Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.
G. M., District Of Columbia
James A. Garfield
beautiful, artistic memorial to President James A. Garfield stands at
Avenue entrance to the Capitol grounds, in Washington City. The
memorial was modeled
by Niehaus and Ward, and is a masterpiece.
successfully combined the arts of statesmanship and war in a fashion
few other men. He had the distinction of being the only man ever
elected to membership
in the House, membership in the Senate, and to the Presidency in the
Garfield was born November 19th, 1831, at Orange, Cuyahoga County,
from Welsh and Huguenot ancestry. His father died when James was less
than two years
of age, and his mother ran the farm and kept her boys together, so that
an early age became a farm hand. This early "hustling" is probably what
kindled industrious habits in the boy, who never in his life found toil
to be a
burden. No honest toil was too meagre for him to attempt, in order that
earn for the support of his mother. Could there be a nobler purpose?
attended school as opportunity and circumstances permitted, and his
to fit himself to be a teacher. No wiser plan ever existed in the heart
of a boy,
for the very reason that a boy best masters a subject when he attempts
it. There are many superficial scholars, but few superficial teachers.
As a teacher
he began in a school possessing several rowdy students, which was not
his day; but Garfield was not only a lusty youth but handy with his
fists as well,
and it was only a short period of time until he had a well-disciplined
religion at an early age, and became a devoted member of the
of the Baptist Church, continuing such for the remainder of his life.
He made his
first political speech in support of the nomination of General John C.
the standard-bearer of what was then the Republican Party, after which
Williams College and began to teach ancient languages in Hiram College,
evidence of his progress as a scholar. He was afterwards made President
College, which office he held in 1859 at the time he was elected to the
where he soon became a quick and ready debater. In one of his speeches
he is quoted
my life as given to my country, and I am only anxious to make as much
of it as possible
before the mortgage on it is foreclosed."
In 1861 Governor
Denison offered Garfield the commission of Lieutenant Colonel, which he
and joined the Forty Second Ohio Regiment, but he was soon promoted to
of the Regiment. He made good as a Colonel and was later promoted to be
Officer. He was in the battles of the Big Sandy River, Shiloh, Little
and others. In 1863 he resigned his commission in the Army and returned
to his seat
in Congress. Here he was soon recognized as a powerful speaker.
speech of importance in the House was in January 1864, when he
advocated the confiscation
of certain rebel property. His best speeches were on tariff revision
inflation of the currency. He was strictly a party debater, and was a
his party in the House.
It had long
been a custom in the House for the older and stronger members to
browbeat the younger
ones, and while Garfield was active in this yet he was not as bad as
many of his
predecessors. A story is told of the eccentric John Randolph of
Roanoke. John was
not only a leader, but something of a bully. It was his custom to
arrive late, and
to take off his overcoat as he strode down the aisle. One day a new
member had ventured
to rise to a privilege, and just then Mr. Randolph arrived, removing
as he advanced. The young member hesitated. "Mr. Speaker," said Mr.
and the Speaker recognized him. There was silence for a moment, when
said: "Mr. Speaker, the calf from Maryland has blatted at last." But,
while Mr. Garfield seemed to hold the younger members in check, he was
unfair as Mr. Randolph.
At the Republican
convention in Chicago, in 1880, Garfield appeared in the interest of
for the nomination to the Presidency, and he labored faithfully. But
it became manifest that Garfield himself was to be the nominee of the
followed a vigorous campaign, in which the "credit mobilier" figured
His election to the Presidency was, however, by a good majority and was
accepted by the whole Republic. Garfield was a hearty, affable man,
easy to approach,
and was a good listener. He had the merit of never keeping a petitioner
his reply was always ready, positive and decisive, but never offensive.
of State was James G. Blaine, who had been Speaker of the House, and
who was probably
the quickest and most incisive debater ever on that floor. Blaine knew
how to make
friends, in which his personal magnetism helped to a great extent. In
he was a hearty hand-shaker and had a cheerful, encouraging word for
Among these heelers was Charles J. Guiteau, a good voter, and one who
be paid for his vote.
But Mr. Blaine
was like the Irishman during election time. The day after election Pat
yesterday I'd have kissed the foot of any of you - but now you can kiss
So, when Guiteau came to the State Department believing Mr. Blaine
him for "services rendered," he was disappointed. Whereupon he resolved
to have Mr. Blaine "removed." This he effected, but the rest of his
failed. He believed that if he killed President Garfield, making Mr.
the latter would pardon him. He waited at the railroad station, shot
was arrested, tried, pled insanity, and had a large number of
sympathizers who sent
candy and flowers to him while in jail, but Arthur did not pardon him.
He had assassinated
the President, who had never offended him, and plunged the nation into
without remorse or regret, simply to satisfy his political cravings.
Garfield was a member of Pentalpha Lodge, Washington Royal Arch
Chapter, and Columbia
Commandery, all located in Washington, D.C.
The Official Organ Of The Knights Of Columbus
Has To Say Of The Alleged K. Of C. Oath
in certain sections of the country of the bogus Fourth Degree oath of
of Columbus has led Supreme Knight James A. Flaherty, of Philadelphia,
a warning to any who take part in circulating this alleged oath and to
press of the United States and Canada to aid in enlightening the public
the falsity of this "oath."
Knights of Columbus," Bro. Flaherty has stated, "invite information
anybody regarding circulators of the alleged K. of C. Fourth Degree
oath. This bogus
oath, revolting in character, has been in circulation for many years.
It is a blasphemous
and evilly designed document, calculated to stir up religious hatred
and to inflame
bigotry. Strangely enough, its appearance coincides with general
Knights of Columbus is not an oath-bound organization, and as far as
concerned, we have more than once submitted the internal workings of
even to the details of degree work, for examination by non-Catholics,
of Protestant denominations, who have found us to be simply a patriotic
striving to do good wherever and whenever we can.
this disgusting bogus oath, containing foolish threats of massacre and
those who do not agree with us in religious matters, was circulated in
Providence and in up-State parts of New York and rural sections of
An attempt was made to circulate it during the war, but the Department
stopped that, the circulator bong an alien enemy ‒ and that fact is
in the present attempt to revive the 'oath.' The 'oath' is usually
a catch lie at the bottom, stating that it has been taken from the
Record. The truth is that it has appeared in the Record, as evidence in
case in which it was successfully used against a candidate who happened
to be a
Knight of Columbus. His opponent strongly disclaimed knowledge of the
Knights of Columbus believe that this 'oath' is circulated by ignorant
are victims of a more or less intelligent attempt to discredit the
and cause religious strife, for political or other ends. We shall
who malign us by distributing this 'oath' whenever and wherever we may
We have already obtained a large number of convictions in various parts
of the country.
press of the country can render a distinct service by warning the
this foolish attempt to create bigotry and ill-feeling, especially at
obligation taken by the K. of C. is in itself sufficient proof of the
of the so-called oath. It follows:
"I swear to support the
the United States. I pledge myself, as a Catholic citizen and Knight of
to enlighten myself fully upon my duties as a citizen and to
such duties entirely in the interest of my country and regardless of
consequences. I pledge myself to do all in my power to preserve the
purity of the ballot, and to promote reverence and respect for law and
promise to practice my religion openly and consistently, but without
and to so conduct myself in public affairs, and in the exercise of
as to reflect nothing but credit upon our Holy Church, to the end that
she may flourish
and our country prosper to the greater honor and glory of God."
From the April, 1920, issue of "The Columbiad,"
the official organ of the Knights of Columbus.
There is none in life
But needs it and may learn.
the Early History of Masonic Ranks
By Bro. Sir Frederick Pollock,
of Freemasonry is now a twice-told tale, but it is a story which seems
grow old. THE BUILDER has more than once published brief accounts of
but it needs not to apologize for giving to our readers another
longer, written by a brother who has devoted much thought to this
We ask our readers to study this essay with care for it will give them
view of a vast field of history. Essays are very often valuable, in
that they give
a busy man a rapid glimpse of a small section of a great theme; a
this is of far more value, even if it does require more patient study,
for it enables
him to comprehend the story of Masonry as a whole.
I. The Nature of the Inquiry
who have paid any attention to the early history of the craft are aware
present ceremonial, while it embodies archaic features easily
recognized by any
one moderately acquainted with medieval language and formulas, and such
as no eighteenth
century antiquary could have interpolated, (1) is in its form and order
of the founders of the Grand Lodge Of England and their successors down
to the union
of the rival Grand Lodges in 1813. It is certain that its framers from
and Desaguliers to Preston recast and greatly amplified their
materials. We do not
know fully what those materials were; indeed Anderson, who was anything
but a critical
antiquary, seems to have wilfully thrown a cloud of obscurity round his
nor is credulity the worst that has to be laid to his charge.
Accordingly, so far
as any direct evidence goes, it is very possible to entertain the
as to the authenticity not only of Anderson's superstructure but of his
These doubts have been carried by some learned brethren to the length
that superiority of the Master to the Fellow Craft is a pure invention
void of historical warrant in the practice of the old operative lodges.
respect for the much needed and excellent critical work of those
brethren ‒ it is
enough to name Gould, Hughan, Speth, Chetwode Crawley, last but not
least Dr. Fort
Newton, and Dr. Hammond the accomplished librarian of the Grand Lodge
who are still with us ‒ I cannot follow them to that length, and shall
try to show
cause for holding that there was an element of genuine restoration ‒
to be distinguished from unbroken continuity, but not merely fictitious
‒ in the
eighteenth century fabric of speculative Masonry. That Anderson and
did not find three degrees existing in practice at the beginning of the
century may be taken as established: the only arguable question is
whether we shall
speak of two or one. But it is another thing to deny that there had
ever been three
ranks in operative Masonry; whether properly called degrees or not, is
a minor question.
So far as I know the word "degree" does not occur as a regular term in
any of the earlier documents.
I shall not
enter on detailed criticism of previous opinions, which would only make
and intricate discussion, but give my own view of the evidence on the
of trying to establish fixed points by the use of the best available
not attempting to reconcile the variations or Contradictions that occur
of inferior authority. This method, I believe, gives the best chance of
useful clues when one is confronted with a tangle material in which the
the unsound seem at first hopelessly mixed. At least it will enable me
the order of time without perplexing digressions. We have to look for
leading to conclusions or a choice of plausible opinions on the
What were the recognized ranks in medieval operative Masonry? How were
or conferred? How far were the distinctions observed in practice in the
transition from operative to speculative lodges? In the absence of any
we must not expect, in any case, to find complete uniformity. Medieval
of all kinds, it may be added, are full of exceptions and anomalies;
one quite common
note of the antiquarian (or otherwise interested) falsifier is that he
too neat and complete.
II. The Comacine Masters
In the course
of the last twenty years attention has been called to the importance of
association of builder-architects (not an ordinary trade gild) known as
Masters. The recognition of their special standing as independent of
any local regulations,
and their influence on the general development of European architecture
in the Middle
Ages, may be taken as proved. (2) It is not to my present purpose to
touch on more
or less plausible conjectures as to their remote antecedents and
with Eastern traditions. What concerns us here is the fact that the
claimed and exercised a cosmopolitan privilege very like that of the
Doctors of medieval universities, namely the right of both practicing
their art anywhere. There is no authentic evidence of any express
imperial or papal
grant of any such privilege, (3) but in the Middle Ages custom and
for most working purposes do as well as formal title, the notion of
its highly important juridical consequences being extended to usage of
The University of Oxford had nothing else to rely on for its authority
degrees; and in the craft itself we have the "time immemorial" lodges.
Now the analogy of university degrees to the ranks established in the
demands a word of special notice; (4) I do not think it can be
accidental: In the
Comacine ranks we find the three grades of novices or apprentices,
craftsmen, and magistri. Brethren will remember that at this day the
F.C. is still
formally exhorted to study the liberal arts and sciences ‒ the medieval
and quadrivium and the M.M. to assist and instruct the Brethren in
The parallel to university ranks is exact. We have in the medieval
especially in its English form, the commencing student or undergraduate
English term lacking a Continental equivalent) who is a member of the
body but a
mere learner under constant discipline, having only inchoate rights of
on satisfying the proper tests; then the bachelor of arts, (5)
recognized as proficient
to a certain extent, and with a limited authority to teach, but still
not released from discipline (in statu pupillari); and lastly the
master of arts
or doctor, (for down to the fifteenth century these titles were
is not only qualified to teach but bound to teach and preside as
at disputations for a certain time. Traces of the distinction between
and "non-regent" M.A.'s survived in England till our own days. The
of the master's or doctor's degree was license to teach in any
whether any or how many students would come to be taught being a matter
on the master's own ability. In like manner the Master Mason was free,
in the operative
period, to undertake a contract and form a working lodge to execute it.
In the fully
developed university system of the later Middle Ages, now most nearly
in England, the doctor's degree belonged only to the superior faculties
medicine and law. (The Faculty of Letters is a creation of our own
time, and music
is on a rather different footing). It would be fanciful to seek for any
between the faculties outside Arts and the Masonic or quasi-Masonic
orders and degrees
outside ancient craft Masonry; but it seems worth remark that in the
European universities there has been a dislocation and consolidation of
curiously like that of which we have indications in the later operative
the faculty of Arts having made its mastership a doctorate under the
name of Doctor
of Philosophy, and the bachelor's degree having atrophied or never been
The preliminary point I am here making is that the general idea of
namely, novice, worker still under instruction, and master giving
no modern invention but rooted in authoritative medieval tradition.
It is certain
that Italian master-builders came to England at the very beginning of
Ages; it is a safe inference that they brought the Comacine tradition,
is positive architectural evidence that they brought Comacine symbolism
and no one acquainted with the wide and rapid spread of medieval
forms by direct imitation (in the universities, again, as much as
in municipal and other customary rules) will hesitate to believe that
imitators. The later importation of Italian masters and artificers
towards the end
of the fifteenth century was of a different kind, and is not to the
We are now ready to proceed to the evidence found in English documents.
I may premise
that I take no notice of modern publications purporting to reproduce
or give the substance of ancient materials, but having no authentic
from no proper custody, and lacking corroboration from more trustworthy
Happening to be rather familiar with documents of that kind in the
of English law, I am clearly of opinion that even so far as there is
improbable in their contents it is unsafe to treat them as historical
proof of anything.
One cannot so much as infer from them what was current belief or
tradition at the
time when they were written; for they may represent nothing but the
invention of some eccentric writer who was wilfully manufacturing
evidence in support
of his peculiar views. It is an elementary caution that any copy of an
which fails to account for that original, or even gives a false
account, must be
regarded with the gravest suspicion, a suspicion not to be removed by
being on the face of it consistent with genuineness, if it is so. Many
have been very plausible; and interpolations in copies or
reconstructions of perished
or lost genuine documents may give much trouble, and on the whole have
than downright forgery. The fact that a copy comes from proper custody
to take the simplest case, the place where the missing original or an
ought to have been) is a reason for giving it faith and credit, but
not a conclusive reason.
III. Operative Master Masons
Let us begin
with a class of testimony which is undesigned, authentic and strictly
the designation of masons in medieval building accounts, or fabric
rolls, to use
a term current among antiquaries. Mr. W. R. Lethaby's book "Westminster
and the King's Craftsmen" (1906) [Lib 1906] gives us a good selection.
read of a "magister Robertus cementarius" in 1169 (p. 115). Then from
the middle of the thirteenth century onwards we have a series of King's
with Master John of Gloucester (p. 161, etc.) who are regularly called
this was not merely an official title, for several other masons are so
in 1307 Master Richard de Wytham, mason (therefore already a master)
to be Master at the King's Palace and the Tower, that is, director of
Towards the end of the thirteenth century timber was ordered "to make a
for Master Michael and his masons" (p. 181). "Master" therefore
meant something definite. Mr. Lethaby thinks there was some sort of
gild which conferred
the title, and mentions as a known fact that "in the fifteenth century
were yearly congregations of masters": of which more presently. The
by the masons of the City in 1315-6 of six paviors to repair the
pavements (p. 186)
proves that they were then recognized as an organized body.
also frequent mention of Master Carpenters, but nothing to show exactly
their position was like that of Master Masons.
So far then
we know that a master mason was a mason qualified in some ascertained
way to undertake
and control building operations, (7) and that in the City of London
there was an
established community of masons in the early fourteenth century,
probably much earlier.
It does not seem likely that in such a body the designation of Master
nothing but unofficial reputation.
of London (1868) furnish valuable supplementary matter. In 1356
made for the trade of masons by "twelve of the most skilful men"
representing the "masons hewers" and the "light masons and setters"
(p. 280); these skilful men are referred to as "the said Masters so
by the body of the trade. Among other rules "no one shall take work in
‒ that is as a contractor- "if he be not of ability in a proper manner
such work." In 1298 Master Simon de Pabingham and Master Richard de
masons, are reconciled before the Mayor (nature of difference not
stated). As to
Masters in other callings, the master farriers apparently control their
1356, p. 292), and in the Barbers' gild it seems that the only Masters
two elected Wardens (A.D. 1376, p. 394). Variations in the usage of
are only what we should expect.
Now let us
turn to the Sacred Rolls of Ely edited from the muniments of Ely
Cathedral by Canon
F.R. Chapman and dating from the late thirteenth and the first half of
century. (8) We meet with one John Attegrene who is mentioned several
five years before he is entitled Magister Cementarius' in 1339-1840;
in the learned editor's words, "not apparently at first a master mason,
attaining that distinction after some years": vol. i.p. 47; the words
entry are "in stipend. Johannis Attegrene Magistri Cementarii per ann.
6s. 8d" (ii. 99). Canon Chapman's inference appears not only natural
and the supposition that "magister" was only a customary title of
during a particular employment is excluded by the evidence of the
fabric rolls of York Minster published by the Surtees Society (9) we
in the fourteenth century the regulations as to hours of work were laid
detail by the Dean and Chapter, and the master masons and his fellows
swore to observe
them. The conditions on which a new worker is received are rather
a week of probation the reception has to be "of the common assent of
and keepers of the work, and of the master mason." The master and
named appear to be supervisors appointed by the Dean and Chaper. If the
is disabled the warden ("magister secundarius cementariorum") is too
as deputy with half the salary." (10)
It is certain
that the trade had an active government of its own in the fourteenth
that regular assemblies fixed or attempted to fix wages. "The masons
have resisted the Statutes of Labourers more successfully than any
(11) In 1360-1 (34 E. III, c. 9) Parliament declared all such trade
void as contrary to the Statute of Labourers (25 E. III. st. 2. c. 2,
A. D. 1350)
and insisted on wages being paid by the day and not otherwise according
to the Statute
at rates not exceeding 4d. a day for a "mestre mason de franche peer"
(12) (freestone mason) and 3d. for others; but the right of lords to
own bargains with contractors is saved. In 1425 (3 Hen. VI. c. 1. often
the modern literature of Freemasonry) this was reinforced by an
of the meetings themselves; the conveners were to be adjudged felons,
attending to be liable to arbitrary fine and imprisonment. It is by no
that these Acts ever had much effect; in any case the Elizabethan
them as repealed, though not expressly, by the legislation of their own
the medieval labour statutes were repealed in the course of the
So far the
extraneous evidence, as we may call it. As witness for the state of
the end of the fourteenth century we have the operative masonic
known as Old Charges. A list of them is given in a most useful book to
shall recur, Edward Conder's "Records of the hole craft and fellowship
[Lib*] Lond. 1894, et. p. 219. (13) The number there given as extant is
in 1915 as many as 75 were known. (14) Most of these are seventeenth
of earlier originals (one late 16th, about a dozen 18th), seemingly
in the main; but two, the "Halliwell" or "Regius" [Lib 1390] and the "Cooke," [Lib
both in the British Museum, exist in actual medieval MSS, (15) and
by internal evidence to be the earliest in original date. All these
generally similar matter though not always in the same order; the usual
as follows: (1) Invocation of the Trinity. (2) Definition of the
liberal arts and
especially geometry. (3) Origin of geometry and architecture given in a
chronicle form. The confusion of persons and times, such as Euclid
clerk, and Charles Martel (in some MSS. corrupted into Marshall)
speaking with a
man who had been at the building of Solomon's temple, is no more than
other medieval legends. (4) Foundation of masonry and yearly assemblies
Athelstan." (16) (5) Charges to be delivered to masons for their
here the most considerable variations occur. There are "articles"
to masters and "points" to working fellows.
Let us now
see what we can find about master masons in the Old Charges, beginning
or "Regius" [Lib 1390] document, the oldest of all
in substance, is
unique in its form, being versified. It is written in a "Gothic" hand
of about the end of the fourteenth century; the text has been
accessible in print
for more than seventy years. (17) The title is "constituciones artis
secundum Enclydem," geometry being identified with the higher skill of
(a word not yet known) as distinct from the mere journeyman's craft;
and the space
given to the relation of master and apprentice ‒ an apprentice bound
for seven years
(v. 122) ‒ is ample proof that the writer's object was quote practical.
must be free born, for otherwise his lord might reclaim him even in the
129 seq). The master is bound to teach the Prentice (v. 241); and the
him that was higher in this degree" (18) to "teach the simplest of wit"
is exalted by being ascribed to Euclid (vv. 35-40). The prentice must
keep his master's
counsel's and what is done in the lodge to himself (vv. 275-286), but
there is nothing
to show whether any secrets are formally imparted to him or not; and
mason is to take his pay from the master "full meekly" (v. 298). (20)
the more skilful and worshipful of the craft (vv. 31-46) and are bound
general congregations of which they have notice, except for sickness or
excuse (vv. 105-118); evidently an important duty, as it has a whole
to itself. A master must not undertake work unless he is capable of
through, as we have seen already (v. 195). Receipt of summonses to
would presumably be conclusive proof of mastership; whether there was
form of admitting or recognizing masters does not appear so far. Masons
masters, it would seem) address one another as fellows (v. 51). But at
"there shall be masters and fellows also" (v. 409). If plain English
have any meaning, the writer regarded masters as superior to ordinary
their condition was acquired. These assemblies were public functions at
Sheriff, the mayor of the city and other magnates were expected (v.
411). (21) We
cannot doubt that they were really held and did regulate the trade;
would have been no occasion for Parliament first to annul their rules
and then to
forbid them altogether.
Next we turn
to the Cooke MS (22) [Lib 1400] which need not be much later
than the Regius;
indeed the originals (for it is a combination of two documents, as
Speth has proved
in his excellent critical commentary appended to the Quatuor
(23) may have been earlier. It is written in a book hand of the first
half of the
fifteenth century. (24) The contents are in many ways peculiar. It
begins with a
sort of general thanks-giving instead of an invocation, and gives
two different versions of the Euclidean legend, in the second of which
mechanically copied the corrupt form "Englet" or "Englat." The
first version refers (1. 640) to the "book of our charges," which
resembled if it was not identical with the charges following the second
In a general
way the matter is much like that of the Regius, but there is a unique
the congregations said to have been instituted in King Athelstan's time
sqq.). These were to be annual or triennial, and "at such congregations
that be made masters should be examined of the articles after written,
and be ransacked
whether they be able and cunning to the profit of the lords" (i.e.
"of whom they take their pay for their service and for their travail,"
1. 725. Evidently the author of this passage believed that a master
was not or ought not to be complete until he had satisfied the masters
in a regular congregation that he was well acquainted with the
articles, that is,
the duties of a master as delivered in the charges, and that he was
a practical undertaker of building works. The former branch of the
well have been on the way to become a mere ceremony at the beginning of
century; (25) we do not know how the latter was conducted, but perhaps
of work actually accomplished would be accepted as sufficient proof of
MS. recensions of constitutions and charges, read in their natural
confirm the witness of the Regius and the Cooke MSS. that master and
the names of distinct ranks. In an affirmative sentence, indeed,
fellows" may be thought ambiguous. But there is nothing ambiguous about
repeated negative injunctions enumerating the various things that "no
nor fellow" or "no master nor no fellow" may do. (26) Not that I
assert or believe that the distinction was still alive when our present
written; but it must have been alive at the date of their originals. If
master nor no fellow" is not a decisively disjunctive phrase, I do not
how the idea of two distinct classes is to be conveyed in the English
IV. The Fifteenth Century
we infer from our documents as to the actual usage of the later Middle
Ages? I submit,
with all due reserve and subject to correction or new information, that
it was something
like this. Any qualified fellow of the craft may take a contract if he
an employer to intrust him with the work, and companions to work under
him. So long
as the building is in progress, be the time longer or shorter, he is
of the work" and called master, but strictly master only of the lodge
formed for that special undertaking (there is no election of a master
by the lodge
in the purely operative period, except possibly, one may guess, if the
or is disabled before the work is finished). (27) In order to obtain
rank of Master he must be approved and certified in a general assembly.
seen that the proceedings were public, and that public officers were
were not members of the craft. It is therefore most improbable that any
were then and there imparted to the approved master; indeed it is hard
to see what
more he can have had to learn.
Now let us
turn again to the statement in the Cooke MS. about the examination of
is not a common form; the author whose work our scribe copied must have
with a purpose. It looks as if he thought the practice of examination
had been unduly
relaxed, and wished to reinforce it by the mythical authority of King
or it may be that he objected to the methods of new unionism (to use a
whereby the congregations fell foul of Parliament, and intended to give
a hint that it was better to stick to their ancient office of keeping
up the technical
standard. Again he may have had some personal interest in the fees paid
on approval and have been anxious about their falling off. Fees were a
in the Middle Ages. This, however, is guesswork.
Cooke MS. has yet another curious passage after the "Points" ‒ perhaps
not in its right place, perhaps taken from a different source ‒ where
we hear of
a class of "new men." "At the first beginning" (of the congregation)
"new men that never were charged before be charged in this manner" ‒
in short, to keep no company with thieves, to work honestly, render
in things for which they are accountable, behave as lawful men
that they keep with all their might and (sic) all the articles
Something must be wrong with the text; for the duties specified are
those of ordinary
workers but the Articles dealt with those of masters. One suspects an
omission; perhaps we should read "[all the points] and all the articles
but the lacuna may be more considerable. We can infer, as the MS.
stands, only that
at these assemblies a charge in the nature of general exhortation and
the "articles" and "points" was delivered to masters or fellows,
or both, attending for the first time, and that every man newly
qualified as fellow
or master was bound to attend at the first opportunity. Charges of this
familiar to all Brethren in our modern ritual. To my mind the passage
it to be a correct statement of actual practice) leaves us in doubt
exhortation was the preface to a formal admission, and does not enable
to affirm or to deny that there was such a ceremony.
On the while
it seems likely that in the first half of the fifteenth century the
had executed one or two contracts with success was already apt to be so
with the reputation of a de facto master as to be in no hurry to incur
and expense of proceeding to the official completion of his title. But
may have been expected of a mason who aspired to be master of the works
for a great
undertaking such as the building of a collegiate church or material
a cathedral or minster. Similarly, in a rough way, the M. A. degree is
in England at this day mainly as a qualification for academic franchise
or ecclesiastical office. The university analogy further suggests that
approved master masons had an effective vote in the general assemblies.
I have not
found any clear indication of the time when the practical business of
died out, or when they ceased to be even formally convened; but I
should guess that
the former date cannot be put later than about the middle of the
sixteenth, or the
latter than the first quarter of the seventeenth century.
V. The Transition Period
In the sixteenth
century there was a general decay of the old craft regulations, those
among them; but there was also a special reason for the standing of a
losing its importance. The introduction of the word "architect," hardly
in use before the sixteenth and not common till the seventeenth
century, marks the
advent of a sort of men, trained not in the old craft ways, but in the
new art that
had come in with the new learning, who treated their profession as
being of a higher
order than the builder's industry. When the architect who had never
been a craftsman
was the real "governor of the work," and the master mason was no better
than a foreman or clerk of the works, it was no longer worthwhile to be
master mason. The operative lodges gradually became little more than
preserving the symbolic traditions of the craft with various degrees of
fidelity, something like the Inns of Chancery in the legal profession
ceased to be active bodies working in auxiliary subordination to the
Inns of Court:
and as a measure of self-preservation they reinforced themselves by
"accepting" honorary members who had nothing to do with the operative
craft. These "accepted" members were the ancestors of our modern
and "speculative" in the sense of having studied, or being deemed to
studied geometry and architecture without being craftsmen. (28) We may
see in the
adoption of Sir Christopher Wren at the very latest stage of the
it took place, an expiring attempt on behalf of the attenuated
to revive its credit by linking it with the new school of architecture.
fact is in doubt; we have here an example of perhaps the most
troublesome kind of
minor historical problem, here the affirmative side rests on weak
though in itself
not incredible evidence, the negative on the lack of confirmation in
where we might reasonably look for it. (29) Aubrey's well known
(30) cannot, however, be dismissed as void of all foundation; no motive
appears, and if Wren was invited to become a brother late in his life,
at is not
unaccountable. The simplest explanation is that nobody thought of it
for some reason Wren may have had difficulties about accepting, and
taken a long
time to decide. A more careful diarist would have saved posterity much
being at the small pains of ascertaining that the meeting he noted as
for that very day, May 18, 1691 was actually held. But Aubrey was
inaccurate gossip is of no value as confirmation, but so far as its
are inconsistent with Aubrey's contemporary note it is equally
worthless as contradiction.
As Chetwode Crowley judiciously said, Aubrey's testimony remains
what it is worth. (31) It seems just possible that Wren was adopted in
of active assistance, and that he failed to render it; if so there
might be a grain
of truth in Anderson's otherwise very suspicious story of his neglect.
whether we decide for or against Sir Christopher's membership, or leave
as an unsolved puzzle, there is nothing in it to help us to any general
We have anticipated
a little, but the digression is not material. The really dark time of
is the sixteenth century. Lodges had been temporary working
associations for a time
varying with the magnitude of the undertaking. They became local and
with something of a superficial likeness to craft gilds, from which
they were really
as different as could be. There were, of course, real craft gilds of
masons in the
towns, distinguished from other trade gilds by the customary right of
to borrow a legal term from another region, whereby the fellow of any
one gild was
entitled to be received and to work in the jurisdiction of any other.
need of passwords and tokens for recognition. But we have no evidence
that the fixing
of lodges to a local habitation was accomplished by any process of
with gilds. That which actually happened in the singular case (so far
as we know)
of London was, as we shall immediately see, not so simple. It is easy
then when a master mason of good repute had fulfilled a contract and
to expect another, his companions might find it more profitable to stay
than to disperse in search of other work. That would account for a
a continuous existence, but it would bring it no nearer to the change
of the master
from the founder into an annually elected officer. I have not met with
on the process, nor even any attempt to explain it. One little fact
waiting to be
fitted into its right place is that operative bodies continued to
deliver the old
charges, or abridgments of them, to their apprentices as late as the
the seventeenth century we have a glimpse of the transition from
operative to speculative
masonry nearly but not quite accomplished in the "new articles" that
in a few MSS. of the constitutions. (34) No person is to be accepted a
"unless he shall have (?) a lodge of five freemasons at least, whereof
to be a master or warden" ‒ where "master" is obviously the name
of office only ‒ "of that limit or division wherein such lodge shall be
and another of the trade of freemasonry." This is not altogether clear,
it seems that a lodge was not correctly formed without at least one
Now the need for such a rule shows that in most lodges the majority had
be operative. This was certainly the case, as we now know, in the
to which Elias Ashmole was admitted in 1646; (35) indeed it is at least
whether any operative mason was present. "I was made a Free Mason" is
the whole extent of Ashmole's disclosure as to what passed, besides the
the names of members of the lodge attending. Many years later, in 1682,
attended a lodge "at Mason's Hall, London" where six named persons
admitted into the Fellowship of Free Masons." Ashmole "was the Senior
Fellow among them," and the Master of the Masons' Company (of London)
among "the Fellows" present. There is no word of Ashmole having ever
through any other ceremony than that of Oct. 16, 1646, at Warrington,
or of any
one being called Master except in virtue of his office for the time
being. The natural
inference is that an "accepted" i.e. non-operative freemason was
as a fellow without going even in form through the stage of an
a cumulative ceremony is not absolutely negatived), and that there was
degree corresponding to the old operative rank of master mason, which
obsolete, or confounded with that of fellow, in the course of the
whether practice was uniform everywhere we cannot be quite sure, but at
there is no sign of different usages in London, and at Warrington.
in universities are in like manner conferred without any mention at all
of the stages
passed through by an ordinary candidate, and indeed degrees are quite
conferred by the governing body on office-holders if they are not
of the university.
Hall where Ashmole attended a lodge meeting was the hall of the Masons'
of London, and the lodge was attached to the company in the sense that
accepted honorary members through (and it seems only through) the
lodge; but the
company as a subsisting craft gild was more extensive than the lodge,
and the records
of the lodge, unfortunately not extant, were quite distinct from those
of the company.
This appears in the extracts from the Company's accounts, beginning in
by Bro. Conder. New members admitted to the Company and "coming on the
upon acceptance of Masonry" paid distinct fees to the lodge and to the
(36) Apprentices taking up their freedom in the regular way of the
trade after serving
their seven years under a freeman might and commonly did pay a special
fee of 3s.
4d. for "admission then to be a Master." This had nothing to do with
lodge, for there is no corresponding item in the fees paid by the
members. It was therefore a survival of the old operative rank,
that of fellow ‒ a rank still distinct from membership of any merely
even that of the eminent London Company, and carrying in theory the
being free of the craft everywhere. Its working value however does not
seem to have
been rated high in the year 1636, judging by the amount of 3s. 4d. as
the 20s. paid "by way of gratuitie to this Companie." (37) By rights,
it would seem, the 3s. 4d. should have gone to some representative of
assembly of masons and not into the Company's account. Evidently there
ceased to be any such person; I may add by the way that I cannot
believe there was
a Grand Master of Freemasons (except so far as the president of a
so long as the assemblies were held, may be regarded as such for the
Speth suggests in his commentary on the Cooke MS.) or any regular body
a Grand Lodge, before 1717. The "admission to be a Master" still
in the Masons' Company in 1636 appears to be the latest officially
of the use of that name in the old operative sense. An inventory of
1665 shows that
the Company kept a list of "the names of the accepted Masons" ‒ that is
the members of the lodge ‒ "in a fair inclosed frame with lock and
(38) Nothing in the Company's books tells us what became of that lodge.
It may have
died out or may have separated from the Company and continued under
some new name;
Bro. Conder suggests as a pious conjecture that the Lodge of Antiquity
arisen from it. (39)
of purely speculative lodges not having any professed operative
to have begun only in the eighteenth century, not without discontent on
of operative lodge members. (40)
have Anderson's statement about the meeting of four lodges which was
of the Grand Lodge of England. (41) "They and some old Brothers met at
said Apple-Tree, and having put into the Chair the oldest Master Mason
Master of a Lodge) they constituted themselves a Grand Lodge pro
tempore in due
form," etc. The same term is applied at little further on to the
the assembly and feast held at the Goose and Gridiron on St. John the
day, 1717, when Sayer was elected Grand Master. It seems natural that
Master of a lodge should take the chair on both occasions. Anderson's
may have been intended to minimize the fact that the only persons then
as master masons were those who were or had been Masters of lodges,
as we now call them: but it does not appear to me that any certain
VI. The Speculative Reconstruction
of things before the creation of the Grand Lodge of England seems to
have been as
In the community
of operative masons there had been three grades, namely apprentice,
fellow and master,
resembling the undergraduate student, bachelor and master or doctor of
of master mason had become less important from the fifteenth century
was practically extinct about the middle of the seventeenth century.
In the subsisting
lodges about 1700 there was only one rank, generally under the name of
it seems that an actual or past Master of a lodge was entitled to some
I have endeavored
to give a connected view of these stages, distinguishing those points
established or made highly probable by good witness from those which
are left open
by the known evidence and give room for some latitude of conjecture. In
no greater certainty is now to be looked for save by some unexpected
stroke of good
of modern freemasonry, having in their hands copies of the "Old
and perhaps other material now lost, were acquainted with the old
and proceeded to reconstruct it in the speculative form now familiar to
our stately and superb edifice, for so we may justly call it
confessed errors in design and faults of execution, built up on the
ruins of the
medieval order. Our founders were credulous their credulity, as too
was not free from admixture of something indistinguishable from pious
the blemishes affect only details of their work. The last word must be
for the daring ingenuity which rescued the permanent and cosmopolitan
the ancient craft symbolism and developed them with enhanced spiritual
(1) There is at
one point an element of distinctly northern and maritime
origin; I must not be more explicit in print.
(2) See W. Ravenscroft, The Comacines, their predecessors and their
London, 1910 [Lib 1910] (where other
are referred to); J. Fort Newton's The Builders, [Lib 1914] Cedar Rapids,
Iowa, 1916, pp. 85-102, 113, 114.
(3) Rivoira, Le origini dell' architettura lombarda, i. 130.
(4) It has already been observed as regards medieval gilds in general:
P. J. Hartog
in Encycl. Britann. 11th ed. x. 41, s.v. Examinations.
(5) The importance of this degree seems to be confined to Paris, Oxford
Originally it was only the state of a candidate for the master's or
(6) Not actual extracts from the unpublished rolls, but the scholarly
of the work is sufficient warrant.
(7) This confirms Gould's conclusions (History, i. 431) that a M.M. was
duly passed apprentice who was competent to take work on his own
The open question is what was the appointed proof of such competence.
(8) Cambridge University Press 1907, vol. 1, notes on transcripts, Vol.
privately printed. I owe the communication of this important work to my
Hubert Hall of the Public Record Office.
(9) 1859, p. 181, extract in Coulton, Social Life in Britain, from the
to the Reformation, [Lib 1918] Camb. 1918,
(10) p. 166.
(11) Coulton, op. cit. p. 481; and see Wyclif's censure of "Freemasons
others" for their restrictive rules, ib. p. 490. " (12) Note the
of masons as "de franche pere" or "de grosse pere." The meetings
are described as alliances and covines of masons and carpenters. In
"covin" refers to fraudulent agreement, but here it is a body of
see Oxford Dict. s. v. I have verified the French original of both Acts
in the Statutes
of the Realm. (13) Cp. Stillson and Hughan's History (Boston, New York
1891) pp. 161 seq. Conder's list appears to represent a later revision.
article on Freemasonry in the Encycl. Britann. (1910) says "numbering
(14) Ars iv. Coron. xxviii. 189.
(15) Complete facsimiles in Quatuor Coronatorum Antigrapha, vols. 1, 2.
of the later MSS. are also facsimiles in the same series. The spelling
here given is modernized.
(16) This tale, being unknown to all historians from the Anglo-Saxon
must be set down as pure fiction. I am inclined to ascribe its origin
to the antiquarian
English revival under Henry I. which produced, along with Latin
versions of genuine
laws, the spurious laws of Edward the Confessor and other inventions.
was also some antiquarian romancing early in the fourteenth century.
(Social Life in Britain, p. 488) ingeniously suggests that "the craft
him" (Athelstan) "as their eponymous hero on the strength of the stan
(stone) in his name."
(17) The early history of Freemasonry in England. [Lib*] By James
(afterwards Halliwell-Phillips) 2nd ed. Lond. 1944. Also extracts in
cit. pp. 481-489. Cp. W. Cunningham, Notes on the Organization of the
in England (British Academy, 1913).
(18) I do not think any stress can be laid on the use of this word.
(19) The words "Privite of the chamber" which follow seem to refer to
private instruction from the master.
(20) Brethren will hardly need to be reminded that a trace of this
point, from whatever
documentary source actually derived, exits in our modern ceremonies.
(21) What was the Sheriff doing there? Was this piece composed before
1360? or was
the Statute a dead letter? Or was the Sheriff's business to see that
there was no
meddling with wages?
(22) The history and articles of Masonry ‒ ed. Matthew Cooke, Lond.
1861 [Lib 1861]. Cooke's
transcript requires correction in places
as appears by the facsimile, and the MS. itself has several copyist's
am indebted to my friend Mr. Hubert Hall for a fresh critical estimate
of the dates.
(23) There is one amendment to be made in the verbal interpretation. In
1. 290 "Kindly"
is not "fortunately" but "by natural reason"; "law of kind"
is the medieval English for "lex naturalis"
(24) So Conder, Hole craft &c. p. 29, n. "circa 1430." In his
at p. 48 an unlucky misprint reads 1480.
(25) So in the ancient English universities proceeding to the M. A.
from the B.
A. degree has long been a matter of right on payment of the fees; the
of examination was abolished early in the nineteenth century. (26) e.g.
ap. Conder, The hole craft &c. at p. 216
(27)But this was at least sometimes otherwise provided for, see as to
p. 12 above. cp. art. 141 of the current English Book of Constitutions.
(28) See Cooke MS. 1. 623 wad Speth's comment thereon.
(29) Especially the silence of Sir Christopher's son, who was certainly
Preston's assertion counts for nothing, Anderson's for rather worse
The minutes of the Lodge of St. Paul's (1723) restore the balance but
are not quite
convincing. See the controversy summed up in Calvert, The Grand Lodge
1917, pp. 44-52.
(30) Facsimiled in Chetwode Crowley's "The Masonic MSS. in the Bodleian
reprint from Ars IV. Coron. 1898.
(31) If it is worth anything it shows that Wren was not a Freemason
The alternative of supposing that Aubrey misunderstood his information
or was misinformed,
so that the ceremony may have really been, an installation, would leave
no standing-ground at all (32) Aubrey's entry is also strictly
compatible with Wren,
having at the last moment refused or failed to attend the meeting, and
having been adopted.
(33) Conder, op. cit. p. 142.
(34) Condor, The Hole Craft &c., p. 225.
(35) Facsimile from his diary in "The Masonic MSS. in the Bodleian
many times printed, last in Newton, The Builders, p. 162, and Calvert,
Lodge of England, p. 2, also in Conder, op. citi 203-4.
(36) The Hole Craft &e. pp. 140, 171.
(37) Ib. pp. 162, 163.
(38) The Hole Craft &e. p. 179.
(39) op. Cit. p. 13.
(40) Calvert, The Grand Lodge of England, p. 17.
(41) Book of Constitutions, 2nd ed. 1738, p. 109. Facsimiled in Quatuor
Antigrapha, vol. 7.
The Masonic Trinities -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell. Michigan
love, the fundamental grace
By which man finds his true and rightful place;
Wc cannot know how much its meaning holds
For life with it to all that's best, unfolds.
Relief, the deed responsive to the sway
Of Love that loves in sacrificial way,
And thereby finds that life's a golden mine
With dividends that truly are sublime.
And Truth, the find of right relation to, ‒
Like sun and sight, ‒ reveals unto the view
The right of things in bold finality
And then responds with its so mote it be.
Friendship, the tie that gives to life its zest,
The bond by which we know each other best,
The sweetest chord in human harmony
And timed to meet its need upon the way.
Morality, the sense that qualifies
To virtues held as nature's highest prize,
The test alone that measures to the man
And which by right all compromises ban.
And brotherly love, the soulness of the Art
That gives to life its courage and its heart;
It is indeed the soul-bind of the earth,
The kindredness that gives the world its worth.
has this property: It puffs up narrow souls, makes them imagine
and mighty, and leads them to look down upon the world with contempt;
but a truly
noble spirit appears greatest in distress; and then becomes more bright
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
"The moral solidarity of
mankind is dissolved.
The danger is imminent that the end may be a war of all against all.
Sects and parties
are increasing; common estimates and ideals keep slipping away; we
another less and less; even voluntary associations, that form of unity
to modern times, unite more in accomplishment than disposition, bring
outwardly rather than in reality."
written by Rudolph Eucken in 1912, were like a star-shell over No Man's
the divided mind of the world, and they had a terrible fulfilment. The
War, by its
principle of violence, made no positive contribution to society, but
up and brought to the surface what already existed. For both men and
intensified tendencies already active, precipitated passions held in
and brought to a focus forces that had long been uneasily accumulating.
initiated nor changed the direction in which the world was moving, but
it did quicken
the pace, and, in quickening it, revealed it. That is why a haunting
possesses the minds of men today. Even when local disturbances subside
disputes are settled, we still doubt whether a stable tranquility has
ever will return again. For these things are only symptoms of a
profound and widespread
mental ferment and moral restlessness.
of Eucken goes further back and deeper down to the real root of the
the causes and logic of it all to be moral, spiritual, religious. For,
is made plain by history, it is that the mystic tie which holds
in ordered and advancing life is moral and spiritual, and when that
thread is cut
anything may happen. From the beginning of the century the spiritual
of the modern world, the breaking of the ties that bind together the
fabric of civilization,
had been observed and noted by many. Faith grew dim, moral sanctions
and it was deemed clever and smart to talk lightly of those sanctities
no society has long existed. Much of our literature has been
for thirty years, attacking the basis of marriage, of the home, of the
the state, as if the moral laws were only conventions, if not fictions.
have our reward; we know now that when fools play with fire they get
For a time,
during the stress and strain and terror of the war, there seemed to be
of the ties that bind men and nations together; but it was only
seeming. It was
the power of fear and force, not the power of faith. How unreal, how
it was is shown by the rapidity with which that amazing solidarity was
to be followed by a revival of class rancor, sectarian ardor, and a
nationalism. A world which, having sent young men to die by the
thousands for magnanimous
ideals, has already half-forgotten them as it coolly and briskly
at the old stand ‒ such a world may be grieved, but it ought not to be
at the revolt of both the minds and souls of men. Not that the
will see a triumph of subversive schemes and radical ideas. If we
follow an almost
universal precedent we shall pass first through a period of luxury and
and there will be a momentary craving for the old social and religious
in the years following the Napoleonic Wars. But this is not
significant. It is merely
the first reaction from the emotional strain and nervous tension of the
mood will soon spend itself, and then, at once, new forms, new forces,
will begin to arise which will sweep away much that has seemed precious
in our lives.
spiritual renewal, without a reknitting of that "moral solidarity," of
which Eucken speaks so eloquently, ‒ without the Mystic Tie ‒ we may
not hope for
security and real progress. The truth is that we have been trying to
build a human
civilization on a materialistic foundation, and it cannot be done. No
can long exist on such a basis. Russia has rendered incalculable
service to humanity,
by showing, with deadly consistency, how materialism issues into
anarchy and animalism.
Hear now a proof of this in the words of a spiritually-minded man who
lived in the
midst of it, watching the decay and destruction of his country. Eugene
Professor of Law in the University of Moscow, in the Hibbert Journal,
1920, shows us what happens when the tie of spiritual faith and
fellowship is broken.
Here are words which he who runs may read:
"Bolshevism is first and
foremost the practical
denial of the spiritual. They flatly refuse to admit the existence of
bond between man and man. For them economic and material interests
only social nexus; they recognize no other. This is the source of their
of human society. The love of country, for example, is a lying
for the national bond is a spiritual bond, and therefore wholly
their point of view the only real bond between men is the material ‒
that is to
say, the economic. Material interests divide men into classes, and they
only divisions to be taken account of. Hence they recognize no Nations
Rich and the Poor. As there is no other bond which can unite these two
one social whole, their relations must be regulated exclusively by the
principle revealed in the struggle for existence.
conception of society is the Bolshevist method of treating the family.
is no spiritual bond between the sexes, there can be no constant
relation. The rule
is therefore that men and women can change their partners as often as
The authorities in certain districts have even proclaimed the
of women, that is, the abolition of any private and exclusive right to
wife even for a limited period, on the ground that women are the
property of all.
The same children. A powerful current of opinion is urging that
children must be
taken from their parents in order that the State may give them an
education on true
materialistic lines. In certain communes some hundreds of children were
that is, 'taken from their parents and placed in public institutions."
is, showing us what the red logic of hell means when it works itself
out in action,
and what results follow when the Mystic Tie of spiritual faith and
cut. Political anarchy, social animalism, moral bedlam follow with
certainty, and all the fine and holy things of life are thrown into the
Man has an animal inheritance ‒ moods of ape and tiger mingle in him
dreams and thoughts that wander through eternity ‒ and when the Divine
he reverts to the law of the jungle, and the hard-won trophy of
and agony vanishes. What happens, happens again. The Bolshevists are
men of like
passions as ourselves; they simply carry out with the fatal logic of
the dogma of materialism upon which we have been trying to base our
If anyone thinks that what has taken place in Russia cannot happen in
knows little of history and less of human nature. The practical denial
of the Divine
dehumanizes humanity, and the rest follows as night follows day.
reason, if it should be a part of our religion to be patriotic, it must
be a part
of our patriotism to keep the light of spiritual faith aflame on the
by our fathers. Down in Wales, at a time when it seemed that revolution
I asked a labor leader what bond held men together. He said: "All that
these men back is the fact that they were trained in the Sunday-schools
Welsh chapels years ago. That is all that keeps the spark from blowing
Within the last four years ten thousand Sunday-schools have ceased to
exist in America,
and the end is not yet. Facts such as these, and others of like kind,
make a thoughtful
man wonder as to what the future will be. What confronts us is not
indifference to religion, but indifference to pretty well everything
circle of creature comfort and self-gratification. There are many
course, but in the main it is true that society has as yet been able to
only a few of its members to be really interested in its higher
concerns. By the
same token, men who do care for what is finest in our national life
must make use
of every opportunity, every instrumentality, to keep alive the faith
men faithful, and the vision of the moral ideal that lights our human
the city of God.
no need to apply what has been said, least of all to men to whom the
is a reality, and who are bound together by it in a fraternity of
and Fellowship. In every degree of Freemasonry we are taught ‒ by art,
by symbol ‒ the moral basis of human society, its spiritual
the necessity of a fraternal righteousness among men, without which
manhood is rudimentary
and intellectual culture is the slave of greed and passion. Of Lincoln
it was said,
that "his practical life was spiritual," and by as much as Masonry
men of like faith and fiber who, in private life and public service,
keep a manhood
neither bought nor sold, true of heart and unbefogged of mind, it is
weave that Mystic Tie that holds the republic together. The words of
[Lib 1913; Vol 1, Vol 2], in "The American
ought to be written and hung up in our hearts:
"If history teaches anything,
us that hitherto civilized society has rested on religion. It was
and religious conscience that led to the founding of the New England
centuries and a half ago. Religion and conscience have been a
force in the American Commonwealth ever since. And the more democratic
become, the more the masses grow conscious of their power, the more do
to live not only by patriotism, but by reverence and self-control, and
essential to their well-being are those sources from which reverence
* * *
As a citizen
there is one very important duty and that is the duty as a voter. Let
lay just a little bit more stress on the observance of this privilege
and this duty
and a little less stress on who and what we are voting for. Oh, it is
so easy to
get up excitement over an individual; it is so easy to get up a
over an issue, but it is hard to get up enthusiasm and excitement over
duty. But voting is not an ordinary duty. It is the greatest duty that
we as citizens
have to perform.
likewise enter into the everyday life of the individual if these
problems are going
to be solved. Masonry is not a thing for the lodge room alone; it is
not a thing
for our festive occasions alone, but it is a practical everyday
philosophy of life.
A man to be a good Mason should be a good business man, should be a
should be a good bricklayer or a good mechanic. Into his everyday work
the principles that have been inculcated in his life through the medium
of his lodge.
He should feel that he is endeavoring to dignify his craft or his
should endeavor at all times to show that the word of a Mason in
business or as
a laborer or as a professional man is absolutely inviolable. The fact
that he is
a Mason should be sufficient recommendation of his character. And in
we should lay emphasis upon that fact. We should teach the fact not
alone in the
beautiful phraseology of our ritual, but in the common ordinary
language that every
man can understand, and if we find in our community Masons who are not
to the teaching of ‒ Masonry in their everyday business life and
affairs, then some
means should be found to show them the error of their ways.
of Masonry is nothing more or less than old fashioned, common honesty
sense. Those are the things that are particularly needed in this hour
There is no new panacea for the ills of the world. Work honestly
faithfully done, will bring peace and happiness and contentment to our
us in our lodges give consideration to the old fashioned virtues; let
us bring them
before our membership as we have never brought them before. Let us put
upon the social side of our Institution, so that we can come to
understand and know
our brethren better; let us give them the inspiration of our
us give them the helpful and strengthening influence of a closer
let us have them feel that as they go out in their several walks of
life that they
have the interest and support of the brethren of their lodges. Let us
this close, active connection and acquaintanceship and frequent
to weld ourselves into one solid mass that will stand for righteousness
honesty and for uprightness in our civic as well as our private
dealings; let us
be bound together into one great mass that will move forward as a solid
‒ Bro Charles H. Victor California.
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 39
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "Third Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
on "The Trowel"
- Have some brother recite the
monitorial lecture on the Trowel as the working
tool of the Master Mason.
- Why is the Trowel most
appropriate to the Master Mason degree?
- What are the working tools of
an Entered Apprentice, and their uses?
- What are the working tools of a
Fellow Craft, and their uses?
- What is the function of the
Trowel in the hands of a Master Mason?
- Why is the Trowel most symbolic
in the work of temple building?
- Of what power may we consider
the Trowel to be a symbol?
- What do we say of men who lack
unity in their makeup?
- Whence came the word
- What is its present-day meaning?
- What may a man who lacks
character do to better himself?
- What can he use to accomplish
- How did the builders of ancient
times lay out their building designs?
- How and by whom was the degree
work laid out in early English lodges?
- What was the duty of the
youngest Entered Apprentice after the conclusion
of the ceremony?
- How was the "plan of work"
- What is the tracing board of a
- Are the tracing boards of the
several degrees represented in your lodge?
- Of what is the tracing board a
- How would you answer Brother
Haywood's question "What is the force that
can unite individual Masons into a unified and harmonious order"?
- What is it that ties you to
your fellow Masons?
is your conception of the "Brotherhood of Man"?
* * *
Vol. I. ‒ What is Masonry, p. 295. (Reference to the Trowel.)
Vol. II. ‒ The Trowel, p. 335.
Vol. IV. ‒ The Trowel, p. 38.
Trowel, p. 804
* * *
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
Part IV ‒ The Trowel
is like a key; insignificant in itself it opens up matters of such vast
to pursue its teachings through all their ramifications would itself
require a book;
consequently I can only hope to set down a few hints of the richly
of this emblem.
no need to say that of all working tools it is most appropriate to the
degree; it carries that significance upon its surface. For the Entered
who can make only a beginning at the task of shaping the ashlar, needs
gavel and the gauge; the Fellow Craft, to bring the stone into
completeness of size
and form, requires the plumb, square, and level; the Master Mason's
task is to set
the finished stone in its place, and bind it there, for which purpose
is his most necessary tool. Therefore the Master Mason has been given
as his Working Tool because it is most symbolic of his function in the
of Temple Building; when that tool has done its work there is nothing
more to do,
because the structure stands complete, a united mass, incapable of
the stones which were many have now, because of the bonding power of
become as one stone.
If the stones
represent individual men, and if the Temple represents the Fraternity
as a whole,
it is evident that the Trowel is the symbol of that which has power to
together. Therefrom arises the question; What is this unifying power?
Let us undertake
to answer this question from the several points of view of the
individual, the Fraternity
and the world at large:
1. We very frequently meet with
men who seem to lack unity in their makeup;
a spirit of disorganization or anarchy is at work in them so that they
seem to live
at cross-purposes with themselves. What they know they should do they
do not, and
many things which they do they do against their own will. They may have
force but it is scattered and their lives never come to a focus. Of
these men we
say that they lack character and we say right. Character comes from a
meant originally a graving tool; after long use the name of the tool
came to be
applied to the engraving itself, and thus the term has come to stand
for a man whose
actions give one an impression of definiteness and clearcuttedness,
like an engraving.
A man who lacks character is a blur, a confused and self ‒
contradictory mass of
impulses and forces. The one salvation for such a man is to find some
means of unifying
himself, of using himself to some purpose so as to arrive at some goal.
he use? We may answer, perhaps, that he can best use an ideal, for an
ideal is nothing
other than a picture of what one wills to be which he ever keeps before
an architect refers to his blue prints. In short, the man needs a plan
to live by,
a thing we have symbolized in our ritual by means of the tracing board.
time of the Reformation, builders did not use plans drawn to scale as
now do, but laid out their building design on the ground, or even on
the floor of
the workshop or the lodge. In early English lodges this design was
often drawn on
the floor in chalk by the Master and the youngest Entered Apprentice
it with mop and water at the end of the ceremony; after a while, to
make this labor
unnecessary, the "plan of work" was drawn on a permanent board which
set on an easel and exhibited during the degree, as is still done in
tracing board of a degree, therefore, is the plan of work for that
in symbols and hieroglyphics, and the tracing board itself, as it
stands in the
lodge, is a constant reminder to the Mason that, as a spiritual
builder, he must
have a plan or an ideal for his ideal for his life; and when the Mason
in loyalty to an ideal he is a man of character; his faculties work in
is no war between his purposes and his behavior, and he is able to
stand among his
brethren as a complete temple. Such a man has used a trowel in his own
2. It is more difficult to answer
the question: What is the force that can unite
individual Masons into a unified and harmonious order? but a practical
be found by asking a further question, What is it that now unites us,
even if imperfectly?
What is the cement? Perhaps we cannot point to any one thing. When I
my own heart what it is that ties me to my fellow Masons I find myself
of many things. There is the sense of a wonderful history which links
us up to unknown
brethren who lived generations ago; there is the symbolism of the
Society, in which
precious truths and living philosophies have been poured as into golden
is the spirit which pervades the Order, a sense of oneness in purpose
of tolerance, of charity, of patience and forbearing; there is also the
of the obligation which I voluntarily assumed, and which wove into my
heart a silken
thread, the other end of which is woven into the hearts of my brethren;
similar influences, hold me to the Craft now and ever shall, but how to
up in one word I know not, except it be Brotherhood. Brotherhood has
from over-use, from sentimentalism, and from oratory, but no other word
can be found
to take its place. Therefore we may say that, so far as the Fraternity
concerned, the trowel, and the cement spread on by the trowel, is the
irresistible spirit and power of Brotherhood. True is it that
"Fellowship is heaven
The lack of fellowship is hell."
3. If this be true we have already
to hand an answer to our last question, What
power can unite the scattered peoples and nations of the earth,
especially in a
time like this when they are more than ever sundered by passion and by
if the spirit and influence of Brotherhood can call together two
million men out
of all classes and localities of America and can bind them into the
a great unified Order, that same power can accomplish similar results
to the world at large. Diplomats and politicians do not seem to believe
lords of industry do not seem to believe it, but it is true
as it may sound and Freemasonry's benign genius of fraternity was never
needed in the earth than just now. Every device has been used to bind
together: force, money, fear, superstition, what not; let us hope that
soon or late
the race will try the means proved so effective by more than two
hundred years of
* * *
PAPERS DISCONTINUED UNTIL SEPTEMBER
with the custom of previous years the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
THE BUILDER will be discontinued during the months of July and August.
This is done
in order that we shall not get ahead of the lodges and Study Clubs
Bulletin Course of Masonic Study who usually call off during these two
papers will be resumed with an installment on "The Hiramic Legend" in
the September number.
teaches that each period of desperate struggle is followed by a time of
violent reaction: It is not surprising then that the reaction following
great and devastating war should swing further in effect than ever
before. It should
he remembered also that for some years past a real reaction has been in
Until the war it was proceeding by easy and natural steps, but
was to be noted an increasing revolt against the arid and unsatisfying
extreme dogmatism of materialistic science.
of the war and the relaxations that followed has accelerated the
already in progress and it will not be surprising if the tendency is to
and detrimental extreme. Strong men accustomed to conflict, hardened by
grown ruthless as to methods and careless as to consequences, may,
perhaps, go to
the extreme of atheism and anarchy, with violent revolution as their
but these are the minority.
nerve worn and exhausted of spirit, will gladly cast aside, for a time,
of personal responsibility and even of duty, and will be content to
walk in paths
that present the fewest difficulties.
for instance, they will listen to the voice that speaks with seeming
than to the stern dictates of reason, and yield to that form of
religion or church
which offers its consolations at the cheapest rate.
and the necessities of the strong and self-reliant are personal
conduct of life and freedom of conscience, but men worn to the raw with
grindings will shirk the onerous requirements involved in the retention
the masses may surrender to, there will yet remain those who are
trained to think,
and who will not under any conditions forego their mental habits, and
in the meantime, surely submit every institution to the most searching
Neither governments, churches, nor fraternities will be exempt, whether
plea of necessity, or sanctity, or antiquity.
all will be brought the indictment, in many counts, that they failed
time of crisis, to perform that part for the weal of humanity that they
that it allowed dynastic interests or special privileges, whether of
labor, to prevail against the welfare of the whole people; that its
systems of diplomacy
were worthless in that they broke down utterly in the face of national
churches, that their teachings for two thousand years has not been able
in the least the evils of strife; that the great message of Peace and
upon the earth was no more than a formal utterance upon the lips of
found no influence in the minds and hearts of men.
our own in particular, as the most ancient and most widely spread,
because the boasted
"Brotherhood of Man" was little more than a phrase, easily and quickly
forgotten in the heat of passion; that precepts most elaborately set
not been transmuted into action, nor urged with unity of purpose.
shall the Masonic Fraternity, this institution of immense
potentialities and pitiable
accomplishment, have as an adequate defense to this indictment?
Will we be
satisfied, or can we satisfy the thinkers, with the sophistry that has
led to a shirking of the larger duty ‒ the plea that Masonry operates
only in and
through the individual? To gain to larger good this answer will not
Good of any
sort worth estimating is gained in this world only by mass movements of
but earnest and faithful men ‒ not by any number of isolated saints
or announcing pleasing dogmas ‒ the underlying idea of fraternity ‒ the
reason for its existence ‒ is to gain force by organization, to improve
and to turn the many to an united effort for the accomplishment of
there is time to bring words to the test of action. But it is needed
now, and imperatively,
that there be clear altruistic purpose full in view; wide as the world
and as comprehensive
as the race, with an intensity pervading the whole Craft that will balk
at no obstacle
on the path to accomplishment.
Let us have
done with barren formalisms and uttered formalities, and seek by every
gain to an understanding of the needs of men. Let us break down once
and for all
time the petty barriers that ignorance and prejudice have erected
between us and
implies more than a mere negative goodness, merely refraining from law
of any sort. Duties of a positive nature are imposed and these are
us as a part of our masonic obligation. It can be insisted that we are
more than others, to support the institutions of the Republic and to
American Ideal and principles. That such institutions and principles
are akin, in
very essence, to the ideas and ideal of masonry, is plain to those
within and without
must become the world's ideals.
P.G.M. Robert S. Teague, Alabama.
House Owned By a Masonic Lodge in America
By Bro. Isaac Henry Vrooman.
Jr., New York
and Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection, located at Albany, N.Y., is the
body of the Scottish Rite in existence. It received its charter from
Henry Andrew Francken on December 20th, 1767 (a photographic copy of
on page 160.) The early records of the lodge were long lost; but were
some years ago through the efforts of Illustrious William Homan, 33d,
New York. He caused the Minutes from 1767 to 1774 to be published in
of the New York Council of Deliberation for 1902, and a photographic
copy of them
in the Proceedings for 1906. There appeared also in the 1902
Proceedings a concise
history of Ineffable Lodge by Ill.ˑ. John Hally Lindsay, 33d, then its
throw a flood of light upon the early history of Scottish Rite Masonry
and in conjunction with the records of Masters Lodge No. 5, F.
& A. M., give
us a fairly complete story of the building of "The First Lodge House
by a Masonic Lodge in America.
was situated at the northwest corner of Maiden Lane and Lodge Street
name), on the site of the present Masonic Temple; a bronze tablet in
of which records the fact that:
PURCHASED OCTOBER 17 1766
BY BROTHER SAMUEL STRINGER
THE FIRST LODGE HOUSE
OWNED BY A MASONIC LODGE IN AMERICA
WAS ERECTED IN 1768
AND REMAINED THE PROPERTY OF
MASTERS LODGE NUMBER FIVE
UNTIL PRESENTED TO
THE MASONIC HALL ASSOCIATION IN
no known description or picture of the Lodge House; but on a map of the
Albany, made in 1790, by Simeon De Witt, Surveyor-General of the State
of New York,
and preserved in the office of the City Engineer, there is a plan of a
on this site, which is marked "Lodge." Assuming this to be an
correct outline, it represents a building, the easterly end of which
is; about thirty
feet westerly from Lodge Street, having a frontage on Maiden Lane of
feet and a depth of about twenty feet. This was, probably, the anteroom
Adjoining this in the rear is an extension, about twelve feet in width
forty feet in depth, which must have been the lodge room. This gives
a total depth of about sixty feet.
Stringer was born in 1735 and died in 1817. He received the Ineffable
4th to 14th, December 20th, 1767, in Albany, N.Y., and in March, 1769,
a Deputy Grand Inspector by Ill.ˑ. Henry Andrew Francken, being the
first so appointed
He was the
Senior Warden named in the Charter of Masters Lodge, No. 2 (now No. 5),
A. M., (March 5, 1768), and on June 24th, 1768, was elected its Master.
capacity he served during the years 1768, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1773, 1774,
1779, and 1780. (A more complete biography of Brother Stringer will be
the Proceedings of the New York Council of Deliberation for 1904, pages
Prior to the formation of Masters Lodge, Brother Stringer was,
doubtless, a member
of Union Lodge No. 1, at that time the only Masonic lodge in Albany.
In 1766 he
obtained a grant of land from the city, as appears from the following:
a Common Council held at the City Hall on Saturday, 18th Octr, 1766.
by this Board that the Mayor in behalf of the Corporation sign the
viz: one to Peter Binneway for one hundred and eighty-seven acres of
wood land adjoining
the line of Saratoga Pattent, as also one [to] Samuel Stringer for a
Lott of Ground
on the Hill near the Fort adjoining the English Burying Place."
Collections on the History of Albany, N.Y. V.I., p. 172.)
it may be noted that in 1766 the northeast corner of "the Fort"
stood on the site now occupied by St. Peter's [Episcopal] Church, and
the Fort extended
nearly across what is now State Street. "The English Burying Place" was
to the north of the Fort and between it and the Hospital, which was on
of the present Lutheran Church, at the northwest corner of Lodge and
to Dr. Stringer bears date the 17th day of October, 1766, and is
recorded in the
Office of the Clerk of the County of Albany in Book of Deeds 23, page
216. In it
the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonality of the City of Albany "Do give,
convey, Release and Confirm unto the said Samuel Stringer, his heirs
a certain Lot of ground Lying in the Second Ward of this City on the
hill near the
Fort Beginning at a place on the East Side of the Church of England
which Rangess with the South Side of the Lott of ground sold at Vendue
to John Hewson
From thence Southeasterly keeping the same range thirty-five feet, then
degrees East Seventy feet, then north Sixty-Eight Degrees west
to the said Burying ground, then along the Burying ground to the Place
begun … Yielding Rendering and Paying for the said piece of ground unto
Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty and their successors yearly on or before
day of September the Yearly Rent of Four pound current money of New
was to Dr. Stringer individually, although he may have obtained it for
as at one time that body appears to have had possession of it. In any
Lodge considered the erection of a building on this lot; for, in the
the first meeting of Ineffable Lodge, on January Pith, 1768, we read:
Constitution, Dispensation, Laws & the founders Instruction to
the Master ware
read, as Likewise a proposal to the Union Lodge, that the Ineffable
have a Joynt Right in the Intended Building, to which they are the
(Original Minutes of Ineffable and Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection,
to Proceedings of New York Council of Deliberation, 1906, p. 36.)
At this meeting,
the Master, William Gamble, appointed Samuel Stringer Sr.ˑ. G.ˑ.W.ˑ.
reply to the proposal is not recorded; but evidently it was not
at the meeting of the Ineffable Lodge on February 23rd, 1768:
was agreed that a proposal from Mr. Peter Sharp to Build a Lodge house
to a plan Laid Before the Lodge this night should be accepted at 300
Brs. Gamble and Rensselaer engaged to contract for the same, upon the
to endemnify them as fast as the Money towards erecting the Said
in the direction whereof they are to have." On "Feby 27 Br. Sam.
paid Union Lodge for the deed of the Lot to Build the Lodge on ‒ 4
pounds . 0. .0"
(Ineffable Lodge Minutes, p. 46).
at once commenced on the building and, the lot being found too small,
thereupon taken to acquire more land, and six feet on the east side
Bro. Stringer's petition to the Common Council is of interest and is
a Common Council held for the City of Albany at the City Hall of the
said City on
the first of April, 1768:
being presented to this board as follows: To the Worshipfull Mayor,
Commonalty of the City of Albany, in Common Council, the Petition of
Humbly sheweth, That on Mr. Bleekers measuring the lot lately granted
by the Corporation
to Samuel Stringer, situated between the Fort and Hospital and
adjoining to the
English Burying Place, there appeared to be still vacant about eleven
feet on the
east side of sd Lot between it and the street laid out parallel to it.
therefore being greatly Pinched in Ground to erect the intended
Building on, which
building the workmen are now actually employed in and by Contract is to
by the 24th of June next Prays that the said eleven feet or as many as
found vacant may be included in the aforesd Grant and confirmed to him
additional quit rent, as that is supposed to be already greater in any
in the City and the Building being for a Publick use and in no wise
those concerned. Your Petitioner further prays, that as the time in
which the aforesaid
building is to be finished is limited, it may be taken as soon as
consideration, and he will forever pray. "(Signed) Sam'l Stringer.
by this Board that there shall be granted to the said Samuel Stringer
six feet along
the East part of the said Lott heretofore granted to him and to contain
feet in length northerly along his said Lott and that the Mayor sign
his hand for
that purpose under the former deed where this addition is to be
(Munsell's Hist. Coll. V. I., p. 185.)
5th, 1768, Masters Lodge, No. 2, received its warrant from Bro. George
Provincial Grand Master, and in it William Gamble was named as Master,
as Senior Warden, and Jeremiah Van Rensselaer as Junior Warden. These
were the brethren
having in charge the erection of the Ineffable Lodge House and the
list indicates that Masters Lodge soon joined in the enterprise.
the Subscribers do give the Sums opposite our Respective names towards
a House now Building at Albany for the accommodation of the Ineffable
the Masters Lodge No. 2 of Free, Accepted Masons.
| William Gamble
| Francis Pfister
| Samuel Stringer
| Jacob G. Lansing
| Jer. V. Rensselaer
| Thomas Lynott
| Peter Schuyler
| Fredk. Wm. Heckt
|| 3 5
| Thomas Swords
| Col. John Reid
| John Farrel
| T. Sm. Diamond
| Stephen March
| Thomas Shipboy
|| 3 4
On the back
is the following endorsement:
well disposed Brethren as choose to contribute, as within will please
to pay their
Benefactions to Br. Peter Schuyler.
William Gamble, Master
Jer. V. Rensselaer
is on parchment and is preserved in the archives of Masters Lodge, and
reproduction of it appears on pages 156-7. There is no date on it; but,
Stringer was elected Master of Masters Lodge on June 24th, 1768, it
must have been
written before that time.
It is interesting
to note that eight of the fourteen brethren whose names appear on the
members of both Masters Lodge and Ineffable Lodge, five of neither one,
of Masters Lodge only. Out of the thirtythree names on the Membership
roll of Ineffable
Lodge, as compiled from the first minute book, all but six also appear
on the roll
of Masters Lodge. It was therefore but natural that the two Lodges
in the erection of their Lodge House.
agreement, which does not appear in the Minutes of either body, was
by the two Lodges is evidenced by the following extracts from the
By-Laws of Masters Lodge:
3rd. The Body shall continue to meet once every week and that on
Mondays in Building
being erected by our Brethren of the Ineffable Lodge of Perfection (as
Agreement made between the Two Bodies dated the March 1768). As long as
Members shall chuse it shall be held there.
In consideration of the many Advantages and conveniences this Body will
Virtue of the Above Mentioned Agreement; the Dues of Initiation
& of Brothers
joining, as well as of transient Brethren advanced, together with
Quarter Dues &
Fines & all other Monies, except what the Body may require to
defray the contingent
Expenses, shall go to the Ineffable Body towards paying the expense of
untill the same shall be entirely paid for, & no longer: And
Dues of Entrance, of Brothers joining, and transient Brethren advanced,
with Legacies, are to compose a Charity Fund, to be let out upon the
& the Interest thereof only applied to such Charitable purposes
as the Body
shall think fit....
5th. Every Member of this Body except such as are exempted by agreement
Ineffable Lodge, shall pay Quarterly towards its support Five
Note to Arts.
3rd & 4th in these By-Laws on margin: "The Property has been
from the Ineffable."
30th. When the Building before mentioned is paid for these Laws are to
fairly Copied & such Articles as will then be found unnecessary
of a page of these ByLaws, showing portions of Articles 3rd and 4th, is
item of interest is the cornerstone laying; notice of which is
contained in the
Day, Albany 12th May 1768.
Corner Stone of the Foundation of the Ineffable Lodge was Laid, for
the Body went in Procession.
Jer. V. Rensselaer
Thomas Smith Diamond
clos'd." (Ineffable lodge Minutes, p. 52.)
did not join officially in this ceremony, but all the brethren who took
members of both bodies. This was one of the earliest cornerstones laid
in this country
and it was undoubtedly the first ever laid by a Lodge of reflection in
in his petition to the Common Council, Bro. Stringer stated that the
was to finish the building by the 24th of June, it apparently was not
ready on that
date. June 24th, being St. John's Day, the Ineffable Lodge met as
and were visited by "Our Rt. Worpl. Founder Henry Andrew Francken" ‒
members then "Went in Procession to Church" (St. Peter's) "where
an excellent Discourse was Preached by the Revd. Mr. Munro, and from
thence to Brother
Cartwright's, where the Body dined, and Proceeded from thence to the
Lodge and Closed."
(Ineffable Lodge Minutes, p. 54.)
is made of the dedication of the Building at this or any subsequent
also met on June 24th and "Br. Stringer duly elected Mr. of this body
Br Rensselaer Sen & Diamond Jun Wardens." (MS Minutes, Masters
2, [No. 5] F. A. M.)
was, however, being made on the building is shown by the petition of
Church, which was presented to the Common Council on July Pith. 1768.
In it the
Church asks for a lot of ground "being the vacancy situated between the
Masons building and the street leading down past the Hospital, in rear
to the Burial place of the said Church." (Munsell's Hist. Coll., V. I.,
must have been nearly completed by the following winter, for we find
9th Jany. 1769
List of Debts due by Peter Sharp for the materials of the Lodge
amounting to 66
‒ 14 ‒ was laid before the Body at his Request ‒ praying them to take
of the same upon themselves, upon Condition that the said Sharp shall
have no further
demands upon the Lodge until the last payment of his Contract becomes
due, and that
he is willing to pay Interest for the sd. 66 ‒ 14 until the same shall
be paid to
his Creditors & that whatever this sum of 66 ‒ 14 ‒ shall
exceed the first payment
stipulated in the Contract between this Body and Mr. Sharp, and the
amount of Mr.
Sharp's extraordinary work, the same shall be deducted, together with
this Body may have occasion to pay on accot. of the above sum (for one
from the Two hundred Pounds, which is to become due to the said Sharp
at the Time
limited by his Contract."
that this Body shall meet at the House of Br. Gamble to consider fully
what is to
be done in this matter, at 10. oClock in the Morning." (Ineffable Lodge
10th Jany. 1769
Brethren met agreeable to the resolution of last night and proceeded to
settlement with Mr. Sharp, and it is proposed to finish the same
11 Jany 1769
Brethren adjusted everything preparatory to a settlement with Mr. Sharp
‒ And the
same day the settlement was completed accordingly, when it appeared
that Mr. Sharp
had done extraordinary work on the Lodge amounting pr. acct.
| The sum for Building
| "It appeared that he had at divers payments pr.
his Receipt of this Date
|| 11 1/2
| "The Body assumed payment of sundry of Mr.
Sharp's debts amounting as pr. List
|| 11 1/2
| "Ballance due Mr. Sharp & payable,
agreeable to Contract, as appears by mutual accts. settled this day,
Lodge Minutes, p. 58.) "Albany 16th Jany 1769 "… The same evening came
to the Lodge the undermentioned Creditors of Peter Sharp, who agreed
with the Body,
to take Payment of them as is mentioned opposite their respective Names
| Wessel Vanschaick
|| when convenient
| Colo. Roseboom
|| In six months
| Mr. Hoogkirke
|| In a few weeks and
| The Remainder
|| when convenient
| David Irish
|| His Brother Consented to take payment in three
Lodge Minutes, p. 60.)
took upon itself the task of finishing the building, as these entries
27th Febry. 1769
March informed the Body, that he and Br. Diamond will come to work upon
the latter part of next week, or sooner if possible." (Ineffable Lodge
2d April 1769
Zephaniah Batcheler was initiated by the Rt. Worpl: Br. Stringer's
into the 4th Deg: called Secret Master, in presence of Brs. Stringer
March, and is to pay the Dues &c. in work upon the Lodge."
Minutes, p. 64.)
1st May 1769
David Smith was by Petition to Br. Stringer, and the Consent of all
in the 4th Deg: of Masonry, and is to work upon the Lodge for the
amount of his
Dues." (Ineffable Lodge Minutes, p. 66.)
not before, by June, 1770 the two Lodges were meeting in the same
the Lodge House, for, on June 24th of that year, "Br. Beasly agreed
Body to act as Tiler for both the Ineffable & Master's Lodges
at the rate of
6 ‒ annually." (Ineffable Lodge Minutes, p. 82.)
In the following
year more land was needed and, on April 5th, 1771, the Common Council
by this Board that three feet to the north end of the Mason Lodge be
Samuel Stringer for the consideration of Cand that a Deed be drawn for
in behalf of the Corporation and that the City Seal be affixed for the
(Munsell's Hist. Coll. V. I, p. 226.)
no deed on record in regard to this transfer, but it is included in
Lodge did not meet from December 9th, 1771, to August 16th, 1773, and
in the meantime
Masters Lodge looked after the property, as the following entries in
the Lodge Minutes
31 May 1773
Tyler also presented a petition of this date praying the body to build
for him proposed, contiguous to the Lodge. The body took the Tyler's
consideration and ordered that Brs Stringer, Crukshank & Br Van
a committee to fix upon a plan for the Tyler s house, and consult with
as to the expense of said plan and the terms he would undertake to
build it, &
make their report to the Lodge as soon as possible." (MS. Minutes,
Sharps proposal for building the Tyler's house is accepted, to be
Spring for the sum of 86." (MS. Minutes, Masters Lodge.)
no details in the Minutes concerning the Tyler's house and no mention
until December, 1775 and 1776, when there was paid to Peter Sharp a
total of 120-2-8
"for a debt owing to him by the Lodge."
Minutes end with the Meeting of December 5th, 1774, when the "Lodge
to this night fortnight."
records of the lodge are missing, but it is hoped that some day they
may be discovered
and brought to light, for they must contain much material of value. It
interesting to have them, for then we might have the complete story and
the facts, of which the following is one side:
At the Communication
of Masters Lodge held June 23rd, 1777, "The Lodge took into their
the propriety of uniting the funds of the Ineffable Lodge &
Masters Lodge and
ordered that Brs. Stringer, Gansevoort, Vernor & Gansevoort Jr.
be a committee
for regulating the funds and make a report thereon to this body next
There is no record of any report having been made.
By 1779 the
title to the Lodge property had passed to Masters Lodge as this entry,
in the Minutes
of March 8th, 1779, indicates:
members present taking into consideration the yearly rent paid for the
this Lodge is erected & judging the same in the highest degree
ordered that a petition be drawn & signed by the Secy of this
body to the Worshipful
Corporation of this city praying that the rent for the said ground may
At a meeting
of the Common Council held March 16th, 1779, "A Petition of the Master,
and Brethren of Masters Lodge No. 2, in the City of Albany, was laid
Board setting forth that in 1766 they obtained a Lease from this Board
for a small
Lot of ground in the second ward near the Fort under an annual Rent of
per annum, which they conceived too great a discrimination of the Rent
on other Lots disposed of at that time, and praying an abatement of the
or such other relief in the premises as to this Board shall appear meet
"Ordered that the consideration thereof be postponed till the next
of this Board." (Munsell's Hist. Coll. V. I, p. 294.)
appears to have been taken; and it was not until 1843 that the lodge
the rent and received a deed from the City for the original lot.
As has been
stated before, Samuel Stringer was Master of Masters Lodge, with two
from 1768 to 1781. In 1769, after being appointed Deputy Grand
Inspector, he also
became the head of Ineffable Lodge.
years of harmony, there appears to have been some friction among the
Masters Lodge, for, at a summoned communication held on February 6th,
Stringer, Eights, Lush & Dox moved the body that their names
might be struck
out of the bye-laws and that they might no longer be considered as
members of this
body." "The Lodge agreed to their withdrawing upon Br. Stringers first
settling his acot with the Lodge & conveying the Lot which this
House is built
upon, to Brs Van Rensselaer, McClallen & John Lansing Jr
by the body this evening." (MS. Minutes, Masters Lodge.)
was appointed to settle Br. Stringer's accounts, but the lot was not
At the communication
of August 7th, 1782, "Br McClallen moved the Lodge that Br Wendell draw
for the Lot of ground & Lodge room built thereon from Br Saml
Stringer a member
of this body to Brs Jer. Van Rensselaer, John Lansing Jr &
McClallen as Trustees
for this Lodge agreeable to a resolve entered into by this body the 6
(MS. Minutes, Masters Lodge.)
12th, 1782, "Agreeable to a resolve of last Lodge night Br Wendell has
a Deed by way of lease & release for the lot of ground whereon
this Lodge is
built, which Deed Br. McClallen as one of the Trustees Droduced to the
evening signed by Saml. Stringer, and also the Lease from the
Corporation to him
‒ which deeds were delivered to the Treasurer in trust for the Lodge."
Minutes, Masters Lodge.)
is dated August 10, 1782, but was not recorded until April 26, 1895 ‒
in Book 469,
page 30, in the Albany County Clerk's Office.
Church obtained from the City of Albany the title to a parcel of land
the lodge property on three sides and, in order to straighten the
lines, as well
as to obtain additional ground, on March 21st, 1791, "On motion of Br
seconded by Watson Brs. McClallen, Pritchard & P.S.V.
Rensselaer were appointed
a committee for purchasing the lot west of the Lodge, and a small gore
of land on
the north and also on the east to the line of Lodge street, belonging
to St Peters
Church." (MS. Minutes, Masters Lodge.)
At the Communication
on March 25th, 1791, the "Committee appointed last Lodge night for
certain ground adjoining the Lodge Report they have purchased the same
"Resolved, That the conveyance of the said land be made to the said
in trust for the Lodge." (MS. Minutes, Masters Lodge.)
No deed is
on record concerning this transfer; but, on January 27th, 1845, St.
quitclaimed its interest in the entire property to the lodge.
4th, 179t, "On motion of Br. P.S.V. Rensselaer, seconded by Br.
that Brs Cumpston & Shipboy be a committee to superintend the
building as necessary,
and enclosing the ground belonging to the Lodge in good fence
that a door be opened in the entry of the Lodge into the yard." (MS.
entries in the Minutes of Masters Lodge would seem to indicate that the
Lodge, for a time at least, suspended labor and was then revived.
“… On motion
of Br. Gansevoort, seconded by Mr. Ellison, Brs. L. Gansevoort, T.
P.S.V. Rensselaer were appointed a committee to take such measures as
to them shall
seem expedient to examine into the situation of the Ineffable Lodge
this Lodge, and make report next regular Lodge night."
“Sep. 6 1790
Ellison and P.S.V. Rensselaer from the Committee appointed last regular
reported ‒ That they had seen Br. Stringers dispensation, which fully
him to grant the like dispensation to other brethren so as to open an
Lodge sand that he was willing & ready to do so immediately to
Master of this Lodge."
that Brs. Fryer & Kinnear with one of the Ineffable members do
attend the next
rainy day to inspect the roof of this Lodge."
27th, 1795, there is a long break in the Minutes of Masters Lodge and
so it is impossible
to trace this history further.
continued to hold the lodge lot and, in 1859, leased it for a term of
in order that a rectory for St. Peter's Church might be erected
thereon. The rentals
from this real estate were set aside as a building fund and husbanded
for many years.
In 1894, when it was proposed to erect a Masonic Temple in Albany, the
its old real estate, to gether with an additional lot to the west, as
the site for
the present Masonic Temple; and so today the Masons of Albany continue
to meet on
the site of "The First Lodge House owned by a Masonic Lodge in America."
NOTE. ‒ In
1869 M.ˑ.P.ˑ. Sovereign Grand Commander Josiah Hayden Drummond, 33d, in
Address before the Supreme Council, 33d, gave a lengthy account of the
of Ineffable Lodge and Masters Lodge and incorporated many extracts
from the Minutes
of both bodies. This has been reprinted in Munsell's "Collections on
of Albany," V. III, pp. 411-424. Unfortunately, many of the extracts
been copied accurately and contain numerous errors, some of importance.
noted, have been corrected in the present paper.
"Schools Of Thought"
AMONG a number
of very interesting and well thought out paragraphs to be found on the
page of the Illinois Freemason of April 20th is the following:
are two schools of Masonic thought at the present time; one is composed
of the older
members of the Fraternity who are opposed to anything of a progressive
while the other school is made up of the younger element who believe
that the Fraternity
should change its customs and become more directly in line with the
spirit of the
times. It will be a matter of much interest to know which of these two
part of the magazine the editor recites an instance where a young man
years of age, scarcely thirty days a Mason, approached him in an effort
out what kind of a report the editor, as a member of an investigating
intended to make regarding a certain applicant.
who is a Past Grand Master of Illinois, is one of the keenest analysts
to be found
in the list of Masonic editors in the United States. He is one of those
of the Fraternity who is keeping in touch with the larger movements of
and is trying with an honest mind to weigh the opposing forces which
the thought of men topsy-turvy. He is trying to make Masonry fit into
as a stabilizing agency, for he believes sincerely that Freemasonry has
practical to offer in these times of stress. Withal, he is keeping in
what the men of the Fraternity, and particularly the younger men, are
and is trying to understand the opinions which they hold of Freemasonry.
It is possible
that Brother Darrah, in making the statement that there are two schools
thought, is thinking only of the older Masons whom he mentions as one
the younger and more recently initiated element as the other. If that
is his vision
of the problem, I quite agree. But as I have read and re-read the
times it occurs to me that possibly there was going on in his own mind
between the Past Grand Masters and other leaders in the various
heads have whitened with age, and the other group of comparatively
young men who,
during the last five years or so have sat in the higher councils of the
Brother Darrah himself is one of this latter group, and is, I suspect,
adopt a judicial attitude in the matter.
of the above interpretations is to be placed upon his suggestion he
If the first interpretation is correct he is eternally right in his
there is no doubt that the "school" of recently initiated Masons hold
opinions at variance with those of our elder brethren: but if the
is the one he means, it deserves to be questioned.
to me that Brother Darrah has hit upon two significant symptoms in
these two articles.
They are not as a matter of fact the disease itself, yet they are very
in their meaning. As I view it, those men who were leaders of the Craft
of years ago differ with the younger men in their opinions of the
in their view-point. I have a personal acquaintance with a large number
of the younger
men throughout the United States who have been advanced to the position
Master in the last five years. I believe I know their opinions and
They do not wish to depart from the Landmarks as Brother Darrah's
to hint. They do not want to depart from the historical customs of the
as some of the elder men seem to think. What they do want to do is to
principles underlying the Landmarks of the Fraternity to present day
just as the Masons of colonial days applied them, in writing the
of government which are the priceless heritage of this Republic.
What I see
in the contrast in view-point between the elder and younger members who
the burdens of responsibility in Masonry is something different. There
can be no
question that particularly in our western jurisdictions younger men
reach the Grand
East than was the custom a quarter of a century ago. This is of course
in line with
the spirit of the times. Younger men are in demand everywhere to hold
the helm of
business. Business has learned that the experience of the older man is
and they recognize it by placing him on "Advisory Boards," by putting
former bank presidents as chairmen of "Boards of Directors," etc. But
the demands of modern business are so exacting that they sap the energy
of the older
man in executive positions, and so it is that business has made it
young men who are ambitious and whose perceptions are quick and keen,
to grasp not
only the fundamentals but the details of business in a comparatively
The "wisdom" which they acquire is not always balanced by ripened
and these "Advisory Boards" and "Boards of Directors" not infrequently
have to place curbs upon the young man in an executive position who
with delay and tries "impulsively," as they say, to solve the immediate
many evidences too, in business, that the older heads sometimes resent
rise of the younger man. Others think they are "going too fast." Again
there is sometimes an atmosphere of suspicion. As a matter of fact,
are created largely because of a lack of sympathetic understanding
between the older
and the younger man. The gulf is often a generation in extent. It is
not easy to
bridge. The older man is not in close touch with the enormous amount of
detail which is laid on the desk of the young executive. He fails to
in its entirety the complexity of present-day organization. On the
other hand, when
the executive brings before him a single set of conditions and
discusses the various
methods in which certain principles may be applied, the judgment and
of the older man makes it easy for him to solve the individual problem
complex to the younger because it is associated with so many others.
farther, we find that the rapidly growing business which depends for
of its details upon the older man exclusively, often stands still or
begins to show
signs of failure. The young man, if left alone, is prone to plunge
disaster. The combination of the two, when they come together in a
brings undoubted success. The reason is not far to seek. The older man,
in the careful and painstaking methods of the past, and rising to
by slow stages, does not grasp the intricacies of present situations
with the same
quickness that the younger does, and so the one needs the other. It is
a vivid example
of the interdependence of men. It is this kind of cooperation which has
And so when
Brother Darrah speaks of two schools of thought, I think he is only
symptom of Freemasonry which is in fact an exact parallel to the
I have drawn in the business world. Personally acquainted as I am with
so many members
of the Craft, old and young, I cannot help feeling that the tremendous
in numbers in Masonry has introduced problems which did not exist when
men were at the helm. The older men have not been thinking in terms of
Many of them have not yet learned to regard Freemasonry as a popular
The result is that under their leadership, (and this absolutely without
of theirs,) the Landmarks of the Fraternity have not been interpreted
terms. The organization of the Fraternity has not always kept pace with
of a multiplied membership.
To use business
terms again, retail methods which were sufficient when small lodges
were the rule
and ritualistic work came infrequently, must now be supplanted by a
which will meet existing needs. When a lodge initiated only two or
three or a dozen
members in a year, there was ample time to give each one of them the
which he needed in order to become a true Mason. Today there is no time
The conferring of degrees is in itself a wholesale problem. It is alone
to sap all the energies of the Masters and Wardens of a lodge. The
result is that
the initiates of the past five years in particular have, on the
average, a very
poor conception of what Freemasonry really is; what its fundamental
and for what it stands in the world. Some have characterized these
young men as
"half-baked Masons." In other words their instruction has not yet
to them the same degree of understanding of Freemasonry that every
received twenty years ago.
which Brother Darrah recites of a young Mason coming to him, trying to
what his report on a candidate was to be, is another symptom of the
faces us. To that young man it was a question of personal relationship.
to know whether Brother Darrah was a friend of the young man or held a
him. He was honest. He did not want to intrude upon Brother Darrah's
but he was utterly incapable of understanding Brother Darrah's
conception of Freemasonry.
He did not understand what phrases like "dwell together in unity" and
"for the good of the order" meant. He wanted his friend to be a Mason
and whether that friend would be a contribution to the Fraternity or a
to its personnel had not occurred to him.
Is not this
a frank and truthful statement of the predicament in which Freemasonry
Certainly it affords an understanding of relations which sometimes
without impugning the good faith of anyone. If this line of reasoning
is a challenge
to the younger leaders of our Fraternity to study the history of the
Craft and learn
whither they are leading us, it is also a challenge to the older men to
try to appreciate
the intricacies of the problems which face the younger Grand Masters of
know so many of the older men and appreciate the honesty of their
well as the wealth of their spirit, and because I have recently passed
chairs in my own jurisdiction, I venture to present this line of
argument in the
hope that all of us may try to understand each other better. I know
that it is the
ambition of all of us to make genuine Masons out of the initiates of
know that if we do understand each other, our only contention will be
to see that
the doctrine of the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man shall
to those who knock at our gates in the future, with the clearness and
of heart which will make of these young men true Masons. To the younger
of Masonic leaders all over the United States, this does not mean that
from our Landmarks; it does not mean that we change our customs; it
does mean that
we so modify the machinery of our organization as to make it possible
the initiate of tomorrow as his father was instructed, that is, in the
truth and in an atmosphere of Brotherhood.
* * *
A Need for Old Fashioned
practice good old fashioned American economy. During the Great War
encouraged throughout the land. To many it came as a hardship. It was a
because of the fact that our prosperity had indicted us into luxurious
habits. A post-war reflection would perhaps reveal to us that the
practices of self-denial
that were in vogue at that time were but a return to good old fashioned
had in times past contributed in a material degree to the making of
and commercial knavery has in the department of clothing done a great
making what were old time customs and practices in regards to clothes,
of this land at one time considered the patching of clothes a virtue,
and men considered
the wearing of patched clothes a wise method of saving money. Simple
abounded in those days, and dyspepsia and the chronic neurosis that our
are combatting, were negligible quantities.
we have heard the spoiled and pampered lover of luxury (which involves
part of the youth of this country) urged to dress well and let George
wear the overalls.
As if the overall were a badge of inferiority. Likewise we have heard
intended to make the overall prominent, by urging the formation of
in the hope that the wearing of them would reduce materially the high
cost of clothing.
Vain hope. For we have since discovered that the overall is to be
decorated in some
instances with gold buckles and other mercantile frumpery, so that they
put beyond the reach of those who hitherto have had to wear them on
account of the
impossibility of paying what was required for other kinds of clothing.
In the practice
of old fashioned economy, a patch was a badge of merit, and so could it
For if we would but look about us we should discover that men in most
in the working ranks of life are living beyond their means in efforts
those who have more than a sufficiency of this world's goods. Let us
one of the cardinal virtues that can be practiced by a people is to
by all means ‒ when one can afford it. A phonograph ‒ when it can be
paid for. But
away with easy spending and an undervaluation of the worth of the
dollar, and a
following of superficial and ridiculous suggestions such as the overall
which will be but as a cork upon the ocean insofar as it will tend to
We have in
the Masonic Fraternity a real basis of democracy in our land which, it
is not inconceivable
to believe in these troubled days of the world, might become the
bulwark of American
liberty. Should foreign foes sufficient ever be marshalled against us
to tear from
the star-spangled banner of this Union, to suggest the words of
star that glitters to the proud name of a sovereign state, but leaving
behind as fit emblems of our slavery and degradation ‒ should vandal
its silken folds into ribbons, and iron heels trample the shreds into
I believe enough Masons would be left in our land to gather other
bright stars from
the sky of liberty, and weave other threads of red and white and blue
into the same
glorious emblem. While we are taught that Masonry is not to interfere
with any duty
we owe to our country, we are not to infer that we are to do nothing
our country. We are to live for our country. And in this unsettled time
let us take
into all the relationships of life the real democracy formed on the
of King Solomon's Temple.
‒ Bro. R. H. Harper. Louisiana.
yourself refreshed by the presence of cheerful people. Why not make
to confer that pleasure on others? Half the battle is gained if you
yourself to say anything gloomy.
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
be our aim to publish in this Department each month a list of such
as we may be able from time to time to secure for members of the
a book listed herein this month may be out of stock next month, and
unobtainable, and for this reason it is recommended that when ordering
pamphlets from these lists the latest monthly issue of THE BUILDER be
and no orders be made from lists more than thirty days old.
monthly reviews the names and addresses of the publishers of the books
in order that our readers may order such books direct from the
of through the Society.
The Boyhood Life Of Roosevelt
Boy's Life of Theodore Roosevelt," [Lib 1918] by Hermann Hagedorn.
Harper & Brothers, Franklin Square, New York, N. Y.
is no more one of the continued habits of men will be to sing the
praises of the
great ones of the earth, in song and story. The habit of hero worship
and it is well that this is so, since by worship of the great ones are
to emulate their characters and imitate their virtues.
We are delighted
to bring to the notice of the members of the National Masonic Research
Hagedorn's "Boy's Life of Theodore Roosevelt." As was said of Lincoln,
so may it be said of Roosevelt, that he now belongs to the ages, and
and worth will come into clearer perspective as generation succeeds
of the future will not be like in character to the problems of
yesterday, but the
manner of solution of any problem will be the manner reflected in the
life and character
of Theodore Roosevelt. That it will challenge the best that is in the
youth of our
land goes without question. He will abide as one of the strong men who
the admiration of boys to whom such men personify in themselves the
ideals of a
nation. Roosevelt's wonderful daring, his fearlessness and his
will ever be as a magnetic force that will serve to attract to the
the boys of America.
of experience, his untiring zeal in the interests of national
the love for heroic achievement. Hagedorn has indeed rendered a timely
bringing out this work, and we cannot but wish that its circulation
will be wide
and we heartily recommend it to the youth of the land. It will be a
in the shaping of the ideal young American.
* * *
The Stuff of Which Real
Men are Made
"A Son of the
Middle Border," [Lib 1928] by Hamlin Garland. Published
The Macmillan Co., 66 Fifth Ave., New York.
We wish that
all Masons might read the opening chapters of Hamlin Garland's "A Son
Middle Border." The stuff of which real men are made is charmingly
in this autobiography. The adventurous spirit that was the possession
of those Americans
who transformed the wilderness into a place of civilization is here
would also have Masons read these chapters that they might grasp fully
which has seized upon us through soft living, easy money and luxurious
habits. While we would not wish for any man the hardships endured by
yet we cannot but believe that only in the school of hardship,
sacrifice and patient
endeavor have our best men been produced.
father was of the type of men who have ever given this world, and
nation, great leaders. He was fearless, truthful and hardworking. That
and their sons should ultimately become the prey of profiteers,
and blatant demagogues, is the great tragedy of America. The world that
for us in the opening chapters of this book is a real world, and the
story is an
epoch in which God, man, woman and little children and the elements are
Insipid sentimentalities are as foreign to this environ as inhabitants
to the moon. The healthy repudiation of that aristocratic snobbery
which has had
so much to do with fomenting national deterioration is sensed in the
the author's mother, to whom an English visitor, with his personal
in lieu of the homestead's plain knives and forks, was almost
not much play in the boy's life, and a halo of sadness prevails
throughout the book
on this account; but we discover later that such boys grew to be men
who were strong
of limb, clear of eye and sane of mind. They could lift prodigious
to wrestle for the sport there was in it, and they enjoyed the hunt and
in the cold running water. They were not humbugged by the movies, by
and by the pernicious imported examples of European moralities. They
and healthy and their virtues shine for us today in a resplendent
fashion, and we
say fervently that we wish that our youth could be imbued with the
which actuated these pioneers.
* * *
Another Worthwhile Book
Worst Boys in Town," [Lib 1919] by James L. Hill. Price
by the Stratford Company, Boston, Mass.
A dear friend
who for many years has been interested in the boy problem of America
this book to our notice, requesting that we say a word in its favor.
of the book has resulted in finding ourselves without any qualm of
recommending it as a work much worthwhile. The preacher method is
we judge that he is one of the old school, but the thing with which he
affecting boy life is dealt with in such a sane and practical fashion
that we question
not but that those who are privileged to read it will be much
The erudition and scholarship greatly enhances the value of the work,
and so brilliantly
is it interspersed with anecdotes touching upon great men that it is
readable from beginning to end.
It is a wholesome
plea for the gentlemanly boy in America, and we may readily apprehend
mission for such a work when we look about us and discover such a vast
of the boys of the land almost utterly lacking in those refined
which mark culture and good breeding.
* * *
Medieval Architecture and
Anecdotes of the Builders
Cathedrals of England," [Lib 1905] by M. J. Taber. Published by
Company, 53 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. Price $2.50.
We have enjoyed
the perusal of this work. It is not exhaustive, but it is one that
impressions of those magnificent structures which bear witness to the
actuated men in England some three or four hundred years ago. It is
with anecdotes of men who were both great and good ‒ and others who
were not so
good ‒ who occupied the bishoprics. The stories regarding the bad
delight those scurrilous critics of a decadent ecclesiasticism, but to
us as Masons
the chief point of interest in the book would be derived from the
many of our Masonic predecessors had much to do with the erection of
Gothic arches and stained glass windows, the statuary and paintings
these wonderful old buildings, should serve as a decided protest
against the murky
materialism that is threatening to lead us so woefully into disaster.
for us the fact that man does not live by bread alone. They preach an
demands fraternity among men and an acknowledgment of the sovereignty
bound, charmingly illustrated, it is one of a series of books put out
by the Page
Company that one may well possess to enhance the charm of his library.
June Book List
list embraces practically all the standard works on Masonry which we
are able to
secure and keep in stock for the accommodation of individual members of
Study Clubs and Lodges.
We are finding
it more difficult each year to procure new or second-hand copies of the
works on Masonry of which, owing to the limited market for them at the
time of their
publication, but a small number of copies were printed.
We are continually
in search for additional items which will be listed in this column
whenever it is
our good fortune to secure them.
It is suggested
that the latest list be consulted before sending in orders and that no
made from lists more than one month old, since our stock of these books
and a book listed this month may be out of stock by the time next
month's list is
publishers are constantly increasing their prices to us the following
subject to such changes.
Publications Issued by the Society
| 1915 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1919 bound volume of THE BUILDER (for delivery
about February 1st or 15th)
| Philosophy of Freemasonry, Pound
| Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M.
Johnson, P.G.M., Massachusetts
| 1722 Constitutions (reproduced by photographic
plates from an original copy in the archives of the Iowa Masonic
Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition limited,
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro.
J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, red buffing binding, gilt lettering,
illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry,
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag,"
| "Further Notes on the Comacine Masters," W.
Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to "The Comacines, Their Predecessors
and Their Successors," a Masonic digest of Leader Scott's book "The
Cathedral Builders" and containing the latest researches of Brother
Ravenscroft which present a very logical argument for the connection of
Freemasonry of the present day with the Roman Collegia and traveling
Masons of the early times, paper covers, illustrated
| Symbolism of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Three Degrees, Street, 68
pages, paper covers. The lessons and symbols of each degree traced to
their origin, in every instance that it has been possible to so trace
them. Brother Street gives many explanations of our symbols in this
little book on which our monitors but vaguely touch
| Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite,
PUBLICATIONS FROM OTHER SOURCES IN IN STOCK AT
| "The Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry,
by Brother Joseph Fort Newton, formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER
| Mackey's Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two
volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
| Symbolism of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey
| Concise History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke
| Collected Essays on Freemasonry, Gould
prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all items
The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or registered.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under this owl name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to al alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of a nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study club which are
following our "Bulletin
Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be answered
by mail before publication in this department.
A Sinn Fein
speaker recently made the statement in this city that "John Washington,
of George Washington, was 'probably' an Irishman." Is this true?
the great-grandfather of President George Washington, was of English
and by religion a Protestant, belonging to the Episcopal faith.
* * *
General Pershing Now A Mason
In Good Standing
me if Admiral Benson, U. S. N., General John J. Pershing, and Josephus
Secretary of the Navy, are Masons.
R. F. C., Kansas.
and Daniels are Roman Catholics.
Pershing affiliated with Lincoln Lodge No. 19, A. F. & A. M.,
on February 3rd, 1920, and is now a member in good standing of all the
in that city.
* * *
Andrew Jackson Grand Master
In the February,
1920, issue of THE BUILDER I read with much interest an article about
The article centered about the Jackson Memorial monument at Washington,
D. C., but
some reference was made to Jackson's Masonic history. Now I am told
that some of
the lodges in Tennessee have charters with Andrew Jackson's signature
as Grand Master.
It seems that one of the lodges at Jackson, Tennessee, has such a
charter. Yet no
mention of Tennessee was made in the article in THE BUILDER. Was Andrew
Grand Master of Tennessee?
V. E. V., Tennessee.
Jackson was a member of Philanthropic Lodge Clover Bottom, Tenn., and
Grand Master of Tennessee in 1822-23.
In the March
number Brother Skinkle, of Illinois, asks for further information
Fines." You refer the query to some Kentucky brother, but I wonder if
from the by-laws and records of an old New York State lodge would not
prove of interest.
from the by-laws of St. George's Lodge, Schenectady, will show for what
fines were collected and to what purposes applied. These old by-laws
are dated August
18, 1774 ‒ "The above by-laws are made and enacted at the commencement
opening of this lodge on Thursday, the eighteenth day of August, 1774"
I am quoting from the original copy.
II. That a member neglecting to attend a public lodge shall pay a fine
of two shillings,
and a private lodge one shilling, if summoned to such private lodge,
unless he makes
excuse satisfactory to the Body: and a member coming to lodge after the
time shall pay a fine of six pence, for which purpose the Secretary
lodge evening call the roll and make report of those that are finable
As for the
terms "public lodge" and "private lodge," Art. I explains them:
I. That from and after the eighteenth day of August, 1774, this lodge
on Thursday every fortnight at the house to which the same is adjourned
be deemed public or general lodge night, but the Master or Warden, who
Chair in his absence, may convene an extra or private lodge whenever he
V. That every member of this lodge shall pay quarterly towards its
support to the
Treasurer two shillings and six pence and in case of sickness or
absence of a member
he must appoint a brother to pay his dues for him under the penalty of
for his neglect.
XIII. That if the Master or other officer who in virtue of his office
is to keep
the key or keys to the Chest shall not attend lodge in proper time and
send the same whereby the business of the lodge shall be retarded such
forfeit eight shillings and pay for repairing the Chest, box and locks
in case they
are necessary to be broke open in order to open the lodge.
XIV. That if the Master shall neglect or refuse to fine delinquents
these laws he shall pay the fine himself.
XV. That if any member of this lodge do presume to curse, swear or
lodge or come there intoxicated or get drunk during lodge hours or make
or uproar therein or does not behave decent and is silent on the third
the Master's mallet shall pay a fine of three shillings.
XX. That there shall be one fund wherein all the monies and fines of
shall from time to time be deposited for charitable purposes and the
of the lodge, which fund shall not be opened or inspected but in open
no monies disposed out of it but by consent of a majority of the
XXI. That for improving ourselves in the Royal Art a discourse shall be
public lodge evening, or the Master or, in his absence, the Warden who
Chair shall pay a fine of eight shillings.
XXII. That the Senior Warden shall every lodge night acquaint the
Master when it
is ten o'clock for then the lodge shall be closed, unless in case of
and on lodge evenings no member shall have more drink than for one
then only when the lodge is called off to refreshment, paying
immediately for the
same, under a fine of two shillings.
XXIII. That no member shall, after lodge is closed, have refreshment
a crown without the Master's consent previously had, under a fine of
to be recovered the next lodge night."
In 1791 these
by-laws were "revised by order of said lodge and amended agreeable to
of the Ancient and honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons in
of New York" ‒ and all the articles mentioned above were retained and
29 ‒ a new one ‒ added:
any officer of this lodge wilfully neglecting to perform such duties of
as are not herein particularly mentioned shall be fined at the
discretion of the
Body in a sum not exceeding four shillings."
were not again amended until 1824 when the articles relating to fines
out. So much for the nature of the offense and for what purposes fines
Now for a few extracts from the records of the lodge giving examples of
of penalties ‒ a few only from many:
10, 1774. Fines for coming after hours. Christopher Yates paid sixpence
hands of Brother Clench."
the fourth meeting of the lodge, and Brother Yates was the Master.
7, 1778. The Worshipful Master paid his fine for absence last lodge
night and likewise
for coming to lodge past hours. There was likewise a fine collected for
15, 1790. Brothers Barhydt and Main fined sixpence severally for coming
at a late hour.
1, 1790. The Worshipful Brothers Cummings and Peek fined sixpence each.
16, 1790. Brothers Watson, Barhydt and Beuler was severally fined
sixpence for coming
to lodge past the stated hour, and paid it.
25, 1790. This evening one of the keys of the chest being missing the
is liable to pay a fine according to the by-laws.
23, 1791. Brother McKinney paid a fine of two shillings for his absence
night. The Worshipful Joseph C. Yates fined sixpence for coming after
30, 1791. Brothers Yates, Alexander and Campbell were each fined
sixpence for coming
in at a late hour, which they paid. Brothers Fonda and Corl appeared
satisfactory excuse to the Body for absence last lodge night.
6, 1791. Brother Watson fined one shilling for his not attending the
7, 1796. Worshipful Joseph C. Yates appeared and took his Chair ‒ was
for being tardy which he accordingly paid. Brother Rosa paid two
shillings for neglect
in not attending lodge last regular lodge evening."
the regulations concerning fines were carried in the by-laws until 1824
they were not enforced later than 1805, when the Treasurer was fined
for not appearing
with his key to the chest. There were three locks to the lodge chest,
all its property, a key to each lock being carried by the Master,
Treasurer, and unless they three were present and agreed the chest
could not be
opened and the business of the lodge proceeded with.
I am under
the impression that fines may still be inflicted, even if the by-laws
do not provide
for the same. In this jurisdiction the Master, in opening the lodge,
no less a penalty than the by-laws prescribe or a majority of the
may see cause to inflict." Now the brethren present may only inflict a
or a fine ‒ expulsion and suspension being subject to certain
regulations laid down
in the Constitution of the Grand Lodge.
Hanford Robison, New York.
* * *
Some Observations on Our
May I submit
through your columns a few observations upon the responsibilities which
than perhaps at any other period, rest upon the initiated under the
of the various Masonic bodies, especially of America? The occasion
the necessity apparent, and the object worthy.
In this turbulent
period, "when the nations rage and the people imagine a vain thing,"
men everywhere are seeking the pathway leading to a correct solution of
problems presented by the unsettled social, political, religious and
I know of
no period in the development of civilization demanding the conservative
of all classes more than that through which we are now passing. The
at many periods in the past has been retarded by improper concepts of
Fanaticism has been a canker upon the body of the tree of progress,
which has militated
against its production of the most wholesome food for sustaining the
intellectual, and material growth of the human family. It has stood as
evil genius of truth, progress, and a correct interpretation of the
mankind. The signs of the times, I fear, point with unerring finger,
the world toward
the path ending in another "Dark Ages."
In the opinion
of many the recent scar was but a response to the ambitious designs of
yet, to me, it was but the logical consequence of conflicting ideals.
The war, and
its subsequent effect, portends a complete revolution in governmental,
and moral relations.
conditions it stands every man in hand to take thoughtful consideration
of his own
responsibility in bringing harmony out of the chaotic attitude of the
towards the human problems now confronting us. Harold Bell Wright has
blinded by the fog of things cannot see truth; ears deafened by the din
cannot hear truth; throats choked with the dust of things cannot speak
bewildered by the whirl of things cannot think truth; hearts deadened
by the weight
of things cannot feel truth." I am impressed that this is applicable to
present age and to the present condition of the peoples. We are blinded
by the fog,
deafened by the din, choked by the dust, bewildered by the whirl, and
the weight of the human responsibilities resting upon the citizens of
In groping in the maze of human error, seeking after the truth, we are
every path through the morass of ease, pleasure, and ambition.
weighty considerations, every institution that has been founded for the
of human advancement is resting under the most supreme obligation, ‒ to
and to the world, ‒ to exert all of its influence toward bringing the
the light of truth, clearing away the fog, the noise, the dust, the
din, and the
weight of things, so that the sunlight of truth may dispel the miasmas
a view of the mountain top of proper solution.
peculiarly upon the Masonic Fraternity the important responsibility of
the truths of liberty in thought and action upon the people. This great
had its beginning in a period of the world's history almost, if not
with that through which we are now passing. Its founders were imbued
with the idea
of combatting the various diseases then preying upon the body politic
of the world,
and antagonizing the fanatical consideration of all questions material
to the growth
of humanity; especially of propagating through the diffusion of truth
of human liberty in its relation to creation, government, and
It has grown from an infant to stalwart manhood, consistently
propagating its ideals,
regardless of the antagonism of people moved by fanatical dogmas. It
to train men in the conception of truth, that they might, in building
edifice of character, afford examples to the profane worthy to be
shortcomings owe their origin to the failure of its adherents to
conceive its purposes,
‒ or, if conceiving them, to exemplify them in their own lives.
Just at this
time it is extremely important that every Mason should so shape his
words, and his conduct, as to become a light-house on the shore of the
sea of disturbed
human thought and action, to guide safely into the harbor of solution
the bark of
civilization. If every adherent to the teachings of the Masonic
earnestly endeavor to exemplify its truths in his life, its influence
such a potent factor in the consideration of the problems now before
that the world would be compelled to recognize it as one of the
the edifice of human progress. Masonry undertakes to teach men the
truths of God,
creation, and of individual responsibility. Its power for good in the
is assured chiefly by the concept of its tenets by its membership, and
effort to put them into practice. In all of its existence, it has
sought to teach
the truth, and it can only teach as those who are within its circle may
truth in their own lives, and thus diffuse the light of truth. In the
years of its
existence as an operative and speculative organization, it has been the
advocate of liberty of thought and action on the part of its initiates.
It has opposed
the domination of any one man, or set of men, in teaching religious
has opposed autocracy in all the relationships of life. It has not
sought to interfere
with the religious opinions of its adherents, or their political
creeds, or their
social relationships, save only as these may have been of deterrent
effect in the
growth of civilization, antagonistic to the Creator's great purposes,
of the beauty and symmetry of the human edifice.
becomes extremely important that we should redouble our efforts in
tenets of our Order, not in a dogmatic but in a liberal way, upon the
world at this
time. Anarchy, socialism, autocracy, and injustice are the enemies of
are to be combatted with all the faculties of our being. They are the
Masonry, because they are in opposition to the great purposes of
feed upon the jealousies of the people, they are grown fat upon the
mankind, ‒ and if left to their free sway, will certainly destroy the
humanity and of the world, as the unchecked ravages of disease destroy
It is meet,
therefore, that at this time we should gird our loins with liberality,
the sword of truth on the great battlefield of conflicting opinions, in
to place upon the embattlements of progress and civilization the ensign
as exemplified in the teachings of Masonry and as proved true by the
S. P. Sadler, Texas.
* * *
The Number Seven
every other Science, whether moral or physical, to be rightly estimated
understood in all its relations and conditions. It is of value to the
the exact ratio that he has investigated and studied its philosophy.
believes it had its foundation in the early ages of man's habitation of
the exact date has not and cannot be fixed. We submit herein one of the
why we think the modern Order is undoubtedly linked with an age 1600 or
reason is the symbol Seven. Seven is a sacred symbol diffused in a
over the whole Masonic system. In every system of antiquity there is a
reference to the number Seven, showing that the veneration for it
some common cause.
full and complete in the Hebrew, Phoenician, Chaldean, Syrian, Persian
languages. In tablets in the British Museum dug from ancient ruins in
the Far East,
accounts are given of the great flood where Seven appears to have been
number. These records found were made about 4000 B. C. and in both the
and Chaldean tablets the ship or ark took seven days to build and had
or as we would say today, seven decks, or six decks and a hold - seven
the seventh day birds were released from this ark on the mountain where
on the seventh day.
the work of creation, according to these ancient tablets, took seven
days, but was
full and complete on the seventh day. Some say that because of the
the Sabbath is this so, while others hold it is because of the number
of days in
the week corresponding with the number of the planetary bodies as known
systems there were seven planets.
Seven Pleiades ‒ 7 stars.
Seven Hyades ‒ 7 Hades.
Seven altars burned continuously before the god Mithras.
Arabians had seven Holy Temples.
Hindus believed the world enclosed within the compass of seven
The Goths had seven deities from whose names are derived the seven days
of the week.
In the Persian
Mysteries there were seven spacious caverns through which any candidate
He met with seven obstructions, and his itinerary was called the road
of seven stages.
with the ancients and indeed in Biblical times sacrifices were always
most efficacious when the victims were seven in number.
a conspicuous place in the teachings of Pythagoras whose system is
referred to in
all Masonic work.
in early history had seven years of plenty succeeded by seven years of
waters of Egypt were turned to blood for seven days. Every seventh year
was a Sabbatical
year and the year following seven weeks of years was the year of
in the time of Alexander referred in their writings to the Seven
Wonders of the
1. The Pyramids of Egypt.
2. The hanging gardens of Babylon.
3. The Temple of Diana of Ephesus.
4. The Statue of Olympian Jupiter
5. The Mausoleum.
6. The Colossus of Rhodes.
7. The Pharos or Lighthouse of
Among the Greeks Seven was
sacred to many.
3. In the
Jewish Era the three great festivals celebrated by the Jews each lasted
1st. The Passover ‒ seven days.
2nd. The Festival of Weeks ‒ 7 days and between each of these 7 days.
3rd. The Feast of the Tabernacle ‒ 7 days.
Much of the
Jewish Ritual was governed by this number. Oaths were confirmed by
or by seven victims offered in sacrifice. The Sabbath was the seventh
was commanded to select beasts and fowls by sevens. Seven persons
into the ark. The intervals between dispatching the doves were each
and the ark rested on Mount Ararat in the seventh month. The walls of
encompassed seven days by seven priests bearing seven ram's horns.
Solomon was seven
years in building the Temple at Jerusalem, which was dedicated in the
and the festival lasted seven days. The candlestick in the Temple had
the centre one represented the sun and had reference to Sunday; the
other six to
the other six days in the week. The tower of Babel was said to have
seven stories before dispersion. In the New Testament (Rev. 1-16) we
find the following:
"And he had in his had seven stars." It is a symbol of the seven
of Asia. There are many groups of seven to be found in the New
Seven Churches of Asia.
Seven eyes of the Lamb.
And in the
Old Testament (Isaiah 11-2) we find reference to the seven gifts of the
The fear of the Lord.
to more modern times we find Ruskin writes of and frequently refers to
lamps of Architecture [Lib 1907], namely
it will be apparent from what has been said that to the ancients down
to and through
Biblical times, the number Seven had great symbolical significance in
Art and Religious life of men. And as we said in opening, we feel that
Seven, owing to its frequent use in our work, is one reason (either
great or small
as you may view it) for the contention that Masonry had its foundations
very early times of educated human existence.
D. P. Kennedy, Canada.
A Poem of Moral Duties
Reg90 / auth. Regius Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1390. - p. 70. -
A Son of the Middle Border
Gar28 / auth. Garland Hamlin. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1928.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 482. - 21.4 MB.
Boy's Life of Roosevelt
Hag18 / auth. Hagedorn Hermann. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 406. - 21.3 MB.
Coo00 / auth. Cooke Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1400. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 16. - 0.2 MB.
Social Life in Britain
Cou18 / auth. Coulton George G. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 562. - 23.6 MB.
The American Commonwealth Vol 1
Bry13AC1 / auth. Bryce James. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1913.
- Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 757. - 20.6 MB.
The American Commonwealth Vol 2
Bry13AC2 / auth. Bryce James. - New York : The Macmillan Compnay, 1913.
- Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 974. - 25.4 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Cathedrals of England
Tab05 / auth. Taber Mary J. - Boston : L C Page & Company,
1905. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 359. - Illustrated - 9.5 MB.
The Comacines Their
Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 94. - 3.4 MB.
The Seven Lamps of Architecture
Rus07 / auth. Ruskin John. - London : George Allen & Sons,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 479. - 14.1 MB.
The Worst Boys in Town
Hil19 / auth. Hill James L. - Boston : The Stratford Company, 1919. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 361. - 9.6 MB.
Let06 / auth. Lethaby W R. - London : Duckworth & Co, 1906. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 394. - 8.6 MB.