Masonic Research Society
Resort for Masons ‒ Masonic Park, Colorado
By Bro. J.L. Elicker, Colorado
of tourists, hailing from nearly every State in the Union, annually
visit the Rocky
Mountains of Colorado. Among these are hundreds of Masons and their
very few of the latter have ever heard of this summer resort for Masons
is under the management of the San Luis Valley Masonic Association, of
Marshall H. Van Fleet, Alamosa, Colorado, is President, and Brother
Jesse C. Wiley,
Del Norte, Colorado, Secretary. Either of these brethren will be
interested in hearing
from any reader of THE BUILDER who may desire further information
booming through the world louder than cannon. Thoughts are mightier
Principles have achieved more victories than horsemen or chariots. ‒
of the rich San Luis Valley, Colorado, are enjoying something rather
unique in the
history of Masonry. It is a park devoted to summer-home purposes, and
the San Luis
Valley Masons are sharing their summer vacational pleasures with other
ago, when it was decided to elevate Chicago out of the mud by raising
blocks up to grade, the young son of a poor mechanic, George M. Pullman
put in a bid for the big undertaking and secured the contract.
was successfully completing this job, he was revolving in his mind his
of building a “sleeping car,” which would be adopted by all railroads,
not so much,
we take it, for financial emolument as for the service it would be to
travel long distances. Accordingly, George fitted up two old cars on
& Alton road with berths, and soon found that they would be in
demand. He then
went to work on the principle that the better his cars, the greater
would be the
demand, and the greater the service rendered. After spending three
years in Colorado
gold mines, it is said that Mr. Pullman returned and built two cars
which cost $18,000
each. Everybody laughed at what they called “Pullman's folly.” But
that whatever relieved the tediousness of long trips would meet with
he had supreme faith in his idea, and risked his all in it. The result
is well known.
So it has
ever been, and always will continue to be; the man with an idea which
he puts into
practical effect, contributing to the health, comfort and happiness of
‒ the highest mission men and Masons can perform, and for which they
will ever be
held in high esteem.
of the steam engine, we are told, can be seen in the writings of the
but it was not developed until more than two thousand years later.
the Supreme Architect of the Universe wrought His plans of marvelous
beauty in Masonic
Park ages before the fertile brain of Marshall H. Van Fleet, Deputy
of the Grand Lodge of Colorado, conceived the idea of providing a
home for Masons and their families among the picturesque Rocky
Mountains ‒ a home
with an ideal climate, located over 8,000 feet above the level of the
sea; a home
where mosquito netting is unnecessary; where refreshing sleep is always
the days always delightful, and close communion with nature sweetest.
step down off the platform of a Denver & Rio Grande passenger
coach, or alight
from your automobile within the limits of Masonic Park, the high
you on the east with their enticing wildness, while at the base of
you behold the rippling waters of the Rio Grande River wherein the
bids defiance to the angler.
In this picture
(Cut No. 1) you see these mountains in the distance and to your right.
is not so steep but that it is good exercise for a mountain hike in the
hours, followed by a cold bath in the river, if such be your custom.
of a cold bath in the Rio Grande, at an altitude of 8,200 feet in water
snow-capped peaks, may not be relishing at first, yet you will be
surprised at the
good derived therefrom.
also conveys an idea of the stupendous rocks so familiar in this
a three-pound rainbow trout has been caught along these tracks. There
sport and lasting benefit from such early-morning exercise out in the
to the northeast from the Denver & Rio Grande shed depot, this
big rock (Cut
No. 2) greets the eye. It has been named King Solomon's Rock. The
at the base of this rock is Marshall H. Van Fleet, the man whose brain
such a camping ground for Masons and their families as is offered in
Park. This rock is estimated to be upwards of one hundred feet high. To
of King Solomon's Rock is another rock on which nature has carved the
a man's face. This rock has been named George Washington. This is
another good morning
hike. You cross the bridge over the Rio Grande river, after which you
a climb of two hundred feet up to the base of these rocks. As you
to hiking, you may make longer trips.
The big San
Luis Valley, wherein is located this beautiful Masonic Park, is an
empire by itself.
It is from forty to fifty miles wide, by one hundred to one hundred
long, and is surrounded by high ranges of mountains, with an average
about 7,500 feet. In parts of this rich valley there are evidences of
In other parts there are evidences of this valley once being the bed of
lake. This is the opinion of scientists. It is noted for alfalfa, peas
the raising of which have netted many independent fortunes. Potatoes
are also another
product of this valley.
seven lodges of Masons in the San Luis Valley, namely, Olive Branch No.
32 of Saguache,
Alamosa No. 44 of Alamosa, Monte Vista No. 73 of Monte Vista, Amethyst
No. 94 of
Creede, Vulcan No. 103 of Hooper, Del Norte No. 106 of Del Norte, and
No. 128 of Center. The present membership of these seven Masonic bodies
it is estimated, between six and seven hundred. With these Masonic
associated an equal number of wives in the Order of Eastern Star, so
of fifteen hundred are today interested in this Masonic Park.
It was the
custom of these San Luis Valley lodges to celebrate St. John's day by
at one of these lodges. These meetings were always well attended, and
for the good
of the Order. Brother Van Fleet, who is so well known among Colorado
who has done so much for Masonry, saw these lodges growing, not only in
but in numbers, noticed that it was beginning to become somewhat
one lodge to take care of the immense crowd that assembled on St.
John's day, thought
that it would be nice to have a place to celebrate this day ‒ a place
could call their own.
at the meeting of these lodges, June 24, 1913, it was decided to
appoint a committee
to plan otherwise for these annual celebrations. This committee, after
and much effort, decided to buy a hundred and sixty acres. This was
done, and the
Association incorporated under the laws of Colorado as a “Non-profit
Association meeting was held at this park June 24, 1914. There were
present at that
celebration five hundred Masons, their families and friends.
place the number attending the last gathering, June 24, 1920, at
three times that of the first annual celebration in this park.
contains one hundred and sixty acres of land on both sides of the Rio
is located about fifty miles from Alamosa, Colo., and three miles above
It has been plotted, with that broad spirit of fraternity and brotherly
with which the Western Mason is endowed, to sell to Masons at only
$25.00 per lot.
The Association has opened this park to all Master Masons and their
invites them to buy lots and erect summer cottages, and make this their
of Masonic Park is one of the most beautiful and picturesque spots of
Mountains. The Denver & Rio Grande Railroad and the Rio Grande
River (Cut No.
3) run through the park from northwest to southeast. The elevation is
feet. Fine fishing and hunting in season an ideal place to spend a
and rejuvenate for the coming year's work.
the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad (Cut No. 4) pass through
Masonic Park twice
each day. It is worth while making a trip over the D. & R.G.
from Alamosa to
Creede. The scenery along this route is the best, and the mines and
points of more than ordinary interest. Creede, it will be recalled, is
in which the slayer of Jesse James, the outlaw, was shot.
of the Rio Grande River at Masonic Park is 8,200 feet above sea level.
has already built a bridge across the river (Cut No. 5), and erected a
Several cottages have been erected, and many more are contemplated in
the near future.
A large spring
(Cut No. 6) has been opened on the top of the mountain, and fine
piped to every cottage in the park. To the left of the big pavilion
there is a winding
path leading up to this spring which supplies Masonic Park with pure
it being piped from this spring. To the unaccustomed and inexperienced
hiking, this will be a good beginning. It is 1500 feet up this trail,
and in places
you may have to “pull yourself up” by catching the twigs occasionally.
get to the spring, you will enjoy a drink of this clear, cold water.
You can then
continue as much further, if you desire. On the top of this peak, you
have a bird’s-eye
view of the surrounding mountains and river that becomes more
interesting the longer
you stand and gaze. You gain three things by taking this short hike:
of the climb, a drink of good water, and a look at what nature has
done. After you
descend, you may enjoy a camp breakfast of trout, or an additional nap,
are being received from Masons of Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma,
and other central States, and no doubt ere long Masonic Park will be
home for Masons and their families from these and many other states.
forms of recreation to be enjoyed in and around Masonic Park are
hiking, packing, camping, automobiling and picnicking. In hunting and
only restrictions are the reasonable requirements of the Colorado game
is a necessity of our modern civilized life, and as civilization
becomes more intensive
this necessity increases and the demand grows keener. The infant as
well as grandmother;
in fact, every member of the family must have a vacation of some kind.
growing time for children as well as for gardens. The mountains,
streams, and spring water to drink, contribute largely and effectively
health and enjoyment ‒ help to make strong, sturdy boys and girls out
babies. The human value of a summer spent at Masonic Park would indeed
be hard to
Willow, Elk, Myers, Beaver and Trout Creeks are within from one to nine
Masonic Park, and easily accessible by team or automobile. Fishing is
good in all
of them, and present fine scenery to the tourist and camper. The roads
this section of Colorado are first-class, and are being made better
each year. State
highway No. 15 runs through the property. The state highway from Denver
to the San
Juan country is but three miles east of the park. The South Fork of the
another stream famous for its hunting and fishing, is but a short drive
park; in fact, Masonic Park is ideally located in every respect for a
There is a large brick furnace on which campers may prepare their
meals. There is
plenty of wood, and water has been piped into this Public Cook House.
Association meeting, June 24, is the day when all Masons of the San
are as one great family. Every one brings his lunch, and the
ice cream, lemonade and hot coffee, and St. John's day spent at Masonic
never be forgotten.
is the description of the outing, June 24, 1920, as published in The
This conveys an idea of this outing:
Luis Valley Masonic association, which is composed of Del Norte, Monte
Center, Hooper and Alamosa lodges, met in the twenty-sixth annual
on St. John's day, June 24, at Masonic Park, Colorado.
was spent in general intercourse and in becoming better acquainted.
After a most
sumptuous basket lunch, which each individual furnished, supplemented
by ice cream
and coffee, furnished by the association, addresses were made by Frank
Grand Master of Masons of Colorado; W.W. Cooper, Grand Lecturer of
ex-Governor Alva Adams, Inspector General of Colorado for the Southern
Scottish Rite Masons.
address was an inspiration to all who were fortunate in getting into
to hear it. He is conceded to be one of the best talkers in the state.
treated of the history of the San Luis Valley, and no one is better
discuss its history than is Mr. Adams.
was presided over by our fellow townsman, Marshall H. Van Fleet, Senior
of the Grand Lodge of Colorado. Mr. Van Fleet also acted as general
manager of the
program was concluded, the young folks were permitted, with the
assistance of the
Alamosa orchestra, to trip the fantastic, in which they joyously
about nine o'clock in the evening, stopping just long enough to try and
remnants of the basket picnic dinner.
“It was an
ideal day and the number present was estimated at from sixteen to
One party calmed to nave counted bud automobiles. A conservative
estimate is five
persons to the car. Quite a number came on the train. It was one of the
gatherings ever held in the San Luis Valley, and the largest attendance
in the history
of the association during the last twenty-six years, practically all
their families and relatives.
Park is situated on the Rio Grande River, fifty miles west of Alamosa,
and is one
of the most beautiful spots in the Rocky Mountain region. It is owned
by the Masons
of the San Luis Valley, and a Mason from any place is privileged to buy
a lot, build
him a summer home and become a member of the association.
the association has spent nearly $20,000 in the erection of two large
and piping water from a spring upon the mountain, which can be piped
cabin on the grounds; the building of a bridge across the river and
improvements to make it a first-class summer resort for Masons and
in the Rio Grande is always attractive to the angler, and the park is
that it is only a short automobile drive to the South Fork of the Rio
Goose Creek and the head waters of the Rio Grande River.
national park is easily accessible, and few people, even of the San
realize the beauties, or know that we have a national park in our
midst, one of
the most wonderful spots in the world ‒ a large tract of land, a sort
‒ where the dirt has been washed away, leaving nothing but rocks,
giant trees pointing heavenward.
of prominent Masons from distant points were in attendance during the
from Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Ohio, in fact this Masonic Park
becoming known all over the country.
Park is as yet in its infancy, although it has made big strides in the
of its existence, but in a few years it is going to be one of the most
widely known resorts of the state of Colorado. It is easy of access
any part of the valley.
no hotel accommodations in the park for tourists, but it is the
intention of the
association that all Masons going there shall be on an equality, and
their own comfort and convenience. No doubt, someday, some Mason will
buy a lot, and build a hotel for the accommodation of touring Masons.
of Eastern Star, which is the ladies' auxiliary of Masonry, has built a
sees more and more cottages built, and in a few years Masonic Park will
be the equal
of any of the celebrated summer resorts in Colorado.
dozen good sized trout were caught during the day and presented to the
of the afternoon as a souvenir of this twenty-sixth annual celebration.”
Park is a new undertaking, practically in its infancy. The outlook is
however, and the interest already manifested in this rather unique
only by the Masons in the valley but by Masons from distant points (one
having written from the Philippines for a lot), insures its future.
The San Luis
Valley has a Masonic population well able to make this summer park home
success, but this is not wholly the intention of its founder and the
Masons of the
valley. They wish brethren from every part of the United States ‒ from
the we for
that matter, to share with them in the pleasures and advantages offered
park ‒ this strictly Masonic recreation grounds, where Masons and their
may spend their vacations among the beauties of the Rocky Mountains.
are about fifty by one hundred feet, and may be purchased on the
payment plan, if
desired. The writer was at this park July 27, and personally talked
with a contractor
who was building a cottage with a sleeping porch. Being thirsty, we
drank of the
mountain water from a hydrant within six feet of this cottage. The
about the quickness with which this cottage was supplied with excellent
water. About two weeks were required to build the cottage. Other
cottages are in
Among The American Indians
By Bro. Arthur C. Parker,
Secretary, New York State Indian Commission
One of the
most frequent questions directed to the ethnologist who concerns
himself with a
study of the American aborigines is, "Are Indians Masons?" There have
been various answers to this question, the reply depending on the
of Masonry. There are positive assertions both ways. There are also
of lodges, signs and miraculous escapes due to the giving of some
Masonic sign or
exclamation denoting distress. The student is apt to be quite at loss
to know what
the real truth is and how much fiction has been woven about these
might ask some Indian whether or not he ever heard of an Indian lodge
and receive an affirmative answer; again an Indian of the same tribe
might as positively
declare that no such institution existed among his people. Now what is
are numerous Indians who are Free and Accepted Masons. One can scarcely
Oklahoma, Nebraska, Kansas or the Dakotas without meeting Indians who
the ancient fraternity. Many of the most influential Indians of the
especially of Oklahoma have full knowledge of the mysteries of Masonry
sought further light in the concordant orders, yet so far as is known
to the writer
no exclusively Indian lodge exists.
of the older Indians who inherit the traditions of their forefathers,
do they not
have lodges of their own not connected with the rite as the white man
Surely there is plenty of testimony as to this.
Freemasons Library" [Lib 1817] by Samuel Cole, published in
Baltimore in 1826
is this quotation from the Masonic Mirror, (date not given):
"Travelers describe certain
among the Indians which apparently resemble our lodges of Free Masons.
and government of admission of members are said to be nearly the same.
No one can
be received as a member of the fraternity except by ballot, and the
of the whole is necessary to a choice. They have different degrees in
The ceremonies of initiation, and the mode of passing from one degree
to the other,
would create astonishment in the mind of an enlightened spectator.
"A similar institution, it is
among our Iroquois. These have never been suspected of Welsh
extraction. Still they
may have derived the signs from those who were. We receive the
Gov. Clinton, to whom it was communicated by a respectable Indian
received the signs of the mystery from a Menonie (Menominee) chief. The
therefore, must be prevalent among the Menonies as well as other
Indians. In this
secret institution among the Indians, the members are very select.
Among the Iroquois
the society consists of five Oneidas, two St. Regis and six Senecas.
They are said
to have secret signs, and pretend that the institution has existed from
The period of their meetings is unknown; but they assemble once in
as deputies, under pretense of other business."
the question of freemasonry two views may be taken, one that there is a
freemasonry in which through the medium of philosophical and symbolic
a system of morality is inculcated by a brotherhood; and the second
that Free and
Accepted Masonry does not exist unless able to show a charter or
some Grand Body of competent Masonic jurisdiction. According to the
any similar is not "Free and Accepted Masonry" but an extra-limital
without any ties of affiliation. This view makes the possession of a
adherence to a certain basic constitution of primary importance. The
however, recognizes that there is an universal freemasonry and asserts
to certain principles and a certain type of ceremonies leading to the
of a certain set of moral ideas of primary importance. Both of these
views are correct
within their fields.
If we make
the term "freemasonry" or "universal freemasonry" generic, then
any form of freemasonry, that embraces the characteristics of
freemasonry, may be
said to be a part of a great whole. If, on the other hand, we define
as a certain system and organization controlled by certain Grand Lodges
jurisdiction, each Grand Lodge recognizing the other and having
with it, then we take the specific view and refer to "Free and Accepted
For the sake
of our subject let us admit that there is an extra-limital or universal
which men outside the order itself may discover and understand. This is
to the philosophy of the organized craft. Let competent Masons remember
first became Masons, though their eyes had not beheld or their minds
beauties of a single Masonic rite. Yet, having once seen and
understood, their previous
beliefs were shaped by the ritual and the power of true faith confirmed
thought before us let us examine the beliefs and principles of the
and see whether or not any were capable of erecting out of these things
that might be fitly termed "a temple of Masonry."
1. The red man of America believed
in a Supreme Deity. Many authorities have
denied this, some of them, perhaps, through prejudice and some of them
misunderstanding of the words translated gods, spirits, powers. Perhaps
have denied that the Indians had the one God concept have done so
because they desired
to prove that the white man and his religion brought this idea to the
heathen." But however this may be there were some cults among the many
that saw back of the god of the winds, the god of the thunder, the god
of the rivers
and the god of the harvest, a supreme god who was the chief of all and
the powers of the air as his subordinates. Imperfectly understood,
this Supreme Architect, but nevertheless he was known if but feebly.
And how well
understood and known today is the concept of Deity? We have knowledge
of the ineffable
name, and, likewise, the red man of the desert, the plains and the
forest gave a
name to this Omnipotence. Whether to the Algonquin it was Gitche
Manitou, to the
Pawnee Tirawa, to the Sioux Wakanda, or to the Iroquois Haweniu, the
same idea prevailed,
‒ that of the one Great Spirit who was the Creator. The Supreme
Architect of the
Universe to the American Indian was the Maker-of-All.
2. The practice of virtue was
demanded of the red man. He must be just in his
dealings with his fellows. He must be truthful, considerate, hospitable
He was likewise taught to be stoical, slow to anger, slow to announce
and to exercise due toleration for the views of his fellows. At all
times he must
acknowledge his dependence upon his Creator and never undertake any
great or important
underrating without first invoking the aid of Deity. He actually did
this and at
all times rendered thanks for the blessings he enjoyed. To be thankful
do anything that would lead the Maker to think his creature ungrateful
was one of
the great essentials of the religions of the Indian.
3. "There is a future life,"
announced the red man. It was one of
his most inbred beliefs. His elaborate funeral ceremonies were built up
faith. This was a visible world but there was an invisible world
inhabited by innumerable
spirits of departed creatures, ‒ men, animals, plants. Whether it was
"Happy Hunting Ground," the "World Beyond the Sky," "the
Abode of the Creator," ‒ to the Indian it was the home-world of
was heaven. A thousand ceremonies and a myriad of prayers were devised
this deeply rooted belief. It may have been superstitious to have
called to Haweniu
in the World-Above-the-Sky and to have attempted to talk to departed
animals and friends, but nevertheless, in it all a belief was expressed.
4. One of the most precious
beliefs of the Indian was that of the universal
and eternal kinship of all created things. This belief affected and
Indian in every act of his life. Man was not only the brother of man
because a Supreme
Father had created both, but every animal, plant and rock, as well as
of nature was believed to sustain a certain spiritual relationship to
man, and man
had certain obligations to them. The deer and bear were brothers and
near man." The trees and waterfalls had spirits. Thus, the red man
it quite rational to speak to them as friends and brothers. Animals
were not killed
in a wanton way, but when it became necessary to kill for meat and pelt
sacrifice was given and the spirit of the animal invoked for pardon. "I
killed you," chanted the Indian, "that I might use your meat and fur.
Should you need me I, too, am here. But the Creator has given me great
I have used that power fairly. Hold no evil thought about me, your soul
is the real
of you and to it I will render pleasing sacrifice. Ascend in peace, my
and be happy. This incense is grateful to you, these beads will show
you that I
desire to render you a gift. I have spoken."
To the Indian
the creatures of earth were kinsmen, though different in form from man.
not for the Creator made all to suit his purpose. The food and
of the forest were not taken without a thank offering and the planting
in hole where the root had been. This feeling of fraternity worked out
in many other
ways as by the organization of numerous fraternities and societies, by
of the clan and totemic systems and by the ties of a complex social
There were binding laws and customs that governed every social action
conduct. So impressed was Roger Williams with the kindness and
was shown him by the Indians among whom he laboured in New England that
"If Nature's sonnes both wild
Humane and courteous be,
How ill becomes it Sonnes of God
To want humanity."
Out of this
brotherly feeling for fellow creatures there grew up many associations
devoted to one cause or another. Some were purely selfish, others were
of warriors, others devoted to a propitiation to the spirits of the
and still others were sworn brotherhoods devoted to charity, the
ancient rites and to a system of reverent ceremonies whereby morals
In recent years these societies have received much attention and study
particularly by those of the American Museum of Natural History of New
Out of these
four characteristics of the more cultivated natives of the new world we
their ability to construct an organization similar under the
circumstances of forest
and plains life to the freemasonry of the white man. It will easily be
the American Indians except through contact with white Masons could
of the words used in Masonry nor could they know anything of the
rites. They might have signs, similar to Masonic signs but as for
and Hebrew traditions they had nothing, notwithstanding the immature
observations of those who have assumed to find them. Such assertions
stand the inspection of the trained philologist and ethnologist, and
they will not
pass. Yet from what we have stated as to the beliefs of the Indians we
may yet say
whether or not they had the mental or moral capacities to understand
Let us go
further. Samuel Cole in the quotation we have cited mentions the
the Iroquois and says, "Travelers describe certain private societies
the Indians which apparently resemble our lodges of Free Masons." Let
what these were and find out whether indeed there is any similarity.
of Wisconsin do have certain fraternal or "medicine" societies, among
them the Mide Wiwin. It has several degrees culminating in the
resurrection of the
candidate who represents a slain hero. Alanson Skinner of the Museum of
Indian is now writing a description of this ceremony as a contribution
to the by-lights
of Masonry. In due time we shall have the results. But Cole mentions,
ceremonies of the Iroquois. About this group of Native American
natives, I feel
free to speak, it being my special province to record their history and
for the State of New York. The Iroquois had a "grand medicine lodge"
still have several chapters among the Senecas and Onondagas. Its real
name is Neh
Ho-noh-chee-noh-ga Nee-ga-hee-ga-aa, which may be interpreted. "The
Guards of the Mystic Potence." This society is the most influential
non-Christianized Iroquois of New York state today and numbers on its
nominal Christians. It meets four times each year and holds one
this organization is called "The Little Water Society" because the
which it guards is used ceremonially in connection with a cup of water,
reasons are also ascribed. This potence is represented to be the tips
of the hearts
and the brain bases of the primitive founders of the society who gave
of their lives" that their hero and leader might be resurrected. These
were the great game animals and birds and the major food plants, which
befriended in times of dire distress by the Hero Chief. Slain and
scalped by the
foe they sacrificed themselves that he might live by the administration
of the life
essence which they gave him from an acorn cup. Thus, in the ceremonies
members impersonate these animal founders and at intervals in the
imitate their calls. The ritual is chanted in unison in three parts in
Between each section there is an interval of refreshment when the
strawberry juice, then eat honey, then partake of the fragrant native
ritual is a long one and relates how in the end the slain Hero Chief is
to his feet and to life by the firm grip of the bear's paw, his left
the grip of his right.
personally knows white persons who have witnessed these ceremonies. He
for at least three who have been shown the mysteries. (2) Today there
lodges of this order of Ancient Guards of the Mystic Potence in the
State of New
York and in the province of Ontario, where the Iroquois still hold
It may be
interesting to state further that the form of the lodge is an oblong
and has two
altars, one east and one west. Its ritual is sung or chanted by all the
thereby rendering "lost words" or forgotten sections next to
The society bears all the ear-marks of great antiquity and its members
to it, for it is the tradition that when the Guards cease their
vigilance that the
red man will pass into extinction.
lesson taught is that a man should willingly lay down his life if need
be to save
the life of him who has sacrificed to save his, and the ritual shows
enduring love for one's fellow man and the potency of sacrifice the
will restore life and health though both have gone.
a strange similarity between this ceremony and the rites of Osiris,
whereby he is
raised by the lion. Perhaps the same mystery has appealed to the minds
of many races
widely separated by time and space. Perhaps this shows that certain
Freemasonry are universal in their appeal and that all men have reached
them, some wisely and well and some imperfectly. Yet the fact that many
proves that there may be an extra-limital masonry, as if some
of mankind saw through a glass darkly, ‒ and craved more light.
of the American Bureau of Ethnology, of the American Museum of Natural
of the State Museum of New York, as well as other public and private
clearly prove the existence of numerous cults and fraternities among
Indians. That some should have certain attributes similar to Masonry is
The human mind and heart whether in barbarism or in enlightenment
hungers for knowledge,
longs for genuine friendship, and knows that without morality no
society can endure
Anthropological Papers, American Museum, N.Y. City.
(2) Vide Publications of Buffalo Consistory, A.A.S.R., G.K. Staples,
"American Indian Freemasonry."
By Bro. Dudley Wright, England
tell us that there never has been a woman Freemason. Perhaps that is
question has been called to the attention of the able scholar and
who contributes this series of articles. Can Freemasonry enlarge its
include women or must they forever remain outside the pale? If they are
to be made
Masons in literal truth in what way can we reorganize the ritual so as
certain features which might prove embarrassing to them? If they cannot
into full membership in what way can the spirit and teachings of this
be made available to them? Since Freemasonry began to be this has been
a moot question;
it is still. It will be for years to come. It is a theme of perennial
For this reason we are very glad indeed to give to our readers the
mature judgments of a scholar who has every right to speak on this
Egyptian Masonry and Count
after the downfall of Napoleon, societies were formed in various
chiefly by exiles for the promotion of Italian independence. Even Egypt
center of this propaganda and, under the auspices of Mehemet Ali, who
render himself independent of the Sublime Porte, an Egyptian rite was
under the name of the "Secret Egyptian Society." In the lodges of
and Cairo alone, the Greek and Arab women numbered more than three
up with this Egyptian Masonry was the celebrated unprincipled
Balsamo, better known as the Count Cagliostro, who imposed upon our
as he did upon the rest of the world. In 1776, he was initiated into
in the Esperance Lodge, No. 289, which was attached to what was known
as the Rite
of Strict Observance. The lodge met at the King's Head Tavern in
Soho, W., and was composed mainly of French and Italian brethren. His
the Craft was made through the mediumship of Comte de Sainte Germain.
Count and Madame Cagliostro established Masonic lodges under what they
be sublime rites of Egyptian Masonry, which he claimed it was his
mission to restore;
and in Paris he prosecuted with great vigor his plans to resuscitate
according to the Egyptian rite. A lodge was founded at Lyons by
Cagliostro, to which
was given the name of "Triumphant Wisdom," and this was regarded as the
Mother Lodge of the rite. Its patent was as follows:
Honour, Wisdom Union,
Beneficence, Comfort. We,
Grand Copt in all Eastern and Western parts of Europe, Founder and
of Egyptian Masonry, make known to All who may read this that during
our stay at
Lyons many members of the Lodge of the Orient and Ordinary Rite, which
the distinguishing title of "Wisdom" have expressed their ardent wish
to place themselves under our rule, to be enlightened in true Masonry.
We are pleased to accede to
their wish, etc.,
was Grand Mistress of the Lodge of Isis, which, in 1784, counted among
some of the most prominent of French titled women.
On 7th August,
1785, there was a great ceremony of initiation in a mansion in Rue
Saint-Honore, Paris, when thirty-six females were admitted into the
initiate had to contribute the sum of one hundred Louis, to undertake
from all intimacy with mankind and to submit to everything which might
on them. On entering the first apartment of the mansion, the ladies
to disrobe and to put on a white garment with a colored girdle. The
then separated into six groups of six candidates, each group wearing
girdles. They were then conducted into a temple lighted from the roof
upon thirty-six arm-chairs upholstered in black satin. Madame
in white, was seated on a throne, and, when the light was lowered, she
the candidates to uncover the left leg to above the knee, to raise the
and to rest it upon an adjacent pillar. The Grand Mistress then
delivered an oration,
which advocated the emancipation of woman-kind from the shameful bonds
them by men. At the conclusion of the oration, the candidates were
separate apartments, each of which opened on to the garden. There they
by male admirers, but, having regard to the oath taken, they refused to
any conversation with them and spurned all overtures, and, after a
time, the thirty-six
were conducted once more into the temple. Within a short time, the
opened suddenly, and Cagliostro, seated on a golden sphere, as naked as
he was born,
holding a serpent in his hand, and with a flaming star on his head,
their midst. The Grand Mistress announced that this was the Genius of
divine Cagliostro, who had come to initiate them into the secrets of
Cagliostro, or the Grand Copt, as he described himself, then ordered
them to dispense
with all their clothing. If they were to receive the truth, they must
be as naked
as Truth. The example of dispensing with clothing was set by the Grand
and followed by the thirty-six candidates. Cagliostro then delivered
at the conclusion of which he was hauled up on his golden sphere
through the opening
in the roof. The ladies clothed themselves and the evening terminated
in an elaborate
banquet, when the initiates were joined by their male acquaintances,
the obligations they had taken.
asserted that this particular brand of Masonry was instituted by Enoch
and its teachings
promulgated by Elijah. As Grand Copt he claimed to possess the power of
with angels and to be enabled to accomplish wonders through the
with which he had been divinely endowed. All religions were tolerated
system: a belief in God was the sole qualification for membership. The
taken by candidates was as follows:
I swear before the Eternal God,
the Grand Mistress,
and all who hear me, never to write or cause to be written anything
that shall pass
under my eyes, condemning myself in the event of imprudence and to be
to the laws of the grand founders and of all my superiors. I likewise
exact observance of the other six commandments imposed upon me: that is
love of God, respect for the sovereign, veneration for religion and the
of my fellow-creatures, an attachment without bounds to our Order, and
submission to the rules and code of our ritual as ma be communicated to
me by the
On the initiation
of a candidate the Grand Mistress breathed on her face from the
forehead to the
I thus breathe upon you to
cause the Truth possessed
by us to germinate and penetrate within your heart; I breathe upon you
your spiritual part; I breathe upon you to confirm you in the faith of
and sisters, in accordance with your undertaking. We greet you as a
of Egyptian Masonry of the Lodge; We desire that you be recognized as
such by all
the Brethren and Sisters of the Egyptian ritual, and that you enjoy the
as they. Lastly, we impart to you the supreme pleasure of being
henceforth and forever
of the Third Degree was rendered with great pomp and ceremony. On that
a young, innocent girl, to whom was given the name of columba (dove),
and the Grand Master claimed to impart to her the power he possessed of
with spiritual beings. These spirits were said to be seven in number,
the seven planets and surrounding the throne of the Eternal, their
names being Azael,
Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, Ariel, Zobiachel, and Anachiel. The girl,
who was clothed
in a long, white robe, which was adorned with blue ribbons, and wearing
was shut up in a tabernacle which was placed on the altar of the
temple. From a
window in this tabernacle she gave the replies to the questions asked
related generally to the fitness of the candidate for advancement to
used in Egyptian Masonry were the triangle, the septangle, the trowel,
the square, the gavel, the death's head, the cube, the rough ashlar, a
Jacob's ladder, the Phoenix, the globe, and Father Time.
advertisement from Cagliostro appeared in the Morning Herald in
explanatory words, which did not appear in the advertisement, being
placed in brackets:
ALL TRUE MASONS
the Name of 9, 5, 8, 14, 20, 1, 8 [Jehovah];
9, 5, 18, 20, 18. [Jesus].
Time is at hand when the Building of the
New Temple or New Jerusalem, 3, 8, 20, 17, 8 [Church] must begin; this
is to invite
all True Masons in London to join in the Name of 9, 5, 18, 20, 18,
[Jesus] the only
one in whom there is a Divine 19, 17, 9, 13, 9, 19, 23 [Trinity] to
evening, the 3d instant, 1786 (or 5790), at Nine o'clock at Riley's,
Street; to lay a plan for the laying the first stone of the foundation
of the true
3, 8, 20, 17, 8; [Church] in this visible world, being the, material
Temple of the Spiritual 9, 5, 17, 20, 18, 1l, 5, 12. [Jerusalem].
Mason, and member of the new 3, 8, 20, 17,
It is not
without interest to note that, in 1789, Cagliostro was arrested by the
taken to the castle of St. Angelo, where he died. His Egyptian Masonry,
perished with him.
The Order of the Eastern
of the Eastern Star is believed to be the fifth largest fraternal
the largest female Order in the world. It had in 1917 nearly 900,000
its membership roll is increasing at the rate of 50,000 a year. It does
to be a Masonic Order, although its membership is restricted, in the
case of men,
to those who are already members of the Masonic Brotherhood, and, in
the case of
women, to those who’s nearest male relatives or connections are
Freemasons of good
standing. It is the custom of the Chapters of the Eastern Star to hold
in the lodge rooms or temples of Masonic lodges, when such permission
can be obtained,
but the Order does not come under the category of "Adoptive Masonry."
The term "Adoptive" implies the power of government and control, and
is not exercised by any Masonic body in regard to the Order of the
is believed to have taken its rise in the United States of America in
it did not attain any degree of eminence until 1850, when it was
revived by Rob.
Morris, a prominent American Freemason. The various units were known as
and, in 1855, a "Supreme Constellation" was established, though it does
not appear to have had a long life. The Order itself, however,
continued to flourish
and, in 1874 a serious attempt was made to organize a Supreme Grand
two years later, was crowned with success. District or Provincial Grand
have since been established in all quarters of the globe and the Order
great headway in Scotland. England stands practically alone in her
the Order. The utmost care is evinced in the admission of candidates.
The fee for
initiation and the annual subscription are moderate, averaging twelve
and five shillings respectively, and a certain proportion of each is
beneficence. The Order is doing a noble and unselfish work and it was
to establish a Masonic Home in Kansas, charging itself also with the
of the Home on its erection. In the various States of America members
are, at their
own expense, building cottages, furnishing and supplying them with
every need, and,
in some instances, constructing hospitals and maintaining them.
Eastern Star Chapter is held in the Masonic lodge room or temple it is
to make no charge for rent, light or heating. A candidate for
initiation must be
recommended by two members from personal knowledge. A committee of
three is then
appointed to report upon the application at the next meeting, when a
ballot is taken
for the admission of the applicant, and this ballot must be unanimous.
object of the Order of the Eastern Star is to give practical effect to
purpose of Freemasonry, particularly in provision for the wives,
mothers, and sisters of members of the Craft, and, at the same time,
principles. These principles are five in number, represented by the
of the Order and said to be read by the enlightened in the cabbalistic
the Order ‒ F.A.T.A.L. They are as follows:
1. Fidelity to vocations of right
and duty. This is the teaching of the Degree
of Jephtha’s daughter, as set forth in XI Judges, verses 30-40.
2. Obedience to the demands of
honor and justice in all conditions of life.
This is the teaching of the Degree of Ruth and is set forth in I Ruth,
3. Fidelity to kindred and
friends. This is illustrated in the Degree of Esther
and set forth in IV Esther, verse 2, and VII Esther, verses 2-5.
4. Trustful faith in the hour of
trial. This is the teaching of the Degree of
Martha and set forth in the character of Martha.
5. Heroic endurance of the wrongs
of persecution when demanded in the defense
of truth. This is illustrated in the character of Electa, or "the elect
as shown in the narrative recorded in the second epistle of St. John.
of the Order is a five-pointed star, the first point being blue with a
veil to represent Adah, or Jephtha’s daughter. The second is yellow
with a sheaf
of barley to represent Ruth. The third is white and bears a crown and
represent Esther. The fourth is coloured green and has a broken column
Martha. The fifth is red, with a golden cup to represent Electa.
In the Manual
of the Order of the Eastern Star the following historical essay on the
and aims of certain secret institutions appears:
Secret Societies imitating
Freemasonry for the
admission of females as members were first organized in France during
part of the eighteenth century, and still exist there and in other
parts of Europe,
as a distinctive rite. By the term "Adoptive Masonry" is implied that
system of forms, ceremonies, and explanatory lectures which is
communicated to certain
classes of ladies, who from their relationship by blood or marriage to
in good standing, are entitled to the respect and attention of the
These ladies are said to be adopted into the Masonic communion because
of forms, ceremonies, and lectures above referred to enables them to
wishes, and gives satisfactory evidence of their claims in a manner
that no stranger
to the Masonic family can do. To the organization thus established for
of females the French have given the name of "Adoptive Masonry," "Maconnerie d'Adoption," and the lodges
are called "Loges d'Adoption,"
or "Adoptive Lodges," because every lodge of females was obliged to be
adopted by, and under the guardianship of, some regular Masonic lodge.
One of the
first of these Societies was the "Order of Perfect Happiness," for so
we may be permitted to translate the name "Felicitaires", which they
This Society assumed a nautical character in its emblems and its
was divided into the four degrees of "Cabin Boy," "Master,"
"Commodore," and "Vice-Admiral." What little information we
have been enabled to obtain from a very brief notice of its ritual
leads us to believe
that it was not of a character to merit countenance. It did not long
existence, for two years after its formation it gave place to the
and Heroines of the Anchor," which was, however, but a refinement of
Society, and preserved its formula of initiation and nearly all its
In 1747, one Beauchaine, the Master of one of the Parisian lodges,
new Society, which he called "L'Ordre
des Fendeurs," or "The Order of Wood Cutters." This
borrowed its principal ceremonies from the Society of the Carbonari, or
which had been previously established in Italy. The place of meeting of
was called the Wood Yard, and was supposed to represent a forest; the
officer was called "Father Master" and the male and female members were
called "Cousins." The Society became at once exceedingly popular, and
the most distinguished ladies and gentlemen of France united themselves
to it. It
was consequently the cause of the institution of many similar
societies, such as
the Order of the Hatchet, of Fidelity, etc. In consequence of the
of the numerous secret associations which, in their external characters
rites, attempted an imitation of Freemasonry ‒ differing, however, from
of which they were, perhaps, the rivals for public favor, by the
admission of female
members ‒ the Grand Orient of France, in 1774, established a new rite,
"Rite of Adoption," which was placed under the control of the Grand
Rules and regulations were thenceforth provided for the government of
of Adoption, one of which was that no men should be permitted to attend
regular Freemasons, and that each lodge should be placed under the
charge and held
under the sanction and warrant of some regularly constituted Masonic
Master or, in his absence, his Deputy, should be the presiding officer,
by a female president or mistress. Under these regulations a Lodge of
opened in Paris in 1775, under the patronage of the Lodge of St.
Anthony, and in
which the Duchess of Bourbon presided, and was installed as Grand
Mistress of the
Adoptive Rite. Many systems of Adoptive Masonry have from time to time
in the United States with varied success, none of which, however, seems
the elements of permanency, except the Order of the Eastern Star, which
in this country during the year 1778. The success of this Order,
in its beneficence and usefulness with the extent of Freemasonry. Its
are based upon the honor of the female sex, and framed upon the
principles of equality
and justice; that whatever benefits are due by the Masonic Fraternity
TO the wives,
widows, daughters, and sisters of Freemasons, corresponding benefits
are due FROM
them to the members of the Masonic Fraternity. The theory of the Order
of the Eastern
Star is founded upon the Holy Writings. Five prominent female
as many Masonic virtues, are selected, adopted, and placed under
The selections are:
1. Jephtha’s daughter,
illustrating respect to the binding force of a vow.
2. Ruth, illustrating devotion to
3. Esther, illustrating fidelity
to kindred friends.
4. Martha, illustrating
undeviating faith in the hour of trial.
5. Electa, illustrating patience
and submission under wrongs.
all Masonic virtues, and have nowhere in history more brilliant
exemplars than in
the five characters, illustrated in the lectures of the Order of the
and exalted purposes had in view in its dissemination can have no
the name. Its effects in winning to the advocacy of Masonry the
and influential lady members of our families are truly encouraging, and
its friends to persevere in a general promulgation of the system.
According to the
tenets of the Order of the Eastern Star, Adoptive Masonry stands a
to female secrecy and fidelity, and proves how wrong all those are who
fancy a woman
is not to be trusted. There is not in the whole of the ceremonies of
this rite a
single point with which the most ascetic moralist could find fault. On
all is pure, all is beautiful; it is among the brightest jewels which
records of Masonry. As the Adoptive privileges of the lady entirely
the good standing and affiliation of the brother through whom she is
this system will be a strong inducement, it is thought, to keep a
inclined to err, within the bounds of morality. A general diffusion of
will tend to supersede the other so-called female degrees as being, at
but trivial and henceforth superfluous and useless.
In 1879 several
Chapters owning allegiance to the Supreme Council of France of the
Ancient and Accepted
Scottish Rite, at the instigation of the Grand Orient, seceded from
and reconstituted themselves as La Grande Loge Symbolique de France.
One of these
Chapters, bearing the name of Les Libres Penseurs, meeting at Pecq, a
Seine et Oise, in November 1881, proposed to initiate into Freemasonry,
Desraimes, a well-known writer on Humanitarian and women suffrage
they did on 14th January, 1882, for which act the Lodge or Chapter was
Mlle. Desraimes was instrumental in bringing into the ranks of
other well-known women in France, with the result that an Androgynous
known as La Grande Loge Symbolique Ecossaise was formed on 4th April,
its jurisdiction at that time extended over only one lodge, that known
as Le Droit
Humain, which came into being on the same day, and which, in 1900,
adopted the thirty
degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. One of the principal
in the formation of this new schismatic Grand lodge was Dr. Georges
Martin, at one
time a member of the Lodge Les Libres Penseurs. The schismatic movement
Paris and Benares and afterwards to London, at which last-named place,
1902, the Lodge "Human Duty," now No. 6 on the Co- Masonry Register,
consecrated. The title "Co-Masonry" in lieu of "Joint Masonry"
was adopted in 1905.
of Universal Co-Freemasonry are set forth in the official documents as
Art. 1. Universal
Co-Freemasonry in Great Britain asserts, in accordance with the ancient
of Freemasonry, the existence of a Creative Principle, under the title
Great Architect of the Universe."
Art. 2. It
maintains the open "Volumes of the Sacred Knowledge" in every lodge,
duly formed for Masonic purposes.
Art. 3. It
maintains the ancient landmarks of Freemasonry.
Art. 4. It
withholds recognition from all irregular and clandestine meetings, or
holding proper charter.
Art. 5. It
imposes no restrictions on the free search for Truth, and to secure
exacts tolerance from all its members. Art. 6. It is open to men and
distinction of race or religion, who are free, of good report, and
Art. 7. It
pledges its members to obedience to the laws of the country, loyalty to
silence with regard to Masonic secrets, a high standard of honour, and
endeavour to promote the welfare of humanity.
Art. 8. Every
Freemason belonging to the Ancient and Accepted Rite is bound
faithfully to observe
the decision of the Supreme Council to which he owes allegiance.
is identified closely with the Theosophical Society, or that particular
of which Mrs. Annie Besant is President and, on the death of Dr.
the President Grand Master, Mrs. Besant was chosen to succeed him in
however, another and a very influential branch of the Theosphical
repudiates the Besant leadership, and with it the Co-Mason movement.
This is presided
over by Mrs. Katharine Tingley, who has set forth her views on
Co-Masonry the following
Let me first
state what is my attitude towards Masonry. Many of the happiest
my childhood are associated with my dead grandfather, who was one of
the best known
Masons in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and received some of the
honors in these States. It was from him that I received my earliest
was from his Masonic books that I learned to read and spell and draw,
and from his
noble and sweet character, I came to regard Masonry as associated with
in life. In fact, I came to think that all the best men in the world
must be Masons.
Now, it does
not necessarily follow that this last statement is true, for some of
men I have met have not been Masons. Still, on the other hand, many of
men I have known have belonged to the Masonic Order, and I have seen
the best results flow from a deep interest in Masonry wherever I have
known of it,
and from my knowledge and acquaintance of Masons I regard Masonry and
which underlie it as a great force for good in the world.
understand how any true woman would wish to intrude into an Order held
to be exclusively
for men. There are lines of work which I hold are exclusively in the
men just as there are lines of work which are exclusively in the
province of women.
I hold that woman can only yield her full share of influence in the
world from a
knowledge gained by using and fulfilling her opportunities as a woman,
and in her
own sphere. I consider that she steps away from her true position and
her influence by seeking to invade the sphere of man.
women be disturbed that men have an organization which is exclusively
for men? As
I understand Masonry, it seems to inculcate all the virtues ‒ honor,
chastity, etc. ‒ for this much has often been publicly stated by
Masons; and, speaking
generally, I have no hesitation in saying that, from my experience, the
of them ‒ to a degree at least ‒ try to exemplify these virtues in
There may be some who fall far short of the Masonic ideals ‒ in our
civilization it can hardly be expected otherwise ‒ but that cannot be
laid at the
door of Masonry, but of human frailty, and as a result of men's failing
their higher opportunities in life.
Many a woman
has known of the uplifting and refining power, tending towards
nobility and virtue, which Masonry has exercised in the life of
or son; and without in any way encroaching on Masonry or seeking to pry
secrets, every true woman, in the light of the knowledge that is
out by Masons themselves of Masonic principles, can, if she will, help
husband, son or friend to be true to these principles and be a true
What is needed
today by both men and women is a greater respect, first for themselves,
true natures as man and woman, and following that, a greater respect
each for the
other ‒ of women for men and of men for women. Such respect implies no
of one another's sphere, but the very contrary, and in fact can only
from such invasion.
a common ground on which men and women can meet, which is preeminently
in the home.
It is also in the world of art, music, literature, education, and all
ideals of social, civic, and national life.
I have had
many letters from all classes asking questions as to my attitude in
seeing that the name Theosophy has, most unfortunately, and without any
become associated with "Co-Masonry." Such association is absolutely
and I hold that no true Theosophist will give his adherence or support
The fact that any person or body of persons should attempt to attach
to an organization from which, by the rules of that organization, they
would make me seriously question their motives, and one would probably
people to be either fanatics or extremely credulous or ‒ (!) Whatever
such people may think they have in the matter, it must indeed be very
rather no knowledge at all, otherwise they would see the absurdity of
attach themselves to an organization in which, in the very nature of
would be out of place. If it were possible to conceive of the secrets
being given to a woman, from my understanding of the matter it could be
some one unfaithful to his vows as a Mason, and no true and
would think of availing herself of such information; nor could it, by
of things, be held to be reliable, for he who is unfaithful in one
thing will be
unfaithful in others, and I prophesy that this attempt of certain women
admission where they do not belong can result only in confusion,
disaster, and serious
embarrassment for all such women.
It need hardly
be said that the clandestine movement of Co-Masonry is placed outside
the pale by
all who pledge their adherence to the Antient Charges of Freemasonry.
Square with the World -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
with the world, square away to vision
Never mind the creeds, 'tis the world you're holding to.
Square with the world, 'twas for you laid in the plan
That's forever right, for there was to be a man.
And there was to be for him a way sublime
In the plan of life with its rugged heights to climb,
And 'twas left to him to prove that by the square
The beautiful might e'en be made more fair.
Square with the world, though no great deeds be done
You may find just where there’s splendid greatness won;
In the kindly ways, in the cheerful word and smile
You may help so much to make life more worthwhile.
O, there's so many, and such grand ways to Square
Your life to this old world that's in your care!
To be Square with youth and manhood in the race
Will be forging on to earth's best, noblest place.
Square with the world, as Square as earth to sun
In the little things as in arduous duties done;
'Tis the royal way, the relation to, that's grand,
And itself the wage, paid in to heart and hand.
Square with the world, to it your heart hold true,
The adjustment rare will win the points for you
For the old world holds its pathway in the skies
For naught else save to help you win the prize.
It is not
what a man gets, but what a man is, that he should think of. He should
of his character, and then of his condition: for if he have the former,
have no fears about the latter. Character will draw condition after it.
the habit of looking for the silver lining of the cloud, and, when you
it, continue to look at it, rather than at the leaden gray in the
middle. It will
help you over many hard places.
work me damage, except myself. The harm that I sustain I carry about
me, and never
am a real sufferer but by my own fault.
FOR THE MONTHLY
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 42
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "Third Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
on "The Lion's Paw"
- What does the article in
Mackey's Encyclopedia have to say concerning the
- What is the substance of
Mackey's article on "The Lion of the Tribe
- Why has the lion always been a
favorite subject with symbolists?
- What was the symbolism of the
lion among early peoples in India?
- Of what was it a symbol to the
- Give an example of the use of
the lion symbolism in Egyptian sculpture.
- How does Harrison describe the
raising of Osiris?
- What was the crux ansata, or
"ansated cross" originally?
- In what manner did it develop
into the "Symbol of life"?
- What did Albert Pike see in the
- How was the lion as a symbol
used by the Jews?
- Where is it supposed that the
Comacine Masters derived their habitual use
of the lion in their cathedral building?
- What has Leader Scott to say
concerning the lion in architecture?
- What is Brother Haywood's
theory as to how the symbolism of the Lion's Paw
came into Masonry?
- What power did the people of
the cathedral building period believe the lioness
- Of what was this a symbol to
- Of what did the early
Freemasons consider the lion a symbol?
- Is there any difference between
the real meaning of the symbolism of the
Lion's Paw as interpreted by Albert Pike and as interpreted by Leader
the symbol refer to a raising in this life, or in a future life?
* * *
Vol. II. ‒ The Square and the Cross, p. 52.
Vol III. ‒ Egyptian Cross, p. 355.
Vol. IV. ‒ The Lion of the Tribe of Judah, p. 295.
Vol. VI. ‒ Symbolism of the Lion's Paw, Nov. C. ‒ .B., p. 4.
Crux Ansata, p. 191;
Lion's Paw, p.448;
Lion of the Tribe of Judah, p. 802.
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Part VII ‒ The Lion's Paw
Encyclopedia article on this subject is very brief, as may be seen from
"A mode of recognition so called because of the rude resemblance made
hand and fingers to a lion's paw. It refers to the 'Lion of the tribe
This is true as far as it goes, but it doesn't go far enough, for it
the questions of origin and interpretation. Nor does the companion
article on the
"Lion of the Tribe of Judah" give us much more information. If Mackey
refrained from saying more because he knew no more we can sympathize
with him, seeing
that at this late day there is still very little known about the
matter. But we
have learned something since Mackey wrote, enough maybe, to set us on
toward a satisfactory understanding of the matter.
its appeal to the imagination, and to the fear and reverence it has
the lion has always been a favorite with symbolists, especially
Our modern anthropologists and folk-lore experts have furnished us with
examples of this, even among savages, who are sometimes found
worshipping the animal
at this day. Among the early peoples of India the lion was often used,
with the same significance, as standing for "the divine spirit in man."
Among the early Egyptians it was still more venerated as may be learned
monuments, their temples, and especially their sphinxes; if we may
trust our authorities
in the matter the Nile dwellers used it as a symbol of the life-giving
the sun and the sun's ability to bring about the resurrection of
vegetation in the
spring time. In some of the sculpture left by the Egyptians to
illustrate the rites
of the Egyptian Mysteries the candidate is shown lying on a couch
shaped like a
lion from which he is being raised from the dead level to a living
The bas-reliefs at Denderah make this very plain, though they represent
Osiris being raised instead of a human candidate. "Here," writes J. E.
Harrison in her very interesting little book on "Ancient Art and
"the God is represented first as a mummy swathed and lying flat on his
Bit by bit he is seen raising himself up in a series of gymnastically
positions, till he rises..... all but erect, between the outstretched
wings of Isis,
while before him a male figure holds the crux ansata, the 'cross with a
the Egyptian symbol of life."
ansata was, as Miss Harrison truly says, the symbol of life. Originally
with a cross-piece at the top for a handle, it was used to measure the
of the Nile. Inasmuch as it was this overflow that carried fertility
the idea of a life giving power gradually became transferred to the
in the same manner that we attribute to a writer's "pen" his ability to
use words. A few of our Masonic expositors, among whom Albert Pike may
have seen in the crux ansata the first form of that Lion's Paw by which
Horus is raised. If this be the case, the Lion's Paw is a symbol of
power, an interpretation which fits in very well with our own position
in the two preceding sections.
But it is
also possible to trace the Lion's Paw to another source. Among the Jews
was sometimes used as the emblem of the Tribe of Judah; as the Messiah
to spring from that tribe the Lion was also made to refer to him, as
may be seen
in the fifth verse of the fifth chapter of the Book of Revelation,
where Jesus Christ
is called the "Lion of the Tribe of Judah." It was from this source,
that the Comacines, the great Cathedral Builders of the Middle Ages,
who were always
so loyal to the Scriptures, derived their habitual use of the lion in
Of this, Leader Scott, the great authority on the Comacines, writes
own observations have led me to the opinion that in Romanesque or
i.e. between A. D. 1000 and 1200, the lion is to be found between the
the arch ‒ the arch resting upon it. In Italian Gothic, i.e. from A. D.
1500, it is placed beneath the column. In either position its
significance is evident.
In the first, it points to Christ as the door of the church. In the
second, to Christ,
the pillar of faith, springing from the tube of Judah." Since the
builders were in all probability the first Freemasons it seems clear
that the lion
symbolism was inherited from the Comacines.
cathedral building period, when symbolism was flowering out on all
sides in medieval
life, the lion was one of the most popular figures in the common animal
as may be learned from Physiologers, the old book in which that
mythology has been
preserved. According to this record, the people believed that the
whelps of the
lioness were born dead and that at the end of three days the lion would
them until they were awakened into life. In this the childlike people
saw a symbol
of Christ's resurrection after He had lain dead three days in the tomb;
it naturally resulted that the lion came to be used as a symbol of the
and such is the significance of the picture of a lion howling above the
so often found in the old churches and cathedrals.
Freemasons, so the records show, read both these meanings, Christ and
into the symbol as they used it. And when we consider that all
Freemasonry was Christian
in belief down at least to the Grand Lodge era, we may be certain that
symbol is one of the vestiges of that early belief carried over into
system. If this be the case the Lion's Paw has the same meaning,
whether we interpret
it, with Pike, as an Egyptian symbol, or with Leader Scott, as a
as it stands for the life-giving power, a meaning that perfectly
accords with its
use in the Third degree. This also brings it into harmony with our
of Eternal Life, for in both its Egyptian and its Christian usages it
a raising up to life in this world, and not to a raising in the world
Symbolism of the Lion's
clearly the symbol of the Lion's Paw, as it relates to Masonry, is a
Mackey terms it a symbol of recognition, so-called because of the rude
made by the hand and fingers to a lion's paw.
of the Lion's Paw was found in the sarcophagus of one of the great
kings of Egypt,
entombed in the Pyramid erected to his everlasting remembrance. It
brings to mind
the representation of the king's initiation into those greater
mysteries of Osiris
held to be the highest aim of the wise and devout Egyptian. It is
claimed by some
writers that the Hebrews were probably instructed in the legend of
Osiris, and afterwards
changed the whole to accord with the wonderful and wise Solomon and his
Very many Craftsmen reject the
death of Hiram
only as a myth.
may be thus explained. The form that lies dead before the altar is that
the personified sun god, whom the candidate represents in the drama of
lying dead at the winter solstice, slain by the grim Archer in
November, the fatal
month in the year of the sun. The figure of the lion grasping the dead
sun god alludes
to the constellation of Leo, which did prevail 4,000 years ago to raise
god to his place of power and glory on the summit of the grand royal
arch of heaven
at the summer solstice, and denoted then, as it does now, that the sun
or the candidate
is about to be raised from a symbolical death to life and power by the
of the Lion's Paw; or, as it has been termed, "the lion of the tribe of
The cross, which the lion holds in his other paw, is the ancient
of eternal life. The figure erect at the altar is doubtless that of the
with his hand raised in an attitude of command, forming a right angle,
fixed on the emblematic lion as he gives the sign of command that
Osiris, or the
candidate, be raised from death and darkness to light and life.
be determined who Osiris was, but he was certainly to the Egyptians
was to the Greeks. It is even difficult to determine whether the legend
in mythology is reliable and authentic, but the lessons sought to be
the triumph of good over evil or light over darkness.
If we view
the scene that has just been described we see an exact representation
of an instance
that occurs in the making of every Craftsman. He may look upon the form
inconsistent, but a little study will show him that it was quite the
that his part was enacted by the devout Egyptian in the days of the
of the sun starting in weakness and ending in victory, waging a long
darkness, clouds and storms, and scattering them all in the end, is the
all heroism, of all patient sacrifices and of all Christian devotion.
is monotony in the thought of the daily toil of the sun for beings
weaker than himself,
of his wrath as he bides his face behind the dark cloud, of his
vengeance as he
tramples on the vapors which crowd around him at his setting, of the
severs him from the dawn at the beginning of his journey to restore her
at its close,
then there is monotony also in the bare record of birth and love, and
toil and death,
to which all human life may be pared down.
To show that
the Lion's Paw had reference to the sun, I refer to a form in the
mysteries of Hindustan.
While performing a ceremony the candidate was taught to exclaim, on his
each time in the South, "I copy the example of the sun and follow his
course." This being completed, he was again placed in the center and
enjoined to the practice of religious austerities, as the efficient
means of preparing
his soul for final absorption. In the Mysteries of Bacchus the
candidate was imprisoned
in a pastos or cell. He was alarmed by a crash resembling the rush of
with sudden impetuosity from a deep abyss or the deadening fall of a
cataract, for now was the representation displayed of the waters of the
forth from Hades to inundate the globe. The monstrous Typhon, raging in
Osiris, discovered the ark in which he had been secreted, and violently
it asunder, scattered the limbs of his victim over the face of the
the din of dissolving nature. The aspirant heard the lamentations which
for the death of their god, whose representative he was, accompanied
cries and howlings of men, women and animals, to symbolize the
exclamations of terror, consternation and despair which prevailed
world at the universal destruction of animated nature, and which would
salute the ears of Noah while within the vessel of safety. Should we
follow up the
ceremonies of the various mysteries, we will find that in all instances
passes from darkness to light, as personified in the Third degree. To
at what period the Lion's Paw was introduced into Masonic ritual cannot
but this is nothing uncommon with our ancient Order. Even its origin is
in uncertainty. Associated with the Lion's Paw is a code or covenant
Five Points of Fellowship. These five points, taken together, compose
creed. I cannot conceive anything more binding, more humane and
these five admonitions. They contain the fundamental principles of
and the brother that fully observes them is certainly the ideal Mason.
A. J. Burton
in "Freemasons Journal," May 17, 1888.
what Masonry is, and what it stands for; remember that it is not a
that it is a series of moral teachings, it points the way to man to a
cleaner life; it broadens his knowledge of his duty to his God and to
man; Masonry cannot make a man live better, but it puts within his
grasp these moral
precepts which, if he follows their literal meaning, will make him a
a better father, a better neighbor and a better Mason; there is no
for a Mason to go radically wrong; the greatest teachings ever written
the Great Light in Masonry; a Mason has no excuse for not knowing what
fair and just in his actions toward his fellow man; many of us consider
Masons because we have taken its degrees and are permitted to wear its
our coat lapels, but that conception of it is as far from the truth as
is from the West; a true Mason is a man; a man who is willing to make
of time, money and opportunity in behalf of mankind and the brother at
Charles B. Eddy, P.G.M., Michigan
No man can
say that he has done his best if there even one more least thing he can
Marks and Mark Masonry
By Bro Charles C. Conover,
The Selection and Registration
of “Marks” With Laws and Customs Relating Thereto
was particularly attracted to this subject when I read the following
the American Tyler-Keystone of Novembers 1915:
“A Michigan companion was
recently visiting in
a neighboring state, and upon being examined was asked to show his
Mark. He was
unable to do so, never having complied with the instructions to select
a Mark. He was somewhat at a loss to know just what the examining
and later made inquiry and was instructed.
“Every companion is supposed to
select and record
a Mark that will identify him. The Mark should be engraved upon the
or some token. Some Grand Chapters require that this should be done
before a companion
is exalted, but others trust to the companion following the instruction
many times is neglected, and the companion later on finds himself in an
position because of his failure to comply with the regulations. We
wonder what percentage
of Royal Arch Masons of Michigan have really selected and registered
at the time that it was fortunate this matter had been brought to the
of our Michigan companions, for some other jurisdictions are making
to have every brother Mark Master Mason select and record his “Mark,”
and a good
majority of Grand Jurisdictions have legislated that a brother cannot
until he has selected his “Mark” and had it recorded with the Secretary.
I find that
nearly if not all Masonic Supply Houses furnish “Books of Marks” in
but showing a conventional keystone with the letters in the circle in
of which each brother is expected to register his own particular mark
One jurisdiction, Alberta, furnishes a printed blank form of size to
fit an official
envelope with spaces for name, number of chapter, date of M. M. M., and
of Mark. This blank is supplied to the candidate to make it as
convenient as possible
for him to select his Mark and forward it to the Secretary of the
chapter for proper
record in the Mark Book.
Now it happens
that all chapter Secretaries are not born artists and many refrain from
to depict the intricate designs which some brothers see fit to choose;
the Mark Mason himself may not be an artisan skilled in the use of a
pen but might
wield an axe with precision, so that it finally seems to narrow down to
chapter select a companion who has the artisan temperament coupled with
ambition to do the work. In the absence of all the above, it generally
the requirement is entirely neglected.
mine among the number, present each Mark Master with a “token” in the
form of a
“penny” which gives on the obverse the name, number and location of
with a conventional Royal Arch emblem; on the reverse a keystone with a
the center for engraving the mark after it has been selected, but there
the more or less mystified brother and when he is examined as to his
for the Mark degree (if this is done at all) no question is asked as to
he has selected and recorded his Mark.
As a rule
I find that foreign chapters give much more attention and care to
recording of Marks than do the chapters of the United States.
to get more definite information upon the various angles of this
subject, I addressed
a questionnaire to the Grand Secretary of each Grand Chapter of the
contained the following:
“I am preparing
an article for the next Grand Chapter proceedings on the selection and
of Marks by Mark-Master Masons. Will you please briefly answer these
far as they relate to your Grand Chapter:
1. Has any ruling been made as to
what constitutes a Mark?
2. Does Grand Chapter require that
the Mark shall be recorded previous to Royal
3. Are Mark Masons examined as to
proficiency in Lecture before advancement?
4. Does the custom of presenting a
'Penny' to Mark Masters obtain among your
5. Has Grand Chapter legislated on
6. Cite page and year of
legislation on Marks in your proceedings, if any.
information on the subject of Marks generally you can refer me to will
Most of the Grand Secretaries were
very courteous in answering promptly and supplying all the information
with this information, I have arranged the replies in tabulated form
at a glance, give the interested student a world survey of this
degree not conferred in the Royal Arch Chapter, but controlled by Mark
Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons.
citations to constitutional or statutory provisions have been gathered
give the reader a good general idea of the extent to which selection of
proficiency in the degrees have had the attention of the several Grand
‒ Whereas, The traditions of the Mark Master's degree made it
obligatory and imperative
upon every one, who has been advanced to this degree, to “choose for
himself a Mark”;
The Mark is not a mere ornamental appendage to the degree, but is a
of the rites of friendship and brotherly love, and its presentation at
by the owner to another Mark Master Mason, would claim for him certain
acts of friendship
which are of solemn obligation among the Fraternity, therefore
1st, That every Mark Master Mason in this Grand Jurisdiction be
required to choose
a Mark and record it in the Lodge Book of Marks, and that the R.’. W.’.
of the several Lodges of M.’.M.’. Masons, working under the
Jurisdiction of this
Grand Chapter, require each and every candidate, immediately after
to the M.’.M.’. Degree, to record his name and date of advancement in
Book of Marks,” and inform him that, before he can receive the R.’.A.’.
he must complete the record by selecting and recording his Mark.
2d, That it shall be the duty of the High Priest of each and every
chapter in this
Grand Jurisdiction, whenever a candidate is announced for the R.’.A.’.
ascertain from the Secretary of the Chapter if such candidate has
chosen his Mark
and had same recorded in the “Book of Marks”; and that the R.’.A.’.
not be conferred upon any candidate until such record is made.
Ed, That the Secretaries of the Subordinate Chapters, under this Grand
be required to furnish the Grand Secretary with the names and
descriptions of the
Marks chosen by the members of their respective chapters.
4th, That the Grand Secretary of this Grand Chapter be required to keep
in his office
a book, in which shall be recorded the names and descriptions of all
Marks in this Grand Jurisdiction. (Proc. 1899, p. 28.)
‒ Candidates for reception are examined in M. M. M. Lodge; candidates
are examined in M. E. M. Lodge. (Proc. 1919, p. 9.)
‒ The Secretary of each subordinate chapter, in reporting exaltations
three months or more prior to the meeting of Grand Chapter, shall state
each companion so exalted has recorded his Mark. The Grand Secretary
notify any companion delinquent in this jurisdiction that unless his
have been properly recorded within thirty days, he shall be subject to
by his subordinate chapter. (Proc. 1912, pp. 197, 205.)
‒ Every Mark Master must select his Mark and record the same in the
Book of Marks,
kept by the chapter for that purpose; and no chapter shall confer the
degree until this requirement has been complied with. (Con., sec. 136.)
‒ Every chapter is hereby required to procure and keep with its records
a Book of
Marks. Hereafter no candidate shall be exalted within this jurisdiction
shall have selected and caused to be recorded a Mark. (Constitution and
‒ All Mark Masons are required to adopt a Mark, and have the same
recorded in the
Book of Marks, officers of subordinate chapters using all endeavors to
who are at present members and who have not chosen for themselves a
Mark, to do
so. (Adopted Jan. 16, 1895.)
Hereafter all Marks must be recorded in the Lodge Book of Marks in ink,
with a full
description of same. (Proc. 1919, p. 78.)
‒ By a resolution of the Grand Mark Lodge of England, on the 14th of
the regulation confining speculative Masons' Marks to any specified
number of points
was abrogated. But straight lines are imperative.
‒ Art. V., Sec. 2. A Book of Marks. Reg. 38. It is the duty of each
chapter to maintain
a suitable Book of Marks, and to require every member and all
receiving the Mark Master's degree, to select and have recorded a
therein. The Royal Arch degree shall not be conferred until the “Mark”
and recorded, unless it be done at a Grand visitation by the Grand High
in which case the matter of the “Mark” should be attended to as soon as
thereafter. (Con. 1919, p. 25.)
Chapter. ‒ In case of a Mark, constructed in part of “initials per a
inscribed correctly as to instructions, but incorrectly as to
erroneous explanation of the key by the High Priest: Held that the
prevail, and the inscription be made to comply therewith. (Pro. 1897,
pp. 42, 173.)
‒ 267. It shall be the duty of every chapter to provide itself with a
Book of Marks
which shall be on the Secretary's desk whenever the Mark Master's
degree is conferred.
Mark Master is expected to select and record a Mark before receiving
the Royal Arch
degree, and when once chosen and recorded as such in the Lodge Book of
one can alter or change it. If erased or changed on the book, such
illegal, does not thereby alter or change the Mark, which remains as
selected and recorded, and the Secretary of the chapter should cause
on the book.
269. It is
not necessary for a Mark Master to engrave with his own hand his chosen
the Lodge Book of Marks, but it may be done by another with his
Secs. 267, 268, 269.)
‒ Resolved, That in no case shall any candidate receive the Royal Arch
he has adopted and filed with the Secretary of his chapter a copy of
the Mark he
is obliged to adopt; that a petition for affiliation shall be
accompanied by a copy
of the Mark of the applicant, and that no demit shall be issued to any
who has not previously selected a Mark and had the same recorded.
(Proc. 1911, p.
Iowa. ‒ Sec.
122. Every chapter in this jurisdiction shall keep a Book of Marks, in
be entered the Mark of every member advanced to the honorary degree of
and every member so advanced is required to select a Mark and have it
said Book of Marks before he receives the Royal Arch degree.
(Constitution and Laws.)
‒ In Ireland there are no definite rules, and the Marks are accepted
just as they
are sent in. No attention is paid practically to the matter, and not
one Mark Mason
in twenty adopts a Mark of any kind. Those who do frequently select
unsuitable for the purpose, such as crests or monograms, but they are
in Grand Chapter books without question.
Sec. 81. No candidate shall be exalted until he shall have selected his
caused it to be recorded in the Lodge Book of Marks. (By-laws.)
That the High Priests of the various chapters in this jurisdiction be
require that all members of their respective chapters who have
to select and record their Marks do so without further delay. (Standing
1892, p. 502.)
That the Grand Lecturer be directed to examine the Book of Marks of any
visited by him, and report to the Grand High Priest and the Grand
non-compliance with the Grand Chapter By-laws referring to the
selection and recording
of Marks. (Standing Regulation, Proc. 1892, p. 502.)
When a companion
joins a chapter on demit, he should record his Mark in the Lodge Book
if it has not been recorded where he previously held membership. (Laws
‒ Reg. 498. The “Mark” is a pledge in seeking relief, not for ordinary
Recording a “Mark” must be done before the Royal Arch can be conferred.
No candidate shall be advanced to the Royal Arch degree until he shall
a Mark and presented it to the Secretary for record. (Digest, p. 196.)
‒ 3. All chapters are required to procure and keep Mark Books for the
the Marks of their respective members. The registry shall include copy
with description. No candidate shall be exalted to the degree of Royal
has not previously recorded his Mark.
4. No candidate
shall be exalted, unless by dispensation, until he has made sufficient
in the preceding degrees to satisfy the Council that he can make
himself known in
those degrees. The examination as to proficiency to be had in open
‒ It is not necessary for the High Priest to require Mark Masters to
choose a Mark
and have the same recorded. (Proc. 1898, p. 14.)
‒ Resolved, That all High Priests; be obliged under the law to see that
be required to record their Marks before exaltation to the Royal Arch
that High Priests use their best endeavors to have all companions whose
not yet recorded attend to this duty at their earliest convenience.
‒ Ritual requirements only.
‒ Only requirements are in the ritual.
‒ Proficiency in lecture refers to proficiency in grips and words;
other examination. (Gd. Sec.)
Sec. 3. It
shall be the duty of every member of this chapter, within six months
from the date
of his exaltation, to select his Mark and cause the same to be recorded
in the Book
of Marks. (Cons. and By-laws, 1892, p. 26.)
That the Secretary of each chapter in this jurisdiction, be required to
so far as possible, the signature to the roll book and the Mark of each
who has ever been a member of his chapter, and that the incoming Grand
inquire into the fulfillment of this recommendation and report. (Proc.
‒ Before advancement, each candidate shall prove himself to be a
as a Master Mason, by an examination before the Council; and as a Mark
Most Excellent Master in open lodge to the entire satisfaction of the
which he seeks advancement, by examination in the degrees last
No Mark Master
shall be exalted to the Royal Arch degree until his Mark is recorded.
Bylaws, Chap. 110, 1906.)
Every Mark Master Mason attached to a chapter under this jurisdiction,
his exaltation, select his Mark and record the same in the Book of
Marks kept by
the chapter for that purpose. And every candidate for affiliation must
in like manner
record his Mark before being permitted to sign the bylaws; and it is
made the duty
of the Secretary of each chapter to see that this regulation is
complied with. (Gen.
Reg., Sec. 2.)
That the subordinate chapters under our jurisdiction be, and they are
not to confer any degree in Capitular Masonry until the candidate has
in the preceding degrees of Masonry, and especially that he be found
conversant with the first sections of the Entered Apprentice, Fellow
Master Masons' degrees, and with all the means of recognition practiced
Masons, to be ascertained by a committee or otherwise. (Proc. 1878, p.
‒ Sec. 20. No Mark Master Mason shall be exalted to the Royal Arch
degree in this
jurisdiction until he shall have chosen his particular Mark, and have
a representative of the same for record to the chapter in which he was
It is the duty of the Secretary of the chapter under the direction of
the High Priest,
to ascertain from the Shook of Marks, that no Mark bearing the same
device as that
offered, has previously been recorded; and to refuse to record a
duplicate of any
Mark already recorded in the Lodge Book of Marks, except as provided in
It is incumbent upon subordinate chapters to require candidates to
lectures and pass examination thereon in open lodge before exaltation.
A Mark Master Mason may select as his Mark any design he may wish not
selected by another. If the Mark so to be selected be inscribed upon a
a badge, bearing the Mark of a deceased brother, and shall come to the
a gift or an inheritance, it may be adopted as his own particular Mark
by such Mark
Master Mason; provided, it be actually in his possession, unencumbered
‒ Sec. 52. 4. A Book of Marks, in which shall be recorded the Marks of
It shall be the duty of each member of a chapter to choose a Mark, and
the Secretary with a copy or description thereof. This duty is
incumbent on all
who have not previously selected and had recorded their Marks in the
of Marks. A pictorial description is not obligatory. A written
description on the
page set apart for the member shall be sufficient. The Mark of a Mark
must be selected and recorded before the Royal Arch degree is conferred
A duly recorded
Mark cannot be altered or changed, and, during the lifetime of the
owner, must not
be chosen by another member of the same chapter. If a companion changes
his Mark remains as a matter of record with the mother chapter, but a
may be placed on record in the Book of Marks belonging to the chapter
he subsequently affiliates, due reference being made to the original
No candidate shall be exalted until he has exhibited suitable
proficiency in the
preceding degrees. (Con., Secs. 52, 75.)
‒ Only the ritual construction, viz.: Three, five, seven, or any other
of lines, or salient points joined by lines, the equilateral triangle
(Gd. Scribe E.)
‒ Each subordinate chapter under this jurisdiction is required to keep
a “Book of
Marks,” in which shall be entered the Mark of every brother advanced to
degree of a Mark Master Mason, and every brother so advanced is hereby
to select a Mark, and have it recorded in said “Book of Marks,” before
to the sublime degree of a Royal Arch Mason. (By-Laws, Sec. 24, p. 28.)
use of monograms, initials, or the given or surnames, in whole or in
part, of a
Mark Master Mason as his Mark, selected by him to be placed in the Book
be prohibited; that the report of the subordinate chapters to the Grand
be so arranged as to include therein the remark that each Mark Master
had selected his Mark prior to receiving the degree of Royal Arch, and
same had been duly recorded in the Lodge Book of Marks. (Pro. 1904, p.
for advancement must have sufficient knowledge of the preceding degree
to make himself
well known. (By-laws, Sec. 28, p. 27.)
‒ It is competent for a companion to select as his own, the Mark of a
(Pro. 1899, p. 16.)
Ohio. ‒ Sec.
25, p. 95. The petitioners for a new chapter, and the candidates
advanced in it
to the degree of Mark Master whilst such new chapter is working under a
have the right, respectively, to choose a Mark, and have the same
recorded in the
Mark Book of such new chapter, and those of the petitioners who had
time chosen Marks and had them recorded elsewhere, may also have them
the Mark Book of such new chapter.
p. 98. It is the duty of each chapter to keep a suitable Mark Book, and
a record of the Marks of its members.
In no case
shall any candidate receive the Royal Arch degree until he has adopted
with the Secretary of his chapter a copy of the Mark he is obligated to
1911, p. 46.)
Sec. I, p.
51. All the degrees of the chapter except the Royal Arch may be
conferred on a candidate
on the same day. Two special meetings may be called and all degrees may
charter for such new chapters shall be granted by Grand Chapter, that
of the High Priests and Secretaries, under seal, of the various
chapters of which
the petitioning companions are members, should be filed with the Grand
showing that the requirements of selecting and registering the
have been complied with. (Pro. 1919, p. 53.)
‒ There is no published ruling as to what constitutes a Mark in this
but before a Mark Master Mason may be exalted to the degree of Royal
he must adopt as his Mark a device to be engraved upon a hard
a circle, surrounded by letters with which you are familiar and within
of a keystone, the said Mark must be recorded in a Book of Marks which
is required to keep. (Grand Secretary Wells.)
‒ Every brother, before being exalted to the sublime degree of the
Royal Arch, should
adopt a Mark and have the same properly recorded. (Pro. 1906, p. 8.)
‒ The writer has had considerable correspondence with Grand Scribe E.
has edited a “Memorandum on Marks” which was submitted to the Grand
its approval. This is the most comprehensive treatment of the subject I
and I have Companion Murray's permission to reproduce such portions as
for which he has our grateful thanks.
Memorandum in Regard to
Interpretation of Instructions for the Making of Marks
A clear statement
has frequently been requested as to the exact rules governing the form
In particular, a prominent chapter has specially asked to be provided
with a definite
rule. In consequence the following Memorandum was submitted to Supreme
for the purpose of information so that they might consider the subject
and, if so
advised, give an official ruling on the meaning of the instructions for
The matter was remitted to a special Sub-Committee on Marks, and in the
the Memorandum has been revised and corrected.
there are no definite rules, and the Marks are accepted just as they
are sent in.
No attention is paid practically to the matter, and not one Mark Mason
adopts a Mark of any kind. Those who do frequently select designs quite
for the purpose, such as crests or monograms, but they are all
registered in Grand
Chapter books without question.
I am informed
that by a resolution of the Grand Mark Lodge of England, on 14th
the regulation confining speculative Masons' Marks to any specified
number of points
was abrogated. But straight lines are imperative.
so far as can be ascertained, there is no rule specifying what should
as a Mark, this being left entirely to the candidate himself to
Lodge of Scotland has never, so far as can be ascertained, laid down
any rule whatever,
and disclaims any responsibility for any ritual on the subject.
therefore, appears to be quite open to this committee to suggest a
for themselves, and to let others follow it or not as they choose.
as they stand at present substantially consist of a direction that any
by a candidate and member must consist of any number of odd points
lines, with the exception of one special figure containing three
points. The old
manuscript copy of the working, in the possession of Supreme Grand
“3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 points joined together to form any figure they
etc.” It may be interesting to add, in parenthesis, that according to
the old independent
Yorkshire working early last century, the members present had also to
be 3, 5, 7,
9, etc., and the fee was “one mark, 1s 1 1/2d., neither more nor less.”
held by some is that the Mark was, and is still supposed to be, made by
with the edge of a chisel, not by its corner point, so that each stroke
will make nothing but a straight line. This would apply to the Mark on
of the chisel, but I should rather think the Mark cut on a stone would
be made by
a pointed chisel, and therefore that so far it would be conveniently
form a curved figure. As the Mark was reproduced on the hewn stones, it
been the same as that which was struck on the blade of the Mason's own
identify them in the boxes, or when returned from sharpening, or for
any other necessary
actual words of the instructions do not expressly say “straight” lines,
commonly understood to be implied. The old ritual of Chapter Esk, No.
expressly says, “straight or curved lines.” There may be others giving
operative Masons of Scotland for centuries genuine curved Marks are by
unknown, but are very few. For instance, at Fortrose Cathedral out of
there is only one with curved lines (representing a vessel). A heart is
emblem not uncommon. But, on the whole, out of the many thousand
the thirteenth century downwards, it is almost unusual to find a Mark
Masons are lineal descendants of the Operative Craft, though not the
and theoretically they are subject to the same rules of work and
as the body from which they sprang.
question which arises is as to the regulation about the number of
points. This regulation
may hold with the present speculative system, but it has nothing
whatever to do
with King Solomon's Temple, where not a single Mason's Mark has ever
Indeed, there are no Mason's Marks on any known historic and ancient
or at least if so I am not aware of it. The story about a Mark of
by an equilateral triangle and about juxtaposition Marks is apocryphal.
has no sanction or foundation in the practice of the Operative Craft.
of counting will ever prove that such a rule existed operatively.
prove the contrary.
to be a story current in the Craft some thirty years ago that there was
between the Mark of a Fellow of Craft and that of a Master Mason, the
an even number of points and the latter an odd number. The idea was a
fad of some
theorists and had no foundation in fact, except that when the agreement
the Grand Lodge of Scotland and the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland
the Mark degree was entered into, it evidently ignored the fact that
the Mark Man
and the Mark Master were two separate degrees ‒ the former worked after
degree and the latter after the third. But the Mark was chosen by the
and the indiscriminate use of any number of points for a Mark, odd or
even, is therefore,
according to the basis of the theory mentioned, correct. Incidentally,
it may be
added that the part of our present ritual referring to the infliction
of the penalty
is incorrectly expressed. It was the Entered Apprentice who suffered,
had no Mark to present, not the Fellowcraft, who presented his own
Mark. It is absurd
to suppose that he suffered because he used the triangle instead of his
The American ritual I have seen solves this difficulty by making the
present and withdraw his hand in a different way to that of his workmen.
however, that the rule according to the ritual is to be observed, a
as to what precisely is meant by a point which has to be counted. The
is that the Mark must have a certain number of odd points connected by
lines. Now every straight line consists of an innumerable number of
therefore, the definition means and implies that every point in a
is not to be counted solely because it is in that line. Any point to be
must be selected for some other reason. Now, according to the
definition, it is
quite clear that the end points of a straight line must be and are
intended to be
counted because they are the points which are connected by a straight
line. It is
therefore beyond question that any point which is the beginning, or
ending, of one
or more straight lines must be a point to be counted according to the
rules of the
arises as to the counting when two straight lines intersect, or rather
not merely intersect but cross one another. In such a case is the point
a point within the meaning of the instructions for the degree? Varying
have for the past half-century been held among Freemasons about this,
but the old
records rather support the rule that a mere intersection or crossing
does not constitute
a point. The point is and must be the end of a line and not merely a
part of it
in the middle. (Fig. 3).
On the footing
of odd points only being counted, this consists of four points and is
being a point, while Fig. 4 is right and consists of five points, “O”
being a point
at the end of both e separate and distinct lines ‒ CO and OD. On the
a prominent member of the Scottish Craft holds that O is not a point in
because in both illustrations it is wiped out as such by being merged
in the line
AB. He holds that a point must be a salient point, either acute or
obtuse, or the
free end of a line.
5 is right and consists of five points, A, B. C, D and O. Take another
Fig. 6, this is wrong because it consists of four points, both ends of
OC requiring to be counted. It is on the same footing as if the figure
like Fig. 7. Fig. 8, which has been submitted, is evidently wrong,
because on any
system of counting, intersections or not, it contains an even number of
series of figures is given (Fig. 9) as an instance of common Marks some
were undoubtedly used by operatives, but which according to a strict
the ritual, odd points only, would appear to be improper.
of old operative Marks reference may be made to the historical examples
to be found
in the Mark Book now under issue by the Supreme Grand Chapter.
has sent this writer a copy of this volume.)
In the petition
to Lodge Mother Kilwinning in 1677, of which the Warrant to Lodge
was granted, nine out of the twelve petitioners append their Marks.
They are all
composed of straight lines connected together. If the crossings are not
there were 8 even and 1 odd. If crossings are counted, there were 3
even and 6 odd.
One of them was even and had no crossing point.
In the first
minute-book of the Lodge of Edinburgh, if crossings are not counted,
of the Marks are odd and the remaining one-third even. If crossings are
there is a slight preponderance of odd points.
In the Mark
Book of Chapter Edinburgh for the first fifty years or so, if crossings
counted, there are 33 odd and 40 even. If crossings are counted, the
remains. But 134 out of 233 Marks transgress the rule that straight
lines only must
be counted. The use of curved lines has, however, in this case ceased
decades. As in the case of the Roman Eagle Lodge, when the Mark degree
in 1785, a large number of the transgressing Marks are not Marks at
all, but representations
of Masonic symbols and emblems such as the hive, the irradiated sun,
the skull and cross-bones, the heart, and so on.
Jewish and other letters, a hand grasping an arrow, or a sword, or a
pen, or a musket.
There is a horse vaulting a gate, and a lion passant, a clam shell, a
a man in the moon, a harp, the volume of the sacred law, an irradiated
a laurel branch, etc., all drawn illustratively. There are also several
points alone and no lines at all. There are also instances of, say a
a triangle or a cross, or some entirely separate figure within it.
is only too common to find puerile attempts to combine initials.
illustrations of the Marks in the Roman Eagle Lodge Minute Book (Fig.
10), and of
those found in Culross Abbey, (Fig. 11).
A sheet of
operative Marks from the Queen Street Garden Walls, within a short
distance of the
Seat of Supreme Grand Chapter, is also appended for illustration (Fig.
may be taken to be about 100 years old.
To sum up,
the main points for decision are:
1. Whether a “point” (a mere dot)
can be counted if it is shown alone and not
as part of a line.
2. Whether a point means the end
of a separate and distinct line or a free salient
3. Whether the lines must be
straight or may be curved.
4. Whether the lines must all be
connected or whether they may be disconnected
as, for example, a triangle within a shield, or dots or a small or
5. Whether the points must be odd
6. Whether in this case a crossing
point must be counted.
7. Whether in the same case a
crossing point need not be counted unless desired,
and, if one is counted, must all in the same figure be counted.
8. Whether the points may be odd
or even in number. In this case it is not necessary
to trouble about crossing points, because they can make no difference
to the ultimate
As a closing
remark it ought to be added that, looking to the number of different
for the large number of members now being admitted, if any mere point
is allowed to be counted it will make it greatly easier to multiply the
number of possible Marks. If such a point of mere intersection is not
to be counted
and is ruled out, the number of available Marks with a reasonable
number of lines
will be cut down probably by one-fourth. This is admittedly an argument
but in certain cases expediency rises to the height of principle.
suggested is simply that all Marks in future must be composed of
joined together, and the counting of points be discontinued.
If this rule
be adopted no further question can apparently arise, and the simplicity
of the rule
is greatly in its favor. It would involve, however, that the ritual
should be subject
to a slight correction to bring it into conformity with the rule, but
this can easily
A. A. MURRAY.
Revised 18th September, 1919.
‒ I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, and am much
interested to know
that you are preparing an article on the selection and recording of
Marks, by Mark
Masters. I trust that you will favor us with a copy of this address,
for I am much
interested in the general subject, and our Grand High Priest is of the
some sort of legislation is needed in our own Grand Chapter upon the
your questionnaire herewith, and have endeavored to make general
answers to the
interrogatories therein propounded. It is somewhat difficult for us to
simple yes or no, however, for we have always thought that the matter
of Marks was
a subject for General Grand Chapter laws, and did not know that
obtain in the various jurisdictions with reference to the selection and
I can find
no law or ruling upon the subject in the minutes of our Grand Chapter,
and the answers
are therefore based upon the general doctrine that obtains among us in
which I have never heard questioned by any one. (Grand Secretary Hart.)
‒ Article 24, Sec. 1. Every Mark Master attached to a chapter must
select his Mark
and record the same in a book of Marks kept by the chapter for that
the degree of Royal Arch Mason shall not be conferred upon any brother
shall have thus selected and recorded his Mark. (Pro. 1915, p.71.)
The law concerning
the recording of Marks is only obligatory one time, and that in the
the companion receives the Mark Master's degree. If a companion desires
his Mark which he selected when he took the Mark Master's degree, in
the Book of
Marks of the chapter with which he may thereafter affiliate, he may do
so; but it
is a matter of courtesy and not a matter of law that he be permitted to
do so; otherwise
we concur in the ruling of the Most Excellent Grand High Priest. (Pro.
Mark Masters have six months in which to select their Marks. (Grand
Utah. ‒ Sec.
85. No candidate shall be exalted to the degree of Royal Arch Mason
until he shall
have chosen his Mark and the same has been recorded, and every
is required to keep a proper Book of Marks in which shall be recorded
the Mark of
each and all its members. (Pro. 1919, p. 28.)
‒ I. That every chapter be and is hereby, required to procure and keep
records a Book of Marks.
hereafter no candidate shall be exalted within this jurisdiction until
have selected and caused to be recorded a Mark.
High Priests are hereby directed to require all members of their
who have not previously done so, to select and record their Marks, and
of all companions in this jurisdiction who have neglected or refused to
these resolutions be made to the Grand Secretary. (Pro. 1889, p. 24.)
‒ No Marks are used in the Grand Chapter of Victoria for the reason
that Mark Masonry
is not made a part of Royal Arch Masonry but is under a separate
Master Mason may become a Royal Arch companion without having advanced
to the degree
of a Mark Master Mason, but as a rule a Mason belongs to a Craft Lodge,
a Mark Lodge
and a Royal Arch Chapter.
In Mark Lodges,
under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons
it is customary to present a “penny” to the candidate on his
advancement. A record
of all “Marks” is kept in a Mark Lodge and returned for registration to
Secretary of the Grand Lodge.
It is customary
for each Lodge of Mark Master Masons to adopt some suitable device for
generally, alterable in some way for each individual (Fig. 13).
triangle, however, is excepted and not allowed to be used except by the
Master as referred to in a portion of the ceremony. (G. L. Marquand,
‒ Selection of Mark. Sec. 77. It is not proper to adopt a resolution in
to suspend the advancement of a Brother Mark Master to the higher
he has selected his Mark, if properly reminded to do so by the
duty it is to see that it is done, and who should be disciplined for
to perform this duty. For refusal to record his Mark, the Brother may
by the chapter. (Code, Sec. 72, p. 24.)
‒ Sec. 87. No candidate shall be exalted to the degree of Royal Arch
he shall have chosen his Mark and the same has been recorded, and every
chapter is required to keep a proper Book of Marks in which shall be
Mark of each and all its members. (Con., Sec. 87.)
(To be continued.)
A Philosophy of Industry
of Industry deals with general principles and not with the technique of
organization or with programs of social reform. Questions of social
within the province of sociology and matters pertaining to the forms of
organization belong to economics. We are concerned herewith only with
the aims and
purposes of industry considered as a whole. Industry as it actually
be subsumed under a single generalization; it is too complex, too vast,
be grasped by the mired as a single whole; but just as there are
general laws threading
the infinite complexities of nature so are there general principles
industry, and it is these general principles which constitute the
problem and the
substance of a Philosophy of Industry.
century thought laid down as its most fundamental law of industry the
private right, and the corollary of the sanctity of private contracts.
has disproved this assumption because it has shown that it offers us no
private rights conflict with social welfare. Private rights must be
secured by any
philosophy of the matter but a philosophy of industry must have a more
and his followers have translated the whole matter into the terms of a
The owners of industry and the workers are engaged in a struggle for
the industrial processes. Such a struggle, no doubt, does exist, but
this fact does
not comprise an industrial philosophy. How is society as a whole to
struggle? By what criterion is it to determine when this struggle has
in a satisfactory form of industry? In the hands of the workers
industry may be
so organized as to fail to fulfil the functions of an industrial
system; and vice
For the same
reason the present essay throws out of court all forms of a priori
industrial reorganization; these programs cannot in themselves
constitute a true
philosophy of industry because we need a criterion whereby to test
whether or not
any given program is efficient for the needs of society.
of the present paper can be stated in few words:
consists of actual men, women and children who have certain actual
needs, such as
for food, clothing, fuel, shelter, education, recreation, and
opportunity to earn
a livelihood. An industrial system is judged by whether or not it
succeeds in satisfying
these needs. All questions having to do with matters of ownership,
etc., are secondary to this function, and are to be judged by whether
or not they
enable industry to do that which society can rightly demand that it do.
One may form
a mental picture of this simple thesis. On the one hand are the
millions of men,
women, and children whose needs are to be served; on the other hand are
resources wherefrom the materials are to be drawn which alone can
needs; the industrial system stands between the people and the
materials, and its
function is to secure, to prepare, and to distribute the latter. It is
a just, efficient,
and successful system exactly in proportion as it achieves this end.
The people of the United States need a certain quantity of meat; the
supply are found in the great herds that feed upon the plains; it is
of the meat industry to see that these herds are transformed into
and delivered to the points of need at the least possible expense. If
the meat industry
fails of fulfilling this function it must be reorganized.
of society are prior to all private interests. If any given unit of
of its function it must be reorganized though that should conflict with
of some one man or of a group of men.
to satisfy the needs of men, women, and children industry must
itself to the factors in the case, and these factors must be taken into
in this connection. Of these we may speak of
I. The Human Factors
is not a system apart from society; it is society itself at work to
own needs; accordingly, it is necessary for industry continually to
seek to adjust
itself as closely as possible to the plain and unchangeable realities
of human nature.
These are the human factors in industry and they may be described as
(a) Man is by nature a social
form of industry can therefore be tolerated which tends to disrupt the
Among these bonds are those that link husband and wife, parents and
Also, the essential social institutions, such as the home, the church,
etc., must evermore be safeguarded.
(b) Man has by nature many
than industrial, such as, for example, amusements, politics, religion,
industry must as far as possible be held in mutual organization with
(c) Man has an indestructible
instinct for possession, therefore industry must
make it possible for an individual to own property; but this does not
what kind of property it is possible for man to own.
(d) Man has within himself, as an
part of his nature, an instinct for contrivance, for invention, etc.;
if this instinct
is suppressed beyond a certain limit his nature is mutilated and he is
(e) Man has within himself an
inalienable instinct for private freedom. Any form of enforced
servitude is impossible.
(f) Man's body is susceptible to
external conditions; he can not long work under
(g) Industry has become in nature a
process; therefore the individual who is efficiently to perform his own
functions therein must be educated, and has a right to such education.
(h) Man's capacity of readjustment
new environmental conditions is limited and all changes in industrial
be adjusted thereto. This fact renders dangerous all schemes for a
in industrial methods.
factors are not here thought of in the terms of private and individual
in the terms of concrete fact. Just as the organization of a living
animal is adjusted
to the realities in its own particular environment so must industry be
to the realities of human nature.
II. The Natural Factors
in their demands for a complete reorganization of industry, overlook
limitations which are inherent in nature itself. Coal lies underground
be mined; if we are to have coal, men must work subterraneously. Farm
in the soil and men must plow, and sow, and reap if they are to harvest
Fish live in water; lumber exists in forest, often difficult of access;
be drilled for, etc., etc. Industry cannot escape the forms imposed
upon it by these
natural factors and society cannot expect it to.
III. The Factors of Instrumentality
by its very nature must be carried on by tools, machines, and other
(a) Industry is under obligation to
its mechanical agencies as efficiently as possible in order that
society be served
with the least possible expenditure of energy;
(b) And society cannot reasonably
of industry such a degree of efficiency as mechanical art cannot make
IV. The Factors of Change
must be so organized as to be capable of readjustment to change
(a) New devices may at any time be
(b) New natural resources may be
(c) Man himself may develop new
needs and wants;
(d) Old resources, devices, or
and similar reasons, there is an element of the unpredictable in
industry, and in
human society; therefore no given program of industry can remain fixed,
any such program be imposed upon the future.
It is not
possible for society at large dogmatically to dictate what form
industry must take
at any given point of time or space; the function to be fulfilled in
any given event,
and the factors whereto it is necessary to make adjustment, must always
what is the most satisfactory form of ownership, management, control,
In just what
manner any given industry must organize itself in order to harmonize
with the various
factors as above described, and in order to satisfy the needs as above
is always a problem for the economist.
H. L. Haywood.
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
be our aim to publish in this Department each month a list of such
as we may be able from time to time to secure for members of the
a book listed herein this month may be out of stock next month, and
unobtainable, and for this reason it is recommended that when ordering
pamphlets from these lists the latest monthly issue of THE BUILDER be
and no orders be made from lists more than thirty days old.
monthly reviews the names and addresses of the publishers of the books
in order that our readers may order such books direct from the
of through the Society. In many instances the books may be found in
stock at local
Research,” [Lib*] by Dr. John S. King. Published by the James A. McCann
York, N. Y. Price $4.00.
period of the War we were seriously confronted with the question, Is there Life after Death? The
onslaught upon human life severing from the world so many of those who
so much naturally induced fresh speculation on the question of
In the early
days of the War we were told of the vast congregations which thronged
in belligerent countries. Then, a little later, we were told that a
had become characteristic of the vast number, and with the acceptance
of the doctrine
of fatalism there came a visible decline in church attendance. Since
of the Armistice this attendance has become almost negligible.
question of Immortality abides, persistently challenging the thoughts
of men, is
due, we believe, less to the voice of the church than to those who
shared the contempt of the church, namely, the spiritualists, and those
researchers in psychical phenomena.
It will be
noted that those engaged in scientific research have been regarded with
degree of toleration than the spiritualists. To our mind, however,
there is but
little difference between the two, inasmuch as it seems that every
of psychical phenomena gains a conviction of possible communication and
with disembodied spirits, thus proving beyond any doubt, as they
that Immortality is a fact.
the existence of frauds and deceptive practices in connection with
sťances, the burden of the conviction lies in the possibility of
this and the spirits life. We are ready to admit that the books dealing
matter are practically all written in the same vein, and we feel that
when one has
read the discoveries of such men as Professor Hyslop or Sir William
Crooks, he has
grasped in substance what others have said or are saying. The evidences
alike in character, and the modes of obtaining contact of but little
an occasional book is brought forth which possesses a freshness of
and such a book coming from a distinguished personage ought to merit
Dr. John S. King, the President of the Canadian Psychical Research
Society, is the
latest contributor to this field. We thoroughly enjoyed the chapters
King is the great apologist for his position. Rarely have we read
anything so fair
in its appeal for a reasonable and impartial consideration of a much
His work is so readably written that its perusal at once imparts both
But few readers,
perhaps, would care to peruse the mass of evidences submitted, but the
dealing with sťances in which the materialization of departed people
will not fail to attract and hold the attention. The interest in what
was so absorbing
a topic during the war has waned, but the time for sane estimates of
subjects is not when the sorrows encompass us, but at a time which
admits of calm
and dispassionate reflection. To those desiring an easy and
to the subject we recommend this work of Dr. King.
* * *
The Road To En-Dor
to En-Dor,” [Lib 1920] by E. H. Jones, Lieutenant I.
A. R. O. Published
by the John Lane Co., 116-120 West 32nd St., New York, N. Y. Price
introduction to the book on psychical research by Dr. John S. King, we
the foreword of this work bespeak its own contents.
besides being an extraordinary story, will especially appeal to
everyone who is
interested in spiritualism. It tells in minute and exact detail how two
officers who previously knew nothing of the subject took up
to amuse their fellow-prisoners in a Turkish prison camp; how they
not only the Turkish officers of their mediumistic powers, but even
officers; how eventually the “spook” ran the camp, securing many
the inmates, and finally nearly effected the escape of the two mediums
the Turkish commandant and interpreter.
the two officers feigned madness so effectually that they were
repatriated on compassionate
grounds as insane, and later had some difficulty in convincing the
of their sanity.
reads like a wild romance, but is authenticated in every detail by
and official documents. The Turkish governor was actually court
martialed for his
part in a treasure hunt instituted by the “spook,” and since the
Armistice the authors
have received letters from Turkish officials asking them to return and
the search for the hidden treasure.
* * *
A Collection of Governor
in Massachusetts,” [Lib 1919] by Governor Calvin Coolidge.
Published by The
EIoughton, Mifflin Company, 16 East 40th Street, New York, N. Y.
inhabitant make known his determination to support law and order.” In
words Calvin Coolidge, the man and citizen, is seen as he reveals
himself in this
collection of addresses arranged under the above title. That we have a
is at once evidenced. His world perspective is not of the yesterday or
but concerns the today. He clearly distinguishes the necessity of
putting the house
in order before the things of the morrow can be rightly undertaken. Do
work, whatever comes, and do it with reference to right and justice,
principles on which this country was founded. Some of the addresses
cultural, but none of them are void of those crisp epigrammatic sayings
right to the heart of things. There is a fearless arraignment of
an expression for a firm, broad, deep faith in man, and a passionate
its realization, as upon this platform alone can the righteousness that
* * *
November Book List
list embraces practically all the standard works on Masonry which we
are able to
secure and keep in stock for the accommodation of individual members of
Study Clubs and Lodges.
We are finding
it more difficult each year to procure new or second-hand copies of the
works on Masonry of which, owing to the limited market for them at the
time of their
publication, but a small number of copies were printed.
We are continually
in search for additional items which will be listed in this column
whenever it is
our good fortune to secure them.
It is suggested
that the latest list be consulted before sending in orders and that no
made from lists more than one month old, since our stock of these books
and a book listed this month may be out of stock by the time next
month's list is
publishers are constantly increasing their prices to us the following
subject to such changes.
Publications Issued by the Society
| 1915 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1919 bound volume of THE BUILDER (for delivery
about February 1st or 15th)
| 1722 Constitutions ( reproduced by photographic
plates from an original copy in the archives of the Iowa Masonic
Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition limited,
| Philosophy of Masonry, Roscoe Pound
| Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M.
Johnson, P.G.M., Massachusetts
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro.
J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, red buffing binding, gilt lettering,
illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry,
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag,"
| "Further Notes on the Comacine Masters," W.
Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to "The Comacines, Their Predecessors
and Their Successors," a Masonic digest of Leader Scott's book "The
Cathedral Builders" and containing the latest researches of Brother
Ravenscroft which present a very logical argument for the connection of
Freemasonry of the present day with the Roman Collegia and traveling
Masons of the early times, paper covers, illustrated
| Symbolism of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Three Degrees, Street, 68
pages, paper covers. The lessons and symbols of each degree traced to
their origin, in every instance that it has been possible to so trace
them. Brother Street gives many explanations of our symbols in this
little book on which our monitors but vaguely touch
| Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite,
| Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite,
| “what an Entered Apprentice Ought to Know,” by
Hal Riviere. (Special prices on lot orders for 25 or more copies for
presentation purposes.) Pamplet, paper covers
Publications from other sources, kept in stock
| "The Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry,
by Brother Joseph Fort Newton, formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER
|| $ 1.50
| Mackey's Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two
volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
| Symbolism of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey
| “Freemasonry Before the existance of Grand
Lodges,” Lionel Vibert. A digest of the researches of Gould, Hughan,
Rylands, Speth and others on the origin and early history of Masonry
| Concise History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke
| Collected Essays on Freemasonry, Gould
prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all items
The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or registered.
is a missionary, now and forever, for good or for evil, whether he
intends or designs
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
Masonic Status of Presidential
and Vice Presidential Candidates
please tell me, through the Question Box Department of THE BUILDER,
whether or not
the Presidential and Vice-Presidential candidates are Masons?
Warren G. Harding is a Master Mason in good standing in Marion Lodge
No. 70, Marion,
Cox is a Master Mason in good standing in Jefferson Lodge No. 90,
D. Roosevelt is a Master Mason in good standing in Holland Lodge No. 8,
Coolidge is not a member of the Masonic fraternity. He and his family
at a Congregational Church in Northampton. Massachusetts.
* * *
The National League of Masonic
Can you give
me any information concerning the “National League of Masonic Clubs”
held their Annual Convention in New York City?
C. H. B., Rhode Island.
League of Masonic Clubs” is a national association comprising at the
240 Masonic Clubs located in twenty-seven Grand Jurisdictions.
1905, Brother S. R. Clute, Secretary of the Masonic Temple Club of
York, with the consent and co-operation of his Club, decided to send
out a call
to the Masonic Clubs then in existence in New York State asking them to
to a meeting in Syracuse to consider the advisability of working out a
plan to provide
for the interchange of courtesies to Visiting members of Masonic Clubs
in the State.
Pursuant to this call there assembled at Syracuse, New York, on April
in the rooms of the Masonic Temple Club, representatives from the
Temple Club, Syracuse, New York.
Masonic Club, New York, N. Y.
Masonic Club, Auburn, New York.
Oswego Masonic Club, Oswego, New York.
Representatives from Herkimer Lodge No. 432, Herkimer, N. Y.
followed upon general measures for increasing good fellowship among the
Masonic Clubs of the State, and there was adopted a form of traveling
card to enable
its possessor to secure Masonic Club privileges, not only in his own
Club, but throughout
the State. The following resolutions were adopted:
That we, the representatives of the Masonic Clubs of Syracuse, New York
Oswego, Herkimer and Auburn, do hereby constitute an organization to be
“The League of Masonic Clubs,” with headquarters at Syracuse, and that
we meet annually
on the third Thursday in April, with the Masonic Temple Club of
That the purpose of this League shall be the promotion of fraternal
the Masonic Clubs comprising it and to facilitate the interchange of
to visiting members.
That it is the sense of this organization that the several clubs
forming this League
may issue, to members in good standing, traveling cards signed by the
of the Clubs and countersigned by the members to whom they are issued,
said members to the courtesies of the Clubs comprising the League for a
to exceed six months from the date of issue ‒ the foregoing, however,
ratification by the Clubs forming the League.
Conventions of the League have been held as follows:
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at the Masonic Temple Club, Syracuse, N. Y.,
1906. Representatives were present from many Clubs throughout the
State. It was
at this Convention that the name of the organization was changed to
League of Masonic Clubs,” that the League might branch out and include
than those in New York State. President, S. R. Clute, Syracuse;
F. D. Clark, Oswego.
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at the Masonic Temple Club, Syracuse, N. Y.,
1907. League Constitution and By-Laws were adopted at this meeting.
R. Clute, Syracuse; Secretary-Treasurer, F. D. Clark, Oswego.
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at the Masonic Club, Rochester, N Y., April
President, Andrew Ludolph, Rochester; Secretary-Treasurer, W. H.
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at the Masonic Temple, Troy, N. Y., April 15,
Eugene Bryan, Troy, N. Y.; Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook,
Fulton, N. Y.
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at the Acacia Club, Buffalo, N. Y., April 21,
Albert Barber, Buffalo, N. Y.; Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook,
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at the Masonic Club, Brooklyn, N. Y., April
At this Convention a League sign was adopted and arrangements made to
have a sign
sent to every Club in the League. President, Francis G. Coates,
Brooklyn, N. Y.;
Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook, Fulton, N.Y.
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at the Masonic Temple, Herkimer, N. Y., April
President, Arthur H. Smith, Herkimer, N. Y.; Secretary-Treasurer, W. H.
Fulton, N. Y.
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at the Masonic Temple, Reading, Pa., April
17, 1913. President,
Francis F. Seidel, Reading, Pa.; Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook,
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at the Masonic Temple, Ithaca, N. Y., April
At this gathering Brother Joseph F. Lance, member of the Acacia Club,
elected Emeritus Past President. President, J. Warren Georgia, Ithaca,
N. Y.; Secretary-Treasurer,
W. H. Hornibrook, Fulton, N. Y.
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at the Masonic Temple, Glens Falls, N. Y.,
May 13, 1915.
President, Chas. N. Van Trump, Glens Falls, N. Y.; Secretary-Treasurer,
W. H. Hornibrook,
Fulton, N. Y.
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at Hiram Lodge No. 1, A. F. & A. M.,
New Haven, Conn.,
May 11,1916. A seal of the League was adopted at this meeting and
also made to publish a quarterly bulletin. President, Charles D.
Haven, Conn.; Secretary-Treasurer, W. H. Hornibrook, Fulton, N. Y.
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at Pittsburgh, Pa., May 9-10, 1917.
P. Kountz, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Vice President, Robert I. Clegg, Cleveland,
Joseph T. Slingsby, Rutherford, N. J. At this meeting plans were gone
thoroughly with a view to furthering the interests of the League and in
the official line-up for general progress, and the appointment of
all over the country
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at Buffalo, N. Y., June 10-11, 1918.
I. Clegg, Cleveland, Ohio; Vice President, Jesse I. Penney, Ingram,
A. G. Pitts, Detroit, Mich.
Annual Convention. ‒ Held at Detroit, Mich., June 18-19, 1919.
I. Penney, Ingram, Pa.; Vice President, Joseph T. Slingsby, Rutherford,
N. J.; SecretaryTreasurer,
A. G. Pitts, Detroit, Mich.
has grown as indicated in the following table:
Annual Convention of the League was held in New York City, July 6, 7
and 8, 1920.
The business of the Convention was largely of the routine affairs of
though it went outside of this in adopting resolutions condemning the
of Hungary for having barred Masonry. The resolution reads:
It has been brought to the attention of the National League of Masonic
the present government of Hungary has recently barred Masonic
gatherings or conventions
of Masonic lodges within her borders, be it,
That the National League of Masonic Clubs of America, in annual
register a fervent protest against this drastic and unseemly action as
a free and untrammeled people and as being against the promotion of
brotherly love which was the star of hope followed by all civilized
peoples in the
World War, and
resolution be embodied in the proceedings of this Convention and a copy
all Clubs associated with the League.
President of the League is Brother Joseph T. Slingsby, of Rutherford,
N. J. The
next Annual Convention will be held in Washington, D. C., in May, 1921.
* * *
Masonic Plays Wanted
In the San
Francisco Masonic bodies we have a Dramatic Club, known as the “Square
Players.” We have already produced “The Eighteenth Century Lodge,” “The
the Temple” and “The Traitor.”
We are always
on the lookout for something new, and the thought has just occurred to
me that perhaps
you might know of something along this line.
J. M. W., California.
that we do not know of any Masonic dramas that might be added to this
some of our readers can help us out.
The Knights of Rhodes
poet, traveler, and gallant cavalier, was one of the earliest to embark
travel, and write a description of his journey. He started out in
and returned apparently in 1612. The volume relating his “Travailes”
[Lib 1673] was published shortly after
among the many interesting contents is the following account of the
Origin of the
Knights of Rhodes, which will be read with interest by not a few
readers of THE
runs: This Order of Knighthood received their denomination from John,
patriarch of Alexandria, though vowed to St. John the Baptist as their
first seat was the Hospital of St. John in Jerusalem (whereupon they
Knights Hospitallers), built by one Gerrard by such time as the Holy
famous by the successful expeditions of the Christians; who drew divers
into that society, approved by Pope Gelasius the second. They, by the
Honorius the second, wore garments of black signed with a white cross.
the first master of the Order, did amplifie their canons, instilling
poor servant of Christ and Guardian of the Hospital in Jerusalem.” In
throughout Christendom they had hospitals and revenues assigned them
procured by Pope Innocent the second. They were tied by their vows to
all pilgrims with singular humanity; to safeguard their passages from
incursions, and voluntarily to sacrifice their lives in defense of that
used in Knighting are these: First, carrying in his hand a taper of
white wax, he
kneeleth before the altar, clothed in a long, loose garment, and
desireth the order
of the ordinary. Then in the Name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy
receiveth the sword therewith to defend the Catholic Church, to repulse
the enemy, to relieve the oppressed, if need be to expose himself unto
the faith, and all by the power of the Cross, which by the sword hilt
Then is he girt with a belt and thrice strook on the shoulders with his
put him in mind that for the honour of Christ he is cheerfully to
is grievous; who, taking it of him there flourisheth it aloft as a
the adversary, and so sheaths it again, having wiped it first on his
arm to testify
that henceforth he will live undefiledly. Then he that gives him
his hand on his shoulder, doth exhort him to be vigilant in the faith
and to aspire
unto true honour by courageous and laudable actions, etc. Which done,
do put on his spurs, gilt, to signifie that he should spurn gold as
dirt, not to
do what was ignoble for reward. And so goes he to Mass with a taper in
the works of piety, hospitality, and redemption of captives being
him; told also of what he was to perform in regard of his Order.
Then is asked
if he be a freeman, if not joined in matrimony, if under vow to another
not of any profession; and if he be resolved to live among them, to
injuries and quit the authority of secular magistrate? Having answered
upon receipt of the Sacrament, he vows in this Order: “I vow to the
to the Virgin Mary, His Immaculate Mother, and to St. John the Baptist,
by the help of God, to be truly obedient to all my superiors appointed
by God and
this Order to live without anything of mine own and withall to live
he is made a partaker of their privileges and indulgences granted unto
them by the
see of Rome.
Dudley Wright, England.
Faith and Hope -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald A. Nancarrow,
down the endless flood of years
There stands a bold majestic isle,
Where hearts aweary cease their tears
And aching souls find rest awhile.
And on the headlands of this Rock
A blazing beacon never tires
Our deep and welling fears to lock,
And feed our dying spirit fires.
As to us in an endless wave
Its swelling beams illume the way,
We tread anew the checkered pave
And all our journeyings are gay.
Col17 / auth. Cole Samuel / ed. Cole Samuel. - Baltimore : Benjamin
Eder, 1817. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 444. - 22.5 MB.
Ancient Art and Ritual
Har13 / auth. Harrison Jane E. - New York : Henry Holt and Company,
1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 261. - 8.3 MB.
Have Faith in Massachusetts
Coo19 / auth. Coolidge Calvin. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin Company,
1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 291. - 7.5 MB.
San73 / auth. Sandys George. - London : John Williams Junior, 1673. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 252. - 21.6 MB.
The Road to En-Dor
Jon20 / auth. Jones E H. - New York : John Lane Company, 1920. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 377. - 19.8 MB.