Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
General Mordecai Gist
GIST was born in Baltimore on the twenty-second of February, 1742, the
of the birthday of Washington. His ancestors were wealthy and
whose names are often found in the annals of the French and Indian wars.
Gist was educated for an Episcopal clergyman, but on the outbreak of
the War of
the Revolution he joined the first company recruited in Maryland, and
In 1776 he
was promoted to Major of a Maryland Battalion which was prominent in
of Long Island. He saw considerable service in the North, and was
promoted to Brigadier
General and commanded the Second Brigade of Maryland soldiers. In 1779
he was transferred
to the South, and at the Battle of Camden, S.C., where De Kalb lost his
1780, he was conspicuous for valor and for splendid generalship.
He was then
assigned to recruiting and securing supplies and clothing for the Army,
eminently successful in that trying time. This duty completed, he
returned to the
field and took part in the expulsion of the enemy from the Southern
was present at the siege and capture of Yorktown. He was, at that time,
at the head
of a Light Corps and rendered eminently effective service at that
of the war. He was accorded the credit of saving the day by a gallant
the Battle of Combahee.
war had ended, General Gist purchased a plantation near Charleston,
he lived during the remainder of his life. He was buried in the Church
Yard of Old
Saint Michaels Church (Episcopal), and the memorial shown in the
placed over his grave by the Society of the Sons of the American
was the first Vice President of the Maryland Society of the Cincinnati,
instituted by General Knox at the close of the war. His Masonic record
in the Annual Report of the Grand Lodge of Maryland for 1911. It reads:
“On the twenty-seventh
of April, 1780, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania granted a charter for
No. 27 to the Masons of the Maryland Line in the Revolution. Its
officers were General
Mordecai Gist, Worshipful Master; Colonel Otho Holland Williams, Senior
and Major Archibald Anderson, Junior Warden. …”
would like to invite attention to the neglect of our distinguished
dead, and to
the fact that the young, and still small Society of the Sons of the
is doing the work of erecting memorials which we Masons should have
done long ago.
of the Final Report of the Masonic Overseas Mission
By Bro. Townsend Scudder,
P.G.M., New York
To the Masonic
Grand Jurisdictions of the United States participating in the efforts
governmental permission for the Masonic Overseas Mission to engage in
which you dispatched in January, 1919, to Freemasons in the United
Overseas begs leave to submit the following report:
in writing of the negotiations of the Mission with the United States
for passports, bearing date December 31, 1918, has heretofore been
an opportunity having been presented for affiliation with the
a Masonic Unit, and, having been accepted, pursuant, in part to the
the President and of Mr. Raymond B. Fosdick that we ally ourselves
“with a recognized
relief agency,” arrangements were perfected, so far as they could be,
applied for through the Y.M.C.A. Further difficulty in obtaining
passports was then
experienced, which was solved, however, by a visit to Washington, and
were actually issued and delivered to us on the 21st day of January,
1919. We immediately
sought transportation by the first available steamer. The long delay
goaded us to
get to our destination at the earliest possible moment, and learning
that the “Aquitania”
of the Cunard Line was to sail from Halifax February 1, still a
troopship in the
service of the British Admiralty but carrying passengers on that
voyage, we succeeded
in securing passage on that steamer and left New York January 30 for
rail. Each member of the Mission carried hand luggage and in addition
each had a
small service trunk; we took along, also, a large trunk containing
and supplies. On arriving in Boston one of the party accompanied the
in an express wagon to safeguard their arrival at the North Station,
and saw them
aboard the seven o'clock train for Halifax on the Boston &
Maine Railroad. This
being accomplished we were reasonably confident that our luggage would
be duly delivered
at our destination because transported on the same train with
ourselves, but on
arriving at Halifax after midnight February 1, we were dismayed to find
two of the six trunks were on the train, the others, including the
large trunk referred
to, having been lost somehow en route. The steamer was due to sail 9 A.
the next train to arrive from St. John which could bring the trunks was
to arrive at the same hour. The agent of the line, to whom we appealed,
sympathetic and promised to do all that he could for us but feared the
the ship, being still a troopship, was under the control of the
he doubted that her sailing could be delayed.
results of his efforts we had determined that two of the Mission whose
not arrived should remain ashore and, in the event of their failure to
time to sail, that they should return to New York, and thence sail on
the next available
by great good fortune and the kind offices of the agent, Mr. Barrow,
sailing was delayed an hour and a half. Three of us went aboard,
leaving the other
two ashore, and well within the time appointed they joined us on board
our property, and thus we sailed, according to plan, with Mission and
was dingy and rusty, with partitions removed and furnishings very
scanty; she had
not been overhauled for months. All the ports were blackened to prevent
seen without. The passenger list was small and varied, but our
the circumstances, comfortable. We were booked to land at Liverpool,
but, for reasons
of state, the ship was diverted to Glasgow, where we arrived at noon of
February 7, and that evening left by rail for London, having previously
accommodations. Labor in both Scotland and England at the time of our
in a turmoil, and a railway strike was on effecting the London tubes.
We had reason
to apprehend an extension of the disorder, and, therefore, sought to
make all haste
to push forward toward our destination.
in London on the morning of February 8, we drove to the hotel to find
and no accommodations awaiting us. London was overcrowded; the many
to Government purposes, had greatly depleted available room for
visitors. We were
fortunate, however, in finding shelter at The Thackeray in Great
where we were comfortably established during our stay, if one can do
warm baths, and hot water, difficult to get anywhere in those times.
it advisable, while in London, to learn of the activities of the Grand
England in war work and service; also to lay before those in authority
in that Grand
Lodge the hopes and purposes of the Masonic Service Association of the
recently projected, and other matters of importance connected with our
One of our members having been taken ill, the days of his convalescence
employed in conferences with Sir Alfred Robbins, P. Colville Smith and
Lodge Officers, and in inspecting Masonic Relief Service, and studying
of the A.E.F. ‒ Y.M.C.A. in and about London, to the end that we should
familiar with the method of operating “Y” huts and the relation of that
to the men when we should undertake such work ourselves, in accordance
terms of the arrangement which we had made with the “Y” before leaving
We had engaged to take over and operate such hut or huts as might, in a
at Paris between the “Y” authorities there and the War Department, be
advisable, the same to be maintained as “Y” enterprises for all men in
but designated by an appropriate tablet as Masonically supported. It
understood that all purely Masonic service should be outside such
arrangement, it was calculated, would afford us a maximum of liberty
of action and, at the same time, of economy of expense and organization
in the matter
of movement throughout the A.E.F.
in London were highly satisfactory, and the cordial reception which we
had at the
hands of our English brethren will long and pleasantly be remembered.
We there had
the additional privilege of attending the consecration of the Woodford
East London by a ceremonial most impressive and in many particulars
Our reception at the dinner following the consecration, attended by a
of average English Freemasons ‒ business men of the City of London ‒
and the hearty
response to our brief remarks, was wonderfully stimulating.
We had learned
that Paris was not less congested than London and therefore endeavored
to make sure
of accommodations when we should arrive there. The work in London being
and arrangements to travel to Paris via Folkestone-Boulogne having been
through the Movement Order Department of the “Y” (a very difficult
route over which
to obtain permits to travel in war times, we found), we left London
and arrived in Paris the same evening, in a steady downpour of rain.
been intensely cold and disagreeable, but dry. Heat in hotels and
was unusual and deficient, and the discomfort of living conditions
was expensive and meagre, and we were assured that food, at least,
would be more
abundant, and less expensive, in Paris. We were disillusioned.
Fortunate to a degree
in being received at the hotel with which we had communicated (an old
familiar to one of the Mission) we found Paris not less uncomfortable
no heat, little food, higher prices, great congestion, and continuous,
sought opportunity with the “Y” authorities to discuss our business,
and to effect
plans for the work which we had projected, and, though we were met with
by the officers of that institution, the very conditions under which
work was done
in Paris and the circumstances of the war, made progress agonizingly
slow. For nearly
four weeks we worried along, making little headway and not knowing
whether we should
be able to pursue our work and perform the service which we had hoped
or should have to fold our tents and return home.
of uncertainty was by no mean wasted; it was devoted to the full, and
of it, to canvassing the Masonic situation in the A.E.F., and planning
ways and means for undertaking and pursuing our work, as soon as a
We had carried
with us from home a large number of letters from Masons with the
about Masonic activity, existent or projected. Responses to these
letters were prepared
on the steamer, and mailed on our arrival at Glasgow. Replies to our
had announced our expected arrival in France about February 15, and
given an address
there, began to arrive before the end of February, and thus we started
a chain of
We had understood,
before leaving home, that a considerable proportion of the Secretaries
in the service
of the “Y” were Masons, but observation, contact, and the records which
opened to us, led us to believe that not less than 70 per cent of the
were members of the Craft. We had been in correspondence with a Masonic
in the “Y.” composed of “Y” Secretaries, called the Trowel and Triangle
had existed for some months, and whose main purpose seemed to be an
together, and the entertaining of persons of interest or distinction.
It had no
other apparent activity; but we saw in it a means, effectively and
to extend our influence, and by combining effort, to reach and serve
of the Fraternity in the service.
and members we found to be intelligent, zealous, keenly alive
Freemasons, some of
them hailing from our own State. We promptly got in intimate contact
brethren, told them the story of our efforts to get Overseas and to
serve, all which
stimulated in them prompt sympathy and desire to cooperate. This
in the formation of a plan for the reorganization of that Club,
ramifying, as it
did, throughout the entire A.E.F., and comprising, in its membership, a
number of the Secretaries at training camps, leave areas and with
of the army all over France and in Germany, and the utilization of the
through it, of the Secretaries, members of it, throughout the A.E.F.,
as the connecting
link between Masonic life in the A.E.F. and the Mission, with its
Paris. Through the Trowel and Triangle Club, to membership in the Board
of which one of the members of the Mission was elected, and with all of
the Mission was intimately in touch, we advertised promptly for the
names and addresses
and the officers of all Masonic Clubs or other organizations in the
the result that, within approximately two weeks, we were in receipt of
a large volume
of mail and in close touch with the Masonic pulse of the Forces, and
intimate and reliable information regarding most, or all, of the
Masonic Club life,
which then existed, and some of which had become dormant or extinct by
the departure or impending departure for home of the units with which
Conspicuous among our co-laborers in this service were Sidney Morse, in
the Records Bureau of the A.E.F. ‒ Y.M.C.A.. John Garland Pollard of
the Board of
Discipline, Cass Connaway, Chief Counsel, William L. Hartman of Denver,
and J. M. Crouch of West Virginia, in charge of Paris Warehouse.
11, 1919, the “Y” offered us the hut known as the “Officers and Men's
Avenue Montaigne, Paris, which we immediately accepted. The offer
taking it over and operating it as a “Y” hut, bearing all expense
proved it to be the original headquarters of the “Y,” a palace,
and capable, we thought, of great development. It was serving, at the
110 officers and men, some of whom ‒ about 25 ‒ were accommodated with
all with luncheon and dinner at prices materially below the prevailing
similar accommodations. The use of the building for months had, of
in deterioration and the existence, we thought, of the restaurant, led
of untidiness which were better avoided. We found, also, that the
a serious expense, all out of proportion, we thought, to the service
method of its management seemed calculated to pamper a few, instead of
many, and we concluded promptly to eliminate the restaurant and to
develop the usefulness
of the institution to the greatest possible extent. On March 14th,
exchanged covering the agreement to take that property over, which we
in arranging not to involve liability on our part for damage to
property (a familiar
invariable consequence of the relation of landlord and tenant in
France), and that
we should be at liberty to abandon the enterprise at any time on thirty
of its operation for a year previous, which were furnished us, showed
loss or excess of outgo over income of approximately $30,000. The
this enterprise we had no hesitation in undertaking, in view, not only
of the ditty,
as we conceived it, of keeping our bargain, but the necessity, as we
found it ‒
or then saw it ‒ of our having a definite status with the “Y” in the
order to maintain our position and render any kind of service, Masonic
to the men with the colors.
however, was kind. It chanced that certain devoted women had been
the conduct of that hut from its inception and the thought of it being
of their control distressed them. We were asked, first, to reconsider
to abandon the restaurant, to which we consented, temporarily. The
its operation by the Mission was modified at our instance, by providing
should conduct it in any case from April 1st until June 30 (the end of
a rent period;
at which time the tenant, under the lease, would have the right to
the privilege, however, of abandoning it then on thirty days' notice to
and, if continued thereafter by us at its instance, with the privilege
it at any time during that continuance, on thirty days' notice.
the movement in “Y” circles to withdraw the offer of the hut
interference on our part. Awaiting the final decision we pursued our
intensively in every direction.
The hut was
not turned over to us, and we incurred no expense in connection
therewith, but by
mutual consent we were relieved from the duty of carrying on operations
character or of devoting our time or energy to such activities.
Gradually we drifted
into a service of a purely Masonic character, and no question was
raised or exists
as between any party to the original agreement, regarding the soundness
of our position,
or the propriety of our conduct.
we undertook also, the reorganization of the local Masonic Club in
Paris, and the
placing of it in a position of usefulness. This involved further
local Masons, particularly among the officers stationed in or near
Paris and resulted,
most happily, in procuring the consent of Col. H. H. Whitney, Chief of
the Paris Division, to act as President, and Major Otto H. Lee,
Advocate, and Capt. Keely, Q.M.C., as Governors, thus assuring to the
Club not only
the patronage of officers, which was essential to its usefulness, but
keen interest in its welfare, with the result that its sessions were
M. Crouch was actively interested in the Trowel and Triangle Club, and
one of its
Governors. He was also an intimate friend of Judge George Fleming Moore
interested in his enterprise at 10 Avenue Victor Emmanuel III. It was
Brother Crouch, whose friendly interest in the activities of the
Mission was early
manifested, should suggest the propriety of the Trowel and Triangle
holding their meetings, and the members of the Overseas Masonic Club
in the quarters at 10 Avenue Victor Emmanuel III, and as spontaneously
and in the
same kindly spirit as the suggestion was made, it was accepted. The
maintained its headquarters at the Hotel Peiffer, 6 Passage de la
had been planned to transfer headquarters to the hut at 31 Avenue
late in March Brother Charles W. Connery, the manager of the American
10 Avenue Victor Emmanuel III, offered to the Mission the use as
charge, of the entresol rooms in that building, and to decorate them
for that purpose.
The offer was gratefully accepted and our quarters appropriately
furnished by the
Mission, and these quarters were from early April, 1919, used by the
a convenient place to meet Masons seeking information and advice,
relief and Masonic
between the Mission and Brother Connery was most genuine and
comfortable, and reacted
promptly in a marked increase in the attendance of visitors at the
Avenue Victor Emmanuel III, and the extension of its usefulness. It
grew to be in
fact as well as in name the American Masonic Headquarters in Paris and
members of the Mission were in the field. The occupied territory at
its neighborhood was visited, as well also the leave areas, General
at Chaumont and its neighborhood, the seaports ‒ Marseille, Bordeaux,
Brest and Le Havre ‒ and the intervening country in central France,
where most of
our forces were camped or billeted. The time of the members of the
Mission was devoted
to visiting Clubs and addressing the men, encouraging the formation of
none existed, furnishing Masonic information to interested inquirers,
rendering all and any assistance to Freemasons, which was within our
power to render.
We early established pleasant relations with Major W.S. Solomon, 417th
Battalion, Signal Corps, stationed in Coblenz, who hails from Rhode
who had undertaken the reorganization of the Third Army Masonic Club at
At the time we came in touch with him, the membership of that Club was
We aided him in every way in our power, and he was, by great fortune,
by the presence and active cooperation of two “Y” Secretaries in his
Past Grand Master Davis of the Grand Lodge of Rhode Island, and Deputy
Collins of the same jurisdiction, with both of whom we had the most
profitable relations. Before we left, the membership of that Club was
and included two sub-Clubs, one made up of Ohioans, and the other of
each of which numbered over 125.
the arrival of the Mission in France there commenced a regular system
leave to soldiers to visit Paris for a period of three days, and
‒ 900 men daily arrived in Paris on leave. Shortly thereafter the
an educational program, the purpose of which was to occupy usefully the
the determination to evacuate France, and their transportation home,
numbers of men were assigned to the University of Paris, to the
Sorbonne, and other
Paris and French educational institutions, and many were assigned also
institutions in England. The plan involved a change in their pay system
and a transfer
to a different paymaster, and commutation of housing and rations
amounting to the
equivalent, with their pay, of approximately $3 per day, not, however,
found opportunity for most useful service in directing visiting
doughboys to places
of interest, hotels, amusement places, etc., in Paris, and furnishing
for which at the time no adequate provision had been made.
problem of loaning funds to officers and soldiers, members of the
Craft, was sharply
presented. The cost of living in Paris was excessive, and they were in
short of funds, expecting pay and with funds at home which they were
unable to avail
of. At one time the American Red Cross had served in the matter of
The Y.M.C.A. had rendered similar service, but both had been
discontinued. In this
situation the Mission realized that both an opportunity and a duty were
and endeavoring to exercise discretion and discrimination, during its
in France, made loans, cashed checks, made advances and assisted
members of the Fraternity engaged in the service. That this service was
by the beneficiaries thereof goes without saying, and the loans were in
repaid promptly. But few thereof are outstanding.
time of the arrival of the Mission in France the withdrawal of our
troops from the
front, and from billets, at the instance of the French Government, had
thereafter rapidly progressed. The expansion of Le Mans as a
for our troops thus withdrawn and prior to their dispatch to the
seaboard for embarkation
for home, was undertaken, and a capacity of 350,000 men was planned.
Early in March
Brothers Moore, Lay and Goodrich were commissioned to visit the Le Mans
a conference at Paris with Brother Harry B. Mook, Regional Financial
the A.E.F.-Y.M.C.A. in that area, and we determined to aid and sustain
Masonic Club in that district. This Club was established with Bro.
Harry B. Mook
as President, occupying the building at 45 Rue Chanzy, the rent of
which the Mission
paid, and its membership approximated 900, besides which it served a
number of men, visitors to that area, or temporarily therein.
10th, Brother Goodrich visited Lyons to inspect that field from a
Masonic service, and from there proceeded to Dijon, returning to Paris.
11th, Brothers Moore and Lay visited Marseille, attended the weekly
meeting of the
American E.F. Masonic Club, which met in the temple of the lodges of
the Grand Orient
at 24 Rue Piscatoris, and enjoyed fraternal intercourse with both
American and French
brethren. They proceeded on March 13th to Nice, an important leave
area, where the
situation was canvassed with Bro. James G. Gipe, Y.M.C.A. Secretary,
made to foster a Masonic Club in that area, and to guarantee its rent
expenses. From there they returned to Paris.
17th Brother Prime visited Chaumont, investigated conditions in that
the former aviation base at La Trecey; also Neuchateau; and addressed
Masonic Club presided over by Capt. A. C. Howard.
22, Bro. Lay visited Saumur, and attended a banquet held at the Budan
Hotel by Villebernia
Masonic Club, located at Camp Strathcona and Mt. Royal, a few miles
68 members of the Fraternity were present. The members of the Club for
part were officers and men from the First Company, 14th Grand Division,
31st Engineers. The camp had been a permanent one, with little change
in its personnel
since June, 1918. They were engaged in the operation of the railroads
with the S.O.S.
24th, Bro. Lay visited Tours, attended a meeting of the Acacia Club
with Col. George
E. Newell of Virginia in the chair, the meeting of which was held in
25th, Brother Goodrich visited Chaumont; also Neuchateau, and
a view to ascertaining what service, if any, the Mission could perform
in that area.
26th, Brother Lay visited Sunset Overseas Club at St. Aignan, at which
10,000 men were quartered, and addressed over 250 men.
26th, Brother Moore visited Coblenz and the occupied territory, and
attended a dinner
of the N. Y. Club on March 28th, and of the Third Army Club on March
31st. He also
visited the Masonic Club at Mayen, and generally inspected the district.
27th, Brother Lay proceeded to Bourges, and investigated with members
of the Fraternity
the desirability of establishing a Club at that point.
28th, he attended a meeting in the Central Records office of Bourges,
and they then
decided to form a Club which the Mission undertook to support. There
were no social
service attractions at that city, except a K. of C. hut.
28th, he went from Bourges to Marmagne near Mehun, a camp of 5,000 men.
Club meets on Wednesday nights, using the Y.M.C.A. hut, and performing
29th, the Masons in Camp at Bourges held a banquet at the City
Prefecture with Lieut.
Col. Smith presiding, which Brother Lay attended.
31st, he proceeded to Gievres, the great warehouse camp of central
joins and coordinates with the air station at Pruniers, better known as
and attended the East sub-Post Masonic Club meeting. It had a
membership of over
400 men and used a hut furnished by the Camp Commandant in the
1st, he visited the Square and Compass Club at Gievres, which met in
Welfare Hut. 200 men were present. He was also able, through the “Y”
to arrange with the Commanding Officer for a hut for the use of the
Club. He there
met Bro. Charles H. Huntley, a “Y” Secretary, who was an active worker,
originator, with Brother Porter, of the S.O.L., a very popular
so-called side degree,
returning thence to Paris.
5th, Brother Prime visited Bordeaux, accompanied by Brother James D.
Grand Master of Rhode Island, who was planning to embark for home from
and with him visited Camp De Souge, 15 miles out of Bordeaux, and there
with officers, members of the Fraternity, regarding the Masonic
situation, and the
possible service to be rendered by the Mission. They also met a
the Camp De Souge Masonic Club at Camp De Souge who were planning to
Lodge at Bordeaux (holding obedience to the Grand Loge National) that
and conferred with Major Gilbert in charge of the hospital at that
to Bordeaux with Brother Collins, he attended a session of Liberation
Lodge in the
Masonic Temple occupied by the Loge Anglais, founded in 1734, under
by the Grand Lodge of England, and at various times thereafter holding
to the Grand Orient, or the Grand Lodge of England, but now holding
the Grand Loge National, and being one of the constituent lodges which
Grand Body in the autumn of 1913. He took part in conferring the
on four members of the A. E. F. in the afternoon, and on eight in the
also conferred with Capt. John D. Hatch and associates regarding the
of a Masonic Club in Bordeaux, which was shortly thereafter established
zealous aid and support of Bro. Collins.
on April 6th to Nimes he investigated that leave area from a Masonic
point of view,
and determined that it would close so shortly thereafter as to require
from the Mission. Proceeding to Marseille that afternoon, he conferred
Charles M. Conant, Captain A. C. Gilbert and other brethren regarding
Masonic Club at Marseille. The following day he attended a meeting of
Masonic Club at Marseille held in conjunction with Heather Hill Masonic
the 13th Engineers (which was about to return home) at the Macaroni
Factory in Camp
Covington outside Marseille, and addressed about 400 brethren.
Proceeding that night
to Beaune by way of Lyons, he arrived there on April 11th, conferred
with Bro. Mark
E. Penney regarding the needs of that Camp, of approximately 14,000
men, and visited
the A. E. F. University, an extensive establishment which had taken
over a base
hospital of many buildings on a plateau overlooking the Rhone, situated
kilometres outside Beaune, and that evening attended a meeting of the
Masonic Club, and addressed about 200 members, leaving at midnight for
9th Bros. Moore, Lay and Goodrich visited Le Mans, and addressed large
of Brethren, besides performing other important Masonic work.
14th Bro. Lay visited Nevers and the American Masonic Club at that
place. He learned
that the Club had raised a fund of over 5,000 francs for the placing of
windows in the Protestant Chapel at Nevers as a memorial to the
in the A. E. F., and attended the regular meeting of the Club on April
proceeded to Bourges again on April 16th in connection with the Club at
and arranged for quarters to accommodate them.
16th, he again visited Espoir Club at Camp Marmagne.
On the 17th,
he proceeded to Gievres, and visited the Trowel Club which meets in the
On the 18th,
he visited the Square and Compass Club at Pruniers, where arrangements
to decorate the graves of Masons on Easter Sunday, and he attended the
19th, he visited Issoudun, and conferred with the officers of the
of Montierchaume Camp near Chateauroux, and conferred also with Lieut.
of Base Hospital No. 63, organized in 1913 at Caen, and finally located
He also met representatives from four Clubs at Gievres, and Romorantin,
Masonic work at Romorantin.
20th, Easter Sunday, he attended the decoration of graves in the
at Gievres by the Trowel Club. 100 men marched to the Cemetery. Six
graves of Masons
were decorated and photographs taken to be sent home. That afternoon he
a banquet of the Square and Compass Club at Romorantin, with 175 men
in the evening attended Masonic Memorial Services under the auspices of
Club in the main auditorium hut of the “Y,” with 800 men present, and
and Y.W.C.A. women present by special invitation.
16th, Brother Moore of the Mission was compelled to return to New York
of important business matters. He left regretfully, after serving
entire period for which he generously had volunteered.
time of his arrival in France until April 16th the Chairman of the
Mission was constantly
in Paris in charge of the affairs of the Mission and daily occupied
conferences, assisting brethren, and generally superintending the
Excepting as indicated in the above analysis of activities, Brother
Prime also was
occupied assisting the Chairman, and attending to correspondence. The
months the Mission employed no Clerk, its voluminous correspondence
to by the members.
16th, the Chairman departed for Switzerland on an important mission,
in Paris on April 23rd.
In his absence
Brothers Goodrich and Prime were constantly in Paris.
Master of New York had cabled the Chairman requesting him to return in
Grand Lodge, which was to sit May 6th, and great difficulty was
experienced in arranging
transportation home. However, accommodations were secured for the
Chairman and Brother
Prime, who left Paris on April 26th, and Havre the same day, arriving
in New York
May 5th, the day before the Grand Lodge convened. Brothers Goodrich and
in charge. On the voyage home, we volunteered as Troop Secretaries, and
casuals and 17 officers.
On May 1st
all passes for American soldiers to be in Paris were withdrawn, and all
in uniform were ordered to remain off the streets. Not a wheel turned
All cars, taxicabs, subways, and all means of transportation remained
stores, restaurants, and places of business were closed. Troops were
Paris, and thoroughfares leading to central points were closely guarded
of labor disturbances.
was made at the headquarters at 10 Avenue Victor Emmanuel III from
to American women in Paris, particularly Red Cross and Y.W.C.A. women,
cots and blankets were provided. A large number of American women
On May 3rd,
Brother Lay proceeded to the A. E. F. University at Beaune.
On May 6th,
he proceeded to St. Nazaire, and attended a meeting of Masonic Club No.
was organized July 8, 1918.
On the following
day he visited the Montoir Masonic Club near St. Nazaire, and Base
At that time
two other Masonic Clubs were in process of formation in the St. Nazaire
to meet the needs of the Clubs he assigned Brother Charles H. Huntley
Secretary for Masonic Clubs in that area, his salary to be borne by the
He also arranged for a distribution of cards to all home-coming
Department of the Government had been anxious for our cooperation in
soldiers with information and advice to proceed, promptly on arrival,
to their home
towns and not to linger in cities or near the seaboard, and respecting
We gladly afforded all aid in our power in this endeavor.
25th a delegation of doughboys from St. Aignan, headed by Sergeant
Paris and presented the situation of upwards of 100 doughboys, members
of the Fraternity,
at that camp, about to be commissioned officers, requiring uniform and
as a condition of receiving their assignments, and without funds to
and solicited the aid of the Mission in their behalf. St. Aignan was a
to which all men for any reason detached from their units were
assigned; also replacement
troops sent from home awaiting assignment; also men awaiting sentence
by court martial, and doughboys awaiting commission after examination
It was dubbed “St. Agony,” an obviously appropriate term. Lieut. Col.
Perry, a member of the Fraternity, was in charge of the camp, and he,
as well as
other officers, members of the Fraternity, had exhausted their
resources in relieving
and assisting Brethren in the service, situated as reported by Bro.
sum of 50,000 francs was requested, for use as a revolving fund to
brethren in their emergency. It was represented that they were
possessed of funds
at home or of funds in the hands of friends, neither of which were
or at all, excepting after great delay, and we were satisfied that a
for service was here presented. We desired, however, to be sure of our
requested Brother Starkey to return to St. Aignan, canvass the
situation most carefully
and advise the minimum amount which would afford the relief desired.
On May 9th,
Brothers Lay and Goodrich proceeded to St. Aignan and there conferred
Perry and other officers, members of the Fraternity, and with Bro.
presented a list of 74 candidates and commissioned Second Lieutenants
need. It appeared further that immediately a man received his
commission, his findings
as private stopped, and he was required to pay his food at 10 francs
per diem, and
often was short of funds until next pay day. Careful investigation
worth of the applicants, and the Mission deposited with Col. Perry
to be distributed by him, Major McCatharan and Brother Starkey among
the men deemed
worthy by them, in sums not to exceed 300 francs each, for which their
were to be given, payable to the Mission. These obligations were met
uniform promptness, and but a few thousand francs of the total amount
The fame of this service, and its signal influence, spread rapidly
A. E. F. No other institution or organization was prepared to, or
furnish any similar service.
Lay and Goodrich returned to Paris, where they remained in charge of
activities until their departure for home on June 28th, constantly
the entire day from early in the morning until late at night in the
office of the
Mission in conferences with, and assisting, members of the Fraternity
On May 19th,
they mailed letters to all Masonic Clubs enclosing greetings from the
literature prepared by the National Superintendent of Bureaus for
On May 28th,
they distributed among the Masonic Clubs memorial aprons contributed by
Hive Lodge of Chicago, Ill.
of the members of the Mission were called for several times in the
conduct of Masonic
On May 29th,
Wor. Brother C. D. Brooks, of Uncas Lodge, No. 949, Syracuse, who had
in the educational activities of the Y.M.C.A., and had planned to take
part in the
educational work of the A. E. F. University at Beaune, was buried with
in the Suresnes Cemetery outside Paris, conducted by Brother Lay.
Memorial Day, Brother Lay proceeded to Montrichard, and there delivered
Day address. From there he proceeded to St. Aignan for a conference
with Col. Perry
regarding loans and other matters.
On June 20th,
the Mission gave a dinner in honor of Col. H. H. Whitney, President of
Masonic Club of Paris, at the Laurent Restaurant. General Pershing had
to attend this function, and wrote an appreciation, of which he
is as follows:
(On the letter-head
of the Mission)
10 Avenue Victor-Emmanuel III,
G.H.Q., Chaumont, France.
evening, June 20th, the Masonic Overseas Mission is giving a dinner in
Colonel H. H. Whitney, President of the Paris Masonic Club at the
on the Champs Elysees, at 6:30 P. M., and would deem it a great honor
if you could
arrange to be present.
that this may be possible, I am,
and fraternally yours,
GEO. S. GOODRICH,
Of the Mission.
* * *
Office of the Commander-in-Chief
France, June 14, 1919.
10 Ave. Victor Emmanuel III, Paris.
I have received
your cordial invitation of June 13th to dine with the Overseas Mission
to the Freemasons
on June 20th.
I am indeed
sorry that my military duties force me to be absent on that date, and
so I cannot
have the pleasure of dining with you. I wish to express my extreme
regret as nothing
would have given me greater pleasure. I have heard nothing but the
of the results of your generous efforts in the American Expeditionary
desire to express to you personally my hearty thanks for the
attitude you have assumed.
(Signed) JOHN J. PERSHING.
He did not
attend the dinner. However, among those attending were Col. H. H.
Martin and Robinson, Cass Connaway, General Counsel of the Y.M.C.A.,
Connery, Manager of the American Masonic Club, Sidney Morse, in charge
of the Records
Department of the Y.M.C.A., John Garland Pollard of Virginia, member of
of Discipline of the Y.M.C.A., Ex-Governor Dunn of Indiana, Brother
Newby of the
Grand Commandery of the United States, Major Ross Corbin, of the Red
Pasha, a Turkish Mason, and many others. Anticipating the return of
and Goodrich, Brother Erastus C. Knight, who had been originally
designated a member
of the Mission, but had taken up active duties in New York in
connection with the
activities of the War and Relief Administration, and particularly in
with the care of wounded brethren during their presence in and near New
the various debarkation and Base Hospitals, was dispatched, and arrived
on June 13th in time to gain from Brothers Lay and Goodrich, before
they left, an
intimate understanding of the various activities of the Mission, it
that he should remain indefinitely after they left, and as long as the
The fund raised by the American Masonic Club at Nevers for stained
windows in the Protestant Chapel at Nevers was turned over to the
Mission, the glass
ordered, and under its auspices and supervision installed. The Chairman
of the Mission
returned to Paris, after visiting London and attending the Peace
Session of the
United Grand Lodge of England, and arrived in Paris, July 3rd,
remaining there to
close up the various activities of the Mission, its relations with the
and with Headquarters, No. 10 Avenue Emmanuel III, also to settle all
bills or arrange
for same. When he departed he left Bro. Knight to oversee the final
sailed from Havre about the middle of August. Brother Knight left Paris
1919, and arrived in New York with the records and other property of
remember that at the conference of Grand Masters held at Cedar Rapids,
24th to 28th, 1918, which resulted in the adoption of the tentative
of the American Masonic Service Association of the United States, the
dispatching the Mission overseas was brought before the assembled Grand
and it was unanimously voted that the Chairman of the Mission be
appointed the representative
of the Masonic Service Association of the United States overseas. The
by New York for Masonic Service overseas contemplated impartial service
to all Freemasons
in the United States forces whencesoever they hailed, and the Masonic
of the United States at the conference referred to adopted the Mission
also as its
Mission to Freemasons in the United States forces overseas, and
undertook to share
pro rata in the whole expense thereof. We bore letters of credit for
dollars, in addition to traveler’s checks, aggregating $5,000, in all
total expenses of the Mission, including outstanding loans but not
depreciation in the value of the franc, are approximately $35,600, of
York will pay her proportionate share, our sister jurisdictions joining
service having requested that they each pay on a proportionate basis
equal to what
the membership of each bears to the total membership of all
this report, it is fitting that sincere acknowledgment should be made
of the cordial
relations which at all times prevailed between the Mission and the
as well as of the great service and assistance which that organization
us. All our transportation in France and England was obtained through
Order Department, and Masonic Secretaries were assigned and transferred
our request. Motor vehicles, mechanics, building material, hut
picture machines and films, entertainers, food and supplies of all
kinds were freely
and promptly furnished upon our requisition, and while our
arrangements, as was
proper, provided for payment for all such services and supplies, we
assistance, many facilities and favors for which we could not
compensate in money,
and were not asked to.
of our boys after the Armistice was signed, and movement back from the
commenced, concentrated for transportation home, no longer with the
a fight unwon, with little to do and less to occupy their minds, much
of the time
in mud, wet, cold, and general distress of mind and body, can well be
Words are inadequate to express it accurately. To such men, in such a
for home, and in dire need of distraction, the Mission and its varied
a veritable God-send.
of the Mission's presence, representing organized Freemasonry in the
was also felt deeply by the A.E.F.-Y.M.C.A. The large number of members
of the Fraternity
in that service were greatly heartened and stabilized thereby, and
rendered more efficient service.
this report the members of the Mission desire to record their personal
of the privilege of participating in this service, and their admiration
of the quality
as men and Masons of the rank and file of American officers and
in the World War. The memory of the dear associations which they have
MERWIN W. LAY,
Chairman GEORGE S. GOODRICH,
WILLIAM C. PRIME,
ERASTUS C. KNIGHT,
THOS. CHANNING MOORE
of the Mission.
Preliminary Statement to
You are about
to be initiated into Freemasonry. It is deemed proper in this Grand
Lodge that all
candidates for our ceremonies shall know in brief just what Masonry is,
aims and purposes are, and in that way any erroneous or trivial notions
may have had will be entirely removed and your minds free to receive
the great truths
which Masonry hopes to teach.
You are to
be congratulated upon having been found worthy to pass the unanimous
ballot of the
members of this lodge, and it is of the utmost importance that you so
as to be always worthy of this confidence.
with which you are seeking to unite is known in this State as Ancient
Free and Accepted
Masonry. Ancient as having a recorded history of more than two
centuries, and still
more ancient as having come down from the old guilds or fellowship of
Masons, who worked upon those wonderful cathedrals and other public
Europe which were constructed during the middle ages, and which have
been and still
are the marvel of all who behold them. We do not desire our candidates
that we claim any connection with those workmen who built King
although we use in our ceremonies and ritual the symbolism of the same.
is made up always of free men ‒ free born. Free Masonry was originally
of workmen who, by reason of special privileges granted them by the
church in the
early middle age, were free to travel and work without the usual
were common in those times.
Masonry, or Speculative Masonry, is distinguished from Operative. The
to Accepted Masonry came about the beginning of the 18th century, when
scholars, scientists and clergymen, sought and attained admission to
of Operative Masons, and were known as Gentlemen, or Accepted Masons.
with the organization of the Grand Lodge of England, Masonry has been
rather than Operative.
intends to make good men better, and thus wiser and happier; men
capable of rendering
large service to their fellow men. This is its main object. It is
founded upon certain
vital and fundamental truths, chief among them is the belief in one
and true God, and our dependence upon him. If there is any doubt in
your mind whatever
on this point, you ought not to think of proceeding further. Other
will be taught as you proceed with your degree.
in mind that there is nothing in Masonry which does not have a serious
Nothing is done to embarrass you, or trifle with your feelings. Your
for initiation all has a meaning which will be explained later.
preliminary statement, let me express the hope that your mind will be
at ease and
in a mood to receive the important lessons which Masonry is intended to
* * *
“Preliminary Statement to Candidates” has been authorized by the Grand
North Dakota to be given to all candidates in that Grand Jurisdiction
prior to their
preparation for initiation into the First degree. It is designed to be
preferably by the Worshipful Master in some suitable room other than
the lodge room.
cannot know the future of this life,
What storms may come, what woes,
Or whether I shall conquer in the strife,
But I can trust in Him. He knows! He knows!
I will chide
no heathen in the world but myself, against whom I know most faults.
generous is truly wise, and he who loves not others, lives unblest.
Marks and Mark Masonry
By Bro, Charles C. Conover,
From November Number)
Degree ‒ Its History and Development
degree seems to antedate any of the chapter degrees. In England and
most of her
dependencies it is controlled by a separate organization known as the
of Mark Master Masons. These lodges take their material from the
and they confer the degrees of Mark Man, Mark Master and in some
instances the Royal
Ark Mariners. We naturally first turn to Mackey's Encyclopedia for his
On the subject of “Mark Man” he says:
to Masonic tradition, the Mark Men were the Wardens, as the Mark
Masters were the
Masters of the Fellow-Craft Lodges, at the building of the Temple. They
the Marks to the workmen, and made the first inspection of the work,
which was afterward
to be approved by the overseers. As a degree, the Mark Man is not
the United States. In England it is sometimes, but not generally,
worked as preparatory
to the degree of Mark Master. In Scotland, in 1778, it was given to
while the Mark Master was restricted to Master Masons. Much of the
of the Mark Man has been incorporated into the Mark Master of the
Mark Masonry ‒ Place and
When we read
the story of the building of that house upon Mount Moriah we are amazed
at the magnitude,
as well as the splendor of the work. By the quarries, in Lebanon, and
in the mountain
that overlooked the Dead Sea, men wrought by plan ‒ Fellow Crafts and
M. M.'s of
the different lodges. They apparently wrought also by piece in many
cases; and it
was important that a careful record should be kept of work done, of
work done well
‒ and of the worker, whatever he had done. This was done by a system of
each family had a separate Mark, or each nation or each company of
workmen, it is
impossible to say. But that Masons were in the habit of making such
Marks for purposes
of signature there is no doubt. When few could read, and fewer write, a
adopting some easily remembered Mark would be a great advantage. And
there is no
doubt that the signature in some way of a man's workmanship was of
the Wardens and the Overseers. Masonry has ever emphasized the value
regard to membership in a lodge, both in operative and in speculative
we can easily understand that such a system of Marks as we have
become necessary, especially in a work of such stupendous magnitude as
of Jerusalem, or the other great works of antiquity in which bands of
different nations and languages and habits were employed. The Marks
would be, to
the Overseers, both statement of account and surveyor's report; and
every man would
receive praise and reward or punishment as these marks were borne upon
good or bad
work. The apprentice hand made a blind Mark of equal angles, and the
F.C. a true
mark of unequals. In the former we find a standard easily followed, and
of a personal characteristic of great importance. In the Mark of the
the individuality of that skilled artisan. The standard of obedience
was no longer
inexpertly and blindly emphasized; but the workman obeyed Masonic law
his own characteristic in the varying unequal angles. The circle was
never became a Mason's Mark unless in combination with some
perpendicular or angle.
The circle is the means to right lines; and in right lines is Masonry
study of the ancient Marks in buildings of all nations and religions
tendency reveals some curious suggestions. Mr. Godwin and M. Didron, in
of last century, brought these Marks under the observation of
antiquaries. The first,
who was editor of the “Builder,” submitted, in 1841, a most interesting
upon the subject to the Society of Antiquaries; and M. Didron, a
of archaeology, communicated his own findings to the Comite Historique
et Monuments shortly afterwards. Various conclusions were reached by
who took the matter up; but nothing appears to be conclusive beyond
that with which
we have already stated. The Marks were the signature and the challenge
of the workmen.
in the same way, the Mark Mason of today demands that a Mark shall
responsibility and the account of the Mark Mason. Just as in business
of a merchant or manufacturer may be said to be constantly in pledge
fulfillment of a contract, so Mark Masonry throws herself upon her
her Masonic brotherliness, upon her right to receive and to give. And
just so her
character stamps her acts and her ideals. The Mark is found upon the
the jewel, and not upon the apron, which with the exception that there
are no tassels
and that the ribbon is edged with crimson, resembles that of the M. M.
The jewel takes the form of the keystone of an arch. Upon one side are
H.T.W.S.S.T.K.S., and upon the other Hebrew characters of similar
are arranged round a space, circular, in which the Mark of the wearer
So that both the Royal Arch and the Mark are based largely upon the
construction of the arch in Masonry. The principal difference is one of
Royal Arch deals with the secret the arch has hidden; and the Mark
the value of the arch itself and the importance of reliable work. (The
Vol. 26, No. 6 Calif.)
Hughan of England, who with Robert F. Gould, were the most painstaking
in separating the wheat of truth from the chaff of fiction and
tradition, has this
to say about Mark Masonry:
centuries which immediately preceded the establishment of the premier
of England and the World, the “Mark” was directly connected with
operative and speculative
Freemasonry, and from time immemorial, it has been the custom for the
to chisel his distinctive Mark on the stones he fashioned, so as to
It is this
fact that differentiates the Mark degree from all other ceremonies
the first three, and justified the formation of the Mark Grand Lodge,
years ago, so as to take under its wing those lodges which worked with
and suggestive ceremony, the English Craft agreement excluding it from
recognized series, according to the Articles of Union of A. D. 1813-4.
of Mark Masonry cannot be doubted. Operatively considered and even
it has enjoyed special prominence for centuries; records of the custom
by speculative brethren, according to existing records, dating back to
which year, on the 8th day of June, “Ye principal wardens and chief
master of maissons,
Wm. Schaw, master of work to ye Kingis Maistie,” met members of the
Lodge of Edinburgh
(now No. 1) at Holyrood House, at which meeting the Laird of Auchinleck
and attested the minutes of the assembly by his Mark, as did the
accordance with the Schaw statutes of December 28th, 1598, which
the day of reassauying (receiving) of said fallow of craft or master be
buikit and his name and Mark insert in the said buik.”
Masons selected their Marks just as the operatives did, during the
is abundantly manifest, by an examination of the old Scottish records
of that period.
One of the most noteworthy instances out of many is the Mark Book of
the Lodge of
Aberdeen (now No. 1 tris) which started in A. D. 1670, and is signed by
all of whom but two have their Marks inserted opposite their names. The
the “Honorable Lodge of Aberdeen” in that year was Harrie Elphingston,
Airth and Collector of the King's Customs and only a fourth part of the
were operative Masons, the roll of brethren including the Earl of
Earl of Dumferline, Lord Pitsligo, the “Earl of Errolle,” a professor
several ministers, doctors and other professional men and tradesmen,
such as wrights
(or carpenters), slaiters, glaziers, etc.
of the apprentices were entered in another list, the Marks chosen by
evidently similar to the fathers' in several instances.
When a special
and elaborate ceremony (with a distinctive legend) was first used it is
to decide, but probably about the middle of the eighteenth century,
soon after the
arrangement of the Royal Arch as a separate degree. The oldest
date from the year 1769, and there is no lack of evidence as to the
the custom in speculative lodges during that century and later, either
lodges or under the wing of the Royal Arch. The Mark continued to be
worked in England
as an unauthorized ceremony until the year 1856, when the Mark Grand
Lodge was founded
and has proved a conspicuous success, having ultimately secured the
support of all
the “time immemorial” and other lodges in the country, besides having
several hundreds of lodges to work the degree in England and the
Colonies and dependencies
of the British Crown.
is very popular, especially in North America, where there are over a
a million subscribing members, * and is recognized by all Grand
Chapters of Royal
Arch Masons there and elsewhere, excepting in England. The Grand Lodge
includes it with the additional degrees belonging to “the other Masonic
recognized in it, and acting in union with it,” and the Grand Lodge of
authorizes the Mark to be “conferred on Master Masons, and the secrets
only to be
communicated in presence of those who have taken the step in a lodge
grant it.” The Mark Grand Lodge in recent years has incorporated the
with the “Mark Master”; and wisely so, as it was the former that was
Fellow Crafts, and the latter on Master Masons, during the eighteenth
(The Trestle Board, Vol. 23, No. 4, October, 1909, California.)
In a letter
to the Masonic Home Journal of Louisville, Ky., Companion Alfred A. A.
Scribe E., corrects an erroneous idea which had been published
previously, and treats
of the Mark degree in Scotland:
the Mark degree itself it was not worked in the Fellow Craft lodges,
but there were
really two degrees, namely, that of Mark Man, which was given to a
and that of Mark Master, which was given to a Master Mason. The degree
of Mark Man
was worked down to within fifty years ago by various Craft lodges, and
Fellow Crafts. The degree of Mark Master was conferred as a separate
degree in the
same way as the Royal Arch, and was expressly cut off by the Grand
Lodge of Scotland,
about 1800, in the same way that the Royal Arch and the Temple were cut
that date they used to be worked by an inner circle of the lodge as a
sort of side
issue not under the Grand Lodge of Scotland at all.
Arch and the Temple were, after 1800, organized as governing bodies,
and then the
Mark Master degree was taken under the sole control of the Supreme
and continued so till, as I say, about fifty years ago, when an
agreement was made
between the Grand Lodge and the Supreme Chapter that the two degrees of
and Mark Master were to be amalgamated, and were to be conferred under
of either body, but only upon Master Masons.
It is wise
to get a clear statement made upon the point, because I observe a very
of mistaken information is being printed from time to time, which is
confusion of thought and want of knowledge, and results sometimes in
The Mark Degree ‒ Its Romance
in this country will be deeply interested in the following article by
Williams, Grand Scribe E., of New Zealand, as it opens up a new thought
from another angle than that with which they are familiar. The rejected
not that of another, but his own which was misunderstood.
For the groundwork
of the degree, Mark Masonry is indebted to the building of King
which is the basis upon which the whole superstructure of Freemasonry
though today this legendary foundation is recognized as being quite
the end fully justifies the means, in view of the great moral edifice
of our story lies in the great Temple building, and the wonderful
controlled 180,000 workmen is recounted. The first page of the history
of the degree
opens with the introduction of the Fellow Craft, who desires enrollment
in the arms
of workmen, and as a Mark man he works well and worthily, and receives
The fact that he has worked “well and worthily” may be noted in view of
happenings. After working in the quarries for some time, on one
eventful day he
accompanies some of his fellow-workmen, and duly submits his work for
to the overseers, but for some unaccountable reason he presents a stone
not confined to right lines and angles, but was as a keystone,
entirely new departure from the rectangular. This in itself was quite
to excite the surprise of his companions and the displeasure of the
refused to pass the stone, and as an indication of contempt finally
ordered it to
be heaved over among the rubbish, and the legend relates that it long
For centuries it was believed that the principle of the arch in
building was not
known at the time of King Solomon, and it was only within the last few
this statement has been entirely disproved. Archways with regular
been found in the doorways of tombs at Thebes, which could not be of
than 1540 B. C., or 460 years before the building of the temple. And we
told that the Cyclopean gallery of Tyrius exhibits lancet-stapled
arches as old
as Abraham. It is assumed by Lawrence that the principle of the Arch
was a kind
of guild secret, of which H ___ A ___ would be in possession, but it
was not known
to the workmen generally. But to return to our romance. The Craftsman
who had been
turned down by the overseers was on subsequent examination denounced as
and narrowly escaped the penalty which invariably followed such an
as time went on, and the building neared completion, it was discovered
by the Master
that a certain stone was necessary for the completion of the building,
and the Master
was satisfied that he had issued a plan of this particular stone. The
having been convened in council, admitted having received it, but
by plans, the stone was rejected and cast aside. How it was
subsequently found by
the skillful Craftsman, and the honor that he received is well known to
Master. That the Craftsman was a skillful worker must be admitted from
of his artistic work. That he was actuated by good motives may be
the record that from the commencement of his career he worked “well and
Yet when the stone was rejected, he was deeply humiliated, he was
accused of working
for self-glorification, and received angry words and reproaches. As we
his fellow-workmen were well pleased at the humiliation of what they
to be his vanity. Picture to yourselves what this worthy Craftsman must
perhaps for years, until the subsequent finding of the stone. Whether
his work was
the result of seeing the plans, or whether as an artist he knew such a
be required matters little, there is no record that he displayed the
or ostentation. On the contrary, after the finding of the stone, the
of which was recognized by H ___ A ___, he was advanced to the degree
of Mark Master
and ordered to cut his name upon it. Again imagine the feeling of the
when the stone ‒ his work ‒ was being conveyed with much pomp and
parade to be fixed
in its place. Well might he have been excused for manifesting feelings
of the utmost
pride, and of retaliating on those of his companions who had assisted
at his humiliation.
He had no such thoughts, but rather in an ecstasy of joy gave the
thanks to God
that he had worked well.
no other lessons conveyed in the teaching of the Mark degree, this
and its moral should give ample compensation. And there is no other
Freemasonry who shows such restraint under suffering, patience of
the sneers and gibes of his fellows, or such nobility of character in
the hour of
his unbounded triumph. What a glorious example of the suppression of
self, and the
glorification of the Supreme Architect.
To the ancient
operative Mason the “Mark” was only a means of identification,
protected by his
known ability and the registration of his Mark, as signatures are, in
our day, recorded
in a bank.
Rome, when two friends were about to part, it was a custom to break a
piece of money
or ivory in two, and having registered a secret Mark, each retained a
this was a token of everlasting friendship, and was called the
“arrhabo.” Both word
and custom were borrowed from the ancient Israelites, for it is derived
Hebrew “Arabon,” a pledge.
speculative Masons the Mark is no longer a means of livelihood, nor is
it a mere
emblem of livelihood, nor is it a mere emblem of ornamental appendage
of the Mark
Master degree, but a sacred token of the rites of friendship and
it is a veritable “tessera hospitalis,” and when presented by the owner
Mark Master, would claim, from the latter, acts of friendship, which
only a mutual
obligation would warrant.
If a Mark
is presented for the purpose of obtaining a favor, it then becomes an
or pledge, and while it remains in the possession of its owner, it
ceases, so far
as he is concerned, to be of advantage to him, until, conforming to an
of redeeming it from its former pledge.
In Rome the
“tessera hospitalis” extended to the descendants, and if the father
broken die on parting, the son honored it, as this short quotation from
an old Roman
comedy will show, as between Agorastocles and Poenulus:
Ag. ‒ I am
a son of old Antidamus.
Poe. ‒ If
so, I pray you
Compare with me the hospital die
I've brought this with me.
Ag. ‒ Prithee,
let me see it.
It is, indeed, the very counterpart
Of mine at home.
Poe. ‒ All
hail, my welcomed guest,
Your father was my guest Antidamus.
Your father was my honored guest and then
This hospital die with me he parted.
we understand the customs of the ancients, how easy to comprehend the
St. John the Evangelist, when he says, “To him that overcometh will I
give a white
stone, and in it a new name written which no man knoweth saving he that
it,” or in a more literal translation, “To him who overcometh will I
give an arabon
of my affection, and entitle hilt to privileges and honor of which none
know the value or extent.”
of the Mark degree, unlike all other degrees in Freemasonry, may be
in one emblem ‒ the Keystone. Around this is woven the whole of the
was this that caused the humiliation of the skillful Craftsman, in his
produce good and useful work, and his long period of sorrow and
dejection by its
rejection, and, consequently, to this symbol he owed his honorable
and the tardy recognition of his skill.
We need no
legend to estimate the value of the Keystone in its material sense. To
Mason of today it is an invaluable aid in the science of architecture.
more so would it be in ancient days, when it would appear that the
its use and construction was actually confined to a privileged few of
class of Temple builders. To speculative Mark Masons of today it not
the jewel of the degree, but it also bears the special Mark chosen by
the Mark Mason
on his advancement to the honorable degree.
are the great lessons which the teaching of the degree inculcates? We
primarily, “Charity,” in its highest attributes. Not to judge harshly
the actions of others because we may not understand them. To act in
charity to all
mankind, and more especially to our brethren in Freemasonry, is a
which was not exemplified by the overseers in their treatment of the
work. Among some of the sterling precepts of the Mark degree we are
do justice to all mankind, to love mercy, which equally blesses him who
him who receives, to practice charity in all its phases, to maintain
our own persons, and to endeavor to promote it with others. To quote an
writer: “The rejection of the keystone should teach us that nothing has
in vain. It matters not how worthless and insignificant a creature may
our prejudiced eyes, we may rest assured that if infinite wisdom has
in its creation, it has, in the economy of Providence, its appropriate
use; from it we may also learn never to despond and grow weary in well
our motives may be misinterpreted and the work of our hands be
misjudged by our
erring fellowmen, still may we have faith that there is over all a
Judge who sees
not with the eyes of man.”
how many of us seriously consider the very great responsibility that
the members of this degree. In the concluding charge the newly admitted
is told that while he acts in conformity with the sublime precepts of
“Should misfortune assail you, should other friends forsake you, should
traduce your good name, or the malicious persecute you . . . among Mark
you will ever find friends who will administer relief to your
distresses and comfort
in your affliction.” Surely this constitutes the essential essence of
and were it only given practical effect would raise Mark Masonry high
sister branches of Freemasonry and would convert the ideal into the
real. ‒ New
Mark Master's Low Wage
W. Warvelle, Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter, R.A.M., of Illinois,
absurd that the century-old rate of a penny a day still continues to be
the wages of a Mark Master, and this notwithstanding the ever
increasing high cost
of living. Bro. Warvelle says:
low wage scale seems to have been the work of the early American
ritualists. I have
in my possession two old English rituals, of Mark Man and Mark Mason,
in both of
which there is a specification of wages. In the former the rate was
equal to 1, 2s. 6d. of our money,” and in the latter it was
equal to 3, 2s. 6d. of our money.” What the present rate may be in
England I am
unable to say, but no Englishman would work for the beggarly stipend
paid in the
American Mark lodges. I am inclined to believe, however, that our
have fixed these abnormally high prices to make up for the actual wages
paid in England to the operative craft. As late as the year 1689 the
wages of Freemasons
were prescribed by law at one shilling and four pence a day. To demand
them to severe penalties. In fact, it was really the passing of
commencing say, about 1356, that led to the present speculative
Masonic scholars of eminence assign the year 1424 as the cessation of
as a strictly operative association. ‒ (Tyler-Keystone, Ann Arbor,
J. O. Astrop writes in the Tyler-Keystone:
to draw attention to the statement on page sixty-two of the
“pure ancient Masonry consists of three degrees.” In operative craft
was but one degree, that of the E.A., but as an older apprentice was
the chair, he was entitled to his Mark for which he paid the clerk or
of the lodge. The lodge of Kilwinning Peebles charged thirteen
shillings and four
pence for registering this Mark. The Mark thereafter could not be
changed. For want
of being able to write his name the apprentice used his Mark as a
signature as well
as marking his work. During the seven years usually spent in service as
his Master was his guardian. He got his board, lodging and clothing
from his Master,
and was allowed to venture out after dark to go to lodge or places of
only unless accompanied by two fellows to bear witness that he was in
company, so that no reflection would be brought upon the craft.
Brethren would travel
fifty miles to defend his character and good name.
In his “Concise
History of Freemasonry” [Lib 1904] Brother Robert F. Gould gives
the history of
the Mark degree in its relation to Grand Lodges:
March 5th, at a meeting of the Grand Lodge, it was resolved unanimously:
degree of Mark Mason or Mark Master is not at variance with the ancient
of the order, and that the degree be an addition to and form part of
and consequently may be conferred by all regular warranted lodges,
under such regulations
as shall be . . . sanctioned by the Grand Master.”
however, was negated when the minutes were brought up for confirmation
in the following
quarter. A Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons was formed in London
during the same
year, but it has not been recognized by the “United Grand Lodge” of the
find then, among the conflict of laws under the various Grand Lodges,
that in England
the Royal Arch is recognized, and the Mark degree is not; in Scotland,
Arch is not, but the Mark is; and in Ireland both are recognized. The
reference to tie Mark degree, it may be observed, occurs in the minute
book of a
Royal Arch Chapter at Portsmouth, under the date of September 1st, 1769.
figures show over half a million.
(To be continued)
It is one
hour past high twelve, and it is time for us to awaken from our
lethargy and sleep
of security, and note the signs of the times as they appear in the
trend of the
world's affairs. If Masonry is to continue to be a teacher and leader
of the world
in its march toward a higher civilization among the nations of the
world; if it
is to continue to be the guardian and preserver of those principles of
human liberty given us by our ancestors; if we are to be the
conservator of American
liberty, schools and homes, and exert any great influence upon the life
of the brethren and the people of the particular community in which we
must do more than wear our Masonry in the lapel of our coats.
is near at hand, if not at our very door, when the ignorant and
vicious, the selfish
and the avaricious, with a heart and mind full of prejudice against the
will find a fruitful field of labor, and, if they are finally
successful in their
efforts, we will find the separation of the church and state next to.
and the teachings of the youth of this great land, the honor, respect
and love of
the glorious heritage bequeathed us by our Masonic ancestors, entirely
out of order.
Let us then discharge our full duty as Master Masons, because as doing
so we will
be actually discharging in harmony our full duty as American citizens.
‒ Wm. A. Westfall, P.G.M., Iowa.
The Builders -- [A Poem]
Ermina Lincoln Cooper, In The
you see yourself to-day
As the children were at play?
They were building houses tall
Just within the garden wall
Near the gate.
Carefully their blocks they laid,
Carefully the side walls made
Lest they fall.
Block by block the houses grew
Till it seemed that just a few
Would complete the maker's plans.
But alas! Too eager hands
Caused the ruin.
Bated breath and shining eyes
Thinking to have won the prize,
Work well done,
Then, unsteady, grasping hands,
Eager to complete the plans,
And the ruin.
Did you see yourself to-day
As the children were at play?
Have you builded castles tall,
To be humbled by their fall,
Did your eagerness prevent
The Great Builder's glad consent
To your plans?
He whose wisdom builds the best ‒
Builds with knowledge of the test
Of all time ‒
Does not hurry in His task,
And His wisdom does not ask,
Am I done?
Grant us patience, O Great Builder!
In Thy wisdom, without murmur,
Thus to build.
As we gain the heights we've scanned,
May we always feel Thy hand
Did you see yourself to-day
As the children were at play?
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 43
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "Third Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
"QUESTION BOX" THE FEATURE OF YOUR MEETINGS
from any and all brethren present. Let them understand that these
meetings are for
their particular benefit and get them into the habit of asking all the
they may think of. Every one of the papers read will suggest questions
as to facts
and meanings which may not perhaps be actually covered at all in the
paper. If at
the time these questions are propounded no one can answer them, SEND
THEM IN TO
US. All the reference material we have will be gone through in an
endeavor to supply
a satisfactory answer. In fact we are prepared to make special research
upon, and will usually be able to give answers within a day or two.
too, that the great Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa is only a few
and, by order of the Trustees of the Grand Lodge, the Grand Secretary
at our disposal on any query raised by any member of the Society.
information should enable local Committees to conduct their lodge study
with success. However, we shall welcome all inquiries and
communications from interested
brethren concerning any phase of the plan that is not entirely clear to
the Services of our Study Club Department are at the command of our
and study club committees at all times.
* * *
on "The Five Points of Fellowship"
- What is said of teaching by
- What method was used by the
Jews in learning the Ten Commandments?
- Give examples of the use of
symbolism in teaching at the present day outside
of the Masonic Fraternity.
- Cite some of the things you
have learned through this manner of teaching
- Describe some of the methods
used in our kindergarten schools.
- Why did the old builders find
it necessary to teach their Apprentices moral
- Where was the only place this
information could be obtained? Why?
- What plan did the master
workmen adopt to convey this knowledge to the Apprentices?
- What did the plumb symbolize?
The level? The square?
- Give other examples of
builder's tools used as symbols.
- What is Dr. Carr's theory of
the origination of the symbol of the Five Points
- Have you ever heard any other
theory? (A general question.)
- What were the Five Points of
Fellowship in the early Grand Lodge period?
- Why is it presumed that the
hand was superseded by mouth to ear or cheek
- What does "foot to foot" mean?
- Should we withhold our
assistance until it is asked for?
- Has the lodge a responsibility
in this connection, or does the responsibility
rest entirely upon ourselves as individuals?
- What did your lodge do to help
your brethren in the Army?
- How should we apply the second
of the Five Points, "Knee to Knee"?
- Is the admonition of the third
of the Five Points, "Breast to Breast"?
- To what does the fourth point,
"Hand to Back," refer?
- What is the lesson to be
learned from "Cheek to cheek, or mouth to ear"?
would be the result if every Mason were to practice in his daily life
the precepts enjoined in the "Five Points of Fellowship"?
* * *
Vol. II ‒ The Five Points Symbolism. Poem, N.A. McAulay, p. 295.
Vol. IV ‒ Symbolism of the Three Degrees, O.D. Street, p. 322.
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Part VIII ‒ The Five Points
One of the
best devices for remembering a thing is to tie it up to some familiar
peoples, who had few or none of the contrivances for preserving
records, such as
writings, pictures, etc., habitually made use of this method. For
example, the Jews
used to learn the Ten Commandments by linking each one to a finger. By
process, it is believed, the habit of numbering in tens came into
through the ease with which counting could be done by help of the ten
today, and in spite of the numberless artificial schemes now in use to
the ancient habits are still in vogue, as one may learn by watching
for fixing a thing in memory, for making it take hold of the mind, is
one of the
explanations, it is very probable, of the manner in which the old
the objects and practices of their art. The guilds had to teach the
truths and elementary morality, not only because it was necessary that
he be a good
and well instructed man in order to be an acceptable Mason, but also
were few or no public schools wherein the youth might learn such
things. If he was
to learn them at all he had to learn them in the guild.
Led by instinct
or experience the master workmen hit upon the plan of conveying this
by tying each separate truth or duty up to some implement, or building
building process, with which the Apprentice would come into contact
day. The plumb was used as the symbol of uprightness, the level of
square of right conduct, and so on.
Thomas Carr, who has written so instructively of Operative Masonry as
it still exists,
believes that it was in the methods for laying out the plan of a
building that we
have the original symbol of the Five Points of Fellowship. He says that
was fixed at the centre of the plan; that by means of the 3, 4, 5
triangle a line
was drawn out through each of the four corners, thereby assuring that
would be a right angle; and that the four lines and the central point
the geometrical symbol of the Five Points of Fellowship.
well have been the origin of the symbol but we know that at some early
day the five
rules of fellowship became attached to the very different symbolism of
and organs of the body. In the Grand Lodge period it seems that the
the hand, the foot, the knee, the breast, and the back; later on, at
least in America,
the hand was omitted and the mouth to ear, or cheek to cheek,
this was done, or by whom, or why, we can not know, but it may be
guessed that the
change was made because the body symbols were so much more intimate and
easily remembered than the geometrical. On this matter we can only
hazard a guess
as is so often our alternative in matters having to do with the history
of the ritual. Whatever may have been the original symbolism of the
whatever may have been the evolution of the body symbolism, as the
matter now stands,
we have the rules of right fellowship linked with foot to foot, knee to
to breast, hand to back, cheek to cheek, or mouth to ear, and it is
system that we must endeavour to understand.
to foot" means that we must ever be ready to go to our brother's help
he is in need of assistance. It is not enough that we should be willing
seek our aid; we must seek him, if we learn that he stands in want.
to the lodges as well as to the member, and there are few better
reasons for pride
in our Order than the swift, silent manner in which it always flies to
in need. During the recent war, many of our lodges were engaged in
and cheer to soldier brethren in the cantonments and even in the
trenches of Europe;
a splendid interpretation given to the whole world of the meaning of
foot to foot.
"Foot to foot that we may go,
Where our help we can bestow;
Pointing out the better way,
Lest our brother go astray.
Thus our steps should always lead
To the souls that are in need."
to Knee." Never are we more tempted to lapse into a selfish
in prayer, strange as it may seem; it is so easy, when bowing before
the All Father,
to pour out our own confessions, our private feelings, and desires! The
and secrecy by which prayer is preserved from perfunctoriness and
formality is itself
one of the sources of selfishness in it, because it tends to shut
others from our
thought. Masonry urges us to take our brother with us when we go to God
that our fellowship may be lifted into heaven itself and thereby be
made even more
beautiful and divine. If you would have a little book, reader, in which
uses of true prayer are sent forth out of a noble nature's own
experience, lay hold
of "Letters to His Friends," written by that "Apostle of Intercession,"
"Knee to knee, that we may share
Every brother's need in prayer,
Giving all wants a place,
Where we seek the throne of grace.
In our thoughts from day to day
For each other we should pray."
to breast." By this, as I understand it, a brother is not only
keep inviolate the secrets of his fellows but is also reminded that
not transfigured into real friendship until it has been carried into
To interpret fraternity in the terms of relief and aid alone is to
leave it too
external, too much in danger of becoming a mere matter of giving and
needs to become a matter of the spirit, an intimate, emotional
gives the brother a place in one's thoughts and affections as well as a
one's body in the lodge room. This spiritualizing of fellowship
includes, as a part
of itself, that guardianship of our brother's secrets, already,
referred to, and
effectively described in another stanza of Bro. N.A. McAulay's poem,
I have been quoting: "Breast to breast, to there conceal,
What our lips must not reveal,
When a brother does confide,
We must by his will abide.
Mason's secrets to us known
We must cherish as our own."
to back." This undoubtedly refers to our duty of helping a brother to
his material burdens; may we not also make it refer to burdens of a
character? If we could take an X-ray photograph of what is on his soul
as well as
on his back, how surprised we would often be! Secret anxieties,
unspoken sorrows, nameless griefs, worry, care, these are not visible,
they are always real, and nothing is more helpful to a man than to
share with him
the burdens on his mind and on his heart.
"Hand to back, our love to show
To the brother, bending low,
Underneath a load of care,
When we may and ought to share.
That the weak may always stand,
Let us lend a helping hand."
to cheek, or mouth to ear." Often is real brotherliness best shown in
in which loving deeds are done! Ostentation in offering help, a too
of one's kindliness, a thoughtless, tactless, blundering, obtruding
one's self on
another, all this may of itself hurt more than it heals. How delicate,
is that kindliness invoked by the symbol of cheek to cheek, or mouth to
kindliness is as courteous and sweet as the mercies of God.
"Cheek to cheek, or mouth to
That our lips may whisper cheer,
To our brother in distress;
Whom our words can aid and bless.
Warn him if he fails to see,
Dangers that are known to thee."
the Five Points of Fellowship of which ours has been so brief an
we not add to our thoughts this further suggestion, that the very
manner in which
the five points are given to the candidate is in itself significant of
we could only draw as close together in mind and heart as are the
bodies in that
ceremony would not a great deal of our unbrotherliness die of its own
jealousies, frictions, misunderstandings, in how many cases do these
the distance that we permit to lie between ourselves and our fellows!
For is not
this the cause of much strife, ‒ not that we are rich, or poor, or
learned or ignorant,
but that we are strangers? To know a man better is almost always to
love him better.
And who will deny that it is only in such intimacy, wherein body and
mind are mingled,
that we are permitted to hear that real Building Word which is the
of Masonry? And who can doubt that in such a fellowship we are
very life and deed the three great principals of the Order, Brotherly
The Word of God -- [A Poem]
By Bro. O. B. Slane, Illinois
the beginning was the word
That the oath-bound Mason heard,
The Bible says the word
Was with God;
But the gospel of St. John,
As from creation's dawn,
Declares that the word
All things by Him were made,
The earth's foundations laid,
Sun, moon and stars obeyed
The voice of God;
From Him came all of life,
Through the struggle and the strifes
By the great Masonic word
From the darkness and the night,
Came the glory of the light,
Bursting full upon the sight,
Light of God;
And brethren on the square,
Inspired by faith and prayer,
Beheld in golden glare!
The Word of God.
It is true
that in the fierce struggle for possession, we come to hate those who
to deny the right of property when this right is in the hands of others
own. But the bitterness of attack against others' possessions is only a
of the extraordinary importance we attach to possession itself.
From “Simple Life,” by Charles Wagner.
I would have
none of that rigid and circumspect charity which is never exercised
and which always mistrusts the reality of the necessities laid open to
Be just and
fear not; let all the ends thou aim'st at be thy country's, thy God's,
Let us stand
by our duty fearlessly and effectively.
Post's Attack on Freemasonry
By Bro. Arthur Edward Waite,
by permission from the October issue of THE OCCULT REVIEW)
days in succession, ending July 30, "The Morning Post" published a
series of articles on 'The Cause of World Unrest," the work of two
writers, with occasional intervention on the part of leading articles,
on the subjects treated, and of occasional correspondents, chief among
whom is Mrs.
Nesta H. Webster, author of a book issued in 1919 under the title of
Revolution." [Lib 1920] As expressed in a short
announcement of July
12, the articles claim to disclose "the existence of a revolutionary
in which Jews and secret societies play a leading part."
On July 24
another announcement stated that "thousands of new readers have been
'The Morning Post' during the publication of the series." Accepting
on the honorable assurance of the oldest morning paper, I regard it as
on myself to review the whole question, in so far as it affects the
things for which
I stand and the dedications of my literary life. The nature of the
incriminated emerges in another passage which appeared on July 21 and
that for a long period of time a conspiracy has been gradually
developing for the
overthrowing of the existing Christian form of civilization; (2) that
agents of this conspiracy are Jews and revolutionary Freemasons; and
(3) that its
object "is to pave the way for the world supremacy of a chosen people."
I propose on my part to show that the writers are utterly misinformed,
is possible for an individual critic to check them, and that it would
therefore ‒ as well as difficult to suppose ‒ if they are mainly or
correct over their findings in those political realms which lie beyond
of research. It is to be observed that the existence of a plot for "the
of all Christian Empires, Altars and Thrones" is an old Roman Catholic
put forward long prior to the War. One of the forms which it took was a
the Dreyfus case, and it not only made common cause of the Latin Church
Freemasonry, but seems to have been part of that cause. A periodical,
Revue des Sociétés Secretes, was filled with the case against
Freemasonry and the
case against Israel. The management of both issues was of similar
value, being the
enumeration and repetition of various less or more familiar facts on
which a false
construction was placed, or of statements that were probably untrue.
being equally effective in impressing those who were unversed, the
first was pursued
when possible. My thesis is that the revelations in The Morning Post on
cause of world unrest," the "most formidable sect in the world" and
"the terror in France," but especially on "the red curtain in
the "arrière Loges" and the "ritual of revenge" bear all the
marks and signs of derivation from the same mint, appeal to the same
are speaking the same language as the French anti-Masonry of the last
and over. They are the work of writers belonging to the Latin Church or
content to depend ‒ so far as Freemasonry is concerned ‒ solely on
during the period specified, has been dished up in various forms for
the one purpose
with which Rome is concerned on this side of its activity ‒ namely, the
hope of destroying the "iniquitous sect" of Masonry, and presumably to
maintain at white heat the old hostility of France to Jewry and all
I speak with a certain authority, for it happens that I know the
of anti-Masonry, on what it has depended from the beginning, and the
which it will sustain to the end. It happens also that I am a
the chief Rites and Degrees, under one or other obedience, that I know
of Freemasonry, its history ab origine symboli
and the great cloud of its rituals. If I flourish, for once in my life,
of this kind, it is in order that the anti-Masonic sect, wheresoever
the world, in whichever of its disguises, and in this or that of its
casual journals, may learn exactly where they are. Finally, I am a
Catholic Mystic, and by Catholicism embraces all that belongs to the
the symbolism of Roman Doctrine and Ritual. It comes about in this
for me Emblematic Freemasonry is a Mystery of the relations between
God, Man and
the Universe, set forth in the figurative and sacramental forms of
It will be understood on this basis that those various associations
which, in France
and other Latin countries, while still wearing an outward guise of
regard the belief in God and immortality, the intercourse between God
and the soul
represented by the Bible and other Sacred Books as matters of personal
to be held or not according to mental predilection ‒ have made void
titles. They are cut off from communion with the vital and spiritual
may be political or not, revolutionary or not, monarchical and
or the reverse of these; they are in no case part of my concern. The
whether the writers in The Morning Post have followed a line of
incriminates all Freemasonry even when it offers a distinction; and the
that they have. Out of this there arises the further question whether
they and the
Roman Catholic crusaders, on whom they depend, are competent witnesses
on the Masonic
side of their subject; and the answer is that they are not.
It is obvious
and goes without saying that the articles are not written by Masons
any obedience, and my thesis is that they betray the most extraordinary
on elementary matters respecting the Craft and its developments. It is
from the beginning that English Freemasonry is not to be included by
thesis concerning universal revolution, but it is affirmed that "there
and Freemasonry." More correctly there is Freemasonry and there are
which masquerade in its likeness but do not belong thereto. Any one
the subject would know that true Freemasonry is neither English nor
only, neither British, Colonial nor American, to the exclusion of other
It is certain that prior to the War Germanic Freemasonry had so
poisoned wells of
political concern. There are also other countries ‒ and I should place
them ‒ where "pure and ancient Freemasonry," with some flowers of its
later development, are equally uncontaminated as to root and branch and
But having made the distinction in question, like a proverbial sop to
the articles proceed to ingarner sometime-immemorial charges of French
Templar Freemasonry and the Scottish Rite as one of its custodians,
which is a charge
against English as well as continental bodies. The writers seem unaware
are great Templar jurisdictions in England, Scotland and Ireland, and
Councils of the Thirty-Third Degree. I have said therefore that their
line of accusation
incriminates all Freemasonry, even when it claims to do otherwise. It
is not that
there is "malice afore-thought," of which I find no signs; but the
have entered a field which calls for special knowledge, and they have
not even a
smattering. They affirm, for example, that there are at least
of Masonry, whereas there are fourteen hundred in the historical list
and over two hundred less or more in activity at the present day.
It is impossible
within the limits of this study to enumerate all the misconceptions,
but the following
examples may stand for the whole.
1) To illustrate an alleged
vengeance formula in the Craft rituals, it is said
that the candidate for the grade of Master hears for the first time of
founder, whose fate has to be avenged. This is erroneous. The legend is
with an assassination which is represented as duly expiated in the
order of law
and justice. There is no arrière-pensée and there is no consequence in
of Craft Masonry. It will be seen that this invention inculpates
as associated with a vendetta which is foisted on Masonry abroad.
2) It is said correctly that there
is the quest of a Lost Word in Masonry, which
Word is arbitrarily affirmed to be Jehovah, and explained ‒ with
‒ to signify natural religion. There is no such meaning tolerated by
Grades. There are various Sacred Names, carrying their proper
in branches of Masonry belonging to the symbolical time of the Old
are derived for the most part from the Old Testament; but in those
to the New and Eternal Covenant the Name is Christ.
3) The last misconception which I
shall notice among points of ritual and symbolism
is the folly that terms the Craft degrees Jewish, thus implicitly
‒ under all their obediences, English and continental ‒ with an alleged
It is obvious that allegories dealing with Solomon's Temple must
material in the nature of things. The imbecility is to draw any
as to the work of Jews in Masonry. Even "the Word of God" is Jewish in
the Old Testament, yet I fail to see that the circulation of the
Scriptures is playing
into the hands of Israel, in order that it may possess the world. The
as we have them are the work of Christian hands, Protestant enough in
and therefore suspect by Rome; but Jewry had no share therein.
4) Passing now from ceremonial
questions to matters of external fact, it is
affirmed that Philippe Egalite, Duc d'Orleans, was not only Grand
Master of the
Grand Orient ‒ a creation, by the way, of 1773 ‒ but of the Templars
it so happens that The Morning Post does not know what it means when it
Templar grades. There were something like six Rites incorporating this
all independent in origin, working and history. Philippe Egalite stood
at the head
of none. The only purely Templar Rite in France during his reign as
Master was the
Strict Observance, the titular patron of which was in Germany, not in
a Lyonnese merchant, named J.B. Willermoz, was Provincial Grand Master
A certain Council of Emperors possessed the Templar Kadosh Grade, but
it was not
a Templar Rite. Philippe Egalite took such an active interest in
Masonry and had
so great a faith in its possibilities that when he was elected Grand
Master in 1771
his presence could be hardly secured for installation; and he exhibited
negligence in that capacity, while in 1793 he repudiated Freemasonry in
de Paris. He affirmed that it had once presented to his mind "an image
but that he had found the reality and so left the phantom. He was
further of opinion
that there should be no mystery and no secret assembly in a republic.
Orient declared the headship vacant and a few months later the
the question so far as the quondam Grand Master was concerned. These
are the facts,
with which we may compare the long since exploded fictions reproduced
by The Morning
Post on the subject of Philippe Egalite engineering his vast machine of
to consummate revolution.
5) It is affirmed that Frederick
the Great of Prussia was Grand Master of a
world-wide system of Freemasonry. He was nothing of the kind. Masonic
would take a natural pride in giving such a celebrated, if not
an important position in the Order; but the most that can be shown is
that he was
President of the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes at Berlin, his
which remains to exhibit how far away the connection was. The old, old
the old false charter which represents him creating a Supreme Council
of the Scottish
Rite as a system of Thirty-three degrees is put forward as an
historical fact, but
it has been abandoned long since by Masonic scholarship worthy of the
6) Reflecting here as elsewhere
the parti pris of Abbe Barruel, the Lodge of
Les Amis Reunis and the Rite of the Philalethes are represented as
in which the Revolution was plotted. They were an open lodge and an
open Rite existing
in the face of day. The account is otherwise muddled, representing
Savlette de Langes
as belonging to the former and not the latter whereas he belonged to
both, and was
so much the moving spirit of the second that it is supposed to have
labors when he died. As a matter of fact the Rite was founded within
the bosom of
the lodge, and the Convention of Paris, held in 1784, indicates at full
real nature of its concerns. Fortunately the chief documents on which
for his foolish account are in my possession: they are concerned with
sciences, not with Revolution.
7) There is another and to me more
important matter. The great French mystic,
Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, is represented as a political "fanatic"
and a member of the alleged revolutionary lodges. This is partly on the
of Barruel and partly on that of a converted Jew, named Lemann, who
became a Roman
Catholic priest. The latter affirms that Saint-Martin "developed" the
"sect" of Pasqually after the latter's death. I cast back the
into the mouths of their makers. The French mystic had no sect, no
he had a great number of unincorporated disciples. He did not belong to
of the Philalethes or Les Amis Réunis. He became a Mason in his youth,
the Order to follow "the inward way." I appeal to my Life of Louis
de Saint-Martin, published in 1900.
8) As regards Martines de
Pasqually ‒ whose very name is blundered, still following
Barruel ‒ The Morning Post affirms that he "worked in France on very
same lines as Weishaupt," founder of the Illuminati, "worked in
In reply to this amazing rubbish, I appeal to the same work of twenty
and need only add here that in such case Weishaupt worked in "occult
by virtue of which it was supposed that ‒ the Christ of Palestine
Brethren of Pasqually's Masonic Rite of Elect Priests ‒ Rit des Elus
Cohens ‒ according
to that which was called in their terminology la voie sensible. It is a
of the German revolution-manger, and The Morning Post will find that
thoughts are best." As against some other misstatements of Lemann and
Barruel, Pasqually was not a Jew. He was born in the parish of Notre
town and diocese of Grenoble. The baptism of one of his children on
June 20, 1768,
is on record in the municipal archives of Bordeaux.
9) In or about the year 1780 that
brilliant adventurer who called himself Count
Cagliostro, founded a Rite of Egyptian Masonry, which filled for a
the Masonic world of France with wonder. This also is garnered by The
into its indiscriminate net of revolution-plots. There could be nothing
ridiculous, and again it happens that the rituals are in my possession,
am acquainted otherwise at first hand with the written laws and
Masonry was an occult Rite, belonging to Hermetic Masonry and more
to sustain the claims of Cagliostro as possessing the Great Secret of
Medicine. I observe that the author of the article under notice
identifies the "Grand
Copht" with Joseph Balsamo, so he has not read the evidence against
produced by Mr. W. R. Trowbridge, who is not a Mason and has no job in
or revolution questions.
enumeration there remain over three matters which deserve studies set
apart to each.
I have indicated a root-opinion on the part of The Morning Post that
Movement in Masonry is contained within the measures of a single
system, being in
fact the Scottish Rite ‒ a somewhat inchoate collection of thirty high
on those of the Craft. It is a development from that Council of
superposed twenty-two Grades, and as regards both they are not Templar
the proper sense of the words. The Rite of the Strict Observance was
militantly Templar, ab origine symboli.
It superposed three Grades, of which the first ‒ or Master of St.
Andrew's ‒ formed
a connecting link between the Craft and two exceedingly important modes
chivalry. It used to be said that it was Jacobite at the inception, but
not. Here for the first time ‒ albeit by implication only ‒ it is
accused of political
purpose, under the Duke of Brunswick. As a fact the writer in The
Morning Post does
not know that he is impeaching the Strict Observance: he seems to think
in his state
of confusion that the Duke of Brunswick was "Grand Master of the German
because he was Grand Master of certain Ecossais lodges. As regards the
Rite ‒ Antiquos Scoticus Ritus Acceptus, as it is called in the forged
‒ it did not come into existence till 1801, and then at Charleston, U.
S. A. In
this connection the articles remind us that Stephen Morin carried a
Grand Consistory of Masons, countersigned by the Grand Orient, to
America, and there
began to confer high grade powers on a number of Jews, among them
Da Costa, who was not a Jew at all, and at a subsequent date would have
the hands of the Holy Inquisition at Lisbon, if he had not been rescued
Masons, facts perhaps naturally omitted by writers in The Morning Post.
for Morin. We hear also in 1901 of the first Supreme Council in
Jews were again prominent, among them being Frederick Dalcho. Our
unfortunate, for Dalcho, who was of Prussian origin and English birth,
was for twenty
two years a priest of the American Episcopal Church, and a monument to
is still standing in the vestry of St. Michael's at Charleston. These
are the kind
of qualifications which pronounce on "Red Masonry" and presume to talk
of revolution in connection with the Scottish Rite. The same fatal
the articles when they proceed to Albert Pike and his work in the
of that obedience. The writer is of course unaware that Pike
reconstructed the rituals
and that they stand therefore at his value as a symbolist and critical
the value is unfortunately very slight. But those who suggest that he
notions into his Masonic Order are talkers of rank nonsense, and the
his Morals and Dogma which is made in Article IV, on the profanation of
by plotters of anarchy ‒ whatever its value as history ‒ is sufficient
as to his
own position. Among the evidences offered to the contrary are ritual
destroy Ignorance, Tyranny and Fanaticism. Very well: be it agreed that
part of the design of Masonry. Does The Morning Post stand for
for Tyranny, and stand for Fanaticism? No; but Roman Anti-Masonry ‒
which it reflects
throughout the Masonic part of these articles ‒ invariably regards
every plan for
their removal as a siege laid against the walls of its particular
As one who knows all the rituals of the Scottish Rite and has made a
study of many codices of each, I am in a position to check wild
their content. For example, I am familiar with some twenty separate and
versions of the Rose Croix, and I affirm that Barruel lied when he said
French ritual current at his period represents Christ as "a common Jew
for his crimes." I challenge The Morning Post and its anonymous
to produce any codex which does. In France then, as in England now,
Christ ‒ for
the Rose Croix ‒ is the Son of God and Lord of Glory. I lay down the
respecting alleged "subversive forms of Freemasonry" working "a ritual
of hatred for the Cross." Templar or non-Templar, there are no such
The Cross is an object of veneration in Christian Masonry, and in some
of the "philosophized"
degrees it is treated as an universal symbol. Now the Templar rituals
in all their forms during the eighteenth century, but a few were
The Rite of the Strict Observance has been always Christian. Here again
I know all
its rituals, including those which are held in great secrecy. They were
to me after the same long delay and under the same great reserves as
was done presumably
in the past. They are neither of Stuart legitimacy nor of continental
belong to things of the spirit and God known of the heart; and the
in Britain ‒ where it is governed by Great Priory ‒ in the Colonies and
belongs to the same category. This notwithstanding, the claim to
descend from the
old Knights Templar is a myth and pure invention. Couteulx de Canteleu
is a false
witness on this subject, just as Copin Albancelli is an hysterique
I pass now
to the German Order of Illuminati. It may have been observed that the
on which The Morning Post depends for its case against Masonry is Abbe
in an almost forgotten work, entitled Memoirs of Jacobinism. [Lib 1799;
Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4] He is said to trace the
the French Revolution through a bewildering maze of secret societies;
but as a fact
his societies are Masonic, plus German Illuminism, the position
regarding the latter
being one of extreme simplicity. The Bavarian Order of Illuminati was
Adam Weishaupt in 1776, and it was suppressed by the Elector of Bavaria
some of its active members and the author of its more advanced rituals
previously. Those who say that "it was continued in more secret forms"
have never produced one item of real evidence. The Morning Post affirms
Illuminate came out of their seclusion and attempted a revolution at
Berlin in 1918.
There is again not a shadow of proof that they did anything of the
a few revolutionaries of that date took over some catchwords adopted by
gang. Weishaupt assumed in his Order the name of Spartacus, and The
reproduces a question raised by Mrs Webster ‒ namely, whether it was
coincidence" that the Spartacists of modern Germany "adopted the
of their fellow-countryman and predecessor of the eighteenth century."
simple and obvious answer is that it was not coincidence but imitation.
is not of any importance on this part of the subject, but she has been
and has intervened at length in the debate. It may be well to point out
seems to be a member of the Roman Communion, as shown by her invariable
to the "Catholic Church," meaning the Latin or Roman Rite. Her
accuracy appears on August 3, when she quotes an address of Lamartine
fellow-Masons." Now, in that speech Lamartine mentioned expressly that
"not a Freemason," and did not understand "the particular language"
of the Order. Mrs. Webster may or may not have read the address which
her evidence is not to be trusted in either case. For the rest, I can
Webster and all others who are concerned that the Order of Illuminate
in Germany to my certain knowledge about 1893; that I have all its
its Statutes, Constitutions and so forth; that it had nothing to do
and nothing with revolution. It follows from all the evidence that
Barruel was not
"justified by time" in his fantastic thesis of survival. The
sect" mentioned by Mr. Winston Churchill in the House of Commons on
5, 1919, is certainly not a succession from Adam Weishaupt. As a scheme
revolution German Illuminism looks formidable in the light of those
were published by the Bavarian Elector. So also does the Masonic Rite
with its Laws, Statutes and vast mass of arrangements, not to speak of
representing its ninety Grades, suggest to an unfamiliar mind that it
was a thing
of great moment and very wide diffusion, but the cumbrous scheme never
chapters together, of all its Senates and all its Areopagite Councils.
It was and
remains a scheme on paper, and this is the description applying to the
of German Illuminism, which were magnified in the mind of Barruel till
like a colossal conspiracy diffused everywhere. I agree with Lord Acton
"appalling thing" is the design in matters of this kind, but in the
case it is also the thing ridiculous, for Weishaupt's House of
Revolution was a
house of cards, and the sands on which it was built were the parchments
he wrote. His scheme was in concealment behind the ignorance of its
there was no influential center to move the puppets on the external
was the amiable enthusiast Baron von Knigge, who wrote up the advanced
retired altogether when Weishaupt wanted to correct them. It is gross
to suggest that the Illuminati were "in secret control of a multitude
throughout Germany," for there was no such multitude in existence; it
exaggeration to say that Freemasons were "initiated in shoals" by von
Knigge at the Convention of Wilhelmsbad in 1782. But if both statements
no magnitude of external membership would have made Illuminism a living
when there was no vitality behind it. This is the general answer to the
Barruel and to those who at this day have turned to his forgotten book.
also the question of the articles, whether the German Illuminate were
the only or
chief sect which had a hand in the French Revolution. It was too
the beginning to have had a practical hand in anything, and it had
passed out of
existence. The mark which it left upon Masonry was in Southern Germany,
downfall of the one Order caused the suppression of the other. All that
about Mirabeau, his visit to Berlin and his plot to "illuminize" French
Freemasonry, may be disposed of in one sentence: there is no evidence
to show that
Mirabeau ever became a Mason. The province of Barruel was to color
he laid on the blacks and the scarlets with lavish brushes. But he was
to the documents, and it is just one of those cases in which documents
false impression, for the reasons given.
point is possibly the grand divertissement of all. Those who are
entitled to speak
about secret societies in France at the end of the nineteenth century
that Leo Taxil flaunted in the face of Paris his public confession that
concerned with Diana Vaughan, the Universal Masonic Directorium, its
Lucifer in the High Grades and Le Diable au XIX (e) Siecle, were
his own invention. Everyone knows that Dr. Batame, otherwise Dr. Hacks,
appears as author of this work, had confessed previously, deriding the
of "catholics." I have always felt sure that there would be a
of these mendacities when people had forgotten the circumstances which
led to their
public exposure; but I did not expect it to occur in the columns of The
I have now
done. On the basis of these findings I deny that evidence has been
the hand of Freemasonry even in the French Revolution. The contrast
made by Louis
Blanc between Craft degrees for those who were to be kept in the dark
lodges" for the elect is opposed by the history of French High Grades.
latter were as much open to those who sought them as anything in the
In the sense of Louis Blanc there were no occult lodges. I am sure,
French Freemasonry was a finger-post pointing in the direction of
Masonic watchwords of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity were like a
ringing out the old order. And the French Revolution was like the
a pretty bad thing, but it had to come. The factory of the one was not
sanctuaries" but in the French Court, while in the other the factory
of Co-Masonry I leave to those who are concerned. The lodges and
chapters are illicit
from the standpoint of the Grand Lodge of England, under whose
obedience I abide
as a Mason. The reasons are that it initiates women and is empowered by
jurisdiction. But I believe that The Morning Post has discovered
nest, while it is specifically wrong as usual on its points of fact.
Lodge Libres Penseurs did not transform into Le Droit Humain; the Order
is not oriental;
and its devotion to the supposed Comte de St. Germain is an incident of
Latin Freemasonry in this twentieth century, I hold no brief whatever.
dispersed over continental Europe it may be playing the game of
politics, as it
is said to do in South America; but there is of course no concerted
effort as there
is no central direction; and I have not heard a single name of
in connection with the alleged doings. It would serve, I should think,
for any serious government to concern itself with the scattered groups
until they are caught in overt acts.
I have now
reviewed the whole position, and as regards "perils" and "protocols"
I make no claim to know; but having spent a great part of my literary
life in the
criticism and exposure of fraudulent documents, one has acquired a
‒ or shall I say expert? ‒ sense on the subject. The protocols are
presumably of French origin and therefore suspect, because in Roman
of that country the animus against Israel has ranked second only to
Masonry. Admittedly also there is no evidence in support of them,
though they are
taken on faith at their face value by both writers in The Morning Post.
I can say only that if the alleged fact of a Jewish Peril rests on no
than these documents, we may reach an aureum saeculum redivivum before
social cataclysm. For me they are not suspect; they take their place in
to which I have referred. I shall believe in the protocols and their
Elders of Israel
when I believe in the Charter of Cologne, the Charter of Larmenius, and
Constitution of Frederick the Great.
occupies an enviable position in the eyes of the world. It is regarded
as a pioneer
in advancing civilization, a bulwark of civic righteousness, liberty
God serving. Such a reputation has been earned and won by generations
loyalty and devotion to the traditions, purposes, and fundamental
teachings of Masonry.
of proselyting and importuning of men to join our ranks has been a
factor in the enduring success of our organization. Quality, not
quantity, is our
Leon M. Abott, Grand Master, Massachusetts
preparation for the right is to work diligently while the day lasts.
The best preparation
for death is life.
Masonry and the Problems
purpose of philosophy is attained when men are enabled to think clearly
wisely. To this end has the thought of all great philosophers been
before Plato, through his persistent questioning, strove to elicit from
knowledge as to what constituted truth and virtue, eager souls had been
for the light that makes men free.
No man, having
once rightly apprehended the significance of Freemasonry, will be blind
to the necessity
of men directing their lives by some sort of a philosophy. A man's
the reason he gives for the deeds he executes in life. And his life in
turn is the
great witness to the richness or the poverty of his philosophy.
Of the making
of books there is no end, and so saying we are but re-echoing the
a probable ancient brother. Such too may be said of philosophy. Of
there is no end. But what wonderful understanding would one need to
and value justly, for his own governance and happiness, a practical and
philosophy from among such a number. This task is for the scholar, as
most of us
in this busy world have not the time to devote to intense studies.
on the principles of the first great elemental philosophy, “Belief in
God and the
immortality of the soul.” Providently for us, Freemasonry has preserved
of man's early thinking. Thus a philosophy of life has been brought
down to us which
is radiant with a beautiful simplicity, and nowhere is it more
practical than in
its application to the social and governmental activities of men.
told us that Masonry is philosophy teaching by symbol, even as History
teaching by example. In Masonry we have a philosophy that is practical
and conduct everywhere and all the time. It is a sign of a new day for
the Masonic Service Association of the United States is confirming this
Evidently the most important work to be done now is to emphasize
do this effectively we must go back to the Landmarks of the Fraternity.
philosophy is embodied in those Landmarks. To translate those Landmarks
duty and to bring to each Mason a realization of his own part is the
task of the
Service Association. If the appreciation of the individual Mason for
can be aroused the possibilities of the Service Association program
will be fulfilled.
He who recognizes the value of such an interpretation will live it.
When not only
one Mason but two million of them apply Masonic principles to the era
and reconstruction which now lies before us, our government and our
be stabilized. By such a process only can humane and righteous
conditions be established
on the earth.
enjoins that life must be viewed reasonably. As if to assure man that
the time requisite
for such contemplation shall be set aside, it has measured the day into
parts. Eight hours of the twenty-four, it is impressed upon the new
for the service of God and a distressed worthy brother, eight for work,
for rest and refreshment. It must not be implied that a specified form
is enjoined in the hours that have reference to God. Neither is it
we are literally to seek out a brother daily that we may relieve him of
which usually is understood to mean his bodily necessity.
It is not
altogether a modern thought that we can worship through our work, but
it is a thought
that can be reconsidered to advantage, especially in this day. Our work
be worship and the period designated as being set aside for the service
of God must
be devoted to our spiritual enrichment, and not in ways derogatory to
of man's nobler self.
those to whom every form of work is drudgery. They cannot think of work
of service. They cannot understand that any task, no matter how menial,
can be dignified
by a definite aim. Perhaps they see in the evolution of industry that
the man who
was once a skilled handicraftsman is now a mere cog in a machine. If
turn the canvas around they would see what a boon to humanity as a
production has become. They know that the unhealthy conditions in
factories a generation
or two ago have given way to sanitation and comfort. Some are
pessimistic and feel
that these improvements, like many others, have been won from unwilling
Often this is true but on the other hand we must remember that it was
employer who first realized the relation between pleasant surroundings
of employer and employee, creating a condition of almost social
anarchy, is gradually
being bridged. The idea that is going to prevail after the wage and
are adjusted, is that they are co-partners. Whether the work to be done
or intricate, it is as co-operators that good work, square work, the
best work can
be done. In arriving at such mutual relationship the Masonic teaching
the right use of the day will not only be appreciated but applied. No
some theorists are fond of exclaiming, the world's work could be done
less time if everybody worked, or rather if every able-bodied man
worked. But just
at present we are not living in any Utopian realm; we are living in the
where eight hours a day, worked and not shirked, is considered the
both comfort and success.
To what use
do we put the eight hours of rest after our eight hours of labor are
over? We chance
to live where the eight hour day is in vogue and our observation in
weight to our personal conclusion as deducted from conditions at home.
young men who loaf and upon whose hands time seems to be heavily
hanging doing anything
commensurate with a service to God or a distressed worthy brother? We
they are rather of those who brood sulkily over working conditions and
the prey of fanatical agitators. It is the conclusion of some of our
that Young America is neither reading nor thinking. In this Young
America must be
included many who display upon their coats the square and compass. Had
ritual told them its full story, they would know how to employ the
other eight hours,
and their lives would prove it.
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
be our aim to publish in this Department each month a list of such
as we may be able from time to time to secure for members of the
a book listed herein this month may be out of stock next month, and
unobtainable, and for this reason it is recommended that when ordering
pamphlets from these lists the latest monthly issue of THE BUILDER be
and no orders be made from lists more than thirty days old.
monthly reviews the names and addresses of the publishers of the books
in order that our readers may order such books direct from the
of through the Society. In many instances the books may be found in
stock at local
The Balkan Situation
by William M. Sloane. Published by the Abingdon Press, 150 Fifth
Avenue, New York,
N. Y. Price $3.00.
WE HAVE found
“The Balkans,” a laboratory of history, to be both a very readable and
book. Professor Sloane, an astute student and keen observer, has
portrayed, as few
men can portray, the Balkan situation of past and present, and his
regarding the future may yet prove to be attended with considerable
degree of fulfilment.
That he has kept pace with the making of history is more than evident.
A keen and
observing traveler, his pictures of the various peoples that inhabit
Peninsula are highly interesting. What difficulties will be encountered
in the readjustment
of Europe to normalcy, under the proposed League of Nations, are
in Professor Sloan's work.
A brief work,
yet so comprehensive and so prophetically uttered. We are advised that
it is in
popular demand by students of history everywhere. Impartiality of
judgment is manifest
throughout, and a thorough, fair treatment of the problems of the small
that make the Balkans has been splendidly accomplished.
* * *
Some Charming Verses
Prints,” by John Gould Fletcher. [Lib 1918] Published by The Four Seas
67 Cornhill Street, Boston, Mass.
among peoples will do much to dispell those illusions that arise as a
ignorance and bigotry and are too often the great potent factors that
We are reminded of the story told of Charles Lamb who at one time
evinced his hatred
for a chance passer-by. When called upon to explain the grounds for his
dislike, his quiet naive reply was that he did not know the man,
otherwise he could
not hate him. No doubt the essayist just then was desiring to teach a
In the preface to “Japanese Prints,” John Gould Fletcher has very
the reason why we should become acquainted with the best of the
literature of the
His apt and
capable distinction of the differences between the mysticism of the
East and that
oil the West is charmingly stated. The only difference, says he,
between the Eastern
and Western mystic, is that one sees the world in the grain of sand and
all about it, the other sees and lets his silence imply that he knows
Later he also speaks of the necessity of sitting at the feet of the
of the Orient if the desirable and coveted simplicity in English poetry
is to be
medium of his delicate and sensuous poems we are brought into a noble
with the genius that can appreciate the beautiful and spiritual in life
being continuously desirous of playing the role of interpreter.
It is the
genius that apprehends divinity in things both great and small.
about the emotional and subjective are very much taboo in the poetry of
and it is conspicuously absent in the “Japanese Prints.” There is much
about the purpose of poetry as we read these songs that universalize
personalize emotions. and employ the imagery of descriptions that
ranges from clouds
to pebbles. The impersonal is the crown that glorifies this little
* * *
An Inspirational Book for
[Lib*] by Leon C. Prince. Published by the Abingdon Press, 150 Fifth
York, N. Y. Price $1.00.
little book, appealing to “Young America” to make good after the manner
in the lives of those who dared to do great things. It is a work full
to young life and takes its place in importance with those productions
philosophers of optimism, ever holding out to the present generation
of its possibilities, if right thinking and sane, intelligent action
are its portion.
author, who, by the way, is a college professor, has a comprehensive
of the problems of young life, is revealed by the masterly and incisive
of the truth with which he deals.
* * *
An Interesting Book of Fiction
Moll,” [Lib 1920] by Frank Packard. Published
by the George H.
Doran Company, 38 West 32nd Street, New York, N. Y.
we been thrilled by a tale of life in the Underworld as we have been by
of Frank Packard's “White Moll.” It is a charming story written in a
and packed with climaxes that keep one perpetually alert as to what is
transpire next. Free from the taints of modern fiction, (burdened too
with the salacious), it follows the adventures of a charming young
woman who by
strange experiences comes to be regarded with both fear and veneration
by the habitues of the Underworld.
It is a novel
calculated for summer reading with almost old-fashioned villains and
plots to read
about, that after reading can leave one as wholesome as when one
started to read.
Frank Packard is striking an old key in a new way among fiction writers.
* * *
Essays on Pioneer Days in
Ohio and the Middle West
and Tallow Candles,” [Lib 1920] by Ellen Hayes. Published by
The Four Seas
Company, 67 Cornhill Street, Boston, Mass.
book of essays that adds much to the historical literature of pioneer
days in Ohio
and the Middle West has just been published by the Four Seas Company
under the title
of “Wild Turkeys and Tallow Candles.” Its author, Ellen Hayes, a former
at Wellesley College, has put all of the charm of the days she
describes into her
book and in a series of vivid pictures has given us a first-hand
knowledge of the
hardships, the thrift, the courage and the devotion that characterized
the old settlers
of the days between 1800 and the Civil War.
* * *
A Timely Satire
Year,” [Lib 1920] by Edna Ferber and Newman
Levy. Published by
Doubleday, Page and Company, Garden City, N. Y.
We are told
that this play is a timely satire on the absurdities of professors at
$1200 a year,
and street sweepers at $2500 a year, and will go “on the boards” this
It is a splendid
and humorous arraignment of the shabby genteel and pauper
respectability as it is
frequently evidenced in the under-paid teachers and college professors.
It is a
delightful treatment of the day laborer, who is remunerated lavishly
trains, while those who train minds are subjected to gross, humiliating
This is a promise of the satirical literature that must come into being
in the solution of our present social and economical difficulties. It
is a human
picture, such as we are all familiar with, and dealt with in a fashion
that is both
healthy and suggestive.
* * *
Bunch of Everlastings”
of Everlastings,” [Lib 1920] by F. W. Boreham. Published
by the Abingdon
Press, 160 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y.
We have thoroughly
enjoyed the perusal of this volume of sermon essays dealing with texts
made history. Their charm lies chiefly in the manner in which the texts
to be related to the lives of great men. Only recently has the author
of these essays
been brought to our notice, but the facility with which he wields the
a brilliancy of mind, makes us desire to read more of what he has
written. A refreshing
power is felt throughout this little work and none who read can help
but be profoundly
touched as they learn of the significant part that these texts have
the lives of men so far apart in time as Sir Frances Xavier, John
and Sir Walter Scott. The essays are inspirational, reassuring and
* * *
Addresses of Bishop Bashford
for Christ,” [Lib 1920] by Bishop James W. Bashford.
Published by The
Methodist Book Concern, 150 Fifth Ave., New York, N. Y. Price $1.50.
We are advised
by the President of the De Pauw University that the many requests for
of the addresses of Bishop Bashford was the cause of the issuance of
volume. That this noted churchman was a statesman of no small caliber
in more than one of the addresses in this book. His utterances on
“America and World
Democracy” and “Christianity and Education” are destined to be
for a long time to come. These addresses contain the best of the good
and brain. Their inspirational power is a dynamic incentive to right
* * *
The Words of a Coming Playwright
by Susan Glaspell. Published by Small, Maynard & Co., 15 Beacon
Mass. Price $2.00.
We have in
these plays the indication of the rise of a great American dramatist.
sense, both penetrating and keen, has enabled her to hold up to view
many of the
foibles and the idiosyncrasies of our social life.
a wisdom pervading these plays that challenges thought. Susan Glaspell
well be hailed as one of the most powerful of American dramatists
to the making of American literature. We shall await with interest for
from this gifted playwright.
* * *
December Book List
list embraces practically all the standard works on Masonry which we
are able to
secure and keep in stock for the accommodation of individual members of
Study Clubs and Lodges.
We are finding
it more difficult each year to procure new or second-hand copies of the
works on Masonry of which, owing to the limited market for them at the
time of their
publication, but a small number of copies were printed.
We are continually
in search for additional items which will be listed in this column
whenever it is
our good fortune to secure them.
It is suggested
that the latest list be consulted before sending in orders and that no
made from lists more than one month old, since our stock of these books
and a book listed this month may be out of stock by the time next
month's list is
publishers are constantly increasing their prices to us the following
subject to such changes.
| Publications Issued by the Society
| 1915 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1919 bound volume of THE BUILDER (for delivery
about February 1st or 15th)
| 1722 Constitutions (reproduced by photographic
plates from an original copy in the archives of the Iowa Masonic
Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition limited,
| Philosophy of Masonry, Roscoe Pound
| Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M.
Johnson, P.G.M., Massachusetts
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro.
J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, red buffing binding, gilt lettering,
illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry,
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag,"
| "Further Notes on the Comacine Masters," W.
Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to "The Comacines, Their Predecessors
and Their Successors," a Masonic digest of Leader Scott's book "The
Cathedral Builders" and containing the latest researches of Brother
Ravenscroft which present a very logical argument for the connection of
Freemasonry of the present day with the Roman Collegia and traveling
Masons of the early times, paper covers, illustrated
| Symbolism of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Three Degrees, Street, 68
pages, paper covers. The lessons and symbols of each degree traced to
their origin, in every instance that it has been possible to so trace
them. Brother Street gives many explanations of our symbols in this
little book on which our monitors but vaguely touch
| Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite,
| “A Vest Pocket History of Freemasonry,” by
Brother H. L. Haywood. (Special prices on lot orders for 25 or more
copies for presentation purposes)
| Publications from other sources, kept in stock
| "The Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry,
by Brother Joseph Fort Newton, formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER
|| $ 1.50
| Mackey's Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two
volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
| Symbolism of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey
| “Freemasonry Before the existance of Grand
Lodges,” Lionel Vibert. A digest of the researches of Gould, Hughan,
Rylands, Speth and others on the origin and early history of Masonry
| Concise History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke
| Collected Essays on Freemasonry, Gould
prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all items
The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or registered.
A Twentieth-Century Funeral
years I have refused to recommend, defend or excuse what seems to me
burial service laid down in our Masonic trestleboard.
I am convinced
that we should no longer delay the providing of some funeral or burial
will be more in keeping with the spirit and faith of the twentieth
present ritual service is cold, stilted, formal and comfortless. A
should bring some ray of comfort and of hope has too often brought a
of sorrow and despair. Let us have a form that will give expression to
Masonic faith in the immortality of man, the supporting, protecting and
power of an ever present and all loving God. Then indeed shall the
of the widow and orphan tell us how blessed is the sacred ministry of
Leon M. Abbott, Grand Master, Massachusetts.
* * *
on Burial Service reported to the Massachusetts Grand Lodge the
covering the preparation of a Masonic burial service:
1. The Masonic burial service
should be complete in itself. That is to say,
it should be so arranged that it could be used as a complete service in
were no church or other service held. It should, however, be so
arranged that it
could be readily shortened so as to be used in connection with a church
2. It should be simple and should
be accompanied by sufficiently full directions
to make it easy to be conducted by those not much experienced in such
3. It should be deeply religious,
but not exclusively Christian.
4. It should not be a repetition,
whether in whole or part, of any church service
which might be used in connection with it.
5. Its emphasis should be laid
upon life, hope, and immortality.
6. Its endeavor should be to
comfort and to convey the assurance of sympathy.”
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
“Bulletin Course of Masonic Study.” When requested, questions will be
by mail before publication in this department.
Pertinent Queries Anent The Scottish Rite And Knight Templary In The
United States, England And Scotland
please answer briefly through the Question Box Department the following
has the current statement that Masonic Knight Templary is an American
What is the
relationship between the Knight Templar bodies of Scotland and those of
Do not the
American Knights Templar recognize Scotland's claim to having sustained
since the martyrdom of Jacques de Molay, as set forth in the prefatory
the Statutes of the United Order of the Temple and Hospital in Scotland?
Why is the
name “Scottish Rite”? Having recently sojourned in Scotland, where I
studied with learned Masons, I found the Order of the Temple considered
as the zenith
of Masonic attainment, and that Masons there scarcely know of the
Is it considered an historical truth that the Scottish Rite is a French
and was considered clandestine for many years by Grand bodies of
England and Scotland?
How did the
Red Cross degree (degree of the Captivity or Babylonish Pass) as
the Supreme Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland, come to be attached to the
series in the United States?
Has the Royal
Ark Mariner degree, as conferred under jurisdiction of the Supreme
Royal Arch Chapter
of Scotland, and under separate jurisdiction in England, ever been
the United States by any Masonic body?
A. H. H., California. You have certainly propounded
a number of diverse questions, Brother H. Two or three pages could be
answer to most of them, but I imagine what you wish is something short
so I am confining
the replies as closely as possible to the point, taking up the
Masonic Knight Templary
Not an American Invention
has the current statement that Masonic Knight Templary is an American
is not a “current statement” outside the United States, and I cannot
ever heard it in that country. I think there is no doubt that the
Masonic and Military
Order first saw light in Europe and a reference to Mackey's
Encyclopedia will make
it evident that such is the belief of that ancient American writer. In
of the origin of Masonic Knights Templar he says: “From the Baldwyn
its coordinates, the old English and the American Templars.” The origin
Encampment which met, and still does meet, at Bristol, England, is
unknown. It was
certainly working about the middle of the eighteenth century, and then
the following degrees: 1d Entered Apprentice, 2d Fellow Craft, 3d
4d Royal Arch, 5d Knight Templar and Knight of Malta, 6d Rose Croix, 7d
(the present 30d).
Fraternal Relations of Knights
Templar of United States and Scotland
the relationship between the Knight Templar bodies of Scotland and
those of the
Priory of Scotland is, I hear, in full communication with the Grand
the United States.
Scotland's Claim of Sustaining
the Order since De Molay's Martyrdom
the American Knights Templar recognize Scotland's claim to having
Order since the martyrdom of Jacques de Molay, as set forth in the
to the Statutes of the United Order of the Temple and Hospital in
as I know, the American bodies make no reference to Scotland's claim,
but I do not
think that they repudiate it. The tradition is that the Order of the
persecuted in Europe took refuge in Scotland where the Knights were
allowed to reside
unmolested, and after a time united with the Freemasons in that
country. It is very
well known, but, I believe, without proof.
The Origin of the Term “Scottish
the name “Scottish Rite”?
explanation was given by me in Vol. I, No. 8, of Masonic Notes:
year 1307, a persecution of the Knights Templar began in Europe by the
State, and the Order was practically broken up. It is said that many of
took refuge in Scotland, where they joined the Freemasons. This is the
generally given of high grade Masonry, and it is an undoubted fact that
of these degrees, the symbols of the Templars are mixed with those of
For this reason the high degrees were said to be “Scottish,” although
records of them come from France, where they were organized by Ramsey,
who put forward
the above explanation for the name.
favorite explanation is that these degrees were the invention of the
the House of Stewart, the pretenders to the throne of England, who
intended to use
them as a means of gaining political power
explanation has, I understand, been put forward by Schiffman. He states
1725, some Masons in France adopted the acacia as their emblem and
as “Freres Ecossis.” The ignorant mistook this for “Freres Ecossais,”
Brothers,” which gave rise to the popular belief that the degrees which
had their origin in Scotland. The only difficulty in this explanation
is the word
“Ecossois,” which I am unable to find in any French dictionary. The
remains unchanged in the French language, but its pronunciation is very
to “Ecossois,” or even “Ecossais.”
Origin of the Scottish Rite
recently sojourned in Scotland, where I visited and studied with
I found the Order of the Temple considered as the zenith of Masonic
and that Masons there scarcely know of the Scottish Rite. Is it
considered an historical
truth that the Scottish Rite is a French invention?
hardly say that the Scottish Rite is a French invention, although most
of the degrees
appear to have had their origin in France. The stages of evolution are
Lyons Chapter, France, working six degrees
Chapter of Clermont, Park, working twenty-five degrees.
was succeeded or absorbed by the Council of the Emperors of the East
and West, in
1768. At the same time some of the degrees were conferred by the
of the Emperors of the East and West delegated their power to
and in this way the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction of the
was formed, having jurisdiction over thirty-three degrees, and which
Supreme Councils in other countries.
the degrees are certainly of French origin, but if the means by the
Rite” the present organization, the initial effort was certainly made
in the United
Early Status of Scottish
Rite Degrees In England And Scotland
Scottish Rite considered clandestine for many years in the Grand bodies
middle of the eighteenth century, the present 18d and 30d could be
obtained in the
Baldwyn Encampment, so there is, I think, no doubt that they at any
rate were not
looked upon with disfavor, although of course the Rite is not and never
recognized by the Craft as a part of the Masonic system. Until the
of England and Scotland were formed in the nineteenth century, no
doubt, any “high”
degrees, coming from France would have been considered most irregular.
Cross Degree Presumed to Have Been Introduced into United States by Webb
the Red Cross degree (degree of the Captivity or Babylonish Pass) as
the Supreme Royal Arch Chapter of Scotland, come to be attached to the
series in the United States?
degrees are supposed to have been taken from the Scottish Rite systems
by some American
Masonic organizer (perhaps Webb.) These are certainly in a more
rational place when
conferred in connection with the Order of the Holy Royal Arch.
The “Royal Ark Mariner Degree”
In the United States
Royal Ark Mariner degree, as conferred under jurisdiction of the
Supreme Royal Arch
Chapter of Scotland, and under separate jurisdiction in England, ever
in the United States by any Masonic body?
first place, the degree of Royal Ark Mariner is not under “separate
in England. It is conferred under the authority of the Grand Mark
Lodge, being governed
by the Grand Master with the advice of a Board called the Grand
Master's Royal Ark
United States the degree is the first of a long series conferred by the
College of Allied and Christian Degrees, a body organized in 1892. The
are in Norway, Maine, and there is a lodge working in New York City.
C.C. Adams, England
The Movable and Immovable
In the October
issue of THE BUILDER you make me say that Albert Pike calls the
of the movable and immovable jewels a modern “invention.” The word I
used was “innovation,”
quite a different thing.
that article I have run across a statement of Robert Morris published
in 1859 that
he knew that Webb taught that the square, level and plumb were the
In August, 1859, there appeared in the Indiana Freemason an article by
who learned the work from a pupil of Snow and who states that Brother
told him that this brother had the work perfectly. From this article I
contend that by common usage the square, level and plumb are the
and that such was Webb's teaching; but with this assertion we do not
as we cannot enter into an argument on this subject except orally, we
in review some of the evidence. Certain we are that Snow, Gleason, and
not so teach; for the former we have living witnesses at hand, in
addition to our
own personal knowledge, and for the latter we have a lecture by Preston
subject, which we will publish in part at some future time; this
lecture says the
square, level and plumb are the movable jewels. This is confirmed by
who received the lectures in 1805 from Brother Webb himself. This
evidence is conclusive.”
Trowbridge, of Camden, N. Y., in 1860 called attention to the fact that
his Monitor mentions the movable jewels first, and that in his lectures
following this the question, “What are the movable jewels? A. The
and plumb. Q. To whom do they belong? A. To the principal officers in a
are the representatives of our three first M.’.W.’. Grand Masters.”
Bassett, in the Voice of Masonry of August 15, 1860, gives the
for calling the square, level and plumb the immovable jewels:
square, level and plumb are the immovable jewels, I have no doubt; not
tools used by operative Masons, but the great moral principles which
Masons use, and which the metal jewels found in a lodge merely
symbolize. No one,
I presume, will contradict that these latter are immovable; but the
of Nature, the Level of Equality, and the Plumb-line of Rectitude are
and unchangeable, and exist the same yesterday, today and forever. In
too, as geometrical principles, they are immovable. Vary the angle in
degree at which the two sides of the square intersect each other, and
it is no longer
a square; elevate or depress any portion of the level, it loses its
and is no more a level; and to remove the plumb one iota from a
position, it ceases to be a plumb. Indeed if these are not the
I am utterly at a loss to determine in what sense any of the jewels of
a lodge can
be said to be immovable; for the ashlars and trestleboard, as I
conceive, are not
immovable, either in their literal or symbolical sense, as nothing
be said so to be. Therefore, I presume no one will contend that the
tools are themselves the jewels or principles by which a Mason is
expected to regulate
his life and conduct. Does anyone suppose that it was a material
standard that the
Great Architect of the Universe had reference to when he declared unto
he would set up a plumb-line in the midst of his people Israel, by
which they should
be thereafter judged? Most certainly not. But it was the great
principle of moral
rectitude which he placed in their midst as the standard by which they
tried. And in the final day we shall all be tried by this same
with the immutable and immovable square of truth; and by standing these
tests, will we alone be redeemed, or rather elevated to that perfect
level upon which we all hope to meet when our imperfect ashlars shall
made perfect, and fitted to their places 'as living stones in that
house not made
with hands, eternal in the heavens.' And how else can they be made
by the application of those unerring and immovable principles
symbolized by the
square, level and plumb, agreeable with the designs laid down by the
Master in the Book of Life ‒ our spiritual trestle-board?”
If our American
ritual tinker, whoever he may have been, when he transferred the
from the ashlars and trestle-board to the square, level and plumb, had
the latter were immovable because they represented unchangeable
principles and the
former movable because they represented a developing character, he
would have had
a much stronger case than he has. It may be, however, that this thought
even though it is not given in the ritualistic explanation, and this
for the fact that it gained such ready and universal acceptance in this
C.C. Hunt, Iowa
* * *
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum
and Masonic Reprints for Sale
leaving the country has left with us for disposal the following:
Coronatorum, Volumes I to IV, bound in regulation half morocco.
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Volumes V to XIII, complete with binding
cases, but not
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Volumes XXIII to XXIX, complete but without
Masonic Reprints Volumes II to IX, bound in half morocco.
Masonic Reprints Volume X, unbound and without binding case.
Irish Masonic Reprints Volumes I to III, bound in half morocco.
For the entire
set of the above thirty-three volumes, together with several loose
being duplicates and others odd issues, the brother concerned is asking
packed and ready for shipping. The cost of shipping to an American port
around 3 10s. to 4 pounds. The books are in quite good condition.
Journal of South Africa,
P. O. Box 2000, Johannesburg, South Africa.
* * *
Old Books to Exchange
I have a
few duplicates of old and out of print books in my private collection,
which I would
like to exchange with some other member of the Society, for books which
I do not
have. Following are a few of my duplicates:
Shadows of Freemasonry, N. Y., 1855, binding worn.
Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry, Louisville, Ky., 1853, binding worn.
Lights and Shadows of Freemasonry, Vol. XIV of Universal Masonic
Ky., 1856. Binding faded.
Revelations of a Square, George Oliver, 1855. Binding worn.
Webb “Monitor,” Providence, R. I., 1805 edition, calf.
Vol. XV of Universal Masonic Library, Lodgeton, Ky., 1856, containing
of 1723,” and “The History of Freemasonry.” (This is the so-called
which was written by Sir David Brewster.)
“The Comacines, Their Predecessors and Their Successors,” Ravenscroft.
If I can
get in touch with some of the members who have duplicates to exchange I
find several other duplicates in my collection.
I would be
glad to exchange any of the above items for “Mystic Masonry,” by J. D.
“Negro Masonry,” by W. H. Upton.
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wisconsin.
* * *
The Leland-Locke Manuscript
has often been asked: “Are Masons better than other men?” Of all the
this none is more succinct than that given by a medical brother to King
“Some Masons are not so virtuous as some other men; but for the most
part they are
better than they would be if they were not Masons.” This statement,
expanded, forms to this day the substance of many a Masonic oration.
There are several
other striking answers in the once famous but now too much ignored
as the Leland-Locke MS. The last item in the interrogatory is
of note: “Do Masons love one another mightily as has been said?” the
“Yes, indeed, and it cannot be otherwise, for the better men are the
more they love
one another.” It was the beauty and truth of this sentiment which
induced the great
philosopher, John Locke, to become a member of the Craft. The history
of the document
is interesting. It was first printed in 1748 and purports to be the
copy of a MS.
found after diligent search by Locke in the Bodleian Library. It was
most of the Masonic works published during the latter half of the
No question was entertained as to its authenticity until Lessing threw
the subject. Subsequent German writers were divided in their opinion.
culminated in the statement of Bro. R. F. Gould that Fort was the only
of our day who believed in its credibility. On the other hand, Bro. Dr.
in his illuminating work, “The Builders,” voices the incredulity no
to say that the MS. is not allowed by all to be genuine.
has suffered much loss at the hands of the iconoclasts. In late years a
writers has arisen who, as in the words of Bro. Fort Newton, reject
that cannot prove itself in a Court of Law. In a system such as
Masonry, which depends
on oral tradition, it is absurd to expect in every case direct
The more strict the fidelity to obligation the fewer the records must
be. The arguments advanced against the time-honored MS. are puerile,
while the intrinsic
evidence of its veracity are irresistible. The very errors in the text
of its truth. The blunder of calling Pythagoras “Peter Gower” is just
such as might
be made by an illiterate Craftsman in adopting a vernacular corruption
of the French
word “Pythagore”; similarly to confounding the ancient Phoenicians with
Venetians would not be unlikely in the days of the grandeur of Venice.
plausible of adverse criticism lies in the violently uncouth spelling
to no period of English orthography; but this has little disqualifying
we find in lodge minute books within the last century such
monstrosities as “Shuper
Excellent Masons” and a “Sertifiket” of a “Resectobel Order.”
is supported by so many contemporary and credible allusions as to make
inconceivable as a forgery.
In any case
it deserves to be rescued from oblivion if only on account of the
it contains. Among these is the statement that Masonry enables men to
without hope of reward or fear of punishment. The pursuit of virtue for
sake and not for ulterior aims differentiates Masonry from the dogmatic
Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth bring their own rewards and are not
on the enticements or terrors of another world. Bro. Calvert has done
in adding the original text of the MS. as an appendix to Vol. III of
Lodge Transactions, so that Freemasons can judge for themselves of its
John A. Cockburn, P.G.D., England,
* * *
so many men without solicitation to become Masons?” is often asked. Is
If only that it is never satisfied. Is it search for knowledge? Yes,
also for truth which is great and shall prevail. Is it simply the
Not altogether, though all lonely men desire to link up with those
will not languish. Is it a sense of littleness in the universe and
for many men have prayed the Breton monosyllabic prayer ‒ ”Oh God be
good to me,
Thy sea is so wide and my boat is so small.” Human sympathy thrives on
and all real culture requires a social atmosphere. Is it an appeal
similar to that
of religion? Is it because of the example of true members of the Craft
poise without pose ‒ who have neither artificiality nor affection, and
pledged themselves to serve their fellow-men and to render loyal
obedience to properly
constituted authority? Is it because men introspectively ask (as we all
“Am I a friend to as many men
As are good staunch friends to me?”
may be the inducement to enter within the veils, the older we men grow,
that the most beautiful reward that any man in the world can have is
the gift of
friendship generous, overflowing, bountiful, real.
‒ Bro. W. N. Ponton, Canada.
$1200 A Year
Fer20 / auth. Ferber Edna. - New York : Doubleday, Page &
Company, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 176. - 6.2 MB.
A Bunch of Everlastings
Bor20 / auth. Boreham Frank W. - New York : The Abingdon Press, 1920. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 257. - 8.9 MB.
A Concise History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
Demand for Christ
Bas20 / auth. Bashford James W. - New York : The Methodist Book
Concern, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 237. - 22.2 MB.
History of Jacobinism Vol 1
Bar99HJ1 / auth. Barruel Abbe. - Hartford : Cornelius Davis, 1799. -
Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 244. - 11.2 MB.
History of Jacobinism Vol 2
Bar99HJ2 / auth. Barruel Abbe. - Hartford : Cornelius Davis, 1799. -
Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 277. - 13.9 MB.
History of Jacobinism Vol 3
Bar99HJ3 / auth. Barruel Abbe. - Hartford : Cornelius Davis, 1799. -
Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 271. - 13.8 MB.
History of Jacobinism Vol 4
Bar99HJ4 / auth. Barruel Abbe / trans. Clifford Robert. - Hartford :
Cornelius Davis, 1799. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 404. - 21.5 MB.
Fle18 / auth. Fletcher John G. - Boston : The Four Seas Company, 1918.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 90. - Illustrated - 2.2 MB.
Gla20 / auth. Glaspell Susan. - Boston : Small, Maynard &
Company, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 318. - 6.8 MB.
Slo20 / auth. Sloane William M - . - New York : The Abingdon
Press, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 429. - 8.0 MB.
The French Revolution
Web201 / auth. Webster Nesta H. - London : Constable and Company Ltd,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 513. - 23.9 MB.
Pac20 / auth. Packard Frank L. - Toronto : The Copp, Clark Co Limited,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 305. - 9.2 MB.
Wild Turkeys and Tallow Candles
Hay20 / auth. Hayes Ellen. - Boston : The Four Seas Company, 1920. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 175. - 8.9 MB.