Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.
G. M., District Of Columbia
an American Naval officer, whose Masonic history is recorded in the
History of the
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, page 96, was born in Baltimore in 1759 and
Pittsburg in 1818.
War of the Revolution he was appointed a Master's Mate in the Navy, and
to the sloop of war The Hornet. In 1776, when only 17 years of age, he
to a lieutenancy for gallantry on board The Wasp which vessel had
captured the brig
Tender in Delaware Bay.
ship was the Sachem, and he was later placed on board a prize ship as
captured by the Perseus, but soon afterwards exchanged.
In 1777 he
joined the frigate Virginia which vessel ran aground and was captured
could get afloat. Barney was again exchanged, after which he joined a
which sailed for France and, on her return, took a valuable prize and
ship was the Saratoga, of sixteen guns, which captured the Charming
Molly and two
brigs. Barney led the boarders who boarded the Molly and was placed in
one of the prizes, but the next day they were all retaken by the
Intrepid, a frigate
of seventy-four guns. Barney was sent to a prison in England where he
a while, but managed to escape and made his way back to Philadelphia,
where he arrived
in March, 1782.
He was given
command of the Hyder-Ali, of sixteen guns, and in this vessel
encountered the General
Monk just outside the capes of the Delaware, and after a hot fight
Monk, twenty guns. For this the Pennsylvania legislature presented him
with a sword.
He was ordered to command the Monk, and sailed for France in November,
he received the money loaned by the French Government and brought it
back to Philadelphia.
He then heard of the preparations for an armistice. Barney was
commissioned a Captain
in the French service, in 1795, but gave up his command in 1800 and
of funds with which to pay salaries the Navy was dismantled at the
close of the
war, all of the officers except John Paul Jones were mustered out with
John Paul Jones, a good French scholar, remained in France as
Commissioner to settle
the accounts arising out of mixed American and French crews, questioned
of prizes, etc.
was again declared, in 1812, Barney was appointed by Congress to
command the flotilla
of the Chesapeake and its tributaries. He took part in the fight at
(in defense of Washington City) where he was severely wounded. Congress
a sword and the legislature of Georgia gave him a vote of thanks.
buried in the First Presbyterian Church cemetery in Pittsburg, but his
afterward removed to the Allegheny cemetery, in a circular enclosure
which was called
"Mount Barney," and at the head of the grave there was erected a modest
stone shown in the frontispiece.
of) Columbia Historic Society in 1910 induced Congress to consider a
bill to name
one of the little public circles in Washington, near the eastern branch
of the Potomac
"Barney Circle," but the bill, like many others, expired on the
after being reported. Like many other such bills it had the merit to be
by all the members, opposed by none, but not reached.
was always a gentleman: like so many seafaring men of his time he was
but unlike many of them he was religiously inclined, never indulging in
nor excesses of any kind, evidently observing the tenets of Masonry.
on the modest little memorial is now nearly illegible. It reads:
Joshua Barney, U.S.N., Born in Baltimore July 6,1759. Died in Pittsburg
View of Masonic History
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
was written at the request of the Committee on Masonic Research of the
of Iowa and is being published in pamphlet form by that Committee under
"A Vest Pocket History of Freemasonry." It is intended to be given by
lodges to newly-raised candidates. Prepared for such purpose, it does
to be inclusive, though it is more than a mere introduction to the
author makes no claim to authoritativeness or to finality, yet the
the whole is supported by the most notable of modern writers. The rich
story of Freemasonry in America is barely mentioned and other equally
chapters of the great History of Freemasonry have been entirely
omitted. The Research
Committee has announced that other pamphlets intended to cover omitted
with equal simplicity and informality will follow.
have given us a new method for studying the past. We do not interpret
of the Greeks, the Romans, the Hebrews, or any other ancient people, as
did. All the records have been newly judged. We may be thankful that
of Freemasonry have been likewise critically examined because we have
a clearer account of the beginnings of the Order. The books left us by
Masonic writers are usually admirable in spirit and purpose but their
portions must be received with caution: historians, archaeologists,
and other scientists have given us so many new facts and have disproved
time-honored traditions, that we must learn to read Masonic history
with a new mind.
In this brief and simple account of the matter the writer has attempted
these scholars as closely as possible.
does not mean that the present, or any other modern account of our
history, is to
be accepted as final. Far from it. It is too early to write such a
history. In spite
of all our discoveries much fog still hangs over our beginnings. The
the organization of the first Grand Lodge in 1717 are usually reliable
complete, but for the history prior to that date such facts as we have
up with a vast deal of myth and guesswork. One must feel his way
through the dark,
and it is therefore better to remain content with the facts, few as
they are, than
to yield to the influence of any one of the ‒ numerous fantastical
trace Freemasonry back to every nook and corner of ancient times; back
ark, for example, or to the creation of the world. In the present
as is its scope, an attempt will be made to indicate what we may safely
concerning our ancestry; but even so this account is not in any sense
the last word on the subject.
Also it is
wise to leave alone those enthusiastically held theories, which are
usually as vain
as they are numerous, that trace our Fraternity's beginnings to magic,
or to some
other form of occultism. Most of us are content to achieve results by
natural methods; but there have always been men who have believed that
back of the
normal forces of Nature there are hidden mysterious forces which are
to a few of the initiated, and they have tried to use these "forces" as
a short cut to power. Instead of digging gold out of the ground as
do, they have tried to create it by the transmutation of iron, or
copper, or tin;
instead of building up health of the body by the means known to all of
living, rest, exercise, and the like, they have sought the Elixir of
of learning wisdom as all of us men are obliged to learn it they have
for the Philosopher's Stone. There have been many societies in
existence in the
past for the purpose of teaching to initiates the so-called "secrets"
of this kind of thing, and these societies are called "Occult
because what they have practiced is "occultism." There were many such
fraternities in ancient times and in the Middle Ages, and some of them
a certain amount of wisdom and true lore; some of them, no doubt,
to the evolution of Freemasonry; but it is all wrong to suppose, as
some do, that
Freemasonry was created by these occultists or that Freemasonry itself
is a form
of occultism. It is nothing of the kind, for it has grown out of, and
upon, the same normal experiences of everyday life.
mythology there is a story singularly like our legend of Hiram Abif.
of a "square and compass man," and Mencius, another great Chinese
sometimes talked like a Mason. There is much said in Hebrew tradition
Amid the Pompeiian ruins was found a pedestal on which were engraved
symbols. In Peruvian architecture archaeologists have discovered series
five and seven steps. Among the American Indians there have been secret
that have used symbols and rites something like our own. Once was when
and hundreds more like them out of antiquity were accepted as certain
Freemasonry has existed from time immemorial. This cannot be disproved
but a more
reasonable reading of the facts suggests to us that these were merely
likenesses. Masonic symbols, most of them at least, as has already been
natural and human, and of such a character that early mankind came upon
and inevitably. There was no need that a Masonic institution exist in
men express themselves so. Such symbols grew up out of the human mind
as grass springs
from the sod. The causes which create secret societies in modern times
societies in ancient times. Ancient fraternities and teachers of
the way for modern Freemasonry and contributed many elements to the
making of its
philosophy and ritual, but it is going too far to say that our Order
can trace a
straight line of ancestry back to ancient Egypt, or beyond. Looking
back upon early
movements of this kind the Freemason of today can say, "That which our
is now trying to do those early brethren were trying to do, and what
they did helped
make it possible for our Fraternity to come into existence; by studying
them I can
the better understand Freemasonry as it now exists."
of these early anticipations of Freemasonry to claim our attention, is
House, of which Professor Hutton Webster has given us so exhaustive an
his "Primitive Secret Societies." [Lib 1908] According to this excellent
the primitive tribe was in reality a secret society, at least so far as
were concerned. At the center of the village stood a large building; in
unmarried men had their quarters; the chiefs and elders held their
and it was here that the boys, when they were come of age, were
initiated into the
secrets of the tribe. These secrets were probably the knowledge of the
arts of war,
of the arts of the chase, and of the revered traditions. The initiation
was an arduous
ordeal, barbaric in character, and sometimes so severe as to cause
death. The youth
who shrunk from it was sent back to live with women and children. This
is of interest to us because it exhibits in a very early form the human
for initiation and for secret organization.
manifestation of what we may call the human instinct for Freemasonry
word here in a broad sense) occurred in the Ancient Mysteries, of which
were found among most of the early nations. Of these the best known are
built up around such myths as those of Isis and Osiris; the Greek, more
the Eleusinian; and the cult Mithraism, which gained such a hold on the
especially the soldiers, as to prove a powerful rival to Christianity.
as needs not be said, differed among themselves in many important
respects but some
things they had in common. Meetings were held in secret; the candidate
clothed; he participated in an acted allegorical drama, the center of
a dying and a rising again; the new member was bound to his fellows by
obligation; the rites and teachings had a religious foundation; and
always stood ready to lend assistance to any fellow at any time. In
some of the
early cults of this kind the candidate was briefly taught a certain
kind of knowledge;
in a few cases the organization achieved fame as a center of
philosophical and scientific
teaching, as those of Egypt for example, to which Plato, Pythagoras,
and other great
Greek thinkers went seeking light.
It does not
appear that the early Hebrews had any such cults in their midst though
and in some cases, the Schools of the Prophets, approximated to the
in their forms of organization. The only famous Jewish cult, the
Essenes, came at
a later day. The first mention of the Essenes as a distinct sect was
made a century
and a half before Christ. Essenism was a religious order, the members
of which practiced
celibacy, taught a puritan morality, and lived in common, sharing all
Their influence was so vital a leaven that it carried many of their
much of their language into popular usage. "Much of the Sermon on the
says one authority, "is expressed in the phraseology of the sect."
of their tenets, no doubt, passed over into that stream of tradition
by Freemasonry but our Order did not originate with the Essenes, though
argued in behalf of such a theory, the learned Dr. Krause, for example.
could be mentioned: the Druses of Mt. Lebanon, for example; the Druids,
during the early Dark Ages; the Culdees, that fraternity of Ireland
so little is known; the Pythagoreans, founded by the followers of
Greek philosopher. It may be that Freemasonry owes something to some
one of these,
or, it may be, to all of them, but if so the indebtedness is too
slender to warrant
further discussion thereon.
another of these obscure cults, however, about which a word may be
said; we refer
to the Dyonysian Artificers [Lib 1820], a fraternity which, if our
slender sources of information are to be trusted, was organized about
and emblems of architecture. According to Strabo, an old Greek
historian, and fairly
reliable, this fraternity originated in Greece but later migrated to
which lies just west of the country inhabited by the Hebrews. This
appears, soon possessed such a monopoly of the building trade in that
when King Hiram of Tyre, a great Phoenician, undertook to build for
the latter's royal temple at Jerusalem, lodges of the Dyonoysian
sent to Jerusalem to do the work. Afterwards these Artificers migrated
whence they carried with them traditions concerning the building of
some of which, it is believed, may have been preserved until this day.
is worthy of note, the Dyonysian Artificers probably had something to
do with the
rise of the Builders' Collegia in Rome. Of these Collegia more must be
("Collegia" is the plural) was an association of not less than three
organized for some specific purpose under the laws of Rome. They began
to be fanned
during the first century of our era, and they reached their greatest
during the fourth century. Most of them were Burial Clubs, and existed
to give the member a respectable interment; others were strictly
religious in nature,
as in the case of the first Christian societies, which were Collegiate
others still were strictly social in nature, like our Shrine; and then
a great many of miscellaneous character about which nothing need be
said. The Collegia
which interest us most were those organized by men engaged in the
Each branch of that trade had its Collegia, and these Collegia, aside
purely fraternal and charitable features, no doubt preserved the
secrets of architecture.
Members were received by ballot; were admitted through an initiation
on religion and much like our own; there was a common treasury to which
paid annual dues; each member was placed under oath to keep the secrets
of the organization;
and the ritual was usually based on a religious myth which had to do
with the death
and the rising again of some god. The Masonic reader, as we need not
sees the points of similarity with modern Freemasonry and we may agree
our Masonic scholars in looking upon the Collegia as the Freemasonic
lodges of their
day and as having contributed much to that long stream of evolution
in our modern Fraternity.
Barbarians swept down upon Rome the Collegia, like all other
organizations and institutions
in the Empire, suffered beyond description; most of them went out of
and others lingered on, changed beyond description. Among those that
were the architectural bodies, for, according to such slender evidence
as we possess,
they were almost completely destroyed, so that it appeared that
Masonry as it used to be called, was a lost art. And yet, at the end of
Ages there began to appear in Europe the most marvellous buildings that
been erected by the wit and ingenuity of man. Who preserved the
and difficult art during that long lapse from civilization? For a long
historians of architecture were at a loss to explain this mystery but
of late there
has grown up a hypothesis which more and more claims the allegiance of
It is called the Comacine Theory, and thus far the ablest and most
of it has been made by a woman, Leader Scott, in her volume entitled
Builders." [Lib 1899] According to this reading of
the matter, a
guild of architects fled from the Barbarians at the time of the Roman
took refuge on the fortified island of Comacina in the midst of Lake
lies in Lombardy, and which region was at the time the one free place
These master builders preserved the secrets of their art and passed it
on to their
sons, generation after generation, until such time as the new rulers of
themselves sufficiently civilized to demand suitable houses and
buildings. Then it was that the Comacini began to spread their
They organized schools in which youth were taught the rudiments of
letters and something
of building, and they superintended the erection of walled towns, of
and cathedrals. As the arts of peace gained on the arts of war these
more and more in demand until they had spread over much of Europe, and
even as far
as England, and perhaps as far as Ireland. "They were the link," writes
Leader Scott, "between the classic Collegia and all other art and trade
of the Middle Ages. They were Freemasons because they were builders of
class, absolved from taxes and servitude, and free to travel about in
times of feudal
As time went
on through the Middle Ages, other kinds of guilds were established, as
in the Roman
Empire, and along with these others, the various branches of the
gradually became organized; quarrymen, stone-cutters, wallers,
each group had its own guild. But gradually it came about, owing to
at the time, which causes cannot be here explained through lack of
space, that the
majority of these builders' guilds became purely local in nature, and
stationary. The builders' organization in one city was distinct and
the similar organization in an adjoining city; workmen were not
permitted to move
about at will seeking employment because the feudal system did not
permit it. Among
all these organizations was one guild, descending from the Comacine
stood apart from the rest; this was the Cathedral Builders. To erect a
was an art in itself which required peculiar skill and special
knowledge of architecture
and therefore the mere local craftsmen were unequipped to work on these
structures; accordingly the Cathedral Builders were exempted from the
and feudal restrictions and were permitted to move about from place to
of our scholars believe it was from these particular guilds that
descended and some of them, G. W. Speth for example, believe that the
came into use because these builders, or "masons," were "free"
to move about from town to town.
Be that as
it may, it is certain that Freemasonry traces back to the medieval
that which is most characteristic of itself, its system of symbolism
the arts of architecture. The Masonry of these guilds was "operative,"
that is, it was engaged in the actual building processes, and in that
fundamentally different from our own symbolical variety, which is
but in most other regards the modern speculative lodge is strikingly
the associations of operatives. Like us, each community had its own
But operative masons had lodges, and usually a well-guarded building in
meet; they convened in secret; they were governed by masters and
were admitted by initiation, and were taught to make themselves known
to each other
by grips and signs; and the candidates were instructed by a system of
emblems. When a youth presented himself for membership he was carefully
then admitted as Apprentice, or learner, and his name was entered on
whence our term, "Entered Apprentice." He was then placed in charge of
a Master Mason, lived perhaps in that brother's home, and remained
under his tutelage
for a period of years, usually seven. At the expiration of this term he
he had to produce a masterpiece, and, if found worthy, was initiated as
of the Craft," or Master Mason, the two terms being interchangeable in
days. These guilds had certain traditions sometimes kept in writing,
and they used
"charges" to the candidates; some of these interesting old documents
still extant, and the curious reader will find a well edited collection
in W. J. Hughan's little book, "Ancient Charges." [Lib*] These
are quaint in form, uncritical in their account of the origins of
Masonry, and in
many other ways on a level with their age; but in respect of morality
a standard far in advance of their times. No modern Mason has any cause
ashamed of this ancestry.
be in order now to turn to the Steinmetzen, a powerful German
association of builders,
or to the Companionage, a French association of travelling Masons,
because all our
Masonic historians believe that we owe many things to these two great
but the reader must be referred to Gould's four volume "History" [Lib
4] for a full account of these; the
restrictions of space compel us to hasten on to the causes which led in
century to a breakup of the old builders' guilds in general and the
in particular. Our attention will be confined to England because that
the home of the evolution of Freemasonry from this time on.
A long drawn
out Civil War exhausted the people in spirit and finance. The
patrons of architecture, were dissolved. Puritanism came on the scene
with an intense
hatred for architecture and its demand for plain barn-like structures.
a contemporary of Martin Luther, rediscovered Euclid's treatise on
published it to the world, thereby "giving away" many of the trade
of the Masons. For these, and for many other less important reasons,
Builders rapidly declined in power and prestige and were finally driven
in domestic architecture in order to make a livelihood; and to maintain
lodges they gradually came to admit members who had no intention of
actual Masonic work. These latter were called "accepted" Masons, and
Masonry was called "speculative."
these "accepted" Masons to join the Craft? Something of a mystery hangs
over the matter but it is supposed that these men, most of whom were
and some of them, like Elias Ashmole, were learned, were attracted to
by its wealth of ancient lore, its marvelous system of symbolism, its
of brotherhood, its inherent democracy, its morality, and its noble
spirit. At first
the Speculative Masons were in a minority; but in time, at least in the
of London, they came to equal, or even outnumber the operatives; and at
gained complete control and transformed the whole Fraternity into a
on to narrate this story it will be wise for us here to digress a
moment in order
to say a word about two or three other sources from which modern
undoubtedly derived certain elements. I refer to the occult societies
or less flourished in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries such as
Hermeticism, Rosicrucianism, etc. We owe many things to these cults;
some of our
writers think we owe so much that they ask us to believe that
Freemasonry was created
in these circles. The present writer has no desire to underestimate our
in this instance but he believes that in occultism we find tributaries
the principal current. The operative Masons were not occultists; the
were not operative Masons; how then did the former come to be
influenced by the
latter? This is still a moot question but there are good reasons to
the non-operative Masons who were accepted in the seventeenth century
of them, more or less attached to schools of occultism, and that they
of it with them when they entered the Order. The reader who feels a
in the matter is referred to such writers as Albert Pike and A.E. Waite
and to the
scholars who contributed to the Transactions of the Quatuor Coronate
Lodge of Research.
All these men, especially the mystical and erudite Waite, have gone
into the question
thoroughly and have a right to speak. A mere word about two or three of
groups will suffice for our present purpose.
In the first
centuries of our era the Egyptian city of Alexandria was a great
To that center Greeks took their philosophies; Egyptians carried their
the Jews their Old Testament, along with learned interpretations
of the Mystery Cults took their religious allegories; Christians their
the common man carried with him an unquenchable curiosity to know about
occult, magical. Men were often very learned and almost always
a degree, and miracles were expected as a matter of course. Because of
jumbling of things not a few thinkers undertook to fashion new
religions and philosophies
which would include all the various cults, creeds, and theories. Out of
there came astonishing mixtures of thought; including certain occult
the most prominent of which was Hermeticism.
traced its origin back to the so-called "Thrice Greatest Hermes," [Lib
1906, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] who was, it seems, in the
of Egyptian mythology, bookkeeper to the other deities. About this
Hermes myth these
occultists wove a mass of legend, theosophy and magic, all of which was
under a rich veil of symbolism. Just what these men were intending to
say or to
do by means of all this it is not possible or necessary for us to say,
but it does
concern us that Hermeticism lasted long in the world, that it exerted a
that much of it was inherited by later schools, and that many of its
as the square and compass, triangle, oblong square, gauge, plumb-line,
parallel lines, etc., have found place in the system of Masonic
symbolism. It may
be that a few of these came to us direst from Hermeticism through the
Masons who were accepted by Masonic lodges before the era of the first
is another school of magic and theosophy to which Masonic historians
have paid attention.
For some time prior to Jesus many Jewish scholars were in the habit of
the Old Testament allegorically and mystically. A number of Jewish
rabbis who found
their way to Alexandria carried these speculations with them, and later
with a number of pagan and possibly Christian elements wherefrom they
built up the
strange system called Kabalism [Lib 1902]. Needless to say many symbols
employed in the four or five books accepted as authoritative (the word
means "accepted") and among these a Mason would be interested in the
Name, Solomon's Temple, the Shekinah, etc. Kabalism existed in
during the Dark Ages and was brought into Europe by Arabian
upon a credulous and magic loving age it was eagerly studied, even by
theologians, and it is very probable that certain of its speculations
and a few
of its symbolisms found their way into the stream of Masonic
traditions. At any
rate Masonic historians so believe, and most of them number it among
Out of the
mingled currents of Hermeticism and Kabalism was born, early in the
century, another school of occultism known as Rosicrucianism and so
because its members were called "Brethren of the Rosy Cross." What was
meant by this name is now lost. The Bible of this cult was a strange
issued in 1614 and called "Fama Fraternitas," [Lib 1614] which volume has been
by some scholars, Dr. Begeman for example, to a Protestant theologian,
by name. The "Fama" declared that Rosicrucians were of the Protestant
faith, honored king and country, sought the Philosopher's Stone, and
the Elixir of Life. One encounters familiar symbols in Rosicrucian
pages, such as
the globe, the compasses, square, triangle, level, plummet, etc. It is
and often impossible to follow out the traces of this esoteric cult but
that its waters often washed the Masonic shores; just how much we are
it must be left to future scholarship to decide. As yet we know so
the whole subject that it is wise to avoid positive statements.
One is tempted
to go more thoroughly into these matters. Freemasons, for some reason
always have been, and even now remain, peculiarly susceptible to the
appeal of the
occult; we have had some experience in this country during recent years
this. No doubt a learned dustman can find particles of gold buried away
in the debris
of occultism and the true gold, even in small quantities, is not to be
but the dangers attendant upon trifling with the magical are a heavy
price to pay
for what little we can gain. Those who have, with worn fingers,
untangled the snarl
of occult symbolism, tell us that these secret cults have been teaching
of the one God, of the brotherhood of man, and of the future life of
the soul; all
this is good but one doesn't need to wade through jungles of weird
in order to come upon teachings that one may find in any Sunday School.
the wise student to walk warily; perhaps the wisest thing is to leave
altogether alone. Life is too short to tramp around its endless
there is on the surface of Freemasonry enough truth to equip any of us
for all time
we have rapidly traced our evolution from the beginning, down through
Collegia, through the medieval guilds, into the beginnings of
we have glanced at a few of the currents of occultism from which we
something; it is now in order to turn to the Grand Lodge era; and we
can turn to
it not without a sense of relief because we can, except in matters of
walk upon the solid ground of fact.
By the opening
of the eighteenth century Freemasonry had almost lapsed out of
existence; it was
not dead but it was exceedingly dormant, and what few lodges were
and there over England, Scotland and Ireland, had little in common
except the name
and the tradition of a great fraternity. In Scotland it came to pass
that one man
could make a Mason of another merely by giving him the so-called
in Ireland conditions differed radically from those that obtained in
condition Freemasonry was in on the continent it is hard to say.
But the time
for a great awakening had come and the first gleams of a new day
horizon in the year 1716 when certain members of a few lodges in or
"thought fit to cement under a Grand Master as the center of Union and
How many of these "Old Lodges" were concerned we do not know, but Dr.
James Anderson, a Presbyterian minister, whose story of the period is
only official account we possess of the foundations of the Grand Lodge
and of the first six years of its history," gives us the names of four,
that met in the following places:
1. The Goose and Gridiron
2. The Crown Ale-House.
3. The Apple-Tree Tavern.
4. Rummer and Grapes Tavern.
Anderson, whose "The New Book of Constitutions" was issued in 1738:
and some other old Brothers met at the said Apple-Tree, and having put
chair the oldest Master Mason (now the Master of a Lodge) they
a Grand Lodge Pro Tempore in due form, and forthwith revived the
of the Officers of Lodges (called the GRAND LODGE) resolv'd to hold the
and Feast, and then to chuse a Grand Master from among themselves, till
have the Honor of a Noble Brother at their Head.
on St. John Baptist's Day, in the 3d year of King George I, A. D. 1717,
and Feast of the Free and Accepted Masons was held at the aforesaid
Goose and Gridiron
Dinner, the oldest Master Mason (now the Master of a Lodge) in the
a List of proper Candidates; and the Brethren by a Majority of Hands
Anthony Sayer, Gentleman, Grand Master of Masons (Mr. Jacob Lamball,
Capt. Joseph Elliott, Grand Wardens) who being forthwith invested with
of Office and Power by the said oldest Master, and install'd, was duly
by the Assembly who paid him the Homage.
Grand Master, commanded the Masters and Wardens of Lodges to meet the
every Quarter in Communication, at the Place that he should appoint in
sent by the Tyler."
became Grand Master in 1718 and caused "several old copies of the
manuscripts) Constitutions" to be "produced and collated," a fact
which shows that they earnestly desired to adhere to the old
traditions. Rev. J.T.
Desaguliers was elected Grand Master in 1719, and George Payne received
term in 1720. During the year several manuscripts ‒ copies of the old
probably ‒ were burned "by some) scrupulous Brothers, that these papers
not fall into strange Hands." In 1721 Grand Lodge elected to the Grand
John, Duke of Montagu, "the first of a long and unbroken line of noble
Masters ‒ and the society rose at a single bound into notice and
popular did the Order become that the learned Dr. Stokely, writing
January 6, 1721,
complained that "immediately upon that it took a run and ran itself out
breath through the folly of the members."
the Grand Lodge, the formation of which is above described, claimed no
except over London and its immediate environs; but it was possessed of
that there was nothing to stay its growth every whither. In 1721 twelve
represented at the Quarterly Communication; by 1723 the number had
thirty. Gradually lodges outside London came into the jurisdiction and
Lodge itself chartered new organizations here and there, one of which
was the lodge
in Madrid in 1728, the first on foreign soil.
But the growing
authority of the Grand Lodge at London was not unchallenged. In 1725
the old lodge
at York began to call itself a Grand Lodge. In 1729 Irish Masons
instituted a Grand
Lodge of their own; and the Scotch followed in 1736. Moreover, rivals
in England itself so that at one time there were no fewer than four
as Grand Lodges and claiming full sovereignty as such.
One can easily
lose himself in the details of the story of all this Masonic
organization and re-organization;
in the present connection we can safely ignore all except the account
of the famous
schism of 1753. A number of Masons in London, mostly Irish, rebelled
Grand Lodge there and finally set up a Grand Lodge of their own,
averring that the
older body had departed from many, ancient landmarks. Calling
Masons they dubbed the others the "Moderns" and undertook a vigorous
which was, engineered by an exceedingly able man, Lawrence Dermott, who
secretary of the "Ancient" Grand Lodge for thirty years and was
in furthering its aims. It was he who published in 1756 its first book
called "Ahiman Rezon," [Lib 1764] which title is supposed by
to mean "Worthy Brother Secretary." Dermott adopted the expedient of
lodges whereby men in service in every part of the world could be
the Fraternity, and this in itself added power to the "Ancients," or
Masons as they also came to be called, owing to the fact that the Duke
was made Grand Master.
For a long
time there was constant strife between the two camps, but by the first
the nineteenth century overtures began to be made by one Grand Lodge to
committees were appointed, and the spirit of unity began to win its
way. In 1813
a great Lodge of Reconciliation was held, at which meeting there were
of the so-called "Moderns" represented, and 359 "Ancients."
From this famous assembly Masonry emerged cleansed of all its feuds,
during the first quarter of the eighteenth century Masonry was
introduced into America;
at least, the earliest known records bear such a date. With the
the Grand Lodge in England Masonry received a new impetus and spread
the colonies, north, south and west. Some American lodges were
organized under warrant
from the "Moderns," others under the "Ancients," and this fact
in itself accounts for some of the variations in our rituals and
Lafayette, Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Chief Justice Marshall, such
were the names
in early nineteenth century American Masonry; and from Revolutionary
the present when such men as Theodore Roosevelt are proud to own their
the Craft has drawn to itself many of the noblest leaders of the
nation. The Order
played a secret but important part in the Revolution, made itself
vitally felt in
the terrible years of the Civil War, and at the present labors without
or failure in behalf of such principles as form the very structure of
What Masonry is to mean in the future no man knows, nor can know, but
it is still
filled with undying youth, and it so happens that in the very autumn in
is being written a great Masonic Service Association has been launched
by a large
number of Grand Lodges through their representatives at Cedar Rapids,
Iowa. Of all
these things it is impossible to write; nor is it possible to say
anything of the
Higher Grades, or of the work of the great individuals who have played
such a part
in the formation of American Masonry, and through it of the nation;
such names as
Albert Pike, Theodore Sutton Parvin, Albert Mackey, and many others of
would shine in any roster of great men. Freemasonry is in its very
religious but it is not a church, for, though it is friendly to all
preach the Fatherhood of God, the Brotherhood of Man, and the
Immortality of the
Soul, it teaches no theological dogmas of its own. It is not a
whatever its enemies may allege, but it is vitally interested in the
of the land and never sleeps in its efforts to keep American
governmental life as
pure as possible. It preaches no program of reform but nevertheless
to every effort made to lift the burdens of life from the common
people, and it
evermore holds before its membership the high ideals of service and of
It is a great body of picked men, in this country two million strong,
who are bound
together by sacred and serious obligations to assist each other, by
means of fraternity,
and through the teaching instrumentalities of ritual, to build in each
man and in
society at large a communal life which is not inadequately described as
a Holy Temple
of Human Souls.
brief, is the Story of Freemasonry. What a story it is! It began in a
in a few tiny rivulets of brotherly effort; these united into a current
with healing waters across the pagan centuries; many tributaries
augmented its stream
during the Middle Ages; and in modern times it has become a mighty
river which sweeps
on irresistibly. And now, if we may venture to change the figure, its
the homes of light and life; therein men may learn how good and
pleasant it is for
brethren to dwell together in unity. Well may one unclasp his shoes and
his head as he enters a Masonic lodge; a symbolism white with an
is there, and voices eloquent with an old, old music, and a wisdom
drawn from the
thought and travail of a thousand generations!
* * *
books are recommended to the reader. Except in the cases of Oliver,
Hutchinson the authors belong to the modern school of Masonic
scholarship as described
in the opening pages of this essay. All these volumes may be borrowed
Libraries. Except when out of print they may be purchased through the
of the book business.
History of Freemasonry" by Gould. [Lib 1904]
"Old Charges of Freemasonry" by Hughan. [Lib 1872]
"Hole Craft of Freemasonry" by Conder. [Lib*]
"History of Freemasonry" by Findel. [Lib 1866]
"Antiquities of Freemasonry" by Fort. [Lib 1881]
"Spirit of Masonry" by Hutchinson. [Lib 1795]
"Morals and Dogma" by Albert Pike. [Lib 1871]
"On the Mysteries" by Plutarch. [Lib*]
"Illustrations of Masonry" by Preston. [Lib 1867]
"Signs and Symbols" by Oliver. [Lib 1837]
"Masonic Symbolism" by Mackey. [Lib 1921]
"The Cathedral Builders" by Leader Scott. [Lib 1899]
"The Guilds" by Toulmin Smith. [Lib 1870]
* "The Philosophy of Masonry" by Pound. [Lib 1915]
* "Freemasonry before the Era of Grand Lodges" by Vibert. [Lib 2010]
"Study in Mysticism" by Waite. [Lib*]
"Primitive Secret Societies" by Webster. [Lib 1908]
* "The Builders" by Newton. [Lib 1914]
* "Speculative Masonry" by MacBride. [Lib 1914]
Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati. [Lib (see Bibliography for
* Mackey's "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry." [Lib 1914]
Waite's "Secret Traditions in Freemasonry." [Lib 1911, Vol
volumes to date of * "THE BUILDER," published by the National Masonic
Research Society at Anamosa, Iowa.
marked by (*) are especially recommended to beginners.
of the books listed by Brother Haywood are out of print and second-hand
Readers are referred to the monthly list published in the book review
THE BUILDER for such books as are procurable through the Anamosa office.
(Compiled By Bro. Robert
I. Clegg, New York)
| Grosse Landesloge der Freimaurer von Deutschland
am Berlin (National Grand Lodge of German Free masons at Berlin)
| Grosse Loge von Preussen, gena met "Royal York zur
Freundschaft" am Berlin (Grand Lodge of Prussia. "The Royal York of Friendship" at Berlin)
| Grosse Loge von Hamburg (Grand Lodge of Hamburg)
| Grosse Landesloge von Sachsen am Dresden
(National Grand Lodge of Sasony at Dresden)
| Grosse Mutterloge des Eklektischen
Freimaurerbundes am Frankfurt a-M (Mother Grand Lodge of the Eclectic
Masonic Union at Frankfort-on-the-Main)
| Grosse Loge "Zur Sonne ' am Bayreuth (Grand
Lodge "Of the Sun" at Bayreuth)
| Grosse Freimaurerloge "Zur Eintracht" am
Darmstadt (Grand Lodge of Freemasons "Of Concord" at Darmstadt)
| Freie Vereingung der funf unabhangiger Logen
Deutschlands (Free Union of Five Independent German Lodges)
| Grosse National Mutterloge "Zu den drei
Weltkugeln" am Berlin 150 (National Mother Grand Lodge "Of the Three
Globes" at Berlin)
show their character in trifles, where they are not on their guard. It
is in insignificant
matters, and in the simplest habits, that we often see the boundless
pays no regard to the feelings of others, and denies nothing to itself.
Meets On a High Hill
By Bro. Alfred J. Mokler,
ancient brethren met "on the highest hills and in the lowest valleys"
such meetings in these modern times are rarely heard of. Under a
by M.’.W.’.Brother Arthur K. Lee, Grand Master of Masons in Wyoming, a
of Casper Lodge No. 15, A.F. & A.M., was held on the summit of
Rock" located about forty-nine miles southwest of Casper, Wyoming, of
the following interesting account, written in advance of the meeting,
ON THE Fourth
of July, 1862, there were nearly a thousand men, women and children
at Independence Rock, the most of whom were traveling toward the
setting sun, seeking
fame and fortune, but not a few of these thousand souls who were there
were on their
way back from the new and wild country, retracing their steps to the
where the hardships were not so many, where hostile Indians were not to
and where life was more secure.
Rock is in Natrona County, about forty-nine miles southwest from the
City of Casper.
It was the resting place for the emigrants in the early days, and it
was here they
all stopped for a few days to repair their wagons, rest their horses,
oxen, mend and wash their clothing, administer to the sick and weary,
to bury their dead, and to do such other things that they could not do
over the rough and rugged country in a "prairie schooner."
travelers who were headed for the Far West, that is to say, the Oregon
reached Independence Rock, they estimated that they were half way
or Independence, near where Kansas City is now located, and the Pacific
distance being about 2,000 miles from their starting point to their
On the particular
day mentioned, which will have been fifty-eight years ago this coming
July, among the hundreds of people who had gathered at this interesting
spot on the desert, there were about twenty men present who could and
themselves as Master Masons, and it was decided by these men to hold a
on the summit of the rock, this being the first time that a Masonic
to be opened and closed in form in what is now the State of Wyoming,
and a communication
from Asa L. Brown, a Past Grand Master of Washington Territory, to
Edgar P. Snow,
Grand Master of Masons in the Territory of Wyoming in 1875, thus
explains how the
meeting was planned and carried out:
had just concluded our arrangements for a celebration on the rock, when
train from Oskaloosa, Iowa, came in, bringing the body of a man who had
shot and killed that morning. Of course, we all turned out to the
our celebration until 4 p.m., at which time we were visited by one of
severe storms, peculiar to that locality, which, in the language of
some of the
boys, 'busted the celebration.' But some of us determined on having
some sort of
a celebration, as well as a remembrance of the day and place, and so
about the time
the sun set in the west, to close the day, about twenty who could
vouch, and so
to speak, intervouch for each other, wended their way to the summit of
and soon discovered a recess, or, rather depression, in the rock, the
form and situation
of which seemed prepared by nature for our special use.
altar of twelve stones was improvised, to which a more thoughtful or
added the thirteenth, emblematical of the original colonies, and being
the East by acclamation, I was duly installed, i.e., led to the granite
several stations and places were filled, and the Tyler, a venerable
flowing hair and beard of almost snowy whiteness, took his place
without the western
gate on a little pinnacle, which gave him a perfect command of view for
summit of the rock, so he could easily guard against the approach of
ascending or descending. I then informally opened Independence Lodge,
No. 1, on
the degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master Mason, when
the brethren made short, appropriate addresses, and our venerable Tyler
reminiscences of his early Masonic history, extending from 1821 to
1862. It was
a meeting which is no doubt remembered by all of the participants who
are yet living,
and some of those who there became acquainted, have kept up fraternal
with this meeting, it may be stated that the jewels the officers wore
were cut from
tin cans, the square and compasses, as emblems of the fraternity, were
a pasteboard box, and the Holy Bible which rested on the altar, was a
the "Old and New Testaments, Translated Out of the Original Tongues,"
it being published in the year 1857. The volume was presented by Mrs.
and R. P. Parkhurst to Edwin Bruce, and Edwin Bruce in turn presented
it to Mr.
Brown at Plattsville, Wis., August 15, 1858.
kept of the meeting, the officers' jewels and the emblems that were
used were wrapped
in a piece of oilcloth and placed in a crevice of the rock, there to
future ages, and about twenty years afterward a man named Gus Lankin
all of which were in perfectly good order and well preserved. Lankin
over to Tom Sun, whose ranch home was not far distant from the rock,
and Mr. Sun
presented them to Rawlins Lodge, No. 5, A. F. and A. M., where they
a number of years. It has been said that a provision was in the minutes
to the effect
that the Masonic lodge nearest to the rock should be the custodian of
emblems and jewels, but whether this is true cannot be absolutely
stated, but whether
true or not, they did not remain in the custody of Rawlins lodge, for
a member of Rawlins lodge, without consent, took them to Cheyenne,
where they were
kept in the Masonic Temple, and later consumed by fire when the Temple
Bible evidently was taken by Mr. Brown to his new home in Washington,
and was later
presented by him to the Masonic Grand Lodge of Wyoming, as indicated by
on the fly leaf in the book. The Bible was also in the Temple when the
but it was among the few articles that were carried out of the
building, and it
was picked up in the street and returned to the custodian of the Temple
being damaged, except by the smell of the smoke. This highly-prized
Holy Book is
now in the possession of Grand Secretary Joseph M. Lowndes at Lander,
and no doubt
always will, as it should, remain the property of the Grand Lodge of
had occasion to visit Independence Rock several times during the summer
of 1919 in connection with some incidents he is preparing for his
of Natrona County," and he is positive that he located the recess, or
on the summit of the rock where this meeting of Masons was held
ago, and one evening while standing in this depression the thought
occurred to him
that to hold another Masonic meeting on this same spot would be one of
impressive meetings that could ever be held. The matter was brought
before the Masonic
Grand Lodge meeting held in Casper on October 8-9, 1919, and many of
of that body enthusiastically approved the proposed meeting, declaring
would not fail to attend, and it was their opinion that it would
one of the largest gatherings of Masons ever held in Wyoming.
at a meeting of the local lodge, the Grand Master was requested to
grant a special
dispensation to hold a meeting on Independence Rock on July 4th, 1920.
being granted, Brothers A. J. Mokler, L. A. Reed and J. J. Svendsen
as a committee to make appropriate arrangements for the memorable
event, and while
all the details are not yet perfected, it is proposed that the occasion
not only a Masonic affair, but the Fourth of July as well will be
this historical rock, and the wives and daughters of all Masons,
together with the
city and county officers, will be invited to attend the celebration.
Sweetwater River is hard by, and it is an ideal spot for camping and
and quite a number of people contemplate going out the day before to
enjoy the outing,
as well as to avoid the fatigue of a long drive in one day, and it is
this "advance guard" to take with them some fireworks and illuminate
rock and the sky in that vicinity as it was never illuminated before.
others who will go out on the morning of the Fourth and remain over
until the next
day, and they will also celebrate the day and the evening in a manner
meeting will be held promptly at 1 o'clock in the afternoon in the
the summit of the rock, which, of course, will be attended only by
those who can
prove themselves as Master Masons. The lodge will be opened, the
be read, the charter of the local lodge displayed, the Master will
state the object
of the meeting and an address will be made by Hon. William A. Riner of
but on account of the limited time no other addresses will be made, but
tablet, with an appropriate inscription, will be cemented into the rock
station of the Worshipful Master with impressive ceremonies.
will prominent men and Masons from the State of Wyoming be present on
but a number from other States will be there. Automobiles will be
driven from Laramie,
Rawlins, Shoshoni, Lander and Thermopolis, and at least 100 autos from
be there, and all the Masonic brethren who come to this city desiring
to make the
trip will be amply provided for.
from Casper to Independence Rock will require between three and four
roads are good, flags will be stationed along the route in order that
or those who have never been there may not lose their way, the scenery
and you pass by many intensely interesting and historical spots. There
are two routes.
If you care to go over the old Oregon Trail on the northwest side of
you cross the bridge about a mile west from the city; you pick up the
after traveling about three miles; seventeen miles out you go through
going by the way of Poison Spider and Poison Spring Creek, traveling
over the old
trail, almost in the very tracks that were made in 1842 to 1869, nearly
and along this forty miles it is estimated that there is a human grave
mile of the route. The clearest idea and best description of this trail
ever been printed is thus written by Capt. Chittenden:
wonderful highway was in the broadest sense a national road, although
or built under the auspices of the government. It was the route of a
‒ the migration of a people seeking to avail itself of opportunities
come but rarely in the history of the world and which will never come
was a route every mile of which has been the scene of hardship and
of high purpose and stern determination. Only on the steppes of Siberia
can so long
a highway be found over which traffic has moved by a continuous journey
end to the other. Even in Siberia there are occasional settlements
along the route,
but on the Oregon Trail in 1343 the traveler saw no evidence of
except four trading posts, between Independence and Fort Vancouver.
a highway of travel the Oregon Trail is the most remarkable known to
the fact that it originated with the spontaneous use of travelers; that
ever located a foot of it; that no level established its grades; that
sought out the fords or built any bridges or surveyed the mountain
there was no grading to speak of nor any attempt at metalling the
roadbed; and the:
general good quality of this 2,000 miles of highway will seem most
De Smet, who was born in Belgium, the home of good roads, pronounced
Trail one of the finest highways in the world. At the proper season of
this was undoubtedly true. Before the prairies became too dry, the
formed the best roadway for horses to travel on that has probably ever
It was amply hard to sustain traffic, yet soft enough to be easier to
the feet than
even the most perfect asphalt pavement. Over such roads, winding
the verdant prairies, amid the profusion of spring flowers, with grass
that the animals reveled in its abundance and game everywhere greeted
rifle, and finally, with pure water in the streams, the traveler sped
his way with
a feeling of joy and exhilaration.
not so when the prairies became dry and parched, the road filled with
the stream beds mere dry ravines, or carrying only alkaline water which
be used, the game all gone to more hospitable sections, and the summer
down its heat with torrid intensity. It was then that the trail became
of desolation, strewn with abandoned property, the skeletons of horses,
oxen, and alas! too often with freshly made mounds and headboards that
pitiful tale of sufferings too great to be endured.
the trail was the scene of romance, adventure, pleasure and excitement,
so it was
in every mile of its course by human misery, tragedy and death. Over
much of its
length the trail is now abandoned, but in many places it is not yet
the soil and may not be for centuries. There are few more impressive
portions of this old highway today. It still lies there upon the
by the traveler, an everlasting memorial of the human tide which once
to overflowing. Nature herself has helped to perpetuate this memorial,
for the prairie
winds, year by year, carve the furrows more deeply and the sunflower
its course, as if in silent memory of those who sank beneath its
if the trail, as a continuous highway of travel, has ceased to exist,
the time will
come, we may confidently believe, when it will be reoccupied, never to
again. It is so occupied at the present time over a large portion of
Railroads practically follow the old line from Independence to Casper,
some fifty miles east of Independence Rock; and from Bear River on the
line to the mouth of the Columbia. The time is not distant when the
space will be occupied, and possibly a continuous and unbroken movement
over the entire line may someday follow. In a future still more remote
be realized a project which is even now being agitated, of building a
national road along this line as a memorial highway which shall serve
and commemorate the past."
For greater comfort and the saving of time
it is not advisable to go over this route
on this occasion, the better road, the shorter route and easier
the southeast side of the Platte River. The scenery is just as
beautiful and interesting,
and there is no chance whatever of picking up a trail leading to some
than your desired destination.
the city limits to the right of the road you pass the Standard and
where 3,000 men are employed and the plants are in operation every
of the day during the whole year 'round. Ten millions of dollars have
in the erection of these plants, and thousands of gallons of gasoline
products are produced every day, and these products are distributed to
state in the Union.
a mile further on, to the north, on the bank of the river, was located
in the '60s, where Lieut. Casper Collins, in 1865, lost his life, being
the Indians, while attempting to rescue a number of soldiers who had
gone out in
an attempt to save a train of emigrants from being massacred. The City
was named after this brave young soldier. The hills to the left of the
road is where
the Indians gathered in great numbers in the hope of finding the
soldiers at Fort
Casper off their guard so they could swoop down and destroy the fort,
the stock, take the supplies and kill the soldiers. A great many
on these hills and in the valleys, and during the years that the fort
here hundreds of Indians were slain, and no small amount of soldiers
also met their
out from the city, on the north bank of the river, where Poison Spider
into the North Platte, is where the first cabin was built in what is
now the state
of Wyoming. In the early winter of 1812 Robert Stuart, with his six
men, built this
cabin with the intention of spending the winter there, but in less than
after the cabin had been built and their store of meat had been
gathered, the party
was scared away by a band of marauding Indians. In the "glade" on the
south side of the road is where Stuart's men killed the deer, elk and
bear for their
winter's supply. There was an abundance of buffalo on the plains north
of the river,
and many of these were also added to their larder.
about fifteen miles you approach the Platte River canyon. There are
in this canyon where the river is fully 100 feet below the road and the
tumbling and roaring over the huge rocks in the bed of the stream in
and foaming cascades. To the left of the roadside great rocks are piled
in the most
fantastic crags and precipices, rising like gigantic walls and
battlements to a
height of hundreds of feet. Passing out of the canyon, the river is of
smoothness and placidity, and far ahead you view delightful valleys,
miles out you pass a monument, which, from the inscription, would
it is on the old Oregon Trail, but the Oregon Trail is far to the
north, on the
opposite side of the river. The Jim Bridger Trail, which was seldom
long since every trace of which has been obliterated, was in this
board of county commissioners someday will move this monument to
which is on the Oregon Trail, and the proper location for the marker.
numerous ranches along Bates Creek you cross the Platte River on the
bridge. This bridge was built by the reclamation service in connection
Pathfinder irrigation project. Near here you can see the huge cleft in
at Alcova, where the rapid-running stream in countless ages cut a
stone several hundred feet deep. At Alcova, about a mile off from the
road to the
left, is the wonderful hot springs, where the hot water comes boiling
out of the
rocks as though it was heated from the flames of a furnace.
west from Alcova and only a short distance to the south is the
dam and reservoir, which required the federal government five years to
the best engineering talent obtainable, dozens of skilled mechanics and
hundred laboring men, together with machinery that cost an immense
most wonderful piece of masonry cost more than a million and a half
about ten miles from Pathfinder dam you view Independence Rock, and to
to the south and the north the whole country is of wild and varied
by immense mountains, rearing their distant grandeurs and originality
all of which fills the traveler with awe and delight.
Rock is an isolated mass of black granite, nearly one mile in length
to south, more than one-half mile in width from east to west, 193 feet
at the north end and 167 feet high at the south end. It resembles a
large bowl turned
bottom-side up, standing out on the plain, near the foothills of the
range. Sweetwater River, one of the prettiest streams in the whole
flows immediately to the south of the rock.
came to this rock more than a century ago to paint their picture
writing on its
no record of the exact date of the first white men to pass this way,
but Rev. Samuel
Parker, who was there on the 7th of August, 1835, says, "this rock
name from the circumstance of a company of fur traders suspending their
and here observing, in due form the anniversary of our national
Bonneville was here on or about the 14th of July, 1832, but the exact
be definitely stated. I judge, however, from his notes, it must have
this date, for he says: "On the 12th of July we abandoned the main
the Nebraska (now the Platte), which was continually shouldered by
and making a bend to the southwest for a couple of days, part of the
time over the
plains of loose sand, encamped on the 14th on the banks of the
Sweetwater, a stream
about twenty yards in breadth and 4 or 5 feet deep, flowing between low
a sandy soil, and forming one of the forks or upper branches of the
the plains were studded with isolated blocks of rock, sometimes in the
a half globe, and from 300 to 400 feet high. These singular masses had
a very imposing and even sublime appearance, rising from the midst of a
lonely landscape." Capt. Bonneville was preceded by Nathaniel Wyeth,
there during the month of May of the same year. Dr. Marcus Whitman and
who were making their wedding tour as missionaries to the Indians on
coast, and Rev. H. H. Spalding and his young wife, were at the rock in
were the first white women that crossed the Rocky Mountains, and, of
the first white women to set foot on Independence Rock. The wagon in
traveled is said by some writers to have been the first wheeled vehicle
the continent, but this is a mistake, for Bonneville's party in 1832,
the crest of the Rocky Mountains and felt some degree of exultation in
first individuals that had crossed north of the settled provinces of
the waters of the Atlantic to those of the Pacific with wagons."
John C. Fremont,
with Kit Carson as his guide, was here on the 1st of August, 1842, but
only a few hours. He continued his journey up the Sweetwater, crossed
Divide, camped on the west side of South Pass, and in due time
approached the loftiest
part of the Wind River chain, and on August 15, with great difficulty
ascended the highest pinnacle of the range, named it "Fremont Peak,"
after remaining on the summit of this peak for an hour, returned to his
the evening, and the next morning commenced to retrace his steps, and
at Independence Rock on the evening of August 22. It was on this date
that he chiseled
his name, with the emblem of Christianity, on the rock, regarding which
not unmindful of the custom of the early travelers and explorers in our
I engraved on the rock of the Far West the symbol of the Christian
the thickly inscribed names, I made on the hard granite the impression
of a large
cross, deeply engraved, which I covered with a black preparation of
well calculated to resist the influence of wind and rain. It stands
amidst the names
of many who have long since found their way to the grave, and for whom
rock is a giant gravestone."
some people who claim to have seen Fremont's name and the black cross,
symbol of Christian faith," (which he engraved on the rock), but after
hours of diligent search through hundreds of names I gave up hope of
and came to the conclusion that Col. Coutant was correct when he wrote
in his "History
of Wyoming" that "on July 4, 1847, there was a grand celebration at
rock by more than a thousand people, who were on their way to Oregon
During the day the enthusiastic American citizens loaded old wagon hubs
to which they fastened a fuse, and exploded them in the crevices of the
this means a large piece of the granite, weighing many tons, was
detached and turned
over on the ground, and I have been of the opinion that the Fremont
cross is on
the detached piece of rock and was thus covered from view."
name and the cross, which he chiseled on the rock, and is undoubtedly
from the eye of man, was destined to effect his political fortunes
after he returned
to the "States." He was a candidate for the presidency in 1856, being
the first candidate the Republican party had nominated for the nation's
He was bitterly opposed by the Know Nothing party, and as religious
rancor was very
strong in those days, his opponents charged that he was a member of the
Church, and they offered as proof of their charge the inscription on
Rock, and in a campaign pamphlet entitled: "J. C. Fremont's Record
His Romanism," it continued: "Imitating other Roman Catholic explorers,
and those alone, in his expedition to the Rocky Mountains in 1842, he
made on the
Rock Independence the sign of the cross, a thing that no Protestant
did or ever would do. See his own words in Congressional Document 166,
It was claimed that this Christian emblem was one of the factors that
toward his defeat, and this "Register of the Desert," 'way out on the
plains, became an issue in national politics.
FOR THE MONTHLY
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 40
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "Third Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
on "The Hiramic Legend"
the study meetings the Chairman should endeavor to hold the discussions
as possible to the text and not permit the members to speak too long at
or to stray onto another subject.
it becomes evident that a discussion is turning from the original
subject the Chairman
should request the speaker to make a note of the particular point or
phase of the
matter he wishes to discuss or inquire into, and bring it up when the
period is opened.
- Who was Edwin Booth? What is
his opinion of the Hiramic Legend?
- Give your own opinion on the
Legend in your own words.
- Are Masonic authorities agreed
as to its origin and interpretation?
- What have Pike and Vibert to
say of its introduction into our ritual?
- When does Gould believe it to
have been made a part of our ceremonies?
- Are other Masonic scholars in
agreement with these brethren?
- What do MacBride and Newton
have to say on the subject?
- How was the Legend accepted by
eighteenth century writers?
- Was their position held to by
- What are we to infer from
findings of more recent times?
- Had the Jews a tradition of the
Grand Master's death?
- Can we deny positively that the
Legend is not historically true?
- What is the belief of other
writers, who do not agree with the historical
- What do they believe the drama
to have had its inception?
- What are the assertions of
Speth and Marks?
- Is there any good evidence to
support the Templar theory?
- What were the theories advanced
by Speth, Carr, Pike and others?
- What is Brother Haywood's
theory? Does this theory seem logical to you?
- Do all writers agree as to the
interpretation of the Legend?
- How many theories were offered
by Oliver? What were they?
- What were some other theories
- What is Brother Haywood's
present day interpretation?
receiving the Third degree how did you interpret the drama?
* * *
Vol. I. ‒ Symbolism, The Hiramic Legend, and the Master's Word, p. 285.
Vol. III. ‒ The Four Hirams of Tyre, pp. 81, 113, 157, Cor. 350;
Masonry and King Solomon's Temple, pp.
101, 137, 172.
Vol. IV. ‒ Symbolism of the Three Degrees, p. 291.
Vol. V. ‒ What a Master Mason Ought to Know, p. 129.
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Part V ‒ The Hiramic Legend
In all my
research and study, in all my close analysis of the masterpieces of
in my earnest determination to make those plays appear real on the on
stage, I have never, and nowhere, met tragedy so real, so sublime, so
as the legend of Hiram. It is substance without shadow ‒ the manifest
life which requires no picture and scarcely a word to make a lasting
upon all who can understand. To be a Worshipful Master and to throw my
into that work, with the candidate for my audience and the lodge for my
be a greater personal distinction than to receive the plaudits of
people in the
theatre of the world."
When so accomplished
a judge and critic as Edwin Booth can speak like this of the Hiram
we humbler students may be forgiven for approaching such a theme in awe
if not in
silence; in truth, I may confess that I should not dare to write a line
on the subject
were it not absolutely necessary to the scope of our studies. The
majesty of the
drama is not the only deterrent; its origin and its interpretation have
our best scholars for many years but they have not yet reached an
of them remain as wide apart as the poles nor is there any hope for an
of opinion. Therefore I shall be compelled to lay out for review such
as seem most reasonable leaving to you, my reader, the privilege of
It is generally
agreed, however, whatever may be our theory of the origin of the drama,
was first introduced into the ritual, in its modern form (that is,
since the Grand
Lodge era) not more than two hundred years ago. Pike describes it as "a
invention." Vibert calls it "a comparatively late addition" to the
ritual, and Gould went so far as to fix on 1725 as the most probable
date of its
introduction into our ceremonies. But while, as I have already said,
there is general
agreement on this, some scholars, and they not the least
that the drama could not have been invented outright in 1725 even if it
or improved, and they believe that the story of the great martyrdom
must have existed
in some form long before the eighteenth century. MacBride believes that
are traces of the Hiramic Legend in connection with the British Craft
to 1717." Newton holds that it was in the possession of the French
long before that date and that they "almost certainly learned it from
Even Gould, who is so conservative in his opinions, writes that "the
which have gathered round Hiram's name" have "come down to us from
century writers usually accepted the legend as being based on actual
in details; from this position the pendulum swung to the opposite
writer going so far as to say that "nowhere in history, sacred or
in no document, upon no monument, is there a single shred of authentic
evidence to support the Masonic legend," while another affirms that "in
spite of diligent search no reference to the Hiramic legend has
hitherto been found
in Jewish writings." We are now in process of reaction from this
position as is proved by Brother Max Montesole's brilliant article
the Transactions of the Author's Lodge (vol. 1, p. 28) in which he
shows that the
name Hiram Abiff in Hebrew literally means "Hiram, his father" or
his Master," and that the term as such is found in II Chronicles 4:16.
means that the record tells first of a Hiram of Tyre, Solomon's
architect, and then
of a second Hiram, the former's son or pupil, which leaves us to infer
first Hiram may have died or been killed.
latter supposition is not a modern one is proved by a sentence in one
of the oldest
Jewish writings in which we read that "all the workmen were killed that
should not build another Temple devoted to idolatry, Hiram himself
to heaven like Enoch." This is doubtless only a rabbinic legend but it
that even in the Jews of ancient times, there had descended a tradition
of the Grand
Master's death. In view of this it will not do for us to deny that the
be historically true. Other writers, however, have not agreed with this
theory but prefer to believe that the drama was devised during medieval
so it must have come into existence some time before the fourteenth
Speth asserts that there are references to it (veiled) in certain of
the Old Charges,
and Dr. Marks, a learned Hebrew scholar, declares that he found an
of that date which contains the sentence, "We have found our Lord
have argued that the drama was brought to Europe by the Knights
have seen in it a literary result of popular interest in the Temple
which was so
frequently the theme of books and speeches in seventeenth century
England; but a
diligent search among this literature has failed to unearth a single
Hiram Abiff. (A.Q.C. vol. 14, P. 60 [Lib 1901). Speth considered that the
may have originated among early builders as a parabolic story suggested
by the old
custom of sacrificing a human being under the cornerstone of a
building. Pike was
of the opinion that it was invented by seventeenth century occultists
for the purpose
of concealing their teachings. Carr traces it back to a legend still
found in operative
lodges while others hold that it was made out of the whole cloth by
Desaguliers, while still others have seen in it a kind of political
by Oliver Cromwell (of all men!) or some other republican, as a blast
In the presence
of so bewildering an array of theories we may ask to be excused, may we
offering any theory of our own? Notwithstanding we may set one down and
for what it is worth, even if it would be impossible to furnish such
would convince a jury. To me it seems reasonable to believe that the
core of the
drama came down from Solomon's day; that it was preserved until
medieval times by
Jewish, and especially Kabbalistic literature; that it flowed into the
of the old builders because it was so intimately related to the story
of the Temple,
around which so much of their symbolism resolved; that it was inherited
century Masons, in crude form, and along with the mass of other
it was elaborated and given its literary form by the early framers of
ritual; and that it was adopted by them because it embodied so
wonderfully the idea
which they wished to set in the center of the Third degree. As I said
theory cannot be proved by documentary evidence, but it is the opinion
the drift of all our data has led me.
which may have been occasioned by this review of the theories of origin
be lessened, I fear, when we turn to interpretation, for here also we
find a multitude
of counsellors, and few agreeing. To make this diversity as plain as
set down a table of the theories, with their author's name in brackets,
there are fourteen of them (I borrow the list from Bro. Hextall) but
even more could
be added by a little search:
1. Real and actual death of Hiram
2. Legend of Isis and Osiris
3. Allegory of setting sun.
4. Death of Abel at hand of Cain.
5. Expulsion of Adam from
6. Entry of Noah into the Ark.
7. Mourning of Joseph for Jacob.
8. An astronomical problem.
9. Death and Resurrection of
Jesus. (Oliver; also Pike, in part.)
10. Violent death of King Charles
11. Persecution of the Templars.
12. Political invention by
13. A parable of old age and death.
14. A drama of regeneration.
It is highly
significant that a majority, of the theories were born in Bro. Oliver's
and fertile brain; he devoted a life time almost exclusively to the
study of Masonry,
and he was a man of unusual intellect. Yet see how bewildered he became
in the presence
of the drama! how impotent he was to discover any one fact or event to
might refer! Is not this in itself a solution of the problem? For why
persist in thinking that the legend derives its meaning from any event
Why may we not believe that it is simply a dramatic parable a great
the soul in its struggle against adversaries, in its apparent defeat,
and its ultimate
moral victory? Whatever it may have originally me this, surely, must be
is the type of every Christ-like man who lives as an apostle of light
for his experiences as set forth in the drama are just those
experiences, in one
degree or another, which attend every such man who stands true to his
Adversaries, whether men or circumstances, seek to undermine his
courage and betray
his soul; they may even encompass his death and apparent defeat, but he
they die, for the man who stands true to his loyalties, whatever
betide, has that
within him which contumacy cannot kill or death destroy. Such man is
even in mortality, and on his lips we might place, without any
the magnificent exclamation of the heroic Fichte:
"I raise my head to the
the raging flood, and the fiery tempest, and cry, 'I am eternal and
defy your might;
break all, upon me; and thou Earth, and thou Heaven, mingle in the wild
all ye elements, foam and fret yourselves, and crush in your conflict
the last atom
of the body I call mine,' my WILL, secure in its own firm purpose,
shall soar unwavering
and hold over the wreck of the universe!"
Prayer -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald A. Nancarrow,
Universal Heart! O Universal Mind!
How wonderful to know
That I can look within and find
A Dart of Thee
O Universal Sire! My Father and my Friend!
How sweet it is to be
Living censer and daily send
Incense to Thee.
O Universal Light! O Universal Fire!
Let me so fan the spark
That this my part shall high aspire
With fire for Thee.
With fire to burn and cleanse and purge
My heart of all its hate and lust;
With fire to fill, yea surge on surge,
My life with Love and Truth and Trust;
With fire to make to grow within
My soul a fairer place for Him;
With fire to teach me I am kin
To God and Man and Seraphim.
of Masonry in Foreign Countries
By Bro. Oliver Day Street,
Junior Grand Warden, Alabama
week passes that we do not receive several inquiries from members of
concerning the status of Masonry in some foreign country. Brother
Street, who is
Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence of the Grand Lodge
has made an exhaustive study of this subject during the past several
is fully qualified to write thereon. In our issue for March, 1919, we
the results of his investigations of the Masonry of France and
in the April, 1919, number may be found his recommendations to the
Grand Lodge of
Alabama relative to lodges of Scottish Rite origin in countries where
that Rite prevails, the Grand Orients of Belgium and Italy, and the
of Chili. In an early forthcoming issue we shall publish the results of
researches on Masonry in Mexico. Brother Street's report to the Grand
Lodge of Alabama
at its last Annual Communication is given herewith.
Scottish Rite Masonry
To the Most
Worshipful Grand Lodge A.’.F.’. & A.’.M.’. of Alabama:
IN VIEW of
the action taken at our last Annual Communication relative to the
attitude of this
Grand Lodge towards Scottish Rite Symbolic lodges and brethren of
origin in foreign countries, appearing on pages 86, 87 and 88 of our
we submit for the information of Grand Lodge and of our brethren
generally a list
of Supreme Councils outside of the United States recognized by the
of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States, viz., Argentina,
Canada, Central America, Chile, Colon (Cuba), Columbia, Dominican
Egypt, England and Wales, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Paraguay,
Scotland, Serbia, Switzerland, Uruguay and Venezuela.
be borne in mind that there are two Supreme Councils in Italy. The one
to is that at the head of which is Rev. William Burgess and whose
address is Piazza
del Gesu 47, Rome.
also two Supreme Councils of the Scottish Rite in Argentina. The one
by the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States is that at present or
over by Dr. J. A. Golfarini and which had its seat at 1242 Calle
Council of Mexico is recognized by the Northem Jurisdiction of the
and Brother John H. Cowles, Secretary General, expresses the opinion
that the Southern
Jurisdiction will soon do likewise.
is that there are no Symbolic lodges holding under the regular Supreme
in the following countries, namely, United States, Canada, England and
Scotland, Switzerland, and doubtless others of which we are not advised.
* * *
To the Most
Worshipful Grand Lodge A.’.F.’. & A.’.M.’. of Alabama:
on Foreign Correspondence, acting under the within named resolution
adopted at your
Annual Communication in December, 1918, beg leave to report:
step taken by us in executing your command was to prepare and dispatch
to the various
bodies of the world, claiming to be Masonic, the following Circular of
A.’.F.’. & A.’. M.’. OF ALABAMA
Circular of Inquiry
At its last
Annual Communication held December 4th-5th, 1918, the Grand Lodge of
the following resolution:
After a year and a half participation in the world's greatest war we
troops, among whom are many American Masons, stationed in various
countries of the
world and meeting ‒ in all but fraternal association ‒ friends and
allies from almost
every country and clime in the world; and,
The Masonic Fraternity of many of these countries are not recognized by
Lodge of Alabama as regular Masons, although some of them are
recognized as regular
by a considerable number of other American Grand Lodges; and,
Masonry should be universal, and Masons from all climes and all
meet as brothers, unless their organization be such as to make this
Be it resolved,
That the Committee on Foreign Correspondence be required to inquire
into and report
as soon as practicable on the matter of the recognition of those Grand
whom we are not in fraternal relations, and the desirability of
and entering into a condition of brotherly comity with them."
was prompted by a genuine desire on the part of our Grand Lodge to
relations with all the regular Masonic Powers of the world. To
facilitate this aim
information is sought by appealing directly to each Power. It is hoped
following will be furnished as fully and expeditiously as possible:
1. Time, place and circumstances
of the formation of your Grand Body, and the
number of lodges participating therein.
2. Whence the lodges uniting to
form your Grand Body derived their charters,
so far as possible to give. The territory over which your Grand Body
3. A brief history of the
subsequent development and growth of your Grand Body
and its present status, number of lodges, membership, etc.
4. The exact title of your Grand
Body and the Rite or Rites it administers or
5. Whether your Grand Body
controls any degrees other than the first three of
Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master, and if so what they are.
6. What, if any control, your
so-called higher Bodies have over the first three
7. Whether your Grand Body is the
only one claiming to exercise legitimate Masonic
authority in your territory. If not, please name all others regardless
Whether regarded by your Grand Body as regular or not. Kindly give the
addresses of their chief officers and the Rite or Rites they practice.
8. If any are not recognized by
your Grand Body please note briefly the reason
why you do not recognize them.
9. What relation or understanding
exists between your Grand Body and the bodies
of other Rites.
10. Any other matter you deem of
interest or importance.
It is our
desire to make this survey of the Masonries of the world complete and
Oliver D. Street,
Chairman Foreign Correspondence Committee,
We have received
many replies but they were not as numerous nor, in many instances, as
as we could have desired. However, we have learned much concerning the
of the world which we did not previously know. This we shall endeavor
before you in what follows, as succinctly and clearly as possible, and
recommendations as appear to us warranted by the facts.
We have given
as far as we are able, in each instance, the Grand Lodges recognizing
Grand Body under consideration, but we are aware that this information
is very far
from complete. It is accurate as far as it goes, because in compiling
it we have
confined ourselves to the list published by each Grand Lodge showing
the Grand Lodges
recognized by it. These lists are, however, themselves incomplete.
by Grand Lodges purporting to show Grand Lodges recognizing them have
as they frequently overstate the case as greatly as the other class of
it. On this subject a great lack of knowledge exists, many Grand
correspondence committees being unable to state what Grand Bodies are
by their respective Grand Lodges. This is one of the first things we
do when we became chairman of this committee, to compile a list of
recognized by the Grand Lodge of Alabama, and it is greatly to be
desired that this
work be carefully done for each Grand Lodge.
* * *
best information we have been able to obtain there are two rival
Masonic Grand Systems
in Argentina. One of these is the Supreme Council of the A. &
A. S. Rite, formerly
domiciled at 2310 Calle Cangallo, Buenos Ayres, but later at its
Bartolome Mitre 2520. It was at last account presided over by Vincente
Sovereign Grand Commander, and its Grand Secretary was Juan M. Caime
Supreme Council 33d, A. & A. S. Rite, is or was lately located
at 1242 Calle
Cangallo, Buenos Ayres, and was presided over by Dr. J. A. Golfarini.
between the two bodies have been very acrimonious. In a letter to us
Secretary Caime, the Golfarini body is denounced as composed of
and in a later letter from the same source their expulsion is
attributed to their
having "stolen the funds of the Order." They were also charged with
Brother J. W. Norwood, in Light, vol. 2, p. 105, pronounces the
Golfarini body as
the "regular Argentine Scottish Rite," but the Grand Lodge of the
of Columbia in 1917 recognized a Grand Lodge apparently affiliated with
Council of which Caime is Grand Secretary. Brother George W. Baird, in
rendered by him to the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia 1916
obviously confuses these two bodies. In case of each of these Supreme
there seems to be a Grand Lodge affiliated with, if not appendant to
it. Late in
1917 announcement was made that all the rival Masonic bodies had been
united but this was indignantly denied by the Caime body in January,
1918, and their
determination declared never to unite with the Golfarini body. Our
Circular of Inquiry
addressed to these various bodies failed to elicit any reply.
body is recognized by the Southern Supreme Council of the United
States, A. &
A. S. Rite and by the Grand Lodge of Cuba and Victoria. Some body is
by Tasmania but we cannot figure out which it is.
In view of
the uncertain state of Blue Masonry and of the bitter controversy among
factions of Argentina, we recommend that it be
That no action be taken at this time by the Grand Lodge A.’.F.’.
& A.’ M.’.
of Alabama touching Freemasonry in Argentina.
* * *
the signing of the armistice on November 11, 1918, all Masonic meetings
in Austria but this did not prevent Austrian Masons organizing and
at Pressburg, Hungary, and its vicinity. On December 8, 1918, as we
the International Bureau for Masonic Affairs, Switzerland, 14 of such
under the Symbolic Grand Lodge of Hungary and practicing St. John's
and formed "provisionally" the "Grand Lodge of Vienna." Its
constitution, according to its Deputy Grand Master, Adolph Kapratch,
and its Grand
Secretary, Henry Glucksmann, is modeled upon that of the Symbolic Grand
Hungary, which latter is sponsoring the new body. The address of its
"Vienna I, Dorotheergasse 12." Though we have been for many years in
correspondence with the Symbolic G. L. of Hungary we think this new
not be recognized until it has proved its adherence to true Masonic
* * *
body in this country which first demands our attention is the Grand
Orient, of which
Brother Charles Magnette, distinguished lawyer and member of the
is Grand Master.
history of Masonry in Belgium is necessary. Prior to 1814, the Belgian
appendant to the Grand Orient of France. Next they belonged to a union
and Dutch lodges. The Grand Orient was formed February 25th, 1832, and
a continuous existence since. The government of the Grand Orient is
vested in a
body of delegates chosen by the several lodges. The delegates elect,
themselves, the grand officers for a term of three years. It now boasts
and about 2,500 members.
Orient controls only the first three degrees, leaving only the
grades to the Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite. As regards doctrine
the Grand Orient of Belgium is in practically the same category as the
of France. No lengthy discussion, therefore, of its right to
recognition is necessary;
what we said in our report last year concerning the Grand Orient of
equally applicable here. The following grand jurisdictions at least
Grand Orient of Belgium, viz: Arkansas, Canada, Cuba, Maine, Maryland,
Utah and Victoria.
recommend the adoption of the following resolution:
That the Grand Lodge A.’.F.’. & A.’.M.’. of Alabama hereby
recognizes the Grand
Orient of Belgium as a regular, sovereign and independent governing
body of Symbolic
Masonry and the Grand Master is requested to arrange for an exchange of
* * *
IV . Bulgaria
through the International Bureau for Masonic Affairs, Switzerland, that
Grand Lodge of Bulgaria was formed at Sofia on November 27, 1917. This
have been the work of a single lodge "Zaria" at Sofia. It claims
over all the "lodges, hearths, and brethren of the First to the Third
throughout the kingdom. The lodge "Zaria" was founded by the Grand
of France and its action in setting up independently was with the
approval of that
Grand Body and, as claimed, "in perfect agreement with the brethren,
of the Masonic hearths dispersed over the different districts of the
The new body is dedicated "to the glory of the Grand Architect of the
and pledges itself to follow "strictly" the "fundamental principles
of Universal Freemasonry." In fact no exception can be taken to its
of principles. It will use "the statutes, general rules, rituals and
of the Grand Lodge of France until its own can be elaborated. It
appeals for general
recognition. The Grand Secretary's address is Dr. N. Semenoff, Rue
has in the recent war so discredited all things Bulgarian and it
this so-called Grand Body has been formed by a single lodge, we do not
* * *
of Denmark belongs to what is known as the Christian group, that is to
receiving as candidates only professors of the Christian religion. The
embraces the Grand Lodges of Norway and Sweden and the Grand National
Lodge of German
Freemasons at Berlin. The Grand Lodge of Denmark is the sole governing
body of Craft
Masonry in that country. Its chief peculiarities are its Christian
the fact that the king of Denmark is ex officio head of the Order, but
do not affect its Masonic character. Denmark is recognized by New York,
Western Australia and doubtless others. We, therefore, recommend the
the following resolution:
That the Grand Lodge A.’. F.’. & A.’. M.’. of Alabama recognize
the Grand Lodge
of Denmark as a sovereign governing body of Symbolic Masonry and the
is requested to arrange an exchange of representatives.
* * *
Masonry which concerns us in this country is that of the three degrees
by the Grand Orient of the Netherlands. This body is much older than
the Grand Lodge
of Alabama and its Masonic character and regularity has never been
and quarter. The Grand Body is in fraternal correspondence with
Cuba, District of Columbia, Louisiana and Philippine Islands. It would
presumption for us to "recognize" this Grand Body, but in order to keep
the record straight we recommend the adoption of the following
That the Grand Lodge A.’.F.’. & A.’.M.’. of Alabama hereby
expresses its appreciation
of the Masonic character of the Grand Orient of the Netherlands having
at The Hague, and the Grand Master is requested to arrange an exchange
* * *
For our purposes
it is useless to extend our researches back of the year 1859. Beginning
and extending to 1820, many lodges and grand bodies were formed in the
of Italy but in 1820 all of them had been suppressed. From 1821 to
1856, says Brother
Robert F. Gould in his History of Freemasonry, "not a lodge existed in
part of what is now the Kingdom of Italy." The one important fact that
out during the early and confused period from 1735 to 1821, is that
in Italy had its origin from England.
The Grand Orient
some Masons at Turin constituted themselves into a lodge, working the
rite, or as Brother Gould declares "pure English Masonry." In December,
1861, the representatives of twenty-two lodges met at Turin and on
January 1, 1862,
the Grand Orient of Italy at Turin was proclaimed with the Chevlier
Nigra as Grand
Master and General Garibaldi as Honorary Past Grand Master. Only three
recognized and the organization, says Brother Gould, in most respects
the arrangement of the Grand Lodge of England." At this period the
was subject to the charge of meddling in politics, but its activities
in this field
have been greatly reduced in recent years. There ensued during the ten
1863, a period of struggle with bodies of the Ancient and Accepted
in which the latter achieved much of a victory. In 1873, however, all
bodies and factions became united in the present Grand Orient of Italy.
Brother Gould says that "the quality of Italian Masonry has improved at
expense of its quantity" and that "unworthy members and disreputable
have been relentlessly weeded out."
addressed December 18, 1918, to the International Bureau for Masonic
Switzerland, relative to Masonic conditions in Italy, brought the
reply to your favor of December 18th, relative to Freemasonry in Italy,
I beg to
inform you that there exists in Italy the following regular and
1. The Grand Orient of Italy,
Palazzo gia Giustiniani, via Dogana Vecchia n.
29 p. p. Roma.
2. The Supreme Council at the same
3. The Grand Lodge of the Symbolic
Rite, same address.
Master of the Grand Orient is Bro. Ernesto Nathan, past Mayor of Rome.
these regular Bodies, there are in Italy several Grand Lodges that are
by any jurisdiction of other countries. There is a Grand Lodge in
at Naples; they are practicing rites of a rather occultist and mixed
borrowed of rituals fallen long ago into desuetude."
We also sent
to the Grand Orient a copy of our Circular of Inquiry and received as a
of a communication it had dispatched to the Grand Lodge of Kentucky.
From this and
other documents we learn that the Grand Orient is dedicated "To the
the Grand Architect of the Universe" and has for its motto "Liberty ‒
Equality ‒ Fraternity."
the Supreme Council headed by the Rev. William Burgess and the Most
Italian Grand Lodge (see infra), the Grand Orient over the signature of
Master, Ernesto Nathan, says:
in our Country we, and we only, are recognized as the Italian Masonry,
both by the
National and Local Authorities as by people at large, you can easily
apart from my statements, by asking information on the subject from
or your Consuls in Italy. When the promoter of the latest schism, the
Pastor, Rev. Fera, died, it was broken up by an agreement in which the
lodges, in all their desirable elements, were taken over and
incorporated with ours;
part of its skeleton, in its grisly eloquent significance, remains yet,
animated by the brains of another Evangelical Pastor, the Rev. William
who unfortunately has to live down the scandals of a so-called Masonic
manned by somewhat doubtful characters, mixed up in the corruption of
Bolo Pasha; some now in prison awaiting judgment, some trepidantly free
or in prudential
exile. The poor remnant may continue to exist, it certainly will not
in its way to prove a rule by its exception."
New York brother, an Italian by race and thoroughly familiar with
York, August 11th, 1919. "
"Grand Secretary A.’.F.’. & A.’.M.’., "Montgomery, Alabama.
to acknowledge receipt of your valued favor of the 6th inst. and of a
copy of your
proceedings and as per your suggestion I am writing today to Brother
Oliver D. Street,
of Guntersville, to inform him that the National Grand Lodge of Italy
is a clandestine
body formed some years ago by a few secessionist members of the Grand
Italy, the only legitimate Masonic organization whose diplomas have
accepted by all foreign jurisdictions and specially by the Grand Lodges
California and New York where several Italian Masons, myself included,
Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the State of New York, Charles
also an edict against the admission of Masons belonging to the
Grand Lodge of Italy and you can peruse the same in the Proceedings of
Lodge of 1912-1913. The Edict is still in force in this jurisdiction.
therefore that your Grand Lodge not only will not ignore the
application of the
Grand Lodge of Italy, but will consent to the application sent by Past
Nathan for the official recognition of the Grand Orient of Italy.
best thanks in advance for your interest, I beg to remain,
respectfully and fraternally yours,
"Past District Deputy Grand Master of the
Grand Lodge of the State of New York."
foregoing it will be perceived that at the address "Palazzo Gia
via Dogana Vecchia n. 29 p. p.," Rome, there are three Masonic bodies
in apparent concord, to-wit: (1) the Grand Orient, (2) the Supreme
Council of the
Scottish Rite, and (3) the Symbolic Grand Lodge. Our information is
that the Grand
Orient and the Supreme Council are entirely independent of each other,
in harmony. The Supreme Council disclaims in favor of the Grand Orient
and the Symbolic
Grand Lodge all jurisdiction or control over the first three degrees
itself to the 4th to 33rd degrees of the Scottish Rite.
It is also
our information that the Symbolic Grand Lodge is not independent of the
but that the latter exercises final control over the first three
only mediately through the Grand Lodge. In other words, the sovereign
body of Symbolic Masonry in this system is the Grand Orient and not the
Orient system of government is not well understood by Masons of
countries, but the difference between that system and our own, that of
Grand Lodges, is a difference only of policy and organization and not
one of principle.
Many distinguished Masonic authorities have contended that this
difference is nevertheless
so radical as to preclude the recognition of Grand Orients by Grand
after exhaustive discussion and a long struggle over the question, the
of Grand Lodges have not been in accord with this contention. Many
now and have for many years recognized Grand Orients. The true inquiry
generally to be; does the body in question teach and practice genuine
If this question can be answered affirmatively, then the form of its
is not regarded as controlling. Of course a body claiming to be Masonic
recognition as such should be able to show that its origin, even if
not clandestine, or at least an established and fixed status as a
Masonic body must
be shown for such a length of time as reasonably to warrant the
it was not of clandestine origin.
We feel confident
that tested by this standard it cannot be said that the origin of the
precludes its recognition.
Orient is recognized by Nevada (conditionally), Minnesota, New York,
and probably by British Columbia, District of Columbia, Queensland,
We have sought
for reasons why the Grand Orient of Italy should not be recognized as a
Masonic body. We find only one of any plausibility and that is the
has invaded the jurisdiction of at least five American Grand
Jurisdictions and established
lodges at Denver, Colo.; Boston, Mass.; Newark, N. J.; Philadelphia and
Pa.; and at Collinsville, Ill. But these actions were taken many years
ago and the
Grand Orient is not now establishing and has not for many years
lodge in North America.
In the above
action, it cannot be denied that the Grand Orient committed a serious
breach of fraternal courtesy, ‒ one that has no doubt for many years
recognition by the Grand Lodges of North America generally. At the same
must be conceded that the Grand Orient did not thereby breach a Masonic
the doctrine of exclusive territorial jurisdiction is not a landmark
but has proved
itself an extremely wise policy which is being more and more generally
day. It cannot be truthfully or logically said that a Grand Lodge by
jurisdiction of another Grand Lodge absolutely puts itself outside the
It may be that the Grand Lodge whose jurisdiction is violated would be
in withdrawing fraternal intercourse, but other Grand Lodges are not
bound to do
likewise, though they may do so as a moral protest where a contumacious
manifested. The officials of the Grand Orient have, however, several
assurances of their desire to put an end to this condition, but the
fact must be
recognized that these lodges are in existence and the Grand Orient can
abandon them and their members to a Masonic death. We believe that if
Lodges and especially those which have been invaded will take up the
deal with it in a more fraternal spirit the difficulties can be solved.
It may not
be amiss to say here that Alabama recognized the Grand Orient in 1867
and that this
recognition has never been formally withdrawn, though exchange of
has been allowed to lapse. (Alabama Cor. Rep. 1916, p. 204.)
The Most Serene National
Italian Grand Lodge
has received a communication from this Grand Lodge dated at Rome,
del Gesu 47, which reads as follows:
TO THE GLORY
OF THE GRAND ARCHITECT OF THE UNIVERSE THE UNIVERSAL MASONIC FEDERATION
OF THE A.
& A. S. RITE THE MOST SERENE NATIONAL ITALIAN GRAND LODGE
Rome, 8th July, 1918.
To the Grand
Lodges and Gr.’.Or.’. of the U.’.M.’.
We beg you
to call your attention to the fact that the Italian National G.’. Lodge
is the only
Masonic Body working the Blue Rite, which is recognized by our Supreme
Council of the A.’. & A.’. Scotch Rite is the only Supreme
by the Supreme Councils in the United States of America.
Italian Gr.’. Lodge is recognized by the Gr.’. Lodge of the District of
which has its seat in Washington and indeed by various Gr.’. Lodges in
States of America, as may be seen by a glance at the list of Gr.’.
Lodges with the
names and addresses of the Grand Secretaries printed on page 159 in the
has recently been elected Grand Master of the Grand Lodge in Italy.
nominate your Grand Representative in our Gr.’. Lodge and to let us
know the name
of a Brother to be nominated our Grand Representative in your Grand
Raoul V. Palermi,
To this letter
the following reply was dispatched:
18, 1918. Raoul Palermi, Esq., Grand Master, National Grand Lodge,
Piazza del Gesu
47, Rome, Italy. Very dear Sir: Your letter of July 8th, 1918,
addressed to the
Grand Lodge of Alabama, Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons, has been
me as Chairman of its Committee on Foreign Correspondence. I beg to
advise you that
your letter does not contain sufficient information to enable us to
judge of the
regularity of your Grand Body. I should be pleased to have a brief
history of its
origin and development and of its present status. I infer that it is a
part of the Supreme Council of Italy. Am I correct in this conclusion?
If so, kindly
advise me something concerning the history of your Supreme Council and
who is its
present head. I should also like to know what control the Supreme
over your Grand Lodge. It is difficult to secure reliable information
here and I
am, therefore, compelled to appeal to you. Could you supply me with a
of your constitution and of your ritual of the three blue degrees? I
say that until we are fully advised our Grand Lodge can not extend
your Grand Body. I trust, therefore, that I may have an early and full
Oliver D. Street, Chairman.
We also sent
a copy of our Circular of Inquiry, above set out, and in due course
your letter of 18th December, 1918, for which I thank you.
information I beg to give you the following details:
there has existed since the beginning of the year 1875 a Supreme
Council, Anc. &
Acc. Scottish Rite. This Supreme Council was legally recognized at the
of Washington in the year 1912 by all the other Supreme Councils. Our
was presided over at that time by Brother Saverio Fera. Brother Saverio
at the end of 1916. He was succeeded by election by Br. Leonardo
Ricciardi, of Naples.
Brother Leonardo Ricciardi in May of 1918 resigned, forced by old age
After election his place was taken by Br. William Burgess of Rome.
Up to this
time all the degrees, the three blue degrees included, were given in
the name of
the Supreme Council to which all the lodges had sworn obedience. To
conform to the
old Landmarks the Supreme Council decided to create a Grand Lodge and
to give to
this institution the exclusive and independent administration of the
of the Ancient and Accepted Masonry. The Grand Lodge had its first
meeting in March,
Lodge is composed of the Worshipful Masters of all the lodges together
with a delegate
from each lodge, this latter to be elected every two years by each
lodge. The administration
of the Grand Lodge is confided to the Grand Master and his officers,
the Grand Lodge, "one third of them every two years." The only
between the Grand Lodge and the Supreme Council is that the Supreme
not to have under its jurisdiction lodges up to the third degree, and
its members to be also members of one of the lodges under the obedience
of the Grand
Lodge. On the contrary, the Grand Lodge promised, to observe always the
1. The old rites, tokens, pass and
2. The three blue degrees.
3. The visiting rights.
4. The belief in the existence of
the Grand Architect of the Universe.
5. The belief in a life after this
6. Having the S. L. in the lodge
opened at the chapter of S. John, and the giving
of the oath on the S. L.
7. The autonomy of every lodge.
8. The necessity of having Masonic
meetings and the performance only of Masonic
work in lodge.
9. The governing of a lodge by a
Worshipful Master and two Wardens.
10. The control by the Grand Master
as head of the Grand Orient and the Grand
Lodge and his right to preside over every lodge and meeting.
11. The right of appeal from a
condemnation by a lodge to the Grand Lodge.
12. The governing and installing of
lodges only in its jurisdiction. This with
the exception of one lodge at Salonica and three at Tunis.
13. To treat only with those Grand
Lodges who are observing rigorously these
Lodge of Italy and its Colonies has been formed by the lodges in the
and has elected Br. Raoul Palermi as its Grand Master. It is governed
independently by its Grand Orient. One of the lodges under the
jurisdiction of our
Grand Lodge in Rome is an English-American Lodge working in English
under the name
of "Anglo-Saxon Lodge." It numbers several Americans as members.
Supreme Council nor the Grand Lodge have ever invaded foreign
jurisdictions by founding
lodges or triangles in lands where there are existing regular Masonic
have never had nor will ever have lodges in America.
In the year
1908 a part of the Italian Masons who did not like to observe the old
especially those numbered 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 13 above mentioned,
themselves from the Supreme Council and founded an absolutely irregular
with its own Supreme Council and its own Grand Orient, giving
themselves very strange
regulations and not observing at all the old Landmarks. They have
for socialists, for atheists, and so on. The election of their Grand
Master is made
directly by the lodges, they have no real Grand Lodge, only a Grand
is under the control of their Supreme Council, and what is still
stranger is that
their Sovereign Grand Commander is elected with interference of the
They have founded lodges in England, in North and South America, so
that in Pittsburg
and other cities several American citizens have got their grades. Their
Massonica" states that they have lodges and are founding lodges
out of the Italian jurisdiction.
and rituals are reduced to a minimum, and their principal occupation is
in politics and to have influence on the government. Their lodges are
and they oblige their lodges to put influence on the members to vote in
elections as indicated by the Grand Orient.
tried directly and indirectly several times to fuse themselves with our
but up to the present, inasmuch as they do not promise and solemnly
declare to observe
the old Landmarks, we cannot join them. For these reasons it is
that we have fused with the Grand Orient presided over by Ernesto
Nathan, or with
their Supreme Council presided over by Mr. Ferrari. It is with these,
as we call
them "The Masons of the Giustinian palace" (where they have their
that you have been in correspondence.
I avail myself
of this opportunity to express my sincere regards and hope that we may
quickly as possible into good and brotherly Masonic relations.
Raoul V. Palermi,
Piazza del Gesu, Rome.
It is significant
that this Grand Body, though seeking our recognition, gives no account
of the circumstances
or causes leading to its creation. It would seem that, if conscious of
of their action in forming a new Masonic system in the face of one
they would not fail to give a circumstantial account as to why they
took such steps.
Their silence when they should and naturally would speak argues
letter, however, we gather some facts. This Fera Supreme Council is of
it does not claim to date further back than 1876. Our information from
reliable sources is that it is much more recent than this; that in fact
1908 witnessed its formation by a faction of schismatics seceding from
Orient. Our investigations lead to the conclusion that this secession
was not caused
by any Masonic principle- involved but probably by personal pique or
the head of the seceders was Saverio Fera, who proceeded to organize
Council and appendant thereto the "Grand Lodge of Italy for the Ancient
Accepted Scottish Rite," which in due course was "created" by said
Supreme Council into "The Most Serene National Italian Grand Lodge," by
which name it is now known. Until 1818, the blue degrees were given in
of the Supreme Council, to which all the lodges had sworn obedience.
Its first meeting
as a pretended independent Grand Lodge was held in March, 1919. So far
as we can
learn only one Grand Lodge has recognized the Serene National Grand
the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands.
By some undivinable
means, the Fera (now Burgess) Supreme Council has succeeded in
obtaining the recognition
of the Supreme Councils (Southern and Northern) of the United States of
but according to the information we have some of the leading Scottish
of this country refuse to recognize Fera and his Supreme Council and
(4 American Freemason, p. 13.)
Saverio Fera, Grand Master of the Serene Grand Lodge of Italy, visited
but the Grand Master of that jurisdiction refused to receive him
Scottish Rite bodies of New York also refused to receive him as a
that Fera's Supreme Council, of which he was Sovereign Grand Commander,
by the Northern Jurisdiction of the United States. A very anomalous
thus presented, the Scottish Rite Masons of New York choosing to follow
of the Grand Master rather than that of their own Supreme Council.
Rep. 1914, p. 89.)
Committee of New York in its 1914 report rebuked Grand Master Saverio
Fera for claiming
that it alone represented regular Italian Freemasonry and for charging
other Italian Masonic bodies practiced Masonry for political purposes
New York Committee expressed the opinion that "Ancient Craft Masonry in
was identified with the Grand Orient of Italy beyond doubt." (Alabama
Rep. 1915, pp. 52, 58; Ib. 1914, p. 89.)
Grand Lodge at Florence
title of this Grand Body seems to be "The Serene Grand Lodge of Italy
Scottish Rite." Our Circular of Inquiry forwarded to it at its late
"18 via Petrapiana," was returned "missent." If it is acknowledged
by any Grand Body outside of Italy, we are not aware of the fact. It
evidently in good standing with the Grand Orient, as a deputation from
the installation in 1918 of Ernesto Nathan as Grand Master of the Grand
Gould's History (1887) shows the Grand Orient of Italy at Florence to
to Rome in 1873 and there became a part of the Grand Orient and we have
to ascertain how and why another Grand Lodge or Grand Orient sprang up
have not sufficient knowledge to enable us to venture any opinion
the conclusion that the Grand Orient of Italy is entitled to
recognition and we
therefore recommend the adoption of the following resolution:
by the Grand Lodge A.'. F.'. & A.’.M.’. of Alabama that the
by this Grand Lodge in 1867 to the Grand Orient of Italy be and the
same is hereby
renewed and the Grand Master authorized to arrange for the renewal of
is that the Most Serene National Italian Grand Lodge is irregular and
and is not entitled to recognition. We recommend the adoption of this
That the Grand Lodge A.'. F.'. & A.’. M.'. of Alabama views the
Serene National Italian Grand Lodge" as a schismatic body and all
with it and with bodies and Masons of its obedience is interdicted.
* * *
to our circular sent to the Grand Lodge of Norway we have received a
very full and
interesting reply in a beautiful handwriting in English. From it we
learn the following:
24, 1891, Masonry in Norway was administered by a Provincial Lodge
under the Grand
Lodge of Sweden but on this date the National Grand Lodge of Norway was
King Oscar II, the then head of the Grand Lodge of Sweden.
lodge in Norway was St. Olaus, formed in 1749. In 1818, it united with
Lodge of Sweden. The Provincial Lodge of Norway was formed in 1870.
now has under its jurisdiction 1 Provincial Lodge at Droutheim, 12 St.
and 3 St. Andrew's lodges. There is also 1 Stewards lodge. The total
of its subordinate bodies is about 5,900.
Lodge of Norway works according to the Swedish Rite and controls the
Entered Apprentice, Fellowcraft and Master, and in addition, 8
degrees." It seems to be governed by a "Supreme Council." During
the war this body "decided not to enter into connection with any new
power." It is stated by its Grand Secretary, however, that "when peace
is restored this decision is likely to be altered." In view of this
policy, we think no steps towards recognition or exchange of
be taken at present.
It may be
proper to add that Norwegian Masonry belongs to the Christian branch of
and rigorously eschews politics.
also a Provincial Lodge working under the German Grand Lodge "Zur
at Beyreuth. It has three subordinates and is recognized by the Grand
Lodge of Norway
as regular Masonry.
these," to quote from the letter of the Grand Secretary, "there work
some other so-called lodges. St. Olaf, the Maria, (for women), and
perhaps one or
two more which are not recognized and have no intercourse with our
Grand Lodge as
they are working according to rites which cannot be acknowledged by us
Norway is in correspondence with New York, Cuba, Philippine Islands,
* * *
an early introduction into Sweden, that is to say in 1735. There it
quite chequered history, being swept along in the tide of the so-called
or Templar system of Masonry. From the influence of this misfortune it
escaped, but finally there was evolved the so called Swedish Rite
nine degrees, named 1st to 3rd, St. Johns; 4th and 5th, St. Andrew's,
an 4 degrees
of so-called Knights.
Lodge of Sweden was formed in 1759. It now controls 28 St. John's
lodges; 13 of
St. Andrew, and 4 provincial lodges. Its total membership is 16,645. No
body claims jurisdiction within to boundaries of Sweden.
of Sweden seems to be a very peculiar product. It requires a belief in
The king and princes of the reigning family fill by right its chief
its teachings are said to be a mixture of the Freemasonry of England,
of the "Scots"
degrees, of Templarism, Rosicrucianism and the mystic doctrines of
So far as we have learned the only Canadian or American Grand Lodge
it is that of New York. Brother Gould pronounces it a "mere soi-disant
of the great Masonic families," and Brother G. W. Speth declares that
"hardly a vestige of Masonry left" as the same is known and practiced
no doubt that the Swedish royal family, and therefore presumably
was in full sympathy with Germany in the late war. The Swedish
government even allowed
itself in the most shameless manner to be used by Germany as a tool.
present lights we do not advise that any steps be taken looking to the
of fraternal relations between that Grand Body and our own. The
Bodies and no doubt others are in correspondence with Sweden, viz.:
York, Cuba, District of Columbia, Louisiana and Western Australia.
The Choice of a Leader
FOR THE MOMENT
the eyes, not only of this nation but of the whole world, are
the choice the American people are about to make in the matter of their
leadership for the next four years. International relationships have
focusing of attention abroad, as to who will be the next President of
States. Foreign interest is largely concerned about his being a man who
a proper and just appreciation of international problems, but the
concern of the
American people is, primarily, that he shall be a man of thorough
of the vital problems that are confronting us as a people. That he
shall be an idealist
of world vision is vitally necessary, but he must likewise be a
practical man; one
whose knowledge will not mislead him into thinking that the world can
than the nations who compose it. He must be first, a man whose soul
burns with an
unquenchable fire to lead these United States in the fulfilment of
Here on this continent men are striving in experiment with the noblest
form of government
yet conceived of by the mind of man. And to the preservation of such
government until fully proved and found wanting and against the
by those whose chiefest lessons have been learned from a nation, where
parades under the name of democracy, he must be unqualifiedly committed.
warrant that the new leader can have that a league of nations for the
world is possible
or practical is by welding into an undivided Americanism the many
within these shores. That the blending of these many peoples into one
is among the
mighty challenges that the new leader will confront, none can gainsay,
the nature of the problem, he must determine that the American people
once and for
all obliterate the menace of hyphenism that has so audaciously
re-emerged ‒ if it
ever were submerged ‒ since the close of the great war. In the new
leader the world
must be able to read unquestionably the sovereign will of a people who
on but one nationality, one language and one flag, and that All
To the new
leader will fall the task of coordinating the respect of all
inhabitants of this
land for constituted authority. Men and factions everywhere must
discover in him
the uncompromising opponent of all lawlessness and disorder, and the
forces that always accompany war and continues its demoralizing work in
ever menacing free institutions, must be determinedly stopped by a
possible but by coercion if necessary.
to the position of chief executive by partisan favor let him bear in
mind that he
is President of the United States in whose hands is the welfare,
comfort and happiness
of the poorest and humblest of the citizenry, as well as the interests
of the rich
has hitherto been invariably held by Americans of comprehensive
the American people's needs, and the wisest revealed their capacity to
party provincialism or powerful patronage whenever there were
grievances to be adjusted
or the ideals of righteousness were to be preserved. The White House
when one or
two of the beloved leaders occupied it, was a place where the great
Father of a
people lived, and where rich or poor, learned or unlearned could find
pity and redression of wrongs. And on the exercise of these virtues on
of the new leader depends the future prosperity of these United States.
and its kindred ills will be best eliminated by first understanding of
causes, and next determined action for the elimination of those
that permit the fanatic visionaries, demagogues and agitators to
prevent the right
thinking on public issues of such large masses of the American working
our leader then be possessed of the wisdom that will permit him to see
of repression and suppression have always according to the testimony of
brought about insurrection, and be the clarion spokesman for justice
and thus lend his power sense of right towards preventing evil strife.
of free speech and a free press, and freedom of worship, the progress
of the American
people has been almost a continuous success for over a century and a
is the subterranean discussion that has everywhere ultimately brought
out red disaster.
Let our leader
be one who believes thoroughly that the heart of the American people is
that when things are right they will accept them, that when they are
will reject them. One language, one law with freedom of speech and
press and worship.
A just wage for all who work, commensurate with the unquestionable
happy living. Respect for authority and the redression of wrong through
means ‒ these are the great fundamental rights guaranteed under the
and they are the eternal principles of right on which the new leader
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
be our aim to publish in this Department each month a list of such
as we may be able from time to time to secure for members of the
a book listed herein this month may be out of stock next month, and
unobtainable, and for this reason it is recommended that when ordering
pamphlets from these lists the latest monthly issue of THE BUILDER be
and no orders be made from lists more than thirty days old.
monthly reviews the names and addresses-of the publishers of the books
in order that our readers may order such books direct from the
of through the Society. In many instances the books may be found in
stock at local
A New Collection of Poems
by Edwin Markham
of Paradise," [Lib 1920] by Edwin Markham. Published
by Doubleday. Paste
& Co.. Garden City, N. Y. Price $1.75.
A NEW collection
of Edwin Markham's poems, under the title "Gates of Paradise," is
by Doubleday, Page & Co. In commenting upon the human appeal of
John Galsworthy said, "I measure poetry by its power to cause emotion
I want poets who are themselves moved by truth and beauty and so
stirred by the
spectacles and contacts of life that the birds within them simply must
And this is the kind of poet Edwin Markham is. In this new book he
he must; because his heart is full of the beauty of life, and its
sadness; of laughter,
and tears behind the laughter.
* * *
A Book for the Music Lover
Position in Music," [Lib*] by Eugene E. Simpson. Published by The Four
Company, 67 Cornhill St., Boston, Mass. Price $1.00.
A book of
value to the lover of music, and indeed to all who are interested in
in the arts, is Eugene Simpson's "America's Position in Music." The
volume of its sort, it deals with the sources of our nationalistic
music and the
development of tendencies in the Indian and Negro elements, in the
of today. Particularly valuable is the bibliography at the end of the
gives a comprehensive summary of American composers and their chief
* * *
Papers," [Lib 1919] by Randolph Bourne. Published
at $1.60, postpaid,
by B. W. Huebsch, 225 Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y.
essays of this leader among the younger publicists of his day and a
an unfinished work on the State. A fresh scrutiny of his profound,
material confirms the opinion that our country lost one of its most
thinkers through Bourne's death. The volume includes "Twilight of
his indictment of the American pragmatic attitude, and the perhaps even
paper, "The War and the Intellectual," an illuminating examination of
the springs of political conduct in times of stress.
* * *
A Timely Treatise on Americanism
to the Republic," [Lib 1921] by Larry E. Atwood. Published
by Laird &
Lee, 1732 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Ill.
We are delighted
to call the attention of the readers of THE BUILDER to this little
book. Its author,
Harry E. Atwood, has given the American people a timely treatise in
this work. As
its pertinent title suggests, it is a call to reconsider the things on
government was founded; the experiences and observations of those who
Constitution, and the hope actuating them, that in the following of the
as it was then written would be the safeguard of the nation from
anything like mob
rule or autocratic tyranny.
indeed desire that it be placed in the hands of all graduates from our
institutions, as it is a handbook of immeasurable worth in contenting
tendencies of mass movements to dominate in national affairs. The
Republic, or the
golden mean in government is forcefully set forth and cannot but
exercise a restraining
influence upon those who are forever declaiming upon the rights of the
meaning but the rights of a certain class. The keen insight of the
Fathers of this
nation is admirably presented and their attitude in the forming and
shaping of the
Constitution is discovered to be in the light of what they knew to be
the past experiences
of peoples in experimentations with popular government.
* * *
A Challenge and a Promise
Landmarks," [Lib 1919] by Leslie M. Shaw. Published
by Laird &
Lee, 1732 Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Ill.
A book which
contains both a challenge and a promise is from the pen of Leslie M.
of the Treasury. It is a pertinent arraignment of present tendencies
a rule of the classes. Mr. Shaw reveals himself to be an old-fashioned
possessed of that fine idealism that prompted the founders of this
Republic to lay
the nation's foundation on a wise and safe basis.
volume is full of homely illustrations, and he drives home the great
he is promulgating in a very pointed fashion. It is the work of a
aware of all present possibilities, dangers and limitations. Mr. Shaw's
is indelibly stamped on the work. We here thank the friend who brought
it to our
attention, and urge its reading by members of the Craft.
* * *
The Rise of a Free Church
in a Free State Told in the Light of American Development
People's History of the Pilgrims," [Lib 1920] by William Elliott Griffis.
by Houghton, Mifflin Co., 4 Park St., Boston, Mass. Illustrated. Price
is widely known as a popular and authoritative writer of history and
various countries, and has been unusually successful in interesting
This book, the keynote of which is struck in the subtitle given above,
the Pilgrims in England, Holland and America, giving especial fullness
to their Dutch experiences, which do not usually receive the attention
deserve. The conditions and surroundings of the Pilgrims which
influenced and actuated
them, are vividly presented, as well as the many things which could not
to interest the boys and girls of the time. Dr. Griffis writes so
and picturesquely that this volume holds an important place among the
of the tercentenary year.
* * *
September Book List
list embraces practically all the standard works on Masonry which we
are able to
secure and keep in stock for the accommodation of individual members of
Study Clubs and Lodges.
We are finding
it more difficult each year to procure new or second-hand copies of the
works on Masonry of which, owing to the limited market for them at the
time of their
publication, but a small number of copies were printed.
We are continually
in search for additional items which will be listed in this column
whenever it is
our good fortune to secure them.
It is suggested
that the latest list be consulted before sending in orders and that no
made from lists more than one month old, since our stock of these books
and a book listed this month may be out of stock by the time next
month's list is
publishers are constantly increasing their prices to us the following
subject to such changes.
Publications Issued by the Society
| 1915 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1919 bound volume of THE BUILDER (for delivery
about February 1st or 15th)
| 1722 Constitutions ( reproduced by photographic
plates from an original copy in the archives of the Iowa Masonic
Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition limited,
| Philosophy of Masonry, Roscoe Pound
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro.
J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, red buffing binding, gilt lettering,
illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry,
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag,"
| "Further Notes on the Comacine Masters," W.
Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to "The Comacines, Their Predecessors
and Their Successors," a Masonic digest of Leader Scott's book "The
Cathedral Builders" and containing the latest researches of Brother
Ravenscroft which present a very logical argument for the connection of
Freemasonry of the present day with the Roman Collegia and traveling
Masons of the early times, paper covers, illustrated
| Symbolism of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Three Degrees, Street, 68
pages, paper covers. The lessons and symbols of each degree traced to
their origin, in every instance that it has been possible to so trace
them. Brother Street gives many explanations of our symbols in this
little book on which our monitors but vaguely touch
| Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite,
Publications from other sources, kept in stock
| "The Builders,"
a Story and Study of Masonry, by Brother Joseph Fort Newton, formerly
Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER
|| $ 1.50
Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
| Symbolism of
Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey
Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey
Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey
| Concise History
of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould
prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all items
The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or registered.
at the shadow and lose the substance.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
The Seal of Solomon
Can you give
me any information covering the six-pointed star styled "The Shield of
or "The Seal of Solomon"?
A. S., New York.
J.W. Horsley says, in Volume XV of the Transactions of the Quatuor
that in many rites and societies both antecedent and subsequent to the
of Craft Masonry, the two very distinct, yet often confused symbols
known as the
Seal of Solomon and the Shield of David are prominent and expressive.
of Solomon's Seal (from its supposed use by our Grand Master Solomon)
or the Hexagram,
or the Hexapla (from its form,) are usually given to a hexagonal figure
two interlacing equilateral triangles which form the six-pointed star.
It was also
called the Ineffable Triangle when bearing the Ineffable Name in
and was thus used especially with a dualistic interpretation. The
signet of Solomon,
by which he was supposed to have had power over spirits, was considered
been engraved with this figure. By this signet Solomon was supposed to
the services of Genii or Djinns, in the construction of the Temple, and
there are frequent allusions in the Thousand and Nights. Thence it
became a symbol
widely found in Oriental countries, not only amongst the Jews, but also
Buddhist temples, and in places as far apart as the Cave of and walls
Christianity, and in Christian art, its magical character was lost or
but it was adopted as a religious symbol typifying the two Natures
in the Person of Christ, and it also gained the name of the Epiphany
everywhere in church architecture, in glass windows or their traceries,
and on tombs,
we find it used. One of the simplest examples is the west window of the
of St. Nicholas Church at Guildford: a plain circle containing six
are arranged in two triangles, each containing three trefoils. Again,
to take an
example from the Early Decorated period, the window in the Bishop of
Palace at Southwark, was a wheel containing two intersecting
around which were six sex-foiled triangles, the hexagon in the center
a star of six great and six smaller rays.
order, derived from, or based upon, Masonry, it is not only delineated
but is also
ritually formed by the use of six lights placed so as to indicate the
two interlacing triangles. The lesser lights are here taken to
represent the Patriarchial,
the Mosaic and the Christian Dispensations; the three greater lights to
Creative, the Preservative and powers of the Most High.
not known that the Greek mystics used the Hexapla as they did the
Pentagram; but from at least the days of the Talmudists the figure was
most expressive, and no doubt was thought more potent, by the addition
of the Hebrew
word AGLA in the centre of the figure, and at the intersecting points
of the triangles,
this word being formed of the initials of the words Ateh (to Thee),
Leolam (forever), and Adonai (O Lord) ‒ an ascription of praise, or a
of faith, which, however, was frequently taken as an affirmation ‒
strong in the eternal God."
stage was to invest the symbol with talismanic powers of the highest
to ascribe to it the power to extinguish conflagrations, to preserve
from wounds in battle, and generally to be prophylactic against all
medieval and post-medieval times the Jews used it chiefly as a
fire, placing it on houses, and especially on breweries; whence in
Germany it came
to be a common sign of a beerhouse.
Hermetic Magic the Hexalpa refers to the sun and planets, and again it
is the sign
of the Macrocosm or Universe.
of David is different from the Seal of Solomon in that it has five
* * *
The Works of Churchward
What is your
opinion of the works of Churchward, "Signs and Symbols of Primordial
and "The Arcana of Masonry"? [Lib 1915] Can you refer me to any works
the same line that are superior to these?
unfortunately, cannot be very highly recommended, and for various
among which is his lack of painstaking scholarship. He builds on
and often permits his imagination to run riot. This is not utterly to
however, for there is much of interest and value in his pages.
is known of "primordial" man, and no one volume, so far as the present
writer knows, covers the "signs and symbols" as far as they are known.
A student is wise to trace the symbols through the various
encyclopedias and to
select out his materials from the standard works on early man, such as
‒ "Early Man in Britain. “ [Lib 1880]
J. Geikie ‒ "Prehistoric Europe." [Lib 1881]
A. Lang ‒ "Magic and Religion." [Lib 1901]
Lubbock ‒ "Prehistoric Times." [Lib 1890]
Schraeder ‒ "Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples." [Lib 1890]
Tylor ‒ "Primitive Culture." [Lib 1920; Vol 1, Vol 2]
Frazer ‒ "The Golden Bough." [Lib 1922]
"arcana," or occult side of Masonry, we have often recommended the
works of A. E. Waite, and gladly do so again, especially his "Secret
and his "Studies in Mysticism"
Andrew Jackson's Lodge
In the June
number of THE BUILDER it is stated that President Andrew Jackson was a
Philanthropic Lodge, located at Clover Bottom, Tennessee. It has been
many of the Craft that he was made a Mason in that lodge, but it is
he received his degrees in old Greeneville Lodge, at Greeneville,
ago I took up the matter with the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, by whom the
for a lodge at Clover Bottom was issued, and the Grand Secretary
informed me that
he was in possession of all the records of that lodge but there was no
any of them of the degrees having been conferred on Andrew Jackson.
Lodge was the third lodge chartered in Tennessee, and was at the time
of its dispensation
No. 3 of North Carolina. After the organization of the Grand Lodge of
Greeneville Lodge was given the same number it previously carried.
I have been
a Mason nearly fifty-eight years and have a very distinct recollection
some of our oldest members speak of being present when Andrew Jackson
degrees in Greenville Lodge. At that time Jackson was living in
twenty-five miles east of Greeneville. At that time Greeneville Lodge
was the only
lodge east of Knoxville and the only one to which Jackson could
all of our lodge records were lost in the Civil War, we have the
statements of some
of our oldest members to the effect that Jackson received the degrees
and there is not the least doubt as to this. He was a member of
at the time of his death in 1875.
served as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee during the years
at which time he was a resident of Nashville.
lodges have charters signed by him, among them being Rising Star Lodge
No. 44, located
at Rutledge, and Rhea Lodge No. 47, located at Jonesboro.
John M. McKee, Past Grand Lecturer, Tennessee.
* * *
The Secrets of Freemasonry
in past numbers of THE BUILDER on the above subject open up to the
an almost boundless realm of thoughtful investigation. It is a realm of
of variety, of depth and intensity, and one where the principles of
logic may be
applied and developed to a high degree by an earnest study of this
religious Mason often in some manner connects the teachings of Masonry
of his creed and, to his mind, its entire plan and purpose has been to
present the doctrines which his church taught him, and he is satisfied
to rest contented
that this is the whole scheme of Masonic teachings. It is through this
that many innovations have one by one crept into Masonic work.
are they in their way, and accepted in good faith by earnest brethren
opinions they uphold. And yet, to the minds of those who go down more
the underlying principles of this great system, they are innovations,
pure and simple,
although harmless, and owing to that widespread toleration of true
are even beneficial to those who accept them as a part of Masonic
which they are certainly not.
had labored among the Craft for a number of years before ever hearing
of some of
the things that are presented in the lectures of the Third degree in
in which he is now a sojourner.
a little deeper into the subject we might ask when were those things
into Masonic teachings, for their own constructive evidence plainly
shows that they
did not always belong there, nor are they introduced into Masonic
teachings in countries
where the brethren are of other faiths, yet whose Masonry is lust as
even more so, than our own.
are the fundamental principles of the Craft? What are the true secrets
One of the
greatest principles of Masonry is undoubtedly Truth. "Truth is a divine
and the foundation of every virtue. To be good and true is the first
lesson we are
taught in Masonry."
the exercise of toleration (or charity) which exists more nearly
Masons than among others, is one of the absolutely necessary functions
teaching, for "upon this principle Masonry unites men of every country,
and opinion and conciliates true friendship among those who might
remained at a perpetual distance."
the learning of how to acquire that broad toleration taught by our
and the adherence to the simple principles of truth, constitute at
least a part
of the secrets of Masonry, and were they not shared although
unwittingly in a measure,
in that cosmopolitan lodge in India, made up of so many different
by Kipling in his "Mother Lodge Back There"? [Lib 1907 (pp 318)]
many secrets in mental and moral philosophy for which many generations
craftsmen have striven for centuries, and while in a large measure they
much knowledge, the field is very large and very attractive, and the
and the most tolerant seekers after light believe that the discovery of
principles of truth are in direct line with the fundamental principles
of the Craft
and approved by the Supreme Architect of the Universe whose laws they
study in the
great book of nature spread open for their inspection.
Lewis A. McConnell, Colorado.
* * *
The Purpose of Legends and
of the ancients is largely a matter of myth and tradition. Particularly
true of early Masonic History. Examine the legendary origin of the
order under a
pedagogic microscope, carefully setting aside those statements not
by documentary evidence, and you strip the skeleton of its flesh,
leaving it is
true the sinews of historical truth, but robbing the form of its
of the various degrees are not always capable of authentication, nor is
that they should be. They furnish the allegorical setting for the
So too, the
myths of origin serve a purpose. The 47th Problem gains new interest
with the story
of "a worthy Scoller height Ewelyde" who taught the Egyptians "the
science of Geometrie in practice, for to work in stones all manner of
that belonged to buildinge churches, temples, castells, towres, and
all other manner of buildings" and who delivered the ancient charge as
in the Dowland Manuscript. What a thrill there is in the words FROM
as applied to the old English Lodges! They bring back visions of the
York and the renewal of St. Alban's Charter by King Athelstan at the
behest of his
brother (or son) Edwin "for love that he had to Masons."
of the Craft, together with those relating to Lamech's Sons and the
the Tower of Babel, Nimrod, the Temple at Jerusalem, Charles Martel and
should not be discarded because of historical inaccuracy. Presenting a
conception of the Craft with its intermingling of Geometry,
Architecture and Operative
Masonry, which is the basis of Speculative Freemasonry, it was but
the author should incorporate in his narrative characters and places
which he deemed
of such importance as would most impress the reader. That he was
of anachronisms does not really matter. He was actuated by a sincere
desire to show
that "the wisest and best of men in all ages have been encouragers and
of our art."
C. G. Culin, New Jersey.
* * *
Were Hewn Stones Anciently
Associated With the Evil Side of Nature
To the list
of books suitable for a Masonic library, as supplied by Brother
the February number of THE BUILDER, I would like to add "Traces of a
Tradition in Masonry and Medieval Mysticism" [Lib 1900] by (Mrs.) Cooper Oakley,
writer had peculiar facilities for producing this book, because of her
with European languages, and her ability to get into the depths of some
and valuable little work is "Masonic Symbolism" [Lib*] by A. H. Ward,
1913. It is very much worth having.
I have just
finished reading Portal's "Comparison," [Lib 1878] and was surprised to read his
that hewn stone was associated with the evil side of Nature, and his
biblical texts that seem to indicate that the Temple of Solomon was
built of whole
stones. (Exod. XX, v. 25; Joshua VIII, 30-31, and I Kings VI, 7.) Yet
seem to have been masters of the art of dressing stones for their
and they taught the Phoenicians, from whom came the builders of the
Temple at Jerusalem.
I would like
further light on this.
‒ N. W. J. Haydon, Canada.
* * *
For The Good of the Order
who is a Past Master of his Blue Lodge, a Past High Priest of his
Chapter, a Past
Thrice Illustrious Master of his Council, a Past Eminent Commander of
a Past Grand Master of the Grand Council, R. & S. M., of his
State, for twenty-one
years a Shriner, for twenty years a 32d Scottish Rite Mason and for
nine years a
K.C.C.H., desires to offer to the members of the Fraternity in general
of edicts, or laws, which if adopted by the different Grand and Supreme
would, in his opinion, tend to uplift the standard of Masonry in
Arch Chapter should require the petitioner to have been a Master Mason
for a period
of twelve months prior to his applying for the Chapter degrees.
should require the petitioner to have been a Royal Arch Mason for a
period of twelve
months prior to his applying for the Orders of Knighthood.
of Perfection should require the petitioner to have been a Master Mason
for a period
of twelve months prior to his applying for the degrees conferred
(Shrine) should require the petitioner to have been a Knight Templar,
or a 32d Scottish
Rite Mason (either or both), for a period of twelve months prior to his
for the Order.
(Grotto) should require the petitioner to have been a Master Mason for
of twelve months prior to his applying for membership therein.
suggested edicts apply more especially to the Grotto and Shrine, and I
members of these bodies will give these suggestions deep thought and
as will bring about the best results.
If such edicts
were enacted the Master Mason would have more thoroughly absorbed the
and lessons of the Blue Lodge and be better prepared for the Chapter,
Rite degrees; the Royal Arch Mason would, if he attended the meetings
of his Chapter
as he should, be much better prepared for the beautiful impressive
lessons of the
Commandery; the Knight Templar, or 32d Scottish Rite Mason would have
had an opportunity
to study the beautiful lessons taught him, thereby having them so
in his mind as not to lose any of their importance, when he entered the
the Shrine. Too many, after having received the Entered Apprentice
degree, set their
eyes on a Grotto, or Shrine emblem, and overlook many of the lessons
solemn obligations assumed, in order to reach their goal ‒ nay far too
R. Leslie Chiles, Tennessee.
* * *
Numbers Versus Quality
At the recent
annual communication of the Grand Lodge Alpina of Switzerland, a
was delivered by the retiring Grand Master, Bro. Dr. J. Schwenter, from
following is extracted:
In the industrial
world we must reckon with three factors: capital, which undertakes;
which directs; and labor. These three factors are indispensable for the
of the community: they must be maintained mutually, or the whole
edifice will fall
to pieces. If one of these withdraws its support, there will
a catastrophe: it is not even necessary to demonstrate this fact by
But in this regard the Masonic principle of good-will, of reciprocal
the adaptation of one to another, is of great importance, even an
Freemasons may therefore be persuaded that today their existence is not
but that, on the contrary, it is even indispensable, because the Craft
create a real union among members of the human race, in which love, and
therefore, tranquilly to remain faithful in the performance of the
duties we have
voluntarily undertaken; in our zeal as Freemasons we wish to continue
in the way of progress for the good of humanity.
Is it necessary
for our work that we should have a large number of adepts? That is a
which only an affirmative answer can be given: from a material point of
view a large
number certainly has its advantages. A large society is, in this
and more productive than a small one, but if we consider how
Freemasonry may the
better fulfil its mission, we must reply that it can only do so by
placing it intellectually
and morally on as high a level as possible. That is the reply to the
men, eminent from an intellectual and moral point of view, come in
to our lodges, the increase in membership is then justified; but when
such is not
the case, when those who knock at our doors do not offer the desired
in this respect, then the interest of our royal art demands that such
must stand to one side. If we have numbers only, we gain nothing; on
we risk lowering the level of our Society, and by that means also we
enfeeble our action and influence, and, consequently, also, our right
It is possible that such refusal of admission may be contrary to our
sentiments, but we must not lose sight of the fact that our lodge is
not an institution
in which the private opinion of the majority must alone be the law. We
the Masonic point of view, rather than that of the worlds and seek to
that which we believe most conforms to truth, to duty, and to morality.
may, perhaps, seldom be unanimous on this point but all will form ideas
respond to our ideal and act accordingly in the outside world. We are
not a Society
proceeding by a fixed vote to intervention in events, because, if we do
shall abandon the foundation on which Freemasonry has been built, and
we shall then
be regarded and treated simply as a political party. We must not forget
our Society is enclosed the intellectual and moral worth of ideas and
in the light of our teaching and that it is not in conformity with the
of our institution outwardly to act as a body in opposition to the
of positive opinions.
Dudley Wright, England.
The Terminal Triangle -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
of thought that has been to men denied
By that intolerance which ne'er with men divide
The right to read the way to human destiny
Save in the ways wherein its creeds may point the way.
Equality that means a tolerance that springs
From motive to accord to all the right of things
That by the Golden Rule may be worked out to give
That which is due to those who in its spirit live.
Fraternity, the word that holds all other terms
By which this old, old world in sorrow slowly learns
That men and nations in true Brotherhood must live
Before the wane, their dues, they can in full, receive.
wear out pain, and long hopes Joy.
Reconstruction -- [A Poem]
Charles C. Pierce
night-time; and welcome armistice
Had sounded recall to embattled legions,
Relaxed tenseness from the grip of guns,
Lifted deadly gas from poisoned valleys
And stilled the din of deafening cannonade.
Full weary of Earth's lengthened fratricide,
And the riot of mad colors
Which reddened soil with likeness to man's blood
And pat the verdancy of sod, by gruesome change,
Upon the faces of the dead
And, brain-fagged by the baffle in which I lay enclouded
When I sought for reasons why a world should be upheaved
And earth, and air, and underseas be made a space for feuds,
I thought to rest awhile and seek recovery
And such measure of forgetting
As would ease the pain and let me think somewhat
Of an ancient Master's vanguard, on a Holy Night,
As they canticled of peace, so seeming long ago.
It may be that I dreamed;
And yet, as waking has not followed,
With its change of scene and other sensing,
Perhaps it was not altogether dreaming
Or mere vagary
That chained me to the thought I now relate.
Did I say the scene was visioned in the night?
Perhaps it was; for other things were quite obscured,
And yet some lingering flashes
From near-gone torches of the day
Brought out the salient lines and marked the colors,
Like the varied ooze pressed out upon an artist's palette.
So, although the veiling night shut the farground out,
The closer things were quite accentuate and clear.
As motion on the landscape, though one be in reverie,
Commands attention and liberates from predisposing thought,
I found my gaze compelled, and this is what I saw:
There stalked among worn sleepers and the slain
On the Aceldema of warring states
Whence souls triumphant passed
To blessed bivouac or to the destiny
Of longer labor on the earth
A figure limned like Heaven's Norsemen
(For he was nude enough for sculptor's model,
And unashamed of strength by living God endowed,)
And he was spirited with fire that spoke
In eye and heaving nostril and all
Avenues of possible expression.
A splendid figure was he
And like another Daniel come for judgment.
Methought, in passing thence toward haunts
Where men unmartial most do congregate
Mid towns and toils where masses half forget
That staggering civilizations sway in trenches far afield,
All hesitant upon a soldier's fate,
His soul seemed greatly stirred
At sight of ivied walls, enclosing pious palaces,
And colored windows, toning light of fanes
By dimning art of medieval dreams,
And graceful domes that hinted higher life,
And proudly spired among more modest dwellings
As chief domiciles of God on earth,
And yet emprisoned Him in rood-screen
Except upon such days as lettered red
Upon the calendar; or else, proof-read
His gospel in such orthodox precision
As to make it seem, as phrased and emphasized,
Although designed to be a Book
For present times and problems yet to be,
A quite inadequate edition.
I saw the flushing Face of the Inquisitor
Who had trod the crimsoned soil where liberty of worlds
Was born, and giant souls gave up themselves
In awful ultimate of life or death
To vindicate the principles of righteousness,
And meanwhile, lived with very God Himself
The while they fought and were dismembered
Or were bidden back to battle once again;
And it evidenced a pitiful regret
Within him, as back he turned once more
From these enlarging views and sensings
Aggrieved, despoiled, and disenthralled,
Unto a world outgrown; ‒ a sense
Of one who stands apart and comprehending not
How men of mind can think themselves
Content with dogmas quite diminutive,
And the pettiness with which an altogether human soul
Assumes to be the patron of its God.
I could sense his thought to be
Determinate that such a world
Should never be his home again.
Indeed, it could not be; because unstifled air,
And broad vision of life's big perspective,
And the communism of the melting pot
Of battle, in which all men count themselves
And rate their mates in terms of worth
And brotherhood, had somehow
Served to alter attitudes and outlooks
The while they gave to men expertness
In sizing real values and determinings
Concerning things that have a proper place in life.
This Titan, backward come from worlds of deed and daring,
Knowing men by manliness and envisabled
In things achieved, could never be agreed
To yield for human vote a test of brotherhood
Or make of ancient scroll a modern oracle
For settlement of any human right to kneel
And live upon the sacramental life of God.
I knew, ‒ as passing clouds let fall
Revealing moonlight on the face
Of this commanding figure
And I saw disturbing evidence
Of his mighty discontent, ‒
That out of war had come an era
New and full of challenges
With which the Church must reckon
And for which sages of the Church must phrase
A gospel adequate, and stir up fusing fire
To put away its dross and weld the atoms
Of men's better selves into a closer brotherhood.
Within the pulsing frame
Of this herald of the newer time,
As many forms may blend in one composite,
I saw the larger growth of myriad men
Whose cubits were enheightened
By exercise Herculean, ‒ a veritable host
Of men like-minded with himself ‒
Who had dared the dangers of the time
And fallen into step with One who,
With redemptive will, had mounted Calvary
And looked thenceforward into life beyond,
Appraising life's essential in the willingness to die;
And these, or Galilean Saviour,
From such view sublime
Far-looking from the vantage of a cross
Beyond the boundaries of conventional horizons
Could never backward go, into the coma
And the chrysalis of crimping shell and narrow life.
In the deeper darkness of advancing night
My Titan vanished from the range of sight;
But I was left encaptured with convincing thought
That he had given me the text for action
In the readjusting days and policies
That must follow the disturbances of war.
This seems to be the sense of altered hosts
Who homeward turn from stirring scenes
In which uncovered souls have learned their likeness
And found the marks of common fatherhood and family;
The shrine at which they kneel
Must be a place where brothers, too, may bend the knee;
The phrasing of a future faith
Must lose archaic accent and exclusiveness;
The pristine graces of religion once again
Must vitalize and vindicate the thing
To which men listen eagerly or patiently
As having pleasing language for the soul.
It is the testing time of Christendom!
If the Church itself has been reborn
And come to better stature,
It will meet the challenge of the times
And keep the world in cadence with its steps
But if it lingers, like the wife of Lot,
And sets its heart upon a life
From which it parts unwillingly,
Fritters time with fashion's emptiness,
Or bars the way to heaven with building-blocks of phrase,
Fate will draft for it a name like "Ichabod,"
Monumenting glory gone;
And worlds will surely build a better shrine,
Bringing back to dwell therein,
The while they offer homage of a simple faith,
An almost EXILE, in the person of the King.
March 20th, 1919
District of Columbia
A Concise History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
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A Sketch of the Dyonisian
DaC20 / auth. DaCosta Hyppolito J. - London : Messrs. Sherwood, Neely,
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An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
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AQC Transactions Vol 014 - 1901
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Back to the Republic
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Book of Constitutions
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Kip07 / auth. Kipling Rudyard. - New York : Doubleday, Page &
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Comparison of Egyptian Symbols
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Early Man in Britain
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Smi70 / auth. Smith Toulmin. - London : The Early English Text Society,
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Fama fraternitatis (English)
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History of Freemasonry
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History of Freemasonry
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History of Freemasonry
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Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
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History of Freemasonry
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History of Freemasonry
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Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
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Illustrations of Masonry
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Magic and Religion
Lan012 / auth. Lang Andrew. - London : Longmans, Green and Co, 1901. -
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Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
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Old Charges of British
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Prehistoric Antiquities of the
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Gei81 / auth. Geikie James. - London : Edward Stanford, 1881. - Vol. 1
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Lub90 / auth. Lubbock John. - London : William and Norgate, 1890. - 5th
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Primitive Culture Vol 1
Tyl20PC1 / auth. Tylor Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 1
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Primitive Culture Vol 2
Tyl20PC2 / auth. Tylor Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1920. - Vol. 2
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Primitive Secret Societies
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Signs and Symbols Illustrated
Oli37 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper,
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Mac141 / auth. Macbride A S. - Glasgow : D. Gilfillan & Co.,
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The Arcana of Freemasonry
Chu15 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
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For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
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The Cathedral Builders
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The Doctrine and Literature of
Wai02 / auth. Waite Arthur E. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
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The Early History and
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The Gates of Paradise
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The Golden Bough
Fra221 / auth. Frazer James G. - [s.l.] : Project Gutenberg, 1922. -
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The Philosophy of Masonry
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The Secret Traditions in
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The Secret Traditions in
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The Signs and Symbols of
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The Spirit of Masonry in Moral
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Hut95 / auth. Hutchinson William. - Carlisle : F. Jollie, 1795. - Vol.
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The Symbolism of Freemasonry
Mac21 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Chicaco Ill. : The Masonic History
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Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 1
Mea061 / auth. Mead George S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
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Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 2
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Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 3
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Traces of a Hidden Tradition
Coo001 / auth. Cooper-Oakley Isabel. - London : The Theosophical
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Bou19 / auth. Bourne Randolph S / ed. Oppenheim James. - New York : B W Huebsch, 1919. -
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Sha191 / auth. Shaw Leslie M. - Chicago : Laird & Lee, Inc,
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Young Person's History of the Pilgrims
Gri20 / auth. Griffis William E. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin Comany,
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