Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
by far the superior of the men of his time, had three advantages:
First, that he
was poor born, the son of a Baptist clergyman; Second, that he was at
an early age
obliged to "hustle," and thus to acquire the habit of industry; and
opportunity. Success in life is largely dependent upon opportunity, or
it is sometimes called.
When a child
of eight years, the writer first saw Henry Clay. My father said to me:
you see that tall man talking to Mr. Frank Taylor? That is Henry Clay,
living American. He is now an old man. He cannot live long. Look at him
the Nation will never produce his equal."
used more words in his oratory than any man then living. He was
of purpose, and earnest.
In 1852 as
his funeral cortege was passing down the avenue, a Negro was leaning
against a tree
in front of Frank Taylor's book store, singing. I caught the refrain
"Oh ! Poor Henry Clay,
In the dust you must lay."
loved Clay. He had endeavored to have incorporated in the Kentucky
a clause looking to the gradual emancipation of slaves. It is not
but when the Civil War began there were in existence in the United
emancipation societies, thirteen of which were south of the Mason and
Washington had freed his slaves, and Henry Clay tried to free many. He
called Henry Clay, just as today Mr. Watterson is called Henry,
contrary to the
habit of their peers.
was a fifth son, and was compelled at an early age to contribute to the
of a widowed mother. His early education was limited, but what he
learned he never
forgot. His family removed to Kentucky but he remained in Richmond as a
gaining admission into the office of the Clerk of the Chancery Court
where he took
up the study of law. After being admitted to the Bar, he went to
Kentucky to reside.
His frankness, cordiality and sunny disposition won him many friends.
to take a part in public affairs and, in 1799 (the year of Washington's
he advocated the gradual abolition of slavery. Had his advice been
Civil War never would have occurred.
Clay saw the great-advantages in better transportation. Washington's
a canal connecting the Potomac and the Ohio rivers was not greater than
canal around the falls at Louisville. His schemes were in the interest
of the commonwealth,
not the individual.
in the legislature, in the Nation's Congress and Senate. He was in
the Presidency but was defeated by the less-known candidate, not a
He, together with many other Senators, on their way from the Senate to
frequently stopped in at "Hancock's" for their libations, and their
were absorbed and remembered by Mr. Hancock, who lived to an old age
and who delighted
to repeat the bon mots of Clay, Webster, Calhoun, Benton and others.
of Clay's duel with John Randolph, of Roanoke, is interesting. Mr.
very eccentric, a powerful speaker, honorable and unselfish, but very
He was odd in his dress, many of his expressions were ambiguous and
had said he would rather meet death by a bullet from Clay's revolver,
than in any
other manner. As he and Clay were working in the same interests,
generally on the
same side, one in the House and the other in the Senate, there was
of a quarrel. But it came.
with pistols, near Bladensburg. Both were good shots. Clay had attacked
in a speech, but all sympathy was with Clay. Clay sent a bullet through
coat, which barely grazed the skin, while Randolph dramatically fired
into the air.
Clay, you owe me a new coat," said the eccentric Congressman, advancing
extended hands, to which Clay replied, "Thank God, Mr. Randolph".
and Andrew Jackson stood pat on the Masonic threshold during the Morgan
when politicians were engaged in throwing so much mud on our Order. The
that assault is unknown, but it is certain that whole lodges got "cold
and surrendered their charters; Masons were boycotted in their
businesses, and the
daughters of Masons were ostracized. But Clay remained loyal to the
And after all we have the testimony of Ben Perly Poore that he (then a
his father saw and talked with Morgan in Smyrna, in 1839. So the
judgment on Henry
Clay was correct in that matter.
was born in Virginia in 1777, and died at Washington in 1852. His body
to Lexington, Kentucky, where the memorial shown in the frontispiece,
Grand Master of Masons in Kentucky in 1820. He was always interested in
and was often quoted as saying that in Masonry he could find at any
time men who
could be trusted to the limit. The writer has heard Theodore Roosevelt
say the same
It was the
custom of Clay, and indeed, of many Congressman, to return to their
homes on horse-back
at the end of a session of Congress. The writer, in 1887, drove in a
Washington to the Natural Bridge, and found a "tavern" about every
miles. It was the custom to drive about thirty miles a day with a good
put up at each alternate tavern and, after supper, it was not difficult
to get Clay
stories from the elder natives. Returning by another route, we found
and other great men to be well known at these taverns. Clay was a good
and these "oldest inhabitants" were agreed that Henry Clay never forgot
a man or a child; that he would at once call each by his name. In
here in Washington, Clay had the reputation of being very witty, and
clever at repartee,
but never once have we heard of an improper remark being attributed to
was one of the first advocates of a protective tariff. He fathered the
enabled Louisiana to form its State government. He opposed the first
bank. While Speaker of the House he constituted the committee with
declaration of war. He advocated a strong army (25,000 men), and urged
of ten additional frigates. He denounced the Federal Party, in
opposition to Josiah
Quincy's speeches, and eulogized Jefferson.
was admitted into the Union, the question of slavery was very acute.
Mr. Clay vehemently
opposed any restrictions in the proposed Constitution of that State as
but as Speaker of the House, arranged a joint committee which produced
"Missouri Compromise" and thus smothered the vexed slavery question for
the time being. Clay had confidence that slavery would gradually be
of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia for the year 1821 show a
members of Congress who belong to the Masonic Fraternity, and those
the city who are or have been members of any Grand Lodge, are
to attend a meeting, to be held in the Senate Chamber this evening at
to take into consideration matters of general interest to the Masonic
March 9th, 1822."
This is the
only instance we have ever found where the Senate Chamber has been used
by the Fraternity
and, on this occasion, it was by the influence of Henry Clay.
We are proud
to know that Washington, the father of his country, was a prominent
his life work demonstrated to all his conscientious interpretation of
and of Masonic lessons. We as Masons, however, cannot live upon the
past the future
lies before us. A greater work is in store for us if we conscientiously
up to our duties than anything the past has presented. Shall we measure
up? We earnestly
hope and pray that we may. If we go forth from our lodges, old members
as well as
new, thoroughly imbued with the beautiful lessons of Freemasonry,
convinced of the
truth of the teachings, impressed with the desire to emulate and
surpass the record
of the past, we shall be empowered by our united strength to enable our
safely to ride over the many difficulties, dangers and pitfalls that
us. Masonry teaches loyalty and fealty to flag and country. We shall,
we must, have
Americanism in every sense of the word, for Americanism represents the
of Masonry as laid out by our wise forefathers. Unless we, as a united,
and faithful band set our faces firmly against disloyalty, anarchy,
or whatever the term applied to the foreign growth whose seed is
sown in this country may be, a dismal, dark, discouraging future lies
Let us therefore bend our every endeavor so that our newly welcomed
truly and completely understand the noble import and purposes of
Charles C. Homer, Past Grand Master, Maryland.
OF THE NATIONAL MASONIC RESEARCH SOCIETY in the United States will
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All Articles Copyright 1921 by the National Masonic Research Society.
By Bro. Hoke Smith
Educational Bill, the text of which is incorporated in the following
speech of Senator
Hoke Smith, of Georgia, delivered in the United States Senate on July
will come up for consideration during the present session of Congress.
writer in the November issue of "America," a Roman Catholic weekly,
every Roman Catholic to "at once urge the danger of the Smith-Towner
the Senators from his State.
The men who
suggested this bill were active workers in different Christian
seeking to serve their fellow men, their country, and their God.
discordant note has come from certain Catholic organizations, based, I
upon a misapprehension of the bills.
for the support of public schools are the highest contribution made by
the welfare of our citizens and for the future of our country.
might have been expected of leaders of thought in the dark ages; at the
time they are surprising and shocking.
believe that the real leaders of the Catholic Church or the rank and
file of its
members in the United States are opposed to public schools or to an
being given to every child of obtaining an education at the public
Democratic Senator from Georgia.
* * *
of Georgia. Mr. President, about two years ago a committee of
of presidents of leading colleges and men prominent in educational work
the United States, conferred with me as to the importance of
establishing a department
of education, with a member of the Cabinet at its head. These men were
in different Christian religious denominations, earnestly seeking to
fellow men, their country, and their God, by broadening educational
for our children and citizens.
concerns more our national life than the education of our citizens, it
argument to enlist my active interest in the proposed measure.
discussion a committee was appointed to draft a tentative bill. The
bill was worked
over a number of times and finally, about 12 months ago, I introduced a
for the creation of a Department of Education, with a secretary in the
Cabinet, and copies of the bill were sent to those interested in the
various parts of the United States for further criticism and
were made in the bill and it was again introduced during the last
somewhat in details. It has been, since that time, reviewed and
criticized by committees
from various organizations.
introduced in the House by Judge Towner, H. R. 7, and by myself in the
1017, still contains much of the bill which was pending at the last
session of Congress,
but changes which seemed to improve the original bill have been made.
Education Association has a membership of 35,000. It was organized in
many of our ablest college presidents and educators have presided over
Committees of this organization aided in the revision of the bill, and
at the Ju.
meeting of the association the bill received the cords approval of its
to print, without reading, the resolution passed by the National
pro tempore. ‒ Without objection, is so ordered.
referred to are as follows:
The Smith Towner Bill
adopted by National Education Association, Milwaukee meeting, July,
has urged for years that education should be given just recognition by
Government, and that a department of education should be established.
The war has
so emphasized the importance of education from a national standpoint
that the necessity
of the immediate consideration of this question is universally
a commission on the emergency in education, appointed by this
association one year
ago, acting under the instruction of the association, prepared a bill
department of education with a secretary in the President's Cabinet,
the appropriation of $100,000,000 to encourage the States in the
promotion of education,
particularly in the removal of illiteracy, the Americanization of
and health education, teacher preparation, and the equalizing of
through its commission, and with the cooperation of other great
secured the introduction of this bill in the Sixty-fifth Congress, and
its introduction in the Sixty-sixth Congress in a carefully revised and
form, known as the Smith-Towner bill, H. R. 7 and S. 1017: Therefore
That this association gives its hearty and unqualified endorsement to
bill, H. R. 7 and S. 1017, now before the Sixty-sixth Congress, and
official staff of this association to use all honorable means to secure
of Georgia ‒ Mr. President, the American Federation of Labor and the
of Teachers have given the measure a hearty endorsement.
to print, without reading, their resolutions.
pro tempore. ‒ If there is no objection, it is so ordered.
referred to are as follows:
No. 123, by Delegate Charles B. Stillman, of the American Federation of
accordance with the instructions of the last convention, the executive
the American Federation of Labor, working with the American Federation
and the National Education Association, has cooperated in the
preparation and introduction
of the educational bill, H. R. 7, which creates a Federal department of
and appropriates $100,000,000 to be apportioned among the States to aid
in the payment
of more adequate teachers' salaries, in the equalization of educational
in the removal of illiteracy, in Americanization of immigrants, in
and in the preparation of competent teachers; and
present period of reconstruction is revealing even more clearly than
period of the war the need for a national educational policy to secure
among the States, and to promote national welfare, efficiency, and
threatened collapse of our schools, which influenced the action of the
is still more imminent now, through the forcing out of our best
teachers by the
thousands by sheer economic pressure, and through the refusal of young
men and women
of ability and independent spirit to prepare themselves for a calling
not offer a self-respecting living; and
ultimate national need is for educated manhood and womanhood, a need
become more urgent in the period we are entering; and
recent past has forced upon us a realization of the necessity of more
physical education, of the removal of illiteracy, and of the
the fields of vocational and agricultural education, the value of the
the States of Federal appropriations available to a State on its
standards, and on the appropriation by that State of equal amounts, has
by experience; therefore, be it Resolved, That this thirty-ninth
convention of the
American Federation of Labor, in conformity with the recommendation of
convention, indorse the educational bill, H. R. 7, and instruct the
executive council to use the full influence of the American Federation
in its support.
organizations, including school boards and chambers of commerce, have
measure. Indeed, so far as I know, the only discordant note of
opposition has come
from certain Catholic organizations, based, I must believe, upon a
of the bills.
In the Morning
Star, printed in New Orleans, on May 31, I find the statement that the
of Catholic Societies condemn the Smith-Towner educational bill as
un-Christian, and certain resolutions were reported as adopted which I
have printed without reading them.
pro tempore ‒ Without objection, it is so ordered.
referred to is as follows:
Rev. M. Kenny,
S. J., read this section of the report of the Committee on Education:
Catholic education, and particularly our parochial school system, are
nurseries of religion and of the virtues essential to true civic
character and to
the maintenance of Christian civilization; and
the Constitution of the Nation and of the States guarantees religious
every citizen and strictly defines the authoritative boundaries of
State and Federal
certain legislative measures now introduced in Congress and various
aim, directly and indirectly, to weaken, emasculate and destroy
and educational individuality, and to subject all schools, in finance
to a centralized bureau of political nationalization in Washington,
State and family and individual of their God-given rights: Therefore be
That we, the representatives of the Catholic Federated Societies of
unanimously opposed to such measures as both un-American and
unchristian, and earnestly
urge our people to support our Christian schools with increased
unanimity and loyalty,
and to combine with all Christian and patriotic citizens in opposing,
by voice and
pen and vote and every constitutional instrument, the advocacy,
adoption, and advocates
of those subversive and destructive educational schemes, thus erecting
barrier against this sinister menace to religion and Constitution, to
Nation; be it further
That copies of this resolution be forwarded to the President and
Cabinet of the
United States, to the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the
House, and to
our State and National Representatives."
of Georgia. Mr. President, the Morning Star on the same date commended
stand which the Federation of Catholic Societies has made against the
bill which is to be re-introduced into Congress under the name of the
of the same issue quoted from a paper called "America," declaring that
the Smith bill was for the Prussianization of the public schools and
that the Smith-Bankhead
bill, for the Americanization of illiterates, was a scheme scarcely
On July 1,1909,
at Peru, Ill., the National Benedictine Educational Association of
a platform of educational reconstruction condemning the Smith-Towner
bill. I request
that it be printed in the Record.
pro tempore ‒ If there is no objection, it is so ordered.
referred to is as follows:
Benedictine National Educational
Association Protests against Autocracy in Education
July 1, 1919.
at a time when the war-worn peoples of the globe watch with anxiety the
triumph of might over right, of tyranny over democracy, of
international chaos over
organized government, The National Benedictine Educational Association
convened in St. Bede College, Peru, III., and representing independent
in the States of Oregon, Washington, Minnesota, Illinois, New
Hampshire, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Missouri, Kansas Arkansas, Virginia, North Carolina,
and Florida, hereby proclaims its solemn conviction that education is
of freedom, and invites the universal cooperation of serious-minded
upon the platform of educational reconstruction that here follows:
1. Federal cooperation with our
free and self-controlled educational activities
we recognize and welcome as an ally of educational freedom. Federal
condemn as educational tyranny.
2. The spirit of liberty, the
fountainhead of our national Constitution, serves
to condemn any governmental agency that tends to disregard or abolish
right of each and every American father to create and control for his
child a school
which satisfies the dictates of his conscience.
3. Power to create and control the
school depends on the power to control the
man that creates the school.
4. Consequently, Federalization of
all school moneys, the essential feature
of the Smith-Towner bill, is the death knell of educational freedom.
5. Consequently, the voters of
America will employ all legitimate agencies,
and the final sanction of the ballot box, against a measure subversive
of the educational
freedom guaranteed to our families and our States by a Constitution
that has lately
been rewritten in the life-blood of their sons and brothers. Shall the
tyranny of Bismarck, after devouring with cynical smile the flower of
ride with our returning armies across the Atlantic to complete in
it began in Berlin?
of Georgia. Mr. President, I trust these attacks upon the bills to
create a Department
of Education have been due to a lack of knowledge of the real
provisions of the
bills on the part of those who made them. I can not believe that these
the mature views of any considerable number of our citizens. Rather, I
they have been inspired by addresses such as that recently delivered by
D. L. McDonnell, S. J., of Loyola College, Baltimore, Md. The address
to which I
refer was reported in the Washington Post on the 16th day of June. I
send to the
desk of the Secretary of the Senate some extracts from that report,
which I ask
to have read.
pro tempore ‒ The Secretary will read as requested.
read as follows:
Washington Post. June 16, 1919.) PRIEST ATTACKS BILL. REV. MR.
McDONNELL WARNS OF
MENACE IN EDUCATIONAL ACT. SPEAKS TO G. U. GRADUATES. DECLARES SENATOR
MEASURE FOR DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION WOULD MEAN "DICTATOR" IN WASHINGTON.
attack upon Senator Hoke Smith's educational bill and similar measures
Congress creating a Department of Education was made yesterday by the
Rev E. De
L. McDonnell, S. J., of Loyola College, Baltimore, Md., in a
delivered before the graduating classes of Georgetown University.
Warns Of an "Overseer"
referred to the proposed legislation as "designed to place the whole
machinery of the country under the control of one autocratic overseer
here in Washington,"
and described it as "the most dangerous and viciously audacious bill
into our halls of legislation, having lurking within it a most damnable
drive Jesus Christ out of the land."
now, last of all, but by no means least of all, our freedom is still
and still greater power is to be given to the Central Government, and
are still further to be weakened by a bill in Congress, the Hoke Smith
bill, by which the whole educational machinery of the country is to be
the control of one autocratic overseer here in Washington.
there is another aspect of this bill which, for us Catholics and for
American, must seem much more serious, for whilst the bill does nothing
against religion, in effect it aims at banishing God from every
public or private, in the United States.
bill destroys all freedom of education, takes away the sacrosanct duty
of parents to educate their own children and the right of the children
to be so
educated. It is a direct assault upon religion and it penalizes Jesus
faith and all who believe.
of Georgia. Mr. President, this address embodies three distinct charges
the pending bills to create a department of education.
the whole educational machinery of the country is to be placed under
of one autocratic overseer here in Washington.
the bill takes away the duty and right of parents to educate their own
and the right of the children to be so educated.
the bill would banish God from every schoolroom and is a direct assault
Each of these
charges is so utterly false that it is difficult to understand how
have been willing to make them. It is especially difficult to
understand how a preacher
of the Gospel of Jesus Christ could have been their author.
now to have printed in the Record, without reading, Senate bill 1017,
which is almost
identical with House bill No. 7, introduced by Congressman Towner.
pro tempore ‒ If there is no objection, the request is granted.
referred to is as follows ‒
CONGRESS, FIRST SESSION. S. 1017.
IN THE SENATE
OF THE UNITED STATES.
of Georgia introduced the following bill; which was read twice and
referred to the
Committee on Education
A bill to
create a Department of Education, to authorize appropriations for the
said department, to authorize the appropriation of money to encourage
in the promotion and support of education, and for other Purposes.
Be it enacted
by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of
America in Congress
assembled, That there is hereby created an executive department in the
to be called the Department of Education, with a Secretary of
Education, who shall
be the head thereof, to be appointed by the President, by and with the
consent of the Senate, and who shall receive a salary of $12,000 per
whose tenure of office shall be the same as that of the heads of other
departments; and section 158 of the Revised Statutes is hereby amended
such department, and the provisions of title 4 of the Revised Statutes,
all amendments thereto, are hereby made applicable to said department.
of Education shall cause a seal of office to be made for such
department of such
device as the President shall approve, and judicial notice shall be
taken of said
Sec. 2. That
there shall be in said department an Assistant Secretary of Education,
to be appointed
by the President, who shall receive a salary of $5,000 per annum. He
such duties as may be prescribed by the secretary or required by law.
also be one chief clerk and a disbursing clerk and such chiefs of
bureaus and clerical
assistants as may from time to time be authorized by Congress.
Sec. 3. That
there is hereby transferred to the Department of Education, the Bureau
and the President is authorized and empowered, in his discretion, to
the Department of Education such offices, bureaus, divisions, boards,
of the Government devoted to educational matters and connected with or
to any of the executive departments or organized independently of any
as in his judgment should be controlled by, or the functions of which
exercised by, the Department of Education; and all such offices,
boards, or branches of the Government so transferred by the President
or by act
of Congress, shall thereafter be administered by the Department of
clerks, and employees employed in or by any office, bureau, division,
branch of the Government, transferred in accordance with the provisions
act to the Department of Education, shall each and all be transferred
to said Department
of Education at their existing grades and salaries, except where
in this act; and the office records and papers on file and pertaining
to the business of any such office, bureau, division, board, or branch
of the Government
so transferred, together with the furniture and equipment thereof,
shall be transferred
to said department.
Sec. 4. That
the Secretary of Education shall have charge, in the buildings or
by or assigned to the Department of Education, of the library,
records, and other property used therein or pertaining thereto, and may
rental of appropriate quarters for the accommodation of the Department
within the District of Columbia, and for the library, furniture,
all other incidental expenses, such sums as Congress may provide from
time to time.
and authority conferred by law upon or exercised by the head of any
or by any administrative board, over any officer, office, bureau,
or branch of the Government, transferred in accordance with the
provisions of this
act to the Department of Education, and any and all business arising
pertaining thereto, and all duties performed in connection therewith,
such transfer, be vested in and exercised by the Secretary of Education.
prescribing the work and defining the duties and powers of the several
bureaus, divisions, boards, or branches of the Government, transferred
with the provisions of this act to the Department of Education, shall,
in so far
as the same are not in conflict with the provisions of this act, remain
force and effect and be executed under the direction of the Secretary
to whom is hereby granted definite authority to reorganize the work of
any and all
of the said offices, bureaus, divisions, boards, or branches of the
transferred, in such way as will in his judgment best accomplish the
Sec. 5. That
it shall be the duty of the Department of Education to conduct studies
in the field of education and to report thereon. RESEARCH SHALL BE
(A) ILLITERACY; (B) IMMIGRANT EDUCATION; (C) PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATION,
RURAL EDUCATION; (D) PHYSICAL EDUCATION, INCLUDING HEALTH EDUCATION,
AND SANITATION; (E) PREPARATION AND SUPPLY OF COMPETENT TEACHERS FOR
SCHOOLS; AND (F) IN SUCH OTHER FIELDS AS, IN THE JUDGMENT OF THE
SECRETARY OF EDUCATION,
MAY REQUIRE ATTENTION AND STUDY.
to carry out the provisions of this section the Secretary of Education
in the same manner as provided for appointments in other departments,
to make appointments,
or recommendations of appointments of educational attaches to foreign
and of such investigators and representatives as may be needed, subject
to the appropriations
that have been made or may hereafter be made to any office, bureau,
or branch of the Government, transferred in accordance with the
provisions of this
act to the Department of Education; and where appropriations have not
therefor the appropriation provided in section 6 of this act shall be
Sec. 6. That
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, and annually thereafter, the
sum of $500,000
is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the
Treasury not otherwise
appropriated, to the Department of Education, for the purpose of paying
and conducting investigations and paying all incidental and traveling
rent where necessary, and for the purpose of enabling the Department of
to carry out the provisions of this act. And all appropriations which
made and which may hereafter be made to any office, bureau, division,
board or branch
of the Government, transferred in accordance with the provisions of
this act to
the Department of Education, are hereby continued in full force and
shall be administered by the Secretary of Education in such manner as
Sec. 7. That
in order to encourage the States in the promotion and support of
is hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any money in the
Treasury not otherwise
appropriated, for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1921, and annually
$100,000,000, to be apportioned, disbursed, and expended as hereinafter
Sec. 8. That
in order to encourage the States to remove illiteracy, three-fortieths
of the sum
authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall be used
for the instruction
of illiterates ten years of age and over. Such instruction shall deal
with the common-school
branches and the duties of citizenship, and when advisable shall
prepare for some
definite occupation. Said sum shall be apportioned to the States in the
which their respective illiterate populations of ten years of age and
including foreign-born illiterates, bear to such total illiterate
the United States, not including outlying possessions, according to the
census of the United States.
Sec. 9. That
in order to encourage the States in the Americanization of immigrants,
of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall
to teach immigrants ten years of age and over to speak and read the
and to understand and appreciate the spirit and purpose of the American
and the duties of citizenship in a free country. The said sum shall be
to the States in the proportions which their respective foreign-born
bear to the total foreign-born population of the United States, not
possessions, according to the last preceding census of the United
That in order to encourage the States to improve educational
of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall
in public elementary and secondary schools for the partial payment of
salaries, for providing better instruction and extending school terms,
in rural schools and schools in sparsely settled localities, and
equally good educational opportunities for the children in the several
for the extension and adaptation of public libraries for educational
said sum shall be apportioned to the States, one-half in the
proportions which the
number of children between the ages of six and twenty-one of the
bear to the total number of such children in the United States, and one
the proportions which the number of public-school teachers employed in
positions in the respective States bear to the total number of
as employed in the United States, not including outlying possessions,
to be based upon statistics collected annually by the Department of
however, That in order to share in the apportionment provided by this
State shall establish and maintain the following requirements unless
constitutional limitations, in which case these requirement shall be
as nearly as constitutional provision will permit: (A) A LEGAL SCHOOL
TERM OF AT
LEAST 24 WEEKS IN EACH YEAR FOR THE BENEFIT OF ALL CHILDREN OF SCHOOL
AGE IN SUCH
STATE (B) A COMPULSORY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE LAW REQUIRING ALL CHILDREN
AGE, OF SEVEN AND FOURTEEN TO ATTEND SOME SCHOOL FOR AT LEAST 24 WEEKS
IN EACH YEAR
(C) A LAW REQUIRING THAT THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE SHALL BE THE BASIC
LANGUAGE OF SMITH-TOWNER
EDUCATIONAL BILL INSTRUCTION IN THE COMMON-SCHOOL BRANCHES IN ALL
That in order to encourage the States in the promotion of physical
of the sum authorized to be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall
for physical education and instruction in the principles of health and
and for providing school nurses, school dental clinics, and otherwise
physical and mental welfare. The said sum shall be apportioned to the
the proportions which their respective populations bear to the total
of the United States, not including outlying possessions, according to
preceding census of the United States.
That in order to encourage the States in the preparation of teachers
service, particularly in rural schools, three-twentieths of the sum
be appropriated by section 7 of this act shall be used to provide and
for the improvement of teachers already in service and for the more
of prospective teachers, and to provide an increased number of trained
teachers by encouraging, through the establishment of scholarships and
a greater number of talented young people to make adequate preparation
service. The said sum shall be apportioned to the States in the
the number of public school teachers employed in teaching positions in
States bear to the total number of public-school teachers so employed
in the United
States, not including outlying possessions, said apportionments to be
based on statistics
collected annually by the Department of Education.
That in order to secure the benefits of the appropriation authorized in
7, and of any of the apportionments made in sections 8, 9,10, 11, and
12 of this
act, a State shall by legislative enactment accept the provisions of
this act and
provide for the distribution of such funds as may be apportioned to
and shall designate the State's chief educational authority, whether a
of public instruction, a commissioner of education, a State board of
or other legally constituted chief educational authority, to represent
in the administration of this act, and such authority so designated
shall be recognized
by the Secretary of Education: Provided, That in any State in which the
does not meet in 1920, the governor of said State, in so far as he may
so to do, may take such action temporarily as is herein provided to be
legislative enactment in order to secure the benefits of this act, and
by the governor shall be recognized by the Secretary of Education for
of this act, when reported by the chief educational authority
designated to represent
said State, until the legislature of said State shall have met in due
been in session 60 days.
In any State
accepting the provisions of this act the State treasurer shall be
appointed as custodian of all funds received by said State as
the provisions of this act, to receive and provide for the proper
custody and disbursement
of the same, such disbursements to be made in accordance with the legal
of said State, on warrants duly drawn by the State's chief educational
designated to represent said State in the administration of this act.
A State may
accept the provisions of any one or more of the respective
in sections 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of this act, and may defer the
acceptance of any
one or more of said apportionments: Provided, however, That no money
shall be apportioned
to any State from any of the funds provided in sections 8, 9,10, 11,
and 12 of this
act unless a sum equally as large shall be provided by said State, or
by local authorities,
or by both, for the same purpose: And provided, That the sum or sums
a State for the improvement of educational opportunities, for the
promotion of physical
education, and for the preparation of teachers, shall not be less for
any year than
the amount provided for the same purpose for the fiscal year next
acceptance of the provisions of this act by said State: And provided
no money apportioned to any State under the provisions of this act
shall be used
by any State or local authority, directly or indirectly, for the
erection, preservation, or repair of any building or equipment, or for
or rental of land, or for the payment of debts or the interest thereon.
That when a State shall have accepted the provisions of this act and
provided for the distribution and administration of such funds as may
to said State, as herein provided, the State's chief educational
to represent said State shall so report in writing to the Secretary of
If such report shows that said State is prepared to carry out the
this act with respect to any one or more of the apportionments
authorized in sections
8, 9,10,11, and 12 of this act, the Secretary of Education shall
apportion to said
State for the fiscal year, or for the remainder of the fiscal year, as
may be, such funds as said State may be entitled to receive under the
of this act, and shall certify such apportionment or apportionments to
of the Treasury: PROVIDED, THAT THIS ACT SHALL NOT BE CONSTRUED TO
OF PLANS, MEANS, OR METHODS IN THE SEVERAL STATES IN ORDER TO SECURE
HEREIN PROVIDED, EXCEPT AS SPECIFICALLY STATED HEREIN: AND PROVIDED
ALL THE EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES ENCOURAGED BY THE PROVISIONS OF THIS ACT
BY A STATE SHALL BE ORGANIZED, SUPERVISED, AND ADMINISTERED EXCLUSIVELY
BY THE LEGALLY
CONSTITUTED STATE AND LOCAL EDUCATIONAL AUTHORITIES OF SAID STATE, AND
OF EDUCATION SHALL EXERCISE NO AUTHORITY IN RELATION THERETO EXCEPT AS
TO INSURE THAT ALL FUNDS APPORTIONED TO SAID STATE SHALL BE USED FOR
FOR WHICH THEY ARE APPROPRIATED, AND IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROVISIONS
OF THIS ACT
ACCEPTED BY SAID STATE.
That the Secretary of Education is authorized to prescribe plans for
of the expenditures of such funds as may be apportioned to the States
provisions of this act, and to audit such accounts. The Secretary of
withhold the apportionment or apportionments of any State for the next
year whenever he shall determine that such apportionment or
to said State for the current fiscal year are not being expended in
the provisions of this act: Provided, however, That before withholding
apportionment from any State, as herein provided, the Secretary of
give due notice in writing to the chief educational authority
designated to represent
said State, stating specifically wherein said State fails to comply
with the provisions
of this act.
If any portion
of the money received by the treasurer of a State under the provisions
of this act
for any of the purposes herein provided shall, by action or
contingency, be diminished
or lost, the same shall be replaced by said State, and until so
replaced no subsequent
apportionment for such purpose shall be paid to said State. If any part
of the funds
apportioned annually to any State for any of the purposes named in
sections 8, 9,
10, 11, and 12 of this act has not been expended for such purpose, a
sum equal to
such unexpended part shall be deducted from the next succeeding annual
made to said State for such purpose.
That the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and directed to
on the 1st day of July, October, January, and April, to the treasury of
designated to receive such funds, such apportionment or apportionments
as are properly
certified to him by the Secretary of Education, and he shall
discontinue such payments
when notified so to do by the Secretary of Education, as provided in
this act. ‒
Sec. 17. That the chief educational authority designated to represent
receiving the benefits of this act shall, not later than September 1 of
make a report to the Secretary of Education showing the work done in
in carrying out the provisions of this act, and the receipts and
money apportioned to said State under the provisions of this act. If
the chief educational
authority designated to represent any State shall fail to report as
the Secretary of Education shall notify the Secretary of the Treasury
the payment of all apportionments to said State until such report shall
made. Sec. 18. That the Secretary of Education shall annually at the
close of each
fiscal year make a report in writing to Congress giving an account of
received and disbursed by the Department of Education, and describing
the work done
by the department. He shall also, not later than December 1 of each
year, make a
report to Congress on the administration of sections 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,
12, 13, 14,
15, 16, and 17 of this act, and shall include in said report a summary
of the reports
made to him by the several States showing the condition of public
and shall at the same time make such recommendations to Congress as
will, in his
judgment, improve public education in the United States. He shall also
to time make such special investigations and reports as may be required
of him by
the President or by Congress. Sec. 19. That this act shall take effect
1920, and all acts and parts of acts in conflict with this act are
* * *
Reply to Attacks by Certain
Catholics on the Bill to Create a Department of Education
of Georgia ‒ Mr. President, no one can read the bill without observing
that no autocratic
overseer of education is created in Washington. It will also readily be
the bill in no way interferes with the right of a parent to place his
child in a
private school or religious denominational school if he sees fit to do
so. The bill
seeks to aid the States in fighting illiteracy, in teaching the English
to immigrants in strengthening the schools by adding to the pay of
by contributing toward the better preparation of teachers for their
work. The charge
that it banishes God from the schoolroom and that it is an assault upon
will be tolerated only by one who opposes public education conducted by
or local authorities, and who opposes all schools, except
denominational and parochial
schools. Let us consider the bill somewhat in detail. The first four
of the bill provide for the creation of a department of education, with
of education who shall be a member of the President's Cabinet. They
Bureau of Education to the Department of Education, and authorize the
to transfer from time to time, at his discretion, other national
to the Department of Education. They give the secretary of education
authority over the department of education. Section 5 requires the
conduct studies and investigation in the field of education and that
undertaken in illiteracy; immigrant education; public-school education,
rural education; physical education, including health education,
sanitation; and preparation and supply of competent teachers for public
It will be
seen that these provisions give the department in Washington no
authority over the
problems of education named, but require research in the interest of
of the entire country, that the information thus gathered may be
furnished for the
benefit of all States and all schools in the States.
6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 provide for appropriations, a part for the
of illiterates; a part for the Americanization of immigrants; a part to
in public elementary and secondary schools toward payment of teachers'
and for providing better instruction and extending school terms,
especially in rural
schools and schools in sparsely settled localities; a part for physical
and instruction in the principles of health and sanitation, and for
nurses and school dental clinics and otherwise promoting physical and
a part for the preparation of teachers for public-school service,
except the amount to be used to conduct the work of investigation by
here in Washington, are to be distributed to the States, and used by
and the educational authorities of the States.
So far from
giving the department here control over the work in the respective
States, it is
specifically provided in section 14:
act shall not be construed to require uniformity of plans, means or
methods in the
several States in order to secure the benefits herein provided, and the
use of the
funds and all the educational facilities encouraged by the provisions
of this act
and accepted by the States, shall be organized, supervised and
by the legally constituted State and local authorities of said States.
And the Secretary
of Education shall exercise no authority in relation thereto, except as
to insure that all funds apportioned to said State shall be used for
for which they are appropriated.
of the bill shows how absurd was the charge that the educational
machinery of the
country is to be placed under the control of one autocratic over seer
here in Washington.
is made that each State must duplicate the fund offered by the National
if it is to be received by the State, and a further provision i found
10 that in order to share in the apportionment provided by this section
the appropriation to be used in public elementary and secondary schools
partial payment of teacher's salaries) a State shall establish and
following requirements, or these requirements shall be approximated as
constitutional provisions will permit "(a) A legal school term of at
24 weeks in each year for the benefit of all the children of school age
State; (b) a compulsory school attendance requiring all children
between the ages
of 7 and 14 t attend some school for at least 24 weeks in each year,
(c) a law requiring
that the English language shall be the basic language of instruction in
branches in all schools, public and private."
of the bill is to aid the States in furnishing an opportunity for each
attend a public school and to aid in improving the work of the school;
a term of at least 24 weeks in each year for the benefit of all
children is a reasonable
provision, and the least that any State should furnish. If the bill
State to furnish public schools open for not less than 24 weeks each
year to all
the children of the State, it will do great good. Surely no one will
propriety of making the English language the basic language of
instruction in the
common schools, public and private.
of two of the three requirements necessary to sharing in the
requiring a compulsory school-attendance law does not require that the
shall attend the public schools but requires the 24 weeks' attendance
to be in some
school, public, parochial, or private, leaving the choice to the
parents. That all
children may have a chance to go to school, the State must see to it
that the opportunity
is given, but no requirement is made upon parents that their children
the public school.
Church in the city of Atlanta of which I am a member, maintains a
The bill in no way interferes with this school. Attendance for 24 weeks
upon this school or any church school Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist,
or Catholics any private school meets the requirements of the bill. The
it takes away the right of parents to educate their own children is
that this bill would banish God from every school is without the
The bill can only be considered an assault upon religion by those who
schools, and by those who believe ignorance on the part of the masses
religious faith. The charge is really an attack upon public education
not be permitted to hide behind an expressed attack on this bill. It is
upon opposition to taxing all the people that all the children may have
to obtain an education. It is an assault upon our public-school systems
State, and carried to its logical consequence would abolish all public
conducted by State or local authorities.
education were suppressed, more than half of the children of our
country would grow
up in ignorance.
I need not
dwell upon the calamity which would be visited upon our country if the
for education at public expense were suppressed.
for the support of public schools are the highest contribution made by
the welfare of our citizens and for the future of our country.
might have been expected of leaders of thought in the Dark Ages; at the
time they are surprising and shocking.
believe that the real leaders of the Catholic Church or the rank and
file of its
members in the United States are opposed to public schools, or to
given to every child of obtaining education at the public expense.
I hope they
will learn the real meaning of the bills to create a Department of
they so, and if I am right in my estimate of their attitude toward
they will aid in stopping the wise opposition to these bills to which I
The Voice of America -- [A Poem]
Josephine B. Bowrnan. Peoria, Illinois.
have taken the breed of all nations,
Barred no religion or race,
From the highest and lowest of stations
They came and I found them place.
Powers invisible drew them,
Freedom unborn was their quest,
'Til my uttermost borderlands knew them
The least of the world and the best.
They came with the wisdom of sages,
The darkness, the stain and the dirt,
They came with the glory of ages,
And I took the my hope and my hurt.
I have gathered the breed of all nations,
Drawn from each caste and each clan;
Tried them and proved them and loved them
And made them American.
Made them a nation of Builders,
Fearless and faithful and free,
Entered them, passed them and raised them
To the Master's Sublime Degree.
Theirs is the task of restoring
The Ancient and Honored Guild
The work to the Speculative,
The spirit to those who build.
'Til none shall be less than a Master,
And know but one Ruler above,
Bound by the spirit of justice
And the mortar of brotherly love.
'Til the house shall belong to the Workman
And the Craft come again to its own;
And this is your task, oh, my people!
Through you will the Lost Word be known.
Old Book -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald A. Nancarrow,
Book! Thou solid Rock of all the years
Thy covers bring to me sweet memories,
Thy golden Truth and Promise still my fears ‒
And feed my soul.
My father's eyes did search Thee and did find
Thy fruited lessons which he made to show
In e'en his smallest dealings with mankind
While he was here.
My mother's hands caressed
Thy page and board
While from her blessed lips
Thy truths have come.
O Bright illume this picture for me,
Lord, My eyes grow dim.
They loved us both,
Old Book, and taught me Thee.
Thy boards and yellow is Thy page,
No other book can ever be for me
So loved a guide.
Marks and Mark Masonry
By Bro. Charles A. Conover.
enquiring Master Mason seeks for still "further light in Masonry" he is
informed that the next group of degrees to which he is eligible is
those of the
chapter and the first one consists of Mark Master Mason. The very name
is at once suggestive to him as he undoubtedly remembers his first
when sent to the blackboard to "mark."
It has occurred
to me that a short history or resume of the "Mark," that is the Mason's
Mark, its early use and its appropriation by the "operatives" whereby
their work might be known and designated, and then later when
by the "speculatives" when evolving the ceremonies which have now come
to be known as the degree of Mark Master, might be of interest to the
the Craft readers. These articles are not claimed by the writer as
they are gathered from such sources as have been available in a very
It is hoped, however, that they may not be entirely uninteresting to
you. I acknowledge
my indebtedness to the Iowa Masonic Library for many references.
In an extended
article on "Masons' Marks" by R. W. Brother Chas. Aburrow, P. D. G., in
the Masonic Journal of South Africa, is a list of some 34 groups of
from as many different locations. These were collected and published by
Godwin in a paper read before the Royal Institute of British Architects
These Marks extend over many centuries of time and have been gathered
in many climes. These embrace the Great Pyramids of Gizeh; Churches in
Land; Pompeii; the Doge's Palace, Venice; Roman Altars in England;
Sussex; Lincoln Cathedral; Leicester; Canterbury Cathedral; Haddon
Bray; Great Briton; an old Minute Book of the "Court of the Bricklayers
Tylers Company," those signing the book in 1580 also appended their
Glasgow Cathedral Crypt; Ireland, St. Mary's Youghal, 13th Century;
France; St. Michall's Dijon, Notre Dame; Tyrol, Botzen; Switzerland,
Geneva Cathedral; Sweden, Upsala Cathedral; Germany, Cathedral Munster;
St. Stephen's; Spain, San Ysidor, Santiago de Compostella, St. Maria;
Church of St. Francis, St. Cross, etc. These Marks as illustrated form
combinations of lines and figures. The most striking feature is the
in several countries and in different centuries.
In a letter
from Prof. Godwin to the Society of Antiquaries, he says:
"The Marks of which we are
can perhaps hardly be doubted, were made chiefly to distinguish the
work of different
individuals. At the present time the man who works a stone (being
the man who sets it) makes his Mark on the bed or internal face of it,
so that it
may be identified. "The fact, however, that in the ancient buildings it
only a certain number of the stones which bear symbols, and that the
in different countries (although the variety is great) are in many
and in all have a tendency to show that the men who employed them did
so by system,
and that the system, if not the same, was closely analogous in one
country to that
of the others."
however, going further than this, it would seem to have been urged that
were symbolical, and were used as means of recognition by the
Freemasons, who, as
some believed, traveled over Central Europe, exercising their art. I
may here mention
that the principal object of the Chevalier's Memoir is to show that the
of those who have believed that these Marks have a Masonic significance
admitted. He writes:
"Why should the Freemasons, who
to execute their labors in a body, each accompanied by his family, have
signs upon the stones, since each one knew the other for his partner?
For none but
those initiated or affiliated to their lodges were permitted to help in
of those beautiful edifices; thus enabling them to protect each other
as loyal brothers, and, above all, to keep amongst themselves the
secrets of their
art. Why, then, show these Marks to all the world (as it was said) if
simply used with the intention of making themselves known as
Freemasons, when every
workman knew the other as a brother? And besides, would they have been
to make public these signs if they were really those of the order into
had been admitted? Again, if these signs were really characteristic of
order, they ought, without doubt, to be identical on all buildings,
hieroglyphic alphabet, or scale, being composed of a limited number of
and Masonry having at the commencement but a single rite, the sign
would have been
reserved for the most urgent cases for recognition or correspondence,
employed uselessly or exposed to the observation of the profane."
concludes his writings on this interesting theme by saying:
"No circumstance which promises
even the smallest additional light on the early history of those
wonderful men to
whom we are indebted for so many magnificent buildings can be deemed
or unworthy of consideration, and I think we, as Freemasons, having a
in this subject, certainly agree with him."
Builder," year 1863 [Lib*], April 4 and 5, June and July issues, Mr.
Dove wrote four articles on "Geometrical and Other Symbols," which
a very wide area of research, extending outside the realms of the
we are considering, but still, from its affinity, giving useful light
on the origin
of "Masons' Marks."
says: "There is sufficient evidence that some of these symbols have
and generally used, both in ancient and modern times, and both amongst
Western nations, singular accordance in character, seems as well as
and Christian communities."
In the second
and third articles (April 18 and June 6) frequent reference is made to
writings of Prof. Godwin and other writers in connection with "Masons'
article (July 11) deals with the psychological phase of Freemasonry and
religious mysteries in general, which is best read and thought over by
in the quietude of his own sanctum.
extracts from "The History of Freemasonry," by the late Bro. R. F.
are instructive. Volume 2, Chapter 9. [Lib 1884]
In 1841 to
1843, M. Didron, of Paris, communicated a series of observations on
Marks to the
"Comité Historique des Arts et Monuments." He says it is generally
these Marks divide themselves into two classes those of the overseers
of the men who worked the stones. The Marks of the first class consist
of monogrammatic characters, and are placed separately on the stones;
those of the
second class partake more of the nature of symbols, such as shoes,
says: "It was a law in St. Ninian's Lodge No. 66, at Brechin, that
should register his Mark in a book, and he could not change that Mark
To the inquiry, on what principle these Marks were formed, Scottish
replied: "That they probably had in early times a meaning now unknown,
are still regarded with a sort of reverence; that the only rule for
is, that they shall have at least one angle; that the circle must be
cannot be a true Mason's mark unless in combination with some line that
an angle with it; that there is no distinction of rank that is, that
there is no
particular class of Marks set apart for and assigned to Master Masons
from their workmen; and if it should happen that two Masons, meeting at
work from distant parts, should have the same Mark, then one must for a
a distinction, or, as Herolds say, a difference."
Craftsmen and Masons of the middle ages, it is said, not only had
but also a dialect called "Bearlagair-na-Sair," which was unknown to
but the initiated of their own callings; and the writer, who is
this statement, asserts that this dialect is still in use among Masons
exclusively confined to them) in the counties of Limerick, Clare,
question as to whether or not Marks were heritable by descent from
father to son,
the highest authority on Scottish Masonry says: "We have been able to
in the Mary Chapel records only one instance of a Craftsman having
adopted his deceased
continues: "Whatever may have been their original significance as
of a secret language, a position which is assigned to them by some
is no ground for believing that in the choice of these Marks the
Masons were guided by any consideration of their symbolical quality, or
relation to the propositions of Euclid."
says as follows:
"A view which has been very
is that the short-hand signatures or markings which Masons have for
in the habit of cutting on the stones wrought or hewn by them, may be
in two classes, the false or blind Mark of the Apprentice, displaying
an equal number
of points, and the true Mark of the Fellow Craft or passed Mason,
an unequal number of points. Indeed, the late Mr. E. W. Shaw, who had
made a collection
of 11,000 Marks, professed his ability to discriminate between the
Marks of the
Master Masons, Fellow Crafts and Apprentices and the 'blind Marks,' as
them of those hired to work, but who were not members of the Guild. Two
unfrequently occur on the same stone, showing, according to one view,
that it had
been hewn by the Apprentice, and finished or passed as correct by the
in the opinion of other authorities, that the second Mark belonged to
I can recommend
all Masons to read this exhaustive article on "Masons' Marks," and
would call your attention to the plate or diagram of Marks given, and
description of same.
of Freemasonry," by Mackey and Singleton, Masons' Marks (see Chapter
Godwin's works are therein often referred to, and many other writers
from, and the whole subject of Marks and their history is fully dealt
work will well repay your study.
and Legends of Freemasonry," [Lib*] J Finlay Finlayson says:
"It was a custom among
that each individual artisan should have his special 'Mark,' a
signature to identify
himself with his works. This Mark, for the greater part, consisted of
of old geometrical forms, which were peculiar to the Craft, reproducing
in the main
symbols of the greatest antiquity with such developments and variations
as the skill
or genius of the Craftsman might suggest."
Bro. T. Hayter Lewis read a long paper, "Masonry and Masons' Marks,"
the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. This is given in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum,
1890. [Lib 1890]
Masons' Marks and Mark Masonry
or Mark Master depends less on tradition to establish its antiquity and
corroborative history than any other degree, and is considered the
oldest in Masonry.
It preceded the Master's degree by just so much time as was necessary
to make a
perfect workman or mechanic out of an apprentice or beginner, and was
by means of a Mark.
In the beginning
the Mark was used only in order that the stone might be set in its
but afterward, as the number of workmen increased, some proficient,
it became necessary, in order to trace inferior work to its proper
source, to require
the private Mark of each workman, also and later on for a more specific
It became the heritage handed down from father to son, each family Mark
by some peculiar variation, or additional symbol, that was unvarying in
and character. These Marks exist in profusion; they can be found on the
the most ancient buildings, those on the Castle of Richmond, built in
still easily decipherable.
Marks of the Craft
times Operative Masons, the "Steinmetzen" of Germany, were accustomed
to place some mark or sign of their own invention which, like the
monogram of the
painters, would seem to identify the work of each. They are to be found
cathedrals, churches, castles, and other stately buildings erected
since the twelfth
century, or a little earlier, in Germany, France, England, and
Scotland. As Mr.
Godwin has observed in his History in Ruins, it is curious to see that
are of the same character in form, in all these different countries.
They were principally
crosses, triangles, and other mathematical figures, and many of them
In 1843 "The
Builder," an architectural magazine published in England, had two
of much interest on the subject of Masons' Marks and I take pleasure in
portions. The first is an article carrying the general title of this
as a phrase, and in themselves, will be to many a mystery and
this is the title we choose to give to a brief notice of a subject
which we must
at a more leisure period more largely enter upon. We have been reading
letters of Mr. George Godwin's on "Certain Marks discoverable on the
of various Buildings erected in the Middle Ages," which letters are the
of a communication by that gentleman to the Society of Antiquaries,
Henry Ellisall honored names, and not least so that of the author of
Mr. Godwin is yet but a young man, but he has, by the indefatigable and
exercise of a fitting talent, managed to associate his name with some
of the most
interesting researches and doings in art that have engaged our
attention for the
last seven years; and we sincerely hope that his future career may be
continuance of so much promise at setting out. In these letters he
brings to view
some 160 specimens of Masons' Marks, from various edifices of the
Middle Ages, from
Gloucester, Bristol, and Cologne Cathedrals, from various abbeys and
England and on the Continent, and from Punic inscriptions found upon
the site of
Mark of the Craft Regular
In the Mark
degree there is a certain stone which is said, in the ritual, not to
have upon it
"the regular mark of the Craft." This expression is derived from the
tradition of the degree: At the building of the Temple, each workman
own Mark upon his own materials, so that the workmanship of every Mason
readily distinguished, and praise or blame be justly awarded. These
to the lectures, consisted of mathematical figures, squares, angles,
perpendiculars, and hence any figure of a different kind, such as a
not be deemed "the regular mark of the Craft." Of the three stones used
in the Mark degree, one is inscribed with a square and another with a
plumb or perpendicular,
because these were marks familiar to the Craft; but the third, which is
with a circle and certain hieroglyphics, was not known, and was not,
called "regular." (A'. G. Mackey).
from Robt. F. Gould's History of Freemasonry:
have been accustomed to mark the product of their labor from very early
of stone, the Chaldeans used bricks, sometimes of unbaked clay hardened
by the heat
of the sun. The curious archaic characters with which they stamped on
the name of the god or goddess to whom it was dedicated, taken
very well pass for Masons' Marks of a later age. Like the Chaldeans,
in all probability, stamped the inscription upon their bricks with a
But, unlike the Chaldeans, who impressed the characters on a small
square near the
center of the broad faces of the bricks, the writing of the Assyrians
the whole face or ran along the edge.
like the early Chaldeans, seem to have almost entirely used bricks in
and like them impressed the inscription on the broad face of the brick,
in a square
with a solid stamp; but the Egyptians traced their Marks upon the
bricks with the
finger, and in the great pyramid of King Cheops, the Masons' Marks are
in red pigment.
brick-maker had his Mark, such as the figure of a god, a plant or an
by his own name. After careful investigation and consideration by
and others, their conclusions are that the Marks on the Temple stones
are only quarry marks because of the fact that the same Marks appear on
at the Port of Sidon and are Phoenician. However, the investigations by
and archaeologists confirm the scriptural text that Solomon's builders
builders together hewed the stones. Their further conclusions are that
be too careful when considering letters, syllables or characters, lest
chance or idle amusement markings for important data. With this in
nothing would have more astonished the workmen of past ages than the
which has been placed on their ancient signatures. For any practicable
large collections and comparing Marks are alone valuable in determining
the same workmen were employed to any great extent upon buildings in
the same countries.
‒ In the month of December, 1841, I had the pleasure of laying before
some observations on the fact, that the stones both inside and outside
ancient buildings in England and France, bear, in many cases, peculiar
symbols, apparently the work of the original builders. Since then I
have had an
opportunity of examining the Cathedral of Cologne, and some other
in that city, where I found many similar Marks. Copies of some of
these, half real
size, I beg leave to forward with this letter, in order that they may
with the diagrams previously sent.
they vary from 11/2 to 2 inches. They are not so deeply cut in as those
spoken of, nor are they formed by so wide a line, but nevertheless they
remarkably clear and distinct. More order is perceptible in the
position of the
Marks in the interior of this Cathedral than I have elsewhere observed;
they appear with considerable regularity up the center of the four
of each of the great clusters of columns dividing the nave and aisles;
commence at a certain height from the ground, nearly uniformly.
Didron, of Paris, it seems, has communicated a series of observations
on these Marks
to the Comite Historique des Arts et Monuments. He has found them at
Spire, Worms, Rheims, Basle, and elsewhere, and believes he can
discover in them
reference to distinct schools or lodges of Masons. The Marks collected
by M. Didron
divide themselves, according to his opinion, into two classes, those of
and those of the men who worked the stones. The Marks of the first
generally of monogrammatic characters, and are placed separately on the
those of the second class partake more of the nature of symbols, such
trowels, mallets, etc. It is stated that at Rheims, in one of the
portals, the lowest
of the stones forming one of the arcades, is marked with a kind of
character, and the outline of the sole of a shoe. The stone above it
has the same
character, and two soles of shoes; the third the same character and
and so all around the arcade. The shoe mark he found also at Strasburg,
else, and accounts for this by the fact, that parts of the Cathedral of
executed by Masons fetched from Strasburg.
either have published, or are about to publish, a set of instructions
to their correspondents
on this point, with plates of the Marks already collected, in order
that they may
obtain additional information and means of comparison.
by this proceeding on their part in my belief before expressed, that
and collection of these Marks may ultimately aid in elucidating the
history of the
Free Masons, I feel encouraged to bring the subject again before the
otherwise I should not have done.
Mr. Rokewode, in a paper on the dedication and consecration of
in the twenty-fifth volume of the Archaeologia, observes that "the
altar stone, known by the crosses graven in the center and at the
angles, is now
frequently to be found in our churches, generally applied to sepulchral
The crosses upon it were intended to mark the spots anointed with
chrism, and if
I do not mistake, this was the object of the crosses once inlaid with
in the external walls of some churches, as in the Cathedral of
Salisbury, and the
Churches of Edindon in Wilts, Cannington in Somersetshire, and Brent
Pelham in Herts.
It may also be observed, that on one of the Norman Pillars in New
are two Jerusalem crosses, probably graven on the occasion of the
Smirke, in a paper which follows the last quoted, and illustrates it
from the church
of St. John at Syracuse, refers to a pontifical printed at Rome in
1595, and now
in the British Museum, where the Bishop is enjoined to mark with his
in the chrism, twelve crosses on the walls of the church and others on
and altar. It further provides that these crosses are to be at the
height of 7 feet
5 inches above the floor.
I do not
quote these observations with the view of showing an immediate
any religious ceremonies and the Marks in question. They may, however,
to bear, although slightly, upon the subject; and therefore they are
the more so, too, perhaps because in searching for Marks at Furness
they abound), a large cross, 14 inches high, and 14 inches wide, was
on the external face of a stone, at the east end of the church, as
the head of this extract.
of which we are especially speaking, it can perhaps hardly be doubted,
chiefly to distinguish the work of different individuals. At the
present time the
man who works a stone (being different from the man who sets it), makes
on the bed or other internal face of it, so that it may be identified.
however, that in the ancient buildings it is only a certain number of
which bear symbols, that the Marks found in different countries
(although the variety
is great), are in many cases identical, and in all have a singular
character, seems to show that the men who employed them did so by
system, and that
the system, if not the same in England, Germany, and France, was
in one country to that of the others.
many of the signs are evidently religious and symbolical, and agree
fully with our
notions of the body of men known as the Free Masons.
to the religious characters of associated Masons in very early times
earlier than any of the works already mentioned belong to), I am
induced to allude
to a curious MS. account of the proceedings of four sculptors who
the name of the Lord." It is in No. 91 of the Arundel MSS. at the
described as "Sanctorum vitae miracula, et martyria," and is to be
at folie 218, headed, "Claudii Sociumq. ejus." It commences thus: "At
the time Diocletian was Emperor, various metallic substances were cut
by the Pannonians
from the mountains in his presence. It came to pass that when he had
the workers in metal, he found amongst those endowed with great skill
in art certain
men named Claudius, Castor, Simphorianus, and Nicostratus, who were
the art of masonry. These men were secretly Christians, observing the
of the Lord, and, whatsoever work in the art of sculpture they
performed, they did
it in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.
it proceeds: "At the command of Diocletian, a porphyritic shell with
and foliage, was perfected by the hands of Claudius, Simphorianus,
Castor, and Nicostratus,
and they were brought under the notice of the Emperor. And he was
pleased with all
things, and made them many presents. Then said Diocletian, I desire
that some columns
with foliated capitals should be carved out of the porphyritic mountain
direction of Claudius, Simphorianus, and Castor. When the philosophers
they were vehemently indignant because the command of Diocletian
Coming, however, to the mountain, they marked out the portion of stone
be cut away. Then the artificers in masonry prayed, and made the sign
of the cross
of Christ, and giving directions and setting to work, they began to cut
for the neck of the columns, and they worked at it daily for three
however, one wonderful column had been produced with perfect art, the
said to Claudius and the others: Ye who are enriched with gifts, give
to the shaping of another column. Wherefore, replied they, do ye wish
to learn the
art from us? Still, in the name of Our Lord Jesus Christ, in whom we
trust, we will
shape this other column like the first. And giving their labor with the
within twenty-six days they had cut the other column. Then the
exclaimed: These mysterious words can only pertain to art-magical."
article is a letter to this journal from one who signs himself "J. H.
and is dated from Steam Marble Works, Great Patrick Street, Belfast,
Sept. 18, 1843.
It has an interesting bearing on the antiquity of the Masons' "Mark."
Sir: I have
been a subscriber to "The Builder" since its commencement. I have
its progress carefully, and read it with pleasure. On its appearance, I
thought you were, like a great many others, pretending to be of the
craft, but really
I do honestly think you are one of us and as such, I heartily and
a Mason, I was forcibly struck with an article in No. 30 entitled,
Marks," in which the writer identifies their uses as belonging to the
order of Freemasons. This has been long my opinion, and I know a great
the old Marks to bear a close approximation thereto, for when a boy,
tools to the smithy, I could almost tell difference between a good and
by the appearance of his tools. I am, however, in possession some facts
Masons' Marks which I shall relate, and if you think them worth your
may make what use you please of them.
years ago, the late Earl of Bristol Lord Bishop of Derry, built a
at a place called the Ballysculion, in the County Derry; it was
when he died, and was taken down and the materials sold. Among the
of masonry (for he had carvers from Italy, etc.), he brought entire,
out of the
ruines of Herculaneum, ten beautiful columns of Sienna Marble of the
order, with statuary, capitals, bases, 13 feet high in the shaft and 18
they were of a pale kind of Sienna with streaks, and very handsome, but
in which he intended placing them not being finished, they [remained]
till the cases
were rotted about them; no person knows the value, and about seventeen
the remains of them were purchased from the bishop's heirs for a small
sum, by Mr.
Alexander, of Portglenon, and manufactured them into columns and antae
for his h
[?] and chimney-pieces for his house.
them I found "Masons' Marks,' dare say nearly 3,000 years old! They
be about that, or older. It is a fact, known to Masons this day, that
a column, the Mason puts his Mark on the front of the head, to denote
the hat somest
[sic] and soundest front, no matter whether it is a diagonal line or
no, and this
I found invariably to be case. The marks were generally Greek letters,
of them this Mark was quite plain, with the addition of the lower score
on two of
them. The Greek Delta was, I think, on three, and different Greek
the rest. I also found patches inserted with cement, the identical kind
we use at
present, for I had it analyzed, except it being mixed with the reddish
the Sienna, pounded. The columns were one-step up from the bottom the
as the low tincture, and were exceedingly well and Due worked the
Scotia being beautifully
hollowed; but a strand fact still I have to relate, that on the ends
were the mark
of a hack tool. Now, I remember the first introduction of such a tool
twenty years ago I myself, to work Galway marble, since which it has
been used for
Stanty stones, and is considered a great improvement, so that the use
of it must
have been known at that time; in corroboration of this, I read some
years ago, I
think in the Lancet, of a surgeon's shop or house having been
discovered in Herculaneum,
and on the body of the occupant were his surgical instruments one of
which was a
facsimile of an instrument for which a patent had been secured but a
ago for cutting in fistula, or some such disorder.
Your Obedient Servant,
J. H. J.
(To be concluded)
Templary In England
By Bro. Julius F. Sachse,
Grand Librarian, Pennsylvania
according to Brother W. B. McLeod Moore, Grand Prior of Canada, during
century, the Chivalric Order was formally introduced and adopted by the
Body after the establishment of the present Symbolic system, the object
complete and cement the moral code of Freemasonry with the pure
doctrine of Christianity,
taught in the Chivalric Order of the Knights Templar, requiring all
the Order to profess a firm belief in the Holy Trinity, the basis on
which it was
founded. If any branch departs from the Trinitarian belief and test, it
is no longer
a Templar Body, let it call itself what it will; even as a Masonic
Body, which denies
God, ceases to be Masonic, a belief in God being the first great
without which no Masonry exists; and just so a belief in the Trinity,
holy and indivisible,
is the chief and indestructible landmark of the true Templar Order,
in spite of all sophistry and special pleading, no Templary can exist.
it was required of the candidate to make was: "I attest that I believe
in the persons of the Trinity, and in all other articles of the
I believe there is but one God, one faith, one baptism, one church; and
death, when the soul is departed from the body, there is but one judge
of good and
evil, this is my belief, this is the belief of the Order of the
evidence of the conferring of the degree of Knights Templar in Great
have a skeleton ritual, partially in cipher, undoubtedly of eighteenth
This ritual was ascribed to the year 1786 by its late owner Major
Irwin, the well-known
antiquary of Bristol. For Ireland we have still earlier and no less
in the expository Address to the Divine Being, dated 1784, and prefixed
to the MS.
Statutes, Rules, and Ordinances for the Government of the Most High and
Order of High Knight Templars of the Province of Munster, November,
In our Archives
we have the two following English Templar certificates showing that the
conferred under the Warrant of an English Craft lodge at Leicester, No.
91, on the
Registry of England. This is the only early evidence that we have
showing the conferring
of the Red Cross together with the order of the Temple under a Craft
of the Knights of the RED CROSS held under the Sanction of Warrant No.
and on the Registry of England
to certify that the Bearer hereof Our Trusty and well beloved Brother
Terry was by us Installed & Dubb'd a Knight of the Antient and
of the Red Cross and has to the Utmost of his power Justly supported
Recommend him as a Worthy Valiant Knight
our hands & Seal of our Assembly at our Assembly Room in
Leicester this 19th
day of January 1801
Robt. Binder, K
Willm BROWN Gr. W
JOHN HILL, Secretary
IN THE NAME
OF THE MOST HOLY GLORIOUS AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY, FATHER SON AND HOLY
By the C:
G: and Grand Wardens of Lodge No. 91 Leicester and on the Registry of
We do hereby
Certify that the Bearer hereof Our Trusty and well Beloved Brother Sr.
was by us installed and Dubb'd a Knight of the Most Noble and Right
of Knights Templars Knight Hospitalor and Knight of Malta he having
and due honour Justly Supported the Amazing Trials attending his
Recommend him as a worthy honest faithful and Vallient Brother
our hands and Seal of our Lodge at our Lodge Room in Leicester this
19th Day of
WILLIAM BROWN 1st ROBt WYLIE 2d
JOHN HILL, G. Secretary.
1A. Q. C., Volume XXVI, p. 56.
from "History of Masonic, Knights Templar of Pennsylvania," by
of R.-. W.. Bro. John S. Sell, (brand Master of Masons in Pennsylvania.
The Pauline Triangle -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
as to why and whence and where,
Lifting the heart away from care;
Sowing e'en while the life receives
Back for its own, the golden sheaves.
Hope as the anchor to the all,
Holding the heart what'er befall;
Giving its urge the right to lead
All the way through the realm of need.
Love as the soul of things the prize
Setting all values neath the skies;
The angel Upon whom all must wait
Till he swings for us the mystic gate.
all men's good be each man's rule, and universal peace be like a shaft
across the land?
heart is human.
[Portions of the following are
it difficult to read.....]
?… as to
do them, but when we do things calculated to rich and bless others,
are legally us or not, and further, when we do them from Impersonal
of hope of gain, but for the very love of doing good itself, then we
an able confession without verbal utterance of our God as the Father,
and we are
dealing with our way that we believe He deals with all of us.
devolve into a narrow, secular body should it fail to apprehend the
is deeply imbedded in its very constitution. The Universality of
emphasized when the If religious confession and racial distinction is
its body, and as we would do for thin the precincts of the Temple,
e recognized in the bonds of brotherhood, so e do for the world, for
there is but of world brotherhood, and is intended if man has any
virtue to impress
indelibly upon our hearts any lesson our obligation to love all
intolerance finds its genesis when God's blessing is regarded as a
Masonry seeks to instruct men in the laws of moral which, ruling over
of men, will bring them harmonious relationship known as The
Brotherhood, that has
been the devout prayer able men in whom the light of God has shone,
since the dawn
of time. And its wisdom is amply just bringing together men of the
on a common meeting ground, where the belief the band that binds, but
make their interpretations of the character of God subo the great thing
subscribes to, and stated simply, they discern to be the will of God.
In the great
congress of religions met in Chi1893 it was the grave concern of some
as to great
gathering should be opened, and what , representative should have the
Finally it was happily agreed that what is common in the world as the
was an on appropriate to the common feelings and emotions represented
if we are to manifest the great key-note of that prayer that n in the
cause of serving human declaration of their belief in God as the
father, it is the
utterance asking that the will Swather shall be accomplished on earth,
adorn shall be realized upon the earth. The In that "God is Father,"
itself a compliant in the brotherhood that men evince when recognize
God as Father.
… ring elucidated
at length on the Masonic son of God, and an unqualified recognition of
his to the
Hindu as well as the Christian, and to ze truly that God must care as
much for a
mnibal as for the most cultured or refined, it S us to investigate what
doctrine has r practical life and well-being in the State. To yet more
we must speak not only of Lte," but of these United States. Religious
is one of the foundation stones upon which this Republic is built, but
it may seem, we are yet but beginning to apprehend the true
significance of religious
liberty. A dispassionate analysis of our country will reveal many sad
have brought misery in their wake; arising generally from the
of those who sought these shores and claimed for themselves religious
persecuted history is not slow in revealing to us have too often been
into persecutors. It is then, indeed, a gleam of the divine that is
the Constitution of the United States when it bespeaks for the
maintenance of religious
toleration and the lasting preservation of religious liberty.
in these United States and in view of the thing that is guaranteed unto
us by the
Constitution we must be on our guard against any religious sect that
ascribes to itself the holding of the only true and final religious
authority. The right to elect or damn has never been bequeathed to any
man or any
organization, and religions as all other things of time seem to have
had their rise
and wane according to the proportion of good or evil that they rendered
Bigotry and fanaticism, which has too frequently resolved itself into
cruelty and persecution, has ever been the chief characteristic of
lost the vision of toleration, and in the toleration of religious
those who subscribe to the one great doctrine of Belief in God as the
men Masonry seeks to inspire men to labor and to pray for the divine
Brotherhood will grace the earth.
The Silvery Trumpet -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Geo. L. Sherman, D. C.
tradition informs me that it was the custom, morning and evening, when
first and last rays touched the mountain tops to call the builders of
to and from their labors by a trumpet.
olden time, in distant clime,
At early dawn and eve of day,
When gilding rays of passing sun
Turned purple haze to golden blaze,
On mountain top, to men would come
A silv'ry note:
'Twas Hiram's call
Down pillared aisle and stately hall,
Past winding stair and waterfall,
O'er checkered floor with blazing star,
To topmost walls; then flung afar
To timbered mount and quarry wall.
Long, long the years since Hiram called
But down the corridors of time
Is ringing clear, to ears that hear,
That far-flung, sweet, and mystic chime.
'Tis calling now to duties great;
Yea, greater than of those who wrought
In olden time on temple walls
Or with the pagan strove and fought.
Attune thine ears! O hark ye well!
Ye Sons of Light of later days;
The ashlars rough to thy hands laid
Are thine own souls; and he that prays
At Cryptic shriners Hiram did
When vaulting sun at balance stands,
Will hear the Builder's call and know
The squaring touch of Master hands.
ago we were privileged to read an essay dealing with village life in
hundred years ago. The author had gleaned facts relative to the people
of this particular
village whose history he was investigating, from the parish records.
His labor throughout
revealed the marks of patient industry and exhaustive research.
no little imagination to realize that the ancestry of a people who have
a marked degree of culture, refinement, and progressive enterprise,
could have possibly
lived in such mean circumstances as he discovered. Of the people
referred to there
were no doubt some whose homes were near those of the lineal ancestry
Washington, and a stretch of the imagination would make it possible to
that probably some of these shared the impoverished condition described
as the lot
of the common people. For example, we find that of Washington's
ancestors, one was
the first lay proprietor of the Manor of Sulgrave, suggesting a
emerging from a lower into a higher rank where respectable
merchandising or some
such vocation received more than paltry recognition.
our investigator, describing the conditions of that period, writes thus
as the result
of his findings:
"As for the houses themselves,
squalid enough for the most part. The manor house was often built of
stone was to be had, then of flint, as in so many of our church towers.
houses were dirty hovels, run up 'anyhow,' sometimes covered with turf,
with thatch. None of them had chimneys. Six hundred years ago houses
were at least as rare as houses heated by hot-water pipes are now.
were no brick houses. It is a curious fact that the art of making
bricks seems to
have been lost in England for some hundreds of years. The laborer's
no windows; the hole in the roof which let out the smoke rendered
and even in the houses of the well-todo, glass windows were rare. In
oiled linen cloth served to admit a feeble semblance of light, and to
keep out the
rain. The laborer's fire was in the middle of his house; he and his
wife and children
huddled round it, sometimes grovelling in the ashes, and going to bed
themselves down upon the straw which served them as mattress and
feather bed, exactly
as it does to the present day in the gypsy's tent in our byways. The
light by night was the smouldering fire. Why should he burn a rushlight
was nothing to look at, and reading was an accomplishment which few
were masters of?"
if you please, the following, which will give an interesting light on
some of the
perplexing problems that the civilized world is confronting after the
From the comparison it will be readily seen that of the millions
Balkan Peninsula, the great majority are almost on a par with thorny
of six hundred years ago. A recent study of "The Balkans" [Lib 1920] by Professor Sloane discover
us an analogous condition depicted in the piece of historical research
by Dr. Jessopp.
In Professor Sloane's work which so remarkably sets forth the
conditions under which
men live in southeastern Europe today, we read particularly of a
A visitor to Montenegro has a sense of that country's bitter poverty
which the people
themselves do not feel aware. As was said of Greece, the estimate of
depends on his point of view.
the wild surrounding people, Montenegro is in a state of advanced
a model and a stimulus. But a Montenegrin country home! Four stone
walls and a roof,
thatch or slate, with no chimneys, the smoke oozing out through every
the eaves, the unglazed windows and open doors. Within is a clay floor,
embers in the middle, and wide couches round about; the cattle are in a
at the end, with their hoard of manure cherished like the treasure it
are better, some worse than this faithful description, but the average
is very low.
Squalid enough ancestry is here depicted, for so many of our twentieth
have attained a degree of comfort and prosperity that is indeed
We are naturally
always interested in finding the factors responsible for the generic
or the person responsible for what today must be regarded as wonderful
For during these days of much talking about interdependence,
organization and cooperation,
little or no credit is ascribed to the effort of the individual, and
is to a general forgetfulness of his potency. The chief concern seems
to be to insist
that all men are but relative in their usefulness, and in that last
summing up are
but cogs in a vast machine. Because of this it will do us good
occasionally if we
but revert to those wise sages who grace the pages of history, who have
in unforgettable ways the value of the individual.
Let us turn
to Carlisle, and we may read something like this relative to those who
for great movements in human progress:
all epochs of the world's history, we shall fled the Great Man to have
indispensable savior of his epoch; the lightning, without which the
fuel never would
have burnt. The History of the World, I said already, is the Biography
* * *
of the Heroes impressed the following quotation which seemed to us
considering. It is what Carlyle offers in regard to those puny souls
who are forever
delighting in disparaging their kind, and belittling the noble efforts
men. "No sadder proof," says he, "can be given by a man of his own
littleness than disbelief in great men."
then, for the factor that transforms society and enhances the interest
of men, will
be the search for the individual. That individual may not always be
even as in the case of the English village; much difficulty would be
in the endeavor to ascertain the single individual whose aspiration and
became a beacon light of promise in such darkness. "Some there be which
no memorial." Such was the observation of an ancient writer.
If one desires
to indulge further in the perusal of such an interesting field of
we would covet for him the reading of those masterful biographies of
great men whose
lives and deeds have been preserved for us. In so many instances the
the context would make clear for us the dictum of Carlyle; that the
history of the
world is the history of the Great Men who have lived in it.
* * *
We are today
deeply impressed in the post-war studies of influences that were at
the tendencies that made for war, in discovering the remarkable power
thinking youth by those writers who so trenchantly enunciated a
philosophy for which
they were either sponsors or strong devotees. To reflect that Nietzsche
were potent factors in the shaping of the thought that made Germany a
nation serves formidably in bringing to the fore the power and
influence of the
individual. To enhance this conception of the influence of such
may be interesting to reflect on the following quotation from General
recent book, "War in the Future," [Lib 1920] which in no small degree
the belief that the German militaristic aspirations are not yet
that the course of polities changes; that the moment will come, all too
there will be need of us on one side or the other; that, when it comes,
turn out favorably for our restoration. I hope that the Germans, who
now seem sunk
in selfishness and the pursuit of pleasure, will stand up again like
men; that there
will arise a purified nation, worthy of its great forefathers, able to
war as it really is.
"As for me, I shall hardly live
to see this
great moment. My life-course has been run helping build up the nation
lies in ruin. But I write confidently for the future. Men of a day yet
to come will
be capable of appreciating that which I here set down, and my words,
now have always fallen on unheeding ears, will prove to be seeds that
do not fall
upon thorns. With that belief I lay down my pen for the present.
"Germany will arise again: she
a great future before her!"
interest in these matters prompted us a while ago to write to two of
asking them just what biographies of their reading had appealed and
most. The two friends were in walks of life widely divergent; one being
of literature, the other a lawyer who exercises a notable influence in
circles. The friendship of these men, by the way, include some of the
people in this land. Ardently American and jealous for the future of
solicited their biographical interests, fully supposing that they would
that the reading of a country youth was the most potent factor in the
life and destiny, if the formidable strides made by Germany culminating
in its entrance
into the world war could be accepted in any degree as a reliable
* * *
who is particularly interested in statecraft, wrote us and said that
which he considered most powerful and stimulating were: First, "The
Dryden’s Translation in 5 Volumes in Bibliography)] by Plutarch; Second, Froude's
Third, Herndon's "Lincoln" [Lib 1921; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]; Fourth, Lockhart's
[Lib 1830; Vol 1, Vol 2]
made us turn again to a re-reading of these notable works. We could
that a perusal of "The Lives," reflecting the personality, influence
character of those men of remoter times, could be a vitally enriching
to the youth of today. Even so Froude's biography of Caesar could be
We here wish
to bring attention to one of the remarkable paragraphs that we ran
across in the
rereading of Froude's "Caesar." At the time of the breaking down of the
Republic, due to being burdened by extravagancies and luxuries of the
the only redemption possible seemed to be through the efforts of the
who had been uncontaminated by the offenses and abuses of those who
lived in the
cities. The paragraph referred to caused us to reflect that the
by Froude were in measure prototype of the conditions that we face
today, and we
too felt an avowed conviction that the regeneration of our own times
with those who live upon the farms and in the rural districts, far from
and social insanity that is most eloquently symbolized in what is
Let us, if
you please, place side by side a quotation from Froude's Caesar, a
by a recent writer in The Living Age on "Jazz."
says Froude, "if redemption was to be hoped for, could come only from
citizens in the country districts, whose manner and whose minds were
in whom the ancient habits of life still survived who still believed in
and who were contended to follow the wholesome round of honest labor."
the quotation on "Jazz," which we suggest to be wonderfully symbolic of
the insanity of our times:
moans, crashes, blows, cowbells, and tin pans fought desperately with
something like a tugboat siren cried ghastly at the night, and a
booming bass drum
carried one's mind to the kraals of Africa. 'A social evening for the
said someone indulgently, 'it helps to keep the young people in the
I am not going to raise my hands in pious horror at jazz music. Such
music is the
order of this barbarian day, and the minority can do little but endure.
say that I admire it myself, for the truth is that my soul loathes it,
I find myself in the centre of a jazz jamboree, I listen with no bored,
insouciance, but with what I imagine to be serene toleration."
if you please, of soliloquies produced by reading of Froude's Caesar.
on the suggestion of our friend that Lockhart's Napoleon would be
were reminded of the idolatrous worship of the late Crown Prince of
paragon of militarism. Likewise there comes to us a recollection that
lecturer ventured to suggest at the beginning that the reason for the
of the militaristic spirit in Germany was occasioned by the German
they recognized that the young German students becoming tired of the
of Nietzsche, and looking around for another teacher, had turned to our
Walt Whitman. We can readily understand how war would have been
the young Germans ever have succumbed to the glorious gospel about the
of Walt Whitman.
we can readily appreciate the virtue of reading such biographies as
May we not with assurance assert that to keep the American spirit alive
become saturated with the idealisms of those who best have interpreted
We have heard
in recent years a certain beratement of the West by the East on account
they designate as a lack of what antiquity and culture gives. There is
beautiful, unconventionality about the western way; it seems to bespeak
distances, the high mountains and wide rivers that we have to deal with
and the unconventionality and the charm of these things seems to
in such great souls as Abraham Lincoln. Herndon has given him to
America as he knew
him, in this biography, so as to make him the enchanted one to which
can ever resort for inspiration in real Americanism.
one can read about all the emperors, kings, and potentates that the
world has even
seen and yet keep sanely American, and the keeping sanely American of
generation of thinkers is going to prove itself the great barrier
against that tendency
among us to Europeanize America.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
Masonic Membership of Senator
please inform me through THE BUILDER if Senator Hiram Johnson, of
a Mason, and also what is his religion?
J. F. K., Ohio.
W. Johnson is a member of Union Lodge No. 58, of Sacramento, Calif;
No. 3, Royal Arch Masons; Sacramento Council Royal and Select Masters;
Commandery No. 2, Knights Templar, and Islam Temple, A . A. O. N. M. S.
attends the Presbyterian Church.
* * *
Commander of the American
Legion a Mason
kindly advise me whether or not Mr. F. W. Galbraith, Jr., Commander of
Legion is a member of the Fraternity?
C. R. A., Montana.
Galbraith is a member of Hoffner Lodge No. 253, F. & A. M., of
and of the Scottish Rite bodies in Columbus, Ohio.
* * *
The Letter G in Foreign
and America the letter G is openly suspended in the lodge. Can you
inform me as
to the regulation or practice in this respect in countries such as
Spain and Portugal, where the letter D might be termed its equivalent?
I refer to
bodies working in the so-called York Rite, and not to the Grand Orients.
J. W. McC., Mississippi.
Mackey says that the Letter G.
by the English ritual makers, has without remark been transferred to
of the Continent, and is to be found as a symbol in all the systems of
France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and every other country where Masonry
has been introduced;
although in Germany only can it serve, as in England and America, for
A Queer Conception of Masonry
Some of us
belong to famous lodges, but I doubt if many of us can claim such fame
as was gained by "Star of the East" of Rawalpindi in India. I have
part of a letter which I have just read, thinking it might be of
interest to readers
of THE BUILDER.
a recent letter to NATURE (Oct. 21, 1920), H. H. Godwin-Austin,
referring to conditions
in India just before the Mutiny, in 1857, writes:
give an idea of the reports then in circulation, one of my servants, on
from the City where he had gone to make purchases, came at once to ask
it was true that the Queen of England was sending out to India an army
lakhs of men to force the population of India to become Christians. I
told him it
was nonsense, and asked him where he had heard it. He said two Fakirs
mendicants) were preaching on the invasion in the streets of the City.
had evidently made an impression on him, and it led to my having a
with another native, in which I heard for the first time of momiai, and
that we sahibs made it. He gave me a very circumstantial account; that
were kidnapped, hung up by the heels, heads downward, and an incision
made in the
breast from which flowed the wonderful substance which gave us so much
prove his words, my informant, who was a Kashmir resident in
Rawalpindi, said he
could show me the very bungalow in which all this was done.
out to be the Masonic lodge 'The Star in the East,' I think it is
in the cantonment of Rawalpindi the 'Jadu Ghur' or mystery house, as it
called by the natives. In my wanderings in the Kashmir Himalaya up to
1863 the story
of the 'Jadu Ghur' would crop up. It was thoroughly known in Kashmir,
on into Ladak,
and extended, I believe, into Central Asia, wherever Kashmir merchants
are to be
much fear my explanation of what is done in a Masonic lodge, and of
what its use
is, did little to alter whatever was in the mind of my informant. I do
these impossible tales carry enormous weight for evil among the mass of
both male and female."'
W. Harvey McNairn, Canada.
* * *
Historical La Fayette Jewel
Worn by Grand Master, South Carolina
The S. C.
Citadel, built in this city sometime about 1830, has outgrown its
though very ample, and is preparing another building to accommodate
This institution, one of the few in the United States, is quite noted.
in the United States Army are given to its graduates. We mourn many of
who fell in France.
cornerstone of the Greater Citadel was laid on Thanksgiving Day by the
of South Carolina, the historical Grand Master's jewel, known as the La
jewel, was worn by Grand Master, S. T. Lanham. This famous jewel, which
is now a
precious possession of Friendship Lodge No. 9, A. F. M., was worn by
in Kershaw Lodge No. 29, at Camden, in the year 1825, and was given by
Fayette to Past Master A. DeLeon, and in the year 1891 it was presented
Lodge by Past Master H. H. DeLeon.
La Fayette trowel was also used in the cornerstone laying ceremonies.
States Congress, in the year 1824, invited the Marquis de La Fayette to
country as its guest, which he gladly accepted. Early in the following
itinerary landed him in South Carolina, having come, the beloved and
of the State to discharge a special duty in behalf of a war comrade.
called him to place the cornerstone of the memorial erected to the
memory of his
bosom friend, Major General Baron De Kalb. This episode, no doubt, was
that led Congress to extend and the Marquis to accept the invitation.
this State the Marquis went to the town of Camden to fill an
appointment made with
the citizens there to place the cornerstone of the monument erected in
De Kalb, who fell mortally wounded, pierced by eleven bullets, at the
head of his
command of Delaware and Maryland troops, in the endeavor to retard the
Cornwallis' army. LaFayette also commanded a force of American troops
A. W. Hirsch, South Carolina.
* * *
A Mason for Seventy-Two
H. Sterling, P. M. of Chesapeake Lodge No. 147, Crisfield, Maryland,
the following account of the oldest Mason in Maryland, Brother John
of the founders of Chesapeake Lodge.
Sterling's Masonic record is without doubt unique. For seventy-two
years he has
been a faithful and conscientious member of the greatest fraternal
in the world.
life, as a sailor, when voyages were determined by weeks and months,
by days as at present, and when the opportunities for attending Masonic
were few and far between, when there were good excuses for a member to
withdraw from active participation in the work, Captain John's chief
to be present whenever possible at the meetings of Manhattan and Ocean
but his unflagging interest in the advancement of the Order would
account for his
unbroken record of seventy-two years active membership.
and hearty, at the age of ninety-two he frequently attends the stated
Chesapeake Lodge, and is as much interested in the advancement of the
as he was in his younger days.
record as a Mason dates back to the forties. At that time he was a deep
captain of a vessel plying between New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore
and the ports
of the Southern Seas.
for membership in the Order was made to Manhattan Lodge No. 62, F.
& A. M.,
of New York City, and he was made a Master Mason and admitted as a
member of that
lodge on February 7th, 1847. He remained a member of Manhattan Lodge
for about one
year, when he secured a demit for the purpose of becoming a member of
No. 156, of the same city, of which one of his friends, a ship broker,
Thorne, was Master. Captain John was affiliated with this lodge for
years, and his description of some of the sessions he attended while a
are unusually interesting, particularly to members of the Fraternity.
On May 3rd,
1869, Captain Sterling obtained a demit from Ocean Lodge for the
purpose of helping
to organize Chesapeake Lodge No. 147, of Crisfield, Maryland. Captain
brother, Captain Christopher Sterling, and Captain Dow Lawson also
withdrew at the
same time from Ocean Lodge, and were charter members of Chesapeake
Lodge. The first
demit obtained from Manhattan Lodge in New York more than seventy years
the demit obtained from Ocean Lodge in 1869, are possessed by
and are perfectly preserved.
To a life
of great usefulness in many directions, the distinction of having been
and active Mason for more years than an ordinary lifetime holds for a
persons, is the crowning glory of a good man's life.
It is an
honor to have as a brother such a man as Captain John Sterling, and it
is a greater
honor for Chesapeake Lodge, in that one of its founders has lived to
see and to
enjoy the enormous advancement that has been its portion since its
Benj. H. Sterling, Maryland.
* * *
An Interesting Old Book
I am interested
in reading the short biographies of eminent men who were Masons, by
which are now appearing in THE BUILDER, and believe that these articles
appreciated by all of your readers.
I have noted
many interesting items of Masonic history in the pages of THE BUILDER
and it possibly
might be of interest to the members of the Society to learn something
of a quaint
and interesting book which recently came into my possession. It is a
book of 382
pages, printed in old style English, called "The Pocket Companion and
of Freemasonry," [Lib 1754] published in London in 1764
for R. Baldwin,
W. Johnston, B. Law & Co., and J. Scott.
contains a history of Masonry from the Creation to the Flood, from the
the building of Solomon's Temple, and so on through various phases
until the date
of publication. There is a frontispiece with King Solomon in the chair.
is a third edition, greatly enlarged throughout, and revised and
corrected. It contains
not only chapters dealing with the origin, progress and the (then)
state of Masonry,
but also an abstract of the laws, constitutions, customs, charges,
orders and regulations
for the instruction and conduct of the brethren; a confutation of Dr.
insinuations; an apology occasioned by the persecution of Masons in the
Berne, and in the Pope's dominions; the original papal edict against
a very comprehensive reply to the same.
It has also
interesting addresses by famous Masons of the day, and a collection of
be sung at Masonic gatherings. It deals with the appointment of
Masters in certain of our States, and has a list of the following
lodges in America:
St. John's Lodge No. 2, New York.
Boston in New England.
Beaufort Port Royal, Charles Town (as written).
The Union Lodge, a Masters' Lodge and St. Marks Lodge, all of South
A lodge in Savannah, Georgia.
A lodge in Wilmington, on Cape Fear River, in North Carolina.
A lodge in York Town, Virginia.
section of the book deals with certain questions, with answers to the
the mystery of Masonry, written by the hand of King Henry the Sixth of
"and faithfully copied by me, I John Leyland, Antiquarius, by the
his highness." In a footnote we read that John Leland was appointed by
Henry the Eighth, at the dissolution of the monasteries, to search for
such books and records as were valuable among them. He was a man of
is extremely interesting, and although the backs have gone, it is
I shall be very glad to supply any item of interest from its pages to
Fred J. Kitt, Ohio.
* * *
Freemasonry and the Boy
Forum in the April, 1920, number of THE BUILDER is most interesting and
you invite comment, I would not so venture except for what seems a
as to one side of the argument.
the great weight of Masonic opinion will coincide with that of the
majority of the
contributors to the Forum. That is to say, any civic activity of a
lodge, as a lodge,
should be approached with more than ordinary caution. A Mason of a past
phrased it thus, "While Freemasonry exerts a powerful influence against
and civil despotism, she must not organize against them and enter into
and organized contest. She must ever recollect that her mission is one
and not of power." That influence, it is true, proceeds from the Mason
individual and will be effective, in very large measure, by just the
amount of inspiration
in and spirit of Masonry that the lodge is able to transmit to its
On the other
hand, should lodge participation in civic affairs be advisable is there
not at least
one pathway properly "lighted by the golden rays of truth" and which
be safely pursued?
have to some extent recognized the duties of the Craft to the sons of
in turn their right to certain privileges in the father's lodge. On
some of the
old English tracing boards there appears a working tool called a Lewis,
of metal" by means of which large stones were raised. It was the symbol
strength. This term was later applied to the son of a Mason. He was a
the French, a louveteau) in that he was his father's strength in
of the Lewis has received greater recognition abroad than here. In our
however, George Washington is said to have been made a Mason before he
years old, because he was a Lewis. An example, yet fresh in memory, was
by the Great War when many jurisdictions waived "suitable proficiency"
and "constitutional intervals" as to all candidates and also "lawful
age" as to Lewises, who were actually in the Service. Assuming then
lodge owes a duty to the sons of its members and further that active
in civic affairs by a lodge, as such, is advisable, what better
we than active support of the Boy Scout movement? This has been
declared to be the
greatest field of endeavor opened to civilization in the past century,
and, in this
country, one of the most potent of influences available to any
An examination of the Scout oath and law alone will show how closely
in with the spirit of Masonry: "On my honor I will do my best:
1. To do my duty to God and my
country, and obey the Scout law.
2. To help other persons at all
3. To keep myself physically
strong, mental awake and morally straight."
law may be condensed to five words: Honesty, Courage, Kindliness,
Loyalty and Service.
A movement which actually brings home to the understanding of boys of
twenty-one years these basic principle of manhood and of citizenship by
the gang-co into the Scout-law unquestionably deserves our active
support by individual
Masons, if not the forming of Masonic Scout Troop under the wing of our
composed of our sons and led by our brethren.
of Brothers Carson and Hugo are interesting and the mentioned subjects
commendable, but history would seem to teach that Freemasonry belongs
in the va:
as a breaker of the way and a layer of bridges for the combatant forces
rather than in the rear as a ran claimer of the wounded and derelict.
is one those combating forces.
F. S. Baker, New York.
* * *
A Masonic Colony in East
experiment is about to be tried in the country known until recently as
Africa. Captain Willis, M. C., a native of Canterbury, New Zealand, who
much experience of tobacco planting in South an East Africa, has been
commandant of a portion of the conquered territory in East Africa, and
is also supervising
a scheme for the establishment of a Masonic co-operative settlement
there. The territory
he proposes the settlement should occupy is the hilly country
contiguous to the
north end of Lake Nyassa, a "pool" 360 miles long, between thirty and
sixty mile wide, and the second deepest lake in the world. The lake is
feet above sea-level, and it is proposed to acquire an area extending
up to about
the 7,000-feet level. From three thousand feet up, the country is as
any in the world. On the lower levels tobacco, hill rice, cotton, and
do well; a little higher, tea, coffee, and sub-tropical product grow
whilst the higher levels grow wheat and other cereals, and afford good
cattle. Droughts are unknown; from December to May the rainfall is
and November being the driest months in the year. The country is
prolific; one hundred
acres in tobacco will produce twenty-five tons of cured leaf, worth
over 1s. per pound on the London market on present rates. Nyassaland
the highest price, being the best leaf offered on the market. At the
to raise, cure, and put the tobacco in London would cost about sixpence
Tea is a good proposition one hundred acres of which, on attaining the
age of five
years would clear about 8 to 10 per acre per annum. The broker in
London will readily
put in all requisite machinery. Linseed or Irish flax also grows well,
and the natives
soon become expert in linen fiber manufacture. All fruits and
vegetables dwell some
on the lower and some on the higher levels.
It is proposed
that every settler shall acquire five thousand acres or more of
the rest on the higher level for grazing. He can also have an area in
for residence if desired. Labor is cheap and plentiful, and labor
troubles are unknown.
The native works for 1s. per week, considering himself well paid at
Good burnt bricks are made for 2s. 6d. and 3s. per thousand, and quite
a good house
can be erected for 100, the woodwork being usually of mahogany. The
good artificers and agriculturists, are of a kindly disposition, and
also make good
servants. Lions and leopards are to be met with, but nature has
provided a defense
in the way of a thorn bush that no animal will face, and the intention
is to "ring-fence"
the settlement area with this, an impenetrable defense being assured in
The land inside the fence will then be cleaned out, thus freeing the
from any trouble on that score. The freehold of the land, it is
cost under 1s. per acre.
is to be governed Masonically; none but Masons are to be admitted, and
it will be
run on co-operative principles. No outside trades or trading will be
but the lines established by the Rhodesian Farmers' Co-operative
Society will, it
is suggested, be followed. All products will be sold by the Society on
the individuals, and they will purchase their supplies at net landed
cost, at the
end of the financial period getting their credit balance, less their
of working expenses the trading organization making no profit whatever.
of money required by a settler is approximately 1,000. The seaport for
is Daressalaam. Train is taken from there to Dodomaa day's journey; and
can be completed to New Langenburgh per motor lorry in two days. The
motor roads made by the military. The present cost of reaching there
from New Zealand
is about 100 per adult, but a cheaper rate via Colombo is probable.
It is proposed
that an advance party of brethren shall first go over, have the land
the requisite areas, and start planting, and thus get the requisite
guide the main body, for whom they will make preparations. It is hoped
settlement will draw on every profession and craft for its members, so
that it will
be self-contained. As there will be practically no housework for the
women to do,
a portion of the government will be vested in them such as education,
etc. To provide
the necessary machinery they will have a Lodge or Club. It is hoped
that the best
of educational facilities will be made available, and that the social
life of the
community will reach a very high plane. Married men are required, and
with the natives will be countenanced. The prestige of the white race
has to be
maintained; so our blood must remain unadulterated.
the prospects for the future in New Zealand and other countries, and
the great uncertainty
the coming years hold, the prospects of a comfortable existence with
fears for the
future practically eliminated is most alluring. Reduced to a few words,
Africa can be acquired land that will produce anything for a few pence
labor is plentiful and cheap, thus allowing for cheap production;
whilst the markets
of the world offer the best prices in history for all that can be
produced. A world
shortage of food threatens; there will be plenty. There will, of
course, be hardships
to face, but a mere bagatelle alongside of those generally experienced
settlers. The point of settlement is within three weeks from almost any
the world, has good motor roads and telegraph lines, it has plenty of
and with its abundant game and fruits an easily obtained food supply is
Some brethren in good positions have already signified their intention
in this new Masonic colony.
The Sphinx -- [A Poem]
By Bro. F. W. Dibble, South
Composed while meditating
upon the Sphinx in front of The House of the Temple, Washington, D. C.
and half concealed in desert sands,
Half brute, half human, and upon her face
Expression changing with each mood or whim,
Behold the Sphinx!
What means this graven form?
In pensive mood I gaze into her eyes
And there reflected see pensivity:
Amused I look it seems I trace a smile:
Or weighted with the burdening cares of life,
It seems a burden, too, the Sphinx hath borne
And e'en deep grief within her heart of stone.
The voice of ages past comes to my ear:
"This is the symbol of the things of life.
Tho some we see, the more we cannot know.
Well might this form gaze pensively upon
The stretch of desert sands, the Pyramids,
Not far away the Nile; for heath her look
Hath passed mankind in all his various moods.
Graven by one who longed to know the truth
Yet somehow baffled in the life-long quest,
The Sphinx hath seen the folly of mankind
When mankind's effort spent itself for naught
Its wisdom, when the thoughtful minds of earth
Strove to find out the 'wherefore' of all things
Its splendor as the great of Egypt passed,
Her royalty in gold and glittering gems,
With numerous courtiers in pageantry
Attended by innumerable slaves;
Her priesthood, offering incantations weird;
Her wise men, learned in esoteric lore
Its grief, as o'er the fated land there passed
The Angel, carrying out the doom of heaven
When Egypt's firstborn, dying heath God's wrath
Softened the heart of Pharaoh."
Vast crowds passed
Thronging the highway to the Pyramids
When the nobility and royalty
Of Egypt passed into the Great Beyond.
At other times the poor of Egypt crept
Out in the desert, broken in their heart,
And there in shallow graves, dug hastily,
Gave back to earth the body of their dead.
On this broad stretch of earth astrologers
Studied the heavens, trying to find out God,
And learn from Him the mystery of life.
The seasons passed their course, and time rolled by
And still mankind showed folly, wisdom, grief.
The things of now are but the things of then,
And ages have not solved the mystery.
So stands the Sphinx.
Part buried in the sands
She is unseen beyond a little scope
Of desert. Hidden in mankind are we,
Beyond the circle of our friends unknown.
A human head above a lion's form
Part human and part brute are we, perhaps
More brute than human: but the intellect,
The soul, the spirit, are the mightier part,
And by these gifts divine may we find God
Who planned the course we must pursue thru life.
Methinks the Sphinx was once a temple where
The priesthood met for ceremonials,
When lower courses came for deeper truths.
The initiates' probation being done,
Before the great High Priesthood of the realm
His yearning mind sought esoteric
Light Methinks he learnt that Egypt's Pyramids,
Her temples and her monuments but signs
And symbols to direct his mind to God.
Methinks he learned to know the great I AM,
Veiled in such quaint and mystic symbolisms;
Methinks that in the depths beneath the Sphinx
There is a perfect cubic altar raised,
At which they offered worship unto God,
And on the which, unmarred by wasting Time,
Triangles may be traced, and stamped in gold
To hold relief the mystic name of God.
Are we not temples thus?
Do not our hearts Yearn to find out
the deeper things of God?
Doth not some soft, pulsating motive course
In every act to make us think of God?
Yea! and our heart contains a secret shrine
Erected for the worship of the Lord,
And there His name, ineffable, sublime,
Is worshipped; and tho sin may mar our lives
We often seek the God within our hearts,
Bemoan our faults, and seek new strength from Him.
And when at last, before relentless Death,
We quail and quiver, and our hearts grow still,
Somehow we feel the God-in-us will save
The immortal spark that on His altar glows
Within our dying hearts, and usher us anon
the presence of the truth on high.
AQC Transactions Vol 003 - 1890
Ars90 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 23.5 MB.
Caesar; A Sketch
Fro81 / auth. Froude James A. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 456. - 20.7 MB.
Herndon's Lincoln Vol 1
Her21LL1 / auth. Herndon William H and Weik Jesse W. - Springfield :
The Herndon's Lincoln Publishing Company, c1921. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 218.
- 7.3 MB.
Herndon's Lincoln Vol 2
Her21LL2 / auth. Herndon William H and Weik Jesse W. - Springfield :
The Herndon's Lincoln Publishing Company, c1921. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 218.
- 8.1 MB.
Herndon's Lincoln Vol 3
Her21LL3 / auth. Herndon William H and Weik Jesse W. - Springfield :
The Herndon's Lincoln Publishing Company, c1921. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 218.
- 7.6 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
Plu56 / auth. Plutarch. - New York : Derby & Jackson, 1856. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 751. - Complete Text of the 'Lives' - No Illustrations
- 59.9 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 1
Plu60PL01 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 1 : 5 : p.
460. - 20.7 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 2
Plu60PL02 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 2 : 5 : p.
440. - 20.6 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 3
Plu60PL03 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 3 : 5 : p.
464. - 23.9 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 4
Plu60PL04 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 4 : 5 : p.
465. - 17.4 MB.
Plutarch's Lives Vol 5
Plu60PL05 / auth. Plutarch / ed. Clough A. H.. - Philadelphia : John D.
Morris & Company, 1860. - 'Dryden Edition' : Vol. 5 : 5 : p.
404. - 20.0 MB.
Sco54 / auth. Scott Jonathan. - London : J Scott, 1754. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 339. - 14.4 MB.
Slo20 / auth. Sloane William M - . - New York : The Abingdon
Press, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 429. - 8.0 MB.
The History of Napoleon
Buonaparte Vol 1
Loc30NB1 / auth. Lockhart John G. - London : John Murray, 1830. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 391. - 16.0 MB.
The History of Napoleon
Buonaparte Vol 2
Loc30NB2 / auth. Lockhart John G. - London GB : John Murray, 1830. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 397. - 16.5 MB.
War of the Future
Ber201 / auth. Bernhardi Friederich von / trans. Holt F A. - London :
Hutchinson & Co., 1920. - 2nd : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 269. - 12.7 MB.