Pompeii,
Abbey. Isn't it wonderful that when Pompeii lay beneath the ashes there
recorded on the stones in Melrose and Dryburgh that are exact
duplicates of those
drawn upon the old stones in the foundations of Pompeii, as since
the very recent excavations? Isn't it wonderful? Certainly there is
the use of those Marks, because their very form shows they were not
they were definite designs. If we study the Marks in one of the abbeys
them according to their points, we shall arrive at other conclusions
the importance of the rank held by the men who wrought the stones.
I hope that
I have said enough about this old abbey, as far as its stones are
concerned. I want
to take you for just a moment to Dryburgh, another ruin. There I wish
to call your
attention to an old chapter house, all that is left of that ancient
is a roof upon it and the Grand Lodge of Scotland met there three years
the remarkable thing about that meeting, showing the great progress
that has been
made during these years, was that the altar used was an ancient Druid
which the Druids offered the blood of human sacrifices long before
reached that land, but now re-consecrated to the living God by the
Grand Lodge of
another wonderful thing. About two years ago, in widening the
excavation a little
bit about the wall of the old abbey, a portion that had never been dug
uncovered and there they found a stone. I speak now to the Sir Knights.
in those old days the gravestones were laid flat, rather than standing.
the name, the insignia of rank, and there were two swords in the
position with which
our Sir Knights are so familiar, all deeply engraved upon the stone,
the position he held when in Jerusalem with the Order. The spade has
much yet to
reveal to us in the ruins of those old abbeys. There is one other
lesson to be drawn
from them, and that is this: I found that all the stones which were
the overseers, as well as the keystone, are put to some good use. I
have not time
to draw the moral; that will suggest itself to you; but the old crypts
and the foundations
of the outer buildings were all built of the rejected stones. If you
into the old sacristy of Melrose, where the candles were kept, and see
the old stones
that were rejected and find the Marks there, if you examine those
stones, you will
see that they were never cut for the place where they were put. Then if
at the pillars, finally at the top of the great pillar in the corner,
which is not
as ornate as the others, you will find the same Mark recorded, and
in the building. Let us hope that the man who brought his first work,
rejected, finally wrought so well that his work was placed in that
many feet above the ground, where it has stood, holding the great
as it has done for centuries. I will not moralize upon it; I will leave
more word. I want to take you for a moment to another dream in stone,
and if you are Blue Lodge Masons, Chapter Masons, Council Masons, if
you stand at
the entrance to Roslyn Chapel and look down to the far end, to the high
will see figured in the various arches there the progress of Masonry
from the Entered
Apprentice clear through to the end of the degrees, each arch rising
than the preceding. There is a progress in ornamentation; there is the
work wrought in stone; so plain that he who knows may read. You know
the story of
the 'Prentice Pillar and the Master's Pillar. The Craftsman a short
time ago printed
one version of it. I presume all of you have read it. While it differs
in some respects
from some of the other versions, it is in the main true. Doubtless all
of you have
seen photographs of that wonderful 'Prentice Pillar. I will not stop to
story. I want you to remember that right at the foot of the 'Prentice
is a stairway leading to the vault below. If you descend that stairway
five, seven, and nine steps, as you will find them between the various
you will eventually reach the old crypt. We have that in another way in
Arch degree. I cannot tell you anything about the council
representation other than
what some of you see I have suggested, but don't ever go to Edinburgh,
what you go there for, without going out the seven miles to Roslyn and
only piece of masonry that was left unharmed by Cromwell; the only
chapel that remains from the ancient days.
So I might
take you through all these various chapels and cathedrals; down into
and we would find everywhere the Marks of the Mason. We would find them
there, but we would find them all the way up the columns, into the
the highest arches. We would find that Masons' Marks had been left
in closing, may I say one word? The brevity of time has made it
necessary for me
to skip very quickly from point to point. If I have left with you the
our Order perhaps does have a definite foundation in the past, not only
but speculative, and if I have led you to think that we are in the line
that on that foundation laid so well have we been building, then I have
in my mission, because you will not be content until you look a little
the foundation of our Masonic ritual. Let me say that there is nothing
in the world
that I know of that gives me such pleasure as the study of our chapter
is why I have been searching, spending my hours and my days when I
might have been
doing something else abroad, in delving in these old ruins, that I
in my own mind this dream, this legend, and practically make it real.
hope that the foregoing collection of articles thus roughly joined
have worked into your mind and heart a sincere desire to delve deeper
into the study
of the history of our traditions, ritual and ceremonies.
no degree in Masonry is more pregnant with truths, lessons and
the degree of Mark Master Mason. Its antiquity is unquestioned and its
lessons are unsurpassed. I sincerely hope that the members of the
may devote more time to the reading and study of this intensely
highly profitable subject.
lines have stirred in your heart such a desire, then the time occupied
in its preparation
has been well spent and will be an incentive to further efforts in the
of educational endeavor. The degree of appreciation which is manifested
initial essay will be the gauge for future effort in this direction.
of the Sacred Law
Many of our
American Masons do not understand that in Continental lodges the Bible
is not upon
the altar, but that it is lying on the Master's pedestal, as is also
the case in
some of the English-speaking lodges. It has been decided in
an exhaustive examination of the law and precedent, that according to
regulations, it is the Sacred Book of the Law which is placed upon the
will be readily understood that the Sacred Book of the Law includes the
Veda, the Scruti (?), the Pentateuch, as well as the Bible.
to the question of the use of the Holy Bible on the altar in English
lodges, we note in a recent Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of England
that it was
decided that the Provincial Grand Lodge of India could initiate
interference with religion, and laid down the rule, “He need not cease
to be a Mohammedan,
Buddhist, Hindu, Jew, Christian, or any other denomination.”
Registrar of the Grand Lodge of England stated “It is not a question of
being on the altar, it is 'The Volume of the Sacred Law.' Among the
is the Old and New Testament combined. Among the Jews it is the Old
Among the Mohammedans it is the Koran.
latter part of 1875, there was considerable stir among the Craft lodges
as to the propriety of the use of the Koran in Masonic lodges under
Considerable correspondence was had with the Grand Lodge of England, in
which brought out the fact of the initiation of the King of Oudh, a
in Friendship Lodge No. 6, in London, on April 14, 1836. At the
a volume of the Koran was used. The book had been furnished by the
and the candidate was obligated upon it by the Master of the lodge, who
was an English
clergyman. This stopped further discussion, and it was settled in the
of England and her colonies, that it was proper to obligate all
that particular book which they held to be most sacred, and contains
the work of
Deity. All of this has been accepted and acknowledged as correct by the
of Scotland, and the annual appointment of Grand Shastii bearer, Grand
Grand Koran Bearer, Grand Bible Bearer, etc., has been regularly made.”
A. G. Henderson,
Committee on Foreign Correspondence,
Grand Lodge of Arkansas.
fail to fully observe the ninth charge “to propagate the knowledge of
art,” and the young Master Mason is too often left to shift for himself
knowing that there is a fertile field to cultivate which will yield
of corn of nourishment to his intellectual life, wine to refreshment to
standards, and oil of joy to his spiritual hopes.
of the reason for the apathy of such a large percentage of the members
of a lodge
demonstrates that it is directly due to lack of comprehension of the
of Freemasonry. In the larger lodges the degree work seems to be so
little time is found for an explanation of the meaning of many things
Freemason should know, and because many have no chance to participate
in the ritualistic
work, they become indifferent and remain away. No one who has a
of Freemasonry ever loses interest but on the contrary as his knowledge
his interest grows greater year by year.
Silas H. Shepherd, Wisconsin.
By Bro. S.H. Goodwin, P.G.M.,
February issue we presented the first part of this article by Brother
Past Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Utah, under the heading "A
Mormonism and its Connection with Masonry in the Early Forties," giving
history of the introduction of Masonry among the Mormons at Nauvoo,
historical matter is here concluded and is followed with "A Study in
of the reader is directed to the voluminous foot-notes supplied by
as authority for the quotations he has used in the article ‒
practically all of
the material here presented having heretofore been printed in the daily
publications, in pamphlet form, and in Government documents, in
addition to the
official publications of the Mormon Church.
From February Number)
in Nauvoo had not passed unobserved by the Craft of the state is
by the Grand Master's address just referred to, which was presented to
October 3, 1843. Speaking of the subject in general, he tells Grand
Lodge that it
has ".... excited no little discussion both in and out of this body,
action of the Grand Lodge in reference to it has been made the object
of much animadversion,
criticism and remark. Several communications from eminent and honored
names in Masonry
have been addressed to me, calling in question the correctness of the
by you in relation to this subject, and strongly protesting against the
and propriety of allowing a Masonic Lodge to exist in Nauvoo." (54)
In due time
this whole matter came into the hands of the Committee on Returns and
Work. A preliminary
report by this Committee declares that it had examined the abstract
returns of the
three Nauvoo Lodges ‒ viz., Nauvoo, Nye and Helm ‒ and found itself
unable to complete
its work until further explanation and amendment of the returns had
been made. On
the evening of the next day, however, this Committee made an extended
which it reviewed the situation in all five of the Mormon lodges: there
in Nauvoo, one in Keokuk, U. D., and one, Rising Sun No. 12, at
Montrose. The last
two named were in Iowa Territory, and Rising Sun had already received
found that the work of Rising Sun Lodge No. 12, was irregular, that its
were informal and its dues had not been paid. The work of Nauvoo Lodge
mainly correct, but there were irregularities which the Committee could
in view of what had already taken place; the records of the lodge had
not been submitted
as required by law; members of more than doubtful character had been
there appeared to be more than a tendency to push candidates on through
and Third degrees without reference to their proficiency in the
Helm Lodge had been guilty of irregular work, and had rushed applicants
without regard to time between the degrees: it had passed and raised
within two days of initiation. Nye Lodge had also done irregular work,
in that it
had received petitions for the degrees on one day and initiated
petitioners on the
next. The Committee found itself in a quandary as to what it should
reference to Nye and Keokuk Lodges. Finally, after having considered
evidence, the Committee recommended:
charter of Rising Sun Lodge No. 12 should be suspended and the officers
appear before Grand Lodge and show cause why that instrument should not
That it be
declared inexpedient longer to continue a Masonic lodge at Nauvoo, and
for the disrespect
and contempt of Nauvoo and Helm Lodges, in refusing to present their
Grand Lodge, their dispensations be revoked and charters refused;
irregular work and disregard of Grand Lodge instructions and
resolutions, the dispensations
of Keokuk and Nye Lodges be revoked and charters refused. (55)
the substance of which is given here, were adopted by Grand Lodge.
close of this session of Grand Lodge a set of resolutions was adopted
one requiring the possession of a certificate of good standing, signed
by the Grand
Master and attested by the Grand Secretary of the jurisdiction whence a
hailed, before he could be admitted as a visitor or receive Masonic
charity in Illinois."
(56) A recent writer affirms that this was done to prevent members of
from visiting regular bodies in that state. (57) Such may have been the
there is no evidence available to the writer in support of this claim.
On the contrary,
the statement is made that this resolution was presented in accordance
suggestion of the Grand Master, in his address, who there declares that
came from the Washington, and later, the Baltimore, conventions. (58)
stood at the close of the Grand Lodge Communication of 1843. But
showed conclusively that it is one thing to pass resolutions, and quite
to secure recognition and obedience thereto. The records show that soon
close of Grand Lodge, the Grand Master dispatched a messenger to Nauvoo
the dispensations and records of the three lodges located there; that
was denied; that the representative of the Grand Master was treated
and that he was informed that the lodges proposed to continue doing
(59) While the evidence showing that this purpose was carried out is
it is sufficient.
1, 1844, Bodley Lodge No. 1, after discussing the situation, directed
to notify the Grand Master that the lodges in Nauvoo and Keokuk
continued to work,
and that notice had appeared in public print that the lodges of Nauvoo
their Masonic hall in that place on April 5, the members of those
that they had received no notice of the action of Grand Lodge
journal of Joseph Smith we get certain interesting details of the
with the dedication of the Masonic hall. He tells us, under date
Friday, April 5,
that he attended the ceremonies; that about five hundred fifty Masons
various parts of the world" were present and took part; that a
formed, which was accompanied by the Nauvoo brass band; that the
in large of Hyrum Smith, Worshipful Master; that the principal address
of the occasion
was given by apostle Erastus Snow; that he ‒ Joseph Smith ‒ and Dr.
addressed the assembly, and that all the visiting Masons were given
dinner in the
Masonic hall, at the expense of the Nauvoo Lodge. (61)
An echo of
the exercises held in connection with the dedication of the Masonic
hall at Nauvoo
is found in the action taken by the lodge at Belleville ‒ St. Clair No.
24. It seems
that this lodge disciplined one of its members for marching in the
to above, the position being taken that such an act was a participation
in the work
of a clandestine lodge. (62) The record is not clear on the point, but
at least, that later action taken by Grand Lodge grew out of this case
and is of importance in connection with our subject since it determines
of members of lodges from which authority to work has been withdrawn.
went on record as holding, "That it is . . . imperative on all good
to regard all who participate in a subordinate lodge that has been
declared clandestine by this Grand Lodge, as clandestine Masons, and
of our Masonic association." (63) As may readily be seen from this, all
members of the five Mormon lodges were clandestine from the date of the
of the resolutions which provided for revoking the charter of Rising
Sun Lodge No.
12, and the dispensations of the other four lodges, viz., October 3,
not declared to be such till later.
one other bit of evidence that unmistakably shows that the Nauvoo
to work after their dispensations had been withdrawn. This is in the
Joseph Smith. Under date of "Tuesday, April 30" ‒ less than two months
prior to the death of the prophet ‒ we find this: "A complaint was
against William and Wilson Law in the Masonic lodge & c." (64)
stood with reference to the recalcitrant lodges till Grand Lodge met,
1844. At that session more drastic action was taken. A brief statement
of the facts
in the case was followed by resolutions which declared that all
those lodges was withdrawn; that the members thereof were clandestine;
who hailed therefrom were suspended from all the privileges of Masonry
jurisdiction of Illinois, and that the Grand Lodges of other
requested to deny them the same privileges." Another resolution
Grand Secretary to notify all Grand Lodges with which the Grand Lodge
was in correspondence, of the facts, and to publish the same "in all
the official connection of the Grand Lodge of Illinois with the Masonry
Records of action taken with reference to the lodges at Warsaw and
Keokuk are to
be found in the Proceedings for the years 1845 and 1846, but these are
of no special
interest to us in this connection.
of the last few months of the life of the Mormon prophet is an
one to the student of the period. This does not mean as biography,
simply, but in
connection with, and as a part of the story of his people, with which
it is inextricably
woven. We would be drawn too far afield from the purpose of this paper
be given to the details of that story. But time must be taken for such
a hasty glance
at succeeding events as is necessary to round out this part of our
advent of spring (1844), events moved rapidly toward the fatal
culmination in Carthage
jail. Early in May the prospectus of the Nauvoo Expositor made its
a month later, Friday, June 7, the initial and only number of that
from the press. This paper was promoted and published by Emmons, Wilson
Law, the Higbees, Fosters and others, all of whom had been prominent in
of the church, but who, while still claiming to be Mormons, objected to
considered a one-man power and to some of the doctrines which had been
by the prophet, more particularly that of a plurality of wives. The
to be the organ of this dissenting party, through which these men hoped
about certain changes and reforms, including a repeal of the Nauvoo
in their judgment placed too much, and exceedingly dangerous, power in
of the head of the church, the city Council and the Municipal Court.
above, the first number of the Expositor came out on Friday, June 7.
issued a month before, had aroused great excitement in Nauvoo and
one sort or other had been set on foot against the publishers. But the
seemed to sweep the people, and more especially the authorities, off
On Saturday, the 8th, the City Council met and gave most of the day to
of the situation, and to taking testimony as to the standing and
character of the
men who had thrown this firebrand into their midst. No decision was
reached on that
day and the Council adjourned to meet on the following Monday, June 10.
together at the appointed hour on Monday, the discussion was renewed.
From the first,
Joseph Smith, who was Mayor, spoke in favor of the destruction of the
whence had come the obnoxious sheet, and repeatedly urged the Council
to pass an
ordinance under which it could be declared a nuisance and be destroyed.
on the proposed ordinance was finally had it was found that but one
member of the
Council was opposed to it and he was not a member of the church. He
a heavy fine should be imposed, naming $3,000 as the amount. However,
was not heeded; an ordinance was framed to meet the case and passed,
and a resolution
followed which declared the Expositor a nuisance, and instructed the
cause said printing establishment and papers to be removed without
delay, in such
manner as he shall direct." The Mayor's order to the city marshal was
immediately, in which that official was directed to destroy the press,
and the type,
burn any of the Expositors that might be found, and authorizing him to
the building should resistance be offered by the proprietors of the
order was executed on the evening of the same day ‒ June 10th. (67)
of publishing an opposition paper in Nauvoo had come to a sudden end,
but not so
with the troubles of the prophet and his people. The destruction of the
under the circumstances, was about the worst thing that could have
happened to Joseph
Smith and his followers ‒ it was the match applied to a magazine.
after the destruction of the printing plant warrants were secured by
of the paper for the arrest of Joseph Smith and the members of the City
on a charge of riot. When the Mayor was arrested he immediately applied
to the Municipal
Court for a writ of habeas corpus which was granted, and he was brought
court for trial. After an examination he was released and the costs of
were assessed against the proprietors of the Expositor. The same course
when members of the Council were arrested, with this difference, that
presided over the court, sitting as Chief Justice. (68) In each of
these cases the
accused were discharged and the costs were taxed against the
As was to
be expected these proceedings in no way allayed the excitement or
lessened the force
of the opposition which had arisen against the prophet and his
adherents. Mass meetings
were held in various communities in the county, inflammatory speeches
indulged in and active preparations were made to use force, if
necessary, to bring
about the arrest of Joseph Smith and his colleagues.
storm which he had so ill-advisedly invoked, the prophet appears to
(69) and he began to make preparations to seek safety in flight. During
of June 22, he and his brother, Hyrum, with two or three others, were
the Mississippi in a leaky skiff, and the next morning O. P. Rockwell
was sent back
to Nauvoo to secure horses for the two men. In the meantime, however,
brought to bear upon Joseph Smith to induce him to return to Nauvoo and
up, and when Rockwell came back with a message from the prophet's wife,
the same effect, he decided to acquiesce. Several of his companions
went so far
as to accuse him of cowardice for wishing to leave his people in such
The party finally returned to the east side of the river on the night
of the 23rd.
Two days later Joseph and Hyrum were arrested on a charge of treason ‒
called out the Nauvoo Legion ‒ were taken to the Carthage jail where,
on the afternoon
of the 27th of June, they were murdered by a mob.
traced the variegated fortunes of the Masonic lodges at Nauvoo, we are
to take up the second part of our subject, "A Study in Resemblances."
intimated, the question is often asked, "Does the Mormon Church make
Masonic ceremonies in its Temple ritual?"
In what follows,
for obvious reasons, no attempt will be made to give a categorical
answer to this
question; nor is it the purpose of the writer to point out or label any
that may be discovered in the course of this study. Facts, so far as
they have come
to the writer's knowledge, will be presented ‒ the reader must draw his
Craftsman cannot be long among the Mormon people without noting the not
use made of certain emblems and symbols which have come to be
associated in the
public mind with the Masonic fraternity. And now and then he will catch
and phrases, in conversation and literature, which are suggestive, to
say the least.
If he should continue his residence in Utah, he will sometimes be made
the fact, when shaking hands with a Mormon neighbor or friend, that
there is a pressure
of the hand as though some sort of a "grip" is being given.
and residents of Utah often remark upon the extensive use made of
as, for example, the conventional beehive. This familiar figure
occupies the center
of the great seal of the State; a model of immense size rises from the
roof of the
beautiful "Hotel Utah," and one of smaller proportions crowns the
on the cupola of the "Beehive House" ‒ the official residence of the
of the church. It is noticeably prominent on the great bronze doors
the entrance to the sacred precincts of the Salt Lake Temple, as well
as on doors
of commercial and other buildings. It is placed on the tops of newel
posts of the
cement steps which lead to the entrance of meeting houses and
tabernacles, and frequently
appears with effect in the decorative schemes of interiors, as in the
lobby of "Hotel
with which the public is more or less familiar, are used extensively,
in and about the Salt Lake Temple, and, presumably, in all the other
the Mormon church. On the interior of this building, we learn from an
authority, (71) there are in the walls several series of stones of
design and significance, representing the earth, moon, sun and stars.
(72) On the
east center tower is an inscription, the letters deep cut, lined with
reads: "Holiness to the Lord." This inscription, it might be noted,
over the doorway of some of the business establishments conducted by
and over the entrance to the church tithing-houses, and it is given
place on the
stationery used in the official correspondence conducted by church
Immediately beneath this inscription, over the central casement of the
of the Temple, is the emblem of the clasped hands. On the corresponding
above the upper windows, in each of the central towers, is carved the
Eye. Covering the plate glass double doors on the east and west sides
of the Temple
‒ each of which is four by twelve feet ‒ are bronze grills of intricate
which carry medallions of the beehive, while an escutcheon cut in
the clasped hands circled by a wreath. In the "Garden Room" of the
the ceiling is embellished with oil paintings to represent clouds and
the sky, in
which appear the sun, moon and stars. In the center of this room, and
south wall, is a platform which is reached by three steps. On the
platform is an
altar upon which rests the Bible. In the "Terrestrial Room," at the
end, is a raised floor, reached by three steps. (73)
from this phase of the subject we come next to the language used in a
part of the
Temple ceremonies. Here we are dependent for authorities, mainly, upon
though collateral evidence is not wanting. The exposes referred to are
number, and they are separated from each other, in time, by almost a
of the three accounts shows that the first, or oldest one, differs from
two, or later ones, in one significant particular, at least. From the
account (see foot-note 74) it appears that in the Nauvoo Temple use was
a larger number of stages, or degrees, in these ceremonies than was the
and that these extended to and included the seventh. This fact seems to
the conclusion that the work was in a preliminary or experimental stage
and that later it was developed and perfected into its present form,
the practical omission of the last four degrees. A well informed member
of the Mormon
Church, in conversation with the writer, accounted for the character of
Dusen statements upon a different supposition ‒ though upon what
authority was not
disclosed. He said that "Van Dusen was a d‒liar," and further that "he
was a Mason. (75) It may very well have been that he was a Mason,
although no records
are known to the writer which support that claim. As will be shown
later, the followers
of Joseph Smith believe that the Temple ceremonies were revealed to the
complete, and more than a year before he became a Mason, and that proof
is to be found in the Doctrine and Covenants. (76)
As a preliminary
to a consideration of some of the language of the Temple ritual, it may
not be amiss
to note certain objects and articles used in connection with that
worn by both men and women during a goodly portion of the ceremonies,
are of white
cloth and of the one-piece pattern. On the right breast is a "square,"
and on the left, "compasses." There other marks or openings which are
of no special interest to us here.
As used in
the Temple at Nauvoo, the slits representing a pair of compasses, were
on the knees,
rather than on the left breast. (77) The pattern of this garment, the
informed, was revealed to Joseph Smith direct from heaven, and is the
same as that
worn by Adam and Eve. (78)
At one point
in the ceremonies, the "devil" comes in wearing a silk hat and having
on a Masonic apron. This apron is embellished with two columns, with
midway between, and a serpent entwined about the base of each. The
aprons worn by
the men and women are alike, and are described as being a "square half
of green silk with nine fig leaves worked on them in brown sewing
Those in use at Nauvoo were of "white cloth about eighteen inches
green silk leaves pasted on." (80)
In the old
endowment house at Salt Lake, the ceiling of the "Garden of Eden Room"
was painted much the same as that described above, with these
additions: In each
corner there was a Masonic emblem: in one a "compasses," in another a
"square," and in the other two a "level" and a "plumb."
part of the Temple ceremonies which have been characterized by a Mormon
". . . the Masonic sacred drama of the Fall of Man" (82) ‒ need not
us. Here occurs the washings and anointings and assumption of the
referred to, and a representation, in dialogue, of the creation of the
of man and woman. Following this preparatory part, the first
obligation, or oath,
is taken. One of the several couples kneels at the altar, to represent
Eve, and all participate in the ceremonies. The audience stands, with
hand raised to a square, when the following oath is taken: "We, and
us, solemnly bind ourselves that we will not reveal any of the secrets
of the first
token of the Aaronic priesthood with its accompanying name, sign or
I do so, I agree that my throat may be cut from ear to ear, and my
tongue torn out
by its roots."
The grip is very simple: Hands clasped, pressing the point of the
knuckle of the
index finger with the thumb."
In executing the sign of the penalty, the hand, palm down, is placed
body, so that the thumb comes directly under and a little behind the
ear. The hand
is then drawn sharply to the right across the throat, the elbow
standing out at
a position of ninety degrees from the body; the hand is dropped from
to the side." (83) In the earliest form of these ceremonies ‒ as used
in 1846 ‒ this obligation or a part of it at least, appears to have
been given in
what was termed the sixth degree. (84)
then proceed; various characters appear and carry on a dialogue, and
then a robe
and sandals are put on the candidates, the apron is replaced and the
is administered: "We, and each of us, do solemnly promise and bind
never to reveal any of the secrets of this priesthood, with the
grip or penalty. Should we do so, we agree that our breasts may be torn
heart and vitals torn out and given to the birds of the air and the
beasts of the
Clasp the right hand and place the thumb into the hollow of the
the first and second fingers.
The sign is made by extending the right hand across the left breast,
the heart; then drawing it rapidly from left to right, with the elbow
at the square;
then dropping the hand to the side." (85)
are then conducted into what is known as the "Celestial Room." Here
characters appear and carry on conversation, relating to the
ceremonies, and other
preparations are made for the administering of the third oath, which is
"You, and each of you, do covenant and promise that you will never
of the secrets of the priesthood, with the accompanying name, sign, and
Should you do so, you agree that your body may be cut asunder and all
this, the left hand is placed palm upright, directly in front of the
being a right angle formed at the elbow; the right hand, palm down, is
the elbow of the left; then drawn sharply across the bowels, and both
at the side. (86) The grip is given by "grasping the right hands so
little fingers are interlocked and the forefinger presses the wrist.
This is known
as the patriarchal grip, or the true sign of the nail."
are then ready for the three-fold obligation which relates to "The Law
"The Law of Chastity," and the "Law of Vengeance." The last-named
law, it might be noted in passing, is given, with but slight variation,
by all three
of the authorities quoted here. The character of the second law is
its title, and is not without significance, though it need not detain
these obligations the candidates are seated and a long sermon or
lecture is given,
in which the entire history of the Temple work is rehearsed. They are
in the true order of prayer. In this, when all is in readiness, an
at the altar, his right arm raised to the square, his left hand
extended, as if
to receive a blessing. A form of prayer is then offered which, it is
said, is used
in all priesthood meetings. The candidates are then ready to pass
through the veil.
the veil are to be seen the square and compasses; also other openings
the slits in the knees of every garment." (87) In the room where this
is, there is also a platform upon which the candidates take seats when
are called, and which is ascended by three steps. With the aid of an
the neophyte gives the required answers and grips, which include the
two grips of
the Aaronic priesthood and the two grips of the Melchizedek priesthood.
the last grip, a dialogue ensues:
‒ What is this?"
"Neophyte. ‒ The second grip of the Melchizedek priesthood, patriarchal
or sure sign of the nail."
‒ Has it a name?"
"Neophyte. ‒ It has."
‒ Will you give it to me?"
"Neophyte. ‒ I cannot, for I have not yet received it; for this purpose
come to converse with the Lord behind the veil.
‒ You shall receive it upon the five points of fellowship through the
are foot to foot, knee to knee, breast to breast, hand to back, and
mouth to ear."
We may here
take leave of the Temple ceremonies, but there are certain other
from a different source, that have a significance for us.
language used by a brilliant writer of the Mormon faith. (89) In a
deals with the Logan Temple, at Logan, Utah, the author contrasts the
views of this
structure held by Latter Day Saints and Gentiles, and then proceeds:
"To the Mormons the Logan
Temple is a grand
Masonic fabric, reared unto the name of the God of Israel, where
given, and ordinances administered, and services performed which
and exaltation both of the living and the dead, as connected with the
to a supposed "Polygamic Theocracy," which, he says, is popularly
(by non-Mormons) to exist in the Logan Temple, the author continues:
"And what makes this matter of
so much importance
and interest... is, that the Logan Temple today is looked upon as the
of that 'Polygamic Theocracy.'" (91)
is followed by a paragraph that deals with several, more particularly
of the endowment house secrets. Then the author says:
"Meantime the Mormon apostles
with a becoming repugnance and Masonic reticence quite understandable
of every Masonic order have shrank from a public exhibition of the
of their Temple." (92) When describing certain scenes enacted in the
ceremonies, he refers to the Garden of Eden representation as " ... the
sacred drama of the Fall of Man." And again, "A sign, a grip, and a key
word were communicated and impressed upon us, and the third degree of
or the first degree of the Aaronic priesthood was conferred." (93)
our author refers to the "oath of chastity," alluded to above, and
with especial emphasis the fact that "the oath implies that no man
penalty of death, to betray his brother's wife or daughter." (94)
most significant utterance bearing on the subject that has come from
one who is
in a position to know whereof he speaks, is that which comes from a
member of the
present Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. (95) In an address delivered in
Lake Tabernacle, on the last Sunday of 1919, as reported in one of the
the speaker said:
"Modern Masonry is a
of the ancient order established by King Solomon, from whom it is said
to have been
handed down through the centuries.
assertions that some details of the Mormon Temple ordinances resemble
led him to refer to this subject," the speaker declared, and he added,
he was not sorry there was such a similarity, because of the fact that
and rites revealed to Joseph Smith constituted a reintroduction upon
the earth of
the divine plan inaugurated in the temple of Solomon in ancient days.
for the ordinances to be observed in the temple built at Nauvoo . . .
to Joseph Smith, as recorded in the Doctrine and Covenants, more than a
to the time the founder of the Mormon church became a member of the
The latter order," the speaker affirmed, "claimed origin with King
but through lapses and departures, which had naturally come into the
order in the
course of time, it had fallen somewhat into imperfection of detail. The
revealed to Joseph Smith ... was the perfect Solomonic plan, under
which no man
was permitted to obtain the secrets of Masonry unless he also held the
then "explained that authentic proof in Masonic history went to show
five lodges of the order, established by Joseph Smith and other members
of the Mormon
church, had been discountenanced by the great organization through
of a mere technicality." The Mormon lodges, Apostle Ballard declared,
been accepting and advancing members in the order by viva voce vote,
by secret ballot as the rules required:' "But," he said, "the technical
offense had been seized upon as a cause for repudiating the lodges
members of an unpopular church." (96)
It is not
our purpose to examine critically some of the assertions made by this
has been said in the preceding pages ‒ and more evidence could be
adduced ‒ to show
that the action of the Grand Lodge of Illinois with reference to the
was due to other causes than the one specified by the speaker quoted.
no objections will be urged here to the acceptance on the part of any
one, of the
statement that the Temple ritual, parts of which have been presented in
was revealed to Joseph Smith ‒ or to any one else ‒ direct from heaven.
will only say, that no evidence has come to his knowledge which points
to any such
It is worthy
of mention in this connection that the prophet records the fact that on
day of May, 1842, he instructed certain of his followers "in the
and order of the priesthood, attending to washings, annointings,
the communication of keys pertaining to the Aaronic priesthood, and so
on to the
highest order of the Melchizedek priesthood setting forth the order
the Ancient of Days.....," and that, "In this Council was instigated
ancient order of things for the first time in these last days." (97)
course does not preclude the possibility of the "revelation" of this
having been received much earlier than the date given, as is held by
of the church." (98)
"Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Illinois," 1843, p. 85.
(55) Ibid, pp. 95-96; Cf. "Proceedings of Grand Lodge of Illinois,"
p. 320. This last reference relates to Charleston Lodge No. 35. The
Returns and Work found that this lodge, in one instance, had initiated,
raised one person, all at the same meeting, and that in other cases
had been given to the same individuals "within a very few days of each
These infractions of Masonic procedure were excused on the ground of
(56) "Proceedings of Grand Lodge of Illinois," 1843, pp. 99-100. (57)
"Masonic Voice-Review," (New Series), Volume XI, 1909, p. 71.
(58) "Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Illinois," 1843, pp. 87, 99.
(59) "Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Illinois," 1844, p. 130.
(60) "Reynolds History of Freemasonry in Illinois," 1869, p. 244. In
Nauvoo Neighbour, March 13, 1844, is this "notice," which appears in
issues of the same paper up to and including that of April 3rd:
The Officers and Brethren of Nauvoo Lodge would hereby make known to
world, that they have fixed on Friday, the 5th day of April, for the
of their new Masonic Hall, to take place at 1 o'clock p.m. All worthy
the Fraternity who feel interested in the cause, are requested to
us in the ceremonies of dedication. Done by order of the Lodge, Wm.
March 13th, 1844." Between the leaves of the issue of this paper for
3rd, the writer found a time-stained sheet of paper, about six by seven
size, printed on one side, double column, and headed: "Hymns to be Sung
the Dedication of the Masonic Temple, on Friday, April 5th." Among the
listed were, "The Hod Carriers' Song," "The Entered Apprentices'
Song," and a "Glee." Evidently, copies of this "dodger"
were distributed to the subscribers of the paper in the manner
indicated, and to
those who participated in the exercises at the time the hall was
(61) "History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph Smith," B. H. Roberts,
VI, 1912, p. 287. (7 Vol Church
(62) "Reynolds, History of Freemasonry in Illinois," 1869, p.255.
(63) "Proceedings Grand Lodge of Illinois," 1846, pp. 328-29.
(64) "History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph Smith," B.H. Roberts,
VI, 1912, p. 349. See also Note, under 60, above.
(65) "Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Illinois," 1844, p. 130.
(66) "History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph Smith," B.H. Roberts,
VI, 1912, pp. 435f.
(67) Ibid, pp. 433-34, 448; "Life of Heber Kimball," Whitney, 1888, p.
350. [Lib 1888]
(68) Ibid, pp. 460-461.
(69) Ibid, P. 545; "Life of Heber C. Kimball," Whitney, 1888, P. 351.
(70) Ibid, p. 549; "Historical Record," Volume VII, 1888, p. 558; "Life
of Heber C. Kimball," Whitney, 1888, p. 351; "Life of Brigham Young,"
[Lib 1893] E. H.
Anderson, 1893, p. 41.
(71)"The House of the Lord," by Apostle Talmage. [Lib 1912]
(72) Ibid, p. 177.
(73) Ibid, pp. 179, 186, 189.
1. "Nauvoo and Its Temple," by Increase McGee Van Dusen and his wife
(24 pp.), 1847. On the title page is the following: "The sublime and
Blended: Called, the Endowment; as was acted by upwards of 12,000, in
the Nauvoo Temple, said to be revealed by God as a reward for building
edifice, and the express object for which it was built."
2. "The Mormon Endowment House," by Mrs. G.S.R.-, Nephi, Utah, Sept.
1879. Published in the Salt Lake Tribune, Sept. 28, 1879, and reprinted
in the same
paper, Feb. 12, 1906.
3. "The Testimony of Prof. Walter M. Wolfe," given before the Smoot
Committee, at Washington, D. C., and published in the Salt Lake
Tribune, Feb. 12,
(75) The writer is indebted to this gentleman for courtesies in
this study, and has not sought or received permission to use his name.
It will be
furnished, however, if any good end is to be served thereby.
(76) "Doctrine and Covenants" Section 124. In this connection it may be
suggestive, at least, to keep in mind the fact, that Hyrum Smith was a
before Mormon settlements were made in Missouri and Illinois, and
the Anti-Masonic crusade was not far removed. During that crusade,
of Masonry were numerous, and widely distributed.
(77) "Nauvoo and Its Temple," Van Dusen, 1847, p. 8.
(78) "The Salt Lake Tribune," Feb. 12, 1906, p. 3.
(79) Ibid, p. 2.
(80) "Nauvoo and Its Temple," Van Dusen, 1847, p. 11.
(81) "The Salt Lake Tribune, Feb. 12, 1906, p. 2.
(82) "Tullidge's Histories of Utah: Northern Utah and Southern Idaho,"
Volume II, 1889, p. 444.
(83) "The Salt Lake Tribune, Feb. 12, 1906, pp. 2-3.
(84) "Nauvoo and Its Temple," Van Dusen, 1847, p. 13.
(85) "The Salt Lake Tribune," Feb. 12, 1906, p. 3.
(89) "Tullidge's Histories of Utah: Northern Utah and Southern Idaho,"
Volume II, 1889.
(90) Ibid, p. 425.
(91) Ibid, p. 426.
(93) Ibid, pp. 444, 446.
(94) Ibid, p. 450.
(95) "The Salt Lake Herald," Dee. 29, 1919.
(97) "History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph Smith," B.H. Roberts,
V, 1909, p. 2.
(98) Ibid. Note. Concerning the matter touched on, under Footnote 97,
says: "This is the Prophet's account of the introduction of the
in this dispensation, and is the foundation of the sacred ritual of the
La Fayette's Relations with the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts
By Bro. Frederick W. Hamilton,
Grand Sec'y, Massachusetts
Where and when La Fayette became a Mason is not known.
There are at least two quite definite traditions,
but neither rests on any very substantial basis of historic fact. Not
it was on the eve of his momentous diplomatic mission to France when he
twenty-one; almost certainly it was in an army lodge; very probably it
was at the
instance and in the presence of Washington. What is more likely than
should have desired to weave the bond of Masonic brotherhood around the
who was to play so delicate and important a part in the relations
between the great
Mason who commanded the American army and that other great Mason,
diplomat, Benjamin Franklin, who was American Ambassador to the French
When La Fayette
made his last visit to the United States the Grand Lodge of
him with distinguished honors, but before doing so appointed a
committee to investigate
and report upon his Masonic regularity. The committee reported that
they had made
careful investigation and were fully satisfied, but unfortunately their
no information whatever as to the evidence upon which this conclusion
to add a further word as to his Masonic relations with the Grand Lodge
That he was made a Mason in the United States has already been shown. I
far found no evidence that he was Masonically active in France. When he
the United States in 1824 and 1826 no greetings were warmer than those
of his Masonic
brethren, and none appear to have been more welcome. I find no record
of his appearance
in Masonic lodges in Boston in any of his numerous early visits to this
he appeared in our Grand Lodge, on the occasion of the laying of the
of the Bunker Hill monument. The apron he wore that day may be seen in
of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts tell of Brother La Fayette's
appearance at a
special communication held on June 17, 1825, and show that the Grand
Lodges of Connecticut,
New Hampshire and Vermont were in attendance, as were the Grand Royal
of Massachusetts and Maine and the Grand Encampment of Rhode Island and
A great Masonic
procession was formed and marched through the streets of the city,
arranged in divisions
and displaying a number of bright banners. A large proportion of Master
clothed with plain white aprons, white gloves and blue sashes. The
Grand Royal Arch
Chapter of Maine appeared in full costume with elegant banners. The
Arch Chapter of Massachusetts was organized in ample form and appeared
elegant banner and flanking banners. A number of chapters under the
of Massachusetts, several of which were provided with appropriate
arranged under the Grand Chapter. All the Royal Arch Masons were
Right Worshipful Brother Roulstone, their Marshal. The Knights Templar
under the command of Right Worshipful Brother Henry Fowle, Deputy
Master of Knights Templar. They were in full dress and displayed the
Knights Templar and Knights of the Red Cross. Six Knights, with lances,
bearing on the points of their lances white pennants on which were
painted the names
of the six New England states.
procession, in turn, became a part of a larger general procession which
the President of the United States in a carriage, and General La
Fayette in a carriage.
The procession then moved to Charlestown and having arrived at the
square on which
it was intended to erect the monument, the whole was enclosed by
troops. Near the
place intended for the corner-stone was erected by the fraternity a
arch on which was inscribed the following: “The Arts pay homage to
this arch the whole body of Masons passed and took up a position on the
the square, the Grand Lodge in front. The president of the Bunker Hill
then requested the Grand Master to proceed and lay the corner-stone.
The Grand Master,
accompanied by the Deputy Grand Master, Grand Wardens, Grand Treasurer
Grand Chaplain and Past Grand Masters, and attended by the Grand
to the place intended, where the president of the association and Right
Brother La Fayette met them. The Grand Marshal by direction of the
commanded silence to be observed during the ceremonies. The working
tools were presented
to the Grand Master, who applied them to the stone and passed them to
Brother La Fayette and the president of the association, who severally
and then the Grand Master declared it to be “well formed, true, and
Finding Yourself -- [A Poem]
man or set of men can find you as you really
It is for you to find yourself and God, He's not afar.
Reverse the plan that men must put you through their every test,
Soul nourishment is yours alone that serves your need the best;
You need not be an epicure nor special diet find,
Your living is that which must be in your own heart refined.
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 46
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "Third Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
on "The Emblems"
The Anchor and Ark
- Recite the monitorial lecture
on "The Anchor and Ark."
- Is the Anchor and Ark symbol a
modern or an old one?
- What does the Anchor typify?
- Of what was it a symbol among
- How was it displayed in those
- What does Lundy say of it?
- Is the symbolism of the Ark as
well-known as that of the Anchor?
- What symbolic significance did
Lawrence Dermott attach to it?
- What did it symbolize to the
- Was the symbol used in the
Ancient Mysteries? In what manner?
- Of what was the Ark a symbol to
the early Christians? Why?
does the Ark mean to us, as Masons?
The Forty-Seventh Problem of
- Recite the monitorial lecture
on this emblem.
- Why should this emblem be one
of particular interest to Masons?
- What prominence did Dr.
Anderson attach to it?
- Is our monitorial lecture on
the emblem generally accepted as accurate in
- Why is its alleged discovery by
- What is the argument of those
who defend the monitorial interpretation?
- Which of the two views given in
the study paper do you believe the most convincing?
- What is a "hecatomb"?
- What does Dionysius Lardner say
on the subject?
- The Encyclopedia Britannica?
- Brother J.F. Thompson?
- What might be added to Brother
- In what manner is the
Proposition a symbol of Brotherhood?
- How did the Egyptians use the
Problem to portray the principle of the "perfect
- How is this symbolism displayed
in "The Three Lesser Lights"?
- Was a knowledge of the
principle of the Forty-Seventh Proposition vital to
the existence of early operative Masonry? Why?
is the triangle symbolism of importance to present-day Masonry?
Vol. IV. ‒ The Anchor and The Ark, p. 324;
Forty-Seventh Problem of Euclid, p.
Geometrical Figures, p. 324.
Lights," Sept. C.C.B. p.
Symbolic Lights," p. 269;
Three Lesser Lights," p.
Anchor and Ark, p. 55;
Forty-Seventh Problem, p.271;
Triangle, p. 800
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
‒ The Emblems ‒ Continued
The Anchor and Ark
SIMPLE as it is, the Ark and Anchor
symbol is very, very old, and around it clusters a cloud of
associations drawn from
many lands and times. An anchor's significance is self-revealing and
needs no interpreter;
is a type of that security which holds a man fast and prevents his
the winds. Nor is it difficult to learn what is this security, for
an almost unanimous consent, has found it in Deity who, while all else
changes not, but overarches the drift of the years with His eternal
will and everlasting love. Mrs. Jameson, in her "Sacred Art and Legend"
says of the Anchor that it was among early Christians "the symbol of
firmness, hope and patience" in which sense it is often displayed in
and on ancient Christian gems, and Lundy says that among the same
was also used as a symbol of Christ's divinity, for in that, as the
held, was man's one stay against sin and human overthrow.
Of the ark it is somewhat more difficult
to speak. Lawrence Dermott, the erratic but brilliant Grand Secretary
of the Ancients,
saw in it an allusion to the Ark of the Covenant, but this is most
In company with the Hermeticists with whom it was a familiar emblem,
sees in it a reminder of the Ark, wherein, according to the old legend,
refuge for himself and family when all else was given over to the
Deluge. But the
story of Noah's Ark itself rests on more ancient traditions as any
reader of such
a work as Dr. Ellwood Worcester's "Genesis in the Light of Modern
will remember. Long before that story was conceived the Ancient
Mysteries were repeating
the story of how some hero god, such as Osiris, was slain, and how his
body was placed in a box, and set adrift upon the waters. The Greeks
a chest an "ark," a word having the meaning of "containing that which
Among the first Christians the ark
was used as a symbol of the church, not only because it was a place of
bruised and hunted souls, but also because the church was then thought
of as a home
for all the family of man. In that great household of faith the
security and fellowship, and protection from enemies, spiritual or
faith found expression in an old, old hymn:
"Behold the Ark of God,
Behold the open door;
Hasten to gain that dear abode,
And rove, my soul, no more."
found their ark in their brotherhood of believers; is it not the same
with us? Is
our Masonic ark the great Brotherhood itself? In the world-embracing
the individual, often so harassed and lonely, finds help, inspiration,
and many a man on whom disaster "followed fast and followed faster,"
found the Fraternity an ark of quiet and protection. Shall we not
believe that even
in the future life such privileges will be granted? Eternity would grow
place without the "dear love of comrades" and the binding closer "of
man to man"
The Forty-Seventh Problem
Here is a
symbol the sovereign importance which has been recognized by almost
our mysteries. Hoffman wrote a book about it; Sydney Klein devoted a
study to it which will be found published in the Transactions of the
Coronati under the title of "The Great Symbol;" Dr. Anderson used it on
the title page of his Constitution and therein described it "as the
of all Masonry if duly observed"; scholars have vied with each other in
to uncover all the riches stowed away among its lines and angles.
Most of these
interpreters, it must be said, have shown considerable dissatisfaction
account the Problem as given in the lecture. There it is said that it
by Pythagoras and that he was so overjoyed by it that he sacrificed a
celebrate his discovery. This has behind it the authority of Vitruvius
so it is hardly credible and that for the following reason: the
known to the "Egyptians long before Pythagoras, and it is possible that
who forbade the killing of animals, should have sacrificed a herd of
oxen so needlessly;
also, the explanation that this Proposition is to teach us to be lovers
of the arts
and sciences, is not very convincing. Those who would defend the
Monitor here urge
that while the 3, 4, 5 triangle may have been used before Pythagoras he
been the first to understand the Proposition as a whole; that his
may have been made of wax figures of oxen, as was sometimes the
practice; and that
the Proposition is so important to mathematics that it may well stand
as an emblem
of all arts and sciences. Between these two views, reader, you may take
may be the attitude of our authorities to the monitorial interpretation
all agreed that the symbol is of the greatest importance. Dionysius
his edition of Euclid, writes: "It is by the influence of this
and that which establishes the similitude of equilateral triangles (in
book) that geometry has been brought under the dominion of algebra; and
it is upon
the same principle that the whole science of trigonometry is founded."
Encyclopedia Britannica calls it "One of the most important in the
geometry, and one which has been celebrated since the earliest times. …
theorem almost all geometrical measurement depends, which cannot be
On its Masonic uses, our interpreters have written with equal
enthusiasm; this one,
Brother J. F. Thompson, says that "In it are concealed more ancient
than all other symbols used by, or incident to, our order. … In it we
the jewels of the Worshipful Master, the Senior and Junior Wardens,"
he might have added, the Apron, the Square, the Tau square, cross, etc.
who wishes to experiment for himself can easily do so by drawing the
the following fashion: lay out a base line four inches in length; at
one end erect
a vertical three inches high; connect the ends of these two lines and
is drawn; this is not the strictly scientific way of going about it but
serve. The point of this procedure is that whenever the vertical is 3
and the base
is 4, the hypotenuse, or long side, will be 5; and the angle at the
the base and the vertical will always be a right angle. After this
manner a man
can always prove a right angle with no mathematical instruments
whatever; what this
meant to the ancient builders, before such instruments were devised, or
into common use, is plain to be seen.
But our concern
here is not with the Proposition as a geometric theorem but with it as
symbol. What is its Masonic meaning? Many answers can be given to this,
but all valuable; of these I can suggest but two or three.
If we experiment
with a group of numbers falling into the series corresponding to 3, 4,
5 we will
find that they will always bear the same relationship to each other. In
the Proposition establishes a harmonious relationship among numbers
Does not this suggest something of the secret of Masonry? We select a
of men; they seem to have little in common; but through our teachings,
and the application
of our principle of brotherhood, we are able to unite them into a
The Proposition is then a symbol of Brotherhood.
made the base line to represent Osiris, the male principle; the
or female principle; the hypotenuse represented Horus, the product of
the two. Suppose
we follow such a method and let the base represent our earthly nature;
our spiritual nature; by a harmonious adjustment of these two a
complete, or perfect
man, will result ‒ the same meaning which we found in the Three Lesser
these two readings of the symbol we might place an historical
ancient builders, as has been repeatedly said, did not have algebra and
nor were they in possession of architectural tables or instruments such
as we have;
nevertheless they were obliged to fashion right angles in the erection
buildings; how could they have done this without the Forty-Seventh
a method so simple that any Apprentice could use it? It is not too much
to say that
there would have been no ancient Masonry without the 3, 4, 5 triangle,
or the principle
embodied in it; therefore it has for us a peculiar value in that it
skill of our early brethren in surmounting their obstacles. And since
is so essential to the exact sciences we may agree with our ritual in
it a symbol of all the arts and sciences. Just as a crown may serve as
of all government so may this triangle serve as an emblem of all
science. And since
Masonry undertakes to make character building into an art or a science
we may also
find in the triangle, as Dr. Anderson said, "the foundation of all
if duly observed."
The Trestle Board Of God -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell. Michigan
Trestle Board, to the consciousness of man,
Whereon he finds his place in nature's plan, ‒
Is not of form whereon aught may be traced,
But in the heart and ne'er to be effaced
Or changed by time while on the onward plod
With his own heart, ‒ the Trestle Board of God.
The Trestle Board of God cannot be stone
Or in or of a form that sects may own;
But the real, ‒ the living nature heart
By which all men may share an equal part.
Alike to those who tread the sod
Are the plans upon the Trestle Board of God.
The heart of God and nature's heart are one
And only there His drawings can be done,
And His designs point to what heart must be
In all that makes for worth and quality.
Not a single form breaks on the onward plod
Of him who reads the Trestle Board of God.
And consciousness, ‒ creation's only thought
May understand what it may thus be taught.
The truth that lives, ‒ as do the stars we scan,
Is only drawn within the heart of man.
And when he comes to read his heart aright
God's Trestle Board will be his Further Light.
A man protesting
against error is on the way towards using himself with all men that
believe in truth.
not in hagarding without fear but be resolutely minded in a just cause.
By Bro. Erik McKinley Eriksson,
The Rise of the Anti-Masonic
HISTORY of the United States contains accounts of numerous minor
parties, each of
which for a time made an unsuccessful struggle for power and then
the political arena. Of all these parties there has, perhaps, been none
as the Anti-Masonic Party which existed in certain states from about
1827 to 1840.
incident" has generally been given as the cause of this party, (1) so,
to arrive at an understanding of the true place of this affair in the
of the party, a brief description is necessary. William Morgan, who
resided at the
time in Batavia, New York, was, on September 14, 1826, arrested on a
charge of petit
larceny, and imprisoned in the jail at Canandaigua. While confined
there, he was
kidnapped by several men and conveyed in a closed carriage across the
Ft. Niagara, where public knowledge of his whereabouts ceased for a
judicial investigations were instigated to solve the mystery of his
It was established that Morgan had been initiated into Masonry at some
to coming to Batavia. Becoming incensed against certain Masons, he
resolved to publish
the secrets of Freemasonry and prepared a manuscript with that purpose
This aroused the more radical Masons who were accused of burning a
in an effort to destroy the documents. It was also brought out that
those who kidnapped
Morgan from the jail and took him to Ft. Niagara were Masons. During
and trial of the accused Masons, public sentiment was raised to a high
excitement by the charge that Masons were hindering justice and seeking
the truth from being divulged. Enemies of the Fraternity charged that
taken Morgan from the magazine of the fort in which he was confined and
him in the Niagara River. Though various Masons were tried for the
no one was ever punished for it. (2) What really happened to Morgan is
still a matter
of controversy. Masonic historians admit that the fact of his abduction
proved, but question the veracity of the evidence that he was murdered.
not deny the fact of his disappearance from Ft. Niagara, but hold that
of his disposal is an unsolved mystery. (3) The autobiographies of
William H. Seward
and Thurlow Weed [Lib 1883; Vol 1, Vol 2 (See Vol 1, Ch
extended accounts of the Morgan
incident, and both hold that Morgan was drowned. But Masonic historians
in questioning their testimony, as both were prominent Anti-Masonic
therefore apt to be biased. Weed bases his account on an alleged
to him in 1831 by John Whitney, a Mason. This man, Weed relates, told
him that he
was in the party which removed Morgan from the magazine of Ft. Niagara.
of the fort was a Mason and connived at the plot. As the story goes,
placed in a boat and told that he was to be taken to Canada and settled
on a farm
in the interior, but when the boat was two miles from shore where the
merges with Lake Ontario, he was bound and weighted and dropped in the
boat returning to the fort. Whitney promised to give Weed a signed
the affair, but the latter neglected to secure it when he met Whitney
at the Republican
convention at Chicago in 1860. When Weed finally wrote to Whitney in
1868 in regard
to the matter he learned that the latter was dead. So we have only
unsupported word for the matter. (4) This fact is stressed, not because
of its importance
in relation to the Anti-Masonic party, but to show the true nature of
Whatever may have been the truth in the matter, the fact remains that
disappeared; the Masons, as an organization, were accused of his
murder; and many
people were ready to take up the charge and denounce the institution as
to be eliminated. The controversy raged on both sides, in press and
were published, (5) and excitement ran high, first in Western New York,
spread to other northern states. The movement did not confine its
attack to Masonry
but directed its fury against all secret societies.
incident" was the match which lighted the fires of political
but it alone would never have brought such a party into being had not
and political conditions been ripe. At the time of Morgan's abduction
in 1826 there
was but one political party, the Democratic-Republican, but underneath
were conditions which made the formation of a new party easy. Though
had disappeared from national polities they still retained a feeble
hold in some
states. New England had never completely entered the
while many of the aristocrats of the north were kept out of the party
by the old
fear of "Jacobinism."' Within the ostensibly solid ranks of the
party, factions had arisen due to jealousy among the leaders for each
various sections were becoming arrayed against each other. The economic
and social ideals of the South, West, and East were different, and
were becoming conscious of the fact. The various divisions, already
1824, were intensified by the election by the House of Representatives
of John Quincy Adams to the presidency. Factionalism was especially
in New York, where a fight had long raged over the Erie Canal. The
the canal were led by DeWitt Clinton; the opponents, known as
were led by Martin Van Buren. However, in 1826, Clinton went over to
leaving the canal supporters leaderless and practically unorganized.
Thus, in western
New York, especially, soil was prepared for the planting of the seeds
of the Anti-Masonic
party, when the Morgan incident occurred. (6)
the basis for the Anti-Masonic party, the element of religion must be
The late twenties and early thirties were a time of great religious
organization of a Christian political party was proposed as early as
of the leading religious men of the country entered the Anti-Masonic
party so that
it became for all effects and purposes, a religious party, wielding
one of its most effective weapons. Churches passed resolutions against
and laymen, and the Masonic order, resolutions which were endorsed by
political gatherings. Among the churches condemning Freemasonry were
Congregational, Methodist, Baptist, Dutch Reformed, Mennonites,
Dunkards*, and Quakers.
(7) The Anti-Masonic movement had all the fanaticism of a religious
organization, whether civil, military, or religious, was free from its
Teachers were removed from their positions and the children of Masons
to attend school, while ministers who were Masons were deprived of
and members of churches were excluded from their churches because they
and denied such privileges as the communion. (8)
Brethren are a small group
of conservative Schwarzenau Brethren churches that withdrew from the
Church of the
Brethren. The Church of the Brethren
represents the largest body of churches that descended from the
movement began in Germany by Alexander Mack and seven other believers.
But the Masons
did not yield ground without opposition. Writers and speakers hastened
of the institution when the attack was begun on it because of the
So effective was the defense that there was a reaction in favor of the
in early 1827. Members of the fraternity entered politics and openly
principles of the Order. This gave the Anti-Masons an opening, and they
the Masons of attempting to use their society for the purpose of
Government. (9) Attempts were made to deprive Masonic bodies of their
rights, and to secure the passage of laws forbidding Masons to hold
perform their rites. The latter met these attacks as best they could.
were generally passed by the Grand Bodies "disavowing all connection or
with the outrage on Morgan and claiming that a whole great Fraternity
be held responsible for the unauthorized and unMasonic acts of a few
(10) In many places they advised either that work be suspended or that
be surrendered. This did not satisfy the opposition "who insisted not
upon the renunciation of Masonry, but also its denunciation." If Masons
to renounce their principles they were strongly denounced, while, if
they did, their
renunciation was regarded as added proof of their wrong doing. Under
Masonic work almost entirely ceased for a time. Even the Grand Bodies
in some of
the states suspended their meetings for years. In New York state about
lodges, or two-thirds of the total number, suspended work and became
in Pennsylvania there were only forty-six active lodges in June, 1838.
were, in every jurisdiction, a few faithful members who kept the work
in hand, and
were ready to revive the Order when the Anti-Masonic excitement died
in the late "thirties" a rapid revival began and the Masonic fraternity
again became prosperous. (11) These events had their effect on the
of Masons in general. It was assumed that these were naturally in
"Jacksonian Democracy," but circumstances forced most of them into the
ranks of the Jackson men. One reason for this was that President Andrew
himself a Mason, was the only one of the great national leaders who
the Order openly. On one occasion, during the heat of the excitement,
that "the Masonic Society was an institution calculated to benefit
and trusted it would continue to prosper." A second reason for the
the Democratic party, was the coalition between the Anti-Masons and the
Republicans, (the other Anti-Jackson party in 1832), especially in the
New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Later, when it became clear that the
party was essentially an Anti-Jackson party, many Masons returned to
Republican ranks and worked with such Anti-Masonic leaders as Thurlow
other facts of interest to be considered in connection with the origin
of the Anti-Masonic Party. One of the peculiarities to be noted is that
it was a
rural movement almost entirely. Its strength lay in the country
the Masons were strong in the cities. (13) It is to be noted further
that the New
England influence was predominant in the movement, though the, Germans,
Presbyterians of Pennsylvania, and the Quakers were strong elements in
Party. The chief strength of the party lay in New England, New York,
and in such
other places as had received immigrants from that section. The chief
as Thurlow Weed in New York, and Thaddeus Stevens in Pennsylvania, were
of New England
leaders were among the shrewdest politicians this nation has ever had,
the movement to suit their own ends after the Morgan incident had
kindled the necessary
excitement. Among; the prominent men who sympathized with the purposes
of this party
were John Quincy Adams, John Marshall, John C. Calhoun, James Madison,
William H. Harrison. Their attitude brought many into the fold of the
The most active of the leaders were Thurlow Weed, William H. Seward,
William H. Maynard, Francis Granger, Fred Whittlesey, John C. Spencer,
Henry D. Ward, Millard Fillmore, and Thaddeus Stevens, ‒ a group of
newspaper men and politicians. These men conducted an active propaganda
of their party. Numerous newspapers were established, one of the most
being the Albany Evening Journal, edited by Thurlow Weed. There were in
less than one hundred forty-one Anti-Masonic papers in New York, New
Delaware, Maryland, Indiana, Tennessee, Virginia, Alabama,
New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Over two-thirds of this
number were concentrated
in two states, New York having forty-five weeklies and one daily, and
fifty-five weeklies. (15)
of strengthening the party was use of conventions. This party was the
first to use
the device of a national convention. One reason this was that the party
few members in Congress that it could not employ a congressional caucus
nominations for national offices. (16) State conventions were also held
Between February 19, 1828, and July 23, 1830, there were six such
New York, including three conventions of seceding Masons; two in
one in Kentucky; two in Vermont; two in Rhode Island; one in Ohio; and
one in Michigan
leaders, as well as many lesser members of the party, travelled about
Anti-Masonic propaganda by means of public lectures and exhibitions.
Among the most
active of these were S.D. Greene, Jarvis Hanks, and Avery Allen, all of
been Masons but had renounced the Order. (18)
The Political Activities
of the Anti-Masonic Party
the conditions which made the rise of the Anti-Masonic Party possible,
will be directed to the party's political activity in various states.
It is not
intended to make an extended survey of this phase of Anti-Masonic
history, but it
is necessary to follow the cause of Anti-Masonry in the states to serve
for the national Anti-Masonic party, which is intended to occupy the
place of chief
importance in this paper.
steps to organize a political party out of the opposition to Masonry
the Morgan incident, were taken in February, 1827, when meetings were
held at Batavia
and at several other towns in western New York, and it was resolved to
support from Masons seeking election to public offices. Thus began a
which spread rapidly throughout the rural districts of western New
became the center from which the doctrines of Anti-Masonry were
success was attained in the election of that year. (19) Thurlow Weed
and other leaders
in New York made attempts to unite the Adams men and the Anti-Masons in
of 1828, but were frustrated by the more radical of the latter who
Southwick for governor. He polled 33,335 votes, while Judge Smith
National Republican candidate, received 106,415 votes, and Martin Van
was elected governor, received 136,783 votes. The Anti-Masons elected
assemblymen and four state senators. The vote on presidential electors
the western part of the state had given Adams sixteen electors while
twenty from the state. (20)
1829 was marked by a state convention which met February 19, 1829, at
most active men at this gathering were Southwick, Weed, Whittlesey,
Holley, Maynard, Tracy, and Ward. One of the most significant events of
was the resolving, on Feb. 20, to hold a national convention at
11, 1830. The election of 1829 was on the whole favorable to the
though the Anti-Masons made slight gains in the state legislature. By
true Anti-Masonry had come to mean Anti-Jacksonism. The National
Anti-Masons were united on most questions, opposing the administration
the leading questions of the day and both supporting the "American
‒ the national bank, the tariff, and internal improvements. (21)
The New York
Anti-Masons showed surprising strength in the election of 1830, their
for governor, Francis Granger receiving 120,361 votes and Emos Throop,
candidate, receiving 128,892 votes. The fact that many Masonic
adherents of Clay
in eastern counties voted for the Democratic candidate rather than for
all that assured the election of Throop. The election of 1831 produced
The greatest source of excitement was absent, since the "Morgan trials"
had been ended by the statute of limitations. About thirty members of
were elected to the state assembly. (23) In the election of 1832 the
party in New York came out with the same platform as the National
"The American system." The two parties united in supporting the same
and state tickets, though the state conventions of each nominated the
candidates put forward by their respective national conventions. In
spite of this
coalition, the Democratic Party carried both the electoral and state
the fall of 1832. (24)
the various German sects, ‒ Mennonites, German Reformed, Amish,
and others; the presence of Scotch-Irish Presbyterians; the Quakers;
and other religious
sects; and the dislike of the people of the Western part of the state
for the Democratic
state administrations' policy in regard to internal improvements,
soil for Anti-Masonic propaganda. Efforts were made to organize the
party in the
western part of the state as early as 1827. Participation in the
election of 1828
was ineffective. The election of 1829 showed the Anti-Masonic party
in the state. The party candidate for governor, Joseph Ritner, polled
while fifteen members of the house and one member of the state senate,
as well as
one congressman, were elected. (25) Ritner was president of a state
at Harrisburg, Feb. 26, 1830, while Thaddeus Stevens appeared as a
election of that year gave the Anti-Masons six congressmen, four state
and twenty-seven members of the house. (26) The Anti-Masonic state
met at Harrisburg, February 22, 1832, nominated Ritner for governor and
the party's candidates on the national ticket. The state administration
and it was charged that Governor George Wolf, a Democrat and a Mason,
the state government under Masonic influences. The coalition was in
that state also, but nevertheless, the Democrats were victorious in the
and New York were the two strongest Anti-Masonic states, several other
active in the movement. The movement was strong in Vermont but this was
much effect since the state was of little importance in national
The Anti-Masonic party was first really organized in this state at a
held August 5, 1829. The chief significance of the movement in Vermont
is that this
state was the only one carried by the Anti-Masonic candidate for
President in the
election of 1832, William Ward. The party's candidate for governor,
William A. Palmer,
was also elected by the legislature after forty-three ballots, the
having proved indecisive. (28) Anti-Masonry as a political movement,
had its beginning
in Massachusetts on November 1, 1828, though as a social movement it
The party first showed strength in the election of 1830 when it elected
senators and about twenty members of the house. The political strength
of the party
in this state was, however, negligible. (29)
Anti-Masonry was introduced into Ohio in 1829, but it was not marked
with such bitterness
as characterized the movement in other states. This state lacked the
questions and the indifferences between sections which characterized
The party failed to prosper and had, in 1831, only fifteen members in
In 1832, a coalition of Anti-Masons and National Republicans was
formed, but was
the Anti-Masonic party appeared in Rhode Island, but it did not gain
until 1831. The party's vote was insignificant, but was important
the Anti-Masons held the balance of power. (31)
Party appeared in Connecticut in 1828. In February, 1829, a state
held. A coalition with the National Republicans in 1832, enabled the
party to elect
sixty-seven members of the lower house of the legislature, eight state
and one United States senator. (32)
in New Jersey early took up the Anti-Masonic cause. The vote in this
state was light,
the vote for Wirt in 1832 being only five hundred. (33)
emigration to Michigan territory carried Anti-Masonry with it. The
party made its
appearance here in 1828 and showed its strength the next year by
electing John Riddle
as the Territorial Delegate to Congress.
states mentioned, political Anti-Masonry appeared in Indiana, Maine,
Alabama, Maryland, and North Carolina. Its career in these states was
and the party never prospered in any of them. (34)
The Anti-Masonic Party as
a National Movement
interest in the Anti-Masonic movement lies in a consideration of its
career as a
national political party and especially in the part played by the party
in the election
of 1832, when it had its own national ticket, in the field. The New
leaders had formed a plan for a strong national organization as early
as 1827. Then
began the search for a man who would make an acceptable national
leader. John Quincy
Adams in a letter had stated that he was not a Mason and never expected
to be. This
made him the national leader of Anti-Masonry in 1828. But, because he
in New York he was not the most acceptable candidate for the party's
nomination in 1832. Henry Clay was considered as a leader who could
unite the Anti-Jackson
forces, but he was a Mason and refused to renounce the Order, though
to it was half-hearted. In a letter he said, "Masonry and Anti-Masonry
legitimately in my opinion nothing to do with politics." In another
he said that the use of the power of the Government "to abolish or
the interest of Masonry or Anti-Masonry . . . would be an act of
usurpation or tyranny."
Giving up hope of securing Clay, the Anti-Masons had to look elsewhere
for a leader.
John C. Calhoun was considered but his advocacy of nullification in
made him unacceptable. Judge John McLean of Ohio was approached and
accept the party presidential nomination to oppose President Jackson in
no other opposition candidate was put in the field. (35)
nomination for the presidency was made the Anti-Masonic party held two
conventions. The campaign of 1832 was opened in 1830 [Lib 1830] when a convention of New York
meeting at Albany resolved to hold a national convention in
Philadelphia in September
of that same year. (36) This convention assembled at the appointed
place on September
11, 1830 [Lib 1830]. Ninety-six delegates were
present from New
York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vermont, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania,
Delaware, Ohio, Maryland, and the territory of Michigan. Francis
Granger of New
York was chosen president of the convention. No attempt was made to
nominate a national
ticket but an address was drawn up by Myron Holley setting forth the
for which the party stood. William H. Seward was delegated to draw up
of the party in the form of resolutions. (37) Before adjourning the
to hold another national convention at Baltimore on September 26, 1831.
It was to
be made up of delegates, equal in number to the Congressmen and the
Senators from each state, who were to be chosen by all those people who
to secret societies. The purpose of this convention was to be the
candidates for President and Vice-President in the election of 1832.
(38) This convention
met as had been determined, one hundred fifteen delegates being present
states. Among those in attendance were Thaddeus Stevens and William
Heister of Pennsylvannia;
John Rutherford of New Jersey; Jonathan Sloan of Ohio; William Sprague
Island; John C. Spencer, Thurlow Weed, William H. Seward, James Burt,
Ward, Gamaliel H. Barstow, James Wadsworth, Myron Holley, Samuel Miles
Timothy Childs, George H. Boughton, James Geddes, David Russell, Samuel
and Nicholas Devereux of New York. When the convention met, John McLean
man in view for the nomination as presidential candidate. It was known
this time that Henry Clay had decided to accept the National Republican
for the presidency. Accordingly, McLean wrote a letter from Nashville
of September 7, 1831, withdrawing his name from consideration by the
giving as his reasons that the multiplication of candidates might so
public mind as to prevent an election by the people. (39) After the
been organized it was resolved to invite Charles Carroll, of
Carrolltown, a signer
of the Declaration of Independence, who lived a short distance from
sit in the convention but he was unable to be present. Chief-Justice
and William Wirt, ex-Attorney-General of the United States, were in the
were invited to take seats in the convention, an invitation which they
(40) John C. Spencer of New York was chosen president of the
convention. (41) When
the first meeting adjourned, Thurlow Weed accompanied by John C.
H. Tracy, and Abner Phelps, called on Wirt, whom they found in sympathy
cause and who consented to the use of his name as the party candidate
A few of the delegates, notably Thaddeus Stevens, were hesitant to
accept Wirt as
the presidential candidate, but were finally won over. (42) On
28, 1830, the formal nomination took place, Wirt being named candidate
and Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylvania being nominated for vice-president.
one hundred eight votes out of one hundred eleven members present. It
was then resolved
to make the nominations unanimous and a committee composed of John
New Jersey, Jonathan Doan of Ohio, and Thomas Elder of Pennsylvania was
to call on Mr. Wirt, to inform him of the convention's action and
request him to
accept the nomination. The convention assembled at eight P. M. that
same day to
receive Wirt's reply. In this address Wirt pointed out what he regarded
as the principals
of the Anti-Masonic party; stated that he had been initiated as a Mason
life but had not attended a lodge for over thirty years, and said that
he had seen
no harm in Masonry until political Anti-Masonry had sprung up. This
so strange, coming as it did from the Anti-Masonic presidential
candidate that it
deserves to be quoted in part. Speaking of the Masonry opposed by the
"But, gentlemen, this was not
not be Masonry as understood by Washington. The thing is impossible.
would be parricide, nor can I believe that in the quarter of the union
I am best acquainted, intelligent men of high and honorable character,
if they have
been drawn into these shocking and impious oaths, can consider them as
to their duties to their God and their country. It is true that after
exhibition of Masonry which we have had in New York, no man of common
sleep over these discoveries, and will take care in every case of doubt
But both justice and prudence demand discrimination for the powers of a
ought not, in my opinion to be prostituted to the purpose of a blind
proscription, involving innocence and honor with guilt and treason, and
no man is
worthy of a nomination to this high office in whose judgment and
cannot be placed to make the proper distinction between them. In the
view of all
honorable men he would deservedly become an object of disgust, if he
to commit himself to any pledges, in a case like this, as the price of
"If with these views of my
opinion, it is
the pleasure of your convention to change the nomination, I can assure
that I shall retire from it with far more pleasure than I should accept
on the contrary, it be their choice to abide by it, I have only to add,
a government like ours, I consider no citizen at liberty to reject a
by so respectable a body, upon personal considerations."
after hearing this address read, unanimously voted to stand by the
the same meeting a communication was received from Amos Ellmaker
accepting the party's
nomination for vice-president. (48) The convention did not draw up a
but issued a lengthy address to the people of the United States, in
which it denounced
Freemasonry; exposed what it purported to be Masonic secrets; reviewed
incident, placing the blame on the Masonic lodge and urged political
action to remove
what it termed a "danger." Stating that the men who filled the nation's
two highest offices should possess the qualifications of industry,
honesty, independence, vigilance, judgment, prudence,
disinterestedness, and patriotism,
it presented its candidates, William Wirt of Maryland and Amos Ellmaker
as being qualified for the offices of president and vice-president
of 1832 was warmly waged, but as the anti-Jackson forces were divided
it could hardly
be expected that Jackson would be defeated for re-election to the
the Anti-Masons and National Republicans been able to unite their votes
Wirt or Henry Clay, instead of running them as rivals their chances
would have been
much better. The more zealous of the Anti-Masons were dissatisfied with
of Wirt, stating that he "had no claim for support of the Anti-Masons
to either Jackson or Clay." The leaders such as Weed, however, were
with their choice. Wirt himself did not act in a manner to arouse
enthusiasm. He was aged and sickly, and expressed a wish to withdraw
from the race
because he failed to unite the party as he had hoped to. (45) Though
and National Republicans were running rival candidates for the
nevertheless formed coalition wherever it seemed expedient, as has been
out in the survey of the political activity of the Anti-Masons in the
coalition was bitterly denounced by the newspaper organ of the Jackson
The Washington Globe. One editorial contained the following vehement
see the Nationals, and the Nullifiers, the political Masons and the
‒ all the malcontents who wish the Government pulled down and
re-edified on their
own principles, or severed and multiplied, to make the chief power
the different aspirants ‒ uniting their strength against one of the
fathers of the
Republic (President Jackson), whose patriotism and popularity rebuke
hopes. We rejoice to see this coalition among factious politicians. It
depravity to the people." (46) Previously, the Globe had expressed
when Wirt was nominated, because it made Clay and Wirt rivals, and so
Jackson opposition. (47) The coalition was especially active in Ohio
and in Pennsylvania.
In Ohio, the Anti-Masonic party was not very strong, so the party
ticket was withdrawn
in favor of Clay. The Globe "played up" this move in the following
"Thus have the leading Anti-Masons bargained and sold their whole party
the Grand Royal Arch Mason, Henry Clay! Will the people who compose
this party ratify
this sale by their leaders? It is not only their votes but their
are bargained away! They are required to support a Royal Arch Mason for
in violation of the fundamental principle of their organization." In
to compensate (as the Globe claimed) the Anti-Masons for their action
in Ohio, the
Clay electoral ticket in Pennsylvania was withdrawn, and the adherents
of the "American
System" were urged to vote for Wirt. (48)
organ used effectively the weapon placed at its disposal by this
which it termed the "bargain and sale." It pointed out that the most
votes Clay could hope to gain were ninety, which was fifty-five short
of the required
number. Since there was no Anti-Masonic ticket in Maine, New Hampshire,
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana,
Kentucky, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, the Globe showed the
of electoral votes that Wirt could gain if he carried every state in
which his party
had a ticket, was one hundred twenty-four, which would be twenty-one
short of enough
to elect him. Having shown this, the editorial stated that it was the
hope of the
coalition, not to elect either Wirt or Clay in the popular election,
but to prevent
a choice by the people, so that Henry Clay would have a chance to
for the Presidency in the House of Representatives, as had been done in
people were urged to vote the Jackson ticket, "the ticket of Union and
unless they wanted to see the events of 1824 repeated. (49)
on which the Jackson organ attacked the Anti-Masons was the bank
question. It attacked
both Wirt and Ellmaker, as it did Clay and Sergeant, the National
because they were all paid attorneys of the Bank of the United States.
an effective attack, for the election showed that the people approved
of the administration
hostility to the bank. (50)
proved an overwhelming victory for Andrew Jackson. When the electoral
vote was counted
before a joint session of congress, on February 13, 1833, it was
that Wirt and Ellmaker had carried but one state, receiving the seven
votes of Vermont. Clay and Sergeant carried five states, Massachusetts,
Connecticut, Delaware, and Kentucky, and, besides, received five of
votes. South Carolina threw her eleven electoral votes to Floyd and
and Van Buren carried the remaining states, Jackson receiving two
votes. Van Buren received only one hundred eighty-nine votes, since
threw her thirty votes for vice-president to Wilkins. (51)
The Decline of the Anti-Masonic
election of 1832, the Anti-Masons rapidly declined both in the states
and as a national
party. However, the party did not disappear from each of the states at
time. New York, the birthplace of the Anti-Masonic party, was one of
the first states
from which it disappeared. The election of 1833 was overwhelmingly in
favor of the
Democrats, they electing one hundred four members of the assembly of
twenty-eight, while the Anti-Masons elected only one state senator.
meant the death of the Anti-Masonic Party and the organization of the
(52) In Pennsylvania, the party did not die out as soon as in New York,
on. In 1833, twenty-three Anti-Masons were elected to the lower house
to the state senate. After 1833, the Anti-Masons voted with the Whigs,
they merged with that party. Before this took place, the party was to
enjoy a period
of prosperity under the leadership of Thaddeus Stevens. The election of
in an overwhelming victory for the party candidate for governor, Joseph
he receiving 94,023 votes to 65,804 for George Wolf. Nine Anti-Masonic
were elected, while all but twenty-eight of the lower house were Whigs
But the Whig-Anti-Masonic coalition went down to defeat in the election
This election showed the Anti-Masons practically absorbed by the Whigs,
party did not entirely disappear until 1838. (53) The election of 1836
Vermont Anti-Masons, for the most part merged with the Whigs. (54) The
of 1836, in Massachusetts, showed all the Anti-Masons except a few
with the Whigs. (55) The Ohio Anti-Masonic party was dealt a death-blow
by the election
of 1832. In 1834, political Anti-Masonry united with the Whigs in that
By 1838, the Anti-Masons of Rhode Island were entirely merged with the
(57) The Connecticut Anti-Masonic Party vote in 1835 was insignificant,
this the Whigs absorbed the remnant of the party. (58) In New Jersey
the party dwindled
away after the election of 1832. (59) By 1838, the Anti-Masonic Party
was no longer
a factor in the politics of the states in which it had flourished.
of 1832 showed that it would be useless again to run a national ticket
on the issue
of Anti-Masonry and the leaders regarded the party as dead politically.
as a national party the leaders wished to swing the Anti-Masons to the
an Anti-Jackson candidate in the next election. Anti-Masons were
unwilling to unite
in support of Henry Clay. Daniel Webster was regarded with favor
because he had
condemned Masonry, but he was a New Englander, and hostile to the
South, so was
unacceptable as a national leader. Finally, in 1835, the Anti-Masons
Henry Harrison, who was also the Whig candidate. But the Anti-Masonic
not entirely lose its identity in the campaign of 1836. A convention,
fifty-three Anti-Masons from the States of Ohio, Pennsylvania, New
York, and Massachusetts,
met at Philadelphia, September 11, 1837, and decided to hold a
in the same city the next year. This convention met on November 13,
1838, and named
Harrison and Tyler as their candidates. These were also the Whig
event practically completed the merger of the Anti-Masonic Party with
the Whig Party,
and was the closing activity of the party, in national politics. Thus
came to an
end one of the strongest parties in American political history. (60)
"Anti-Masonic Party," [Lib 1902] Am. Hist,
Assn. Rep., 1902, p. 370. This authority
holds that the disappearance of William Morgan was merely incidental to
of the party. [Lib*]
(2) Seward, Autobiography, pp. 69-70. [Lib 1877]
(3) Gould, Hist. of Free Masonry, Volume 4, p. 327. [Lib 1889]
(4) Weed, Autobiography, Volume 1, pp. 332-335. [Lib 1883; Vol 1, Vol 2]
(5) Typical of these were: Brown, A Narrative of the Anti-Masonic
defense of Masonry; and Giddins, The Anti-Masonic Almanac, [Lib
attacked Masonry, and revealed what it purported to be the secrets of
(6) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, pp.
(7) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, pp.
(8) Gould, Hist. of Free Masonry, Volume 4, pp. 327-328.
(9) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, pp.
(10) Gould, Hist. of Free Masonry, Volume 4, pp. 327-328.
(11) Gould, Hist. of Free Masonry, Volume 4, p. 328; McCarthy,
Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, p. 539.
(12) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep, 1902, p.
(13) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep, 1902, p.
(14) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902 pp.
(15) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, pp.
(16) Ibid., p. 549.
(17) Giddins, Anti-Masonic Almanac, Volume 4, p. 45. [Lib 1829, 1930, 1831, 1832, 1833]
(18) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, pp.
(19) Ibid., pp. 372-374.
(20) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, pp.
(21) Ibid, pp. 384-391, passim
(23) Ibid., "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902,
(24) Ibid., pp. 412 ‒ 420, passim
(25) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist.Am.Rep, 1902, pp.
(26) Ibid., pp, 432-35.
(27) Ibid., pp. 437-503, passim.
(28) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic 1902, pp. 604-614, passim.
(29) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic 1902, pp. 515-525, passim. 1902, pp. 515 ‒
(30) Ibid., pp. 526-530, passim.
(31) Ibid., pp. 526-530, passim.
(32) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep, 1902, pp.
(33) Ibid., p. 555.
(34) Ibid., p. 556.
(35) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, pp.
(36) Seward, Autobiography, pp. 76-77.
(37) Seward, Autobiography, p. 79.
(38) Stanwood, Hist. of the Presidency, Volume 1, p. 156.
(39) Weed, Autobiography, Volume 1, pp. 385-389.
(40) Ibid., p. 390.
(41) Nile's Register (1831), Volume 41, p. 83.
(42) Weed, Autobiography, Volume 1, pp. 390-391.
(43) Nile's Register (1831), Volume 41, pp. 83-85.
(44) Nile's Register (1831), Volume 41, pp. 166-174.
(45) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, pp.
(46) Washington Globe, Aug. 25, 1832, Volume 2, No. 76 (p. 3, column 3).
(47) Washington Globe, Oct. 1, 1831, Volume 1, No. 86 (p. 1, column 3).
Globe, Oct. 27, 1832, Volume 2, No. 94 (p. 2, edurnn 1). (49)
Oct. 27, 1832, Volume 2, No. 93 (p. 4, column 1). (50) "Washington
13, 1832, Volume 2, No. 90 (p. 2, column 3).
(51) Washington Globe, Feb. 16, 1833, Volume 3, No. 23 (p. 1, column 4).
(52) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, pp.
(53) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep, 1902, pp.
(54) Ibid., p.514.
(55) Ibid., p.625.
(56) Ibid., p.530.
(57) Ibid., p.554.
(58) Ibid., p.555.
(59) Ibid., p.555.
(60) McCarthy, "Anti-Masonic Party," Am. Hist. Assn. Rep., 1902, pp.
The Oldest Masonic Bible
Chicago, which is a representative body in the Fraternity and very
the administration of its affairs, owns one of the earliest imprints of
version of the Bible, printed in 1615. It is asserted, according to the
Freemason,” that no Masonic lodge in America has an older Bible. During
celebration of its translation a few years ago this Bible was read from
of the most prominent Chicago churches.
is nearly fifty years older than the one which George Washington was
Alexandria-Washington Lodge in Virginia, which later was also used at
of the corner stone of the national Capitol building in Washington. Up
ten years ago the tiler of Alexandria-Washington Lodge had represented
Masons that theirs was the oldest Bible owned by any lodge in this
has disputed its honor until Brother Elmer E. Rogers of Blair Lodge
to further light.
ONE OF THE
first things learned by the newly-admitted brother is that he shall
learn to control
his desires, that he may improve in our Art. There is a suggestion of a
function in the work in which he is about to engage ‒ to attain noble
a perfected character.
parlance, sin is understood to be the wilful expression of one's powers
those things enjoined by good judgment, wisdom and righteousness.
that such acts be avoided by its members. To practice morality is of
Frequently many things meant for human happiness and the enrichment of
life in general
have been frowned upon as evils, and rules for virtuous conduct have
been from time
to time laid down by society through the enactment of prohibitive
statutes. A more
moderate analysis of some of these things affecting the moral life has
to a realization of the fact that it was not the principle itself that
but a licentious indulgence resulting in the general abuse of such
modified idea has been adopted by Masonry.
must be governed, not by unlimited license, but by moderation and the
self-control. The Doctrine of the Balance, with its teaching about the
proves to us that there is a common medium between two extreme
attitudes; and what
that medium permits as being just and proper, it is wisdom to follow.
of the ascetic and those of the sensualist are both extremes; each
detrimental to the fullest expression of human happiness. Temperance,
virtue of Masonry, provides the middle ground between rigid self-denial
and this Equilibrium keeps us sanely balanced between the two extremes.
saying that “man contains within himself the germ of every conceivable
a truism, and the oft-quoted remark of John Wesley, “There, but for the
God, hangs John Wesley,” made when he saw a young man hung on Tyburn,
is a splendid
complement to Goethe's quotation inasmuch as it singles out a man of
culture and grace as being aware of the need for the subjugation of the
in order to live a life that was worthy of emulation. And the
subjugation of the
lower in man in the interests of the higher is the fundamental ground
on which the
up-building of character becomes possible.
itself is a problem demanding a solution is perhaps the greatest reason
an organization as Freemasonry today. Our Fraternity possesses the most
for presenting this problem to the initiate, for it takes him and
places him in
a “world within a world.”
In this “world
within a world,” the great tragedy of human life is enacted as from the
the grave. “Naked we came into the world, and naked we go out of it,”
here as nowhere else.
biologist, Charles Darwin, closes his famous book, The Descent of Man
Vol 1, Vol 2] with this notable paragraph:
“We must, however, acknowledge,
as it seems to
me, that man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy not only to
other men but
to the humblest living creatures, with his God-like intellect which has
into the movements and constitution of the solar system ‒ with all
powers ‒ man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his
If we may
place alongside of this a phrase from the writings of St. Thomas
Acquinas we shall
have what we may reasonably conclude to be the complementary
conceptions of evil
as they are best expressed from the religious and from the scientific
point of view:
“Man is determined by a
combination of reason
and appetite, that is, by a desire whose object is consciously
apprehended by the
reason as an end to be attained, and he is therefore self-moved.”
herein discussed, is seen to be a matter both of heritage and of
choice, and our
common assent to these propositions, as Freemasons, at least, is
It obviously does not ascribe the authorship of evil to God, and gives
to the abuse of free will as being largely responsible for the moral
in the world. That this free will is recognized as a sovereign
attribute of man,
every Mason may testify for himself, as upon the exercise of his own
he admitted into the Fraternity. Here, then, is one entering into this
a world,” with the regality which Shakespeare attributes to man in the
in these lines of Hamlet:
“What a piece of work is man.
How noble in reason.
How infinite in faculty. In form and moving how express and admirable.
how like an angel. In apprehension how like a god. The beauty of the
paragon of animals.”
even as in the life of the Danish prince, himself a “paragon of animals
and in apprehension
like a god,” the great problem of evil is pertinently the great
his right to live and to attain the highest and noblest ideal within
ceremonies of Masonry brings the candidate to a realization of the fact
solution of the problem of human life depends upon a source of strength
as well as from within himself; that his progress will be everywhere
met by definite
contending forces, and that his struggle toward the summit of his
one of continuous emerging from darkness into light.
of circumambulation serves to accentuate the teaching that life is
lived one day
at a time; that the road is one of many dangers, and that the ultimate
only be obtained through a never-ceasing labor after that which
satisfies the great
within. Man's misdirected energy, like a great Niagara run amuck, is
source of the sinfulness and misery in the world. That energy, properly
would result in great good to the individual, and leave as an
a good that would bless his kin and kind.
One of our
healthful philosophers who has dealt most fruitfully with the great
problem of evil
and the necessity for its eradication, has spoken to us in these
“What we call Evil, must ever
exist while man
exists; Evil, in the widest sense we can give it, is precisely the
material out of which man's free will has to create an edifice of Order
Ever must Pain urge us to Labor; and only in free Effort can any
imagined for us.”
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
IN DAYS when
books were rare, no doubt they were treasured much more than now.
Indeed, we question
whether there be any passion for reading these days, but such a
be contradicted of course by the pronouncement regarding the huge sales
sellers.” Whether or not these best sellers all have character,
into a rather dubious question. A taste for the salacious is the one
too frequently in the enormous outputs of such books, whose realism has
border line that admits of delicacy beyond.
is a function to be performed by realism in the realm of fiction one
after reading such masterpieces as Romain Rolland's Jean Christophe.
Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] A skillful master in the
of human experience with a psychological analysis of the emotional as
it is revealed
in human experience, Rolland's work has been a decided literary
following in the wake of Rolland are a thousand imitators whose chief
to be to ransack the world's darker places that they might coin phrases
life inaccurately, and too frequently in offensive and detrimental form.
with the general run of those who are inveterate readers of best
sellers would be
to discover that their tastes were anything but cosmopolitan. Nay,
more: it often
would indicate that a perusal of a certain type of novel had become an
Even as Billy
Sunday in his pulpitoring antics generates a multitude of lesser Billy
vainly imitating and disgustingly aping him, to the shocking of those
finer sensibilities as to the propriety of religious exercises, even so
a multitude of so-called literary satellites that are persistently and
those realists whose contribution to human happiness is to be rightly
by future generations, rather than ours.
world of fiction has been a potent educational factor, bringing to many
of a variety of fields of knowledge, is without question. But the
to enlighten as to the actual realities of life, whether it be about
sex or the
life of the spirit, has unquestionably possessed serious limitations.
George Moore's Confession of a Young Man [Lib 1917] into the midst of an agitated
could not help (if those who read were influenced thereby) but lessen
tones and act as an inhibitive force upon such ambition and aspiration
that a young
man may have to live a clean, pure life, and yet Moore's Confessions,
the literary genius of the writer that embellishes every page making it
readable, would be a less detrimental force than the spleeny
outpourings of those
who frequently are cited as the authors of best sellers. Moore, in his
dilates upon those vicissitudes of life that are usually attendant upon
of man who has come to be dubbed “a man of temperament.”
We were rather
astonished to learn that it was the fashion of the Parisian diabolists
in the days
of Moore to gloat over any form of cruelty, and this, we are told, was
by which they revealed their superiority over those who adhered to
Moore, himself, for the satisfaction of this abnormality, kept a pet
cultivated his own paganism by watching it devour rabbits alive.
is that this cult of diabolists is a very wide one in the world even
as we seem to see in every direction, an absolute indifference to the
to, at least by former generations in this country, and a particular
of pride in the things that savor of the bestial, vulgar, and
degrading. And nowhere
as it seems to us care these lamentable qualities of tastes evinced
than in the
run of books that, we are told by publishers, all people are reading.
A great editor
who, we understand, receives a larger yearly income than the President
of the United
States, has said that the reason for the inflammatory character of so
many of the
metropolitan journals is that they are catering to people's tastes, and
what they ask for.
In view of
this we believe that the time is ripe for the coming of the man who
will give the
people the kind of literature they need, rather than what they ask for.
or an Emerson is what our generation needs, to give us a robust,
and to remold the tastes of the American people to an appreciation of
works which enrich life, and do not minister so prolifically to its
We need someone
to lift us toward the stars, and not to persistently agitate us to
wallow in the
slime. A Lincoln walking many miles to secure a book is a tremendous
on our generation with its libraries galore, neglected; or if
most for a spree of reading of the stuff that has resulted from the
of certain neurotics.
are the visions of those who still seek the nook with a book, and
be our experience if on our journeyings we could discover those beloved
eulogized by poets who make life's road a friendly one because of their
and inspiring dissertations, resulting from the companionship of those
lived and are still living in the book that they once wrote.
* * *
Two or three
books have come to our study these last few weeks that will probably
to many Masons, should they purchase them. Our recent editorial
discussion of the
Fatherhood of God prompted us to read one of these books ‒ Dr.
Faville's “I Believe
in God the Father,” [Lib*] ‒ with absorbing interest. It is an
forth of the doctrine of the Fatherhood of God from a distinctly
point of view. Pertinent, indeed, is the emphasis upon what would be
upon the world, should there everywhere be an adoption of the
conception of the
Fatherhood of God.
In an early
portion of the book he dilates upon the preference of the word
“Parenthood” to “Fatherhood,”
revealing it to be truer to Jesus' thought and life. The complementary
of childhood that is all-extensive is likewise forcefully touched upon.
that has hitherto been experienced in accepting the conception of the
intimates Dr. Faville, regarding the Fatherhood of God has been due to
with which humanity has clung to certain anthromorphic ideas concerning
in God as Sovereign, or a Supreme Judge, or even as a Supreme Architect
of the Universe,
is too frequently to alienate Him in his contact with life. If there
preeminent in the life and teaching of Jesus that he loved to dwell
upon more than
others, it was his close intimacy with his Father. “I and my Father are
reveals the indebtedness of the world to Jesus for the purest
conception that the
mind of man can entertain regarding the author of life. “Here,” says
he, “is the
world's foremost teacher and leader about God and man and life, about
this and all
worlds. He knew God the Father.” There is a fine passage in one of the
that make this book interpretative of the reason of so much that is
wrong in the
world, and it is wonderfully provocative of thought and deep
much reverence for privilege and too little for the people, too much
for business, too little for the children, too much sacredness attached
too little to humanity: these conditions have come first because we
have not lived
with God the Father and Jesus the Brother.”
We feel that
this little volume will richly enhance the library of religious
Masons may possess. It can be purchased from the Stratford Company,
is the work of Dr. John Faville, D. D., a Congregational minister of
* * *
ago the writer became rather enamored of a philosophy that has paraded
name of Fuerbach, an epitome of which, as it recurs to our mind, was
that “man was
just what he ate.” A blanker sort of materialism, of course, could not
of. It seemed a rather unfortunate thing that a young man, with no
should have been led into the world of philosophy by those who viewed
a standpoint of rank pessimism, but such was our fate. This, no doubt,
made us very
unwise ‒ (this was as true in our case) as it always is with those who
knowledge) ‒ we aired our views promiscuously and certainly much to the
of those dear old souls about us, whose view of life might be
designated as a mild
sort of Puritanism.
We well recall
reading Frederick Engel's little book on Feuerbach [Lib 1903] in a sort of ecstatic frenzy,
indeed implies that rather than thoroughly understanding what was on
page, we were imagining the many things that had been said regarding
the book by
our companions of radical tendencies. The climax of one particular
evening was the
shocking of the good old soul who presided over our household, when, in
of a religious nature, we impertinently exclaimed that there was no
God. We had
sometime previously heard the story of a certain prominent Englishman
propensities who, we were told, had taken out his watch and dared God
him dead at a certain time, if a God there really was, and the narrated
fresh in mind, together with Engel's Feuerbach, no doubt were the
for our foolish outburst.
of our blatant declaration was very stormy and as if intent upon adding
injury we continued the conversation persistently and in deliberate
what seemed to the faithful old souls around us blasphemous utterances
the providences and power of God. We confess it was a terrible frame of
a young man to entertain. From this vantage point of years we view it
as but a natural
expression of one who had not had the advantages of learning, but who
disastrously nursed in the atmosphere of atheistic radicalism, a school
that has not yet ceased its influence, and today probably is basic as a
the promotion of that propaganda which is biasing the minds of men to
life solely with reference to their stomachs and naught else.
came from the reading of Reginald Campbell's New Theology. [Lib 1907] The Christianity evinced it
small volume proved in our case a redemptive force, and while with the
can appreciate the grounds of objection voiced by certain orthodox
much that was in Campbell's notable little book, we have not yet been
able to understand
Campbell's entire repudiation of his own work.
interpretation of life in terms of the imminent God, working out the
of the universe, afforded a ground of intelligible understanding of
what we are
continuously designating as problems of life. We were reminded of the
that we have just narrated, together with what seemed our redemption
from a dismal
materialism, by the reading of a little book on prayer by Aaron Martin
Much of its thought seemed to be a reflection of the idea of the
imminent God of
Campbell's New Theology. The comprehensive title under which most books
character are known today is New Thought, which ever postulates a
as the casual agency of all phenomena, rather than the fortuitous
concourse of atoms
of the scientists of materialistic propensities that dominated the
middle half of
the nineteenth century.
and reasonable work, it delineates in a very convincing fashion the
of God and man. Of course there is a fatal tendency toward pantheism
and it is only
saved from such doctrinal nature by its insistency upon the
individuality of man.
We have not been able to appreciate to the extent that the author
desires, the function
of prayer in the art of healing, yet the case is lucidly stated as he
from the experience and method of Jesus.
work indicates the great reasoning qualities of the author. “Ask and
is a challenge to those who doubt the efficiency of prayer, and a
to those who believe in its power. As Masons we have been taught to
aid before entering upon any great and important undertaking.
work is published by Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co., Boston, at
* * *
We have hitherto
drawn attention to some of the works published under the name of
a Californian who is interested in the science of mind, showing how to
and find the personal spirit. There is a kinship in fundamental
character to the
book that we have so recently spoken of. While volumes have been
written to emphasize
the influence of mind over matter, many of them but duplicates of
others, the province
of showing that basic in the action of mind over matter is the
universal mind itself,
still affords for the metaphysician a field for work. There probably is
a real need
for such literature at this juncture when the solution of all problems
along lines of legislation.
If men were
possessed of a philosophy that would enable them to govern their inner
doubt much of what is inharmonious and distress-breeding in the world
affect them in a much lesser degree than today. Any work that
forth that man, in an immeasurable degree, is the shaper of his own
worthwhile. The traditional quotation attributed to Solomon that “As a
in his heart, so is he,” cannot be emphasized too greatly. We must, of
the speculative deductions regarding the unseen world as they are
expressed in such
works as Mr. Holmes' with some reservation, while avoiding the ugly
will evoke unnecessary contention.
made good use of Maeterlinck. His citations of the Eberfield horses are
emphasize the presence of intelligence and an understanding mind in
we feel that all about the Eberfield horses has not yet been told, but
an admirable setting forth that all the universe is but a
materialization of the
thought of divine mind, and we have little doubt but that many to whose
little volume comes, if they but read sympathetically rather than
they will gain much from its perusal.
Becoming – Lib 1920] It is published by the
McBride Company of New
Fork and is uniform with the other volumes of Mr. Holmes' that have
presented to the public.
In all lands,
and among all people, Freemasonry has been found on the side of
and political righteousness; it has stood against wickedness among the
lowly; it has spread the light of social and political truth; it has
a high code of ethics for men and governments; it has withstood evil
works of private and public beneficence.
But as eternal
vigilance is the price of liberty, it is up to us, the lovers of
freedom, to keep
the temple of government in order. We must recognize that the forces of
are ever present and that there are those who take liberty for license.
ye, our rite is not the warrior's rite; yet we are lovers of this our
own fair land;
and we shall maintain its liberty-inspiring principles to the last
ounce of gold
and the last drop of human blood. But, to maintain this patriotic
spirit, we must
have a state worthy of our service and devotion. Our concern must be
for the well-being
of every individual; our judgments must be impartially administered,
and we must
see to it that the scales of justice do not tip to the weight of gold.
teaches the democratic spirit-democracy of state, of social reforms, of
and of race. These teachings will tend to strengthen our faith in one
renew our allegiance to humanity, no matter how it is encased. Our
patriotism based on something bigger, greater, and better than identity
mutual forbearance, the divine gift of “seeing ourselves as others see
us”; a supreme
loyalty to ourselves, our country, our families, and our God; the
stronger than death to make life worth the living.
Bro. Louis F. Hart, Washington.
never alone that are accompanied with noble thoughts.
Sir Philip Sidney.
A good intention
clothes itself with sudden power.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
“Bulletin Course of Masonic Study.” When requested, questions will be
by mail before publication in this department.
The Religious Teachings
I am sure
that you are both willing and able to give me the following much
Masonry really teach with regard to God? That is as to His general
character; His dealings with men; His gifts, that is spiritual and
His glory; His goodness; His joy over His people; His law; His
triunity; His revelations
I would highly
appreciate your answer to the above ten questions.
B. M. H., North Dakota.
Charges, generally adopted by Grand Lodges as fundamental law, and
which were ordained
to be read “at the making of new Brethren, or when the Master shall
order it,” provided
in the very front of the 1723 [Lib 1723] Constitutions of the
that, “concerning God and Religion”:
“A Mason is obliged by his
Tenure, to obey the
moral law; and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a
nor an irreligious LIBERTINE. But though in ancient Times Masons were
every Country to be of the Religion of that Country or Nation, whatever
yet 'tis now thought more expedient only to oblige them to that
Religion in which
all Men agree, leaving their Opinions to themselves; that is, to be
good Men and
true, or Men of Honor and Honesty, by whatever Denomination or
Persuasion they may
be distinguish'd; Whereby Masonry becomes the Center of Union, and the
conciliating true Friendship among Persons that must have remained at a
enunciation of principles we may reasonably infer that Freemasonry is
but not a religion. For a religion teaches some particular system of
faith and worship,
involving of course a belief binding the spiritual nature of man to the
Being. But to be religious is to have in action a conscientious faith
in the Divine,
a thorough and genuine living fidelity, devout and devoted, expressing
in the affairs
of this world an abiding conviction of the next one rewarding the good
in due season
for all present ills. Religion is some faith formulated for mankind
Supreme Power, but to be religious is for mankind to exhibit faith in
Freemasonry, religious but not a religion, insists upon no creed beyond
in God, acceptance of the Bible as a source of instruction, and belief
in the assurance
the sole dogma of Freemasonry,” is recognized by the Grand Lodge of
as the first Landmark. See page 4 of the Constitutions, 1918.
Furthermore, the preamble
to the Constitutions of the Craft in that State says on page 1:
“Freemasonry . . . is religious
in that it teaches
monotheism, the Volume of the Sacred Law is open upon its altar
whenever a Lodge
is in session, worship of God is ever part of its ceremonial, and to
and Brethren alike are constantly addressed lessons of morality; yet it
is not theological.”
of the Grand Lodge of Ohio for 1911, page 38, say:
“As Lodges we know no creed
except belief in
God and to be good men and true.”
Lodge of Ohio, “Code of Masonic Jurisprudence,” Section 15, page 112,
“No religious test shall ever
be required of
any applicant for the benefits of Masonry other than a steadfast belief
in the existence
and perfection of Deity; and no Lodges under this jurisdiction shall
candidate without the acknowledgment of such belief.”
and especially as these quotations are similar to the statements of
Lodge jurisdictions of the United States, Freemasonry ignores all the
of sectarianism but holds fast to the foundation principles wherein
Freemasonry very wisely does not endanger the unity of its fellowship
over any of the details of whatsoever religion has in the past aroused
among theologians of the several schools. Our Masonic profession is
seen by the
laws here summarized to be the noble practice of the basic faith,
leaving to each
other his own interpretation of theology, merely requiring of every
conception of God in which we can all agree.
we have not here considered Freemasonry beyond the confines of this
fraternity in Sweden and in France have widely different beliefs upon
matters as officially acknowledged in these respective countries but we
now examine that phase of the situation as the queries at present
likely to lead us sufficiently far afield and the thorny topic of
is too involved for any brief discussion here.
further say that the Bible, in James 1, 26-27, has something very much
to the point
which may be quoted as a conclusion:
“If any man among you seem to
be religious, and
bridleth not his tongue, but deceiveth his own heart, this man's
religion is vain.
Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, to visit
and the widows in their affliction and keep himself unspotted from the
R. I. Clegg.
* * *
The True Royal Arch Emblem
Can you inform
me of a Chapter emblem different from the keystone which seems to have
adopted as that of a Royal Arch Mason?
is not a Royal Arch emblem, but simply the emblem of the Mark Master
Royal Arch emblem is a triple-tau cross within a triangle, enclosed
within a circle.
A Flash of Masonic Light
1919, I found myself in the city of Omsk, in faraway Siberia, where I
as an American Y.M.C.A. secretary with the Czechoslovak troops which
in that city. The atmosphere was not a pleasant one; every day we heard
suffered by the army of Admiral Kolchak, who at that time styled
himself the Supreme
Ruler of All Russia, though his rule extended only there where his
covered by American, Czechoslovak and other Allied armies. This
government was very
unpopular because it was in the hands of inefficient reactionaries,
who, like Bourbons,
did not forget anything and learned nothing. Russian officers, of whom
about sixteen thousand in that place, paraded on the streets in their
while the army at the front suffered because of the lack of leadership.
Kolchak, though a good and honest man himself, was entirely helpless;
he was surrounded
by members of the old imperial regime who imagined that the country
them and their particular interests, his orders were not obeyed, the
army at the
front was robbed even of the most necessary provisions. Therefore one
need not wonder
that the Allies slowly began to reject the temporary government which
down with the greatest possible speed. One city after another was
occupied by Bolsheviki
troops, revolutions were breaking out all over the Tran-Siberian
Railroad, the station
at Omsk was full of refugees who were telling us about the atrocities
committed by Red troops, every rich and influential citizen was selling
all he had
and escaping to Japan.
a few Americans in that doomed city. In the first place the
position was an extremely difficult one, was located there. The
American Red Cross
had a hospital with about 1000 beds, under the able supervision of Bro.
F. Jackson, M. D., who had left his home in the Hawaiian Islands in
order to help
these people who needed American medical services and materials. Then
we, five Y.M.C.A. secretaries, who were doing our best in helping
Russian and other Allied soldiers, besides working among Austrian and
Each of us
felt the depressing conditions. We knew of the discontent that was
brewing in the
bosom of the Russian population. We were fully aware of the fact that
not trust his own army for we had seen officers of high rank
shouldering guns and
doing guard duty on bridges, before barracks and other governmental
And we were
thousands of miles away from our dear ones, with only one railroad
us and the Pacific Ocean. There were many tunnels along that great
railway and we
knew that, should they be blown up by thoughtless revolutionary
fates would be sealed. But our duty kept us in our places, and I know
of the Americans would have left his place even if he could.
On one of
those excited days I was approached by a Red Cross man who knew me to
be a Mason,
who invited me to come that night to the Hotel Modern where Masons were
for fellowship and friendly counsel.
to say, when the hour arrived I was there. Nine brothers of the
me and we then sat down at one of the tables where we were sure of not
ordered a delicious Russian dinner and opened this extraordinary
hailed from Hang Yang Lodge No. 1043 in Seoul, Korea, another from
Bluff City No.
71, in Council Bluffs, Iowa. Arcana Lodge of Seattle, Wash., had a
as did Forest Grove No. 3, of Oregon. There was a brother from Bon
Homme No. 101
of the Grand Lodge of South Dakota. California had two representatives,
Morning Star No. 68, and another from Mariposa No. 24, also a brother
from a Hawaiian
lodge, and last but not least, a Mason who was initiated, passed and
raised in a
lodge in Dresden, Saxony.
We had a
most interesting time. Not one of those present will ever forget that
Here were brothers who had traveled in Central and South America, in
the Orient, Europe, Africa and I do not know where else, who told us
how in every
country they found Masonic hands outstretched and open fraternal
hearts. Every one
present related his Masonic history. It was dark when this meeting
as I walked home through the dark streets of Omsk (there being no
lights in that
city which at that time sheltered about one million people) I could not
of the great power of the Masonic light which found me even in that far
dark country and gave me such fellowship, such warmth and such peace
which is known
only to those who know that great and mysterious word which we all love
Miloslav Filipi, Wisconsin.
* * *
Educational Work in the
U. S. Army
I have read
with deep interest the several articles that have appeared in THE
BUILDER on the
subjects of Americanization and Education, and I thought that it might
that you and some of my brother readers would like to know something
about the steps
that our Federal Government has taken along these important lines.
It is not
intended in this article to give you a detailed account of the history
of the Recruit Educational Centers of the United States Army, but to
call your attention
to certain facts which should be of interest to every red-blooded
American no matter
what his or her profession or business, and that is, Americanization.
present laws all the public education is primarily the function of the
and not of the Federal Government. We had in this country according to
of 1910, eight and one-half million people who were entirely
illiterates or could
not read and write the English language. This is a greater number than
of the Dominion of Canada at that time. The organization of our
national army by
the draft act, showed that 24.9 per cent of male population between the
age of 21
and 31 years were unable to read an American newspaper or write a
letter home to
furnished the man power for the building of the National Army, but no
taken of the fact that to produce a highly trained soldier, one of the
required is to be able to read and write and be able to understand the
in which he is to be instructed in. This was only one of the many
the Army worked out in those first days of the war; of course the first
these lines were different in each camp and many were the different
ways taken by
the various Commanding Officers to accomplish this end, and here were
steps that the Army made toward what is now the Recruit Educational
Centers of the
United States Army.
have six Recruit Educational Centers in the United States Army: Camp
C., Camp Lewis, Wash., Camp Travis, Texas, Camp Dix, N. J., Camp Pike,
Grant, Ill., six large mills that are working day and night producing
at the rate of from thirty to one-hundred men per school every two
to determine the educational acquirements which are called for by the
test, Dr. R. B. Teachout, Psychologist of the Recruit Educational
Center, gave the
Army Literacy test to the children from the third to the eighth grade
in four of
the Rockford, Illinois, Public Schools. It was found by an examination
tests that the children in the sixth “B” grade averaged about 15 points
on the Army
Literacy test. This was then taken as our standard for the graduates of
Educational Center at Camp Grant, Illinois, which indicates that the
ability of the men that have graduated from this Center is equal to the
reading ability of the children in the sixth grade of the Public
that in the public schools there is a difference of only three points
in the literacy
tests between the children in the third grade and in the sixth grade
after a certain degree of literacy is acquired, it requires a much
longer time to
make a proportional increase in reading ability.
Educational Center at Camp Grant, Illinois, is closely connected with
the Camp Recruit
Detachment where every recruit for the Sixth Division is sent as soon
as he is enlisted.
As a recruit comes into the Recruit Detachment those of whom there is a
about their literacy are sent to the Recruit Educational Center where
Psychologist gives these men the Army Literacy test. Men who fall below
the 12 points
on this test are ordered to the Recruit Educational for a course of
As these men enter the school, they are given an intelligence rating by
Intelligence Examination for illiterates known as the Beta test. By
means of the
information secured by this test, the men are grouped in different
to their intelligence, so that in each group there are men of
practically the same
mentality. When this grouping according to intelligence has been made,
the men are
sent to the classification room which is called the pool. In this room
performances of the men are determined by a capable instructor, and the
to one of the first six of the eight levels in the school. In this work
in the classification
room, those men who are unable to speak the English language enough to
in the regular classes in the school are placed in a special English
they are given instruction in speaking the English language.
of this double classification according to intelligence and educational
it is possible to have in each group men who have practically the same
and reading ability. By this very fine classification it is possible to
of time and make every minute of instruction count for the utmost.
Each of the
eight levels in the school represents two weeks work; at the end of
each two weeks
all men in the school are given an examination and rated according to
If his rating is high enough to promote the man, he goes into the next
if it is too low to promote him he remains in the same level in which
he has been
and stays there until he is able to pass the requirements for a higher
means of these bi-weekly examinations the fine classification which is
the man enters the school can be maintained permanently.
eight levels of two weeks' work each, it takes men who start in the
sixteen weeks or four months to complete the course; men who are
started in the
higher levels can and do complete the course in less time.
of the material used in the Recruit Educational Center course is
adapted to accomplish
the two-fold aim of the school. In the first place, the material is of
such a nature
that it is a usable means by which the man can be taught the mechanics
and writing. While this is not the most important aim of the school, it
is one of
the things that must be done before anything else can be taught. If the
in the school are unable to read and write, it is impossible to give
and facts which will help to accomplish the second and most important
aim of the
work, which is Americanization of the men.
The man who
has never learned to read and write the English language has, by the
of the limitations which have been placed upon him, been unable to
learn those things
that make it possible for him to appreciate the American institution
spirit. If he is given the mechanics of our language, he has a tool by
can get for himself anything that he desires to know about our country,
to awaken in the man a desire to know more about the country in which
the material which he reads while in the Recruit Educational Center is
as to give him a bird's-eye view of the great field of printed pages
that are open
to him by his mastering of the English language. He learns the high
points of American
history; he reads of the lives of our great men, and learns the most
about our Government; he is taught that a good citizen owes certain
to his Government.
department teaches reading, writing, arithmetic and government;
is done to give the man all that is possible in the time that he has to
his study. It is not an unusual sight to see a large number of the men
class rooms taking their books to their barracks so that they may use
them in the
evening to study their work that they have in the class rooms.
now has three full companies of one-hundred and fifty each, divided
into four platoons
to a company. Even a man is assigned to the Recruit Educational Center
he is sent
to one of these three companies where he is placed in one of the four
that company; if he has had no military training at all he is placed in
platoon or lowest platoon; if he has had some military training he is
given an examination
by the officer in charge of drill and assigned to the platoon that
the degree of military training that he has had. Examinations in
are held every two weeks and promotions made in each platoon to the
platoon. With this system the man completes his military training at
the same time
that he completes his educational training.
in drill is given in what is known as the cadence system, that is, the
tell the men what to do and they give the commands and execute them. By
ore not only teach the man to speak English but bring into use a method
we obtain coordination of mind and body and bring into use the sense of
as an aid to learning the drill. The course of instruction in drill
covers the school
of the soldier, squad, platoon and company which is the elementary
training of all
soldiers regardless of branch of service.
work at the school is so arranged that each man receives for five days
a week three
hours educational and four hours military of which one hour is physical
Saturday mornings are devoted to company inspections and such other
as required by the Company Commanders. Saturday afternoons and Sundays
for the men to visit the city or spend as they wish. No other duties
of the men while at the school except those connected with their
educational or military.
Training course covers army calisthenics, apparatus work, boxing,
out-door games such as baseball and football. The object of the course
training in this school is to develop the physical attributes of every
to the fullest extent of his possibilities.
American All Squad
Barret De T. Lambert, 54th Infantry officer in charge of squad.
Corpl. Martin J. Knovpka, 2nd Company R. E. C., born in Russia.
Pvt. Louis Chassie, 2nd Company R. E. C., born in Cuba.
Pvt. Alfred Marringer, 2nd Company R. E. C., born in Canada.
Pvt. William Hermanson, 2nd Company R. E. C., born in Norway.
Pvt. Brani Dulski, 2nd Company R. E. C., born in Poland.
Pvt. Joseph Weneut, 1st Company R. E. C., born in Lithuania.
Pvt. Joseph Rozmeski, 1st Company R. E. C., born in Bohemia.
Pvt. Angle Martinez, 1st Company R. E. C., born in Spain.
Pvt. Stanley Kaspozski, 1st Company R. E. C., born in Hungary.
squad was part of the last class to graduate at the center in the month
and gave an exhibit before the Union League Club at Chicago on January
of this kind have appeared before delegations of the Chambers of
Commerce and other
civic bodies interested in the subject of Americanization of the cities
Ill., Cleveland, Ohio, Toledo, Ohio, and others. It is a fair sample of
of the classes turned out of this school every two weeks. No member of
has been in the United States Army longer than six months; only one
member of the
squad could read when he entered the school; none of them could write
or do simple
sums in arithmetic; now every member of the squad can read, write and
do any simple
sum in arithmetic. The longest time spent at the school by any member
of the squad
is four months and the shortest is two months and ten days. There are
nine men representing
nine different countries.
We have had
in the past six months as high as forty-five racial groups in the
school at one
time, and almost one-half of the attendants have been American-born
America has been spoken of as the melting pot of the world; if that be
then the Recruit Educational Centers of the United States army are the
squad that appeared before the Union League Club of Chicago was
the Sir Knights and their ladies on our last social night oft Crusader
No. 17, here in Rockford. Illinois.
B. De T. Lambert. Illinois.
1829 Anti-Masonic Almanak
Gid29AA1 / auth. Giddins Edward. - Boston : Office of the Anti-Masonic
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1830 Anti-Masonic Almanak
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1831 Anti-Masonic Almanak
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1832 Anti-Masonic Almanak
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1833 Anti-Masonic Almanak
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Ask and Receive
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Being and Becoming
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Book of Constitutions
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Confessions of a Young Man
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Feuerbach - The Roots of the
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History of Freemasonry
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History of Freemasonry
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History of Freemasonry
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History of Freemasonry
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Jean-Christophe Vol 1
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Jean-Christophe Vol 2 In Paris
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Jean-Christophe Vol 3 Journey's
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Latter Day Saints History Vol 1
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Latter Day Saints History Vol 2
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Latter Day Saints History Vol 3
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Latter Day Saints History Vol 4
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Latter Day Saints History Vol 5
Rob09LD5 / aut. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1909. -
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Latter Day Saints History Vol 6
Rob12LD6 / aut. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1912. -
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Latter Day Saints History Vol 7
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Life Including his Autobiography Vol 1
Wee83LA1 / aut. Weed Thurlow. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and Company,
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Life Including his Autobiography Vol 2
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New York Anti-Masonic Convention
Unk30 / aut. Unknown. - Utica : Wm Williams, 1830. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
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The Anti-Masonic Party
McC02 / auth. McCarthy Charles. - 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 211. - 14.7
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Dar71DM1 / auth. Darwin Charles. - New York : D Appleton and Company,
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The Descent of Man Vol 2
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The House of the Lord
Tal12 / aut. Talmage James E. - Salt Lake City : The Deseret News,
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The Life of Brigham Young
And93 / auth. Anderson Edward H.. - Salt Lake City : George C. Cannon
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The New Theology
Cam07 / auth. Campbell Reginald J. - London : Chapman & Hall,
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Anti-Masonic Convention Philadelphia
Unk301 / aut. Unknown. - Philadelphia : I F Trimble, 1830. - Vol. 1 : 1
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