Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.
G. M., District Of Columbia
poem on Paul Revere's ride has made him an inspiring figure in the War
of the Revolution,
and his timely act is still fresh in the memory of every unhyphenated
Any effort to add to his memorable ride would be like trying to paint
Listen my children
and you shall hear
Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere,
On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-five;
Hardly a man is now alive
Who remembers that famous day and year.
He said to his
friend, “If the British march
By land or sea from the town to-night,
Hang a lantern aloft in the belfry arch
Of the North Church tower as a signal light,–
One if by land, and two if by sea;
And I on the opposite shore will be,
Ready to ride and spread the alarm
Through every Middlesex village and farm,
For the country folk to be up and to arm.”
Then he said
“Good-night!” and with muffled oar
Silently rowed to the Charlestown shore,
Just as the moon rose over the bay,
Where swinging wide at her moorings lay
The Somerset, British man-of-war;
A phantom ship, with each mast and spar
Across the moon like a prison bar,
And a huge black hulk, that was magnified
By its own reflection in the tide.
Meanwhile, his friend
through alley and street
Wanders and watches, with eager ears,
Till in the silence around him he hears
The muster of men at the barrack door,
The sound of arms, and the tramp of feet,
And the measured tread of the grenadiers,
Marching down to their boats on the shore.
Then he climbed the
tower of the Old North Church,
By the wooden stairs, with stealthy tread,
To the belfry chamber overhead,
And startled the pigeons from their perch
On the sombre rafters, that round him made
Masses and moving shapes of shade,–
By the trembling ladder, steep and tall,
To the highest window in the wall,
Where he paused to listen and look down
A moment on the roofs of the town
And the moonlight flowing over all.
Beneath, in the
churchyard, lay the dead,
In their night encampment on the hill,
Wrapped in silence so deep and still
That he could hear, like a sentinel’s tread,
The watchful night-wind, as it went
Creeping along from tent to tent,
And seeming to whisper, “All is well!”
A moment only he feels the spell
Of the place and the hour, and the secret dread
Of the lonely belfry and the dead;
For suddenly all his thoughts are bent
On a shadowy something far away,
Where the river widens to meet the bay,–
A line of black that bends and floats
On the rising tide like a bridge of boats.
to mount and ride,
Booted and spurred, with a heavy stride
On the opposite shore walked Paul Revere.
Now he patted his horse’s side,
Now he gazed at the landscape far and near,
Then, impetuous, stamped the earth,
And turned and tightened his saddle girth;
But mostly he watched with eager search
The belfry tower of the Old North Church,
As it rose above the graves on the hill,
Lonely and spectral and sombre and still.
And lo! as he looks, on the belfry’s height
A glimmer, and then a gleam of light!
He springs to the saddle, the bridle he turns,
But lingers and gazes, till full on his sight
A second lamp in the belfry burns.
A hurry of hoofs in a
A shape in the moonlight, a bulk in the dark,
And beneath, from the pebbles, in passing, a spark
Struck out by a steed flying fearless and fleet;
That was all! And yet, through the gloom and the light,
The fate of a nation was riding that night;
And the spark struck out by that steed, in his flight,
Kindled the land into flame with its heat.
He has left the village and mounted the steep,
And beneath him, tranquil and broad and deep,
Is the Mystic, meeting the ocean tides;
And under the alders that skirt its edge,
Now soft on the sand, now loud on the ledge,
Is heard the tramp of his steed as he rides.
It was twelve by the
When he crossed the bridge into Medford town.
He heard the crowing of the cock,
And the barking of the farmer’s dog,
And felt the damp of the river fog,
That rises after the sun goes down.
It was one by the
When he galloped into Lexington.
He saw the gilded weathercock
Swim in the moonlight as he passed,
And the meeting-house windows, black and bare,
Gaze at him with a spectral glare,
As if they already stood aghast
At the bloody work they would look upon.
It was two by the
When he came to the bridge in Concord town.
He heard the bleating of the flock,
And the twitter of birds among the trees,
And felt the breath of the morning breeze
Blowing over the meadow brown.
And one was safe and asleep in his bed
Who at the bridge would be first to fall,
Who that day would be lying dead,
Pierced by a British musket ball.
You know the rest. In
the books you have read
How the British Regulars fired and fled,—
How the farmers gave them ball for ball,
From behind each fence and farmyard wall,
Chasing the redcoats down the lane,
Then crossing the fields to emerge again
Under the trees at the turn of the road,
And only pausing to fire and load.
So through the night
rode Paul Revere;
And so through the night went his cry of alarm
To every Middlesex village and farm,—
A cry of defiance, and not of fear,
A voice in the darkness, a knock at the door,
And a word that shall echo for evermore!
For, borne on the night-wind of the Past,
Through all our history, to the last,
In the hour of darkness and peril and need,
The people will waken and listen to hear
The hurrying hoof-beats of that steed,
And the midnight message of Paul Revere.
was born in Boston in 1735, of Huguenot descent, and he died there in
remains being laid away in the Granary Burying Ground.
the trade of his father, that of a goldsmith, at which he became
he amplified this by taking up and perfecting the trade of a
coppersmith and the
art of engraving. At that time a man was as proud of his trade as of a
and these vied with each other for supremacy. Revere had passed the
the mechanic ended and the artist began.
an urn of gold, not more than three inches in height, now in the
possession of the
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, in which is contained a lock of the hair
Washington. When the writer saw Past Grand Master Charles T. Gallagher,
in the Temple
at Philadelphia, hold it aloft and call it a "precious urn containing a
treasure," he was struck with its beauty, the priceless treasure it
and the tense interest and silence of the two thousand Masons present.
and eloquent Gallagher could have made anything interesting, but when
he held that
urn in his delicate white hand and pronounced the words the fame of
was raised far above the drastic ride.
as Lieutenant of Artillery in the Colonial Army and was stationed at
near Lake George. He was one of those engaged in the destruction of the
Tea in the
Boston Harbor, and he carried the information to New York and
they might be prepared.
Gage prepared an expedition to destroy the military stores of the
colony at Concord,
Warren, at 10 o'clock at night dispatched William Daws through Roxbury
and Revere, by way of Charlestown, to give notice of the event. Revere
of the orders of General Gage to prevent any American from passing, and
so was able
to give the alarm from house to house.
As an engraver
Paul Revere had no peer in his day. He engraved a print emblematic of
of the Stamp Act, which was very popular. He also engraved one called
seventeen rescinders" which was equally popular. In 1770 he published
called "The Boston Massacre."
He once refused
to serve on a jury because the Parliament had made the judge
independent of the
jury. In all his acts Revere seemed to be independent and determined.
was Grand Master of Freemasons from December 12, 1794, until December
He was a de facto Mason, rarely missing a communication of his lodge.
He was initiated
in St. Andrews Lodge in 1760, and raised in 1761, serving as Warden in
Master in 1770.
the Grand Lodge as Junior Grand Warden, Senior Grand Warden and Grand
is simple ‒ a plinthe, a die and a cap. The lettering shows all that is
The little monument is of a design and of a stone that will defy the
tooth of time.
By Bro. Dudley Wright, England
tell us that there never has been a woman Freemason. Perhaps that is
question has been called to the attention of the able scholar and
who contributes this article. Can Freemasonry enlarge its borders to
or must they forever remain outside the pale? If they are to be made
Masons in literal
truth in what way can we reorganize the ritual so as to eliminate
which might prove embarrassing to them? If they cannot be admitted into
in what way can the spirit and teachings of this ancient Fraternity be
to them? Since Freemasonry began to be this has been a moot question;
it is still.
It will be for years to come. It is a theme of perennial interest. For
we are very glad indeed to give to our readers the reasoned and mature
of a scholar who has every right to speak on this interesting question.
have always held a fascination for both sexes, despite the fallacious
women cannot keep a secret. Women have, however, from time immemorial
excluded from the ranks of orthodox 'Freemasonry', although, as will be
see in these
pages the barriers have been broken down on more than one occasion. The
of Constitutions of the Grand Lodge of England, published in 1723,
that no woman should be admitted as a member of a Masonic lodge.
of history show that in past ages women had their own secret societies.
instances the mere man was excluded as rigorously as woman is excluded
Freemasonry. In others men were admitted on equal or almost equal terms
Mysteries were introduced by Esmolpus in B.C. 1356, and were founded in
Ceres and Proserpine, and any one violating the oath taken on admission
the secrets to the un-initiated was punished with death. The same
meted out to uninitiated intruders at the ceremonies. Both sexes were
initiation and there was no age limit.
his History of Rome records a female Order in the fourth century. It
for the Roman ladies annually to celebrate in the house, either of the
Praetor, certain rites and ceremonies in honor of a goddess. In what
consisted, as no man was ever permitted to be present or even to be
with the nature or tendency of the function, it is impossible to say.
At the appointed
time the vestals came, and, so cautious were they as to privacy, that
was carefully searched, all male animals were turned out of doors and
and pictures of men were covered with thick opaque veils. The Romans
death any man found present at the Assembly. Pompeia, the wife of
for her lover, Clodius, to be present at one of these gatherings, but
he was detected
and, Pompeia's share in the deception being discovered, she was
divorced by Caesar
as the consequence of her action.
to the androgynous societies, L'Abbe Clavel in his History of
Freemasonry and Similar
Societies, Ancient and Modern [Lib*], published in 1842, says that
these Societies with enthusiasm as a practical means of giving to their
daughters some share of the pleasures which they themselves enjoyed in
assemblies. And this, at least, may be said of them, that they
practiced with commendable
fidelity and diligence, the greatest of the Masonic virtues, and that
and balls which always formed an important part of their ceremonial
by numerous acts of charity." Androgynous Masonry also included certain
among which may be mentioned the "Heroine of Jericho," which appears to
be the most ancient, for which the wives and daughters of Royal Arch
were eligible; the "Ark and Dove"; "The Mason's Daughter"; "The
Good Samaritan"; "The Maids of Jerusalem"; and "The Mason's
Wife," which was conferred on the wives, daughters, sisters and mothers
Masons. These were practiced mainly in the United States of America.
There is also
evidence that women in days gone by were admitted into the Order of
as to whether or not women should be admitted into the ranks of
is not discussed. As one proud to acknowledge obedience to the
the United Grand Lodge of England which, by its Constitutions has
decreed that they
shall not, any discussion on this point would be unbecoming.
of Adoptive Masonry is placed generally in the seventeenth century, and
is named as the widow of Charles I of England, daughter of Henry IV,
of Louis XIII of France. After the death of Charles I, she was
protectress of the children of the widow," Freemasons in those days
as "the children of the widow." She is said to have formed a society of
women to whom she communicated certain signs and passwords.
in Russia, Catherine the Czarina obtained from Peter the Great
permission to found
the Order of St. Catherine, an Order of Knighthood for women only, of
was proclaimed Grand Mistress. This was a quasi-Masonic body.
In the eighteenth
century there were four Grand Mistresses of the Order of St. John of
which was an emanation of early Masonry. They were the Princess of
Rochelle in Italy,
the Countess of Maille and the Princess of Latour in France, and the
Wissembourg in Germany. The Chevalier Cesar Moreau states with
assurance that Adoptive
Masonry is of French origin. "What other people," he says, "could
have raised this beautiful monument of national gallantry to a sex who,
in the East,
are subjected to the most humiliating dependence; who, in Spain, are
living sepulchres, namely, the convents; while, in Italy, this
admirable half of
humanity is in the same position; and, in Russia, the husband receives
father-in-law, with his wife, the right of flogging her at his
pleasure? The French
know too well how to appreciate the numberless merits of this charming
sex, to allow
themselves to be influenced by any other nation in the happiness of
proving to women
that they are at all times their idols, from youth to age."
date of the establishment of Adoptive Masonry in France may be placed
as 1775, when,
according to M. Boubee, who is sometimes called "the father of French
the French ladies, not wishing to remain indifferent to the good done
wished to form Lodges of Adoption so as more efficaciously to exercise
the Grand Orient of France did not sympathize with the formation of
of Adoption, and for some time withheld its sanction but eventually
take the oversight on the express condition that each assembly should
over by the Master of a regular Masonic lodge. Immediately several
ladies of distinction
became active members and propagators, among the number being the
Duchess of Chartres,
the Duchess of Bourbon, the Princess of Lambelle, the Countess of
Countess of Choiseul-Gouffier, and the Marchioness of Coutebonne.
On 11th March,
1775, the Marquis de Saisseval, assisted by several distinguished
the Lodge of Candour under the Constitution of the Grand Orient of
days afterwards ‒ on 25th March, 1775 ‒ this lodge gave a fête d'adoption, when the Duchess of Chartres, wife
of the Grand Master of the Grand Orient, was present. There was also
Duchess of Bourbon, who then consented to accept the position of Grand
of Adoptive Masonry. Her installation took place on the following May,
in the Lodge
of St. Anthony, in Paris, when the Duke of Chartres presided in his
Grand Master. Nearly a thousand persons, the elite of French society,
are said to
have assisted at this function.
Rite consisted of four degrees ‒ Apprentice, Companion, Mistress and
The first degree was purely symbolical and introductory, intended
rather to improve
the mind than to convey any definite idea of the institution. The
depicted the scene of the temptation in Eden, and the Companion was
a lecture of the penalty incurred by the Fall. The third degree alluded
to the Tower
of Babel and the confusion of tongues as a symbol of a badly-regulated
Jacob's ladder was introduced as a moral lesson of order and harmony.
degree, that of Perfect Mistress, represented Moses and Aaron, their
the sons of Aaron. The ceremonies referred to the passage of the Red
Sea by the
Israelites, and the degree was said to symbolize the passage of man
from the world
of change and discord to a pure land of rest and peace. The officers of
of Adoption consisted of Grand Master, Grand Mistress, Orator,
Depositor, Depositrix, Conductor and Conductress. The sash and collar
with a gold trowel suspended. The Grand Master, Grand Mistress, and the
officers were provided with gavels, and each member was clothed with a
apron and white gloves. The brethren, as distinct from the sisters,
wore in addition
to the ordinary regalia, each a sword and a gold ladder of five rounds
‒ this latter
being the Jewel of Adoptive Masonry. The business of each lodge was
the sisters, the brethren being looked upon only as assistants.
hangings were provided for the various degrees. In the first degree,
divided the room into four sections. The west represented Europe; the
the south, Africa; and the north, America. Two thrones were erected in
for the Grand Master and Grand Mistress; before them was placed an
to their right and left were placed eight statues representing Wisdom,
Strength, Temperance, Honor, Charity, Justice and Truth. The members
sat in two
rows, to light and left, at right angles to the two presiding officers
‒ the brethren,
armed with their swords, in the back row, and the sisters in the front
Lodges found many opportunities for the practice of beneficence, in
they excelled. The records of the Adoptive Lodge of Candour show that
collections were made for the poor and distressed. In 1777, the Duchess
presided at a meeting of this lodge when there was a collection for a
of the Anjou regiment who had thrown himself into the frozen Rhone and
drowning children. In 1779, through the agency of members of this
lodge, a poor
nobleman, without profession or resources, obtained from the King a
a lieutenancy. This lodge was disbanded in 1780, in consequence of
The Quadruple Lodge of the "Nine Sisters" was another prominent
lodge, which held several fetes for philanthropic purposes. In 1780, a
Adoptan was formed by the Lodge "Social Contract" to celebrate the
of the Grand Master, the Duke of Chartres. This lodge had for its first
the Abbe Bertolio, who was assisted by the Princess of Lamballe as
Among the initiates of this lodge were the Viscountess of Afrey, the
of Narbonne, and the Countess of Maille. In common with many others
this lodge was
broken up by the Revolution.
Masonry was seized upon by the comprehensive mind of the first Napoleon
as a means
to consolidate his power, and it rose into favor again on the
the Empire. In 1805, the unfortunate Empress Josephine was installed
of the Loge Imperiale d'Adoption des Francs Chevaliers at Strasbourg,
when she initiated
one of her ladies of honor, Madame F. de Canisy. M. Boubee says that at
in the history of Adoptive Masonry was there so brilliant a gathering.
It was the
first occasion on which French Masonry had been honored by the presence
of a sovereign.
In a modified
manner Adoptive Masonry still exists, but it has not flourished under
and its operations have been confined mainly to France. It has been
a contempt amounting almost to indignation, by the Grand Lodges of the
and the Overseas Dominions. The Ancient and Primitive Rite ‒ a body not
with the United Grand Lodge of England, and now almost obsolete ‒ has
to confer the Adoptive Degrees, but does not exercise it.
Oliver, the author of Revelations of a Square [Lib 1855], gives an interesting account
a visit he paid to a lodge of Adoption in Paris in 1808:
ceremonies are conducted with the utmost decorum. We are, of course,
of the dark room, as none but females are admitted to that penetralia
and the preparations
are conducted only by females; but when they are completed, and the
on, the novice is conducted through the process by a lady and gentleman
this special occasion it was thought that the candidate did not possess
fortitude to endure the trials, and she was warned that if she had any
to her power of endurance she had the opportunity of withdrawing.
However, she indicated
that she was quite willing to proceed, and she was accordingly
the usual trials of fortitude, and endured them with the courage of a
even at last, when placed on the summit of the symbolic mountain, and
told she must
cast herself down thence into the abyss below, where she saw a double
row of bright
steel spikes, long and sharp. They were real, substantial spikes, and
have been killed if impaled thereon.
word was given to throw herself down, and with a suppressed shriek she
required plunge. So unexpectedly sudden was her obedience that the
guide, who had
charge of the machinery, was scarcely allowed time to touch the spring
fell recumbent at the bottom of the abyss. The machinery is so
contrived that at
the very moment when the final leap is made the scene changes to an
Elysium of green
fields and shady trees, bubbling fountains and purling streams, and
velvet herbage is placed a bed of the softest down, to receive the fair
the exhausted novice as she falls. In the present instance the lady
lay for a time without motion, but was soon restored and tranquillized
by the application
of essences and perfumes, and the soft and soothing influence of
afterwards introduced into the lodge, her constancy was rewarded by
forming a part of the most beautiful and captivating scenes I ever
Ritual of Adoptive Masonry
Ritual of Adoptive Masonry is translated, for the first time, from a
issued in 1783:
wanting in the Order of Freemasonry the pleasure of the company of the
the members of which are always an ornament to the most reputable
Masonry enables brethren to cure this signal favor.
Decoration of the Lodge
Carpet, on which is traced a diagram of the lodge, is placed in the
center of the
temple. On it is placed the Noah's Ark, floating on the waters; the
Tower of Babel;
and Jacob's Ladder. Behind the Grand Inspector is placed a table
covered with a
black cloth, on which a skeleton is laid. Behind the Grand Master, a
his head, stands the Destroying Angel, holding a naked sword in his
right hand and
an iron chain in his left hand. By the side of the Grand Master are two
on each of which is placed a pan filled with rope ends, spirits of
wine, and salt,
wherewith to make a flame. These pans are sometimes placed on stools in
of the temple. By the, side of the table which is behind the Grand
placed two brethren, wearing masks which cause them to look repulsive;
are fixed firmly on their Heads And Each Holds A Torch Lighted By Means
Sulphur And Refined Pitch.
Arrangement of the Lodge
of the lodge is addressed as Grand Master. He wears suspended from his
neck a blue
or black cord, from the bottom of which hangs a small trowel. He wears
his hat in
lodge, holds a naked sword in his left hand and a trowel in his right.
also carries a naked sword in order to form the arch of steel, referred
on in the Ritual. The Grand Inspector is placed in the west of the
lodge, but, unlike
the Grand Master, does not wear his hat. The brethren also remain with
throughout the proceedings, but the sisters have their heads covered.
Inspector wears a blue cord round his neck, from which is suspended a
The brethren and sisters arrange themselves in oblong form around the
wearing a white apron and having a small trowel suspended from a blue
is worn around the neck.
Ritual for the Opening of
"Brethren and sisters, assist me to open this lodge of Apprenticed
are repeated, first by the Sister Inspector and then by the Brother
"Sister Inspector, what is the first duty of a Mason?" Response: "To
see that the lodge is properly tyled to prevent the admission of the
"Then, my dear sister, assure yourself that this has been done."
"Brother Inspector, will you see that the lodge is properly tyled and
having been given)
"Grand Master, the Brother Inspector reports that the lodge is properly
"Are you an Apprenticed Mason?"
"I believe so."
"If you believe it, why are you not certain?"
"Because an Apprentice is certain of nothing."
"What is the duty of a Mason?"
"To listen, to obey, to work, and to be silent."
"At what time do Masons begin to work?"
"At the moment of awakening."
"What time is it now?"
"The moment for awakening and the hour for working."
Master gives five raps on the pedestal and says:
and Brother Inspectors, give warning to the brethren and sisters in
that this is the moment for awakening and the hour for working and that
I am about
to open a lodge of Apprenticed Masons."
having been obeyed by these officers, the Grand Master gives a further
with his trowel on the pedestal and says:
dear brethren and sisters, I declare this lodge of Apprenticed Adoptive
in the name of T.G.A.O.T.U., in the names of our lawful superiors, and
in the name
of this respectable assembly."
having been repeated by the two Inspectors, all the brethren and
sisters give the
sign of Jacob's Ladder, clap their hands five times, and repeat five
times the word
Ceremony of the First Degree
– Initiation of Apprentices
It is essential
that all ladies who present themselves for initiation should be in good
of good repute, and that one of the brethren of the lodge should give a
must, on admission to the precincts of the temple, be placed in a
which must not be illuminated with more than one faint light, and in
which a skull
shall be placed in such a position that the candidate cannot fail to
She is waited upon by the last admitted initiate, who asks her if it is
of her own
free will and after mature reflection that she seeks admission into an
such high repute. This question being answered satisfactorily she asks
her if she
is in good health, because she will pass through some very trying
however, will not be in any way improper or revolting to the most
is then told, as the first test of her discretion, to remain in the
and not to attempt to leave. The door is then closed upon her and she
is left to
her own reflections for a time.
returns after an interval, when she urges the candidate to exhibit much
The left garter of the candidate is removed and replaced by a blue
ribbon of a yard
and a quarter in length. Her right cuff and glove are also removed. Her
and trinkets are taken from her, and she is informed that they will be
sold for the benefit of the poor. The candidate is then blindfolded,
told to place
her trust in God, and she is conducted to the door of the temple, on
which she is
told to give five raps.
is opened by the Brother Inspector, who asks the question: "Who knocks?"
of Ceremonies: "An unenlightened who seeks to be adopted by us."
of the temple is closed and the request, made through the Director of
is repeated to the Grand Master, who requests the Sister Inspector to
ask the candidate
for her name, age, religion, occupation, and the name of her guarantor;
and to inform
the candidate of the qualifications essential for her adoption.
Inspector, on her return to the temple, gives these particulars to the
who asks the brother who stands as sponsor if he knows the candidate
well and if
he believes she has the necessary dispositions for admittance into the
assurances in this regard having been given, the Grand Master says:
and sisters, do you consent to the adoption of Madame (or Mademoiselle)
Do any object?"
If the answer
is unanimously in the affirmative, the Grand Master says:
Inspector, give admission to the candidate."
accompanied by the Director of Ceremonies and her guide, then enters
and is placed
in front of the Grand Master, who addresses her upon the objects of the
which she seeks admission. At the conclusion of the Oration he asks her:
(or Mademoiselle), What is your desire?" Response: "To be initiated as
"What opinion have you formed of Masonry? Tell me frankly your opinion
to this question is given by the candidate in her own words.
"Are you willing to pass through the ceremonies, both moral and
are a necessary condition to admission: reflect well, because there is
opportunity for you to retire, should you so desire; but in another
moment it will
be too late."
"Are you willing to make a sacrifice of your jewels for the benefit of
"Are you willing to submit to trials by fire, water, and blood?"
Master then directs the Brother Inspector to conduct the candidate on
the five mysterious
journeys. At the end of each journey the Grand Master asks the Brother
if he has observed any trembling on the part of the candidate, and at
of the fifth journey, the Grand Master says:
you still persist in your desire: the trials to follow are more severe?"
"Brother Inspector, cause the candidate to advance five steps under the
to form this arch of steel all the brethren kneel on the floor of the
been done, the Grand Master says:
Inspector, cause the candidate to pass through the trial by fire."
is then conducted twice round the lighted braziers.
"Cause her to purify herself by passing through the water."
is then told to wash her hands.
"Do you still persist in your request?"
"Will you sign this declaration in your blood?"
"Brother Surgeon, do your duty."
is here made for mercy, which is granted by the Grand Master.
"If it is still your wish to continue, listen to the words of the
Address on the Initiation
Man is born
with the instinct of charity and fellowship engraven in his heart; the
these two qualities are sown by the paternal favor of the Creator, and
man in practicing
these precepts before understanding the utility and necessity of a bond
the severity of our condition, sows flowers on the thorny path of our
first feeling of man on leaving the hands of his Creator must,
undoubtedly, be that
of His existence. So long as he is alone his heart has no other view;
but so soon
as he has beholden that charming creature which loving, powerful Nature
to be his companion, the germs of beneficence are developed; he
forgets, so to speak,
his existence and abandons the love of himself in order to transfer it
to her who
waits on his pleasure.
of society were therefore laid in the Garden of Eden, and it was in
sojourn, the asylum of virtue, innocence and peace that beneficence and
other sociable virtues were practiced in an their purity by our first
so long as they were both contented with their strength, thinking only
the sweet fruits of their union, their happiness was without bitterness
enjoyed in their hearts the ineffable blessings of terrestrial
evil approached very closely to the happiness. Adam and Eve were the
first to discover,
though too late, this sorrowful truth, by transmitting to their
posterity the bitter
fruits of their disobedience, curiosity, and weakness. Their hearts,
Ark, floating at the mercy of the winds on the waters of the abyss,
the surface of the earth, yielded with like ease to any impression.
pride, sustained by all the other passions, ever since then have
obedience and direction, which have no other support than weakness, and
happiness into humiliation and misery.
of the Fall of Man through weakness and curiosity, you can trace,
Madame, in a striking
and forcible manner in the sad condition of our degeneration, but we
offer, at the
same time, the means of reparation, which, though it may depend on our
are the means we find assembled in this Order or admitted under the
we discover when we look closely, and of which I will give you the
You see first
of all, Madame, in this lodge of Apprentices, the Ark of Noah, the
Tower of Babel,
and the Ladder of Jacob, drawn in picture. The Ark of Noah represents
of man, the eternal play-thing of the passions, like the ark floating
on the waters
of the Deluge; and we learn that we ought so to fortify our souls by
of virtue that in the midst of this tempest we may, like Noah and his
saved from shipwreck. The Tower of Babel is the emblem of the pride of
desires to oppose his weakness to the eternal decrees of Providence,
and who, for
the fruits of his labors, will reap only shame and confusion, from
which he is not
able to guard himself except by presenting the prudent heart which is
of a Mason. On the other side of the picture you will see a ladder, the
of which may seem to be quite mysterious. It teaches us that the means
at true happiness, like to that of which Jacob dreamed and which is
by the steps, ought to be grounded on the love of God and neighbor,
just as the
steps of the ladder rise upwards and connect earth with heaven. All
are secured by the practice of caution, strength, constancy, and the
Madame, the mysteries to which I would today call your attention.
will call to mind with the sweetest emotion this solemn day on which
you were initiated,
through our feeble ministrations into the most sublime and reputable
Order of Masonry.
May you, Madame, spend happy days with those who, like you, ask great
T.G.A.O.T.U. and may you taste a succession of pleasures as intense and
as those which we shall experience every time that we call you by the
being ended an acclamation is made.
"Madame, the pleasing things which you have heard have, no doubt,
you to request that you may be received amongst us. If that is your
is then brought to the pedestal, where she kneels.
"Destroying angel, bring the chain which you reserve for incautious
of both sexes. Madame, I am compelled to attach this chain to you in
you may recall unceasingly that which you have promised. You wish to be
into a most reputable Order in which there is nothing contrary to
religion, to the
State, or to virtue. The firmness which you have displayed in the
trials which you
have undergone, the probity which you have shown, and your known virtue
guarantees to us of your manner of thinking: perfect this good work and
that repentance will never attend your attempt.
"Place your hand, Madame, upon
of Truth, and repeat after me the following Obligation which will bind
to the most ancient and most reputable Order in the world.
"I .............. promise, on
my word of
honor, in the presence of T.G.A.O.T.U. and of this respectable assembly
to guard, conceal, and retain in my heart the secrets of Masons and of
Masonry; moreover, to listen, to obey, to work, and to keep silent,
under the penalty
of being struck with the sword of the Destroying Angel, and of being
disgraced. May my mind by its virtues be rendered worthy of so
reputable a Society.
I promise, moreover, and undertake to sleep this night with the garter
of the Order,
as T.G.A. shall help me."
taken, the Grand Master rises and touches the initiate with the trowel
on the right
eye, the right ear, the nose, the mouth, and the breast, saying:
"By the power which I have
this respectable lodge, I receive you as an Adoptive Mason.” The
Director of Ceremonies
then takes away the chain. The Grand Master gives a rap on the pedestal
trowel, and all the brethren take their swords in their hands.
"Brother Director of Ceremonies, conduct the newly initiated sister to
spot where she may receive her reward."
has been done, he says:
"What do you ask sister,
because it is with
true pleasure that I address you by the term 'sister' instead of that
see the light." Grand Master: "Brother Director of Ceremonies, You will
give her the fifth rap. Brethren and sisters to order."
Master then gives five raps with his trowel and the Director of
the candidate to light by taking off the bandage, her face being turned
"Look with horror on her condition, the result of sin. Consider what
been, what she is, and what she will become."
At this juncture
the two brethren with the repulsive masks come and stand on either side
of the skeleton,
their torches being aflame.
"Leave her to make serious reflections upon her present state so that
pass from death to life."
After a moment
the two brethren turn her sharply round to face the East, so that she
may see the
splendor of the lodge. All the brethren are holding their swords in
the points being directed towards the newly-initiated.
"Sister, all these swords which you see are drawn in your defense, if
you should have cause for their assistance. Approach, sister, to
receive the insignia
of the Order."
Inspector then leads her by five steps to the Grand Master.
"Brethren and sisters, you have been witnesses of the great
our newly-initiated sister."
Master takes from underneath the pedestal (or altar, as it is known) a
flowers, which he places on the head of the initiate, as a reward for
He then hands her the apron of the Order, saying: “This is to remind
you of the
candor which as a Mason you must have."
He then hands
her the gloves, saying:
"The whiteness of these gloves,
intended for you, indicate what should be the purity of your actions."
He then gives
her a pair of men's gloves, saying:
"This respectable lodge has
asked me to
hand you these gloves in order that you may pass them on as a present
to the Mason
whom you esteem most highly."
He then hands
to her the garter of the Order, saying:
"This garter is of white skin
and has written
on it in letters of gold: VIRTUE, HONOR, SILENCE."
"Sister Inspector, take away the blue ribbon and fasten the garter in
Master then gives the Initiate the kiss of association.
"We have for our mutual recognition two signs and two passwords. The
are Feix, Feax, which signify 'Academy' or 'School of Virtue.' The
we adopt for mutual recognition is 'Etamie.' It signifies 'Amity.' for
we know that
amity which has virtue for its base leads to true felicity."
of Ceremonies then introduces the initiate to the brethren and sisters
When this has been done and she has been tested in the passwords and
grips by the
Grand Master, her money and jewels are returned to her by the Grand
dear sister, we deprived you of all metals and trinkets, because they
are the emblems
of vices. You sacrificed them, but the lodge is content with your
have charged me to return them to you, exhorting you to employ them in
and above all in the relief of your brethren and sisters who may be in
"Brother Director of Ceremonies, conduct the sister to the West in
she may listen to the Instruction."
Instruction of an Apprentice
"What is the first care of a Mason?"
Answer: "To see that the lodge is properly tyled."
"Are you an Apprenticed Mason?"
Answer: "I believe so."
"Why do you not say that you are sure?"
Answer: "Because an Apprentice is sure of nothing."
"What is the duty of all Masons?"
Answer: "To obey, to work, and to be silent."
"Where were you admitted?"
Answer: "In a place inaccessible to the uninitiated."
"How do you know that you are an Apprenticed Mason?"
Answer: "By that which all the most reputable Masons have?"
"What is it that the most reputable have?"
Answer: "Two signs and two passwords."
"Give me the signs."
"What is the significance of this sign?"
Answer: "The Ladder of Jacob."
"Whither does this ladder lead?"
Answer: "To felicity."
"How do you respond to the first sign?"
Answer: "By a second which consist of bringing the thumb and little
to the nostrils."
"Give me the pass-words."
Answer: "Give me the first and I will give you the second."
"What is the meaning of these two words?"
Answer: "They form one only and mean an Academy or School of Virtue.
"What is this school?"
"How were you received?"
Answer: "By five knocks."
"How were you introduced into the lodge?"
Answer: "In order that I might learn that before I attained to the
mysteries it was necessary to overcome curiosity and that I might learn
of the uninitiated when speaking of our mysteries."
"How did you gain access to our mysteries?"
Answer: "Through an arch of iron and steel."
"What did this arch represent?"
Answer: "The strength and stability of the Order."
"How did you obtain access to a lodge?"
Answer: "By knocking five times on the entrance-door."
"Where were you received?"
Answer: "Between the Tower of Babel and the Ladder of Jacob and at the
of Noah's Ark."
"What does this Tower of Babel represent? "
Answer: "The pride of the children of the earth which we can overcome
a cautious mind, which is the characteristic of all true Masons"
"What does the Ladder of Jacob represent?"
Answer: "This ladder is very mysterious: the two sides represent the
God and our neighbor, and the steps symbolize the virtues secured by a
"What does the Ark of Noah represent?"
Answer: "The heart of man agitated by his passions, as the Ark was
the waters of the Deluge."
"What quality ought we to bring to the lodge?"
Answer: "A horror of vice and a love of virtue."
"What do you call those who are not Masons?"
Answer: "The uninitiated."
"How do you treat those who are not Masons but who are worthy to be
Answer: "All virtuous men and women are our friends but we only
and women who are Masons as our brethren and sisters."
"To what ought we to apply ourselves?"
Answer: "To the purification of our morals."
"What is the duty of all Masons?"
Answer: "To listen, to obey, to work, and to be silent."
"What is that you hear?"
Answer: "The explanation of our mysteries."
"What is the quality of our obedience?"
Answer: "Free and voluntary."
"What is the aim of our work?"
Answer: "To make us useful and agreeable to our brethren and sisters."
"In what are you silent?"
Answer: "In the mysteries of Freemasonry."
"Why were you introduced by five raps?"
Answer: "To bring to our remembrance the five points of Masonry, which
the love of our neighbor, the desire of meriting the esteem of our
sisters, the wish to oblige them, cautiousness, and obedience."
"What is the password?"
Answer: "Etamic, which signifies amity in order to teach us that amity
basis of virtue and leads to true felicity."
Manner of Closing a Lodge
"At what time do we close the lodge?"
Answer: "At the hour to rest."
"What time is it now?"
Answer: "It is the hour to rest."
"Brother Inspector and Sister Inspector, ask the brethren in your
if they have aught to propose for the benefit of the Order."
having been obeyed a collection is made for the benefit of the poor and
This custom is never omitted, each one contributing according to his or
"Brother Inspector and Sister Inspector, advise the brethren and
your respective neighborhoods that seeing it is the time to rest, the
hour for ceasing
to work has arrived."
Master then gives the command for the brethren to stand to order and
takes his sword in his hand.
"Brethren and sisters, we have listened, we have obeyed, we have
we are silent; since this is the hour to rest, the lodge is closed."
are repeated by the two Inspectors; the usual signs and acclamations
are given and
each one says five times "Vivant."
Manner of Opening a Lodge
"At what time do Masons begin work?"
Answer: "At the moment of awakening."
"What is the duty of a Mason?"
Answer: "To see that the lodge is properly tyled."
"Sister Inspector, command the Brother Inspector to see that this duty
done, the Brother Inspector says: "Grand Master, the lodge is properly
"What time is it?"
Answer: "The time for awakening and the hour for working."
"Sister and Brother Inspectors, inform the brethren and sisters in your
neighborhoods that this is the time for awakening and the hour for
This being done the Grand Master gives five raps with his trowel and
and Sisters, in the name of T.G.A.O.T.U.; in the name of our recognized
and by the power invested in me by this assembly, I declare this Lodge
Adoptive Masons open."
and Brother Inspectors also give five raps with their trowels and say:
and sisters, this lodge of Apprenticed Adoptive Masons is open."
At a signal
from the Grand Master all the brethren and sisters give the sign of
and the acclamation by saying five times "Vivant."
"Sister Inspector, are you a Mason?"
Answer: "I believe so."
"If you believe it, why are you not sure?"
Answer: "Because an Apprentice is not sure of anything."
"What is the duty of a Mason?"
Answer: To listen, to obey, to work, and to be silent."
"For the first proof of your obedience, Sister Inspector and Brother
request the brethren and sisters in your respective neighborhoods to
lamps for a ceremony I propose to carry out."
are repeated by the Sister and Brother Inspectors who, when all the
lamps are trimmed,
"Master, all the lamps are trimmed."
Master then gives the call to order. The brethren and sisters stand
when the Grand
Master gives the command to work, by saying:
your right hand to the lamp; raise the lamp, blow the lamp; Quicker;
Blow out the
is the formula adopted also at the drinking of toasts, the drinking of
known as the trimming of the lamp. In the days when this ritual was in
was customary always to honor five toasts at the banquets which
followed the lodge
meetings. The first was the King and Royal Family; the second, that of
Duchess of Bourbon, the Grand Mistress and the Officers of the Grand
third that of the Grand Master of the lodge; the fourth, that of the
brother Inspectors; and the fifth, that of the Initiates. Sometimes
added for the visitors and sisters and brethren in distress.)
Masonry found its way into Italy and the following description of an
ceremony appeared in an Italian paper Correspondence, published in Rome
"In a room hung with black was
table covered with black cloth; on the table was a skull and above it
was a lamp,
which shed a funereal light. Eight personages: a venerable Grand
Master, a venerable
Grand Mistress, a Brother Orator, dressed as a Capuchin, a Brother
Sister Inspectress, Brother and Sister Depositaries, and a Sister
These dignitaries wore on their breasts each a wide violet ribbon, to
suspended a little gold trowel. The Grand Master held a hammer which
served as his
scepter and marched at the side of the Grand Mistress, elevated to the
rank of horrible
companion. The brothers and sisters of the lodge all wore the mystical
white gloves. A novice was to be introduced. The Grand Master struck
his hands together
five times and solemnly asked one of the dignitaries: 'What are the
duties of a
Masonic aspirant?' The answer was: 'Obedience, labor, silence.' The
then took the novice by the hand and conducted her to a dark room,
bandaged her eyes, he read her a homily on virtue and charity. When the
was removed she found herself surrounded by the brothers in a circle,
crossed over her head. After another homily, pronounced this time by
the Grand Master,
he asked her if she had well reflected before entering a Society which
to her, and then, after mutual explanations, the proselyte repeated the
of the oath: 'I swear and promise to keep faithfully in my heart all
of Freemasonry and engage to do so under the penalty of being cut in
pieces by the
sword of the exterminating angel.' The Grand Master then showed her the
which the brothers and sisters recognized each other, and gave her the
of the Order. Then, taking the sister by the hand, he respectfully gave
kisses of peace and handed her an apron and a pair of gloves."
la liberte, of which Moses was claimed to be the founder, admitted both
women. The members wore in their button holes a chain with a jewel
the two tables of the Law, but, instead of the ten commandments, the
jewel had two
wings to signify Freedom, with the motto "Virtue dirigit alas." On the
other side was an "M" for Moses and the date 6743. The commandment
shalt not commit adultery" is said to have been purposely omitted from
of the Square and Compasses
It is the
almost universal custom in these United States to arrange the Square
when used as seals or as illustrations, in the following form: The
extended and laid upon the arms of the Square. Within the extended
placed the letter "G." I suppose that letter, in that combination, is
intended to be the initial letter of the word God, and not of Geometry.
symbolism, if indeed any symbolism is meant, is not known to this
This is not
the custom in foreign lands, nor was it the custom of the days when
began to be made as seals of the lodges. In all the illustrations of
of the Square and Compasses made by foreign lodges I have not found the
combination. The All-seeing Eye is the most usual, though the globe,
the sun, or
some other special device or letter are frequently found. It is also
found that nothing is inserted between the Compasses. The symbolism of
with the All-seeing Eye inserted, is quite plain, going back to the
The Square, referring to the earth, and hence to the earthly in man,
viz.: his passions
and appetites, which are represented by the two arms of the Square, is
by the two arms of the Compasses, which refer to the heavens, and hence
to the spiritual
in man, his reason and the moral sense; symbolizing that through the
light of Freemasonry
we have subjected our passions and appetites to the control of our
reason and our
moral sense. The All-seeing Eye symbolizes that oversight of Almighty
to maintain that domination of the spiritual over the earthly, or
is an instructive symbolism in the way we introduce the letter "G"
it is by using the "G" in the same way as is suggested for the use of
the All-seeing Eye. The "G" being used as the initial of two words is
liable to be misunderstood, while the eye could not be misinterpreted.
Geo. C. Connor, Tennessee.
The Temperature of the Lodge -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
Suggested by Brother Geo. L. Schoonover
not the heart-beat of the lodge today
A bit above the old-time normal way?
Does it not in a fevered mood beguile
The hours that make them so much less worthwhile?
It seems in haste to see that they are o'er
And hurries up its work upon the floor.
Its temperature seems feverish today,
It corners cuts and hastens on its way, ‒
That is, it so speeds up the work in hand
That much is lost of its conception grand.
The hurrying world seems to sidestep the Art,
It seems to be, of it, the ruling part.
To some, as yet, these ways do not appeal;
Time was when it was all so really real;
But now, those who may come into the fold
Lose much that so appealed unto the old.
And so we find the Craft exposed today
To much that hurts the heart of Masonry.
Templary In Ireland
By Bro. Julius F. Sachse,
Grand Librarian, Pennsylvania
from "History of Masonic Knights Templar of Pennsylvania," [Lib 1868] by permission of R.·.W.·.
S. Sell, Grand Master of Masons in Pennsylvania.
documentary evidence in the Archives of the Grand Lodge of
the existence of Modern or Masonic Templary in connection with Craft
found in the Irish Craft Certificates and the Masonic History of
middle of the eighteenth century innumerable new and fanciful degrees
rites were invented and attempts were made to engraft them upon the
of Speculative Masonry, which had been evolved out of the Operative
Gilds. (1) Most
of these degrees had their origin in France; none of these so-called
(2) however, seem to have been adopted in Ireland.
middle of the century, there appears to have arisen a desire among
to strengthen the correlation of Christianity and Freemasonry, an
origin for the
organization of the Craft was sought in the medieval orders of
Among the multiplicity of such orders, two stood forth conspicuously
the fond admiration of the Masonic enthusiast, the Knight Hospitallers
and the Knights
of the latter order was chosen and a suitable ritual for conferring the
evolved. The probable cause for this selection was that during the
Reign of Henry
II, the Grand Master of the Knights Templar superintended the Gild of
Masons, and employed them in building their Temple in Fleet Street,
London, A. D.
1135. Masonry continued under the patronage of the order until the year
Arch had been conferred in Ireland by the Blue lodges under their Craft
for some years. So when Templary was authorized, it was at once adopted
by the Irish
lodges, both civil and military.
the adoption of the Royal Arch and Templar degrees became among the
of Ireland is shown by the Francis C. Crossle collection of ancient
in the Museum of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Most if not all of
the Irish lodges
had different or separate seals for the Symbolic or Craft, Royal Arch
degrees. Thus in the Crossle Collection (4) we have no less than 259
118 Irish lodges. One hundred of these had a seal for each degree,
Royal Arch and Knight Templar, thus showing that in the early days all
degrees were invariably conferred under the sole authority of a Craft
only limit to conferring of them being the possession among the members
of a brother
capable of working the ceremonies." (5)
evidence of both Royal Arch Masonry and Templary in Ireland is without
by the seals ‒ both Royal Arch and Templar now in the Crossle
collection, in the
Museum of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania of Craft Lodge No. 205, Irish
originally attached to General Blakeney's Regiment of Foot,
subsequently the 35th
Regiment of the Line, 1749 ‒ 1790. (6) These seals together with the
Banner of the lodge, bearing the inscription "THE WONDEROUS ARCH IN
VAULTED SKY, OUR MIGHTY KEYSTONE, THE ALL SEEING EYE 7, Feby. 1749 Anno
5749 Lodge No. 205" appear to be proof that Templary was practiced in
as early as the beginning of the second half of the eighteenth century,
Military lodge working under its Irish Warrant.
No. 205 accompanied the regiment in its ordinary course until 1790,
when the Warrant
‒ that is the original Military Warrant, not a fresh one under the same
was transferred to Moy in the County of Tyrone, August 3, 1790. (7)
Arch Banner of Lodge No. 205 was found together with some of the Craft
of Lodge No. 205, of which the three-cornered gavel and the Senior and
truncheons are now in the Museum of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Templar Banner of Lodge No. 465 also stationed at Moy, Tyrone County,
at the same time by Brother William Tait of Belfast in an old building
at or near
Moy early in the year 1913. Brother Tait's researches further show that
of Lodges 205 and 465 were held at Crew, a hamlet outside of Moy
Banner of Lodge No. 465 is one of the most interesting relics of Irish
The banner is painted on both sides, the inscriptions so far as can be
on the obverse reads "CREW 2d FEBY 1769 ANNO LAOTOMIAE 1769 Lodge 465,"
on the three steps approaching the lodge "CHARITAS SPES FIDAS."
In the center
of the banner there is a building with a pediment resting upon pillars
are two cherubim over an open doorway; above the building is seen the
and stars, while at the sides are the various craft implements
including the jewels
of the Master, Past Master, Treasurer and Secretary.
of the banner is patterned after the Royal Arch Banner of Lodge No.
the same inscription in the circle. From the keystone in the middle of
is suspended the five pointed star with the letter "G" in the center;
below the arch there are three lines:
RE [X] I [SRAEL]
RE [X] TY [RE]
columns there is an equilateral triangle upon which are the twelve
In the center of the triangle is a coffin with skull and bones and the
MORI AMEN." Beside the coffin there are an incense vase, baldric with
star and a cock.
In the fields
between columns and triangle there is (left) the ark and trowel,
lamb and a serpent; outside of both columns is the crucifix and other
This we think
is the first instance where the Templar triangle was publicly shown
with the lighted
tapers. It, however, appears upon several of the early Irish Templar
Seals in our
use of these banners was at the celebration of St. John's Day, both the
of St. John the Baptist and that of St. John the Evangelist being
by the Irish Craft lodges in those early days, when the brethren
paraded to church
with music and their banners, where they heard a sermon appropriate to
after which they returned to the lodge room for refreshment. (9)
the above banners are in our library collection.
seals in the Crossle Collection it appears that there was an order or
but concurrent with that of the Temple as conferred in the Craft lodges
This organization was known as "THE UNION BAND OF ‒ KNIGHT TEMPLAR
There is, however, no record that this degree was ever introduced in
Order" as it was commonly called according to Brother Crossle in his
of Newry Lodge, XVIII, Newry, (10) in former days was pretty generally
over the northeast coast of Ireland. No definite records of this
degree have thus far been found during the present investigation. The
arises whether it was not an organization similar to that of
of the present day which is composed of Past High Priests of the Royal
From the seals of the "Priestly Order" it would appear that there were
seven degrees in this order each having its own seal. That the order
Christian and Trinitarian is evident from the emblems in the large seal
of the "Priestly
Band." In our Crossle Collection of Irish Craft Seals we have evidence
at least fifteen Craft lodges (11) that conferred the Temple also had
on the seven smaller seals read: No. 1, "LET TRUTH"; No. 2, "STAND";
No. 3, "THOUGH THE"; No. 4, "UNIVERSE"; No. 5, "SHOULD";
No. 6, "SINK INTO"; No. 7, ''RUINS.'' (12) This order was established
in the latter part of the eighteenth century, and so far as the
the late Brother Francis C. Crossle go, the County of Down seems to
have been its
headquarters in Ireland. (13) Each center of this branch of Freemasonry
as a Union Band of Knight Templar Priests and its working was generally
out under the sanction of two or more neighboring Craft lodges.
to the same authority each Union Band was governed by a president and
each of whom had his seal, that of the president being much larger than
the masters. Each master in his absence, was permitted to appoint a
authority to act was the production of his seal, and no document or
issuing from the band was perfect without the impression of the eight
seals of the
President and his seven masters. All candidates for the degree of
Priest were obliged to produce evidence of having already received the
Arch, and Knight Templar degrees, in addition to being "recommended by
members of the band who are 'To answer for his being a regular or
of a' regular lodge, and for his moral character." (14)
of the Irish origin of Masonic Knights Templary is a footnote to a
in Laurence Dermott's Belfast Edition of the Ahiman Rezon of 1795, (15)
it is stated that at "Fethard, in the County Tipperary, was the First
in Ireland, where Knights Templars were made."
of early Irish Craft Templary in the Grand Lodge Collection are
IN THE NAME
OF THE MOST HOLY GLORIOUS AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY FATHER, SON, &
HOLY GHOST. (16)
WE the Captn
GENL. &c &c &c., of the General Assembly of
Knights Templars and Knights
of Malta do hereby Certify that the Bearer Our Faithful True and Well
Sir Adam Rice was by us Dubb'd Knight of that most Holy Invincible and
Order of Knights Templars the true and faithful soldier of JESUS CHRIST
of the order of St. John of Jerusalem now Knights of Malta he having
with our Honour
and Fortitude, justly supported the amazing Trials attending his
admission and as
such We recommend him to all Br Knights Templars and Knights of Malta
on the Face
of the Globe. Given under our hands and Seal of our Lodge and General
Held in Newry under the sanction of a Warrant No. 706 and of the order
And of the
Order of Malta
And of Ark and Mark Masonry
In Royal Arch Masonry
Book of the Law, Found
Mattes Campbell C. Gl
Robt McCallaugh, G.M.
Robt Cassidy, G. A.
IN THE NAME
OF YE MOST HOLY GLORIOUS & UNDIVIDED TRINITY FATHER SON
& HOLY GHOST. (17)
General &c &c &c of the Grand Assembly of
KNIGHTS TEMPLARS & KNIGHTS
OF MALTA Held in Trillick & on the Registry of Ireland ‒ Do
hereby Certify That
the BEARER Hereof Our Truly Beloved Br Sr Robt Brown was by us Dubb'd
that Most Holy Invincible & Magnanimous Ordr of KNIGHTS
TEMPLARS Ye True &
Faithful Soldier of JESUS CHRIST as also the Saints of JERUSALEM now
MALTA he having with Due Honour & Fortitude Justly Supported.
Trials of skill & Valour Attending his admission & as
such WE Him recommend
to all True & Faithful Brs Srs. KNIGHTS TEMPLARS around the
GLOBE. Given undr
our hands & Seal of General Assembly held in Trillick In the
County of Tyrone
This 20th day of May 1795 & of Masonry 5795 & of the
Ordr of KNIGHTS TEMPLARS
3795 & of the Ordr of Malta 675
HENRY GAULT G. W a-n
G W a-n
IN THE NAME
OF THE MOST HOLY MOST GLORIOUS AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY FATEIER, SON AND
WE THE CAPTAIN
GENERAL &c of the general Assembly of SIRS KNIGHTS TEMPLARS and
KNIGHTS OF MALTA
held under the Sanction of LODGE No. 835 at Douglass Bridge in the
County of TYRONE
on the Regestry of Ireland SO CERTIFY that the Bearer hereof our trusty
well beloved Br Sir Wm Arthur was by us dubed a Knight of that most
and magnanimous order of Sir Knights Templars and Knights of Malta the
faithful Soldier of JESUS CHRIST he having with honour Justly supported
Trials of skill and valure attending his admission We therefore now
as such to all Sir KNIGHTS TEMPLARS and KNIGHTS OF MALTA round the
our hands and Seal of our Genl Assembly this 9th day of June 1798
DICKY, C. General
James Litle G. W.
James Pollock, D. G.W.
Jno . McClausland, Sec.
IN THE NAME
OF THE MOST HOLY & UNDIVIDED TRINITY FATHER SON & HOLY
GHOST AMEN. (19)
WE the undernamed
Presiding Chiefs over A Magnanimous and Invincible Encampment of that
Noble and Christian order of Sir Knight Templars held in Raffry under
of Raffry True Blue Lodge No. 649, held under the Grand Registry of
Certify That our Worthy and Faithful Brother and Constituted Friend SIR
the bearer hereof after having passed the EXCELLENT SUPER EXCELLENT
ROYAL ARCH DEGREES
OF MASONIC ORDERS was DUBBED INITIATED and Confirmed in all the rules
and Mysteries of that Most Holy Noble and Christian order of HIGH
in A GRAND ENCAMPMENT and was initiated into the Several degrees of ARK
WRESTLE and since his instruction therein he has discharged the
of A Sir Knights Companion with affection and Integrity having with
SKILL FORTITUDE AND VALOR Previously withstood and resisted Various
trials and Temptations
preparatory, to his admission and as such.
We him recommend
to all faithful Brethren of the KNIGHT TEMPLAR order and all ARK MARK
MASON round the globe.
our hands and Seal of our KNIGHT TEMPLAR Encampment in our Lodge Room
Parish of Killimky, County of DOWN, IRELAND.
day of April A.D. 1811 A.L. 5811 of Kt Templars 698
William Thomson G Senr Warden No. 649
Richard McBride G Junior Warden ‒ Raffry
James Snoddon Grand Secretary
ANOTHER AS I HAVE LOVED YOU EVEN UNTO THE END, (20)
WE the CAPTAIN
GENERAL &e &e &e of AN Incampment of Knight
Templars held in Poyntzpass
under the sanition of No. 52 held under the Grand Lodge of Ireland, do
the bearer Sir Richard Andreu was subsequently dubbed, an Night and
the Red Cross and after having withstood with skill and valure the
attending his admission and as such we recommend him to all Red Cross
and Sir Knight
Templars round the Globe Given under our hands and seal of our Lodge
this 3rd Day
of April 1822 and of Knight Tempplars 665 years.
ALEX RICHMOND S. C. G.
JOHN WHITE H. P.
CHAS Mc. DONNELL, Secty
LOVE & UNITY NO. 845. (21)
In the name
of the Most Holy Glorious and undivided Trinity Father Son &
Holy Ghost Amen.
We the Captain
General &c High Priest and Grand Marshal of the Grand
Encampment and assembly
of Sir Knight Templars and Knights of Malta held under sanction of the
on Registry of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, DO. CERTIFY That our Trusty
has been by us initiated into the most Holy and Glorious orders Dubb'd
of the Most Holy orders of Sir Knight Templar Mediterranean passman and
and faithful soldier of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, HE having with great
and valour Justly supported the amazing trials attending his admission
and as such
WE HIM recommend to all true and faithful Knights in the universe....
our hands & seal of our Grand Encampment at Belfast this 7 day
of June 1826
Templars 709 nine
And of Knights of Malta 303 three
C.G. G.M, G.A. G.G. S.B.
William Mugeean, Grand Scribe.
As to the
actual Ritual used in conferring the order of the Temple by the Irish
nothing is definitely known to a certainty except that it was strictly
degree, wherein the belief in the Holy Trinity was the chief feature.
This is shown
by a copy of the certificate engraved by Quin, Belfast, 1822, (22) viz.:
IN THE NAME
OF THE MOST HOLY AND UNDIVIDED TRINITY; AMEN GLORY TO GOD IN THE HIGHEST
Good Will to Men
AND HOLY GHOST
WE THE HIGH PRIEST
CAPTn GENERAL & GRAND MASTERS
of an excellent and superexcellent
ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER &
of Knights Templars under the sanction of the Lodge of Love &
Unity Lodge No.
645 on the Registry of IRELAND Do hereby Certify that Our dearly
the Worshipful Sir JOHN GALBRAITH after having duly Passed the Chair of
LODGE was made an excellent Superexcellent & ROYAL ARCH MASON
dubbed him a KNIGHT of the most noble and Right Worshipful Order of
KNIGHTS OF MALTA AND KNIGHTS OF THE RED CROSS, We have also Expounded
unto him all
the Secrets of the MEDITERRANEAN PASSES. He having through the whole
us the strongest proofs of his Skill Fortitude and Valour during the
Mysterious TRIALS attending his admission
We also grant
unto him all those privileges which from the time immemorial have
now of right appertain to those of our ORDERS not doubting but he will
to Reap & Enjoy the Same with all our DEAR and excellent
dispersed we therefore GREET WELL all our Worthy BRETHREN KNIGHTS
the above illustrious Orders throughout the universe TO accept of him
as such and
to take him under their Brotherly Care and PROTECTION Given under our
ano the Seal
of our ENCAMPMENT hereunto appended at BELFAST this 19 day of June in
the year of
our Lord 1826 of Light 5826 R.A. 4826
JOHN REILLY Capn General
JAMES HAMILTON 1st
JOHN GALBRAITH, 2nd Grand Master
JOHN BOYD 3rd.
WILLIAM MAGUAN, Secretary
above Certificates it appears that, beside the Degrees of Knights
Templar, St. John
of Jerusalem and Malta, there were conferred by the Irish Craft lodges
Mark, Wrestle, Red Cross and Mediterranean Pass.
these certificates it will be seen that particular stress is laid in
of all upon a belief in an undivided Trinity; also that the Conclaves
in which the
order was conferred, were variously known by different names, such as
Assembly," "Grand Encampment," etc.
Nor do we
find any strict regularity in the presiding officers. Thus where one is
the "Captain General," "Grand Master" and "Grand A"
(?), another by the "Captain General" and two "Grand Wardens,"
"Captain General," "Grand Warden" and "Deputy Grand Warden,"
"Grand Master," "Grand Senior Warden," "Grand Junior Warden,"
"High Priest," and lastly one signed by "Captain General," "Grand
Marshall," "Grand A," "Grand G" and S. B. (standard Bearer?)
As to the
Templar Ritual used by these Craft lodges little or nothing is known,
brethren of the Royal Arch and Templar degrees wore aprons edged with
blue, red and black.
have been spared to obtain a specimen of one of these Ancient Craft
which are exceedingly rare; Frater W. Redfern Kelly, a Knight Grand
Cross of the
Order of the Temple in Ireland, one of the highest Templar authorities,
in a letter
to the writer, states, with respect to your latter communication
relative to the
old "Irish Craft Aprons," which show the three colors Blue, Red and
"I may state that these old Aprons were supposed to be quite rare; were
purely fanciful pattern, and were adopted without any Craft or other
such brethren as felt so disposed, and who had received the three
degrees of Craft,
Royal Arch and High Knight Templar.
three colors, so worn, were never at any time (so far as is known)
by the Craft lodges, as authorized to be worn in connection with
They were simply tolerated, in those good old 'happy-go-lucky' times,
Craft Warrants were quite unknown."
In our Museum
Collection we have however an aprons showing the Craft, Royal Arch and
and emblems. This Craft Apron, made of lambskin, bound with light blue
is decorated with hand-painted symbolic emblems.
At the top
over all is the All-Seeing Eye, then we have the Bridge of the
and the Templar Tent, below on either side are Craft and Royal Arch
the center are two large columns surmounted respectively by the sun,
moon and seven
stars; between the columns is the tessellated pavement in red and black
that the wearer had received the Royal Arch and Templar degrees.
relic of former days belonged to our late Brother Samuel H. Perkins, a
Columbia Lodge, No. 91, St. John's Encampment, No. 4, E.G.M., 1829-30,
and who during
years 1839-40 was R. W. Grand Master of Pennsylvania.
evidences that this apron was made in Philadelphia, as on one of the
have the legend of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, viz.: "SILENCE AND
If this surmise
is correct, it is another evidence of the Irish influence lingering in
of Masonic Knight Templary in Pennsylvania during the early years of
(1) "Ars Quatuor
Coronati Transactions," Volume
XXVI, p. 145.
Chevalier Ramsay (Andrew Michael Ramsay) was a Scotchman, born at Ayr
toward the middle of the eighteenth century, we find him in France,
where he developed
as an inventor of Masonic Degrees, as well as a founder of a Masonic
Rite. For a
hundred years and more the stock histories of Freemasonry have vied
with each other
in ascribing to the Chevalier Andrew Michael Ramsay, the introduction
of the higher
degrees, and notably of Masonic Knight Templars. ‒ f. "A.Q.C.
Volume XXVI, p. 60; "The History of Freemasonry," by Robert Freke
London, 1887, Volume III, p. 77.
(3) Cf. "Illustrations of Masonry," by William Preston, First American
edition, Portsmouth, 1804, p. 137.
(4) Dr. Francis Clements Crossle, of Trevor Hill, Newry, Ireland, was
one of the
highest Masonic authorities in Ireland. He served as secretary to the
Grand Lodge of Down from 1888 to 1901, when he was raised to the
position of R.W.
Deputy Provincial Grand Master by the Duke of Connaught; he was
Superintendent of Royal Arch Masonry in Ireland. He was also a Past
the PTewry Preceptory of Knights Templar and was exalted to the
position of P.G.K.C.
For many years he used his spare time in the investigation of Masonic
Among his works are "A History of Freemasonry in the Province of Down,"
"The Three Veterans," "A History of St. Patrick's Lodge, No. 77,"
and of "Newry Lodge, No. 18."
In his antiquarian researches he collected impressions from seals of
all of the
Ancient Irish Craft lodges that could be reached. This valuable
collection he presented
some years ago to the writer, and it is now in the Museum of the Grand
Brother Dr. Crossle died at his home on Trevor Hill, Newry, October 15,
4001-4060, Trays Nos. 18-21.
(5) "History of Nelson Masonic Lodge, No. XVIII, Newry, Ireland," by
C. Crossle, Newry, 1909.
(6) “A.Q.C. Transactions." Volume XXVI, p. 148.
(9) Cf. Crossle, before quoted, p. 37.
(11) Lodges No. 333, 336, 662, 888, 443, 211, 521, 675, 891, 822, 732,
923. In Crossle's collection.
(12) Cf. "Three Masonic Veterans," by Francis C. Crossle, Newry, 1897,
(13) Ibid., p. 6.
(14) Ibid., p. 7.
(15) Volume 277, Archives of Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, p. 183.
(16) Certificate No. 2240, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of
(17) Certificate No. 6628, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of
(18) Certificate No. 6631, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of
(19) Certificate No. 6629, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of
(20) Certificate No. 2284, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of
(21) Certificate No. 2258, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of
(22) Certificate No. 2241, Tray 45, Archives of the Grand Lodge of
Size of certificate 15 1/2 x 11 1/2. Engraved by J. Quin, Belfast, 1822.
(23) Museum Collection, No. 1005, Tray 216.
Committee on Patriotic Service of the Grand Lodge of North Dakota
on Patriotic Service submits the following report, which embodies among
those portions of the Grand Secretary's report dealing with public
were referred to this Committee.
the principles for which Masonry has stood in the past, among which we
deem of fundamental
importance democracy in government, equality in education and justice
in America today many forces operating, directly or indirectly, to
destroy our system of government and free institutions. Whereas we
advocate progress and growth by the natural process of evolution, yet
we more emphatically
denounce the doctrines of radical revolution. We have no sympathy with
would supplant our orderly government with anarchy and chaos, "red"
or any new and untried Utopian scheme.
our ends and preserve for ourselves and posterity those priceless
blessings of liberty
and free government ordained and established by our forefathers and
paid for in
life-blood and treasure, we deem it essential that Masonry, but more
the Grand Lodge of North Dakota, commit itself to the promulgation of
the Stars and Stripes marks the high tide in the ideals of mankind, and
therefore urgently advocate the passage of a law which would prohibit
penalty all display of emblems other than Old Glory, whose purpose is
the loyalty of our citizens from the true principles of Americanism.
"this government is based upon a loyal and intelligent citizenship, and
it must control the agencies which train that citizenship, i.e., the
public school." To do this effectively, it is necessary that the
as spoken by Americans be the sole medium of instruction in that school.
much prefer the elimination of the private and parochial elementary
the one makes for class distinction and the other for religious
if such elimination is found inexpedient at this time, we recommend
that such schools
be under the close supervision of the public school officials of the
state and nation,
and that they be compelled to maintain the same standards required of
connection with this supervision, it is the sense of this body that the
lawfully constituted powers of the State Department of Education be
the official duly elected by the voters of the state for their exercise.
order that the standards of education in this state may be raised to
possible degree of efficiency, and, further, recognizing the present
teacher shortage and the low standard of preparation of teachers to be
in the last
analysis one of economics, we favor, first, a higher standard of
and, second, a compensation of teachers commensurate with the
maintenance of this
standard, and recommend the passage of whatever appropriate legislation
be necessary to accomplish these ends.
most heartily approve the action of the Grand Lodge at its annual
in organizing corps of Masonic Minute Men in the constituent lodges,
the retention of these forces for the purposes heretofore avowed of
Masons a greater interest not only in Masonry, but also in the proper
the social and political questions which confront us as a people today.
by Grand Lodge. June 17th. 1920.
dwells there is my country.
Viewpoint of Worlds Freemasonry
F. De P. Rodriguez
Committee on Foreign Correspondence, Cuba
of the Committee on Correspondence of the Grand Lodge of Cuba is given
of THE BUILDER in advance of its publication in the Cuban Grand Lodge
We feel sure that our members will find it of peculiar interest.
WE ARE in
Lent, (1) the hurrahs and hosannas, the palms and the festivities
remind us of the
triumphs of new ideas even more than of the martyrdom of the Nazarene.
invites to meditation and rest, a full and sincere repentance cleanses
of the most indurate; faults must be overcome.
thing happens to society; reports and messages are spontaneous
confessions by means
of which those obliged to present them very often pronounce a mea culpa
audiences and, notwithstanding the good faith involved in submitting to
the laudatory or defective deeds, socially speaking a true amendment is
to come from us Masons, more than from other persons, especially when
that the mission of Freemasonry in the modern world is the task of
always grand, divine, necessary, and who can excel us not only in
loving and desiring
it, but also in preaching and applying it, praising with fruition its
friends and foes? For that reason those who suffer the most to obtain
who sacrifice themselves the most to secure it, know best how much it
and excel most in glorifying it, in singing its praises, in pretending
it, offering on its behalf the palms and hurrahs which in times past
to those who gained the material victory and today are common property,
always with the greatest loser.
on her behalf, her Grand Lodge, have been in this case the forerunners.
included between the twenty-third and thirtieth of June, 1919, was of
joy to London Masons, on account of the Celebration of Peace and the
afforded their guests, that it has no equal in history.
Grand Lodges were invited, the Grand Masters and Grand Secretaries
invitation becoming the special guests of the United Grand Lodge of
attending the ceremonies. Representatives of most of the Grand Lodges
of the United
States, Canada and Australia attended and, by the strangest of
all of the American visitors crossed the ocean on board the Mauretania,
of the ill-fated Lusitania. The kindness shown and the banquets offered
in a mammoth Communication held, not in the Temple in Great Queen
Street ‒ that
was too small ‒ but in Royal Albert Hall, beautifully decorated with
flags, which comfortably sheltered that day 8,500 Masons, presided over
by the Pro
Grand Master, Lord Ampthill, the Grand Master, the Duke of Connaught,
to attend on account of sickness. How satisfied our brethren must have
together with "God Save the King" and "The Star Spangled Banner"
the exclamation "Pax Vobis" reached also the most distant places of the
the grandest act the world has ever seen in matters Masonic, but not
that could have been seen. How much better would it have been if,
those beautiful and patriotic hymns, other national hymns were heard,
as La Brabaconne,
La Marseillaise, Garibaldi, and even the most humble of all, the Bayamo
which, proceeding from a small nation, is not less grand or not less
for it blood was shed and many lives were lost. Let them tell us if it
is not true
that "to die for the country is to live," (3) living, as we do live,
to have our flag floating glorious and proud in order to keep close to
us that peace
so anxiously coveted.
to war ostensibly to defend the rights of a very small
the armies of the entente were led to victory under the unique
direction of a non-English-speaking
General. And even Cuba, this microscopical grain of sand in the
Carribean Sea, where
English is not spoken by her people, contributed to the cause of the
Allies (a fact
still ignored by many) among other things by giving them special prices
on her sugar,
amounting to a gift of $160,000,000. When England, during war times
the two-hundredth anniversary of her Grand Lodge, all the
Lodges immediately congratulated her, and, even more, celebrated at
home, each of
us, so important an event. We could have declined the advantages of the
as we eat little and drink much less, we could have been satisfied with
which, like that offered by the hen to her chicks, the mother owes to
all her children.
We have always
entertained the most firm belief that the progress which marked the
and even the present one, has been international and, of course, with
whatever to political or ethnological limits, and much less to those of
order; but nevertheless, as this is somewhat theoretical, when we
arrived at practical
facts we found that education, universally considered, has intensified
for the language, the ideals and even the aspirations of the various
a proof of this we can refer to our North American friends.
It is generally
known the influence that European immigrants has had in the neighboring
groups of Teutons, Slavs, Irish Cents, Magyars and Italians were
admitted to the
country by wholesale; many of them forming afterwards special colonies
never reached by the national language, and several not even by
continued long in that way; the cries of alarm from Tangier, Agadir and
in crossing the Atlantic, reached there so attenuated by the immense
waves of the
ocean that but little attention was paid to them. The legislators,
the historical phrases of Washington that tended to separate his
country from European
complications, gave themselves up to the dulce far niente. But truth
and the moment arrived when the immense waves were of no avail and they
had to be
crossed in haste in order to re-vindicate universal civilization,
scorned and threatened with extinction. Alas, when the bugle sounded,
arms, no matter whether its thrilling notes were heard in those
the commanding voices were not so, because given in the official
language of the
country extensive groups in Wisconsin, Illinois and even in New York
did not understand
them, a great number of the concerned being American citizens
immediately set in and desperate measures were immediately adopted; at
time the military drill and the most pure English had to be taught the
as they were proficient in neither. The case was so original that once
movement was started it reached as far as the Masonic lodges, since
in Milwaukee, Chicago and even in the eighth, ninth and tenth districts
of New York,
and some particular lodges elsewhere, performed their Masonic work in
nation entering the war, Teutonic sympathy, which was most common
over, and the father, the brother or the son whose relatives had
perished upon the
banks of the Marne, or on the Somme, at Chateau Thierry or in the
Belleau Wood began
to resent hearing the notes of the German language. What to do? The
example of England,
where in similar cases the German brethren, to avoid friction, were
asked to absent
themselves from the lodges as long as the war lasted, was not heeded.
was appealed to. The principal Grand Lodges, New York and Illinois at
required from all their lodges the exclusive use of the English
language in their
of Grand Master Farmer, of New York, are worthy of being noted:
"That was done," he says, "not
because the Masons of this jurisdiction bear any antipathy or ill will
who speak a language other than our own, not in the spirit of
denunciation of foreigners
or foreign language, not because we doubt any man's loyalty or
integrity; but it
was issued simply and solely because I believe we, as Masons, should do
for the United States. Nations have been disrupted by differences in
Differences in languages have caused more wars than differences in
unhappiness than all other causes combined. Any other language will
offer the part
of view of the foreigner, and we must not entertain any other objective
with that. We believe the measure perfectly legal and anyone at liberty
it in his locality; but there is something to say against it. It is not
It is all right that the native or naturalized citizen of a country
the official language of that country, but the foreigner, the diplomat,
or any other
resident who for many reasons does not lawfully belong to the country
him, is our guest, and all nations on earth should try their best to
have him live
comfortably in the place where he is a visitor as long as he does not
laws. Such persons, we believe, do not deserve to be deprived of the
use of their
own language, as neither can they be deprived of their ideals nor of
or loving their native land. Why was a measure caused by a reprisal to
extended to thousands of Allies who communicate in the same church as
who has for a shorter or longer period resided outside of his own
how his heart beats when he hears spoken a few words of his native
tongue. How one
expands himself when another countryman is heard speaking. He seems to
his residence to another world, to have returned home, especially if he
is an exile
or an emigrant. Fraternity and La Universal Lodges (4) will no longer
be the meeting
places of Cubans and Spanish-Americans, and perhaps to Cervantes (5)
and Dr. Felix
Varela (6) Lodges will happen the same thing if Louisiana and Florida
by New York and Illinois.
But it goes
a little further yet. The forced measures which in these cases apply
also to the
allied brothers could also bring retaliation. What would our brethren
of the Hudson
shores think if any foreign Grand Lodge, imitating them, would prohibit
of the English language in their English-speaking lodges? I do not know
people think on this matter, but as to Cuba I believe I express the
ideas of my
companions in assuring the English-speaking brethren who live among us
that no variation
will take place. Let everyone speak his own language, let all of them
our country the usages and manners peculiar to their own country. For
them our arms
will always be wide open, our halls also. We shall not break the laws
As the Russian proverb says: "My friends' friends are my friends too."
Let our American residents follow their proper labor, keeping in mind
not far off these orders will be revoked, they are the result of
the same with Latins as with Anglo-Saxons."
of the world war need to be studied more; it is France, the nation,
at our doors. "Are we friends, or not?" they ask of those whom they
as brothers and rescuers when as they crossed the seas, remembering La
declaring "Here we are!" The question of the recognition of the Grand
Orient of France has not yet been resolved by us, but this will not
forbid us presenting
before our companions the status of that desired rapprochement.
was purely dogmatic when England laid it on the board in 1877 ‒ it was
when the first step in Brest of the American soldiers, in 1918, revived
soldiers were received with wreaths and flowers; France is always
France and always
courteous and polite; none has gone further than she, the struggle
between the heart
and old ideas was readily begun; from then to this day, in the short
space of two
years, the Fraternity in North America has greatly agitated in that
are evident, and if we remember that the majority of Grand Lodges in
States meet only once a year and that general usage prescribes a motion
to be presented
at one Communication and acted upon at the next after hearing the
report of the
respective committee, we ought not to be surprised at the result. Eight
have already recognized the Grand Orient, fifteen the Grand Lodge of
two the Independent Grand Lodge ‒ twenty-five in all. Six Grand Lodges
to their members the right to visit the Grand Orient, nine the Grand
the Independent Grand Lodge, and six all French Bodies. Twenty-three
are not yet
in amity with any of the French Grand Bodies, while only one has
granted the right
to visit the French Bodies and denied to French Masons the right to
visit its Grand
evolutions remind us of Sir Edward Grey's doings when he tried to
impose his criterion
on the London Conference; by his lack of opportunity he did not avoid
Balkan war which he hastened with the treaty of Bucharest; Albania and
continued to be the bone of contention of Slavs, Greeks and others, and
came very soon.
It is time
to look forward. Our Albania and Macedonia are now the extension of
which does not accept discrimination in the religious and philosophic
ideas of its
members. When Voltaire could sit as a Mason next to Franklin in the
Lodge of the
Nine Sisters in Paris, any other man can be a Mason. Who is to blame
for what happens
in the American Masonic field which, as the snowball, grows by moments?
examine his own conscience.
with the consequences of the war. Although it is ended, our compromises
extant. It is no secret to anyone, the enormous defeat inflicted to
by the terrible blows of the Roman Catholic authorities in that
did not make her benefits felt in the field of war. That was a glorious
the Tumultys, the Fosdicks and near of kin. In our last report we
noticed it and
even announced the formation in Iowa of the Masonic Service Association
the deficiencies of the American Masonic system. The coveted solidarity
attained, the new Association progresses satisfactorily, having been
nearly all of the Grand Lodges of the country. This was to be expected,
as in that
nation nothing is left half-done; but what has surprised many is that
purely philanthropic ideas, the Society has qualified as a most
opportune one and,
together with economic betterments, they are working in another way.
and their organization are excellent, but it is their platform which
the most. Here are some interesting points:
1. To recast the ideals of
government on the basis of the recognition and execution
of our duties toward others, rather than as at present in our rights as
others; the basing of civilization on declarations of dependence,
instead of on
declarations of independence; on altruism instead of selfishness.
2. To combat destructive
tendencies and agencies seeking to undermine and destroy
free institutions, by teaching constructively the true principles and
of government and civilization.
3. To arouse the conscience of
every individual Mason to the necessity for his
own practical application of Masonic principles to his activities in
social, business and otherwise.
What do you
think of that, now? Were we right or not when two years ago we started
studies in our lodges? Then and even now we believed that Masonry plays
a most important
part in the coming reconstruction of the world.
still believe that the League of Nations, now in vogue, is perhaps
that it will not be practicable. This may be so, so far as some minor
concerned, but taken as a whole some benefit will result ‒ as a proof
of this a
League of Masons is already talked of. The idea came from Sir Alfred
the initial paragraph of its exposition:
time has come when the ideal must be our lighthouse to guide us toward
not to disclose our divergences but to point the way to a still closer
there be harmonious unity in all essentials, divergence in all
in all things let us act in a spirit of charity.... May we find ways of
each other better, of better appreciating our various methods, ideas,
of the same; for the first condition of friendship is to clear away all
Whilst statesmen strive to set on foot the League of Nations, let us
strive to set
up a League of Freemasons among ourselves and those brethren with whom
we have always
been in agreement on all matters of principle and practice."
I think it
proper to here record some fundamental principles of sociology:
with great difficulty cross over the frontiers of nations, the
for it has to be waited for, when a sufficiently prepared people should
it, it is necessary then to prepare characters that fundamental ideals
moment is opportune; the nation in this sense is the Masonic
is already possessed, the exposer is Sir Alfred Robbins who, although
he has addressed
his call only to the brethren of his own race residing on this side of
we suppose it is extended to "all with whom he has always been in
on all matters of principle and practice," and we believe too that this
unlike that of the Peace Celebration, will not be confined to his
fellows because then the League would be incomplete and accordingly
and would prove, besides, the expressions "Brotherhood of Man" and
of God" so common in Masonic rituals, to be farcical.
times nations took hold of smaller ones simply to exploit them. Today
reigns, the former exercise their influence upon the latter for the
purpose of upholding
their rights, exercising over them not a sovereignty but a tutelage.
Shall an International
Grand Lodge come out of this proposition of a Masonic League, so
We shall perhaps see it, we highly desire it. Think it over carefully,
certain in sustaining that Masonry unites and never disintegrates.
that Masonic rapprochement will be carried on this year in an unusual
on account of past reverses. We like Masonic Congresses, union is
them and the regularity of their components shines in them in a clear
will be held this year. The first, called for September 20th, in Rome,
be so important, because the event to be commemorated will be the
Italian unity ‒ a local affair which will surely interfere with the
of Italian Masonry. The second Congress, although decided upon for this
probably not be held until next spring. It will assume greater
importance, and will
not be circumscribed to any special race or local Masonry. It will take
Switzerland and judging from the preparations the results may be
to the announcement sent out, the occasion must not be deferred, even
more than an exchange of ideas is to be obtained. The initial paragraph
of the announcement
the past years of war we frequently considered whether or not it was
to invite the brothers of all countries to participate in a convention
for the purpose
of bringing them into closer relations with one another, but after due
we felt convinced that the proper time had not yet arrived, and that
this wish could
be realized only after the cessation of the bloody strife. Now the war
Nations are beginning to resume their relations. The broken threads of
skeins of destiny are to be repaired. In this work of reconstruction
must not continue its attitude of waiting. It must no longer remain
idle. For is
not Freemasonry the one organization that is best qualified to further
between the peoples and, by means of personal contact among its
members, to aid
in the advancement of Masonic ideas?"
In 1921 there
will be held a Congress of Supreme Councils of the A. & A. S.
R. at Lausanne,
Switzerland, which should be most beneficial to members of that Rite.
brethren, before finishing this report, leaving modesty aside, to
applaud and congratulate
you for the compliments and good words spoken of Cuban Masonry by
sister Grand Lodges.
We have, it seems, lived in a garden, and are no longer the lonesome
Masons of past
times. The spirits of Cassard, Castro and Almeida (7) care for us and
to keep our friends abroad well posted in our doings, that they may be
when better known; the seed sown half a century ago is already
fruits of which we ought to make good use.
But of all
the praises lavished upon us none have gone so high as those coming
from our, in
past times, antagonistic sister, Illinois, the Grand Lodge which kept
many years without considering us worthy of her friendship; she does
herself to the printing of excerpts from our reports as others do, and
with an unlimited
sincerity when reviewing our Report on Correspondence, says:
Report of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence is printed in full
is unique and it mirrors the fraternity of the world as it is viewed by
is working out Masonry, as he understands it, on the distant island of
in full it is. Not a letter is added nor taken from it. That, my dear
is a victory for you, since I in this case have been but your
mouthpiece; the trumpet
of fame that has made the deeds, the tenacity and the perseverance of
reach the far-off lands. Accept my congratulations for it; with them
goes my full
soul, my best wishes and the good hope I have that among the faults
that our institution
may have, as a human society that it is, glories are found too, glories
produced by the continued labor of the Masonic workman. Permit me to
victory of ours to another victory, that won on the banks of the Marne
a short time
ago which fully changed the destinies of Europe, to both of which
applies the brief
allocution addressed to his army by General Joffre, the modern Fabius,
of his countrymen. If you substitute it in terms, days and places, you
battle that has lasted five days has ended with a victory. We have
recuperated a most vigorous offensive. All of you, officers and
soldiers, have answered
nobly to the call. The country owes you much."
(1) The Annual
Communication of the Grand Lodge of Cuba was held late in
(2)The Cuban National Anthem.
(3) Words of the Cuban National Anthem.
(4) The two Spanish-speaking lodges of New York City.
(5) The Spanish-speaking lodge of New Orleans.
(6) The Spanish-speaking lodge of Key West, Florida.
(7) Three most prominent Cuban Masons.
teachings of Masonry are not simply our idealization, but a
realization, and it
is the ambition of every true Mason so to live that his brother man may
see in him
a living witness to this one great Masonic truth ‒ the greatest
is the highest law of Masonic life. No man is worthy of its name who is
to absorb its sunshine and yet shed no ray of light or warmth upon his
Rev. William Wallace Youngson, Grand Orator,
No man is
so foolish but he may sometimes give another good counsel, and no man
so wise that
he may not easily err if he takes no other counsel than his own. He
that is taught
only by himself has a fool for a master.
Let us not
say, Every man is the architect of his own fortune; but let us say,
Every man is
the architect of his own character.
Days of John Paul Jones
By Bro. Gilbert Patten Brown,
station is the one quality ever commendable in the life of a great man.
It is noticeably
lacking in many leading men in our present civilization. Honesty of
purpose is one
of the many things that go to make up round character.
but two of the many virtues possessed by the patriot upon whom the
author will touch
briefly in his days of the warrior's glory, his honors and his
In the hamlet
of Kirkbean, Leith, Scotland, was born on July 6th, 1747, one who was
play an important part in the world's progress. John Paul was the son
of a poor
gardener. At twelve years of age he made a voyage to Virginia, and
another in 1773.
His brother, who had been adopted by a planter in that State, had
The old Virginia farmer had so loved the Paul boy that he had given him
of our hero with Freemasonry is unique and interesting. The records of
Lodge No. 122, Kilwinning, Scotland, under the date of Nov. 27, 1770,
"Captain John Paul of the Brig 'John'" was "entered and passed"
upon that date. He was proposed by Brother James Smith who signed his
the following language: "I do attest the petitioner to be a good man
person whom I have no doubt will in due time become a worthy brother."
was at the time in the African slave trade. The Brig "John" was a
packet" as we sailors used to say. His application for the degrees
in his own hand writing and is worthy of more than a passing notice for
English, well timed philosophy and honesty of purpose. It is as follows:
the Worshipful, the Master, Wardens and Permanent Brethren of Free and
Masons of the Lodge of St. Bernard held at Kirkcudbright. The petition
of John Paul,
Commander of the 'John' of Kirkendal, humbly sheweth ‒ that your
a considerable time past, hath entertained a strong and sincere regard
most noble, honorable, and ancient Society of Free and Accepted Masons,
not meeting with reasonable opportunity, do now most humbly crave the
receiving and admitting me into your Fraternity as an Entered
assuring and engaging to you that I shall in all rules and orders of
be most obsequient and observant. That I shall in all things deport,
act answerable to the laws and instructions of the lodge, and in
everything to which
I may be able liable, promising faithful obedience. The compliance of
Worshipful Wardens and rest of the Brethren, will singularly oblige and
honor, Right Worshipful, your most humble petitioner and most humble
Such an application
would in these days call the attention of the most critical of
such Masons as the diplomat, Benjamin Franklin, the tender Robert
Burns, the scholarly
Voltaire, the patriotic Thomas Paine, the honest Henry Clay, or the
Jefferson, could have found a fitting lesson in candor and the spirit
brotherhood in this application of a humble Scottish sea captain at the
ebb of British
despotism in the new world. There in the old "fore and aft," square
days nearly all sea Captains were Masons, and the deep water John Paul
be as good as any other man on the "quarter deck" of either merchant
or a line of battle frigate.
is known as the home of the world's purest Masonry, and it was here
that one of
the cleanest minded men of the great American Revolution received his
is indebted to Past Grand Master Charles Theodore Gallagher of
the Masonic data here used. The spirit of liberty was in the air in the
colonies, and in a day John Paul, the young sea captain, became John
the champion of freedom. We next see him in Philadelphia. His
every patriot except John Adams. "Give me a ship and I will strike a
liberty," said the young sailor, and upon meeting the members of
Congress he found himself among his brethren in Freemasonry. Hancock,
Paine, Witherspoon, Whipple, Jefferson, Clark, Rush, Lee, Thornton,
Hooper and Franklin
were his friends. In 1777 we find him at Portsmouth, N. H., fitting out
While at Portsmouth he attended church on Sunday, kept an eye on the
the Colonies and soon showed the world what real sea fighting was. At
he became associated with Captain Elijah Hall. Captain Jones chose Hall
lieutenant of the "Ranger." The first anniversary of the signing of the
Declaration of Independence was celebrated by the local Masonic lodge
Captain Hall a Mason. "May you ever abide by its lessons," said Jones
to Hall. "My men for the 'Ranger'," said Captain Jones, "shall be
the picked sons of New England."
It is more
than probable that Captain Jones visited St. John's Lodge No. 1 of
there fitting out the "Ranger," as his chief associates in that place
were active members of this the second oldest lodge in New England. In
a score of places do the records read "and visiting brethren."
the secretary would use the initials "V. B." While at Portsmouth he was
the lion of society. His brethren in the Craft, Commodore Abraham
Manley, Samuel Tucker and Edward Preble ‒ New England Masons and active
in the War
of the Revolution, held him in high esteem.
did invaluable service. Victory after victory crowned Jones' name. Upon
in Paris upon one celebrated victory he was honored. The "Lodge of Nine
of Paris, of which Franklin was Senior Warden, elected the hero of the
seas to active
membership. In open lodge that evening Captain Jones said, "Brethren,
is the proudest moment of my life." It was truly a "gathering of the
‒ the great men of Paris were present. Scientist and peasant, Catholic
‒ all members of the world's most cosmopolitan Masonic lodge greeted
of naval warriors upon that sublime and august occasion. Several Jesuit
members of the lodge of the Nine Sisters and other French lodges, were
clerical garb. The handsome, modest and God-loving John Paul Jones
all with a heart free from bigotry and a welcome hand to all right
honor conferred upon him was by Louis XVI, who knighted him for his
the Serapis, making him a Chevalier of the Royal Order of Military
Merit, and giving
him a gold mounted sword, both unusual honors. Congress was large of
heart but small
of means and it thanked him.
honors it is hard to say which Jones appreciated the more. He was proud
of the title
"American," but his tastes made the attentions of the polished society
of France highly congenial.
of his fame, Paul Jones, the Knight, had quite as many difficulties to
as had young John Paul, the Scottish sailor lad from the banks of the
When he took
his prize into the Dutch port at the Texel, after the great fight off
Head (Sept. 23, 1779), he was denounced by the British Minister to
Holland as a
pirate. In the contest covering several weeks Paul Jones showed himself
a diplomat as the British Minister, and managed to keep his ships in
a favorable opportunity came for him to escape, which he did in a gale
the British fleet that was watching him off the coast.
But he was
deprived of command of the captured Serapis, on which his heart was
set. She was
claimed as a King's prize, because the ship in which he made the
capture, the Bon
Homme Richard, had been given him by Louis.
a hard blow to Jones, but he bore it with fortitude. He next expected
the Alliance, from which the mad Landais had fired on him in the battle
Serapis. Here again fate thwarted him. Arthur Lee, who had been one of
Commissioners to France, plotted for Landais to retain the Alliance,
Dr. Franklin's orders, and Landais sailed in her to America, only to be
by his own officers on the voyage as insane.
delayed in Europe, exchanging prisoners and looking out for the prize
him and his men, until late in 1780, when he came to the United States
in the Ariel.
matter of his prizes was settled the war was over. His last important
was the one that had brought so much glory to the flag, that of the old
Richard. He was on active duty five years and five months.
for his prizes called him to Norway, to Denmark and to Holland, where
for many months
he acted the part of an admiralty lawyer combined with that of a
work occupied him until he entered the service of Catherine of Russia,
in his career little understood, but entirely to his credit. The
upon him the rank of Rear Admiral. Foreign ambassadors and nobles
thronged his residence.
It has been
claimed that he "abandoned the American service," but this was unjust
criticism. Until his death he considered himself an American naval
to the call of his country.
It is with
Jones as a lover in his last days that the student of history lingers.
He was knighted
June 28, 1780. At this period of his career he was the idol of the best
in Paris, the lion of the hour in the most fashionable drawing-rooms,
and the wittiest man in every assemblage he graced. He was then 33
years old. What
a picture was his, handsome and brave a bachelor before the society of
courted him by the score. The slight defects of character in Jones
sprang from his
want of early education. The name of Paul Jones was upon the lips of
At this time
he met a girl of 20, the winsome Aimee de Telison. She was a daughter
of Louis XVI.
She was small, vivacious, witty and handsome, with a mass of dark
auburn hair, and
a clear, rosy complexion.
in love with Jones, and he with her. Although he had been smiled upon
by the handsomest
and highest women of the court he turned from them all to this modest
figured socially merely as the protégé of a highborn duchess.
had the enduring foundation of mutual respect and congenial tastes, and
a fitting lesson for all young people of the twentieth century. It had
months to ripen before Jones was obliged to leave France for the United
but in the years that followed there beat always for him one pure heart
that of Aimee de Telison.
was in France she acted as his secretary, helping him with his
translating letters and documents, advising and suggesting as only an
and educated woman seeing with the eyes of love could, and in every way
him in his career.
they exchanged in his long absence have not all been preserved, but
breathe a pure and lofty devotion on both sides.
claimed Paul Jones, but one heart was wrung with grief that could not
and that was Aimee de Telison's. She was near him in his last days ‒
her home was
not far from the house where he lodged in Paris ‒ his devoted nurse. In
he gave her a third of his property and settled an annuity on her.
the most pleasing days of Jones' social life in France "a charming but
widow" of Paris made love to the bachelor-hero, and during her
remarks, inquired of the peerless seafighter why he cared so much for
lady in question. In all the ardor of his frank manhood he replied:
the most beautiful young woman I ever met, I love her for her loyalty,
belongs to me I would trust in her care." During his remarks he looked
antique widow "straight in the eyes." She soon made her way from his
to seek greener fields.
of the French revolution was then about ready to break and the future
to all connected with the royal house of France. The King and Queen
were to go to
the block, but Aimee de Telison survived and lived to earn her living,
war had passed, as a translator for a Napoleonic newspaper and also as
of English. Trace of her career after the fall of Napoleon had been
Jones died in Paris July 18, 1792. Patriotism was his watchword, creed
into his life.
He left a
name that shall live as long as a ship of any sort rides the billows of
deep. On American soil rests that Christian without a creed, the best
of whose life
went forth to the cause of liberty. He loved all and hated none.
think of John Paul Jones, the poor boy, the sailor lad at sea, the
captain, the volunteer for liberty, the naval officer, the humbler of
pride, the Knight at the Court of France, the Worshipper at Masonry's
finally the hero lying more than a century in a lost grave in Paris, to
at last by a grateful Nation, whose glory he had first emblazoned to
the world on
the seas ‒ without thinking also of the one permanent love interest in
the devotion of the young, beautiful, soft-hearted and good Aimee de
Government, shortly before his death, voted him a command in the navy
of that country
with the rank of Vice Admiral. Admiral Jones viewed it as a call to
take part in
a race war and as he was not of that type of a man refused the command.
The one thing
above all ever commendable in the life of our hero was that he was
his admiration of women.
days of John Paul Jones give a never tiring charm to world biography.
stars shine and the Navy of the great western Republic sails the Seven
name of John Paul Jones will serve to inspire all lovers of universal
every State in these United States there should be at least one body of
Institution named in honor of the world's peerless warrior on the great
and the Rose
By Bro. C. Spurgeon Medhurst,
an address delivered before the Tung Te Chapter of the Rose Croix, No.
truths can be communicated only in symbol. Masonry could not, if it
in plain language all that it means. It is an attempt to dramatize by a
of devices a universal experience ‒ the consciousness that something
complete happiness is often sought for, is never found. To demonstrate
this by examining
each of the thirty-two of our Masonic degrees would be on this occasion
I confine myself, therefore, as is appropriate to our present
convention, to an
attempt to elucidate the meaning of the emblem of the Chapter of the
rose and the cross are wide-spread religious symbols, but it would
serve no good
purpose at this time to catalogue the places where the symbology crops
up. You will
find a brief resume in "Morals and Dogma," and more extensive
in any standard work on comparative religion. Few symbols are more
Cross represents the Eternal in time; the Rose the Eternal in
timelessness. We cannot
have one without the other.
points to the four quarters of the compass. The Cross then as a symbol
with Creation. Nevertheless the Cross is something cut from the whole.
It is a part
only; it is not the whole. Its story is a tale of limitation, and
loss, pain, sacrifice. The Cross is hard and harsh. It speaks of
our religious records tell us of several crucifixions besides the great
of Redemption told in connection with Christianity, for what is
one-pointed concentration on the ideal of life, a stretching of the
towards the attainment of the One Thing which will satisfy. Only this
way can we
reach the Rose.
If the Cross
symbolizes the necessary limitations of our human conceptions the Rose
is the emblem
of their transcendence. Permit me to explain myself a little more
fully. This universe
lies under the law of opposites. You cannot think of anything without
its opposite. The thought of good suggests evil, you cannot conceive
in relation to good. Yet, though bound hand and foot by evil, you
reverence for the good. There was never yet a man so bad that he did
someone else because he felt that other was better than he. The law of
extends to the most inner of the worlds we know; it reigns, as far as
we can see,
in the outermost regions of all that we are acquainted with, and we are
that while subject to this opposition we shall never hear the mystic
be Still," for the utterance of which we axe all longing. The truth
the Reality, must lie beyond our world of opposites. It can neither be
evil, but something else which, in some way beyond our apprehension, is
of both. This Third, the Lost Word, the Something for which we are
looking but never
find, is symbolized by the Rose. Our rituals cannot fully explain. They
substitutes. No man can do more than this for his brother. The
attainment of the
Rose which springs from the Cross is not an intellectual process
language; it is a mystic inner growth, realized only by Life. It is a
of the integral unity of all, a variant of the instinct which causes
each cell in
a living body though living for itself, and feeding itself, to respond
to a common
reaction and to work as a unit when the needs of the controlling life
This is why the beehive finds a place among our symbols. Though not
one, bees are so organized that no individual of the hive can live
the rest, beyond a certain time.
invite you to the Cross that you may know the Rose it bears. This
flower grows nowhere
else. It has its roots in pain and limitation. In other words we only
the beauty and fragrance of the Rose as we face the strain of the
the Cross. Let us not fear the discipline of the Cross, it is the
highway to the
Rose. When we bury our faces in its velvety petals, repenting of our
and our past harshnesses, we find that we ourselves are the heart of
the Rose, that
eternal flower of perennial beauty at the center of things. Know then,
brethren of the Rose Croix, that one day, when you shall be able to
part from this
self which for the sake of self-development you have cut out from the
as the Cross is a fragment of Infinity, you will find a grander,
and more comprehensive individuality in the unity of The Whole. This I
take it is
the alpha and omega of Masonry, it welds us together as brothers
pledged each to
support the other, that it may teach us this great lesson. This, I take
it, is the
meaning of the Lost Word, a word which is indeed ineffable, though the
its significance may be caught from a saying of the first Wise Master
of the Rose
Croix: "At that time you will know that I am in my Father, and that you
in me and that I am in you"; and also from a statement by another great
in our order: "Then cometh the End, when he is to surrender the
God, the Father, when he shall have overthrown all other government and
authority and power." (1 Cor. 15-24).
Build For Tomorrow
with which we are living these days is likely to render us incapable of
that is conducive to our happiness. We often hear it suggested that it
is more of
work that our generation needs, that it is too indolent, likewise too
But here, be it observed, there is an apparent contradiction, as the
that is allied to our extravagance gives ample proof that we are not
does not seem to be any lack of the expenditure of energy. The
complaint must be
that the energy is expended unwisely. The mad frenzy which has gripped
us has hurried
us into an incoherent way of living. The world, rushing pen men towards
like inevitable disaster cannot be aware of the danger and peril that
always, the halt must be called and a detachment from life must be made
that the extremities to which we are coming, if something is not done
may be fully apprehended.
of all who have acquired greatness, reveal the fundamental necessity of
from their usual activities in life.
during the latter years, heard a great deal among Masons of that
mystic in its nature which has counselled men to withdraw and get
their inner selves. Such advice may be eminently worthwhile, but our
desiring the detachment from the outward activities for a brief while
(and it is
only a brief while that can be spared) is that more may gain the clear
that will reveal to them things as they really are in the world.
in connection with the lecture on the twenty-four-inch gauge, that in
divided into twenty-our equal parts, it is emblematical of the
of the day. Eight hours we learn are for the service of God, and a
brother; eight hours are for our general vocations, and eight for our
and sleep. To an observance of this Masonic rule as a principle for the
are gradually responding. The regrettable thing is that Masons who have
to be governed by this rule observe it more in the breach than in
play to most people today are the two poles of life, but if we would
wise men who sponsored the rule that the twenty-four-inch gauge
life, we live not only by work and play, but by worship as well, and
quiet, meditation, introspection and retrospection. It is the channel
is acquired, courage renewed and inspiration derived. It is the march
to the mountain
top whence things may be seen in their proper proportion, and if we
were to epitomize
in one word the main cause of our ills individually and socially, these
diseases would have to be suggested by the word disproportion.
We view things
from individual angles with our biases, prejudices, grievances and
hatreds. To consider
other men's problems from their point of view is a custom that the
world is pretty
much alien to. If we have grievances our continuous dwelling upon them
them out of all proportion and thus we become obsessed with the thought
of all men are the most burdened with trials and tribulations. If we
this thought, so as to affect society, we will readily appreciate how
classes with their individualistic contention for recognition of
magnify their grievances out of all proportion.
of thinking selfishly leads men into grooves that transform them into a
and egotistic set, and they become a menacing power. While things are
bad, let us
assure ourselves that they are not so bad as yet, but that they might
if a continuance of class antagonism is persisted in. To clamor for
may ultimately bring them, but with their attainment may come also
which will render their attainment utterly worthless. Ambition
apology for the ambitions of various groups of men seems to be on the
they are entitled to more of this world's goods than they possess. So
far so good.
We have no question but that exploitation of the working man has
inflated the pocketbooks
of many, and the arrogancy of profiteer and exploiter no doubt arouses
anger those who feel that they have been exploited. Calm reflection
issue of such discontentment which manifests itself in industrial
us in declaring that the wise way of adjusting economic troubles, so
that the legitimate
balance is arrived at, is through those channels that Constitutional
provides for the adjustment of all troubles affecting people living
under its authority.
In the meantime,
let the work of production and distribution continue. For the
reflection that we
induce men to make will bring to their notice that neither strike nor
ever been conducive to the happiness and welfare of men. Constitutional
affords any group under its authority with the means to redress their
since the ballot has been obtained and is fast becoming the universal
of both men and women, it ought not to be hard to bring conviction that
are more powerful than bullets, whether those be of lead or of the
often hits a people as vitally as bullets.
no matter how justified it might have been, and is in some instances
even yet, has
become a pernicious habit and it is readily seen that prices and wages
the pyramid of the high cost of living, and in no wise assure a
for our grievous economic problems.
If the world
could but afford to take a week's vacation and had sufficient quietness
to apprehend with what fury and frenzy we have conducted things since
of the great war, it would readily come to the conclusion that no
ultimate end which
would be worthwhile could be obtained by a continuance of the frenzied
mode of living.
The hope of the idealist during the Great War was that through its
certain great lessons of humanity would be learned that would tend to
make all peoples
seek a common ground where the adjustment of problems would obviate the
of war. Such a hope, on an international plane, because of the cupidity
by great powers, is fast becoming a matter of despair. Likewise it was
that in national activities where all national agencies are woven into
whole to pursue the desired end would result in impressing upon a
people that their
mutual happiness was best assured as community interests gained
their consideration rather than individual interests. The flagrant
abuses of privileges
enjoyed, the lessening of efficiency and the growing arrogance of some
workers who were supervised by the government, instead of being
conducive to economic
harmony, ushered men everywhere into the maelstrom of selfish greed.
that among the things that are fundamentally wrong is the failure to
grasp in a
different way the universal need of the hour. That men should have work
they receive a living wage whereby they are enabled to live in comfort
and educate their kind is a fundamental necessity. That they sue for
wages and conditions
of labor for this end is truly laudable, but observation seems to
where men could live within such a province they are actuated by an
which urges them to desire luxuries that could be lived without. We
face this fact too, that where classes seek power through certain of
those whom they champion for power and leadership must be men of
of the needs of all the people.
It must no
longer be said either, that corporational power through the
instrumentality of certain
men that they studiously support, can thereby corrupt the vested
to one of the great lessons of the war, we adjudge the necessity of the
be that the sacrifices that were manifested at that time should be
the variety of activities that are incident to a nation at work today
equilibrium of national stability is again arrived at. We venture
further to promulgate
the theory that doing unto others as we would have done unto us is
as a rule for the government of men. Indeed only under such a rule can
of man be transformed from a theoretical concept into a practical
Let the cupidity fed capitalist who thrives on the blood of children
profits come to the place where he postulates that child as his very
own. Let the
malevolent plotters of strikes and black lists be brought face to face
vast innocent third party which is murderously affected by their
obedience to the
mandates of industrial demagogues. Let all of us who live under the
Stars and Stripes
and claim this land as our very own, apprehend thoroughly that this
to no one party, clique or sect, and that each of us is entitled to
and the pursuit of happiness, and legislate in the light of these
Then will it be that we will make headway towards the realization in
States of that fraternity of interests that will manifest us to the
world, as a
people worthy of being distinguished under the appellation "America"
not as a conglomeration of units, without program or policy for their
or mutual intercourse. Brain power and brawn power must be granted the
rights that are within the gift of the republic.
who by the trick of trade amasses his millions overnight, and the land
who is persistently making more aggravating the housing problems,
the four-flushing politician and agitating demagogue whose highest
glory are the
plums of office, must be repudiated once and forever.
we must stand behind those men, true and tried whether they be of us or
can represent people without the reference to the clamorings of his
for this or that reform which enhances his chances for re-election.
Such a man will
have the courage to go against the people when the people are wrong.
of the voice of the people being the voice of God must be done away
with. For experience
teaches us through such trials as were incident to the French
Revolution, that the
voice of the people very frequently is the voice of madness.
of reflection that we enjoin will be the period in which man comes face
with the issue that things to be fundamentally right must be right in
of God. Except the Lord build the house, they who labor build in vain
and it must
be built with reference to men, women and especially little children.
We must look
beyond today and shape our policies with reference to tomorrow. Men
with reference to posterity. What we have missed, our children should
if by any means we damn their lives by pernicious and easy living and
today, thrice damned will we be in their sight in the tomorrow.
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
of this Department is to acquaint our renders with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
be our aim to publish in this Department each month a list of such
as we may be able from time to time to secure for members of the
a book listed herein this month may be out of stock next month, and
unobtainable, and for this reason it is recommended that when ordering
pamphlets from these lists the latest monthly issue of THE BUILDER be
and no orders be made from lists more than thirty days old.
monthly reviews the names and addresses of the publishers of the books
in order that our readers may order such books direct from the
of through the Society. In many instances the books may be found in
stock at local
The Symbolism of Freemasonry
Symbolism of Freemasonry," [Lib 1882] by Albert G. Mackey.
through the Office of the Secretary, National Masonic Research Society,
Iowa, at $3.15, postpaid.
of Freemasonry from its beginning has been expended in bringing men to
of the sovereignty of God and the immortality of man's soul. The manner
its genius was most potently manifested was through the utilizing of
and legend in communicating the knowledge of the eternal verities to
men. Man is
but a grown up child, and as long as the earth remains will his
understanding of certain things of primary importance be through
For today, as of yore, man's amazement and natural limitations forbid
in speech the thing which he feels deepest within him.
him as he emerges from the darkness into the dawn is to appreciate his
upon the heritage bequeathed to him by a remote ancestry, who had
things as significant of necessary truths and had treasured those
which were powerful determining factors in his life.
obtained the first ideas of God and immortality of the soul no man
Modern studies in animism and kindred subjects might lead one to
dispute the naive
statements made by Dr. Mackey, that most probably the ideas of God and
had been communicated by direct inspiration from God to man. But if
some have grown
so wise and learned that they cannot bear to identify God as a direct
these fundamental truths to which man has clung from the remotest
needs must explain the early work and worship of the most primitive man
grounds), he will still find in Dr. Mackey's work the only plausible
how truths were handed down from one generation to another, shaping
aims and determining their destiny.
no need to quarrel with this work so charmingly written and no less
of its major premise suggesting that at the beginning of time God, by
had communicated the imperishable doctrines that are destined to be
man's last interest
upon the earth, as well as his first.
a philosophy seeks to reveal and interpret the significance of
of human experience. It endeavors to grasp the ultimate, and from
man's energy has been directed in this channel. The two primary
questions of importance
that nave engaged the minds of all primitive peoples have been the idea
of God and
life after death. The animistic view of things modern scholars conceive
been as universal among primitive peoples. The world was governed, if
mind could apprehend government at all, by arbitrary rulers, whose
favor must be
courted and whose wrath must be appeased. And man's belief in after
life was actuated
by the dreams he had. He conceived of himself not as a material body
and an immaterial
mind, but rather an acting, feeling, thinking body. But alongside of
concept explaining to the scientist the anthropomorphic belief, we have
of legend to which Doctor Mackey gives credible support and which
us that the concept of God and immortality were well defined beliefs in
of men in the early dawn of human history; that through the great
spoken of in the bible, these truths were transmitted from one
generation to another.
chapter on the Noachites intimates at what has become the explanation
in regard to primitive belief, but refers to them as being corruptions
of the doctrines so zealously transmitted by Noah to his descendants.
As an aid
to research, this work of Doctor Mackey's will lend the proper impetus
to the young
student in Masonry. Of interest will be Mackey's suggestion regarding
and spurious Freemasonry. Spurious Freemasonry he will discover to be
of Greece and Egypt, whereby the uninitiated were brought into an
learning, and whereby, through the aid of symbolism, they were
acquainted with the
truths of God and immortality. An acknowledgment of the rightness of
as to how spurious Freemasonry was generated might be hard to obtain
theory, which has saturated thinking people so thoroughly, would forbid
of what seems in Mackey's opinion to be very much like the worn out
dogmas of ecclesiasticism.
Nevertheless the work will enhance interest in the true nature of
Freemasonry no doubt consisted entirely in philosophic speculation, but
race development and the increase of what Doctor Mackey suggests as a
sort of social
degeneracy, the necessity of using the symbol became imperative. We
delight in the
reference the author makes to the veracity of the legend, irrespective
the legend has any historical basis or not, as the truth set forth by
aid of the
legend is the all-important thing in Freemasonry. Whether or not there
be any historical
warrant for the drama of the Third degree, the truth communicated
through it is
the unceasing verity necessary for man's human comfort.
elementary fashion Doctor Mackey has succeeded in giving the sources
of the development of the legendary matter which makes up so much of
As he says, the nineteen propositions announced contain a brief but
of the progress of Freemasonry, from its origin in the early ages of
the world simply
as a system of religious philosophy, through all the modifications to
which it was
submitted in the Jewish and Gentile races, until at length it was
developed to its
present perfected form.
It will be
of interest to observe the primary reason for the necessity of such an
as Freemasonry. The corrupt but worldly mind appears ever as unfit to
choicest truths that man may know anything about. All great masters of
drawn unto themselves those rare spirits that could enter into their
appreciation of the moral worth and beauty of the things that they
standpoint of present day learning it is easily apprehended how,
through the channel
of oral transmission, many of the precious things communicated in their
ultimately become distorted and, as we have read somewhere, no doubt
ultimately acquire such proportions that the true symbolic significance
become entirely lost. But we can well assure ourselves that since
succeeded in perpetuating the primary concept of the sovereignty of God
hope of immortality, that the things of symbolism whose true meaning
has been forever
lost could not have been of the great importance that probably some
in latter-day speculation to the significance of the symbol. Of
for Masons today will Doctor Mackey's book be, when we apprehend the
trend of the
present movement in Freemasonry to apply itself more persistently in
of our social destiny.
value indeed is any institution today unless it has a word to say in
to bring about human adjustment to highest ideals. The tenor of Masonic
hitherto has been in view of the afterlife.
in this world through the practice of wise morality which would insure
to man has been the burden of Masonic teaching. But even as
has been concerned with the saving of men for heaven yonder, and today
the urge to create, establish and continue a heaven here so that man
will be worthy
of a heaven hereafter, even so the gist of Masonic efforts is
identically in the
same direction. But the pendulum may swing too far, and instead of
creating in man
a proportional view of life which may direct him strenuously in the
earth activity it may swing toward malting his ultimate destiny an
a materialistic philosophy which but bodes a fulsome enjoyment of this
leaves man as most miserable through not preserving within him a strong
through symbolical and legendary teaching, will save those who are
the fold from such crass materialism. No man initiated today as men
into the Egyptian mysteries of centuries ago, can release himself from
scenes of the significance of life and death as demonstrated in the
legend. To know the history and purport of Masonic legend read this
of Doctor Mackey.
* * *
August Book List
list embraces practically all the standard works on Masonry which we
are able to
secure and keep in stock for the accommodation of individual members of
Study Clubs and Lodges.
We are finding
it more difficult each year to procure new or second-hand copies of the
works on Masonry of which, owing to the limited market for them at the
time of their
publication, but a small number of copies were printed.
We are continually
in search for additional items which will be listed in this column
whenever it is
our good fortune to secure them.
It is suggested
that the latest list be consulted before sending in orders and that no
made from lists more than one month old, since our stock of these books
and a book listed this month may be out of stock by the time next
month's list is
publishers are constantly increasing their prices to us the following
subject to such changes.
Publications Issued by the Society
| 1915 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1919 bound volume of THE BUILDER (for delivery
about February 1st or 15th)
| 1722 Constitutions ( reproduced by photographic
plates from an original copy in the archives of the Iowa Masonic
Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition limited,
| Philosophy of Masonry, Roscoe Pound
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro.
J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, red buffing binding, gilt lettering,
illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry,
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag,"
| "Further Notes on the Comacine Masters," W.
Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to "The Comacines, Their Predecessors
and Their Successors," a Masonic digest of Leader Scott's book "The
Cathedral Builders" and containing the latest researches of Brother
Ravenscroft which present a very logical argument for the connection of
Freemasonry of the present day with the Roman Collegia and traveling
Masons of the early times, paper covers, illustrated
| Symbolism of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Three Degrees, Street, 68
pages, paper covers. The lessons and symbols of each degree traced to
their origin, in every instance that it has been possible to so trace
them. Brother Street gives many explanations of our symbols in this
little book on which our monitors but vaguely touch
| Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite,
Publications from other sources, kept in stock
| "The Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry,
by Brother Joseph Fort Newton, formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER
|| $ 1.50
| Mackey's Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two
volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
| Symbolism of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey
| Concise History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke
prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all items
The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or registered.
in South America
(Compiled By Bro. Robert
I. Clegg, New York)
| " (Grand Orient)
| “ Brazil (National
| " (Rio Grande do
Sul Grand Orient)
| " (Independent
Grand Orient do San Paulo)
| " (Grand Orient at
| " (Grand Lodge)
| “ (Grand Lodge)
| “ (Sovereign Grand
A man must
require just and reasonable things if he would see the scales of
trimmed. From orders which are improper, springs resistance which is
Let us have
faith that Right makes Might and in that faith let us dare to do our
duty as we
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under this own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
Membership of Various Fraternal
What is the
membership of the following Societies according to the latest figures:
Odd Fellows, Knights of Columbus, B.P.O. Elks and Knights of Pythias?
S. D., Wisconsin.
tables of membership are quoted from the latest available reports as
the World Almanac for 1920:
Order of Odd Fellows. Grand Lodges 68. Subordinate Lodges 17,621.
31, 1918, 2,226,562. (These figures comprise the United States and
of Columbus. Councils 1,894. Membership, Sept. 1, 1918, Insurance
395,674, total 541,143. The New York World of June 2, 1920, in the
report of the
State Convention just then being held in Glens Falls, N. Y., noted that
1,975 Councils and a membership of 633,978, a gain of 160,000 in the
of which 37 per cent. (23,695) was gained in New York State.
and Protective Order of Elks. Lodges 1,374. Membership 600,000.
of Pythias. State Domains 55. Membership, Jan. 1, 1919, 698,840.
83 and 84 of the March, 1920, issue of THE BUILDER will be found a
of the Masonic membership in the United States, Canada, England,
and Australia totaling 19,235 Subordinate Lodges and 2,607,399 members.
be noted that these figures do not include South America or European
than Great Britain which would probably bring the world total closely
* * *
Admiral Sims an Episcopalian
please inform: me through the columns of THE BUILDER if Admiral Sims of
Navy is a Mason?
Sims is not a Mason. His church affiliations are Episcopalian.
* * *
Details of the Building
of Solomon's Temple
any information regarding the details connected with the relationship
King of Israel, and Hiram, King of Tyre?
How the Sidonians
helped at the building of the Temple?
in detail, they found the timbers? How they were paired off as workmen?
Their names? What were they called? How the material was transferred to
E. H., Iowa.
little is known on the above subjects save such information as we have
in the Old
Testament. Certain portions of that account cannot bear critical
most of it can, and the student who is curious to learn how the story
of the building
of the Temple has survived the ordeals of biblical criticism is advised
some good modern commentary, such as any volume found, for example, in
(some of whom were English Masons, by the way,) have unearthed some of
foundation stones on some of which the old Phoenician Mason Marks are
H. L. H.
Mormons and Masons
above heading in the Correspondence Column of the May issue of THE
two or three statements which seem not quite to accord with the facts.
is true, these are not matters of importance, it is well for us to
endeavor to keep
the "record straight."
In the first
place, the writer of these lines does not agree with the negative
to the question: Was Brigham Young, the Mormon, a Mason? The following
have led to the conviction that Brigham Young was a Mason.
1. Apparently all of the leaders
and principal men, as well as large numbers
of the rank and file of the Mormon Church in the Nauvoo days, were
members of the
Nauvoo lodges. In the absence of any statement to the contrary, or even
as the suggestion of a reason to account for a different course on the
part of this
one prominent leader, the presumption would be strongly in favor of his
2. In a finely illustrated booklet
published by the Deseret News in 1906, entitled
"The City of the Saints in Picture and Story," is to be found another
bit of evidence which points in the same direction. Concerning this
work the publishers
state "The contents of the work may be relied upon as authentic and
having been compiled with the utmost care from the latest obtainable
On page 34
of this book is a picture of "Brigham Young as Governor of Utah in
This picture has the appearance of having been reproduced from an
the center of the shirt front shown in this picture is the conventional
emblem ‒ the square and compasses. It is hardly conceivable that this
have been worn if the wearer had not been introduced to the mysteries
3. On page 191, volume I, of
Apostle Orson F. Whitney's ponderous History of
Utah [Lib 1892 Vol 1] occurs a statement which
furnishes more conclusive
evidence. After speaking of the return of the Apostles from Europe; the
building up Nauvoo, and of the recent impetus given to the work of
Temple, the writer says "A Masonic Temple was likewise projected at
and Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young and other leading Mormons
facts, taken together, seem to leave little room for doubt that Brigham
At the beginning
of the second paragraph, under the above caption, occur the words:
History we learn that the Grand Lodge of Illinois, in 1842, granted a
for a lodge at Nauvoo...." This statement is not quite accurate. The
show that Grand Master Abraham Jonas and not Grand Lodge, granted the
to Nauvoo Lodge (Proc. Ill., 1842, p. 52), and that the year was 1841
and not 1842 (ibid p. 68).
Gould's statement may have been intended to be general, only.
for the appointment of a committee "to examine the work of the lodge"
‒ referred to in the paragraph under consideration ‒ would have been
had the additional fact been noted that the "286 candidates initiated
all passed and raised," were given the degrees in less than five months
Ill., 1842, p. 59).
was not set to work till March 15th, 1842, and this function was made
of three days of "high jinks," during which ‒ a contemporary writer
us ‒ Grand Master Jonas publicly "constituted" the lodge, "installed"
its officers, and made Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon Masons at sight
Seasons, vol. III, pages 749-50; Reynolds' History of Masonry in Ill.,
matter dealt with in the article under consideration is worthy of
at least. This relates to the efforts of Mt. Moriah Lodge, Salt Lake
City, to obtain
of events is correctly traced, save for one interesting omission.
refusal of the Grand Lodge of Nevada to act favorably upon their first
for a charter, the Salt Lake brethren settled down "to work in the
as they expressed it, "till the meeting of Grand Lodge." But this
did not hold for any considerable length of time. The Grand Lodge of
that year (1866) late in September. Early in November, following, the
Mt. Moriah addressed a communication to Grand Master Chase Withrow, of
Lodge of Colorado, which he received on the 17th of that month. In this
asked the Grand Master if he would grant them a dispensation provided
surrender the one they held from the Grand Lodge of Nevada. The reason
for this request was that "they disliked certain instructions from the
Lodge of Nevada, forbidding their making Masons of Mormons, or to allow
affiliate or visit." When reporting this incident to Grand Lodge, Grand
Withrow gave the substance of his reply in the words:
"That while I might differ in
the Grand Master of Nevada, I did not think it the policy of this Grand
interfere with the matter; and inasmuch as they had a dispensation from
and were working under it, they had better work along another year;
then, if they
failed to get a charter they could surrender their dispensation and, if
apply elsewhere." (Proc. Colo., 1867, p. 177).
stated at the outset, these are not matters of any great importance,
yet the additional
facts given may be of interest to some of the readers of THE BUILDER.
S. H. Goodwin, Utah.
* * *
The Order of De Molay For
About a year
ago last March, there originated in the mind of Brother Frank S. Land
City a plan to meet the great need for a better organized, more
life for boys nearing the age of manhood. It was realized that, when a
boy has reached
the age of sixteen, his interest in boyish things decreases to such an
he is no longer a real boy, and yet the affairs of manhood are not yet
open to him.
During this period in the boy's life, it was seen that many were
drifting on the
reefs of life for the want of systematic social guidance.
To meet this
need Brother Land conceived the idea of having the powerful and well
organization foster a fine bit of social service for the benefit of
the ages of sixteen and twenty-one. A very fine two-degree ritual was
Brother Frank Marshall of Kansas City. The initiatory degree has some
of the very
finest, most uplifting and most inspiring lessons taught anywhere. The
is built around the burning of Jaques DeMolay by the bloody-minded
March 11, 1313, because he refused to reveal the secrets of the
Templars, of which
organization he was the head. The lessons of fidelity taught in this
such as are sure to be lasting in their effect. The organization was
named the Order
of DeMolay for Boys. Any Masonic organization in any community can call
a group of the best boys in the community, and organize and foster the
in Kansas City was the mother chapter. Several months ago a chapter was
at Omaha, Nebraska. Soon afterward one was chartered at Trenton, Mo.,
leadership of Brother Ray V. Denslow. The Omaha chapter was organized
leadership of Brother Dr. Clark. On May 24th last, a chapter was
instituted at Kirksville,
Mo., under the leadership of the writer, this chapter being the fourth
in the country.
Those who have made most careful investigation of the new order are
it is one of the finest moves made by Masonry in a long, long time. It
has a powerful
pull for moral betterment on the boys at a time when they stand most in
such a steadying influence. There is no "horseplay" in the work of the
order and no place for any. It is serious business for serious-minded
Master Mason is entitled to visit the chapter at any time and to help
out with the
ritualistic work. Only the boys can vote or hold office.
appointed by the Masonic body fostering each chapter, a Board of
Advisors to serve
as the balance wheel, so to speak, for the boys. On May 29th, 1920,
in Kansas City delegates from all four of the organized chapters of the
for the purpose of witnessing the exemplification of the degrees on a
class of 350,
and to discuss the perfecting of the temporary arrangements for the
The work was very well done by the boys of the Kansas City Chapter, and
was most impressive. Arrangements were made whereby the Advisory Board
of the mother
chapter constitute the body authorized to grant temporary charters,
regulations and foster and extend the Order. Accordingly, those who
would like to
investigate the Order for the purpose of instituting a chapter should
Frank S. Land, Scottish Rite Temple, Kansas City, Mo. It is hoped that
the new organization
will spread with great rapidity in all parts of the country within the
months. In about six months it is expected that another national
be called for the purpose of perfecting the national organization, and
permanent constitution and by-laws. All chapters organized at that time
given an opportunity to be represented in that meeting. The Order has
the experimental stage, and is ready to be taken up by Masons
everywhere for the
everlasting benefit of the boys. Incidentally it will be a great
benefit to Masonry
itself, though that side of the question is entirely subordinate and a
matter in view of the great good that may be accomplished among the
boys. The Order
is not a junior Masonic organization in any sense of the word but it
repay any Masonic organization to foster a chapter of the new Order.
Willis J. Bray, Missouri.
* * *
Freemasonry in Holland
from a Circular Recently Addressed to All Lodges Under the Grand East
of the Netherlands.
To the Lodges
Belonging to the Grand East of the Netherlands:
enquiries are being received from lodges seeking guidance concerning
the Grand East has the privilege of communicating its opinion thereon
in the following
A. II ‒ MUTUAL
It is necessary,
first of all, clearly to keep in mind the fact that Masonic work can
fruit if the "atmosphere" of the lodge is in accordance with Article 3
of the Constitutions. Brotherhood must be the Alpha and Omega of lodge
and relationships. For this reason, part of our work must consist of
the study and
development of a Masonic doctrine of conduct ‒ Study and Development:
Word and Deed.
It would be of the greatest benefit occasionally to discuss the factors
in the relationships which should exist between members of a lodge.
Example is better
than precept ‒ the former must be regarded as pre-eminently the factor.
spirit in the lodge is good, the newcomer is struck by the tone that
realizes that he is in a totally different milieu to that of ordinary
that different maxims guide the corporate life and work. The Masonic
to the Entered Apprentice is to learn how to conduct himself, how to
and brotherly feeling. How is he to receive that education? Partly by
spoken word, but principally by practice, by the deed itself, and by
of others. To which may be added the corollary, admonition and
correction by elders.
Is this the
manner in which the education is always given? The question, we fear,
must be answered
in the negative. There are many lamentations over the shortcomings of
respect to the absence of real brotherly feelings. Is admonition given
to juniors in a brotherly manner? Yet this must be regarded as one of
advantages of Masonic communion. Each Master Mason who is really worthy
of the name
must be ready and qualified to give guidance to juniors, not as a moral
nor as one who feels himself placed on a higher pedestal, but as an
one who from love and devotion wishes to cooperate in the welding of a
solid link in the Masonic chain. To this end, however, it is necessary
should be closer in touch with one another.
A. III. ‒
PHILOSOPHIC. ETHICAL, RELIGIOUS, SOCIAL, AND PHILANTHROPIC SUBJECTS
This is the
section which monopolizes interest more, perhaps, than any other, and
reason. As already stated, the Freemason must absorb that which is
peculiar to himself,
and assimilate it so that it forms part of his existence. He must be an
not only in knowledge but in its application. He must be eager and able
everything that will transform spiritual poverty and material welfare.
He must not
only labor for the uplifting of humanity by his own gifts and personal
but he must also know how to impart to others those principles which
so that power may also be exercised by and through them. The
frequently predominant among brethren must be elevated and changed into
of communal possession. The program must include all that equips the
for this missionary work. To this end the Freemason must, in the first
insight into the great problems which life offers. Part of the time
be devoted to the subjecting Masonic principles and to the drift of
and political currents and to dealing with social questions. The
be from the standpoint of Masonic principles, and this connection must
clearly. All subjects having no connection with Masonic principles must
rigidly outside the lodge. Time and circumstances must, of course,
govern the choice
of subjects. Such subjects as are, for the time being, absorbing public
will, in the nature of things, awaken the greater interest. As an
example, we may
take the question of education, which claims the attention of everyone.
It is clear
that where a number of fundamental principles are calling for
realization in our
social life, the Freemason is in duty bound to take notice of them and
choice, always keeping clearly in mind that he is a Freemason.
A. IV. ‒
PREPARATION FOR SOCIAL WORK
to the well-being of the community is asked of the Freemason, he will
it to be his duty to afford support and cooperation to those of like
mind who are
already at work in his field. In other words, it is the duty of the
accord his support to social work wherever possible. For this purpose
and organization are necessary, and these may be regarded as forming
part of the
work of lodges. The necessary discussions and consultations to this end
associated with the subjects already mentioned.
A. V. ‒ READING,
ESPECIALLY OF MASONIC WRITINGS
strange, but it is necessary to emphasize the fact, that the reading of
writings can contribute very largely to the molding of the Freemason.
It is necessary
because of the lack of interest which brethren appear to take in
Editors of Masonic journals are constantly complaining of this feature,
Grand Directorate is complaining frequently of the lack of interest in
evinced by brethren, and again appeals to the officers of all lodges to
to effect an improvement in this matter by their own example and
stimulus. It is
not inferred that in this matter there is any intentional lack of
but rather a laxity which must be overcome. Brethren should also
remember that it
is impossible for the many who devote much of their time to the
interests of the
Order to maintain their zeal at a high level if their brethren do not
take any interest
in what they do. It is only by continual exchange of thought that it is
to approach Masonic truth. Let each one of us be mindful of our duty in
B. 1. ‒ DISSEMINATION
OF PRINCIPLES BY PRECEPT AND EXAMPLE
portion of the Freemason's duty consists in the dissemination of
‒ the furtherance of the Masonic idea ‒ by precept and example. The
time is past
when the Freemason need hesitate to avow himself as such in public.
character of the work done at lodge meetings precludes the whole of the
being submitted to the criticism of the outer world, yet it is our firm
that publicity is one of the most conspicuous characteristics of our
time and it
demands that we lay aside any undesirable secrecy and place in the
light the great principles by which our work is guided. It is
sufficient to remind
brethren that lodges should seize every possible opportunity of bearing
to the light that is, or ought to be, in us.
And the means?
Public lectures, direct influence in social and other work,
dissemination of suitable
Masonic literature, and the use of the public press. Only when
be recognized generally as a factor of great importance in culture, and
influence is felt all round, may this part of Masonic labor be regarded
Several subjects included in the list at the end of this circular are
closely with this important part of our Masonic task, and for this
reason are warmly
recommended to the attention of the brethren.
C. I. ‒ PROMOTION
OF THE ORDER AS AN ORGANIZATION
heading we should like to place the well-known motto, Mens sana in
a proverb as wise as it is ancient, but the truth of which, perhaps,
for this very
reason, is only too frequently lost sight of. The spirit of the Order
and of the
lodge must, however, be sound and purposeful. It awakens the thought of
and cooperation. These must be the characteristics of the spiritual
the brethren together into a lodge, possessing a real life of its own.
And the impulse
emitted by the central organ should act conversely in making its
on the work of all the brethren. He that realizes that this is
necessary and indispensable
to the life of the Order can no longer think lightly of such internal
ballots, elections, agendas, election of candidates. etc.
C. II. ‒
THE INNER LIFE OF THE ORDER
heading may be discussed the question as to what way cooperation
and the Grand Directorate may be improved. As we have said already;
to be continuous reciprocal working, and the questions to be considered
what means can that be furthered? Has the work done by the Grand
late years received the approval of lodges and the brethren? What can
be done to
improve it? In what way can it be further extended? These are important
for the life of the Order.
C. III. ‒
THE OUTWARD LIFE OF THE ORDER
immediately conjures up important questions. The vision of a
not leave us, in spite of all that has happened to obliterate it during
few years. To each it must give cause for shame that Freemasons, who
speak so glibly
of a Brotherhood spread over the surface of the earth, who are all
supposed to be
striving towards a Universal Brotherhood of man, who have assumed the
task of removing
all that divides spirits and minds, that we should only have reached a
which the great Masonic Powers of divers nationalities stand towards
in an attitude of moderate indifference, if not of hostility. It should
be the object
of our unfailing solicitude to bring this humiliating state of affairs
to an end
as soon as possible. This work, of course, belongs more to the Order as
rather than to the lodges in particular, but the discussion of these
the lodge can awaken visions which will be of great import for the
the idea of world-Freemasonry.
the Order must determine with accuracy its position in our country
itself. Is it,
although moving more in the open, to maintain its isolation? Or is it
to lend an
ear to the voices which are continually calling it to corporate work?
It is very
alluring to discuss more in detail the advantages and disadvantages of
work of the Order as such, but in our opinion this is not the most
for so doing. The subject is simply commended to the consideration of
as being of the highest importance, bearing in mind the recommendation
of the last
Masonic Congress concerning the spreading of the principles of the
Order, its aim
and endeavor, which must not be confused with the operations of the
Order as a corporation
for the attainment of definite and clearly circumscribed, albeit more
or less material,
successes in social life.
C. IV. ‒
HISTORY OF THE ORDER
item in the program of work demands little explanation of
recommendation, for the
utility and necessity of a study of the history of the Order are
only because every society which respects itself will take an interest
in the adventures
which have happened to it in the past, but rather because history, the
nations, can be for us also a trustworthy pilot to warn us of the rocks
our predecessors have been stranded, and a signpost to point the way we
in order to preserve the continuity of the life of the Order. It may be
as a favorable phenomenon, as an indication of the renewed youth of the
its history is engaging the attention of an increasing number of
and we hope it will continue so to do. As one advantage which cannot be
appreciated, the study of the history of our Order will awaken in us an
significance of the work of our Order and its force in the cultural
all lodges to consult the scheme laid down herein when framing their
of work, care being taken that the plans shall be progressive, and that
be so thought out and arranged as to make as much as possible for unity
SUBJECTS FOR DISCUSSION
1. In what respects are changes in
ritual desirable? Can the connection between
the rituals of the degrees be improved?
2. In what way can cooperation
between the lodge and the Grand Directorate be
3. Study and development of ‒ a
considered plan of Masonic conduct.
4. In what way can the public
press be used for the dissemination of Masonic
5. In what way can the
dissemination of Masonic literature be developed ‒ periodicals,
as well as books?
6. Development of a national
consciousness and education of the entire Dutch
nation, with a view to inward refinement and order.
7. The permeation of the people
with our fundamental principles, by the establishment
of non-Masonic societies with a Masonic tendency, intention, and aim.
8. Study of the conceptions and
ideals of the various parties of the State in
our country from a Masonic point of view, in order to be able to
judgments concerning them.
9. Study of the basic principles
and aims of the various moral bodies which
strive for the development of the spiritual life, and the advancement
of such bodies
from a Masonic point of view.
10. Mutual education in the Masonic
desirable to the Grand Directorate that every year two subjects at
be chosen for discussion in all lodges with the intention that reports
on same should
be forwarded to the Grand Directorate in order that that body should
frame a general
report, which shall be communicated in turn to the lodges. Before the
of the working year these subjects should be announced to the members
in good time
in order that the members may have full information as to the nature of
communication is the result of lengthy discussions among the members of
Directorate. play the outcome conduce to the uplifting of the life of
and to our individual happiness, as well as to that of the community,
well-being we have made it our aim and duty to cooperate.
heartiest fraternal greetings,
M. S. Lingbeek,
H. Pl. Van Nieuwenberg, Grand Secretary.
* * *
A Correction ‒ Secretary
Of The Navy Daniels A Methodist
In the Question
Box of the June issue of THE BUILDER, on page 166, replying to a query
of Kansas, the assertion is made that Josephus Daniels, Secretary of
the Navy, is
a Catholic. In this connection I have before me a list of members of
Cabinet, published in the Central Christian Advocate during the year
1919, the list
having been compiled by the Kansas City Star on inquiry direct to the
secretary. The list is as follows:
Wilson ‒ Presbyterian.
Secretary of State Lansing ‒ Presbyterian.
Secretary of the Treasury McAdoo ‒ Episcopalian.
Secretary of War Baker ‒ Episcopalian.
Attorney General Gregory ‒ Presbyterian.
Postmaster General Burleson ‒ Family Baptists.
Secretary of the Navy Daniels ‒ Methodist.
Secretary of the Interior Lane ‒ Presbyterian.
Secretary of Agriculture Houston ‒ Episcopalian.
Secretary of Commerce Redfield ‒ Episcopalian.
Secretary of Labor Wilson ‒ Presbyterian.
Secretary of the Treasury, Glass, is a Protestant. General Pershing and
Wilson are Episcopalians.
‒ V. E. Vieira, Tennessee.
H.T.W.S.S.T.E.S. – [A Poem]
By Bro. Wm. Harvey Leckie. Texas
is the man whose thoughts will bear,
The rigid test of the unerring square;
Who walks the path that must ever be trod,
Steadily on towards his Maker ‒ God, ‒
Striving in acts of charity and love,
To gain admission to the Lodge above,
Knowing the stone 'mongst the rubbish cast,
Shall crown our Master's work at last.
Hiram of the ages, a widow's son;
Thou symbol of the faithful and true;
Whose life was but a pledge for work well done, ‒
Son of the widow, ‒ All Hail to you.
Sprig of Acacia, marking the spot,
That hid the foul deed of the low and the base,
Kernel of hope that the Temple's dark blot,
Shall be cleansed by the power of the Master's Grace.
History of the Knights Templar
Cre68 / auth. Creigh Alfred. - Philadelphia : J B Lippincott &
Co, 1868. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 618. - 30.4 MB.
History of Utah Vol 1
Whi92HU1 / auth. Whitney Orson F / trans. 4. - Salt Lake City : George
Q Cannon and Son Co, 1892. - 1 : p. 806. - Illustrated - 39.2 MB.
History of Utah Vol 2
Whi93HU2 / auth. Whitney Orson F. - Salt Lake City : George Q Cannon
& Son Co, 1893. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 900. - Illustrated - 37.5 MB.
History of Utah Vol 3
Whi93HU3 / auth. Whitney Orson F. - Salt Lake City : George Q Cannon
& Son Co, 1893. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 881. - Illustrated - 40.6 MB.
History of Utah Vol 4
Whi04HU4 / auth. Whitney Orson F. - Salt Lake Cit : George Q Cannon
& Son Co, 1904. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 825. - Illustrated - 53.2 MB.
The Revelations of a Square
Oli551 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1855. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 496. - 17.3 MB.
The Symbolism of Freemasonry 1882
Mac82 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Clark and Maynard, 1882. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 365. - 18.2 MB.