Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
General Lewis Cass
the first Grand Master of Masons in Michigan, was born in New Hampshire
and died in Detroit in 1866. He was the son of a General Officer in the
Army. Early in life he took up the duties of a schoolmaster ‒
fortunately for him,
for if there is anything which gives to a man an understanding of a
is the attempt to teach it. The family moved to Ohio, where Lewis
studied law, and
in 1802 was admitted to the bar. He married in 1806 and soon thereafter
to the legislature. He drew up the address to Jefferson, embodying the
the legislature on Aaron Burr's expedition, and drafted the law under
boats and provisions, built and collected in Ohio, were seized.
In the War
of 1812 Cass was a Colonel in the Ohio Volunteers under General Hull.
He was promoted
to be a Brigadier General, and at the end of the War was appointed
Governor of what
is now the State of Michigan, and in that capacity was Superintendent
Affairs. During his term of eighteen years in this office he negotiated
treaties, securing, by concession of the Indian tribes, immense tracts
of land in
the Northwest; instituted surveys, constructed roads, built forts and
counties and townships.
In the year
1815 he purchased, for $12,000, a homestead tract of five hundred acres
which the subsequent growth of the city made valuable. He explored the
and the headwaters of the Mississippi, the report of his explorations
published in the North American Review for 1828-9.
Secretary of War under President Jackson in 1831, and was Minister to
remarkable incident of his diplomatic career was his attack on the
for the suppression of the slave trade, which led to his resignation,
He was elected
United States Senator in 1845, an in 1846 was Democratic nominee for
He was reelected to the Senate in 1849, the year of the “gold fever” in
Though instructed by the legislature of Michigan to vote for the
he vigorously opposed it, which shows his independence and fealty to
in lieu of his State. In 1850 he was made a member of Clay's compromise
but did not vote for the fugitive slave bill. At the Baltimore
Convention in 1852
he was a candidate for the Presidential nomination, but was not
successful in securing
In 1854 he
voted for the Douglas Kansas-Nebraska bill proposing the repeal of the
compromise, but which included a provision embodying Cass's suggestion
in the famous
Nicholson letter to leave to the inhabitants of the territories the
power to regulate
their own institutions, subject only to the constitution. Subsequently
to obey the wish of the State legislature as to his vote on the Kansas
Secretary of State in Buchanan's administration, during the most trying
that their first fealty was to their State, this sentiment having come
the time of the Colonies; the National constitution was silent on the
of a State's secession. Cass was a democrat, in the dictionary sense of
his fealty was to the commonwealth, while most of the other of the
particularly Mr. Davis and Mr. Cobb, thought differently. The writer
in Washington at the time and, while under age, was cognizant of much
in the executive departments. The President believed the war was a
flurry, or a
bluff, and even after Fort Sumter was fired upon we all thought the war
last three months. Mr. Cass had urged upon the President to reinforce
but the latter could not conceive of the gravity of the situation. He
fond of Mr. Davis, the Secretary of War, over whose desk such an order
and in the President's hesitancy Mr. Cass resigned. It was a pity. It
was lack of
vision on the part of the President. He may have been misled by the
apathy of his secession surroundings in breaking with the government,
but he lacked
begins personal friendships and old associations are forgotten. The
Mr. Capers (in Charleston) tell of that first shot. It was aimed at the
the West, as she entered the Harbor of Charleston to reinforce Sumter.
was a member of Colonel Stevens' battery, says that Stevens, apparently
with emotion, looking upon the old flag at the peak of the Star of the
“Boys, it almost breaks my heart, but, Number One, fire!” and that was
shot of the war. Then Senator Wigfall, of Texas, (who had never heard
of an angry shot), said, on the floor of the Senate, “You sent the Star
of the West
into Charleston Harbor; we fired on her, and you dare not resent it!”
memorial to General Cass, shown in the frontispiece, is an enduring
tribute to one
of the bravest, wisest, far-seeing men the Nation ever produced. The
the pride of Detroit.
tell us that there never has been a woman Freemason. Perhaps that is
question has been called to the attention of the able scholar and
who contributes this series of articles. Can Freemasonry enlarge its
include women or must they forever remain outside the pale? If they are
to be made
Masons in literal truth in what way can we reorganize the ritual so as
certain features which might prove embarrassing to them? If they cannot
into full membership in what way can the spirit and teachings of this
be made available to them? Since Freemasonry began to be this has been
a moot question;
it is still. It will be for years to come. It is a theme of perennial
For this reason we are very glad indeed to give to our readers the
mature judgments of a scholar who has every right to speak on this
the Antient Charges forbid the admission or initiation of women into
the Order of
Free and Accepted Masons, there are known instances where as the result
or sometimes design the rule has been broken and women have been duly
The most prominent instance is that of the Hon. Elizabeth St. Leger,
or, as she
afterwards became, on marriage, the Hon. Mrs. Aldworth, who is referred
though erroneously, as the “only woman who over obtained the honor of
into the sublime mysteries of Freemasonry.”
Elizabeth St. Leger was a daughter of the first Viscount Doneraile, a
Cork. Her father was a very zealous Freemason and, as was the custom in
‒ the early part of the eighteenth century ‒ held an occasional lodge
in his own
house, when he was assisted by members of his own family and any
brethren in the
immediate neighborhood and visitors to Doneraile House. This lodge was
and held the number 150 on the Register of the Grand Lodge of Ireland.
runs that one evening previous to the initiation of a gentleman named
Miss St. Leger hid herself in the room adjoining the one used as a
room was at that time undergoing some alterations and Miss St. Leger is
have removed a brick from the partition with her scissors and through
thus created witnessed the ceremony of initiation. What she saw appears
disturbed her so thoroughly that she at once determined upon making her
but failed to elude the vigilance of the tyler, who, armed with a sword
her exit. Her shrieks alarmed the members of the lodge, who came
rushing to the
spot, when they learned that she had witnessed the whole of the
ceremony which had
just been enacted. After a considerable discussion and yielding to the
of her brother it was decided to admit her into the Order and she was
and, in course of time, became the Master of the lodge. According to
Irish Masonic historian, she was initiated in Lodge No. 95, which still
Cork, but there is no record extant of her reception into the Order. It
on record that she was a subscriber to the Irish Book of Constitutions,
in 1744 and that she frequently attended, wearing her Masonic regalia,
that were given under Masonic auspices for the benefit of the poor and
She afterwards married Mr. Richard Aldworth of Newmarket and when she
died she was
accorded the honour of a Masonic burial. She was cousin to General
Antony St. Leger,
of Park Hill, near Doncaster, who, in 1776, instituted the celebrated
St. Leger races and stakes.
Hadik Barkoczy, who was born in 1833, was the sole heiress of Count
and being the last of her race was permitted by the Hungarian Courts to
place of a son. She succeeded her father on his death in 1871, in the
Majorat of Barkoczy. In 1860 she married Count Bela Hadik, aide-de-camp
to the unfortunate
Emperor Maximillian of Mexico. With her inheritance she came into the
of an extensive Masonic library. She was a highly educated lady, and
made the Masonic
literature her earnest study; and having mastered the statements
every degree in Freemasonry, an ardent admiration for the Masonic idea
in her. She was well acquainted with some Freemasons, through whom she
to gain admittance into the Craft. Her desire was granted and in 1875,
she was duly
initiated in the Lodge Egyenloseg, in Unghvar, holding a warrant from
of Hungary. On hearing of this glaring […] of the statutes the Grand
Orient of Hungary
instituted proceedings against the brethren who had been guilty of this
of the Masonic vow, unjustifiedly conferring Masonic Degrees, doing
that which degrades
a Freemason and Freemasonry, and for knowingly violating the statutes.”
of the Council was given at their meeting on January 5th, 1876, when
all the accused
were found guilty. The Deputy Master of the lodge was condemned to the
loss of all
his Masonic rights and expulsion from the Order forever; the officers
to have their
names struck off the lists and the other members of the lodge to be
a space of three, six, or twelve months. But still the question
remained as to whether
the duly initiated Countess could and ought to be looked upon as a
and whether she could claim all the rights of a member of the
Fraternity. On this
point the Grand Orient of Hungary decided in their meeting held on 10th
1. The Grand Orient declares the
admission of the Countess Hadik Barkoczy to
be contrary to the laws, and therefore null and void, forbids her
any lodge of their jurisdiction, under penalty of erasion of the lodge
rolls, and requests all Grand Lodges to do the same.
2. The Countess is requested to
return the invalid certificate which she holds
within ten days, in default of which measures will be taken to
the certificate whenever produced at any of the lodges.
a Norfolk lady, it is said, contrived to conceal herself behind the
in a lodgeroom, where she learned the secret of the First degree,
before she was
discovered, upon which she herself was initiated. There is, however, no
record of this incident, which rests largely upon tradition.
Xaintrailles, the wife of General de Xaintrailles, was a member of an
and it is said that she was afterwards initiated into Craft Masonry.
is said to have occurred at the close of the eighteenth century, but
this also rests
largely upon tradition.
of Madame de Xaintrailles is told by Clavel in his Histoire Pittoresque
de la Franc-Maçonnerie
(French)] but neither date nor place is mentioned:
the rule which forbids women admission to lodges is absolute, yet it
has once been
infringed under very remarkable circumstances. The Lodge of Les Frères
presided over by Bro. Covelier de Trie was giving a Fete of Adoption.
introduction of the ladies the brethren had begun their ordinary work.
visitors who were waiting in the ante-chamber was a young officer in
of a major of cavalry. He was asked for his certificate. After
hesitating a few
moments he handed a folded paper to the Expert-Senior Deacon, who,
it, proceeded to take it to the Orator. This paper was an
issued to Madame de Xaintrailles, wife of the General of that name,
who, like the
Demoiselles de Fernig and other Republican heroines, had distinguished
the wars of the revolution and had won her rank at the point of the
the Orator read to the lodge the contents of this Commission the
general. They grew excited and it was spontaneously decided that the
not of Adoptive Masonry, but of real Freemasonry, should be conferred
then on the lady who so many times had displayed all the virtues of a
man and had
deserved to be charged with important missions which required as much
discretion and prudence. They at once proceeded to acquaint Madame de
with the decision of the lodge and to ask her if she would accept the
favor. Her reply was in the affirmative. 'I am a man for my country,'
'I will be a man for my brethren.' The reception took place and from
that time Madame
de Xaintrailles often assisted in the work of the Lodge.”
Lodge, No. 120 on the Roll of the English Constitution of Free and
is said once to have numbered a lady among its members. It is a
tradition of the
lodge that, in 1770, Mrs. Havard was proposed as an honorary member and
therein, in order that she might have the necessary qualification.
There is, however,
no record of such initiation. The Palladian Lodge, it may be stated,
in 1762 and celebrated the centenary of its existence in 1862.
modern instance of a woman claiming to be a member of a recognized
is that of Mrs. Catherine Babington, whose Biography was published by
her son, J.
P. Babington [Lib 1912], himself a member of Lee
Lodge, No. 253, Taylorsville,
N. C., U.S.A., the third edition of which was issued in 1912. Mrs.
the only daughter of Charles and Margaret Sweet, and was born at
Kentucky, on 28th December, 1815. Near her grandfather's house the
said to have met in the upper story of a building in a room designed
for a church,
in the corner of which an old-fashioned pulpit had been erected and
it is said she concealed herself from time to time during a period of a
a half, and where she frequently saw and heard the various Masonic
Finally, the story goes on, one of her uncles, named Ulen, who had left
in the ante-room, went back to get it, and saw Kate emerging from her
place of concealment.
When they got home he and his brothers summoned her before them to find
she had learned about Freemasonry. Having ascertained the extent of her
the question arose as to what was to be done. And the story runs:
suitable uniform of red flannel was made and she was taken to the lodge
was obligated as a regular Mason, but not admitted to membership.” The
day she took
the obligations was the first and last time she was ever inside a
(where she could be seen) while it was at work. She knew Masonry and
posted up until a short time before her death; but never attempted to
visit a lodge.
On one occasion, it is related, while they were considering her case in
she was met on the outside by a party of masked men who demanded that
she tell them
what she knew about Masonry; and relating the incident to her uncle,
she is reported
to have said: “They might kill me, but they could never make me tell
Masonry.” Many incidents are told of her use of Masonic signs and words
in her travels
through Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee,
States; but most of them are seemingly improbable, if not impossible.
died in Shelby, N.C., where she was buried, and the “Shelby Aurora,”
which was owned
and edited by a member of the Craft, describing the funeral, stated:
“At her death
she was the only female Mason in the United States and was well versed
in the workings
of the lodge.”
curious advertisement appeared in the “Newcastle Weekly Chronicle” of
“This is to acquaint the public
that on Monday,
1st inst. being the lodge or monthly meeting-night of the Free and
of the 22nd Regiment, held at the Crown, near Newgate, Mrs. Bell, the
the house, broke open a door with a poker, by which means she got into
room, made two holes through the wall, and by that stratagem discovered
of Masonry, and knowing herself to be the first woman in the world that
out the secret, is willing to make it known to all her sex. So that any
is desirous of learning the secrets of Freemasonry, by applying to that
woman (Mrs. Bell) who has lived fifteen years in and about Newgate, may
in all secrets of Masonry.”
In the “Edinburgh
Courant” of 2nd December, 1772, there appeared the following paragraph:
“A few nights ago a regular
Lodge of Freemasons
was held at the Star in Watergate Street, in the city of Chester, when
a woman who
lodged in the house, concealed herself in a press in the lodge room in
satisfy a painful curiosity she had a long time imbibed of discovering
of their secret meetings; but the ever wary and careful fraternity,
making a timely
and secret discovery of the place of her concealment, assembled
her hearing, and after repeating the punishment which they always
inflict on every
person whom they detect prying into their secrets, opened the press and
out, almost dead with apprehension of what she was to suffer, which had
effect on the humanity of the brethren then present, that they
to dismiss her, without doing her any other injury than that of a
for her folly.”
lodge held at this particular house at this time was the principal
lodge in the
Chester Division of what are known as the Operative Freemasons. This
body has certain
officers known as “Searchers” and their duty is to search the
lodgeroom, as well
as all other rooms which are either under, over, or adjoining the
the tradition is that the woman was discovered by the Searchers before
lodge was opened.
in her Diary, published in 1859, claimed to have been initiated in a
lodge in Paris.
Under date of January, 1819, she wrote:
“Well, here I am, a Free and
according to the old Irish Masonic song. When we drove to the solitudes
of the Rue
Vaugirard, Faubourg St. Germaine, we found the court of the Hotel la
all the premises full of carriages: Belle et Bonne magnificently
dressed in white
satin and diamonds, with Voltaire's picture round her neck, set in
us in the salon with a sort of solemn grace, very unlike her usual
Madame la Generale Foy, the wife of the popular militaire, stood beside
Royal Highness Prince Paul of Wurtemberg, the Bishop of Jerusalem,
de la Rochefoucault, in full dress, looking very like his illustrious
Les Maximes; Denon, the Count de Cazes, pair de France (brother to the
the Duc de Cazes), General Favier, and many others whom we knew, were
and muttered their conversation in little groups. At half past eight
they all proceeded
to hold the Chapter for the installation of the Dames Ecossaises du
to the programme, we, les dames postulantes, remaining behind till we
for. I really began to feel some trepidation, and the stories that I
had heard from
my childhood upwards, of the horrors of the trial of a free Masonic
to my mind, red hot poker included. At nine o'clock we were summoned to
'Overture de la Cour des Grands Commandeurs.' When the battants were
a spectacle of great magnificence presented itself. A profusion of
crimson and gold,
marble busts, a decorated throne and altar, a profusion of flowers,
incense of the
finest odor filling the air, and, in fact, a spectacle of the most
scenic and dramatic
effect ever presented itself. Such of the forms as are permitted to
reach the ears
profane are detailed in the programme. We took the vows, but as to the
shall never pass these lips, in holy silence sealed.”
It is clear
that this was one of the many Adoptive lodges then in existence.
to the records of the Lodge Sincérité held at Klattau, Bohemia, the
charter of which
was recalled in September, 1780, a women's lodge was formed as an
membership of which was confined to the wives of the members of the
An exception to this rule was made in favor of the Baroness Chanowsky
who is described as “the most honest, virtuous, and fairest lady.” This
worked under the name “The Three Crowned Hearts”; but, with the
exception of its
by-laws, no records of any kind concerning the activity of the lodge
have been left.
A Master Mason managed the lodge as its Master, the office of Treasurer
occupied by a Master Mason, but, with these options, all the other
women. The by-laws stipulated that the members should be “God-fearing,
modest, honest, of righteous heart, obliging as well as charitably
the poor.” The initiation could not take place when the candidate was
health. The petitions were passed upon by the Master as far as
were concerned in accordance with the petitioner's circumstances or
the amount of dues was fixed by the candidate herself.
purpose of the lodge was purely moral and virtuous. Besides impressing
members the observation of secrecy, they were strictly admonished to
harmony, union, and unblemished behavior, with the exclusion of
arrogance. They were also strictly given in charge to utter words of
commit defamatory acts nor were they allowed in any circumstances to
illicit love affairs. The special task of strengthening the members in
of a virtuous life was in the hands of the Master and the Woman Orator.
were used to assist a sick sister or brother in the event of misfortune
The Constitution and By-laws of this lodge are in the archives of the
in Prague, Bohemia. The creation of the lodge contributed in no small
the difficulties which afterwards befell the parent Lodge Sincérité,
of which, in the main, army officers belonging to the Dragoon Regiment
Purton Cooper, F.R.S., a well-known Freemason of his day, addressed the
communication to the editor of The Freemasons Magazine, which appeared
in that journal
of April 4th, 1863:
“In the autumn of 1831, whilst
on a visit of
importance to the 'domaine' of La Favée, near the village of St. Eusèbe
in Burgundy, then belonging to myself, but now belonging to my
Viscount Delagueriviere, I became acquainted with an octogenarian lady,
de G----, owner of another 'domaine' in the neighborhood. The Countess,
I was a Mason, spoke with singular delight of her 'reception au grade
in a Paris lodge about 1780 and regretted that a sudden and lasting
change of residence
‒ France to Italy ‒ had prevented her proceeding to a higher degree.
Her early days
had been spent with her mother and grandmother at Dijon, both of whom
had been members
of lodges there ‒ one of the Loge La Concorde and the other of the Loge
The MS. “Constitutions
of the Freemasons,” bearing date 1693 have occasionally been quoted in
the contention that at one time women were admitted into the Masonic
of the clauses runs:
“The one of the elders taking
the Booke, and
that he or shee that is to bee made a Mason shall lay their hands
thereon, and the
charge shall be given.”
IN the same
manuscript there is more than one reference to the “Dame” as well as
records of the Lodge of Operative Masons held at Mary's Chapel,
Edinburgh, it is
evident that the widows of Master Masons could, to a limited extent,
position of “Dame” or “Mistress” in a Masonic sense,
of Apryle, 1683. The whilk day, in presence of Thomas Hamiltone deakone
Harvy warden, and remnant masters of the masone craft, in
corroborations of the
former practise quhich was of use and wont amongst them, it is statute
that it shall be in tyme or in no wayes leithsome for a widow to
or to imploy jurneymen in any manner or way, but if such work as
of the deceased husbands or any other ouner who may out of kyndnesse
offer the benefite
of their work to the sd widoes be ofered unto them, than and that caice
be leithsome to them to have the benefite of the work, providing
alwayes that they
bespeake some freeman by whose advyse and concurrance the worke shall
and the jurneymen agreed with, quhich freeman is hereby charged to be
inhibited to participate of the benefite arriessing from the sd work,
paine of douhling the soume reaped and arriessing to them by the sd
and to the prejudice of the sd widoues, and contrare to the intent of
mette for this tyme; and lykewise to underly the censure of the deakon
in all tyme coming, if they shall think it expedient to punish them for
and circumventione of the said widoues. Written and subscribed by order
consent of the deakon, warden, and masters by Ar. Smith, Clerk.”
In this connection
mention must be made of the famous Chevalier D'Eon. D’Eon de Beaument
was born at
Tonnerre in Burgundy on 5th October, 1728, and, in 1755, received an
at the Court of Louis XV. After a successful career in the diplomatic
1764, doubts began to be expressed very freely as to his sex. So
notorious did the
matter become that between 1769 and 1777 a scheme of “Insurance on the
sex of M.
le Chevalier (or Mlle. la Chevaliere) D'Eon” resulted in policies to
of 120,000 pounds being effected.
discussion was at its height, the Chevalier was initiated as a
Freemason in La loge
de l'Immortalite, a French lodge under the English Constitution,
bearing the number
376 on the roll of the Grand Lodge of England. The lodge was formed in
its headquarters were at the Crown and Anchor in the Strand. He
proceeded to the
Third degree in January, 1769, and in the same year was appointed
of the lodge. Fearing that an attempt to kidnap him might be made by
those who had
effected policies on the issue he was sheltered by Earl Ferrers at
near Ashby-de-la-Zouch. Earl Ferrers in 1762 and 1763 held the position
Master of England.
In 1777 an
action was brought by a policy-holder against an insurance broker to
sum secured by the policy, when two witnesses swore in Court that, of
personal knowledge, the Chevalier was a woman. All doubt was, however,
set at rest
by D'Eon's own admission that “he” was a woman. The King of France
the Chevalier should “resume the garments of her sex” and the command
To her credit, let it be said that she never again attempted to enter a
lodge, but after her death, there was found the manuscript of an essay
and Quakerism,” in which she said:
“What I say here about Masonry
is not meant to
win the Gold or Silver Medal, advertised in the London 'Courier
Français,' but only
to win, in my heart, a prize graven on the Masonic Compass and
Triangles, each point
of which, like the Trinity, rests on Truth, Virtue, and Benevolence,
of Equality and Justice between brothers by birth and by Christianity,
Brethren by Masonry, enlightened by the Sun of Truth, inasmuch as this
is the Truth
held by the primitive Christians of Jerusalem and Antioch. But since
Latin, Gallican, and Anglican Churches have organized themselves into
bodies, they deride, individually and collectively, the somber Society
of good Quakers,
who are good only at whining, snivelling, and having no power among
the Freemasons have established themselves in Worshipful Lodges, in
order to laugh,
drink, sing at their ease, and display benevolence towards their
Brethren and Fellows
dispersed over the Earth, without infringing the Laws of Moses or of
They spread sunshine, God's consolation, and true happiness in the
heart of all
human beings capable of appreciating simple Virtue. The happiness of
the well-being of the Material World are to be found in Nature, Reason,
and Simplicity, and not in huge bodies compiled by Philosophy and
advertisement appeared in the Publick Advertiser, of 7th March, 1759:
“Whereas the mystery of
Freemasonry has been
kept a profound secret for several ages, till at length some men
at the Dover Castle, in the Parish of Lambeth, under pretense of
knowing the secret,
and likewise in opposition to some gentlemen that are real Freemasons,
a Lodge at the same house; therefore to prove that they are no more
and as the ladies have sometimes been desirous of gaining knowledge of
art, several regular made Masons (both ancient and modern) members of
Lodges in this metropolis have thought proper to unite in a select body
Silvester's, the sign of the Angel, Bull Stairs, Southwark, and style
Unions, think it highly expedient, and in justice to the fair sex, to
therein, provided they are women of undeniable character; for though no
yet (except the Free Union Masons) have thought proper to admit women
into the fraternity,
we, well knowing they have as much right to attain to the secrets as
humbugs have thought proper so to do, not doubting but they will prove
to the Craft; and as we have had the honor to inculcate several worthy
those that we desirous and think themselves capable of having the
on them, by proper application, will be admitted, and the charges will
the expenses of our Lodge.”
advertisement appeared in various English newspapers in the early part
“C. LOGE C. “Avertissement aux
dames, etc., ‒ Pour vencre
que les Francs Massons ne sont pas telles que le public les a
représenté en particulier
le sexe féminine, cette loge juge à propos de recevoir des femmes aussi
des hommes. “N.B ‒ Des dames seront introduits dans la loge avec la
ou le serment ordinaire et le real secret leur seront administrées. On commencera à recevoir des
Jeudi, 11 de Mars, 1762, at Mrs. Maynard's, next door to the Lying Inn
Brownlow-street, Long Acre. La porte sera ouverte à 6 heures du Soir. Les
et Messieurs sont priés de ne pas venir après Sept. Le prix est 1 pound
of Mormonism and its Connection with Masonry in the Early Forties
By Bro. S. H. Goodwin. P.
G. M., Utah
of this paper contemplates a consideration of the introduction of
the Mormons at Nauvoo, and a brief study of some of the outstanding
the midst of which Masonic work was done in that community up to the
time when ‒
and shortly after ‒ it was disowned by the Grand Lodge of Illinois.
In the latter
part of April, 1839, the first steps were taken toward the
establishment, in Illinois,
of a semi-theocratic community under the leadership of Joseph Smith,
prophet. Similar attempts had been made by this teacher of a new faith
Ohio, and at several points in the state of Missouri ‒ all of which had
a disastrous conclusion. The “why” of these failures does not lie
within the province
of this paper.
On the date
named certain of the Mormon leaders came up from Quincy, some fifty
miles down the
Mississippi river ‒ whither they had fled from their troubles in
Missouri ‒ and
definitely fixed upon a location for a new settlement. The site of this
included the straggling village of Commerce.
On the first
of May, the initial purchase of land was made by a committee headed by
Soon other extensive holdings were secured and a year later, when a
was established there, the Post-master General re-christened the place
in deference to the wishes of the settlers. (1)
To this place
the Saints gathered in large numbers, coming especially from Missouri,
troubles had beset them. In consequence of this movement Nauvoo
experienced a phenomenal
growth, for those times. Within two years from the time the first land
by Joseph Smith, the population had grown from almost nothing to more
thousand, and when Grand Master Jonas instituted Nauvoo Lodge, March
between eight and ten thousand people made their homes there. (2) Three
Nauvoo enjoyed the distinction of being the largest city in the state
and, with the exception of St. Louis, it had no rival in the Northwest.
came originally from the older sections of the country and from foreign
particularly from England, and were largely the fruits of the
policy which has distinguished this church from its inception.
who were attracted by the proclamation of this new evangel were a
number who were,
or had been, members of the Masonic fraternity. Prominent among these
were Dr. John
C. Bennett, an Ohio Mason, Heber C. Kimball ‒ one of the first apostles
and a trusted
friend of Joseph Smith and Brigham Young ‒ who had received the degrees
New York, and Hyrum Smith, the prophet's brother, who was also a New
the summer of 1841 these Masons addressed a communication to Bodley
Lodge No. 1,
located at Quincy, in which they asked for the usual recommendation in
they might establish a new lodge at Nauvoo. This request was denied,
assigned by Bodley Lodge being that “.... as these persons are unknown
to this lodge
as Masons, it was thought prudent not to do so. (4) A recent writer
informs us that
not only was the recommendation withheld, but also that Bodley Lodge
the granting of a dispensation to the Nauvoo brethren. (5) However that
on October 15th, 1841 ‒ ten days after the close of Grand Lodge ‒ Grand
issued his dispensation authorizing a lodge at Nauvoo, and five months
15th, 1842, he paid an official visit to that place and set the lodge
In this connection
it may not be amiss to note the fact in passing, that the Grand Lodge
was barely one year old when the Nauvoo dispensation was issued, and
were few, if any, over one hundred members in the constituent lodges of
The natural desire for increase of numbers may have had something to do
the action of Grand Master Jonas in this case.
very first, the movement to establish a Masonic lodge in Nauvoo appears
been regarded with suspicion and distrust by Masons elsewhere in the
particularly by the members of Bodley Lodge No. 1, at Quincy. (6) This
may have been due, in part, at least, to the tales and rumors of
had followed the Mormons from Ohio and Missouri. But there were other
history of the period now under review points unmistakably to certain
religious, social and personal forces and considerations which were not
a positive, and very great, influence on the character and fortunes of
lodges, and which did much to shape Masonic opinion concerning those
their membership. At the risk of a seeming digression, space must be
to a consideration of some of these elements of the situation, for
shall find ourselves without either clue or background.
sinister forces of the time which reacted unfavorably, politics played
part. With the rapid increase of population at the Mormon center came a
on the part of the politicians of the state, that the Mormon vote was a
must be reckoned with. And the concern of the leaders of the two
was in way lessened when they discovered the fact, that, for all
the leaders of the church could turn the Mormon vote to the one party
or the other,
as their plans or needs might dictate. If there lingered any doubt on
in the minds of any, must have been set at rest when the prophet
that he and his people would support the men and party who were
friendly to their
interests. (7) As a result, both Whigs and Democrats sought by acts of
and promises of help, to win this support. Nor were the leaders of
slow in making use of their power.
At the general
conference of the church held in October, 1840, it was decided to
petition the State
Legislature to incorporate the town of Nauvoo, and committee of three,
Joseph Smith and Dr. John C. Bennett, was selected to draft the
and bill. These documents were taken to Springfield by Bennett, who
appears to have
been a shrewd lobbyist, in December of that year. When presented, the
to have met no opposition. It passed the lower house with only one or
votes, and the Senate with none at all. (8) Indeed, we are informed by
wrier that in the House of Representatives the bill was not even read,
title. Yet there were in the Assembly at the time such men of later
as John A. Logan, Lyman Trumbull and Abraham Lincoln. (9) And Stephen
then Secretary of State, of Illinois, and leader of the Democratic
Party, used his
influence to expedite the passage of the bill. The act granting the
charts to Nauvoo
was signed by Governor Carlin, December 16th, 1840.
which “included charters for the Nauvoo Legion and the University of
the City of
Nauvoo,” was of a most extraordinary character. The only restrictions
the city council was that no law should be passed which was repugnant
to the Constitution
of the United States or the Constitution of the State. Among other
granted by this remarkable instrument was that of issuing writs habeas
the municipal court. (10) This feature as the sequel shows, was a
it was so liable to abuse. And it was abused. It was the misuse of such
brought the city and state authorities into conflict, fed the fires of
opposition and furnished a pretext for mob action.
time that the Nauvoo Masons were taking the initial steps in the
a lodge Judge Stephen A. Douglass, then one of the Justice of the State
Court and located at Quincy, visited Nauvoo, addressed the people, was
by Joseph Smith, and while there appointed Dr. John C. Bennett Master
As noted above, Douglass had aided in securing the passage of the act
for Nauvoo, and had thereby won the gratitude of the Saints. His action
in the present
instance increased the favor with which he was regarded by Joseph Smith
people. But it brought upon him the unsparing criticism of his
and from this the people whom he had so signally favored did not
Indeed, so caustic was the criticism levelled at Douglass by one paper
‒ the Warsaw
Signal ‒ that Joseph Smith, in a vitriolic communication addressed to
of that paper, ordered his subscription cancelled. (11) On another
long after the Nauvoo lodge had been set to work, Douglass adjourned
court in order
that he might visit Nauvoo and witness the review of the Nauvoo Legion.
connection with the elections of that fall Joseph Smith published an
which he declared that the Mormon people did not care a fig for Whig or
that they all looked alike, and that he would support those who had
to be friends of the Mormons, adding, “Douglass is a master spirit, and
are our friends. We are willing to cast our banners on the air and
fight by his
side.” (13) In the gubernatorial election, which resulted in the choice
Ford for Governor, the situation had become so tense that the opposing
Joseph Duncan, felt justified in making opposition to the Mormons one
of the chief
planks of his platform. (14) The curious who may be desirous of seeing
to what lengths
politicians were willing to go in those days to secure the support of
and his followers, are referred to some of the speeches made before
in Illinois during the early forties. (15)
been said above to indicate somewhat of the methods employed by the
of those days and the sacrifices they were willing to make for party
The effort to win the Saints to the support of one political party or
continued to be a factor in their affairs as long is they remained in
it was this rivalry to secure their political adherence that made it
them to secure such unusual favors and to wield the influence they did
affairs. And it was this rivalry that made them alternately courted and
those who would use them. (16)
which at first blush might seem to be rather remote from the subject,
none the less militated against the Masonry of Nauvoo, developed in the
the south of that in which the city of the Saints was located.
previous to the date upon which Grand Master Jonas issued his
dispensation to the
Nauvoo brethren, a campaign was begun to secure the removal of the
Quincy to Columbus. Quincy was the home of Bodley Lodge, while Grand
lived at Columbus. Naturally, the Grand Master was in favor of the
while quite as naturally the prospect of losing the county seat did not
itself to the people of Quincy and the membership of the Masonic lodge
good deal of bitterness was engendered as a result, and feeling ran so
when the Grand Master sent communications to the nine papers in
advocacy of the
change, those reflectors of public feeling and opinion refused to print
Not to be baffled in his purpose to carry on the fight, Grand Master
Jonas and some
of his friends went to St. Louis, purchasing the necessary printing
it to Columbus and began the publication of the Columbus Advocate, the
of which indicated the purpose for which it was established. While this
the Grand Master with a medium through which he might express his
views, it did
not tend to mollify the feelings of the people of Quincy. One result
that the members of Bodley Lodge lost no opportunity to embarrass the
and the lodge minutes and the proceedings of Grand Lodge show how this
reacted unfavorably on the Nauvoo lodges. (18) But, while the
machinations of slanderous
politicians, and the venom and ill-feeling engendered in an extraneous
over a county seat were each influential in the affairs of Nauvoo and
neither was as baleful in its effects or as portentous of evil for all
as were certain events which even then were taking place within the
month previous to the visit of Judge Douglass to Nauvoo, when he
C. Bennett Master in Chancery, viz., April 5, 1841, Joseph Smith took
plural wife. (19)
so far as the available records show, was the first instance of the
polygamy, or “the great and glorious principle of plural marriage,”
(20) the doctrine
had been taught by Smith to certain of his followers fully ten years
According to the records, the principle was first impressed upon the
mind of the
prophet in 1831, and from the same sources we learn that immediately he
known to a few of his close personal friends, and that they in turn
passed it on
to certain others. (22) Although the revelation on plural marriage, as
in Doctrine and Covenants, was committed to writing July 12, 1843 ‒ at
Joseph Smith had not less than twelve plural wives, and other leaders
of the church
had followed the prophet in this practice ‒ it was not officially
a doctrine of the church until some years subsequent to the settlement
digression at this point may be justified by the interesting fact that
as late as
1865 Brigham Young ‒ in conversation with a prominent visitor, who was
figure of national importance at the time ‒ gave the impression that he
for the revelation on plural marriage. As reported in the Journal of
the president of the church declared, “… that the revelations of the
Covenants declared for monogamy, but that polygamy was a later
by God to him and a few others, and permitted and advised to the rest
of the church.”
It is a matter
of record that Joseph Smith began teaching this principle actively,
great caution, in the year following the settlement at Nauvoo. (25) At
confided it only to his closest friends, and those in whom he had
and not to them until he had exacted the most solemn promises of
secrecy, for it
was not yet “lawful” to utter this teaching in the hearing of the
He did, however, venture to test the feelings of the people concerning
some time prior to the return of apostles from Europe, viz., before
July 1, 1841.
On the occasion named he preached a sermon on the “Restoration of All
which he strongly hinted that the “patriarchal, or plural order of
by the ancients, would again be established.” We learn that this
great excitement and consternation among those who heard the discourse
at a morning service ‒ so much so, in fact, that the prophet “deemed it
the afternoon, to modify his statement by saying it possibly the spirit
the time seem nearer in it really was, when such things would be
evidence at hand it appears that while this time, i.e., during the
first half of
the year 1841, knowledge and acceptance of the doctrine of a plurality
were confined to the leaders and principal men the church ‒ and that
not all of
them had been enlightened on the subject ‒ within two years information
on the subject
had been quite generally disseminated among the people. (28)
that such a revolutionary practice could be taught and indulged in for
length time and have a knowledge of the, fact limited to those for whom
it was intended,
would place too great a tax upon our credulity and would flatly
contradict the teaching
of experience concerning human nature. The presence of “apostates”' in
and in adjoining settlements, some of whom had stood high in the
councils of the
church, would preclude the possibility of maintaining secrecy.
what was going on in respect to plurality of wives percolated
throughout the community,
and was taken up and given trumpet-voice by the enemies of the church.
the fact should be noted, that while it appears to have been a matter
belief that the leaders of the church were practicing polygamy, those
did not hesitate to deny, directly and by implication, that such was
the case. This
conflict between the teaching and practices of Joseph Smith and others
with effect by those who, one reason or other, had entered the lists
Mormons. When referring to this feature, a present-day historian, and
the church, declared that, “wicked men took advantage of the situation
sorrow to the hearts of the innocent and reproach upon the church.” (29)
incident that occurred but a few months before the prophet's death must
to illustrate what, not unfairly, might be characterized as
double-dealing. It seems
that an elder of the church who had been instructed in the doctrine of
of wives, had been sent up into Lapeer county, Michigan. Whatever the
he may have received from the church authorities as to the use to be
made of this
teaching, his zeal appears to have outrun his wisdom. He publicly
principle with the result that the greatest excitement ensued. Upon
facts, Joseph and Hyrum Smith prepared and published the following, in
As we have
lately been credibly informed, that an elder of the Church of Jesus
Christ, of Latter
Day Saints by the name of Hiram Brown, has been preaching Polygamy, and
and corrupt doctrines, in the county of Lapeer, state of Michigan.
This is to
notify him and the church in general, that he has been cut off from the
for his iniquity; and he is further notified to appear at the Special
on the, 6th of April next, to answer to these charges.
Presidents of said Church. (30)
Yet, at the
time when this “notice” was published, the prophet was the husband of
not less than
twenty plural wives. (31) It might be noted in passing that the matter
Brown's delinquencies was only remotely hinted at by Joseph Smith at
the April Conference,
and the people were told that if they expected that matters of a petty,
character were to be considered they were doomed to disappointment. (32)
of denial that polygamy was either taught or practiced at Nauvoo or
not infrequently in the literature of the church, even some years after
of the Prophet. (33) It appears, however, that such statements, and
even the paragraphs
in Doctrine and Covenants which deal with monogamy are not to be
regarded as denials
of the principle by church authorities, but rather as an “evasion to
popular clamor.” (34)
the disaffection of Dr. John C. Bennett, which occurred early in May,
more to do with focusing attention upon the practice of polygamy by
and others, than any other one event. It is immaterial, for our
purpose, how this
man is to be regarded. He appears to have been a very devil, or a
a scholar, according to the point of view of the writer. (35) This much
dispute: he told the truth, and not “wicked lies about Joseph” when he
that the prophet “taught doctrines in secret which he dare not make
that he “preached one thing in public and practiced another in
private.” (36) And
further, that he stated facts when he declared in his book ‒ “The
History of the
Saints” ‒ that Joseph Smith at that time, 1842, had plural wives,
Beman. (37) It is equally beyond controversy that Bennett was in a
position to greatly
injure the prophet, and no less true that he used this power to the
utmost. In fact,
it has been asserted by a recent writer that more than any other
influence or person,
he was responsible for the downfall of the Mormon Church in Illinois.
(38) For something
like a year and a half Bennett had been in a position to know the inner
of the leaders of the church, for he was in fact one of those leaders.
When he became
a member of the church he was Quartermaster General of the State of
helped to draft the famous charters and the bill for the incorporation
and himself carried them up to Springfield and urged the passage of the
had been the first Mayor of Nauvoo under the new charter, was second in
of the Nauvoo Legion, was made Master in Chancery by Judge Stephen A.
and for a time occupied Sidney Rigdon's place as a member of the first
of the church. When the break came between Bennett and the prophet, the
fully appreciating the power of Bennett to do harm, immediately
proceeded to forestall
the use of that power as far as possible, and this in ways which must
humiliating to Bennett, almost beyond endurance. (39) In return,
Bennett used voice
and pen most persistently and effectively against Joseph Smith and all
with which he was identified. That Smith was fully alive to the danger
quarter, and that it was not imaginary, appears from the fact that at
a special conference assembled at Nauvoo in August, 1842, “for the
purpose of calling
a number of elders to go out in different directions and by their
the states with a flood of truth, to allay the excitement which had
by the falsehoods put in circulation by John C. Bennett and others.”
four hundred men volunteered to undertake this work. (41) The prophet
been in hiding for three weeks immediately preceding this conference ‒
being unknown to his people (42) ‒ on account of Bennett's activities.
journal we learn that he had been in Nauvoo during the entire period.
statement of facts will aid to an understanding of some of the
existed in Nauvoo at the time of the planting of Masonry in that place,
at least, that perhaps the soil there was not the very best for the
of the principles of our art. And further, this recital leaves little
room for doubt
that the irregularities permitted in the lodge room and the
of the edicts and messengers of the Grand Master were not the only
‒ although they were quite sufficient in themselves ‒ that had weight
the status of Freemasonry among the Latter Day Saints. We may now
proceed with the
story of the Nauvoo lodges.
above, Grand Master Abraham Jonas instituted Nauvoo Lodge, U.D., and
set it to work,
March 15, 1842. The circumstances attending this function, so far as
they are matters
of record, are most interesting.
return home the Grand Master wrote quite an extended account of the
the caption, “Nauvoo and the Mormons,” which was published in his
paper, the Columbus
Advocate. Among other things he said:
“While at Nauvoo I had a fine
seeing the people in a body. There was a Masonic celebration, and the
of the State was present for the purpose of publicly installing the
a new lodge. An immense number of persons assembled on the occasion,
from five to ten thousand persons, and never in my life did I witness a
or a more orderly and well behaved assemblage; not a drunken or
to be seen, and the display of taste and beauty among the females could
be surpassed anywhere.
“During my stay of three days,
I became well
acquainted with their principal men, and more particularly with their
celebrated 'Old Joe Smith.' I found them hospitable, polite,
well-informed and liberal.
With Joseph Smith, the hospitality of whose house I kindly received, I
journal of Joseph Smith himself, we get a little more intimate view of
took place. Unlike the Grand Master, he was not writing for the purpose
his critics. Under date of “Tuesday, March 15,” he wrote:
“I officiated as Grand Chaplain
at the installation
of the Nauvoo lodge of Freemasons, at the Grove near the Temple. Grand
of Columbus, being present, a large number of people assembled on the
The day was exceedingly fine; all things were done in order. In the
evening I received
the First degree in Freemasonry in Nauvoo Lodge, assembled in my
On the day
following, March 16, he wrote: “I was with the Masonic lodge and rose
to the sublime
other source comes a little indirect light upon the events connected
with the institution
of Nauvoo Lodge.
after this lodge had been set to work, rumors became current of unusual
therein which seemed to set at defiance well known and established
Masonic law and
usage. These tales finally crystallized into assertions, and on the
16th of July,
following, Bodley Lodge, at Quincy, held a special meeting, called for
of considering the matter and taking such action as the facts might
seem to warrant.
After discussion, the sentiment of the meeting took the form of
of these called upon Grand Master Jonas to suspend the dispensation of
until the annual communication of Grand Lodge. Another throws a little
upon the events connected with the institution of that lodge. This
“Resolved, That Bodley Lodge
No. 1, of Quincy,
request of the Grand Lodge of the State of Illinois, that a committee
at the next annual meeting of said lodge, to make inquiry into the
manner the officers
of the Nauvoo Lodge, U.D., were installed, and by what authority the
initiated, passed and raised Messrs. Smith and Sidney Rigdon to the
degrees of Entered
Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason, at one and the same time,
and that the
proceedings of the committee be reported for the benefit of this
lodge.” (47) This
resolution seems to show that Bodley Lodge was not pleased with the
of the officers of Nauvoo Lodge ‒ “at the Grove near the Temple,” in
of a vast throng and during which the Mormon prophet served as Grand
he was not at the time even a member of the Blue Lodge ‒ and further,
Rigdon, as well as Joseph Smith, was made a Mason “at sight.”
might be noted in passing that presumably it was this unusual action of
Master in behalf of the two church leaders, that was in the mind of one
of the present-day
apostles of the Mormon Church when he wrote that, “Great Masonic honors
upon Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon.” (48) Be this as it may, the
action taken by
Bodley Lodge had the desired effect, and on August 11th, less than six
its institution, the Grand Master issued his order, suspending the
of Nauvoo Lodge until the annual communication of Grand Lodge. In this
the lodge had initiated candidates, of which number 256 had been
raised. When the
matter came before Grand Lodge, October 3, 1842, the Grand Master
action in connection with Nauvoo Lodge and submitted the correspondence
thereto. (49) To the keen regret of the student of those events, no
of record which throws any light on the character of the explanation
made. The matter
was placed in the hands of the Committee on Returns and Work of the
On the evening
of the second day's session of and Lodge this committee presented a
The majority regretted that the lodge had disregarded the instructions
of the Grand
Master ‒ to send up the records of the lodge ‒ but expressed the belief
the work done conformed to the requirements of Grand Lodge. However,
seemed to show that the “intention and ancient landmarks of our
been departed from, an inexcusable extent,” but that the actual
be ascertained only by an investigation of the proceedings and an
the original records the lodge. The committee therefore recommended at
be suspended till the next annual communication of Grand Lodge, and
that a committee
be appointed to visit Nauvoo, make a thorough examination and report
to Grand Lodge at its next annual communication.
report partook somewhat of the character of a “Scotch verdict.” The
had failed to establish any irregularities, but fearing that such
could be shown, the third member of the committee joined his colleagues
in the recommendation
motion prevailed which provided for the appointment of a special
duty it should be to proceed at once to Nauvoo, make the investigation
and report results to the Grand Master. He in turn was authorized to
injunction suspending labor, or to continue it, as the facts presented
by the committee
might warrant. (51) This committee entered at once upon the task
assigned and in
due time reported its findings to the Grand Master. Investigation
showed that grave
irregularities had obtained in the work of the lodge, and that these
were of such
character as to “strike at once at the vital principles of our Order.”
the committee specified the practice of balloting for several
candidates at one
and the same time, and a tendency to make a reformatory of the lodge.
of the whole situation, while the committee found much to regret and
much to deplore,
it was of the opinion that the case did not demand that the injunction
labor be made perpetual, and therefore recommended that the lodge be
resume its work, till the next annual communication of Grand Lodge, and
member of the Craft should be appointed to visit Nauvoo for the purpose
the brethren of the irregularities complained of and admonish them to
same in the future. In accordance with this recommendation, Grand
Master Helm, on
November 2, 1842, issued his order which permitted the lodge to resume
From such evidence as is at hand it appears that the Nauvoo brethren
lost no time
in getting to work, and the results of their efforts were certainly
During the eleven months immediately following the restoration of their
they were so successful in the work of increasing their numbers, that
for two additional lodges in Nauvoo were granted, and the Grand Master
in his address
to Grand Lodge recommended that before the charter requested should
issue to Nauvoo
Lodge, its membership should be divided into four or more distinct
1. “The Historical Record,” Volume VIII, 1889,
p. 751. [Lib*]
2. “The Historical Record,” Volume VIII, 1889, p. 757. Cf. McMaster's
Hist. of the
People of the U.S., Volume V, p. 210.
3. “Life of Heber C. Kimball,” Whitney, 1888, p. 26. [Lib 1888]
4. “Reynolds' History of Freemasonry in Illinois,” 1869, p. 152. [Lib*]
5. “Mormonism and Its Connection with Freemasonry, 1842-34, Nauvoo,
“The American Tyler,” Feb. 1, 1905. [Lib*]
6. “Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Illinois,” 1842, pp. 52-8. [Lib*]
7. “Times and Seasons,” Volume III, 1841, p. 651. [Lib 1841]
8. “Masonic Voice-Review,” (new series), Volume X, 1908, p.261. [Lib*]
10. “Historical Record,” Volume VIII, 1889, p. 754; “Masonic
X (new series), pp. 261-2. See also “Times and Seasons,” Volume II, pp.
11. “Masonic Voice-Review,” Volume X (new series), 1908, p. 262. This
to the editor, reads: “You will please discontinue my paper; its
contents are calculated
to pollute me. And to patronize that filthy sheet, that tissue of lies,
of iniquity, is disgraceful to any moral man. Yours with contempt,
P. S. Please publish the above in your contemptible paper.”
For Smith's account of this visit of Douglass and Walker ‒ leaders of
and Whig parties, respectively ‒ see “Times and Seasons,” May 15, 1841.
In the issue
of the same publication, for June 1, 1841, is an editorial which deals
strictures of the Warsaw Signal.
12. “Historical Record,” Volume VII, 1888, p. 764. [Lib*]
13. “Times and Seasons,” Volume III, 1841, p. 651. [Lib*]
14. “Historical Record,” Volume VII, 1888, p. 530. [Lib*]
15. “Times and Seasons,” Volume V, p. 549 [Lib 1844]; “Millennial
Star,” Volume XII, 1850, p. 106-7. [Lib*]
16. “History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph Smith,” B. H. Roberts,
Volume IV, 1908,
Introduction, p. 21. [Lib*]
17. “Masonic Voice-Review,” Volume X (new series), 1908, p. 294.
18. “Reynolds History of Freemasonry in Illinois,” 1869, pp. 174-75;
Grand Lodge of Illinois,” 1842, pp. 52-3. [Lib*]
19. “Historical Record,” Volume VI, 1887, pp. 232-33. [Lib*]
20. “Deseret News,” May 20, 1886. Article by Apostle Joseph F. Smith,
and until his death, recently, President of the Mormon Church;
Volume VI, 1887, p. 219. [Lib*]
21. “Rise and Fall of Nauvoo,” B. H. Roberts, 1900, p. 115 [Lib 1900]; “Historical Record,” Volume VI, 1887,
p. 230; Cf. “History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph Smith,” B. H.
V, 1909, Introduction, pp. 29-46.
23. “Deseret News Extra,” September 14 1852; “Historical Record,”
Volume VI, 1887,
p. 227; “Life of Heber C. Kimball,” O.F.Whitney, 1888, p. 335.
24. “Western Galaxy,” Volume I, 1888, p. 247. This is a quotation from
of Schuyler Colfax, 1865. [Lib*]
25. “Historical Record,” Volume VI, 1887, p. 221; “Life of Heber C.
1888, pp. 331-32; “History of the Church, Period I, Joseph Smith,” B.H.
Volume V, 1, 1909, Introduction, p. 34.
26. “Life of Heber C. Kimball,” O.F. Whitney, 1888, pp. 333, 335; “One
of Mormonism,” Evans, p. 474; “Succession in the Presidency of the
Roberts, 1900, p. 120; Cf. “Biography of Lorenzo Snow,” by his sister,
27. “Life of Heber C. Kimball,” O.F. Whitney, 1888, p.338. The words
quoted in the
text are those of Helen Mar Kimball, a daughter of H.C. Kimball, who
(May, 1843) married to Joseph Smith.
28. “Millennial Star,” Volume 45, 1885, p.436; “Historical Record,”
Volume VI, 1887,
pp. 220, 227.
29. “Rise and Fall of Nauvoo,” B. H. Roberts, 1900, p. 118.
30. “Times and Seasons,” Volume V. Feb. 1, 1844, p.423; Cf. “Historical
Volume VI, 1887, p. 220.
31. “Historical Record,” Volume VI, 1887, pp. 233-34.
32. “Times and Seasons,” Volume V, 1844, p. 522.
33. “Millennial Star,” Volume 12, 1850, pp. 29-30; same, Volume 45,
1885, p. 435.
34. “Millennial Star,” Volume 45, 1885, p. 435. It is only fair to
state that later,
a different explanation of these denials was given, and that the latter
to be the position held by church leaders today. Thus, B.H. Roberts
tells us that
the leaders were obliged to make these denials because “...
and ill-informed denunciators never truly represented the doctrine of
on marriage,” and so, “the denials of these misstatements of the
doctrine and its
practice was not regarded by the leading elders of the church as a
denial of the
doctrine of the revelation; and while this may be considered a
refinement in presentation
that the world will not allow, it nevertheless represents a distinction
real to those who were struggling with a difficult proposition, and
the seeming denials made by John Taylor, in public discussion with
at Boulogne-sur-mer, France, 1850.” “History of the Mormon Church,”
Americana, Volume VI, 1911, P. 297. To those who do not have access to
and conclusive evidence in support of this position, this later
seem, as it does to the writer of these lines, as an afterthought made
use of to
meet it rather difficult and disagreeable situation. Other instances of
are to be found in Hyrum Smith's letter in “Times and Seasons,” Volume
V, p. 474,
and in Joseph Smith's journal, under date of Oct. 5, 1843, where he
instructions to try those persons who were preaching, teaching, or
doctrine of plurality of wives.” “History of the Church, Period 1,
Volume VI, 1912, p. 46.
35.”Historical Record,” Volume VII, 1888, p. 495; Bennett's book,
“History of the
Saints,” 1842, pp. 10-35; “History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph
V, 1909, pp. 67-83.
36. “The History of the Saints,” John C. Bennett, 1842, pp. 287 [Lib*];
Record,” Volume VII, 1888, p. 495; with this ef. “Historical Record,”
1887, pp. 219-234.
37. “History of the Saints,” John C. Bennett, 1842, p.256; “Historical
Volume VI, 1887, pp. 221 and 233.
38. “Masonic Voice-Review,” (new series), Volume X, 1908, p.334.
39. “Times and Seasons,” Volume III [Lib 1841], 1842, pp.
870, 874; “History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph Smith,” B.H.
V, 1909, pp. 71-82.
40. “Historical Record,” Volume VII, 1888, p.500; “History of the
1, Joseph Smith,” B.H. Roberts, Volume V, 1909, p. 136.
41. “History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph Smith,” B.H.Roberts,
Volume V, 1909,
42 Ibid, p. 137; Cf. “Succession in the Presidency,” B.H. Roberts,
43. “History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph Smith,” B.H. Roberts,
Volume V, 1909,
44. “Times and Seasons,” Volume III, 1842, pp. 749-750; “History of the
Period 1, Joseph Smith,” B.H. Roberts, Volume IV, 1908, pp. 565-566.
45. “History of the Church, Period 1, Joseph Smith,” B.H.Roberts,
Volume IV, 1908,
46. Ibid, p. 552.
47. “Reynolds' History of Freemasonry in Illinois,” 1869, pp.174-175.
48. “Deseret News,” Editorial, July 16, 1906.
49. “Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Illinois,” 1842, p. 52.
50. Ibid, pp. 58-59.
51. Ibid, pp. 59-60.
52. Ibid, pp. 71-72.
53. “Proceedings, Grand Lodge of Illinois,” 1843, p. 85.
Keeping House with God -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L B. Mitchell, Michigan
the consciousness of nature,
As the very heart of life,
As the wonder creature venture
In whom centers care and strife;
As those who in coming, going,
Pass oft 'neath the chast'ning rod
Of their own, and read their sowing,
We've been keeping house with God.
Through the ages we've been striving
For what we have deemed the right,
But on failure of arriving
Found ourselves in direst plight;
For autocracy's intention
Was to wipe from off the sod
Those who dared to make pretention
Of their keeping house with God.
But through sacrifice of millions
Of the flower of the race,
And of treasure into billions
We have earned sweet freedom's place;
Yet we seem e'en more than ever
In a strange, abnormal plod,
There's unrest the wide world over
In its keeping house with God.
While we're trusted with the keeping
Of the house by nature given,
We abnormally are seeking
In a super-way, our heaven, ‒
We are turning to the visions
Of the race of early plod,
Worked to creeds that cause divisions
In our keeping house with God.
But we now should learn as mortals ‒
Children on the strands of time,
That while striving in its portals
That our part is the sublime ‒
That true manhood, character,
What'er be the joy or plod
Is the requisite forever
Of our keeping house with God.
We must rise to clearer vision
Of the brotherhood of man,
We must come to the decision
That the heart leads in the plan,
And that love gives all the value
To all else above the sod,
And that to it we must square to
In our keeping house with God.
great man ever thought himself so.
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 45
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "Third Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
on “The Emblems”
The Book of Constitutions
- Recite the
monitorial lecture on “The Book of Constitutions guarded by the Tyler's
- Were written constitutions
known to Operative Freemasons in the eleventh
to fifteenth centuries?
- How were the traditions and
charges communicated to the candidate in those
- What is supposed to have been
the gradual evolution of these traditions and
- What is the oldest manuscript
of the Old Charges?
- In what form was it written?
- What is the next oldest copy?
- To whom are we indebted for our
present collection of these old documents?
- How many copies of these have
been collected and preserved?
- What happened to a number of
the Old Charges that were in the hands of Masons
at the beginning of the eighteenth century?
- When was one of the first
attempts made to collate them?
- Who made the first digest of
these old manuscript constitutions shortly after
the formation of the Grand Lodge of England?
- In what light is Dr. Anderson's
work looked upon at the present day?
- What symbolical interpretation
may be placed upon the Book of Constitutions?
- What is the symbolical
significance of “the Book of Constitutions guarded
by the Tyler's Sword?”
- What is the origination of the
word “tyler”, and when was that office first
- What is one theory of the
derivation of the word?
- What is another theory?
- Of what should the Tiler be a
- Whence was the word “cowan”
- What is supposed to have been
the original meaning of the word?
- In what other sense was the
- When was the term introduced
into English Masonry?
- By whom was it supposed to have
- What is its present-day literal
it the Tiler's duty alone to “keep off cowans”?
The Sword Pointing to a
- Recite the monitorial lecture
on “The Sword Pointing to a Naked Heart.”
- What is Mackey's theory of the
origin of the symbol of the “Sword Pointing
to a Naked Heart”
- How is it presumed to have come
into our ritual?
- Of what is the heart a symbol
in this instance? the sword?
- What was one of the early
beliefs concerning God?
- What did the term “morality”
mean in those days?
is the “moral law” interpreted by Masons of the present day?
Vol. I “The Charles Martel Legend in Freemasonry,” by Bro. Oliver D.
Vol. III “Antiquities,” p. 181; “Cowan,” June C.C.B. p.4; “Freemasonry
in the Middle Ages,” by Bro. Robert I. Clegg, Jan. C.C.B. p. 1.
Vol. V. “Cowan,” Q.B. 165.
Anderson, James, p.57;
Book of Constitutions Guarded by the Tyler's Sword, p. 113;
Cowan, p. 183;
Sword Pointing to the Naked Heart, p. 750;
Tyler, p. 786.
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Part IX ‒ The Emblems ‒
period lying, say, between 1000 and 1400, when Operative Freemasonry
its plentitude of power, it is probable that no written Constitutions
were in use.
According to such meagre evidence as we possess it is probable that the
at the time of his initiation, was given oral account of the
of the Craft that the Master gave him the charges of instruction and
duty in such
language as he might choose to employ at the time. As would inevitably
such circumstances these traditions and charges gradually assumed a
more or less
stereotyped form until at last, to make uniformity more certain, they
manuscript form of the Old Charges now in existence, as I have already
that which was written by some unknown cleric somewhere near the year
1390; it is
known as the Regius, or Halliwell Manuscript [Lib 1390], and is written in the form
verse. Our next oldest copy is the Cooke [Lib 1400], which was written early in
next century. Many copies were made from these from time to time, and
of the Craft's story were composed; through the labors of Brother W. J.
the great pioneer in this field, and through the efforts of his
successors, we now
possess close on to a hundred copies of these old documents.
of the Old Charges were in the hands brethren in the beginning of the
century. When the Revival came, and outsiders began to probe into the
the Order, certain of these brethren, to guard against their falling
hands, burned several of their manuscripts. Not all, however, were
it appears that an attempt to collate the Ancient Constitutions was
made as early
the formation of Grand Lodge some members expressed dissatisfaction
with the existing
Constitutions and Grand Master Montagu ordered Dr. James Anderson to
make a digest
of all available manuscripts in order to draw up a better set of
regulations ‒ the
governance of the body. It is thought by some that it was Dr. Anderson
first urged this on Montagu. A committee of fourteen “learned brethren”
Anderson's work and approved of it, except for a few amendments, and it
published in the latter part of 1723 [Lib 1723]. This Book of Constitutions
still the groundwork of Masonry” and stands to our jurisdictions very
much as the
Constitution of the United States does to our nation.
a position it is fitting that the Book of Constitutions serve as a
symbol in the
Third degree. Being, as it were, the title deed of our Fraternity it is
than a mere instrument of law, and links us on to the great past and
binds us in
an organic unity to the generations of old builders who, in departing
left behind them so shining a monument. As a symbol, therefore, the
Book of Constitutions
reminds us of our debt to the past, of our solidarity with the vanished
of kindly workmen, and of the necessity of law and of seemly order if
is to hold itself together in a world where everything is always
falling to pieces.
If the Tyler
is set to guard the Book it is to remind us that secrecy and
watchfulness must ever
be at hand to guard us against our enemies, for the Tyler is here
a symbol, rather than as an officer of the lodge. When the Craft first
employ such a sentinel we know not, nor can we be sure how the word
Some believe that the first tyler was in reality a tyler, a brother
make roofs, himself a member of one branch of the old travelling
think that, as the sentinel is to protect the secrecy of the lodge, he
tyler in a figurative sense since it is the roof which conceals the
a building. Accepting such views for what they are worth, and
practical necessity for such a guardian, we may also see in the Tyler,
in the present
connection, a reminder that each and every one of us must become a
to it that no influence shall undermine our organic law, and that no
be permitted admittance to our fellowship. Every loyal Mason must be a
lest he recommend an unfit candidate, and careful lest in his own
person he admit
such influences into the lodge as make for disunion and disharmony. To
cowans and eavesdroppers, figurative and actual, is one great duty of
a Scotch term. It was used in early Scotch Masonry in more than one
sense but seems
originally to mean “a man who uses round unsquared stones for building
whether walls or huts”; in other words, the Cowan was originally an
Oftentimes a Cowan was loosely affiliated with the Craft but never
given its secrets
for which reason he was often known as a “Mason without the word.” The
also employed to describe a non-affiliated skilled Mason, one who had
obtained the secrets of the Craft.
was employed by English Masonry in the Grand Lodge period; Brother J.T.
it was, Dr. Desaguliers who first used it after his visit to Scotland
in 1721; Brother
Vibert believes it was imported by Dr. Anderson in 1723 or later. Be
that as it
may the word found a permanent place in our vocabulary albeit with
of meaning. Literally speaking, as the word is now employed, a Cowan is
a man with
unlawful Masonic knowledge; an Intruder is one with neither knowledge
who makes himself otherwise obnoxious; a Clandestine is one who has
by unlawful means; an Irregular is one who has been initiated by a
without authorization. In all these senses a man is designated who
makes use of
the Fraternity in an illegal or obnoxious manner, who uses Masonry for
purposes. Manifestly such men cannot be kept out by the Tyler alone;
must assist in this work of the guardianship of the Order.
Sword Pointing to the Naked
that in old initiation ceremonies, still preserved in some places, the
found himself “surrounded by swords pointing at his heart, to indicate
would duly follow his violation of his obligation”; he suggests that in
ceremony we may find the origin of the present symbol which has been
introduced into our system by some modern ritualist, Thomas Smith Webb,
This is a reasonable account of the matter and may be allowed to stand
light is available.
is here the symbol of conscience, the seat of man's responsibility for
his own acts;
the Sword is the symbol of justice. The device therefore tells us that
at last find its way to our inmost motives, to the most hidden recesses
of our being.
This may sound trite enough but the triteness must not blind us to the
truth of the teaching.
men believed that God, the moral lawgiver, lived above the skies and
His children wholly through external instruments; agents of the law,
and physical punishments, these were considered the divine methods of
such a view of the matter it is of little wonder that men held
until punishment would come, or that justice could be avoided simply by
clear of the instruments of justice. In this wise morality came to be
mechanical thing, operating like a court of law.
But now we
have a better understanding of the matter. The moral law, so we have
in our very hearts, and it is self-executing. Sin and punishment, as
in his great essay on Compensation, a profoundly original and
of the subject, sin and punishment grow from the same stem. Conscience,
physical body, is under a universal reign of law that swerves not by a
A man may cherish an evil thought in some chamber of his soul almost
boundaries of his own self-consciousness but such secrecy is of no
avail; the law
is in the secret places as well as in the open, and always does the
point of the
sword rest against the walls of the heart. The penalties of justice are
because justice and conscience are of the same root. And it is such a
evil, we may again remind ourselves, that constitutes almost the sole
the violation of Masonic obligations.
To An Idol -- [A Poem]
(Discovered in the ruins
of Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico)
By Bro. Friench Simpson, Texas
Aeons roll on, empires rise, empires fall;
The dust of the centuries covers them all.
The gods who have preceded you, where are they?
Where too are the worshippers of you and your day?
Gone, gone to their long rest of light or of gloom,
Their ashes commingled with the ash of the tomb;
Dead and forgotten and their temples today
Are buried from sight, to the jungle a prey,
And you from your crumbling pedestal overthrown,
From a nod have lapsed back to a simple carved stone.
You have seen peoples pass in life's rapid race;
Seen your precursor fall as you rose to his place.
But sitting there now with no look of concern,
Indifferent to joy or to pain, cold and stern;
Not one to do reverence, none to claim for your own;
A sport for the curious, a god without throne,
Your ambiguous features seem striving to say:
Gods themselves are but mortal and mortals are clay.
As the old beliefs passed so will pass by the new,
And the truths of the Present the Future undo.
How then does one know, can one say: This is Truth?
Controverted each day are the dogmas of youth;
Times change but so prone is the throng to obey,
That the craft of the priest stands a bar to the way,
Demanding allegiance to the doctrine he pleads,
And with the time-worn old graft-slime taints the new creeds;
And millions bow now as millions knelt heretofore
And a-weary cry out and for blessings implore.
The gods look askant, ‒ the gods make no reply,
Apathetic as You see their votaries die,
Still the dreamer upbuilds and the devotee yearns
With faith for an anchor incense freely burns.
Then as theory fails beneath the analyst's test,
The demonstrated fact leaves a heart in unrest.
And then as I look on that calm, cold, hard face,
Unruffled, impervious, of pity no trace;
I can feel that Thought moves and that such gods as you
Should die as you died, ‒ hat the good and the true
Will live and grow better as the Ages sweep by;
In the bright light of reason falsehoods finally die.
And as the sunlight dispels the fogs of the sea,
Truth triumphant at last shall make all mankind free.
thou existence doth depend upon time
It doth; but actions are our epochs; mine
Have made my days and nights imperishable,
Endless, and all alike.
Of George Washington*
By Bro. Charles S. Lobingier,
* For leading
articles concerning Washington's religion and his Masonic connections
is referred to the following: “Alexandria-Washington Lodge No. 22,” THE
Vol. II, p. 35; “Washington, The Man and Mason,” Vol. II, p. 40; “The
George Washington,” Vol. IV, p. 35; “Washington's Masonic Connections,”
IT IS ALWAYS
an advantage to begin with a proposition which no one disputes; and in
my theme to “the greatness of Washington” I am not unconscious of that
For upon few themes is there such an unanimity of opinion.
I have, indeed,
found no writer who questions his greatness; but the tributes of those
not of his people are so lofty that I need quote no others.
“How fares your countrymen, the
Napoleon is said to have inquired of some young Americans in France,
told that he was well, Bonaparte continued:
“Ah, gentlemen! Washington can
never be otherwise
than well. The measure of his fame is full. Posterity will talk of him
as the founder of a great empire, when my name shall be lost in the
vortex of Revolutions!”
Britain's foremost poets were Washington's contemporaries and at the
same time his
ardent eulogists. Burns preceded him to the tomb by only three years,
and two years
before the poet's death he wrote to his friend, Mrs. Dunlop, enclosing
an ode written
especially for Washington's Birthday, containing these lines:
“Behold that eye which shot
Braved usurpation's boldest daring;
That arm which, nerved with thundering fate,
Crushed the despot's proudest bearing;
One quenched in darkness like the sinking star,
And one the palsied arm of tottering powerless age.” (2)
1814, during the now generally regretted second war between America and
“Not long may this unnatural
Beyond the Atlantic deep!
Not long may men, with vain Ambition drunk,
And insolent in wrong
Afflict with their misrule the indignant land
Where Washington hath left
His awful memory
A light for after times.” (3)
But the most
ardent poet panegyrist was Lord Byron. He was a boy of eleven when
and doubtless expresses the best English opinion of his day. And
Byron's works abound
in references, of which I shall cite only a few, to our national hero.
Harold, after discoursing on Cromwell, whom he calls the “immortal
rebel,” the poet
“Can tyrants but by tyrants
And Freedom find no champion and no child
Such as Columbia saw arise when she
Sprung forth a Pallas, arm'd and undefiled?
Or must such minds be nourish'd in the wild,
Deep in the unpruned forest, 'midst the roar
Of cataracts, where nursing Nature smiled
On infant stanza XCVI?”
In Don Juan,
Byron writes, in words quite applicable to the present hour:
“History can only take things
in the gross;
But could we know them in detail, perchance
In balancing the profit and the loss,
War's merit it by no means might enhance,
To waste so much gold for a little dross,
As hath been done, mere conquest to advance.
The drying up a single tear has more
Of honest fame, than shedding seas of gore.
they are ‒ and such they will be found:
Not so Leonidas and Washington,
Whose every battle-field is holy ground,
Which breathes of nations saved, not worlds undone.
How sweetly on the ear such echoes sound!
While the mere victor's may appall or stun
The servile and the vain, such names will be
A watchword till the future shall be free.” (5)
from the same poem:
“Great men have always scorn'd
Epaminondas saved his Thebes, and died,
Not leaving even his funeral expenses:
George Washington had thanks and nought beside,
Except the all-cloudless glory (which few men's is)
To free his country.” (6)
We may close
this brief anthology of British Washingtonian verse by quoting the
of Canon Richard Wilton of York cathedral, which he sent with a wreath
for our hero's
tomb on December 14, 1899, the centenary of his death:
“An English wreath we fain
Upon this mighty tomb today,
Of laurel, ivy, oak, and yew,
Which drank the English sun and dew
On far-off Yorkshire's grassy sod,
Where once we boast his fathers trod
Whom East and West unite to praise,
And crown with never-fading bays.
“O Washington, thy symbol be
The oak for strength and constancy:
For grandeur and for grace of form,
For calmness in the stress and storm
The monarch of the forest thou.
To thee the generations bow,
And under thy great shadow rest,
Forever free, forever blest.
“And thine the laurel, for the fame
Illustrious of a conqueror's name ‒
Patient to wait and prompt to strike,
Intrepid, fiery, mild alike;
Great for the greatness of the foe
Which fell by thy repeated blow;
Great for thy country's greatness, won
By thee, her most beloved son.
“And as the ivy twines around
Cottage and tower, thy heart was found
Clinging to home and church and wife,
The sweeter for the finished strife;
And so thy memory, like the yew,
Will still be green to mortal view ‒
‘The greatness of good men' confest
By all, and of great men the best.”
prose writers, we find Edward A. Freeman, the great English
devoting one of his illuminating lectures (7) to “George Washington,
of England,” while Lecky, the Tacitus of eighteenth century England,
“Of all the great men in
history he was the most
invariably judicious, and there is scarcely a rash word or action or
of him.... It was always known by his friends, and it was soon
acknowledged by the
whole nation and by the English themselves, that in Washington America
a leader who could be induced by no earthly motive to tell a falsehood,
or to break
an engagement, or to commit any dishonorable act. Men of this moral
type are happily
not rare, and we have all met them in our experience; but there is
instance in history of such a man having reached and maintained the
in the convulsions of civil war and of a great popular agitation.'' (8)
the loftiest eulogy in prose is this by John Richard Green, the beloved
of the English people:
“No nobler figure ever stood in
of a nation's life.... It was almost unconsciously that men learnt to
cling to Washington
with a trust and faith such as few others have won, and to regard him
with a reverence
which still hushes us in the presence of his memory. Even America
his real grandeur till death set its seal on 'the man first in war,
first in peace,
and first in the hearts of his countrymen.' “ (9)
Elements of Greatness
But it is
not sufficient for us to know that our hero was great; we should
inquire into the
elements and particulars of his greatness. We naturally think of him as
leader and there are those who place him high in that role. Probably
and fullest account of the American Revolution is that of Sir George O.
the nephew of Lord Macaulay, ‒ a book which merits careful reading on
of the Atlantic ‒ where we learn
onwards, Washington was recognized as a far-sighted and skillful
general all Europe
over, ‒ by the great military nobles in the Empress Catherine's court,
Marshals and Ministers, in the King's cabinet at Potsdam, at Madrid, at
and in London. He had shown himself (said Horace Walpole) both a Fabius
and a Camillus;
and his march through the British lines was allowed to be a prodigy of
the Great is said to have pronounced this “one of the most brilliant
recorded in military annals.”
the stage was too small, the numbers engaged too few, and the
grand strategy too limited, for the American Revolution to have
produced a world
military genius. Had Washington's fame rested on that alone it could
survived the Napoleonic era.
Next we are
apt to think of him in the role of a statesman ‒ as President of the
Convention and later as the first Chief Magistrate of our republic.
did much to cement that union of the American colonies which his
him was the great need of his day. But the instrument which perfected
was, both in conception and adoption, so largely the work of Hamilton
that his fame
has eclipsed all others as the commanding genius of that mighty
As to the
intellectual attainments of Washington we might even admit with Dean
that they were less than those of some of his contemporaries. George
never strove to be learned or brilliant and he would have been the
first to disclaim
such traits. The more we study him the clearer it becomes that the
distinguished him and brought immortal fame were moral rather than
intuition of our people has already sensed this appears from the tales
love to associate with Washington's boyhood. We are all familiar with
tree story and the youthful hero's unwillingness to lie out of the
of cutting it down. Iconoclastic research has pronounced that story
but some still think of his “Rules of Civility and Decent Behavior” as
with him. They were really taken by his tutor, the Rev. James Marye,
from “a curious
old French book” and dictated to the youthful Washington who wrote them
his exercise book. (13) Still, though not his own composition in the
they must have produced a real impression on the mind of a boy of
thirteen ‒ perhaps
the age when the influence of suggestion is greatest. The child is
father of the
man, and it is not without significance that the keynote of George
career is found in this closing injunction of those “Rules”:
keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire called
But the halo
which history has placed around him has, to some extent, obscured the
of the man. When we read these “Rules of Civility,” follow his great
deeds in after
life and look upon his calm, placid countenance as portrayed by Gilbert
we almost unconsciously think of him as a man who could do no wrong.
But had he
been such he would not have deserved the homage of posterity. As a
(14) of human character has observed:
who resist allurement and the tyranny of sense and passion which the
gods have given
to men as to animals are less deserving than the weak who struggle to
To fall and rise again is more heroic than by greater strength never to
sin and repent ‒ to do wrong and make amends ‒ are parts of a noble
comment on the cherry tree legend embodies a serious truth. The
is represented as having told his irate sire when confronted with the
“Father, I cannot lie; I did it with my hatchet.” Mark claimed
superiority for he
declared “I can lie, but I won't,” and that attitude is far more
of the real Washington.
No, our first
President was neither faultless nor free from temptation and it was
he overcame the latter, and thus avoided dangers which might have
wrecked a noble
career, that his greatness developed.
great characters he was a man of deep and strong emotions and one of
defects was a fiery temper. The subjection of that unruly member was a
task to which
he seems to have set himself early in life and he could hardly have
failed to receive
aid from certain of his “Rules of Civility” such as the following:
“In reproving show no Signs of
choler, but do
it with sweetness and mildness. (18)
Use no reproachful language
against any one,
neither curse nor revile. (22)
Think before you speak.” (40)
That he gradually
succeeded in making these maxims a part of his own character is evident
type of man as revealed by his contemporaries. But now and then
throughout his life,
incidents occur amid sore trial, which deserve to be recorded because,
if for no
other reason, they disclose that the once violent temper, though
curbed, was not
extinguished, and that eternal vigilance was his only safeguard.
retreat from Long Island at the end of August, 1776, Washington had
days and nights largely in the saddle and without sleep. Inexcusable
blunders by his men had nearly frustrated the masterly maneuver by
which he transferred
across the East River, under cover of a foggy night, an entire army
from its camp
within hearing distance of the enemy. And as he stood on the heights of
side, and the last ragged continental scrambled leisurely and
grumblingly up the
steep, the tired soul of the Commander-in-Chief could no longer contain
burst forth in a torrent of anguish and exasperation which astonished
had known him as a model of equanimity. (15)
the battle of Monmouth on that memorable June 28, 1778, when one of his
Charles Lee, had recklessly ordered an unnecessary retreat from a
Washington rode swiftly to the scene and sent the offender from the
field with a
tongue lashing which is said (16) to have “fairly frightened” the
amid the din of battle.
after he was President a catastrophe occurred which stirred the deeps
of that volcanic
nature. General Arthur St. Clair, who had been given command of an
the Indians of the northwest in 1791, was surprised and defeated on
November 4 of
that year, losing nearly half his army on the banks of the Miami.
knew well from experience the ways of Indian warfare, had especially
to “beware of a surprise,” and when the disgraced general returned, his
from the President was hardly less severe than that given Lee thirteen
But in none
of these instances was it questioned that the provocation was great and
merited. The sole occasion for surprise was the sudden exhibition of an
phase of Washington’s character. And that this was in the main well
is evident from his calm and dignified bearing under the continued
strain of ingratitude,
injustice and even calumny.
It is difficult
for us of this generation to conceive of any American being unjust or
to “the father of his country.” But we are too prone to judge his
by a few great names which have come down to us. There were little men
also ‒ scheming
self-seekers whose motives were too base, or whose vision was too
narrow, to permit
them to appreciate the lofty merits of their leader. We have only to
cite the wretched
“Conway cabal,” hatched while Washington and his army were in the
throes of that
terrible winter at Valley Forge, and whose object was to supplant the
with the intriguing Gates. (17) Bancroft expresses the well-nigh
in declaring that “but for him the country could not have achieved its
One would have supposed that at least after it had been achieved the
would cease. But such a view ignores the nature of that venomous
reptile ‒ the character
of our second term Presidents, Washington became in the later years of
the target of partisan rancor and when he signed the Jay treaty with
in 1794, the opposition raised a storm of criticism and abuse (18)
that, for a time,
seemed to obliterate the memories of his magnificent services to the
it all he was outwardly calm and imperturbable. No public utterance
of the indignation he felt at the imputations of those petty partisans;
he confessed privately that “he would rather be in his grave than
suffer the treatment
he received at the hands of those he was doing his best to serve.” He
appreciated the dignity of his great office never to stoop to a reply.
And in his
bearing during those times of trial he gave the best demonstration that
he had practically
conquered his unruly temper and earned the scriptural encomium: “He
his own spirit is greater than he that taketh a city.”
Courage and Firmness
And out of
the years of discipline which thus produced self-mastery came other and
virtues. The fierce opposition to the Jay treaty did not result in
attitude. He maintained it courageously and firmly even to the extent
the request of the lower House of Congress for the correspondence and
relating to the treaty. (19) In the end the House, by a majority of
him, the treaty went into effect and time has vindicated his position.
consistency and devotion to principle were observed in less important
the operations around New York Lord Howe sent, under a flag of truce, a
to “George Washington, Esquire.” It was returned unopened, not from any
pique or vanity, but because he considered that he could negotiate only
of the Continental forces and, as he reported to Congress, he “deemed
it his duty
towards his country to insist upon a mark of respect which, as an
would willingly have waived.'' (21)
he was inaugurated as President he made an official tour of New England
in Massachusetts was invited to dine with the Governor, John Hancock,
had failed first to call on the President. Hancock had presided over
the first Continental
Congress and as such became the original signer of the Declaration of
But Washington realized that the delicate question of the new Federal
supremacy was involved and that precedents were being established. He
declined the invitation, courteously but firmly, and in the end the
and paid the first call. (22)
the supreme mark of Washington's greatness was the entire absence,
career, of self-seeking. Had he consulted his personal interests he
have espoused the Revolution at all. He was a well to do country
gentleman, of aristocratic
birth, with thousands of broad acres in Virginia and twenty thousand
the Ohio. (23) His natural sympathies were thus clearly with the
why should he seek to overthrow it? Certainly not to escape an
As in other
questions he made the decision upon principle. Through years of
reflection the conviction
had been forced upon him that a colonial regime as then administered
to the progress and welfare of his country. (How different might have
been the sequel
could he have been assured of a status like that of Canada today!) With
he tried other means of securing a change and accepted the gage of
battle only as
a dernier resort.
of Commander-in-Chief was also forced upon him and in accepting it he
set a new
standard of public duty in these words:
“I beg leave
to assure the Congress that as no pecuniary compensation could have
tempted me to
accept this arduous employment, I do not wish to make any profit from
it. I will
keep an exact account of my expenses. Those, I doubt not, they will
that is all I desire.” (24)
As time went
on and public funds became scarcer he is said to have drawn on his own
meet the needs of the army and even to have mortgaged his property for
men to serve his country,” an early biographer informs us, “Washington
knew no recommendation
but merit ‒ had no favorite but worth. No relations, however near ‒ no
however dear ‒ stood any chance for places under him, provided he knew
qualified. Respecting such men, he never troubled himself to inquire
were foreigners or natives, federalists or democrats… Indeed, his great
so truly republican, that, during the whole of his administration, he
known to advance an individual of his own name and family.” (25)
author bears testimony to the high character of Washington's military
by quoting the complaint of certain young officers (who had failed to
as they expected because they were from the chief's native state), that
a misfortune to be a Virginian.”
It is in
the adoption of such lofty standards, “proving his country's good his
that George Washington occupies a plane far above so many of the
military and political leaders who were not great enough to rise above
was great and his was essentially a moral greatness. He was
“Great, not like Caesar stained
But only great as he was good.”
And so we
may close with Byron again:
“Where shall the wearied eye
When gazing on the great?
Where neither guilty glory glows
Nor unrelenting hate?
The first, the last, the best
The Cincinnatus of the West.
To make man blush there was but one
Bequeathed the name of Washington.”
(1) Weems, Life
of Washington (Mt. Vernon ed.), 9. [Lib 1877]
(2) Burns' Works, Chambers' Ed., IV, 83. [Lib 1851/52; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4]
(3) Southey's Works (London, 1838), III, 221. [Lib 1838; Vol 3 (For all 10
Volumes see Bibliography)]
(4) Canto IV, stanza XCVI. [Lib 1874]
(5) Canto VIII, stanzas III, IV, V. [Lib 1874]
(6) Canto IX, stanza VIII. [Lib 1874]
(7) At Oxford, Feb. 22, 1886; reprinted in his “Greater Greece and
(8) A History of
England in the Eighteenth Century, Ch. XI. [Lib
3 pp 472 (For all 8
(9) History of the English People, 754, 755. [Lib 1894]
(10) The American Revolution (1903), Pt. II, Vol. II, 155. [Lib*]
(11) Address at Minnesota University Law School, Feb. 22, 1913.
(12) It first appeared in the Weems biography [Lib 1877] long after
Washington's death and when the usual time
had elapsed for myths to grow. The Nation, XCIV, 436; also for March
(13) Hill, On the Trail of Washington (1912), 15 [Lib 1910]. The original
is among the archives in the State Department
(14) Albert Pike.
(15) Goodrich, History of the United States, 212. [Lib 1823]
(16) Hill, On the Trail of Washington (1912), 188, 189 [Lib 1910]. Lee was
afterwards court-martialed for his offense
and suspended. Marshall, Life of Washington (1850), I, 257. [Lib 1805; Vol 1, (For all 5
Volumes see Bibliogroaphy)]
(17) Elson, History of the United States (1904) [Lib 1905 (For all 5
see Bibliogroaphy)]; , 263, 284.
(18) ld., 358; Marshall, Life of Washington (1850), II, 370 et seq.
(20) Id., 359.
(21) Trevelyan, The American Revolution, Part II, Vol. I, 278. [Lib 1921/22; (For all 4
Volumes see Bibliogroaphy)]
(22) Hill, On the Trail of Washington (1912), 260, 261. [Lib ibid]
(23) Elson, History of the United States (1904), 375. [Lib ibid]
(24) Hill, On the Trail of Washington (1912), 99. [Lib ibid]
(25) Weems, Life of Washington (Mt. Vernon ed.), 274, 275. [Lib ibid]
man a thinking being is defined,
Few use the grand prerogative of mind.
How few think justly of the thinking few!
How many never think, who think they do.
By Bro. H.R. Partlow, Arkansas
obligation has always been to the writer a subject of considerable
on account of the various positions assumed by the obliger at the time
the obligation, and the formalities incident to it which, in my
for the obligation a greater antiquity than usually accorded it by
Even a cursory
view of the subject of entering into a contractual relation from
ancient times shows
that the obligations assumed to be binding were entered into in
accordance to the
ceremonial form of that age, and if entered into in that way were
the ancients inviolate. History abounds with many instances evidencing
for numerous cases we have only to go into the field of religious and
Biblical and judicial records are the deposits left by the receding
waters of time
and an examination of the laws and customs of these remote ages shows a
unfolding and development of civilization. True it is that the data
found are not
separately and clearly set forth, but may be compared to the residue of
scattered and wholly without order, some buried in sand and foreign
others are entirely concealed except to the keen vision of the delving
by patience and skill will exhume them, thereby revealing them to the
is fully aware that the average Mason has but little interest in such
a close study of the customs of the ancients will shed much light upon
now used in our ritual or floor work in conferring degrees. If by any
means we can
determine the inception of these early formalities, the basal ideas
leading up to
them, and the possible psychological functioning which produced them
in my opinion, be invaluable. These rudimentary ideas are to the
what the primary crusts of the earth are to the geologist. They contain
forms which society has subsequently exhibited.
In the matter
of ascertaining the fountain head of the jural conception of an oath,
or contract, one may become lost in the impenetrable night of
antiquity. Mr. Holmes,
in his admirable work on Common Law, says: "To explain how mankind
to promise, we must go to metaphysics and find out how it came to frame
tense." Law, like religion, is co-eval with intelligence and as soon as
was capable of continuity of thought, as soon as he found intelligible
questioned himself concerning his relationship to other sentient
by way of a premise, it may be said that whenever and wherever we have
we find exhibition of certain characteristics which are common to other
in the same stage of development.
and effect of an oath or obligation in ancient days was much greater
than it is
today, for the reason that the Higher Power was presumed to be present
and to participate
in the transaction as a third party. This was especially so in making
which were accompanied by a sacrifice and other solemn formalities in
the oath calling upon the ever present Deity to witness.
In the procedure
of entering into obligations or of taking oaths one is impressed first
universal use of the right hand. It is a singular coincidence that so
are right handed, and we shall now consider the use of the right hand
into various obligations and draw some conclusions regarding its almost
hand has been held forever sacred. The origin of such belief is a
Much importance was attached to it in worship as well as in entering
A study of
the formal contract in early English law rewards the student for the
pains of his
investigation; and for the purpose of giving to the reader the benefit
of this we
quote at some length from Pollock and Maitland's History of English Law
Vol 1, Vol 2]:
"In many countries of Western
in this part of the world also, we find the mutual grasp of the hand as
a form which
binds a bargain. It is possible to regard this as a relic of a more
by which some material was passed from hand to hand; but the mutuality
of the hand
grip seems to make against this explanation. We think it more likely
that the promisor
proffered his name of himself and for the purpose of devoting himself
to the god
or goddess, if he broke faith. Expanded in words, the underlying idea
would be of
this kind, 'As I here deliver myself to you by my right hand, so I
to the wrath of Fides, or Jupiter acting by the ministry of Fides, if I
in this thing.'
"Whether the Germans have
symbolic act from the Roman provincials and have thus taken over a
along with Fides, or whether it has an independent root in their own
we will not dare to decide. However, the grasp of the hand appears
among them at
an early date as a mode of contracting solemn, if not legally binding,
In the Code
of Justinian the formality of raising the right hand was necessary in
oath. Then we find from the two great sources of law, Roman and
English, that more
importance is attached to the right hand than to the left.
races, such as the Dacotah, the Winebagoes and other Western tribes,
the right hand
as a symbol has been observed by more than one person. As a symbol of
virtue the right hand is repeatedly referred to in Hebrew lore.
to the King of Salem: "I have lifted up my hand unto the Lord, the most
God, the possessor of heaven and earth, that I will not take anything
that is thine."
The expression, "lifted up my hand unto the Lord," doubtless proves the
custom of the ancient Hebrews in placing the right hand upon the object
in entering into a contract or binding obligations, and if such object
be touched, the right hand was extended toward the thing of reverence
open and fingers extended. The right hand of fellowship is spoken of by
in Galatians (Gallatian 2, chap. 9). In Psalms, 94th chapter, the right
spoken of as "the right hand of falsehood."
of using the right hand is a symbol of fidelity, imposed in primitive
loss of that member in cases of breaches of faith. Pollack and
Maitland, in their
work on English Law, in speaking of the German people say, "Germanic
fond of characteristic punishment. It likes to take the tongue of the
and the perjurer's right hand."
Fort in his
Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry, says [Lib 1881]:
"Oaths were also attested by
and streams, by rocks, cliffs and stones ‒ the latter sometimes white,
but the most
sacred and binding obligations were made upon a blue stone altar.
swore upon Thor's hammer. It was no unusual thing for a person to
an oath by the beard, hair, and eyes, or with the hand upon vestments.
obligation was administered by touching the judge's staff of office,
and by some
reason warriors swore by the sword; also, other people, in less
of domestic life, used household furniture. For examples travelers
grasped the wagon
wheel, and horsemen their stirrups; sailors rested the hand upon the
Operative Masons, or stonecutters of the Middle Ages perpetuated the
custom of swearing upon common utensils and used their tools in the
of an obligation ‒ a usage adhered to by the modern craft.
"The right hand was considered
in medieval oaths, to seize or to touch the consecrated objects.
hand was upraised in order to bring it in contact with the material
by, and at the same time kneeling, divested of hat and weapon, was an
element in the ceremony of assuming an oath."
Why was it
necessary to touch or to be in contact with some sacred object? This is
question. The possible explanation may be found in the doctrine of
deodands in ancient
English Common Law. This doctrine generally recognized that in case of
inflicted by an inanimate object, such as a wagon wheel, tree or other
similar kind, a portion of the punishment or damage was to award the
the object, the cause of the injury. Man from the remotest times has
life, spirit or being to inanimate objects, therefore, swearing upon
objects is doubtless for no other purpose than to call upon some object
to be a
witness to this obligation. From the fact that man has attributed life
objects, creating and vesting them with certain characteristics common
naturally thought about the necessity of giving them sex. Hence it is
this is the explanation why in most languages we find masculine and
indiscriminately applied to inanimate objects. The explanation is to be
the doctrine of animism and not in poetic license as is often given by
use of the right hand ‒ and one can cite instance after instance of its
use of entering
into obligations, such as in marriage contracts, uplifted right hand in
of an oath ‒ naturally arouses one's enthusiasm to investigate the
Brother Mackey cites instance after instance of its use in worship,
such as keeping
the right side to the altar in going around the altar. Sir Walter Scott
instance in his novel, The Pirate [Lib 1920], of the young people who
in far off Norseland and joined right hands through a circular aperture
at the base
of an upright rock and plighted their faiths to the god Odin. G.
Stanley Hall makes
some interesting remarks when he says:
"There are many facts which
seem to suggest
that in adolescence the right hand precedes the left, and is not
usually quite overtaken,
so that the predominance is greater after puberty. If this be so the
the two hands in man is somewhat analogous to the relation between the
female body in muscular development."
say the grip of the right hand exceeds in strength by one-sixth to
of the left hand. Smedley has observed that there is an analogy between
and the development of the voice.
us pause and ask two questions: First, Are we right-handed because of
the long continued
use of the right hand in worship and in assuming obligations thereby
physiological condition or anatomical condition as a result of constant
or precedence of the right hand? Second, Is the preference given to the
due to the disparity in development between the two hands as is pointed
out by the
scientist in the preceding paragraphs?
of possession of a piece of land was performed, says Digby, in the
"Speaking generally it must be
of something, such as a clod, earth or twig on the land in the name of
importance was attached to the notoriety of the transaction. That all
might know that A was tenant to B from the fact that open livery of
seisin had been
made to him. This would enable him to assert his rights in case of
disputes to the
title of lands."
may be cited from Littleton Coke's translation:
"When a freeholder does fealty
to his lord
he shall hold his right hand on a book and shall say this: 'Know ye
this, my lord,
that I shall be faithful and true unto you and faith to you shall bear
for the lands
which I claim to hold of you and that I shall lawfully do to you the
service while I ought to do, at the terms assigned, so help me God and
And he shall kiss the book."
substantiation of formalities in assuming obligations we wish here to
refer to some
peculiar marriage customs. One of the most peculiar of these customs
was known as
"Smock-marriages" or "Marriage in Shift." Under the common law
the husband became at marriage liable for the ante-nuptial debts of his
well as the successor to her property rights. One counteracted the
other. Now the
theory that the husband could escape the liability of the ante-nuptial
his wife possibly created or brought about smock-marriages.*
the l8th century, widows sometimes remarried
clad only in a smock, or sometimes wearing nothing at all. This custom
on the notion that according to common law, a man who married a woman
with few or
no clothes would not be responsible for her debts or those of her first
The noted jurist Francis Wharton (1820-89) called this concept "a
These "smock marriages," which originated in
were not uncommon in the New England colonies during the early 1700's.
varied according to the region. In some places, the marriage took place
groom and his scantily clad bride had crossed a highway one or more
times. In other
areas, the bride, often naked, stood in a closet and put out one arm
wedding ceremony. Sometimes the bride-groom lent wedding clothes to his
keeping her modest while he protected his money. rhm)
was one where the debtor bride came to the wedding dressed in a smock
which was a public declaration to her creditors that she took no
property to her
husband as a basis of charging him with her debts. A number of
instances are reported
in the New England States where the bride was secluded in a closet and
hands, through an aperture of the door with the bridegroom until the
said, and later appeared well dressed. Alice Morse Earle, in her
Customs of Old
New England [Lib 1916], refers frequently to this
days, trial by battle was attended by the usual formality of joining
before the trial of strength, a custom still preserved in the prize
examples might be cited from the Bible but this is not deemed necessary
it would simply expand this article and add nothing to its value or
of Wales in taking his coronation oath lays his right hand upon the
Bible, for it
is the object of veneration or sacredness.
of removing the shoes is one of the oldest customs and doubtless had
among the people of the Far East, especially the Hebrews. We find Moses
approach to the burning bush removed his shoes for the reason that the
which he stood was sacred. It is a custom of the people of the East
a sacred place to remove the shoes or to uncover the feet, but among
people the head is uncovered. The fact of discalceation proves beyond
the person taking the oath regards the Deity as present and
participating as a third
party to the ceremony. Among the Jewish people it was considered a sign
of dominion or authority to remove the shoes.
Mosaic Law the brother of a childless man was bound to marry his widow
he renounced his right, she could not marry another. If refused the
woman was obliged
to loose his shoes from off his feet and spit before his face as an
complete her complete independence.
White in his Legal Antiquities [Lib 1913] says:
"That this custom was later
used by the
early Christians would seem to be confirmed by the story connected with
of the Emperor Vladimir to the daughter of Raguald, for when asked if
not marry the Emperor she replied: 'I will not take off my shoes to the
son of a
In the early
Saxon days when marriage was completed the father of the bride took off
and handed them to the bridegroom. Wood's ‘Wedding Day in All Ages’
[Lib 1869] says that Martin Luther, the
reformer, used the shoe in his ceremony.
knee has in all ages of the world's history been considered as an act
and reverence. Pliny, the Roman naturalist, observes that a certain
degree of religious
reverence is attributed to the knee of man. Solomon prayed upon bended
knee at the
consecration of the temple.
show beyond doubt that in taking the obligation the candidate is
assumed to be in
the presence of the Deity and that his obligation is entered into with
point we desire to make is that an obligation once assumed was by
considered inviolable, and could not be set aside or held for naught.
for this was because every act of the promisor contemplated the
presence of the
Deity and according to the customs of that age due preparations had
been made looking
to the entering into of the obligations.
be a great blessing in this modern age if more of the initiates in
the obligation could or would consider it more as the ancients did, a
binding obligation, ‒ one taken in the presence of Him who can search
recesses of the heart and knows our purposes and designs. If that were
true we would
have better Masons.
It is a matter
of regret to every man practicing law how easily men extend their right
their Creator and perjure themselves. This is done because many of them
oath as an empty string of words with no binding effect whatsoever. Let
us as Masons
make more of our obligations and try to impress upon the initiate the
a broken pledge with the brethren is attended with serious consequences
and is looked
upon with displeasure by Him who takes notice of the falling of the
The Light -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Frank C. Hickman,
dark the way,
Thou must not fear.
Thou cannot go astray
For God is near.
He leads thee every day,
No matter where,
And watches all the way
And keeps it clear.
He greets thee in the morn
When thou awake,
The earth He soon made warm
For thy dear sake.
He gives thee strength to do
Thy daily lot,
And every need meets too,
Naught is forgot.
And each day's needs are met
As it appears,
The morrow is not yet
Nor can the yesterday
Put in a claim,
For when it was “today”
Its fullest came.
And happiness and peace
And life and love ne'er cease
So forward look ye not
Nor yet behind;
But rather look ye out
At passing time.
Be porter at the door
Of present thought,
Want in one day not more
Than has been brought.
For God serves well His own
And that thou art
And when the truth is known,
Fear will depart.
Remember thou art free
If thou but knew
No error can agree
With love that's true.
No loneliness can live
Within thine heart,
If freely thou wilt give
What is thy part.
For then thou serve the love
That is thy life,
And blessings from above
Dissolve all strife.
is the man, and happy he alone,
He, who can call today his own:
He who, secure within, can say,
Tomorrow, do thy worst, for I have liv'd today.
The Immortality of the Soul
LODGE has written a little book dealing with the immortality of the
soul. It is
a grand, definite pronouncement of the belief of a man of science. Not
we heard a noted Christian Scientist discourse upon the subject of
frequently did he allude to the "mortal body." These references
to our mind the book by Lodge wherein the human body is likened unto a
tenant is the soul. As a minister it has often been our duty to
officiate at the
burial of those who had been loved dearly and who were keenly mourned.
have lost friends and dear ones whom we loved. Gazing upon that which
has come to
be in our minds the tenement of clay, we could never persuade ourselves
one stricken and cold before us was he whom we had loved. It was to us
a house sadly
bereft of a tenant.
ago there came to our attention a very helpful little volume containing
picture of a house by the side of the road, which had for a very long
untenanted. It was in a most dilapidated condition. Its windows were
fences decayed and its doors sagged on their hinges. Then came a day
when a man
of beautiful spirit made it his home, and it became suddenly
transformed. Its paths
were well-kept, the fences repaired, new paint and new windows added to
Roses bloomed around it, birds sang and joy abounded.
Thus is the
paradoxical reflection of human life. There is beauty, joy ‒ all things
life ‒ when the body is the tenement of the soul. But the soul having
and the ruthless hand of time having begun its disintegrating work, no
art of the
embalmer can make us to feel that the body that was once warm with
human life is
anything more than a house of clay.
theme agitating the eternally curious in man is, "If a man die, shall
again?" In a little work by the late Dr. Momerie we may read that "the
greatest thinkers in all ages ‒ men like Plato, Hagel, Goethe ‒ have
believed in immortality. Many others, not so great, but great enough to
multitudes ‒ men like Haeckel, Clifford and Huxley ‒ have denied, or at
doubted it. Whither has flown that which animated the mortal man?"
been good men, no doubt, who have lived good lives without hope of
that hope which seems to be in the lives of most men, which has been
ever man began to think ‒ the thing to which he instinctively ascribed
In a recent
issue of "The Christian Century" there appeared an article under the
Can a Scientist be a Christian? A Frenchman seems to have made an
analysis of the
religious belief of some four hundred and thirty-two men of science.
number there were thirty-four concerning whose religious position he
had been unable
to secure any information. Fifteen confessed themselves indifferent or
sixteen were atheists, while the remaining three hundred and
sixty-seven made a
profession of religious belief."
the very men who have hitherto been regarded as the bulwarks of
unbelief we discover
that the great majority are believers in religion ‒ and religion as it
of in the mind of the Freemason admits of but one dogma and proclaims
but one hope.
That hope is the belief in immortality.
If we are
to attach any symbolical significance to the great drama of the Third
must be attached as the setting forth of an imperishable idea that
there is immortality
for the soul. It would, indeed, be no misnomer to say that Freemasonry
of the soul as immortal. The Christian Apostle conceived of man as
being most miserable
were he devoid of immortality. Who cannot share in the feelings of
inconsolable over the loss of his son he gave utterance to the
beautiful lines of
his Threnody. [Lib 2014] It is a visitant from God
from a world beyond.
Our own Joseph
Fort Newton, probably our wisest and best Masonic seer in this country
forever impressing upon our minds the fact that we are citizens of two
We have long
been persuaded that men had their particular province in which they
of which they seemed to be the authoritative spokesman. For one to
learn the things
of the material universe he should seek out those who have specialized
its nature. The biologist, the physicist and the chemist can answer
almost conclusively for us this day, and perhaps it would be wise for
us to reaffirm
that our greatest knowledge of things spiritual ‒ God and immortality ‒
be derived from those who have lived in consciousness of them.
the philosopher, the scientist ‒ each in his field of labor, and we may
the lesson that each has to tell of his discoveries, from him who is
to speak. Freemasonry has apprehended the wisdom of this course from
We know that
there are races of men who have no conception of immortality, but these
remote cases. The more enlightened the races the more reliable do we
find a man's
feeling, opinion or judgment to be.
of immortality is born of something more than merely the dreams of man,
the intensification of this conception but the result of the dream of
man, in which the Indian saw for himself a paradise of bliss, hunting
the Norseman his Valhalla; the ancient Hebrew his abode of gold, this
would in no
wise invalidate the belief that such dreams were but instruments,
intended to enlighten man as to his ultimate immortal destiny.
to man such immortality as is allied to our general conception of the
of the primal element that goes to make up life would be to offer him
for which we would find him generally unwilling to thank us.
our Masonic conception, as embodied in ritual in its beautiful
and faith, satisfies the instinctive craving. Bryant, in his Water
Fowl, is a surer
guide ‒ and certainly more helpful ‒ than those whose pantheism simply
at last to that all-pervading potency where his own identity is lost
writer of some years ago pictured a primitive man standing shivering
before a foe.
Death was staring him in the face. "Then it was that his thoughts
those wolf children of the cave whom he had left with the mother
behind, and the
hope of immortality was there born." We must confess that it is
rationalizing qualities to apply such to a primitive cave man, unless
we admit the
possible projection of instinct at that moment, to assure him that in
dying he was
not losing them forever. But something akin to this belief must agitate
of every human being who has loved, and who has clasped to his bosom
he loved, and who has wept and hoped as earth receded for them and
took flight to the realm beyond.
then, in its comfort, is the teaching of our Masonic ritual, for it
assuring word when wild grief distracts and the earth is blackened,
imperishable pronouncement, "And so, trusting in the infinite love and
mercy of Him, without whose knowledge not even a sparrow falls, let us
meet them where there is no parting, and where, with them, we shall
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
WHEN WE are
told that our times are degenerate, and find so much to warrant such a
‒ though we would not subscribe to a thought that there were no
‒ we are provoked to pronounce such a story as “Tom Brown's School
Days” [Lib 1911] one of breed, blood, and
evening we took down the “Memoir of a Brother,” [Lib 1873] by the same author, Thomas
A more charming picture, depicting the strong man of power, the type of
gentleman, we have rarely read. We wondered, during our reading,
whether the idealism
of our times ‒ granting that we have an idealism, despite the unideal
way of the
great majority's living ‒ was not inferior to the idealism of that
period when the Hughes boys went to the celebrated school of Rugby. No
could possibly be than that described as existing between the fine
the father, and his son George, as it is revealed in their letters. We
their reading, too, what must have been the letters of the great
and throughout their perusal we are conscious of moving on a high plane
is eternally actuated by the noblest and truest of motives.
expression in regard to this father's dealings with his sons would be
that we feel
if any father ever dealt wisely with his sons, the father of the Hughes
so. Dr. Arnold on one occasion had written Hughes, senior, regarding
of George Hughes to do his duty as praeposter. Some unfortunate peddler
his wares within the Rugby grounds and the mischievous element had
rob him of them and set up some images he sold, for to shy at. It was,
a flagrant breach of disciplinary requirements and young Hughes should
the affair. Howsoever, this was not done. This failure of duty caused
him to be
restrained from attendance at Rugby the last half of his last year
there. As a result
of correspondence which passed between Dr. Arnold and Mr. Hughes,
senior, we sense
how the lad endeavored to vindicate himself, and the rejoinder of Mr.
his son contains the following:
“Now, it is impossible for me
to enter into the
exact merits of the case at a distance; and possibly I may not be
inclined to see
it in all its details with the eye of a zealous schoolmaster; but, as
you are now
of a thinking age, I will treat the matter candidly to you, as a man of
and a man of business, in which capacities I hope to see you efficient
in the course of a few years. Your own conduct seems to be gentlemanly
Very good; this is satisfactory as far as it goes. But clearly, by the
of the school, you have certain duties to perform, the strict execution
may in some cases be annoying to your own feelings, and to that esprit
which always exists among boys. Nevertheless they must be performed.
men who have a real regard for the character of their school, which all
of you are
ready enough to stickle for when you get outside its walls, must not
allow it to
become a mere blackguard bear-garden, and to stink in the nostrils of
schools, by tolerating, in those they are expected to govern, such
things as they
would not do themselves. When you grow a little older you will soon
there is no situation in life worth having, and implying any respect,
firmness is not continually required, and unpleasant duties are to be
indicates to us the marvelous cooperativeness of an older generation
authorities, in the subject of discipline of their pupils and students.
of this remarkable Memoir indicates the great business of the school as
by great, patriotic schoolmasters. Speaking of the great schoolmaster's
proclivities, the author of the Memoir goes on to say:
“I am not conscious, indeed I
do not believe,
that Arnold's influence was ever brought to bear directly on English
the case even of those boys who (like my brother and myself) came
it, in his own house, and in the sixth form. What he did for us was, to
think on the politics of Israel, and Rome, and Greece, leaving us free
the lessons he taught us in these, as best we could, to our own
And in compliment
to this we sense the real essence of Arnold's teaching in the following:
“Again, though Arnold's life
influenced him quite
as powerfully as it did me, it was in quite a different direction,
specially in him the reverence for national life, and for the laws,
and customs with which it is interwoven, and of which it is the
his natural dislike to change, and preference for the old ways, seemed
to gain as
much strength and nourishment from the teaching and example of our old
the desire and hope for radical reforms did in me.”
indeed, makes stimulating reading; it causes a deep hunger for a
to the older idealism. It sensed in the great institution for the
training of youth,
not a place where preparation for life, interpreted in terms of what
one may desire to follow, but in vital relationship to the maintenance
ideals, customs and traditions. It is the sort of nationalism that
enables men to
grow strong, manly, and righteous; it is the education in which the
religious are complimentary, and in which the church exists as a
men in right living. The Memoir of a brother is worthy of resurrection
perusal during long winter evenings. It will give a sense of the
necessity of solidity
during these transitory times.
* * *
recent trip to New York we chanced to visit the region known as
Chinatown. Our visit
was not the first, but this time was occasioned by a desire to see just
looked like after the passing of the eighteenth amendment. Our
but little difference, save that the barrooms were not running as in
days of yore.
On our visit
to the joss house which was through a dark and odorous hallway, we
passed a door
with the inscription, “Freemasons,” upon it. If we had been obedient to
instinct, we would at once have sought admission, but those restraining
pertaining to association with clandestines made us keep within our
it came about that we began to glean in our library for those things
enlighten us; not so much about their Freemasonry after all, as about
people themselves, who comprise almost a third of the human race. We
would not like
to confess to an absolute ignorance of their customs and way of living,
for we were
in some degree acquainted with them, but it was a gratifying task to us
a more thorough perusal of the information relative to those people.
to this end served, in no inconsiderable measure, to enhance our
respect for them,
and as a Mason, aware of the sublime principle of toleration inculcated
in our Order,
it was likewise pleasing to learn that there were certain things about
which we perhaps had once observed, but in our busy rush had forgotten,
we would do well to both emulate and imitate. Of their practice of
we read in the volume on Ancient China in the Sacred Books and Early
of the East:
tolerance, and even welcoming, of new religious ideas has been such
that, when China
was opened to the world less than a century ago, we found that
Christian sects had
persisted there through all the Dark Ages of Europe, and that Jewish
were still existing, the date of whose coming into the land was lost in
antiquity. Mohammedanism is also established in China, as is many
another less known
as we know it, may not be discovered in China, has been quite
by such a work as “Freemasonry in China,” [Lib*] by Herbert A. Giles,
but as a manifestation
of the life of the Spirit as Brother Giles well indicates, it no doubt
itself there. “The Masonry, not of form and ceremonies, but of the
We were not
at all amazed to find their manner of living almost antipodal to ours.
Clark, in his work on “The Ten Great Religions,” [Lib 1886; Vol 1, Vol 2] illustrating this
oppositional view, describes
China and the Chinese in the following manner:
“The first aspect of China
produces that impression
on the mind which we call the grotesque. This is merely because the
customs of this
singular nation are so opposite to our own. They seem morally, no less
our antipodes. We stand feet to feet in everything. In boxing the
compass they say
'westnorth' instead of northwest, 'eastsouth' instead of southeast, and
points south instead of north.”
to customs prior to the days of the Republic with its revolution, the
“Their soldiers wear quilted
boots, and bead necklaces, carry umbrellas and fans, and go to a night
lanterns in their hands, being more afraid of the dark than of exposing
to the enemy. The people are fond of fireworks, but prefer to have them
in the day
time. Ladies ride in wheelbarrows, and cows are driven in carriages. In
family name comes first, and the personal name afterward. Instead of
Franklin or Walter Scott they would say Franklin Benjamin and Scott
Walter. In getting
on a horse, the Chinese mount on the right side. Their old men fly
the little boys look on. The left hand is the seat of honor, and to
keep on your
hat is a sign of respect. Visiting cards are painted red, and are four
In the opinion of the Chinese, the seat of understanding is the
in connection with this that in our reading of a book under the
and Personality,” [Lib 1910] by Dr. W. Hanna Thomson ‒ a
book by the way
which indicates a logical ground for the belief in the Immortality of
from a physical basis ‒ that the stomach was quoted as but one of the
of the body that had been cited by the ancients as the seat of the
soul. In our
judgment, as well the stomach, as the heart, or any other organ for
this lecture of Dr. Clarke's was delivered many years ago, and since
then the general
revolution has transformed things not a little. But a people ‒
accurately so described
for the time that the lecture was written, and who had been following
the same practices
and observing the same customs and habits for thousands of years ‒ will
yet some time to come, many of the characteristics suggested here.
in connection with the general customs which have prevailed since the
time of Confucius,
that in the matter of those holding public offices, it was required
that they be
able to pass certain literary tests. In brief, the literary man held
To this end,
as far as their political and social life was concerned, it was
that aspirants for position of responsibility should be thoroughly
versed in the
law that guaranteed unto them their constitutional well-being. The
and laws, as promulgated and interpreted by Confucius, was the basic
for the Chinese
to live and be governed by.
In view of
this let us for the moment indulge in some comparative reflections. In
States there are certain documents of fundamental importance that, we
guarantee for us the maximum degree of life and liberty and the pursuit
The Declaration of Independence, the Constitution of the United States,
inaugural addresses ‒ those articles that bespeak the soul of America,
its conservatism and its glory, should be known by all aspirants to
and not only known, but their life and conduct should square with them,
and no one
should be suffered to be a recipient of any gift within the power of
people, who would not heartily endorse and subscribe and pledge his
neither should anyone of whom the slightest suspicion might be held be
to enter office, that he would despoil the purpose or mar the beauty
and moral value
by any alien innovation.
of the fathers was, and is, a cardinal virtue in Chinese character.
That the laws
of the fathers in China had their limitations, China's backward
condition is the
most forcible testimony.
documents so sacred to all Americans worthy of the name, in no wise are
to stagnation or inhibitive to progress, but the experience of men,
since the beginning
of government, is epitomized for us by them, and liberty and freedom
and every guarantee
that will permit of rightful initiative conducive to human happiness,
of the Constitution and of these documents ought to be obligatory upon
holder. Nay, more! Upon every American able to read, so that in these
the proper perspective might again be obtained, which would reveal to
us the folly
of departure from the wise course enjoined upon us by the founders of
read, mark, and inwardly digest the following:
“Prudence, indeed, will dictate
long established should not be changed for light and transient causes.”
that, to us, there is something fascinating about men of erudition
of power. It seems to restrain us from continuation of the practice of
men public office on the strength of their popularity, as we are so
wont to do in
* * *
We are in
receipt of a book published by the Flame Press, New York City, under
of “Rosicrucian Fundamentals.” [Lib 1920] We are informed it is
under the authority of the High Council of the Societas Rosicruciana in
That it is
a book of profundity and scholarship, any who may chance to read it
will soon discover.
Quoting from a letter received in connection with the book we may read
“The contents will speak for
themselves and need
no explanation: But for the benefit of those who are unacquainted with
of the Societas Rosicruciana in America, of which organization this
book is the
initial text book, I deem it but proper to state that all who join
Colleges of this
Order are placed in the Neophyte's Degree, which is preliminary and
in its nature. During their stay in this Degree their work is a full
study of this book, and their passing to the next Degree, which is that
is contingent both on their percentage of attendance on the
Convocations of the
College and on their passing a satisfactory examination on the contents
book of Fundamentals. Thus you will see how necessary is a Proficiency
in the Preceding
We are glad
to give our readers this introductory note to this text-book of the
* * *
Gray is no mean successor of Isaac Walton as an Angler Philosopher. We
it is not out of season to draw attention to his volume on “Fly
Fishing,” [Lib 1899] from the pen of the famous
statesman. His philosophic observations in the introduction are highly
and may serve in their quiet way to influence those fishermen who are
prone to fish
for numbers, to a more humane view of the sport itself.
help but quote from the introductory chapter what Sir Edward Gray has
to say about
the explaining of one's pleasures to another. “It would be delightful,”
“to write about pleasures, if by doing so, one could impart them to
is more difficult,” he continues, “than to convey any strong impression
which has been felt within us.”
that interest is the ground for mutual sympathy in the discussion of
His reflections continue, “When a man has a hobby, it is to be hoped
that he will
learn reticence, that he will never go into the world at large,
resolved not to
talk what he cares for most.”
in a later chapter that of the famous schools of England, Winchester
the only school at which the most scientific and highly developed form
could be learned. It is a treat to accompany Sir Edward Gray in his
musings as he
learnedly discusses the intricacies and enjoyments of Fly Fishing.
we note, was published by an English firm, J. M. Dent & Co.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
“Bulletin Course of Masonic Study.” When requested, questions will be
by mail before publication in this department.
George Busby Christian,
Jr., Secretary to President-Elect Harding
In my travels
throughout the State I have been asked numerous times for information
Mr. Christian, Secrctary to President-elect Harding. Can you tell me
not he is a Mason
F. W. DeK., Connecticut.
Busby Christian, Jr., is a member in good standing of Marion Lodge No.
70, F. &
A. M.; Marion Chapter No. 62, R. A. M.; Marion Council No. 22, R.
& S. M., and
Marion Commandery No. 36, K. T., all located in Marion, Ohio. He is
also a member
of Aladdin Temple, A. A. O. N. M. S., of Columbus, Ohio.
his people are Presbyterians and his wife is a member of St. Paul's
* * *
Scriptural Passages in the
the Holy Bible be opened in the Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and
F. A. G., Connecticut.
Apprentice degree ‒ Psalms, chapter 133, verses 1-3.
Craft degree ‒ Amos, chapter 7, verses 7-8.
Mason degree ‒ Ecclesiastes, chapter 12, verses 1-7.
* * *
the “Parian” marble said to have been used in the columns of Solomon's
C. O. N., California.
marble was, and still is, obtained from Paros (or Paro), an island in
Sea, one of the largest groups of the Cyclades. It lies to the west of
which it is separated by a channel about six miles broad, and which it
is now grouped
together, in popular language, under the common name of Paronaxia.
is formed of a single mountain about 2,500 feet in height, sloping
evenly down on
all sides to a maritime plain. The island is composed of marble, though
mica-schist are to be found in a few places. The capital, Paroekia or
Parechia), situated on a bay on the north-west side of the island,
site of the ancient capital Paros. Here on a rock beside the sea are
of a medieval castle built almost entirely of ancient marble remains.
now belongs to the kingdom of Greece.
Ashes of Mason Buried at
two years ago, Robert Weems, who lived in the village of Hempstead, L.
I., and who
was a member of Anglo-Saxon Lodge No. 137, F. & A. M., of
Brooklyn, N. Y., died,
leaving a will in which he directed that his body be cremated and the
either to the winds, or upon the surface of the ocean.
7th, 1920, the Master of Anglo-Saxon lodge, Brother Henry Turner,
Arthur H. Meyers, Charles H. Engstrom and Howard Brood, Past Masters,
yacht of D. Baldwin Sanneman at Jones Inlet and put out to sea,
carrying the ashes
of their dead brother with them.
A heavy sea
was running, but late in the afternoon, when out beyond the line of the
and while the cold, fitful wind blew the rain into the faces of the
party, the Master
of the lodge lowered Brother Deems' ashes overboard, reciting the
services for committal to the sea.
A. J. Audett, New York.
* * *
Five Sons Raised By Fathers
At a recent
meeting of Trimble Lodge No. 117, of Camden, N. J., five fathers each
raised a son.
The youngest of the candidates was twenty-one on the night his petition
to the lodge. The names of the fathers and sons follow:
Chas W. Garman
Franklin S. Garman
fathers and fifty-eight sons (including the candidates) were in
attendance at the
meeting, which was designated as “Fathers' and Sons' Night.”
were delivered at the meeting, the principal speaker being M.’. W.’.
H. Prickitt, Grand Master of Masons in New Jersey.
It is believed
that this is the first occurrence of the kind in the history of Masonry
in the United
Arthur P. Johnson, New Jersey.
* * *
Address at the Raising of
I now have
a pleasant duty to perform, which is not particularly a part of this
concerns you personally.
always pleased when their boy becomes a member of the Masonic Order for
that it encircles him with many influences which must of necessity have
to sustain him in a clean and moral character.
that he comes into contact with as fine a body of men as society
affords, and that
the environment will have a strong influence to hold him in the path of
that Masonry's teachings are ennobling, its ideals lofty; that it
baser qualities of human nature; that it is uplifting and tends to
place a man upon
a high plane of activity where he may rapturously enjoy a life replete
of cheerfulness, deeds of greatness and kindness, thus preparing him to
greater force for the upbuilding of the community in which he may
it is with both pleasure and pride that we have conferred upon you this
the Sublime Degree of Master Mason; upon you, who went three thousand
home to battle for the rights of the people against the greedy,
Emperor of Prussia who was determined to conquer and enslave the world.
be proud of the fact that you aided in maintaining the freedom and
of France ‒ that country which so generously and unselfishly aided and
our forefathers in winning our independence more than one hundred years
the country where democracy first blossomed and bore fruition in
where that holy trinity of Liberty, Fraternity and Equality hurled
and nobles from their despotic thrones and placed the wreath of
nobility upon the
brows of all honest men, though to accomplish this end her soil had
many times to
be drenched with the blood of her patriotic sons. France, the land
where the great
and illustrious Napoleon rose, flourished and fell. We now feel that
our debt to
that country has been paid in full, and that you, in offering your life
as a sacrifice
on the altars of that country at Verdun, the Marne, and in Flanders
in delivering a clean balance sheet, and fortunately for yourself and
you have returned unharmed. We congratulate you.
we all are interested in you and your welfare, but yonder sit two
brothers who are
more interested than we; they have watched your progress through the
and now have smiles of satisfaction on their faces as they behold you
raised to the Sublime Degree of a Master Mason.
But, my young
brother, in a pleasant home this evening there sits one who is more
vitally interested in you and your future achievements than any other
Perhaps she is wondering at this moment if her boy has yet become a
and we might see her face lighted with a halo of joy as she whispers to
“My boy is now entitled to wear the insignia of that noble Order,” and
it is for
her, your mother, that I am addressing these few words to you.
I am told
that you are very fond of your mother; that you anticipate her every
wish and administer
to her every want. I am glad to know this, for in such a young man
there are the
elements and qualities that go to the making of a good and worthy Mason.
You may have
now, or may win in the future, the esteem and affection of the noblest
but she can never bestow upon you the undying love and devotion of your
Often the wife flings a man from her as she would a reptile, when he
of abuse and neglect, but the mother, never. Even though he sink to the
depravity and crime, she will not desert him; should he become so vile
as to fill
a felon's cell, through her tears and sobs she tries to comfort and
And should he be so unfortunate as to have the executioner's rope about
her love is but stronger, her confidence unshaken, her faith
unfaltering ‒ her trust
does not waver, for she sees before her but the innocent face of him to
has sung in happier hours sweet lullabies.
If a mother's
love is undaunted in adversity, what must it be in prosperity? As you
after round of success in business or profession, she is ever at your
side to cheer
you on. And if, perchance, you reach the dizzy heights of fame and
glory, and receive
the plaudits of your fellow men, she is happier than you as she
your heart the holy trinity of love, unselfishness and purity.
my brother, on behalf of her whom you love, and who loves you, I
present to you
this beautiful emblem. Take it and wear it throughout a life unstained
by any ignoble deed but devoted to the principles of our Order. If ever
travels from the home fireside you are tempted to step aside from the
path of virtue,
look upon this emblem and remember her who gave it to you. Let it be
star through life, and a shield from temptation. If you do this, when
at last you
shall have reached the end of life's uneven, weary journey and are
about to cross
to the shores of eternity, the lights will be white.
P. O. Hopkins, Ohio.
* * *
W. H. Upton's “Negro Masonry”
requests for copies of William Henry Upton's “Negro Masonry” ‒ or as it
known, “Light on a Dark Subject” [Lib 1899] ‒ prompt me to inform the
through the columns of THE BUILDER that this is readily accessible in
the 1899 Proceedings
of the Grand Lodge of Washington. In lieu of the customary
Grand Master Upton's request that his report on Negro Masonry be
published was granted
by the Grand Lodge, and this report is the basis of the book which
The first edition of this work was printed from the same plates used in
the 1899 Proceedings. A second edition was issued by an eastern
printer, and it
is this edition that is best known, as it was issued in larger
quantities. I did
not know of the original first edition myself until I picked up an
unbound and untrimmed
copy a few years ago.
interested in the subject should carefully read the 1898, 1899 and 1900
of the Grand Lodge of Washington. A regrettable amount of
place when the subject was first broached, and the fair-minded and
student should not confine himself to any one issue of these various
desiring to know more of Brother Upton should read the obituary
prepared by Past
Grand Master John Arthur of this Grand Jurisdiction, which appeared in
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Washington, page 287. Brother Arthur
was at one
time a law partner of Brother Upton.
Jacob H. Tatsch, Librarian Spokane Masonic Library,
* * *
Women Not Admitted To Membership
by the Grand Lodge or Grand Orient of France
story of September 28, dated from Paris, contains the information that
at a convention voted to receive women into membership.” This paragraph
Masons in Paris,” is printed in the monthly Masonic Bulletin
(Cleveland) for November,
1920. It had been given wide publicity in the newspapers as well as
Usually the reference is to the Grand Lodge of France.
A copy of
the statement so widely circulated in this country was sent to the
Grand Lodge of
France as well as to the Grand Orient. Both replied promptly. The
former says under
date of November 9:
received your favor of the 29th. We hasten to respond and would inform
the National Assembly of the Grand Lodge of France has not made any
decision concerning the admission of women into Freemasonry, and
rumors now circulating, tending to create a belief that women are
admitted to our
lodges, are absolutely devoid of foundation.”
Orient of France, under date of November 19, writes as follows:
to your communication of October 29, I have the favor of informing you
that it is
incorrect that the admission of women into Freemasonry has been so
voted. That question
is yet a matter for study.”
Freemasons cannot be too wary in accepting any statements coming from
other countries relative to the fraternity. There is now in France an
very friendly to many things favored by most Freemasons and therefore
we shall expect
to encounter various attacks upon the good name of the French
government as well
as upon French Masonry. Let the reader note for himself how little has
in the public press of late to encourage a better relationship between
us and the
French. Then if he also reflects on this one instance that the head of
government of France has been active in what over in Europe is called
namely a centralized control by government of all education whatsoever,
soon grasp the fact that any agency opposing that object in the United
equally sure to fight it in France, and one strong means to do this is
international prejudice. We must be wary in believing anything said
Freemasonry and we may wisely be very cautious in accepting information
by us from undoubtedly reliable Masonic sources. Meantime it is well to
that the paragraph I am considering here has oft been repeated and it
false. How did it first get into print and why We may be sure that for
no good purpose
was it given publicity.
Robert I. Clegg, Illinois.
* * *
Names of Philippine Lodges
Pin a gsabit an.
|| Named after the city of Manila. Origin: May
nilad, a Tagaglog phrase meaning “place where the nilad plant is to be
|| From kawit, meaning “hook” in Tagalog.
|| Title of a Spanish magistrate and name of
island at entrance of Manila Bay, the “Gibraltar of the Philippines.”
|| In Tagalog, “New nation,” “New people,” “New
Town.” Name of a place near the Luneta where a number of Filipino
Masons were shot by the Spanish Government in 1896, among them Dr. Jose
|| Name of lodge at Fort Mills, on Corregidor
|| In Tagalog, “Cleft Rock.” Name of the place
where a treaty between the Spanish Government and the Filipino
Insurgents was signed in 1897.
|| The conception of Order and Harmony in Masonry.
|| From “ylog-ylog,” Visayan for “creek.” Name of
|| A plant. (See Manila.)
|| “That which has been lost.” (Tagalog.)
|| “Purity.” (Tagalog.)
|| In Spanish, “Pillar.” This lodge was named
after Marcelo H. del Pilar, an eminent Filipino Mason, patriot, and
|| “The ruler or victor.” This is the Tagalog name
of Mount Arayat.
|| A Tagalog phrase meaning “New Life.”
|| The Tagalog word for “Sun” or “Day.”
|| The Tagalog word for “East,” “Orient,”
| Rizal (Lopez)
|| Named after Dr. Jose Rizal, the Filipino Mason,
patriot, and author, executed on the Luneta on Dec. 30, 1896, by
instigation of the Friars.
|| Name of a place in Mindanao, meaning “Chalky
land.” Here Rizal spent some time in exile.
|| Spanish for “Solidarity.”
|| Name of a mountain in Laguna Province, Luzon.
|| Tagalog for “Pure, clear, transparent.”
|| Tagalog for “Place of the hanging.”
|| This is the place where the Insurrection of
1896 against the Spanish Government, was started.
|| Name of a fruit tree (the “chico”) imported
from Mexico. Lodge was named after the Zapote river, near Bacoor, where
several battles were fought in 1896 and 1899.
|| Name of the Island near Cebu where Magellan,
the discoverer of the Philippines, was killed.
|| Tagalog for “Deliverer.” This is the name which
the Filipino revolutionaries gave to the municipality of Kawit, Cavite.
| Martires del 96
|| Spanish for “Martyrs of '96.” Lodge so named in
commemoration of the Filipino patriots who fell in 1896.
|| Name of a mountain in Camarines; means “the
only beloved” (Isa sa irog.)
|| Named after Abraham Lincoln.
|| Name of a town and a province. In Tagalog
| La Regeneracion
|| Spanish for “Regeneration.”
|| This is the ancient name of Tayabas provmce.
|| Name of a mountain in Sorsogon Province.
|| The old name of Mindanao.
|| The Greek goddess of wisdom.
|| Name of a famous Filipino patriot.
| Noli Me Tangere
|| Latin for “Do not touch me.” This is the title
of Rizal's famous novel.
|| Name of a town and province on Luzon.
|| Named after the U. S. S. Charleston, which took
the surrender of the Spanish garrison of the island of Guam in 1898.
| Mount Apo
|| Name of the highest mountain in Mindanao “Apo”
means “Master,” “Chief,” or “Lord.”
|| Capital of Bulacan province. This town was the
capital of the late Filipino Republic.
|| Visayan for “Sunrise,” “East,” “Orient.”
|| Name of a province in Luzon.
| Mount Mainam
|| ”Fairmount.” (Fair mountain.)
|| The name of a high mountain on the Island of
Mindanao. A place where the swallow birds stay and deposit their nests,
commonly known “Bird's Nest.”
|| ”Stone gate.”
|| Name of a province on Luzon. Means “Salt place.”
|| ”That which was engendered or planted.”
Apostrophe to a Skull -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald A. Nancarrow,
brain that once within this skull held sway;
Made hands to move, and voice to sing,
A heart to love, and soul to pray,
Attend in spirit and a message bring
From that unknown and mystic way.
Some magic word or potent thing,
To train my gaze on greatest need
Of service now and future need.
O eyes which once from out these sockets saw
E'en nature's proud majestic march,
And seeing viewed the whole with awe;
Then passing, looked through evolution's arch
And tried to fathom nature's law:
O tell if poplar or if larch
Shall stand along my later way;
Shall point me high or low that day.
O speech that from this mouth did issue clear;
Voiced love and anger, faith and doubt;
That spoke in courage and in fear,
Renew thy speaking and to me give out,
In mortal tones that I may hear,
Some word to still my spirit's rout.
O let some line to me be said
To conquer my untrusting dread.
A History of the United States
Goo23 / auth. Goodrich Charles A. - Hartford : Barber &
Robinson, 1823. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 415. - 24.5 MB.
A Poem of Moral Duties
Reg90 / auth. Regius Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1390. - p. 70. -
A Short History of England
Gre94 / auth. Green John R. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 935. - 46.7 MB.
Biography of Mrs Catherine
Bab12 / auth. Babbington J. P.. - Taylorsville : J. P. Babbington,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 64. - 3.4 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Brain and Personality
Tho10 / auth. Thomson W Hanna. - New York : Dodd, Mead &
Company, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 343. - 12.0 MB.
Coo00 / auth. Cooke Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1400. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 16. - 0.2 MB.
Customs and Fashions in Old New
Ear16 / auth. Earle Alice M. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 395. - 16.6 MB.
Gra99 / auth. Gray Edward. - London : J M Dent & Co, 1899. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 298. - 4.7 MB.
Greater Greece and Greater
Fre86 / auth. Freeman Edward A. - London : Macmillan and Co, 1886. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 150. - 2.7 MB.
Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc
Cla44 / auth. Clavel F T B. - Paris : Pagnerre, 1844. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
437. - French - 34.8 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 1
Lec87HE1 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1887. - Vol. 1 : 8 : p. 647. - 17.6 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 2
Lec87HE2 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1887. - Vol. 2 : 8 : p. 720. - 19.8 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 3
Lec88HE3 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1888. - Vol. 3 : 8 : p. 618. - 16.6 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 4
Lec82HE4 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1882. - Vol. 4 : 8 : p. 575. - 18.6 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 5
Lec87HE5 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1887. - Vol. 5 : 8 : p. 623. - 17.2 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 6
Lec87HE6 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1887. - Vol. 6 : 8 : p. 630. - 17.8 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 7
Lec90HE7 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1890. - Vol. 7 : 8 : p. 493. - 14.6 MB.
History of England in 18th
Century Vol 8
Lec90HE8 / auth. Lecky William E H. - New York : D Appleton and
Company, 1890. - Vol. 8 : 8 : p. 673. - 20.9 MB.
History of English Law Vol 1
Pol11EL1 / auth. Pollock Frederick. - Cambridge : University Press,
1911. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 725. - 21.1 MB.
History of English Law Vol 2
Pol11EL2 / auth. Pollock Frederick. - Oxford : University Press, 1911.
- Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 708. - 20.5 MB.
History of the USA Vol 1
Els05HU1 / auth. Elson Henry W. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 5 : p. 393. - 9.4 MB - Illustrated.
History of the USA Vol 2
Els05HU2 / auth. Elson Henry W. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1905. - Vol. 2 : 5 : p. 348. - 8.5 MB - Illustrated.
History of the USA Vol 3
Els05HU3 / auth. Elson Henry W. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1905. - Vol. 3 : 5 : p. 328. - 7.5 MB - Illustrated.
History of the USA Vol 4
Els05HU4 / auth. Elson Henry W. - New York : The Macmillan Compnay,
1905. - Vol. 4 : 5 : p. 432. - 20.7 MB - Illustrated.
History of the USA Vol 5
Els05HU5 / auth. Elson Henry W. - New York : The Macmillan Compnay,
1905. - Vol. 5 : 5 : p. 274. - 10.2 MB - Illustrated.
Whi13 / auth. White Edward J. - St Louis : The F H Thomas Law Book Co,
1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 356. - 16.1 MB.
Life and Works of Robert Burns
Cha51RB1 / auth. Chambers Robert. - Edinburgh : William and Robert
Chambers, 1851. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 355. - 14.7 MB.
Life and Works of Robert Burns
Cha51RB2 / auth. Chambers Robert. - Edinburgh : William and Robert
Chambers, 1851. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 320. - 15.6 MB.
Life and Works of Robert Burns
Cha52RB3 / auth. Chambers Robert. - Edinburgh : William and Robert
Chambers, 1652. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
Life and Works of Robert Burns
Cha52RB4 / auth. Chambers Robert. - Edinburgh : William and Robert
Chambers, 1852. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 336. - 17.3 MB.
Life of Heber C Kimball
Whi881 / auth. Whitney Orson F. - Salt Lake City : The Kimball Family,
1888. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 533. - 26.7 MB.
Light on a Dark Subject
Upt99 / auth. Upton William H. - Seattle : The Pacific Mason Publisher,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 141. - 10.0 MB.
Memoir of a Brother
Hug73 / auth. Hughes Thomas. - London : Macmillan and Co, 1973. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 252. - 10.5 MB.
On the Trail of Washington
Hil10 / auth. Hill Frederick T. - New York : D Appleton and Company,
1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 288. - 12.8 MB.
Khe20 / auth. Khey. - New York : Flame Press, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
410. - 37.6 MB.
Ten Great Religions Vol 1
Cla86GR1 / auth. Clarke James F. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1886. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 556. - 25.8 MB.
Ten Great Religions Vol 2
Cla86GR2 / auth. Clarke James F. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1886. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 452. - 12.5 MB.
The American Revolution Vol 1
Tre21AR1 / auth. Trevelyan George O. - New York : Longmans, Green and
Co, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 415. - 25.4 MB.
The American Revolution Vol 2
Tre22AR2 / auth. Trevelyan George O. - New York : Longmans, Green and
Co, 1922. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 366. - 22.4 MB.
The American Revolution Vol 3
Tre22AR3 / auth. Trevelyan George O. - New York : Longmans, Green and
Co, 1922. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 348. - 21.3 MB.
The American Revolution Vol 4
Tre22AR4 / auth. Trevelyan George O. - New York : Longmans, Green and
Co, 1922. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 511. - 30.6 MB.
The Early History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry
For81 / auth. Fort George F.. - Philadelphia : Bradley & Co.,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 514. - 21.2 MB.
The Life of General George
Wee77 / auth. Weems Mason L. - Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott
& Co., 1877. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256. - 8.8 MB.
The Life of George Washington
Mar05GW1 / auth. Marshall John. - Philadelphia : C P Wayne, 1805. -
Vol. 1 : 5 : p. 569. - 27.1 MB.
The Life of George Washington
Mar05GW2 / auth. Marshall John. - Philadelphia : C P Wayne, 1805. -
Vol. 2 : 5 : p. 541. - 66.5 MB.
The Life of George Washington
Mar05GW3 / auth. Marshall John. - Philadelphia : C P Wayne, 1805. -
Vol. 3 : 5 : p. 615. - 44.2 MB.
The Life of George Washington
Mar05GW4 / auth. Marshall John. - Philadelphia : C P Wayne, 1805. -
Vol. 4 : 5 : p. 655. - 31.1 MB.
Sco20 / auth. Scott Sir Walter. - London : J M Dent, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 475. - 22.2 MB.
The Poetical Works Vol 01
Sou38PW01 / auth. Southey Robert / ed. Longman Orme, Brown, Green,
& Longman. - London : [s.n.], 1838. - Vol. 1 : 10 : p. 380. -
The Poetical Works Vol 02
Sou38PW02 / auth. Southey Robert. - London : Longman, Orme, Brown,
Green, & Longman, 1838. - Vol. 2 : 10 : p. 299. - 7.4 MB.
The Poetical Works Vol 03
Sou38PW03 / auth. Southey Robert. - London : Longman, Orme, Brown,
Green, & Longman, 1838. - Vol. 3 : 10 : p. 337. - 8.3 MB.
The Poetical Works Vol 04
Sou38PW04 / auth. Southey Robert. - London : Longman, Orme, Brown,
Green, & Longman, 1838. - Vol. 4 : 10 : p. 437. - 12.2 MB.
The Poetical Works Vol 05
Sou38PW05 / auth. Southey Robert. - London : Longman, Orme, Brown,
Green, & Longman, 1838. - Vol. 5 : 10 : p. 471. - 11.8 MB.
The Poetical Works Vol 06
Sou38PW06 / auth. Southey Robert. - London : Longman, Orme, Brown,
Green, & Longman, 1838. - Vol. 6 : 10 : p. 299. - 6.3 MB.
The Poetical Works Vol 07
Sou38PW07 / auth. Southey Robert. - London : Longman, Orme, Brown,
Green, & Longman, 1838. - Vol. 7 : 10 : p. 297. - 8.9 MB.
The Poetical Works Vol 08
Sou38PW08 / auth. Southey Robert. - London : Longman, Orme, Brown,
Green, & Longman, 1838. - Vol. 8 : 10 : p. 362. - 10.2 MB.
The Poetical Works Vol 09
Sou38PW09 / auth. Southey Robert. - London : Longman, Orme, Brown,
Green, & Longman, 1838. - Vol. 9 : 10 : p. 432. - 13.9 MB.
The Poetical Works Vol 10
Sou38PW10 / auth. Southey Robert. - London : Longman, Orme, Brown,
Green, & Longman, 1838. - Vol. 10 : 10 : p. 271. - 7.3 MB.
The Rise and Fall of Nauvoo
Rob00 / auth. Roberts B H. - Salt Lake City : Deseret News, 1900. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 454. - 23.8 MB.
The Wedding Day in all Ages
Woo69 / auth. Wood Edward J. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1869. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 311. - 6.9 MB.
The Works of Lord Byron
Byr74 / auth. Byron Lord. - Boston : Lee and Shepard, 1874. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 1087. - 90.4 MB.
Times and Seasons Vol 1
Mor39TS1 / auth. Mormon. - Commerce : E Robinson; D C Smith, 1839. -
Vol. 1 : 6 : p. 194. - 53.7 MB.
Times and Seasons Vol 2
Mor40TS2 / auth. Mormon. -
Nauvoo : E Robinson, 1840. - Vol. 2 : 6 : p. 677. - 351.8 MB.
Times and Seasons Vol 3
Mor41TS3 / auth. Mormon. -
Nauvoo : E Robinson, 1841. - Vol. 3 : 6 : p. 604. - 294.6 MB.
Times and Seasons Vol 5
Mor43TS5 / auth. Mormon. - Nauvoo : John Taylor, 1843. - Vol. 5 : 6 :
p. 582. - 287.3 MB.
Times and Seasons Vol 6
Mor44TS6 / auth. Mormon. - Nauvoo : John Taylor, 1844. - Vol. 6 : 6 :
p. 377. - 104.0 MB.
Tom Brown's School Days
Hug11 / auth. Hughes Thomas. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 369. - 22.4 MB.