Masonic Research Society
to Great Men who were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.
G. M., District Of Columbia
ONE OF the
idols of the Navy was Captain Stephen Decatur, who lost his life in a
duel in 1820.
There were two Stephens of the surname Decatur ‒ father and son. The
faithfully and well during the War of the Revolution, was a member of
No. 16, in Maryland, and later a member of St. John's Lodge No. 20,
in the same State. The Decaturs were Huguenots, and of French descent.
II, is the subject of this essay. He was born in Maryland in 1779, and
into St. John's Lodge October 12th, 1799, at Newport, Rhode Island. We
to Brother Gilbert Patten Brown for this Masonic record.
II was appointed a Midshipman in 1798, and served with distinction
Barry, Captain Bainbridge and Captain Dale. While under the command of
Morris, Lieutenant Decatur became active against the Barbary Pirates,
of the Mediterranean who had been for ages levying tribute on every
sail that passed
in or out of the straits. Gibraltar itself gets its name (Gib-al-Taric)
from a famous
chief of the pirates, and the word "tariff" comes from Tarifa, the
where these robbers made their headquarters. It was strange that
sanctioned this high-sea tariff, and it is equally strange that a new
should be the first to forcibly oppose it. But this followed so soon
upon the war
with France (for it was a de facto war) when our Commissioner, Pinkney,
the French Deputies, "Millions for defense, but not one cent for
that it was thought worthwhile to "buck" a second time.
Jones, Decatur was said to be the pink of politeness, courteous,
courtly, but it was an easy matter for him to be led into a quarrel. He
of the best seamen of his day, and it was a time when sail was the
and the importance of proficiency in seamanship could not be
a man of correct judgment; he neither over nor under estimated his
plan for cutting out and destroying the Philadelphia (one of our
by the Barbarians) was admirable, and it was wholly executed by
himself. So successful
was the plan that it at once brought him into the limelight. And it was
successful in disturbing the balance of the Barbarians that they were,
time, practically out of the grafting business. A grateful Congress
a sword, two months' pay and a Captain's commission, and two months'
pay was also
voted to the officers and seamen engaged with him.
took part in an allied attack on a flotilla of gun boats, which he
in a hand-to-hand fight, conquered the enemy. A Tropolitan Captain
brother, a Lieutenant, but soon thereafter Stephen crossed swords with
and killed him. Out of eighty men who opposed Decatur that day,
fifty-two were killed
or wounded, while Decatur's loss was but fourteen.
The War terminated
in 1805 and Decatur was inactive until the War of 1812. In that war he
a frigate, and captured the Macedonian in a desperate fight. Decatur
found a strong
enemy, but conquered him. For this victory Congress voted him a gold
medal. He also
captured the Hornet, but soon the enemy appeared in such force that
his squadron, found it prudent to remain in the sounds of Long Island
to go out upon the open sea. Finally, however, he was cornered and
captured by a
superior force. After his parole he was obliged to face a court of
honorably acquitted him.
a fleet of three ships in 1815, in the Mediterranean, when he fell in
with the Algerine
frigate Mashouda, taking the Algerine Admiral Rais Hammida and nearly
of his officers and men besides nearly four hundred other prisoners. On
flagship, the Guerriere, there were fourteen killed and wounded.
In 1815 Decatur
was appointed Navy Commissioner, which office he held until his death,
in a duel with Commodore Barron. Barron had been Decatur's commander
and they had
been very close friends. But during the war with Great Britain, while
in Europe Decatur saw the urgent need for his return and was irritated
delay. The real reason, as afterwards discovered, was that Barron had
not the necessary
funds for his return trip. Decatur made some disparaging remarks about
which reached Barron's ears. He might have stood these remarks from
whom he had not such an intimate liking, but from Decatur who had been
so near and
dear to him, he could not stand them, and so challenged Decatur to a
on the district line between the District of Columbia and Maryland, on
a spot called
the "Bladensburg Duelling Ground" because of so many duels having been
fought there. Both fell at the first fire, Barron severely and Decatur
body was placed in a vault in Washington until 1846 when it was removed
to St. Peter's
Protestant Episcopal Churchyard, in Philadelphia, where the beautiful
with a Tuscan cap, and on a cubic plinthe, marks the spot. The column
by an American eagle, emblem of freedom. The eagle is seen poising upon
Perhaps the artist hoped for this emblem of freedom to extend its
the whole globe. Surely no greater champion of freedom ever trod the
he who rests beneath this beautiful column.
By Bro. Arthur M. Ellis,
data herewith presented bearing on the Masonic connections of Brother
is of particular value to the Craft in that it has been obtained from
independent of Masonic records or traditions.
President of the United States, wrote a letter June 22, 1798, more than
a year prior
to Washington's death, in which he spoke of Warren of Massachusetts,
and other Masons,
adding "Such examples as these and a greater still in my venerable
would have been sufficient to induce me to hold the Institution and
esteem and honor as favorable to the support of civil authority, if I
had not known
their love of the fine arts, their delight in hospitality, and devotion
endorsement of Masonry and the unqualified recognition that
with the fraternity was sufficient warrant for giving approbation to it
do not serve
to quiet the clamors of the enemies of Masonry. There are yet persons
who declare that Washington discarded Masonry before the Revolutionary
of them recently stated in print, "The Alexandria, Va., lodge has no
on him, nor has any other subsequent to 1768."
possessed of sources of information that serve to make such statements
but a resort to Masonic records and traditions is of little avail with
profane. There seems to have been no serious attempt to examine the
the standpoint of the unbiased historian. What proofs, if any, are
there apart from
the records and documents under the control of Masonic lodges, that
a constant adherent to the Craft throughout his life and that it
continued to receive
his approval and support?
two important sources, which are not Masonic, which are not now and
have been, under Masonic control, and which are available to those who
truth. The first is the collection of Washington's correspondence in
of Congress; the second is the newspapers of Washington's time. The
these are set forth in Sachse's Masonic Correpondence of Washington
[Lib 1915] and in Pennsylvania
Celebration of 1902 but no attempt has ever been made to critically
and other public evidences in a group by themselves, and to appraise
as such independent proof.
In 1834 and
1849 the United States Government purchased large portions of
from his family. These were stored in the Department of State until
1903. They were
then transferred to the Library of Congress and first became available
to the historian.
Amongst them are many letter books in which the secretaries employed by
placed copies of letters and replies. There are also original drafts of
letters entirely in the handwriting of Washington himself.
of these documents and other data such as stand entirely free from
of contamination or bias through connection with the Craft discloses
Advertiser, a newspaper published in Philadelphia, in its issue of
2, 1779, gives a full account of the public celebration of St. John's
28, 1778. Washington is there named as having been the seventh person
in the order
of the procession. Three hundred brethren marched in great solemnity to
who afterward served this country as an agent in France, delivered a
of gunpowder to Washington at Cambridge in 1775 when need of it was
acquaintance thus begun was never dropped. In 1782 Watson and his
sent a highly ornamented Masonic apron to Washington from France. In
published in 1856, (page 135), Watson quotes the letter with which they
the apron. In it they speak of Washington as being "a brother" and
themselves as having "the favor to be by all the known members your
draft of Washington's reply to this, all in the handwriting of
Washington, is in
the Library of Congress. Amongst other things he uses in it the
"For your affectionate vows permit me to be grateful and offer mine for
Brothers in all parts of the world." The original letter is owned by
Lodge of New York, but the draft has never been in the possession or
any Masonic organization.
Packet, published in Philadelphia, in its issue of July 13, 1784, reads:
"Alexandria, July 1. On
Thursday, the 24th
ult. the brethren of Lodge No. 39 met at their lodge room to celebrate
of St. John the Baptist, … after which they walked in procession
their illustrious brother his excellency General Washington to Mr.
where they dined and spent the remainder of the day in enjoyments
benevolent and respectable institution."
diary, Feb. 12, 1785, appears this:
"Received an Invitation to the
Willm Ramsay, Esqr. of Alexandria ‒ the oldest Inhabitt of the Town;
up ‒ walked in procession as a free mason ‒ Mr. Ramsay in his life time
& now buried with the ceremony & honors due to one."
In 1789 Washington
became President, the capitol then being New York. Rhode Island kept
out of the
Union until the following year. It then acquiesced. In order to cement
feeling Washington then made the first Presidential tour and he visited
Many different bodies there paid their respects to him. King David's
a written address which most unequivocally was limited to fraternal
Washington, President of the United States of America. We the Master,
Brethren of King David's Lodge in New Port Rhode Island with joyful
this opportunity to greet you as a Brother, and to hail you welcome to
… We felicitate ourselves in the honor done the brotherhood by your
virtues and emanations of goodness proceeding from a heart worthy of
the ancient mysteries of our Craft; being persuaded that the wisdom and
which heaven has endowed you, will square all your thoughts, words, and
by the eternal laws of honour equity, and truth, so as to promote the
of all good works, your own happiness, and that of mankind.
us then, illustrious Brother, cordially to salute you with three times
to add our fervent supplications that the sovereign architect of the
always encompass you with his holy protection."
reply is as follows in part:
"Being persuaded that a just
of the principles which the Masonic Fraternity is founded, must be
private virtue and public prosperity, I shall always be happy to
advance the interests
of the Society, and to be considered by them as a deserving brother."
address and letter are in the collection of the Boston Athenaeum. They
in the Newport Herald, August 26, 1790. A copy of each is in Letter
Book II, fols.
27-29, Library of Congress, in the handwriting of William Jackson,
In 1791 Washington
went on his second Presidential tour throughout the South.
Lodge, Newbern, North Carolina, presented him an address on his arrival
20, 1791. In it they speak of him as a "true and faithful brother, the
and expert craftsman, the just and upright man." In his reply
of the Masonic organization as being "a fraternity whose association is
in justice and benevolence." Copies of both address and answer are in
Book II, folios 47-49, Library of Congress, in the handwriting of
Lodge of Georgetown, South Carolina, presented him a somewhat similar
30, 1791. In it they said among other things:
behold in you … a Brother of our most ancient and most honorable Order
reply, Washington said in part, "… I am much obliged by your good
reciprocate them with sincerity, assuring the fraternity of my esteem.
them to believe that I shall always be ambitious of being considered a
entered in Letter Book II, fols. 60-61, in Jackson's handwriting.
Master of South Carolina was General Mordecai Gist. He had been a
and Master of Military Lodge No. 27 in the Maryland line. He wrote an
behalf of the Grand Lodge, May 2, 1791. In a portion of it he said:
"When we contemplate the
distresses of war,
the instances of humanity displayed by the Craft afford some relief to
mind; and it gives us the most pleasing sensation to recollect, that
difficulties attendant on your late military stations, you still
and patronized the Ancient Fraternity. Distinguished always by your
than the exalted stations in which you have moved, we exult in the
now give us of hailing you brother of our Order, and trust from your
our institution, to merit your countenance and support."
in his reply made two positive statements that should be carefully
noted. One was
"I recognize with pleasure my
the brethren of your Society, and I accept with gratitude your
my arrival in South Carolina. Your sentiments on the establishment and
of our equal government are worthy of an association, whose principles
lead to purity
of morals, and are beneficial of action."
"I shall be happy, on every
evince my regard for the Fraternity."
the address and reply are in the Library of Congress in the handwriting
The address was printed in the Charleston City Gazette, May 6, 1791.
similar address was made by the Grand Lodge of Georgia and it was
replied to by
Washington briefly in the same general manner. Copies in Jackson's
in Letter Book II, fols. 77 and 78.
the capitol was Philadelphia. On Jan. 3, 1792, the Grand Lodge of
him an address in which they declare it is done "in the pride of
affection," and express the hope that Washington "may be long continued
to adorn the bright list of master workmen which our Fraternity
produces in the
introductory sentence in reply was:
"Gentlemen and Brothers, I
kind congratulations with the purest sensations of fraternal affection."
and reply are copied in Letter Book II, fols. 104-105 by Dandridge,
Grand Lodge in the same year addressed him, saying amongst other things
had dedicated their Book of Constitution to him, being "convinced of
to its cause, and readiness to encourage its benevolent designs."
In his reply
Washington speaks of the lodge as "a Society whose liberal principles
be founded in the immutable laws of truth and justice," and says
enlarge the sphere of social happiness is worthy the benevolent design
of a Masonic
institution." Copies of both address and reply are in Letter Book II,
106-108 in the handwriting of Dandridge.
18, 1793, the cornerstone of the capitol building at Washington was
laid by Washington
in concert with the Grand Lodge of Maryland, and Lodge No. 22 from
Washington wore the apron which had been presented to him by Lafayette.
accounts of this great Masonic event are in existence. The Maryland
Gazette of Annapolis,
Sept. 26, 1793, states that the cornerstone was laid by Washington, and
on it was
deposed corn, wine and oil. The New York Journal and Patriotic Register
19, 1793, speaks of the Masonic procession as having been brilliant.
given in Columbian Mirror and Alexandria Gazette in its issue of Sept.
has been adopted by the official accounts of the laying of the corner
by the United States Government ‒ House Document No. 211, 1896,
of Capitol, p. 121 et seq.; History of U. S. Capitol ‒ Senate Document
No. 60, 1900,
Vol. I, p. 14 et seq. This account states that Washington wore the
given to him by Lafayette, that he acted as Grand Master pro tem and
that the corner
stone was laid by him "and his attendant brethren.
1796, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania addressed Washington, the
occasion being the
publication of his intention to retire from public life. In his reply
them as "Brothers" and says in part: "I have received your address
with all the feelings of brotherly affection, mingled with those
the Society, which it was calculated to excite." The address and reply
copied in Letter Book III, pp. 244-245, in the handwriting of G. W.
Craik, his secretary.
1797, Washington retired from the presidency and returned to Mt.
Vernon. Lodge 22
thereupon invited him to a Masonic dinner and also presented him an
address in writing.
Washington attended the lodge April 1, 1797. His answer was then read
in open lodge.
The introductory portion of it runs: "Brothers of the Ancient York
Lodge No. 22: While my heart acknowledges with Brotherly Love your
congratulations on my retirement from the arduous toils of past years,
is no less excited by your kind wishes for my future happiness.'
of the lodge, the address and Washington's reply are copied in Letter
Book II, folios
294-295, in the handwriting of Tobias Lear, Washington's Secretary.
Daily Advertiser of Philadelphia, in its issue of April 11, 1797, gives
of the meeting of Lodge 22. After the meeting an "elegant" dinner was
had. At this Washington offered the toast, "The Lodge at Alexandria,
Masons throughout the world."
In the same
month the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts forwarded an affectionate
address to Washington,
signed by Paul Revere, Grand Master. The delivery of this was delayed
for some unexplained
reason. On its receipt Washington at once forwarded to Revere a letter
for his delay in answering. He also wrote a most careful and
to the Grand Lodge. The original draft of this letter, entirely in the
of Washington himself, containing several interlineations and
modifications in his
own hand, is in the collection of manuscripts in the Library of
Congress. In this
he addresses the members of the Grand Lodge as "Brothers." One of the
significant statements contained in it is the following: "My attachment
the Society of which we are members will dispose me always to
contribute my best
endeavours to promote the honor and interest of the Craft." He
letter with the following: "With the assurance of fraternal regard and
wishes for the honor, happiness & prosperity of all the members
of the Grand
Lodge of Massachusetts."
In 1798 trouble
with France had reached such a stage that Congress ordered an army to
and made Washington Lieut.-General. In November he was in Baltimore and
Lodge of Maryland presented him an address in which they stated that it
greatest boast of their Society, that a Washington openly avows himself
of it and thinks it worthy of his approbation." The draft of
sent from Elkton, Maryland, Nov. 8, 1798, is in the Library of
Congress. He addresses
the members of the Grand Lodge as "Gentlemen & Brothers." In it
makes the following unqualified declaration:
"So far as I am acquainted with
and doctrines of Freemasonry, I conceive them to be founded on
to be exercised for the good of mankind; I cannot, therefore, upon this
my approbation of it."
It is subscribed thus:
“I am, Gentlemen and Brothers,
Your most ob't servant."
letter was Washington's last written communication bearing upon
Masonry. His funeral,
as is admitted everywhere, was a Masonic one. Dr. E. C. Dick, Master,
and Rev. James
Muir, D. D., Chaplain of Lodge 22, performed the funeral ceremonies.
apron was on the casket together with his sword. Details as to the
published broadcast throughout the country.
of the Craft have sought to make capital of a letter written by
Washington to Rev.
G. W. Snyder in 1798 prior to his letter to the Grand Lodge of
Maryland. They overlooked
his second letter to Snyder, Oct. 24, 1798, in which he reiterates his
Masonic lodges. Rev. Snyder had written to Washington and charged that
of the lodges in the United States" had caught the infection and
with the Illuminati and Jacobins. He further said that he thought
block the progress in "the English lodges over which you preside." The
term "English lodge" had a meaning at that time as distinctive and
as contrasted with American Lodges as now are the York Rite and
Scottish Rite. Immediately
after the American Revolution a movement was started to withdraw the
lodges of this
country entirely from allegiance to the English Grand Lodges. Many of
however, insisted on retaining their English charters and it was
before the American lodges had full possession of the field. There were
lodges" in Quebec until very recently, as contrasted with the great
of "Quebec" lodges." Hence, when Washington wrote that Snyder was
in error as to his presiding over the "English lodges" and that he had
not been in one more than once or twice in thirty years he was
Such statements were called for in his reply as naturally as would a
be prompted now from a member of a Commandery who had never had any
the Scottish Rite if he were urged to take some action with respect to
of the Scottish Rite. Washington was urged by Snyder to act in the
available from Masonic sources which cover the skeleton of fact above
give to Washington's Masonic connection its life and color are far more
than the dry memoranda here set forth. It may be serviceable, however,
to many readers
to have at hand the foregoing succinct statement of indisputable facts
in complete independence of any Masonic connection or influence that
show the unreserved
recognition by Washington of his Masonic affiliation and also his
of the fraternity throughout his life.
On The Way -- [A Poem]
By Bro. G. A. Nancarrow, Indiana
we travel on our journey
From our morning to our night,
Touching flowers by the wayside,
Sometimes losing in the fight;
As we taste of joy and sorrow,
Zeal and languor, love and hate,
Let us know, my wayside brother,
That there is no kinder fate.
When our Parent came to planning
What His children here should do,
He, in wisdom, gave us labor ‒
Some for me and some for you;
Knowing well that, big and little,
Human hands will shape or mar
Just as idle boys make mischief
And the idle monarchs war.
By our labors we must progress
On the rugged road we climb;
By our effort and endeavor
Live a growing life through time.
For this stop is but a moment
Twixt the life that we have done,
And another in the cycle
Of our evolution's run.
Would we in the life to follow
Find a higher plane than here;
Would we walk above the level
We are treading in this sphere;
We must earn our fee of entrance
E'er we knock upon the door;
We must pay the price in labor
Or move backwards from this shore.
God holds out His hand to aid us
Up the steeps that we must climb
Through this vale of failing effort
Toward that promised life sublime.
Let us grasp the hand He offers
Sending one hand down below,
To pull up some fainting brother
With a longer way to go.
implies more than a mere negative goodness, merely refraining from
of any sort. Duties of a positive nature are imposed and these are
us as a part of our Masonic obligation. It can be insisted that we are
more than others, to support the institutions of the Republic and to
American ideal and principles. That such institutions and principles
are akin, in
very essence, to the ideas and ideal of Masonry, is plain to those
within and without
Robert Sterling Teague, P. G. M. Alabama.
of all faculties is common sense; it is not enough to do the right
thing, it must
be done at the right time and place. Talent knows what to do; tact
knows when and
how to do it.
By Bro. Gustav A. Eitel,
Free Masons Monthly Magazine for November, 1848 [Lib 1848], we have the following
the introduction of the Royal and Select Masters' Degrees, by Albert G.
M. D., whom we in have come to consider authority on all Masonic
subjects upon which
proper jurisdiction under which the Degrees of Royal and Select Master
placed is a question that is now beginning to excite considerable
much embarrassment among the fraternity. It is, therefore, the duty of
who wishes this 'questio vexata' amicably and judiciously, settled, to
to his brethren whatever he may suppose will conduce to this
devoutly to be wished.' Allow me to throw in my mite. "The history of
degrees will show that the Chapters and Councils are now contending for
which neither ever had any legitimate right. And it seems to me that
are as much justified in taking the jurisdiction of these degrees from
as these were in taking it some years ago from the administrative body
of the Ancient
and Accepted Rite, to which it originally belonged. The controversy
a contest for the distribution of the spoils of war.
"These degrees of right belong
to the Supreme
Council of the 33d Degree, Ancient Scottish Rite, and the claim to them
been abandoned by that body. At the establishment of the Grand Council
of Jerusalem, in Charleston, S. C., on the 20th February, 1788, by
Myers, Barend M. Spitzer and A. Forst, Deputy Inspectors-General of
of Prussia, Myers deposited in the archives of the Council certified
copies of the
said degrees from Berlin, in Prussia, placing them at the same time
under the care
and jurisdiction of this body. Copies of these degrees are still
retained in the
archives of the Supreme Grand Council at Charleston."
Mackey then refers to the communication sent by the Grand Chapter of
the Grand Chapter of South Carolina, and its action there-on as quoted
in which an adverse report was made by the committee, and the Grand
that it was improper and inexpedient to issue a jurisdiction of these
thus interfere with the rights and privileges of their brethren and
another and higher order of Free Masonry.) Continuing, he says:
"The Supreme Council for the
has never abandoned its claim to these degrees. It has organized
Councils of Royal
and Select Masters, in other States, as, for instance, in Mississippi
Carolina, either directly, or through the intervention of its
of Princes of Jerusalem, and although no application has lately been
made to this
body for a charter for a Royal and Select Council, I see not how,
its rights, it could refuse to grant a charter when applied for by
'true and trusty'
persons. In fact, the degrees continue to be given by our Inspectors,
and as there
are now no Royal and Select Councils in South Carolina, the old ones
the degrees can only be obtained from such authority. Brother Barker,
constituted as many Councils of Royal and Select Masters as any other
man in the
United States, did so only as a Deputy Inspector-General and the agent
of the Supreme
Council, and, therefore, although I have not time to hunt up
statistics, I have
no hesitation in believing that half the Councils and Grand Councils in
owe their existence, and with it their original allegiance, to the
"The matter, however, has now
confused, and I know of but one method of getting out of the
the Supreme Councils of the 33d are not willing to have their authority
wrested from them vi et armis, I have no doubt ‒ but I do not speak
that for the good of Masonry they would willingly enter into any
a convention of Royal and Select Masters be held at some central point.
convention let the most intelligent companions, legitimately possessing
whether from Councils of Royal and Select Masters, as in most of the
Royal Arch Chapters, as in Virginia, or from Councils of Princes of
from Grand Inspectors-General, as in South Carolina and Mississippi ‒
let the wisdom
there congregated be directed to the amicable settlement of this
dispute. The important
point is not to have these degrees placed in any particular order, but
to make the
mode and manner of conferring them, whether it be before or after the
uniform throughout the country. The decision made for two successive
by the General Grand Chapter, viz., in 1844 and 1847, as tending to
uniformity and produce 'confusion worse confounded,' cannot but be
all good Masons."
It will be
seen that the degrees were cultivated in South Carolina, or at least
Degree, at an early date. In consequence of the authority by which the
conferred, the Grand Council system was not recognized, but the Supreme
was regarded as the lawful governing power. Accordingly, in 1858 and
Councils were chartered by that body. In deference to the usage in
the Supreme Council (Scottish Rite) waived its claims and a Grand
Council was formed
in Charleston on February 15, 1860. The Minutes of this Assembly were
with the proceedings of the Grand Chapter.
George W. Warvelle, LL. D., Past Grand Master and Grand Recorder of the
of Illinois, is another Masonic scholar and writer who emphatically
the Scottish Rite claims and theory. For more than a score of years he
searching for "facts" in lieu of "fables" and "traditions."
The discoveries of his research have been presented from time to time.
reproducing all he has written on this subject. One of his earlier
Genesis of the Degree of
Royal Master Mason
DELIVERED BEFORE THE THIRD MASS CONVENTION OF THE ROYAL AND SELECT
MASTERS OF ILLINOIS,
AT PEORIA, SEPTEMBER 6, 1893.
I had found
in my reading that much ‒ nearly all ‒ that had been said or written
upon this subject
in recent years was but a repetition of old statements made at a time
when the knowledge
of the Rite was very limited, and the sources of information not as
at present; that little or no attempt was made at verification, and
that, in many
instances, these same old statements, taken oftimes at second hand, had
changed or distorted in the retelling to suit the varying fancies of
It was the confusion created by these discordant recitals that
stimulated me in
the first instance to investigate the subject for myself, and it was
the facts as
I found them that induced me to communicate them to you. I entered upon
with neither prejudice nor bias, and in my investigations I sought only
the truth. I endeavored, so far as I was able, to separate the real
facts from the
fancies and fictions into which they had become imbedded, and to weigh,
and fairness, the evidence that was offered in support of the various
at different times have been advanced. The effect of my inquiries was
to cause a
thorough revision of many of my own previously conceived opinions
degrees and the complete rejection of a number of matters that had
my implicit belief, and as the conclusions which I announced were in
opposed to certain generally received and hitherto unquestioned
theories of origin,
I have, during the year that has intervened, continued my researches
with a view
to demonstrate either their correctness or fallacy. In so doing I have
expanded my field of operations and at the same time examined with
the ground already traversed, and while, in a few minor particulars,
changes have been made, the general tendency of my search has only been
the position which I assumed in my address of last year.
I have brought
together for your consideration today a few facts relating to the
degree of Royal
Master, some of which have only been discovered within very recent
years, and to
them I append my own conclusions. If these latter should differ from
by men who are older and wiser than myself I can only say, it is with
of the thoughts or opinions of others that I offer my own; I reason
from the light
that is within me; possibly I am mistaken, but I think I am right, and
I do not hesitate to express my views.
degrees" in this country, at the commencement of the present century,
be said to have been "without form and void." They consisted, in the
of a chaotic mass of pompous titles, borrowed in many instances from
and societies, with feeble expositions of Masonic legends strangely
Hermetic philosophy and weak imitations of medieval chivalry. They were
with little or no attempt at ritualistic elaboration, while the
which constitute such conspicuous features in the liturgies of today
unknown. As a rule they were composed of nothing more than a meagre
recital of traditional
history, supplemented possibly by a brief "lecture" or catechism, while
many possessed not even this amount of substance. With the exception of
degrees no effort had been made at organization, and the warrant of a
was generally considered a sufficient authority to legitimatize the
any and all degrees of which any of the members might be possessed, if,
as was sometimes
the ease, the conferrant did not himself claim powers still greater. A
recollection of the Rite of Perfection was preserved in some localities
who claimed authority under the original grant of power to Stephen
Morin and a little
band of zealous Masons at Charleston, S.C., had vainly endeavored about
to assert an organized expression of the ineffable grades of that
system under the
name of Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite, while a rival society, with the
in view, was soon afterwards started in New York. The best efforts of
were, however, productive of but little in the way of tangible results,
and it was
not until fifty years afterwards that the matchless genius of Albert
Pike gave shape
and purpose to the Scottish Rite.
many degrees that ambition or avarice brought into existence or rescued
about this time was that of Royal Master Mason. From whence it was
derived or how
it originated we know absolutely nothing, and though there has not been
astute historians to trace its genealogy and declare its primary
symbolism, no proof
has yet been offered to substantiate the statements or support the
these ingenious gentlemen have advanced.
"high degrees" of every kind and nature were conferred indiscriminately
by any person who might see fit to arrogate a power for that purpose,
yet they were
in the main dispensed by a number of gentlemen who posed under the
of Inspectors General and who claimed absolute dominion over the entire
world as "Princes and Chiefs of Exalted Masonry." The authority for
broad claim rested upon a delegation of power said to have been
Frederick II of Prussia at various times subsequent to the year 1762,
and upon the
assumption that Frederick himself possessed "the sovereign Masonic
the craft." (4) With these claims or pretensions we as Cryptic Masons
have little or no concern were it not that certain high dignitaries of
which was established upon the remains of the defunct Rite of
Perfection have at
various times asserted a right of control or dominion over all of the
and that these claims have been wholly relinquished only within very
In view of these facts an inquiry into the legitimacy of the claim is
everyone who seeks to discover origin or trace descent, yet it is not
at this time, to open the questions involved nor to discuss the subject
in its general
phases, and, save as it may incidentally occur, I shall attempt no
reference to Scottish Rite claims as applied to the Cryptic degrees in
but will briefly summarize so much thereof as refers to the Royal
So far as
I have been able to learn no Inspector of the Rite of Perfection ever
made a personal
assertion of any knowledge of the Royal degree or claimed any rights in
therewith in virtue of his Inspectorship; the name itself cannot be
found in any
of the patents, diplomas or other documents issued in connection with
although in most cases a full enumeration of the degrees possessed by
and which he was authorized to confer were set forth in every grant of
did the Supreme Council A.A.S.R. at its establishment in 1801 make any
reference thereto, nor does the name thereof appear in any of the
it issued at that time. At the institution of the Supreme Council a
full scale of
degrees was adopted and announced to the Masonic world; they were
number, including those theretofore exclusively controlled by the
Their names and numerical progression were all set forth in orderly
and over the system thus promulgated the Supreme Council claimed
original and exclusive
jurisdiction. This claim, with the exception of the Symbolic degrees,
been recognized as just, and for years has been acquiesced in by the
of both hemispheres. Of the degrees composing the curriculum of the new
‒ the majority ‒ were taken from the old Scale of the Rite of
Perfection; some were
appropriated from the many "detached" degrees of the period, and some
were invented for the occasion by the framers of the system;
eclecticism in Masonry
was then the order of the day, (5) and the right to appropriate and had
seriously disputed. But the Supreme Council asserted jurisdiction only
regular series of degrees which it then promulgated as its own;
whatever else might
have been in the possession or within the knowledge of its members was
them for their disposal or use, and in the manifesto which announced
this fact was distinctly stated. In that remarkable document it was
said that some
‒ not all ‒ of the Inspectors were it the individual possession of
"given in different parts of the world," which they conferred at their
pleasure upon those who were high enough to understand them." (6) A
enumeration of such detached degrees then followed, and, while a
mention is made
of "Select Masons of 27," no reference can be found to the degree of
Master. This statement is the basis of the Scottish Rite claim of
the Cryptic degrees, and while it is possible that among the side
degree of which
"most of the Inspectors" were in possession, there might have been that
of Royal Master, yet there is no proof that such was the fact. But even
that it may have been known to some of the members it was nevertheless
property and the Supreme Council never officially asserted a
thereto until fifty years afterwards. In 1827, ten years after the
Councils and Grand Councils of the dual body of Royal and Select
masters, and nearly
twenty years after the regular organization of either degree as
Bro. Moses Holbrook, then a high officer of the Southern Supreme
to the Grand Chapter of South Carolina that he had ascertained that the
of Royal and Select Masters were brought from Berlin, Prussia, by one
in 1778, (7) and that certified copies thereof, which he had been
inspect, were deposited with the Council of the Princes of Jerusalem at
This statement, although not emanating directly from the Supreme
at that time was practically in a moribund condition, has formed the
all subsequent claims in which direct authority has been sought to be
that body. I have no doubt but what Bro. Holbrook's report was made in
faith and a sincere belief that what he had ascertained was true. The
his report was an age of credulity in all matters connected with
and fictions were readily received as incontestable facts; forgeries
without question, and histories evolved from the vivid imaginations of
supplied the place of more authentic data. But later years have
facts upon which Bro. Holbrook relied, and the student of today classes
constitutions in the same category as the pious frauds of the early
ln 1850, or thereabouts, the Southern Supreme Council, at the instance
of Bro. Mackey,
(8) formally assumed jurisdiction of both degrees by granting charters
and this right was maintained until 1870, when by resolution the
was recognized as "a separate and distinct organization in Masonry,"
further control over it was "relinquished." (9) There were at this time
twenty-eight Grand Councils in existence.
Grand Consistory nor Supreme Council established at New York by Bro.
ever made any claim to the Royal degree, notwithstanding it was so
many years, nor did any of its Inspectors claim authority over the
Rite. No inquiry,
therefore, is raised with respect to this body.
Supreme Council was established at New York in 1813, but not until
three years after
the organization of a Council of Royal Masters in the same city. Its
authority were derived from the parent body at Charleston and it
to exercise jurisdiction over the 33 degrees which then as now
constituted the Scottish
Rite. From its organization until 1844 it was practically dormant, and
it was not
until 1860 that its present career of activity commenced. In 1850 this
the first time, asserted a claim over all of the degrees of the Cryptic
the Super-Excellent, alleging that it had been the custom "from time
to communicate them "in the side chambers of our Holy Temple." (10) The
Northern Sup. Council at this time consisted nominally of four
individuals but was
centered, in reality, in the person of Bro. James J. J. Gourgas, then a
and infirm man. The action of Bro. Gourgas in making this claim was
by the attitude then recently taken by the Southern Sup. Council, and
Southern body never made any claim with respect to the Super-Excellent,
Bro. Gourgas thought he might as well take all as a part. The fiction
was maintained by the Northern Supreme Councils, (11) regular and
the time of the "Union" in 1867 when by common consent the matter was
dropped and has not since been heard of.
brief, is the history of Scottish Rite claim and dominion over the
It was never a part of the Scottish system; illustrates none of its
no connection, directly or indirectly, with any of its degrees, and no
control, other than that which flows from simple appropriation, has
ever been shown.
It is difficult at this time to understand the reasons which prompted
of that rite to retain such a tenacious hold upon it, and the only
that can now be advanced is that it was held under a mistake of fact
and that to
the imperfect knowledge of the times must we attribute the first
assumption of authority
that I have thus far been able to learn, I am strongly of the opinion
that the degree
of Royal Master was invented during the early part of the present
century and that
it had its origin at the city of New York. If it existed prior to the
or was ever conferred at other places no record thereof has ever been
is any reference made thereto in contemporary documents. I have made a
search through all the channels of information that were at my command
through an extensive correspondence pushed my inquiries in every
whence a knowledge of this subject might be expected. By whom it was
do not know, yet it is certain that for its promotion and diffusion we
to Bro. Thomas Lownds. This fact has been placed beyond dispute by the
recent discovery of the old minute book of the Council established by
New York, and a number of hitherto doubtful questions in connection
with the early
exploitation of this degree have, by this discovery, been definitely
old records it would seem that on Sept 2, 1810 at St. John's Hall in
the city of
New York, sixteen persons met and organized a Council of Royal Master
"be known and distinguished by the name of Columbian Grand Council."
was the first systematic effort at organization ever made of either of
degrees, for while Bro. Eckel, at Baltimore, was wont to organize
Councils for the
purpose of conferring the Select degree, yet such Councils seem to have
a temporary character and for the purpose of each particular occasion
fact that sixteen persons met for the purpose above indicated
establishes, as a
necessary corollary, the further fact that at this time the degree was
and had been conferred by other authority and that parties were then in
of it. This fact is further emphasized by entries in the record of the
of persons as "adjoining" members. The natural inference, therefore, is
that prior to the establishment of Columbian Council, the degree like
of that period had been conferred by individual communication. It was
for many years
supposed that this Council owed its existence to Joseph Cerneau, who at
was a resident of New York and an active worker in a Scottish Rite body
had established there. In many of the arguments which have been
advanced to sustain
the Scottish Rite theory of origin, this statement has been repeatedly
made as an
historical fact, and until the discovery of this record, was accepted
by a majority
of the Masonic historians as true. But it now, seems that Cerneau was
never in any
manner connected with this body either as an officer or member and his
name is not
even mentioned once in the entire record. Nor is there the slightest
that the degree was either derived from or subsidiary to the Supreme
the Scottish Rite or any superior body of any kind, and, unlike most of
degrees which were endowed with much florid rhetoric in the statement
of the authority
by which they were conferred, it seems to have been organized in much
manner as the Capitular degrees had been a few years preceding. Nor is
reference to the Scottish Rite with respect to qualifications for the
seems to have been conferred, without regard to other affiliations, on
Indeed, the only titles or other matters appended to the names of the
members was their rank in Symbolic Masonry or their lodge affiliation
the earlier years this latter is found after the names of all
reason for believing that Thomas Lownds was the originator or at least
disseminator of the Royal degree in America, is afforded in the fact
that in Columbian
Council he also conferred other degrees now totally unknown and which
so far as
I have been able to learn, were never conferred by any of the
with the Supreme Councils either at Charleston or New York. These
degrees, in name
if not in substance, were distinctively English, and by no process of
can they be connected with the high degree systems of any of the
Thus on Dec. 7, 1810, a Council of "Knights of the Round Table" was
by the "Illustrious Abbot, Lownds," (12) and on March 4, 1811, a
of "Illustrious Knights of the Hon. Order of the Garter" was opened by
"Grand Prelate Lownds.", (13) it will require no demonstrations to show
that both of these diversions were the inventions of the times, and it
is but fair
to ascribe them to the man who organized this body and for more than
ten years presided
at every meeting thereof.
In my address
of last year I adverted to the fact that it is to Columbian Council we
for the Super-Excellent degree as a regular part of our system. It is
a degree bearing this name was conferred in connection with the Royal
in England and America, as early as 1760, and at one time I supposed
the two to
be identical. But since I last addressed you I have secured copies of
of both the Excellent and Super-Excellent degrees of the old Royal Arch
find them to be essentially different from the present degree both in
scope and symbolic teaching, while an inspection of the old Royal Arch
which I also now have a copy, demonstrates that it could have had no
therewith and must have been fabricated after Webb's adaptation had
been made. The
inference is irresistible that it was invented in New York, probably by
at or near the time when he first gave it publicity. The first mention
of the degree
which I have been able to find is under date of Dec. 22, 1817, when a
"Lodge" was opened in "ample form" and several Companions received.
From this time forward it was regularly "worked" and finds frequent
in the minutes, wholly displacing in about a year after its
introduction the "Invincible
Order of the Round Table."
Council, from the time of its organization until 1823, met regularly as
body, but in this year a Grand Council was formed to control the
degrees of Royal
and Select Master, and Columbian Council surrendering its title of
became a constituent of the new body as No. 1 of its registry.
In 1816 it
would seem the Council abrogated the rule which permitted Master Masons
the degree, and from this time on only Royal Arch Masons were accepted.
1817, a communication was received from Boston, Mass., showing that a
Royal Masters had been established there "within the present year," and
that "they acknowledge, with much respect, the senior establishment in
York, and with their advocates do honor to same." They further pray for
sanction" and "that they may be confirmed in their Masonic labors."
The sanction was granted. It would thus appear that this Council was
this time as a legitimate source of authority for the dissemination of
1821, the Council of Select Masters, established by Cross, petitioned
Council for a union and such proceedings were then had as resulted in a
the two bodies. The minutes with respect to this interesting event are,
extreme meagre and perhaps "absorption" would more fitly characterize
the action than any other term that could be employed. Thereafter the
was regularly conferred in the same order as at present, but the name
of the body
continued to be Columbian Council of Royal Master Masons. On January
18, 1823, it
was resolved that it was expedient to form a "Grand Council of Royal
Masons and Select Masons" for the State of New York, and in pursuance
resolution a Grand Council was on January 25 duly organized, which
right the government and superintendence of all Royal Master Masons and
in the said State."
is a rough outline of the beginning of the Royal degree in America so
far as the
same is now known. To Thomas Lownds must be ascribed the credit for its
to Columbian Council the honor of its first organized existence.
Bro. Jeremy Cross, who had previously obtained the Select degree at
some manner became "possessed" of the Royal degree as well, whereupon
he joined the two together under one government and out of the
plentitudes of his
own power established a new system which he christened "Councils of
Select Masters," and of which he at once became the missionary and
This (1818) is the earliest date at which the title "Royal and Select
was used, and all reference thereto at any time anterior must now be
a mistake or a fabrication.
Bro. John Barker, emulating the fame and envying the gain which Bro.
Cross was acquiring
as a "disseminator" of Cryptic light, resolved to enter the field
As Bro. Cross had credentials from the "Grand Council of Select" at
which subsequent developments have tended to show were spurious, (14)
so Bro. Barker
travelled as the "agent" of the Southern Supreme Council, 33, but the
authority thereof has never been shown and is subject to much doubt. At
neither party worked for or accounted to any other than themselves, and
given by them purported to be issued only on their own authority. In
attempts have been made to substantiate the claim of Scottish Rite
origin and consequent
jurisdiction by the labors of Barker. As a matter of fact, however,
was simply an excuse for some show of authority. I do not understand
that he ever
had a commission from the Supreme Council for this purpose. His
charters were granted
in his own name and not in the name of the Supreme Council; his rituals
of the Cross lectures, and the "emoluments" of his "agency"
enriched no one but himself. It was at one time supposed that Barker
degrees from Cross, but it would now seem that he was greeted in
Nov. 25, 1821, (15) receiving the degrees from the hands of Thomas
labors of Cross, Cushman and Barker, the degree has been preserved and
and while the methods employed by these ancient worthies have at times
criticized, it must be remembered that age and environment have much to
the formation of judgment and shaping of opinions. The itinerant
lecturer and degree
peddler was an established feature in American Masonry until as late as
services, never lavishly rewarded, did much to shape, protect and
uniformity of ritual and symbolism, and while the present age has
outgrown the crude
methods of the fathers, we can well afford in the enjoyment of the
legacy they have
bequeathed to us to condone their faults and forgive their
transgressions. It is
immaterial at this day that they made merchandise of degrees or sold
manufactured authority; they but followed the precedents of the times.
were good and presumably their wares were worth the price which they
posterity, as a rule, has done honor to their memory.
Now one word
more regarding these addresses and I have finished. I did not expect
when I addressed
you last year that all of my statements would meet with ready assent or
pass unchallenged. Old myths die hard and men do not, as a rule, give
up the convictions
of a lifetime without a protest. But nothing has more strongly
literary life of Masonry during the past twenty-five years than its
the shackles of unverified tradition and imaginative history. The love
"for truth's sake" has exerted a strong influence upon the work of the
later day historian and his active efforts have been directed in
attempts to show
the past as it was and not what it should have been in order to sustain
theories or old traditions. To do this he must at times appear a
and the worshippers at the shrines he shatters regard him with but
That my work in this respect should be criticized and questioned I
but I was not prepared for the personal attacks, vilification and abuse
some quarters, a difference of opinion seems to have provoked. I shall
however, in the path I have marked out, regardless of the sneers,
or super-arrogant airs of superior learning which some of my captious
employed in the discussion of my views and opinions. I believe the
fact which I have made to be correct and feel that my conclusions are
time and circumstances permit I shall have more to say on the Cryptic
Rite at our
next meeting, shattering, perhaps, another idol or two and opening up a
with a broader horizon and higher mental plane. Nothing is now to be
gained by concealment
or a blind adherence to old beliefs or antiquated fictions. Let us
and fairly, investigate the old canons for ourselves, with an abiding
in the apostolic injunction that "the truth shall make us free."
by Companion Warvelle (1907) is "The German and French Traditions"
which has been copied by nearly all the correspondent writers.
printed in our 1908 proceedings they will well bear reproduction in
this paper with
his other writings, from which we have copied so free.
there are few of you who at some time have not seen or heard the old
story of Joseph Myers' importation of the Cryptic degrees. As the story
brought the degrees from Berlin, Prussia, and in the year 1781, or
1788, for the
accounts differ, he deposited the rituals in the Lodge of Perfection at
and thereafter committed the authority for their diffusion to the
Chiefs of Sublime
Masonry resident in that city. It was not until about forty years after
deposit, and not until many years after the establishment of Grand
the Chiefs made the facts known. Inasmuch as they were unable to
produce the original
rituals or any evidence of Myers' authority in the matter, the Masonic
have always regarded the statements as a sort of pipe dream on the part
of the Chiefs,
and as something unworthy of credence.
I am inclined
to believe that the story, to some extent at least, rests on a
knowledge of the
practices of the early German lodges and the coincidences found in the
degree. Thus, from the earliest descriptions of the Council chamber
that have come
down to us we find a prescription of triangular tables, with a light on
to be placed before the officers in the East. Neither the ritual nor
lectures furnish us with any very satisfactory explanation of this
the absence of such explanations we can only conclude that it
represents an archaic
survival, the original significance of which has been lost. But this
form of table,
and arrangement of lights, was employed in the German lodges during the
of the Eighteenth century, and particularly is this true of the lodges
Berlin. From the fact, therefore, of the coincidence of custom in the
and in the Select degree in America, it would be an easy matter for a
to deraign a descent of the latter from the former.
I have lately
come across a little book published at Sulzbach, Germany, in 1803. In
the author, speaking of the initiation of Prince William of Prussia by
the Great in 1740, describes an old and rare engraving in his
He then describes
the picture of which I venture a free translation as follows:
"The King sits in the Master's
him is an altar-shaped table upon which, in the form of a triangle, are
burning tapers. Near them are laid a sword, a gavel and skull. At the
of Frederick stands a warden. Before the table, without either sword or
two brethren are holding) stands Prince William taking the oath."
I do not
profess to be an adept in the translation of eighteenth century German
but I think
I have faithfully rendered the spirit of the original. From the
foregoing it will
be seen that the East of the early German lodges resembled in some
East of a Council of Select Masters and it is from this circumstance,
that the Chiefs of the Sublime Degrees at Charleston evolved the
romance of Joseph
Myers' importation of the Rite. A very searching investigation a few
years ago revealed
the fact that the Cryptic degrees are utterly unknown in Germany and,
so far as
could be ascertained, had never been heard of in that country.
years the French tradition of Cryptic origins and diffusion was
question. Even such a Masonic scholar as the late Josiah H. Drummond
stories, for there were two of them, and in his published writings
stated them as
historic facts. Further investigation subsequently induced him to
discard his earlier
opinions and to characterize the legends as untrue, or, at least, as
Many persons, however, still cling to the old exploded fables and the
still drives his trade, as is apparent from the lucid expositions which
to time appear in the Masonic press.
is that Henry A. Francken, a Hebrew peddler of eighteenth century high
in the year 1767, introduced the degrees of the Cryptic Rite into the
New York, Massachusetts and Rhode Island by the institution of
Councils. As late
as 1875 this story was generally accepted as correct. Just how, or
where, or when,
Francken received his degrees was never stated, but he was an Inspector
of the "Ineffable and Sublime" degrees and as the Inspectors generally
carried everything that any reasonable person could ask for, so it was
he came rightfully by the Cryptic grades and had authority to sell
stock in trade was supposed to have been imported from France.
was that Joseph Cerneau brought the degree of Royal Master to the City
of New York,
and in the year 1807 established a Council for its exploitation.
was supposed to have been derived from the Grand Consistory in France.
Both of these
romances passed current as genuine Cryptic history and were accepted by
other writers. And particularly were they received by those who sought
the genealogy of the Cryptic degrees through the Scottish Rite.
to the first story there is not a scintilla of evidence to show that
either of the
Cryptic degrees were in existence in 1767, or that Francken ever heard
or that he ever conferred them. The whole story seems to be a pure
It grew out of the fact that Francken visited the City of New York in
while there conferred the degrees of the Lodge of Perfection on two
Albany. Subsequently he gave them a warrant for the establishment of a
old records of these transactions, at one time supposed to have been
have been recovered, and there is not the slightest reference to the
or a shadow of a foundation for the oft repeated yarn of Francken's
of the Rite.
tale is equally destitute of truth. Cerneau was a resident of New York
at which time a Council of Royal Master Masons was organized and from
the imaginative historians deduced the fact that he was the organizer.
The old minutes
of this Council were found a few years ago and from them it appears
had nothing to do with its organization and that he was not even a
member of the
But old myths
die hard. The Scottish Rite historians are loath to relinquish their
hold on the genesis of the Cryptic degrees, and notwithstanding that
of their claims has been often demonstrated they still continue to
assert both the
German and French traditions in support of their contentions. From time
in his "historical Notes," and under other captions, Companion Warvelle
has contributed much more on this subject, all of which we would like
for our Companions, but we are reminded that paper and printer's ink
and we will have to be content by quoting the closing paragraph of one
of his later
"Now what we want from the men
are not 'erroneous' is some tangible evidence, properly authenticated,
to show the
conferring of the Royal Master's degree at any time prior to the year
1805, at any
place other than the city of New York, and by any other person than
To show the conferring of the Select Master's degree at any time prior
to the year
1790, at any place other than the city of Baltimore, and by any other
Henry Wilmans. To show the conferring of the two degrees combined into
at any time prior to the year 1818, at any place other than Hartford,
by any person other than Jeremy Cross. Will the gentlemen who have the
believe they have "culled" nearly all the important data connected with
the origin and the dissemination of the Cryptic degrees and have
presented the views
of the most prominently known Masonic students, historians and writers
contributed to the history of the degrees covering a century or more.
dissenting from the Scottish Rite claim or theory, Companion Schultz
most of his research to the Select degree, while Companion Warvelle
seems to have
made the tracing of the Royal Master's degree his favorite study.
circular Sup. Council, S.M.J., Dec. 4, 1802.
(5) Pike's Dissection of a Manifests, p. 40.
(6) Manifesto Sup. Council A.A.S.R., 1802. See also Dalcho's Orations,
(7) Mackey says the degrees were first introduced in 1783. See address
Council S.C., 1870.
(8) See address to Grand Council of South Carolina, 1870.
(9) Pro. Sup. Council S.M.J., 1870.
(10) See Reprint N.M.J., Vol. 1, Pt. I, pp. 212, 214.
(11) "See Constitutions N. M. J., 1860.
(12) See Proceedings Columbian Council, p. 5.
(14) Cross purported to work under a commission of this kind and his
of power was until very lately to be seen in New York. The genuineness
of this document
has been questioned, however, and Bro. Drummond, who caused a
to be taken and submitted to experts, now pronounces the commission a
Schultz, of Baltimore, after an investigation is of the same opinion.
(15) See records Columbian Council, p. 31
FOR THE MONTHLY
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 38
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
on "The Lost Word"
- What is the master symbol of
Blue Lodge symbolism?
- Why should we be cautious in
our endeavors to ascertain the origins of the
symbolism of the Lost Word?
- How were brethren in the early
days of Masonry sometimes "made Masons"?
- Have our researchers yet been
able to discover what the "Lost Word"
- What would those who hold to
the theory that the Royal Arch Word is the "Lost
Word" lead us to believe?
- Is there any evidence to prove
beyond a doubt that this word was really the
- Do you agree with Brother
Haywood that the "Lost Word" was never
a component part of the Blue Lodge work which was later taken away from
Lodge and transplanted into the Royal Arch degree? If so, what are your
for so agreeing? If not what are your reasons for disagreeing with him?
- What is the Legend of the
- What was the custom among the
Jewish people relative to pronouncing the name
- How was the use of the name
- What finally became the penalty
inflicted upon one who spoke the name aloud?
- What further restrictions were
placed upon the use of the name?
- How was the name spelled?
- When and in what manner did the
true pronunciation of the name became wholly
- What did this result in after
the Exile was ended?
- What did the priests and
scribes have left upon which to base their search?
- What were the vowels of the
- Of what did the Tetragrammaton
become the center, and how did the search
for the word spread?
- Did the form of the legend
always remain the same? What various forms did
- Has the symbolic idea centered
in the search for the "Lost Word"
been confined to Masonry alone?
we find it in modern literature?
* * *
Vol I. ‒ "The Fourth Degree," by Bro. W.F. Kuhn, p. 44.
Vol II. ‒ "Some Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism," by Bro. A.E.
"The Lost Word," by Bro.W.F. Kuhn, p. 327,
Vol.III. ‒ "The Lodge," by Bro. H.W. Ticknor, p. 198;
"The Lost Word," Question Box Department, p. 189.
Vol.IV. ‒ "The Symbolism of the Master Mason Degree ‒
The Lost Word," by Bro. Oliver Day Street, p. 322.
Vol. V. "The Legendary Origin of Freemasonry," by Bro.Dudley Wright, p.
"What a Master Mason Ought to Know," by Bro. Hal Riviere, p. 130.
Incommunicable, p. 349;
Ineffable Name, p. 351;
Tetragrammaton, p. 781;
Twelve-Lettered Name, p. 809;
Unutterable Name, p. 817
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Part III ‒ The Lost Word
WE COME now
to the crux and the climax of Blue Lodge symbolism, the master symbol
by means of
which all other symbols have their meaning. Well will it be for us walk
not only because the origins of the symbolism of the Lost Word are
bound up with
an ancient and tangled tradition; not only because it has been so often
to the level of magic and superstition, even in recent times; but also
is the embodiment of one of those ideas so high and so deep that they
systems of philosophy and theology within them. It is like the "flower
crannied wall" of Tennyson's poem; if we could understand it, "root and
all, and all in all," we would know "what God and man is."
been written about the "Mason's word" as employed in old days, when
were sometimes "made Mason" by having that secret term entrusted to
research has failed to show what this word was though some scholars
believe it to
have been that sovereign name which stands at the center of the Holy
Some who hold to this last named theory would have us believe that this
of the word from the Blue Lodge to the Royal Arch degree was so
disastrous to the
symbolic structure of the Blue Lodge that, to patch up the damage, a
word was devised to take its place until the candidate passed on to the
But as there is little or no evidence to prove that the great word of
Arch is the same as the "Mason's Word" of the old lodges that theory
be left suspended in the mid-air of conjecture.
For my own
part ‒ and I can speak here for no other ‒ I cannot believe that the
system was ever rifled of its chiefest treasure to grace the forehead
of a "higher"
grade nor can I see why we should think that the Third degree, just as
it is, has
lost the one key to its mysteries. The search for a lost word is not
for a mere vocable of a few letters which one might write down on a
piece of paper,
it is the seeking for a truth, nay, a set of truths, a secret of life,
secret truth is so clearly set forth in the Hiram Abiff drama that one
is led to
wonder why anybody should suppose that it had ever been lost. "The Lost
does not refer, so it seems to me, to any term once in possession of
the Third degree
and accidentally lost, but rather it denotes the ancient
Tetragrammaton, or "four-lettered
name," for which search has been made these two and a half millenniums.
to a very old tradition (how much actual history may be in it we cannot
Legend of the Tetragrammaton goes back to ancient Israel as far as the
time of the
Exile. Like all people of that day the Jews saw in a person's name, not
a mere handy
cognomen whereby a man might be addressed, but a kind of sign standing
for the personality
of the one who bore it. Jacob was Jacob because he actually had been a
as that name means; and he later became Israel because he was a "prince
God." Jacob's name was a revelation of his character. So was it with
Therefore was it that the ancients held proper names in a reverence
us to understand, as is hinted in an old Chaldean oracle:
"Never change native names;
For there are names in every nation,
Of unexplained power in the Mysteries."
in mind we can understand why the Jews throw, about the name of Deity
of secrecy and sanctity. At first, after the dread secret had been
imparted to Moses,
the people pronounced the name in whispers or not at all. They were
to use it except on the most solemn occasions as witness the Third
reads, when literally translated, "Thou shalt not utter the name of thy
idly." As time went on the priests forbade them to do more than hint at
one of the priestly commands in Leviticus reading, "He that pronounceth
Name of the Lord distinctly, shall be put to death" (Ch. 24, v. 16). At
only the High Priest was permitted to utter the Name at all, and then
on some great
occasion, such as the Day of Atonement. At the same time, it must be
the Jews were using no vowels in their writing; for some strange reason
were ever written or printed; therefore only the four consonants, JHWH,
Jews were taken into Exile, all trace of the true pronunciation was
because the High Priest was killed before he could impart it, or died
before a successor entitled to the secret could be found. Consequently,
was no sooner ended than priests and scribes began their search for the
The four consonants only did they have; what the vowels were nobody
nor has anybody since discovered.
became a storm center of theology and around it a great mass of
accumulated. So deeply did it sink into the imagination of Israel that
Jewish theosophists who built up the speculative system which we call
made it the very core of their teaching; and through the Kabbala, the
of which was so popular even so late as Reformation times, the legend
of the Lost
Name made its way into the thought and literature of medieval Europe.
But the form
of the legend did not always remain the same; "now it is a despoiled
now a sacramental mystery; now the abandonment of a great military and
order; now the age-long frustration of the greatest building plan which
conceived; now the lost word of Kabbalism; now the vacancy of the most
holy of all
sanctuaries." Whatever the disguise the quest was always the same, a
for something strangely precious which men believe had been lost out of
but might be found again.
symbolic idea still retains its power to cast a spell over us, as
witness its use
by modern writers. Eugene Sue incorporated it in his haunted tale ‒
Jew." [Lib 1846; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] Tennyson wove it into his
epic [Lib 1870], where it has assumed the
form of the search
for the Lost Grail, the cup used by the Lord at his Last Supper. Henry
has embodied it in his book of stories, "The Blue Flower," [Lib 1904] and Maurice Maeterlinck has
about it a strangely beautiful drama, "The Blue Bird." [Lib 1916]
not add to that list the drama of the Third degree? Surely, "that which
lost" can refer to nothing else, as the evidence, both internal and
does so abundantly seem to show. If that indeed be the case how it does
with prophetic meaning the whole mystery of the Third Degree! for it
the candidate is on no hunt for a mystic term to be used like a magic
less is it some mysterious individual that he seeks. That for which he
is to discover the Divine in himself and in the world.
to find God we need not wonder when he finds no one word, or one thing,
his labors; nor need we be disappointed if he is "put off with a
for though his search is not fruitless it is not altogether successful,
as is fitting
when we recall that the complete unveiling of God cannot come to any
one man in
any one lifetime. That hope must ever remain an ideal to us humans in
of our earth life ‒ a flying ideal, eluding us while it beckons us,
leading us over
the hills of Time into the tireless searchings of Eternity.
of Hundredth Anniversary of Brother Elisha Kent Kane, Arctic Explorer
30th Kane Lodge No. 454, F. & A. M., located in New York City,
hundredth anniversary of the birth of Elisha Kent Kane, the famous
after whom the lodge is named.
was the occasion for awarding a Kane Lodge gold medal for distinguished
in exploration. It had been the purpose to award this medal to Brother
Robert Edwin Peary for his success in reaching the North Pole, Brother
been a member of Kane Lodge which had been the recipient of many arctic
as memorials of his several trips to the north. Admiral Peary's death,
precluded a personal presentation and the medal was presented to his
received from the lodge by her son, Robert E. Peary.
bears upon its obverse the ancient seal of Kane Lodge, representing an
swathed in furs, standing in an arctic waste and holding aloft the
About this design is a chain emblematical of fraternal bonds, and
outside the chain
there appears an inscription noting that the medal is awarded for
achievement in exploration."
A brief sketch
of Brother Elisha Kent Kane, for whom Kane Lodge is named, follows:
Kane was born in Philadelphia, February 3, 1820. He died in Havana,
16, 1857. As a lad, he showed an adventurous spirit but no particular
ability. His father was, therefore, somewhat doubtful of his future.
in study developed rapidly when he became a college student.
It was first
intended that he should go to Yale but later the University of Virginia
Here he made rapid progress in his studies but in his eighteenth year
a severe attack of rheumatism, which permanently affected his heart. He
to leave college and a year later was entered as a medical student in
of the University of Pennsylvania.
from medical school he entered the navy and made a voyage to China as
to the legation. On the way out, he visited India and Ceylon, and later
to the Philippines. He decided to practice in Canton but within six
a severe attack of rice-fever and determined to return home. After his
he made a trip overland visiting Borneo, Sumatra, India, Persia and
Syria. A special
permit as given him by Mahemet Ali to explore the ruins of Thebes. He
studies in Egypt but again was taken ill with fever and obliged to
abandon his work.
enough, he returned to America and later made a trip as naval surgeon
There he was attacked by the coast fever and invalided home. His
however, demanded outlet and as soon as he was convalescent he secured
inspector of hospitals in connection with the Mexican War. He went to
was wounded in an engagement, once more succumbed to fever, this time
and once more had a long convalescence.
Franklin pleaded with the United States to assist in a search for the
headed by Sir John Franklin, Dr. Kane volunteered. This expedition was
the First Grinnell Expedition and sailed for the north with Kane as
surgeon in May,
1850. The vessel returned in September, 1861, without having found
trace of Franklin.
Dr. Kane at once made preparation for a second expedition. This was
by Mr. Grinnell and is known as the Second Grinnell Expedition. [Lib
In the little
brig Advance, in which he had sailed a year before, Kane now set out as
for Smith's Sound. The Advance was there caught in the ice and the
to remain with her through two arctic winters. Two of the number died
and all suffered
from scurvy. In the spring of 1855, Kane abandoned his vessel and in
made a 1300 mile trip south, where he was picked up by a relief ship
under the command
of Lieut. Hartstone, U. S. N. He was brought back to New York in
after an absence of thirty months. Dr. Kane at once wrote an account of
feeling that his end was approaching. The hardships he had sustained
had quite undermined
his limited physical resources. The book had an enormous sale and the
name of Kane
became world famous. The author, however, failed rapidly. He went to
then to Cuba for relief and died at Havana just after his
His body was brought north with imposing ceremonies. It was met at
every city by
great crowds of mourning people. It lay in state repeatedly and was
beheld by thousands.
It lies buried in a cemetery near Philadelphia.
Field Lodge No. 4
By Bro. Major Chas. T. Arrighi.
District of Columbia
ONE DAY in
November, 1918, in the ancient, dirty and over-populated city of
four Americans were in the Officers' mess room in the buildings facing
Victor Hugo, which, formerly the home of the Faculté des Sciences, later used as barracks for French-Algerian
troops, was at that time being used as Base Headquarters of Section No.
Americans were known to each other as Masons and consisted of Major
Charles T. Arrighi,
a Past Master of Howard Lodge No. 35, New York, the Y.M.C.A. Secretary
of that Section,
Charles M. Conant, of Amicable Lodge, Cambridge, Mass., Major Basil G.
Manila Lodge No. 1, Manila, P. I., and Captain Alex H. Fairchild, of
No. 1110, McAllen, Texas. The conversation had turned on the subject of
Masonic activities in Marseille, a growing demand for such an
become noticeable. Brother Arrighi stated he had written to his home
as to the possibility of securing a charter from the Grand Lodge of New
and had received a reply informing him that efforts were being made to
his request and also that a Masonic Commission was endeavoring to
to come overseas for the purpose of starting Masonic activities.
led to other informal meetings and talks by the four brothers, to which
other enthusiastic Masons.
then conceived the idea of a Masonic Club, and working along these
lines got in
touch with local French Masons who most generously offered the use of
Masonic Temple at 24 rue Piscatoris, which had housed several ancient
some for a continuous period of seventy-five years. The French Lodges
was here were: Parfaite Sincerite, founded in 1767; Reunion des Amis
Phare de la Renaissance, 1859; Parfaite Union, 1863; Verite-Reforme,
du Travail, 1882. The years stated are the years in which these lodges
as Free and Accepted Masons, but most of them were outgrowths of more
Masonic Societies and direct descendants of such. This building was
for the new club, being convenient to all sections of the city where
is a very narrow, winding street, reached from Cours Litand, one of the
by a series of stone stairs of varying steps, the ascent of which
reminded the brothers
of their progress in the Second degree to the famous Middle Chamber.
at the door of number 24, one mounted another stone stairs, which
brought him to
an open courtyard furnished with tables and chairs, and which became a
rendezvous where the brothers could sit warm evenings, converse and
indulge in light
To the right
of the courtyard was a door entering into the building proper, opening
found himself in a comfortable-sized room also equipped with tables and
which was used by the French brothers for social purposes. The walls
bore many bulletin
boards of the various lodges, Masonic pictures, portraits and devices.
At one end
of the room was a small stage and a piano. To the left of this stage
was an anteroom
that led into the lodge-room.
It was in
the banquet hall, as the first described room was known, that was held
on the evening
of Thanksgiving Day, 1918, the first meeting of the A.E.F. Masonic Club
with Brother Charles M. Conant as President and Treasurer, and Brother
Fred G. Redwin
as Secretary. Anyone who could prove either by examination or the
membership card or certificate that he was a Mason, was eligible for
and at this first meeting there were about 150 American Masons present.
was taken up for the purposes of entertainment, and the evening was
passed in this "get-together" meeting. Refreshments in the shape of
and coffee were procured from the Base Commissary, supplemented by
beverages procured from the French brothers charged with the care of
was but the first of a series of such gatherings. The room was
available for use
by the Americans three times a week, and every Wednesday night an
or dance was given, the talent for the entertainments being furnished
Conant from the various Y.M.C.A. entertainers that happened to be in
town at the
was a success from the start. The meetings were well patronized by
and on entertainment nights the room was usually packed to the doors.
brought to these entertainments by their Masonic friends, witnessing
and perfect harmony existing, became interested and the demand for a
lodge grew stronger and stronger. Brother Arrighi, in the meanwhile,
had been corresponding
with brothers in the States, in an endeavor to secure the necessary
confer degrees, but delays in postal transit prevented a speedy
his request. Finally, not until March 1919, he received a letter from
Channing Moore, who informed him that he, together with M.’.W.’.
Past Grand Master of the State of New York, as Chairman, R.’.W.’.W. C.
George S. Goodrich and R.’. W.’. Merwin W. Lay, were in Paris, having
the United States under the auspices of the Y.M.C.A. as a Masonic
investigate conditions and further the Masonic work in the A.E.F. A few
Brother Moore and Brother Goodrich arrived in Marseille and were
presented to the
club, whom they informed that a dispensation would be granted for a
lodge in Marseille.
This good news was joyfully received and it seemed as though the
ambition of the
brothers in Marseille would be realized. But, alas, the inevitable
in the ointment, for two weeks later when Brother Prime arrived with
he was also the bearer of the news that the dispensation could be used
pre-war restrictions; that only classes of not more than five could be
passed or raised at a time; that two weeks must elapse between degrees,
candidates hailing from homes outside of the States of New York,
Oregon, would have to receive the consent of their home jurisdiction
could be conferred upon them. This, in view of the fact that it was
the Base would be evacuated by the American forces in two or three
that only a very few candidates could be accepted, and after a
Brothers Prime, Arrighi, Conant and Hood, it was decided with deep
regret not to
accept the dispensation.
returned to Paris with the document, but the disappointment as voiced
the American forces was so intense that Brother Conant made a hurried
trip to Paris,
and after an interview with Brother Scudder, in which the situation was
to him, all the objectionable restrictions were eliminated, and Brother
in triumph to Marseille, the proud bearer of the dispensation.
was made in calling a meeting of Sea and Field Lodge No. 4, and it was
held in the
lodgeroom of the Masonic Temple on the evening of April 16, 1919, the
W. M. Charles
T. Arrighi, of New York.
S. W. Charles M. Conant, of Massachusetts.
J. W. Bishop E. Shirey, of Pennsylvania.
Treas. Clarence E. Mayo, of Oklahoma.
Secy. William F. Hood, of Wisconsin.
S.D. John Bonner of Texas.
J. D. Carrol E. Griffin, of Montana.
to the above mentioned officers, the Worshipful Master appointed the
S. M. C.
‒ Alex H. Fairchild, of Texas.
J. M. C. ‒ Jesse R. Ayer, of Michigan.
S. S. ‒ Hiram Jennings, of California.
J. S. ‒ John C. Fletcher, of North Carolina.
T. ‒ Allison Webb, of Ohio.
meeting was devoted to organizing and installing the various officers.
of the temporary nature of the lodge, the initiation fee was fixed at
$20.00, with no dues, as the expenses being light, no rent to be paid,
was not desired to make the initiation burdensome on the applicants,
many of whom
were dependent on their meager army pay. It was ruled by the Master
as service abroad deprived a man of his franchise as a voter, he
was without United States residence and could justly claim his station
as his residence,
and that all applications would be based on these premises.
It was decided
that the seven charter members would constitute an examining committee
to pass on
applicants and that the applicant should be judged as to fitness for
from personal examination, his army record and the testimony of his
of the various jurisdictions from which the officers of the lodge
hailed, and the
variations in ritual, it necessitated, as the lodge was operating under
a New York
dispensation, that they all conform to the work standard in New York
caused a little raggedness in the rendition of the ritual at first, but
spots were soon ironed out by a little practice.
was loaned by the French, but owing to the absence of an altar, one had
to be improvised
out of a desk belonging to one of the minor French officers. The bible
by the Y.M.C.A. and the square and compass hand-hammered out of steel
Bonner. The aprons were made by the seamstresses of the Base Salvage
and the costumes for initiates were obtained from the same source.
applications for initiation were acted upon, all having been thoroughly
also forty applications for affiliation. Affiliation in Sea and Field
4 being only temporary, it did not affect the status of the affiliate
in his home
meeting, at which the first degree work was performed, was held on
April 21st with
the Worshipful Master, Charles T. Arrighi in the East and all officers
the opening, it was announced that Le Venerable Grand Maitre Aime
and head of all Masonic activities of Southern France, sought
admittance. He was
received, together with a delegation consisting of Masters of the local
by the Master who made an address of welcome in French, necessarily
short as he
was not exactly a fluent speaker of that language. Brother Mognier
"It is indeed a pleasure and an
me to be present at the first meeting of the American Lodge No. 4, Sea
As a member of the Council of the Grand Orient of France, and as
of a lodge of the Orient of Marseille, I assure you, my dear brethren,
of our entire
fraternal affection. As we declared to you on the occasion of your
first visit and
reception at the solemn meeting of the French rite, it is with all our
we offer you in its entirety the halls of the Masonic lodges of the
of France. In the name of the Grand Orient of France I salute your
your worthy officers and you, my brethren. Our affection for America is
of long standing, and today since this frightful war has permitted you
to know us
better, we hope that sentiments of a new and great reciprocal affection
established between us and that our relations will be of intimate
To the glory of our Masonic ancestors, American and French. Our heart
is with you."
At the conclusion
of his remarks, Brother Mognier embraced the Master and saluted him
with a kiss
on each cheek, in due French form, which rather unexpected honor was
by the embarrassed Master. After the Grand Honors were given, the
visitors were seated in the East and the meeting was continued.
work, thirty-five candidates were initiated in full form. For the first
they were disposed of in batches of ten, nine, nine and seven. The
was performed on one only, the others being seated west of the altar
could benefit by the instruction.
the unfamiliarity of some of the officers with the standard New York
work, the degree
was presented in a dignified and impressive manner, the trifling
in ritual which existed proving to be no impediment to the effective
of the ceremonies.
At this meeting
there were present the seven charter members, fifty brethren who had
all been duly
examined and vouched for, thirty-five candidates and fourteen visiting
a total of 106.
for the evening were $550.00, quite a fair start financially for the
meeting, all adjourned to the banquet room where a supper of
and coffee was furnished, and the balance of the evening was passed in
Up to and
including the last meeting of June 4th, there were twenty-one stated
and three special meetings. June 4th was the last meeting, as Brother
to sail for the United States on June 7th and the dispensation had been
with the understanding that the charter would lapse with his withdrawal
also the city was being evacuated as an American Base.
the lodge sine die, a contribution of 2,000 francs to the French
Fund was made as part recognition of their great hospitality and use of
free of rent. An artistic and appropriate memorial, done by one of the
was framed and also presented to the French lodges.
these expenses, the cost of several entertainments, the usual expenses
of a lodge
for printing, etc., and the small fee charged for membership, there was
at the close of the lodge, turned over to the Grand Lodge of New York,
to the percentage of fees due the Grand Lodge, the sum of $678.00 to be
the Charity Fund, or to be devoted to such other purposes as the Grand
The net results
as to the activities of Sea and Field Lodge No. 4 in respect to
were that 137 candidates were initiated, passed and raised; 5
candidates were passed
and raised for other lodges and 140 brothers temporarily affiliated,
the original charter members of seven, made a total of 289 members
after an existence
of exactly seven weeks.
it is evident that the lodge prospered. Morally and spiritually it is
that the lodge was an instrument of great good. Marseille, even in
has an atmosphere not only of right-living, which was greatly magnified
conditions. The city was congested, its normal population of 500,000
than doubled by the great influx of troops from all parts of the globe
and British Colonials, black and white, Asiatics, Brazilians,
of refugees from the devastated portions of France, and riffraff from
shores of the Mediterranean, Spain and Italy. It made the city a
warren of things unclean in person and mind, where vice of the most
and crime of all varieties flourished, and human life, let alone
worth a sou.
In this plague-spot
of rotten and noisome influences, Sea and Field Lodge No. 4 proved a
haven of clean,
wholesome character, where Masons and their friends could meet in
and be free from the degrading and revolting influences of the city. In
as Masons they met and conversed, and as many testified, it was the
to home that they had encountered since their arrival on those alien
it was that they all met on that common level of true Masonic
democracy, where the
humblest private could talk as man to man to his colonel without the
of military regulation, and in this way better understanding and closer
exerted a wholesome effect on the entire American establishment in that
and operating as it did in those weary, homesick days existing between
and the actual return home, it proved a steadying and uplifting
influence to a sagging
The Coin of God -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
mere existence counts for worth,
We came, we're here as parts of earth, ‒
As parts of its all-nature plan.
We live and think and pose as man;
But higher values there must be
Above just mere nativity.
And if there’s value we must pay
The price beyond the right to stay, ‒
The price above the normal need
Or privilege that we may plead, ‒
The price that pays for something worth
More than can be derived from earth.
We must meet values in the things
Beyond what mere existence brings;
Our entries on the balance sheet
Must for the higher realm be meet,
And if thereon are credits made
‘Twill show that we in kind, have paid.
And just as we invest in gold, ‒
The soulful things of worth untold, ‒
Just as we pay the price of life
Above its elemental strife, ‒
Just so much then will worth appear, ‒
The coin of God, so precious here.
It is expedient
to have an acquaintance with those who have looked into the world; who
understand business, and can give you good ‒ intelligence and good
advice when they
By Bro. Paul N. Davey, Missouri
WORK in speculative Masonry," so runs our Monitor, "but our ancient
wrought in both operative and speculative." Therefore he who would
in Masonic "work" must become proficient in speculative Masonry. But
are we to understand by the word "speculative?"
the monitor we open our Century Dictionary and turn to the word
finding that it means, among; other things, "the pursuit of truth by
of thinking, especially logical analysis." The pursuit of truth is a
having a familiar Masonic ring to it, reminding us of "the search for
and the Lost Word." We need not know much of Greek or the rules of
correlation to know that the term "logical analysis" is a close
of the word analogy. So then if we indulge in speculation we are to
by thinking, by logical analysis and analogy.
the definitions of all the words closely related to the word
speculative, we find
that to speculate means, in the sense in which we are considering it,
to look into,
to inspect, to scrutinize closely, to look under, to contemplate, to
reflect, to theorize concerning, to conjecture, to philosophize by the
method, to investigate the occult, to look into mysteries or secret
arts, to employ
magical means. And so it would seem that the speculative Mason has some
out on the trestle-board when he starts in to speculate. But whether he
an humble seeker after more Masonic light or a Masonic savant seeking
another ten-tome "History of Freemasonry" or an exhaustive commentary
of "Masonic research" ‒ if not born with a speculative mind or not
into that "light by which Master Masons meetly work" ‒ he must learn to
speculate, or the great and enthralling volume of Masonic knowledge
will ever remain
for him a sealed book. So long as he but continues to wear more
threadbare the circumambulatory
path around the lodge room; so long as he contents himself with merely
what he fondly but mistakenly regards as "the work"; so long as he
himself with trite and timeworn platitudes; so long as he neglects or
think and to speculate; just so long will he remain standing just where
started in his search after Truth and the Lost Word ‒ a profane,
and in front of (pro) the veil of the ancient temple (fane) of the
Freemasonry. Moreover, if "we work in speculative Masonry" only and a
modern Mason declines to speculate, what kind of Mason is he?
some newly passed Fellow Craft may exclaim, "I was not born with a
mind and I know nothing of the particular 'light' you refer to! How
shall I go about
learning to speculate?"
is not one easy to answer in so brief an article as this but an attempt
made. But first, my young brother Fellow Craft, as an illustration that
assist your understanding of the explanation, turn to the word "habit"
in your dictionary: note that it has two definitions: first, "a natural
acquired proclivity, disposition, or tendency to act in a certain way";
"the garments, such as hat, coat and shoes customarily or generally
(Reflect on these two definitions of the word habit for a moment before
on.) At about the age you began to cover your nakedness with a habit
you also began, through a natural and acquired proclivity and tendency
to put on
certain other habits of thought. As a small child you exclaimed "I see
light!" and no one could have convinced you that you did not see the
Later on, science proved to you that the human eye receives only
shadows and that
a ray of pure light unbroken by shadows, while imperceptible to your
sense of sight,
would destroy that sense. But a thought-habit and a speech-habit had
upon you, and you still both think and say "I see the light," do you
As a schoolboy,
you studied spelling, arithmetic and history. In recitation (observe
that word "recitation")
you were compelled to cite the authority of your text-book, to spell
each word just
as it was spelled in the book, to solve your problem by the method
the book, to relate each incident, with its date, as contained in the
and literally. If asked some question related to the subject of your
you could not answer, your reply was "I don't know; that is not in my
This method of teaching was all right in its way and for its purpose,
but it produced
in your mind another group of thought-habits. One of these was the
indisposition to speculate ‒ to look beneath the literal meaning of
words; and you
became prone to deny that words could have any other meaning than the
"common-sense" meaning which accorded with the sense in which they were
used. And so, perhaps, you came to an insistence of the literal
Holy Writ, and to a like understanding of the Masonic ritual and
you were told as an Entered Apprentice, "is a beautiful system of
in allegory and illustrated by symbols." But you never asked to look
the veil or be told what it was that the symbols illustrated. So the
still remains "veiled" from your eyes. You were content with a literal
and "common-sense" interpretation of what you heard and saw. Perhaps
have yet to learn that the greatest of all Masonic symbols is a word,
that of all
the other symbols the most important is a Substitute word-more, that
not only is
every word used in the ritual and lectures a symbol but that there are
in your Masonic
work a large number of substitute words.
proceeding to speculate concerning one of the most interesting of these
words, again be warned that before you can become qualified and duly
and truly prepared
to enter upon that speculation, it is necessary that you divest your
mind and consciousness
of your acquired thought-habits, particularly your dependence upon,
and insistence upon the literal meaning of words; divest your mind and
of these habits as completely as you would divest your body of its
your shoes. (In passing, pause and speculate upon this word
note the connection of thought between that word and the human foot,
member upon which the whole body stands erect.) The ancient Egyptians
represented that faculty of abstract thought to which we give the name
by a naked human foot, and this ideology has come down to us through
and is preserved in our word "understanding." Moses, before questioning
the Most High in order to obtain from Him a revelation of His true
name, put his shoes from off his feet, thereby symbolically freeing his
of all preconceived thought-habits and rendering it as capable of
impressions of divine truth as his feet had been free and untrammeled
at his birth.
Hebrews, in the time of Boaz, a man removed his shoe as a token by
which he unreservedly
confirmed some business transaction ‒ an act of warranty, in which he
declared a clear understanding of what he had done and that his mind
was free from
restriction, reservation or meditated fraud. The Moslem of today
removes his shoes
before entering a mosque or communing with Allah in prayer,
his mind of error, heresy or schism, as well as divesting that mind and
all the vanities and superfluities of life. And so you, my brother
must divest yourself of your thought-habits, particularly the idea and
all which makes up your Masonic "work" is to be accepted in no other
its literal sense. If you have done this, we may proceed to approach
the veil through
which we must pass before our "beautiful system of morals" will appear
to us; not, as at present, "veiled in allegory and illustrated by
but as the most marvelous system of moral philosophy ever evolved from
out the wisdom
of all the ages that have passed.
Let us take
the word "Fellow" as it appears in "the Degree of Fellow Craft,"
and, remembering that in the lodge we are shown only the veils and
some of which have become sadly torn and unskilfully patched, let us
put all that
we have seen, or heard, or read pertaining to the degree of Fellow
Craft out of
our minds ‒ simply take the English word "fellow," and, using the
of old Socrates, speculate upon it.
The Degree of Fellow Craft
let us put to this word "Fellow" the same question that Joseph put to
his brethren when they came down into Egypt to buy corn, and, wishing
to test them,
he spake harshly unto them saying, "Whence come you?" Whence came our
English word fellow?
sciences of philology and etymology we learn that it came into what is
at a time long before there was an English language. It was carried
thither in some
ship sent out by some king of Tyre to trade with the natives of "the
of the North," as far north as what are now called Iceland and
the men who brought it to these islands spelled it fellah (if the man
be a seaman from Alexandria) or falah, if a man of Tyre. This word
fellah was of
ancient Egyptian origin; from the Egyptian it passed into the Arabic,
and from the
Arabic into the Syrian, returning again into the Coptic (the later
an ancient day, and to this day, fellah denotes a tiller of the soil,
or employed in the craft of agriculture. The Arabs, who were not
tillers of the
soil but subsisted on the milk and flesh of their herds principally,
word fellah to the Egyptians, who were agriculturists, as a word of
contempt. Either an Egyptian or a Syrian sailor of that long-past day,
to express his contempt for the unskilful character of a brother
seaman, in place
of the word "land-lubber" used today, would have called him a "fellah,"
meaning that he would doubtless make a better farmer or haymaker than a
and it is interesting to note that our word "fellow" is still used as
a term of contempt. The word fellah is today restricted to an Egyptian
of the North Atlantic Isles is more rugged and damp than that of Egypt,
Syria. Men do not dare expose their throats and vocal chords by opening
in speaking any wider than is necessary. So the word fellah became
felaghe in the
Iceland tongue then felagi; after the Danish invasion, it was rendered
in the English
tongue, felaghe, later as felag, denoting one who accumulated tillable
did Boaz); later, after the reign of Alfred, it passed from felawe
forms, until finally it became fellow. But, while as a modern English
former application has been lost to a great extent, the fact remains
that this word
(as well as the word "fallow," freshly plowed land) came from a very
root that meant to cleave, or plow, the soil, and that at the time our
began taking on its present form the word "fellow" applied almost
to the Craft of Agriculture, the companion or associate craft of
men who delve in quarries, square the stones, and lay them in mortar,
must eat ‒
must receive their wares in corn, wine and oil. Do you begin to
perceive why a certain
pretty little pastoral romance related in the Book of Ruth, in which
Boaz, the agriculturist,
played a leading role, was apparently dragged into a system seemingly
on the science of geometry and the arts pertaining to architecture? Do
that Agriculture is the Fellow Craft of Architecture, and that as such
it was allegorically
honored as one of the two great pillars that together support the
Temple of Civilization?
young brother Fellow Craft, the foregoing is but a hint to put you upon
of discovery ‒ a mere glimpse of the splendid treasures of Masonic
may become yours if you will but consent to think ‒ and to speculate.
On the next
occasion when you attend a meeting of a lodge of Fellow Craft, in
yourself" in the emblem of purity, at the same time divest your mind
of your thought ‒ habits before entering the lodge-room; when you have
listen thoughtfully, not idly or critically, and reflect, meditate,
all that is presented to your view, not casually nor mere cursorily,
scrutinize; look under, through and behind ‒ and speculate ‒ concerning
of the lodge, the sheaf of wheat suspended above the picture of falling
metal devices that tip the rods of the stewards; speculate as to the
of certain words ‒ particularly one that should be well known to you.
should we meet again, we will speculate further concerning what you
have heard and
By Bro. R.C. Blagrave, Ontario
by symbolism makes an appeal to the mind through the eye rather than
the usual channel
of the ear. The method is particularly valuable as a means of
truth upon the unlearned. It is also of value to the better educated as
for the communication of truths and impressions which cannot be fully
within the limits of human language. Truth, through symbolism, teaches
in a unique way; it suggests mystery, stimulates the imagination, and
reverence. The chief defect of the method is the danger of fixing
the symbol or figure itself, rather than upon that which is meant to be
It is interesting to note that symbolic ritual is preserved in our time
secret societies and the Catholic religion. In ancient times it was the
recognized form of instruction in Jewish worship and in the mystic
rites and ceremonies are not chance methods or forms: there is always a
or oppositeness in their significance. In ancient times there was more
there was an underlying philosophy which related the symbol
fundamentally to the
of numbers, in the elementary stages, is simple enough to be grasped by
juvenile intelligence, but as it progresses it discovers certain fixed
and proportions which indicate a more complex and profound
significance. Upon these
unalterable relations are developed the general laws of geometry and
which, in their final application, define and explain the structure and
of the material universe. Hence the study of the science of numbers was
time, not only of practical scientific value, but also lead the mind
into a contemplation
of the mysteries of the universe, and the cosmic plan of the creator.
of the significance of numbers was, accordingly, attended by a sense of
as the human mind felt itself to be following the Divine mind into the
creation. In the contemplation of fixed and fundamental geometric
exploring mind was impressed with a mystic sense of the nearness of the
Himself, so that the quest became nothing less than a religious
societies were formed to further the science, as well as having the
of leading their members into mystic relation with the great Creator
through a contemplation of geometric facts and forms impressed
rites and figures were a concrete setting forth of mathematical truth
so that those
who were unable to penetrate the philosophical significance of numbers
hold mystic communion with the Creator of the universe. Symbols became,
a nice setting forth of scientific truth, and objects of reverent
societies were schools of religion as well as of science and philosophy.
and inquisitive mind of the ancients were aware of the fact that beside
universe about them there was also a moral universe within whose
phenomena did not
yield so readily to mathematical analysis and synthesis as the one
which had been
giving up its secrets to the scalpel of numbers, squares and angles.
moral relations between man and man, and there were conscientious
man and the Creator, which bore in upon the awakening mind, for which
and direction were insistently demanded. There must be some
of conduct as between man and man, and this standard of conduct must in
express the will of the Creator. The quest was to know the will of God.
to hand were the sense of right, or the moral conscience, within, and
the laws of
creation as expressed in numbers and squares, without. After all, was
not the same
God the author of both? Might there not, therefore, be some fixed
the science of conduct and the science of numbers? Might not the
scientific discovery to the moral relations of mankind lead to
conformity to the
Divine Will? The ancient philosophers answered these questions in the
The mystical and moral value of numbers constituted the main thesis of
philosophy. So it came to pass that, in the ancient mysteries, the
interpreted the science of numbers, and related the devotee in a
mystical way to
the Creator, was made to serve also the additional purpose of moral
Modern Masons fully appreciate the value of such instruction as they
early S.T. and E. has a moral significance and serves to inculcate the
of virtue in all its genuine professors.
It was a
further appreciation of the unity of all creation that lead the ancient
to attempt to answer other and more difficult questions by a like
process of reasoning.
What was the origin of life? Through what agonies had mankind attained
status? What is to be the end of it all? There was abroad an abundance
material. If the science of numbers could furnish but little
satisfaction in answer
to these great questions might it not happen that symbolism could be
made to furnish
the key to unlock the mysteries? Hence the legendary accounts of life's
struggles, triumphs and destiny, were adapted and incorporated in a
symbolic ritual, by the ancient societies, which served to furnish some
the problems of life in the form of an impressive and concrete method
So it came about that science, philosophy and religion met and mingled
and elaborate symbolism in Greek and Egyptian mystery cults, through
effectually served human society in relating the mind and heart to the
will of the Creator.
was still another channel through which truth was to be made available
It is but natural the Creator should care for His creatures. They were
know truth, and were exploring the universe without and within to find
the One who made all things, and made them for a purpose, must needs
Him a desire to meet mankind with a full revelation of truth. The
was helpful as far as it went, but it was at the best, as a solution of
guidance for life, only tentative. The volume of the Sacred Law is the
the Creator's revelation of Himself. "The Almighty has been pleased to
more of His Divine will in that holy Book than by any other means."
that record, through a large portion of it, the symbolic method is used
and instruction. The construction of the Tabernacle in the wilderness
by the skill
of Bezaleel and Aholiab, was carried out according to the plan revealed
on the Mount, and included squares, angles, and oblongs, as well as
of a Master Mason which were given to Hiram the widow's son, consisted
knowledge, and of the mystic value of sacred numbers and proportions;
so that the
building of the Temple was a setting forth of the Divine plan of
Creation. The sacrificial
system of the Temple ritual served to inculcate a conscientious dread
of sin, and
a desire for righteousness and purity. The prophets preached the
of God, and the awful retribution which is the inevitable nemesis of
Masonry is eclectic and synthetic. It draws from the riches of all
sources, and sets forth in symbol, type, and allegory, mystical and
and Divine revelation.
We have preserved
for us in the symbolism of our lodges the geometrical discoveries and
of the ancients, with their mystical and moral significance. These are
represented in the form of the lodge, in our movements within the
lodge, and in
the square and compasses.
of the meaning and purpose of life is set forth in the orderly
development of the
three degrees. In the First degree, under the symbolism of light, our
the world is depicted. In the Second degree the rough and perfect
the progress we are expected to make in the development and application
of our corporeal
and intellectual faculties. The Third degree dramatically sets forth
dissolution of "our house of the tabernacle,” and ensures, for the
the glorious promise of eternal hope beyond the grave, in "the bright
star whose rising gives peace and salvation to the faithful and
obedient of the
we preserve in our lodges, under the sacred letter, and upon the sacred
V.S.L., the direct revelation to man of the nature and will of the
as well as of man's whole duty to Him in this world, and of his destiny
in the world
For all these
things we rejoice in the great Masonic heritage as a pure cement of
truth, of love
and of fellowship.
Where Leadest Thou the Race? -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald Nancarrow,
Time, Thou tireless traveler,
Where leadest thou the race?
Was it for naught that we were brought
Into this toilsome place?
From thy beginning to thy end
How great a wave, O Time?
Shall we, God's sons, forever crawl,
Or shall we reach and climb?
In years long gone, primeval man
Arose from couch of stone,
And, stretching up his bestial soul
He started for the Throne.
And so has man through million years,
Reached up and ever on;
And will, through million years to come,
Reach on till God is won.
For this, O Time, thou wert conceived,
For this and this alone;
The Father draws His children up
Through eons to their own.
is a means of conveying instruction in veiled form. The real subject of
is hidden under the disguise of another subject. The inner meaning of
must be sought under or behind the lesson presented to the senses and
Only through the exercise of the mental faculties and the moral powers
real lesson be apprehended, understood and applied.
Oriental Consistory Bulletin.
The Public School
SCHOOL is the one great democratized Institution existent in the world.
of its genius is best expressed in these United States. To the Masonic
it stands as the most consistent expression of the ideal of Masonry,
into fact and practice, that there is. Of all agencies that minister to
such as we have, the public school is the most indispensable, nay,
more. It is questionable
whether a Republic could ever be a success without such an Institution
training and developing the youthful citizenry for the later duties
that they must
assume, in the great common field of responsibility and citizenship.
school, the public school, be it observed, the prototype of what
be on a large scale is discovered. The plane of equality is there
and justly. There are no favors bestowed regardless of whether a
be rich or poor, learned or ignorant; he shares alike with every other
cultural and educational opportunities. Individual responsibility is
None may do the pupil's work save the pupil himself. If we would carry
into the larger activities of life, the duties of citizenship would of
be responded to not by a select few, but by all.
of war the burden of the battle would not have to be carried by those
who were willing
to do so, but it would be impressed upon everyone who shared the
the Nation guaranteed unto the individual. Even so do we recognize the
of the public school being the first safeguard and bulwark of American
Common privileges, common responsibilities, common duties ‒ these are
which warrant an attainment of real fellowship and fraternity later on.
demagogues who would transform society so as to reduce us to a dead
level in which
initiative would be handicapped, may well learn something from the
fallacy that has been existent has been due to attributing to either
environment the capacities and genius and likewise the retrogressive
that characterize individuals. The truth of the matter probably would
be, if scientists
could but agree, that both these factors had much to do in the
development of the
individual. Common observation, however, reveals very frequently that
with the best
hereditary legacy, man may make little of himself, and with
conducive to real development, men very often turn out in a
disappointing way. In
the school this fact is wonderfully evident. Such a level as man
morally aspire to already exists here, and in this environ is tested
the real worth
of the potential man. This indicates to us the only sort of equality
that can ever
reasonably exist, and guarantees both equity and justice to all
concerned. If within
the school there is obedience to the requisites of success, the one so
attain the highest pinnacle.
school there is no injunction served that will prevent any student
over another, and who can conceive of an injunction being served which
did not cultivate
emulation of the worthy example of scholastic excellence? Further,
reward is invariably
according to merit. A child that is not fitted for the sixth grade,
capable of assuming
the duties that study involves there, will not be found there, if his
place is in
the second grade. And such condition is but miniature of what ought
to exist in the greater world without. Fairness and justice and reward
initiative and sacrifice ought always to go unchallenged. It may indeed
a greater benefit if we make a study of the public school as showing in
way what we should be without.
persuades us that we do well to comply with the standards of government
as it is
exemplified in the school life. We have heard of the objections raised
quarters owing to the lack of the teaching of religion in a specific
way in connection
with the school. Naturally the criticism has come from churches, the
being the Roman Catholic church. The teaching of religion and the
fostering of its
tenets and principles was conceived by the Fathers to be the function
of the church,
hence they safeguarded domination of the school by the church or making
auxiliary to the church by stating emphatically as a constitutional
the church and state should remain separate. This was not done from a
religion. It was a full-fledged recognition of how the church in times
subverted the teaching of religion by training men to a blind
submission to the
church's interpretation of certain things fundamental to human
happiness which had
by the church's arbitrary ruling proved derogatory and painful.
It was recognized
that ecclesiasticism had in the past taken the lead of religion. A full
that religion could exist independent of churches seems to have
animated the founders
of this republic.
task today, then, is to prevent such encroachment by ecclesiastical
powers as would
bring the church and the state once again into a relationship where the
as to which should dominate and direct people's affairs would agitate
of a great people.
through the clearmindedness of the Fathers, gained an appreciation of
what is the
legitimate province of the church. It is to actuate a citizenry with a
love of service for God and always for the good of all mankind. It
men with an unselfish passion for their common good. It should proclaim
is not a thing strictly for ecclesiastical interpretation, but is that
to divine instruction within men which prompts them to a disinterested
from a consciousness of relationship both to God and to man. An
the sacred books that tell of religion is necessary to reveal to the
pupil the compelling
power of religion as it has revealed itself in the world. These books
men Godwise and enabled them to live Christlike.
guaranty of freedom contained in the Constitution of the United States
we have referred, however, is a mandate against interference with the
system. No institution can claim that in its private or parochial
system it is engaged
in a function superior to that of the States. To criticize the public
as "godless" because the public school adheres to the constitutional
is to violate the very freedom which that constitution guarantees. If
attacks the public school system of this republic on this ground, that
opposed to this republic. The study of history proves to the most
that free education goes hand in hand, and necessarily so, with true
of conscience, and freedom to worship according to the dictates of
the other guarantees of human rights contained in the constitution of
States, are and should be for free citizens, who accept the
well as the benefits of their citizenship. There is food for thought in
which may well be taken to heart by those who oppose our free school
oppose it with a motive which is contrary to our whole system of
advocate of dogma does not honestly believe in true freedom ‒ he wants
a kind of
freedom which he can dictate. If he can begin that dictation in the
of the young, he can warp the mature mind which is to grow up out of
If he has not this control, he well knows that dogma by the fiat of any
man or set
of men must eventually answer at the bar of Truth. He further knows
that an answer,
formulated by a church with such a record of opposition, will not be in
with our American constitutional guarantees.
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
be our aim to publish in this Department each month a list of such
as we may be able from time to time to secure for members of the
a book listed herein this month may be out of stock next month, and
unobtainable, and for this reason it is recommended that when ordering
pamphlets from these lists the latest monthly issue of THE BUILDER be
and no orders be made from lists more than thirty days old.
monthly reviews the names and addresses of the publishers of the books
in order that our readers may order such books direct from the
of through the Society.
Famous Leaders of Industry
Leaders of Industry," [Lib 1920] by Edwin Wildman, Editor of
Bookman." Published by Page Company, 53 Beacon St., Boston. Mass. Price
A SHORT while
ago we had the pleasure of reading "Reconstructing America," by Edwin
Wildman, Editor of "The Bookman." It was a pertinent collection of
on our present great problem, by men from all walks of life in the
country. It was
such a compendium as would be eminently suggestive in the hands of all
are trying to mold public opinion along lines that would be
conservative, safe and
We are again
indebted to Mr. Wildman for a timely service in the gift of his book,
Leaders of Industry." It is a veritable chronicle of the romance of
achieved by famous leaders of industry in America. In the hands of the
it ought to be stimulative and inspirational. Especially serviceable is
it at this
time, when there is so much abroad to discourage individual initiative.
sketches of the lives of such men as P. T. Barnum, Thomas A. Edison,
Hudson Maxim and Charles M. Schwab should be conducive to arousing our
the state of inertia, or allaying the mad frenzy for amusement that has
so many Americans. We rarely read of today, or see about us young men
the Doctor's or Lawyer's office or the Public Library for the obtaining
of books of serious import, which would warrant us in believing that
the good old
fashioned American ambition is still alive among us. Such a book as
this one of
the "Famous Leaders" series will no doubt render a very efficient
in the interests of the rising generation. It is in itself a protest
crass stupidity which believes that mass movement allows no room for
genius and enterprise. May it find its way into the hands of the youth
of our country.
* * *
A New Jewish Translation
of the Scriptures
Holy Scriptures." [Lib 1917] For information regarding the
price, address The Jewish Publication Society of America, Broad Street
Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa.
We are delighted
to note the issuance of a new translation of the Holy Scriptures by the
Society of America. The translators have done a splendid work in their
and as stated in their preface have applied themselves to the sacred
task of preparing
a new translation of the Bible into the English language which, unless
fail, is to become the current speech of the children of Israel.
It is the
work of the ripest scholars among the Jewish people in America, and a
work of immeasurable
value to all those who desire to know the Bible as the Jews themselves
commend its circulation.
* * *
An Analysis of Life from
of the Chair," [Lib 1919] by Sherlock Bronson Gass.
Published by Marshall
Jones Company, 212 Summer St., Boston, Mass.
good literature will find a treat in Sherlock Bronson Gass's book, "A
of the Chair." It is not a book that can be read without arousing the
We were reminded in our reading of it of the statement of a certain
great man which
was to the effect that to get the best out of anything one must apply
all his energy
and have his faculties well sharpened, as only after the worthy effort
treasure be yielded.
It is a keen
analysis of life from many phases, and well balanced in its;
of the esthetic will enjoy "A Lover of the Chair." It is a fling, as
author intimates, at the spirit of our age, and he has succeeded, as it
evinced, in accomplishing his task with very good humor.
* * *
The Price We Are Paying
For Our Lack of Great Men
Nemesis of Mediocrity," [Lib 1917] by Ralph Adams Cram.
$1.00 by Marshall Jones Company, 212 Summer St., Boston, Mass.
is one of several written by the eminent American architect, Ralph
Adams Cram. We
wish that they might all be placed in the hands of thoughtful readers
who are concerned
about the future happiness of this and every other country in the
world. Dr. Cram
is indeed no mean prophet. His analysis of history in these small but
and his capacity to discern the great significance of world movements,
the past or the present, makes the reading of his books greatly
worthwhile. It may
be said by some that he is tinged with pessimism, but to say this would
be to overlook
the undercurrent which reveals him to be a man of profound faith in the
adjustment of things. The volume under consideration brings home to us
that we are paying by trusting our political, civic and religious
destinies to people
of mediocre capacities. His contention that there is a dearth of great
men is amply
convincing when we take account of world conditions at the present
time. The fallacies
attendant upon what Dr. Cram has designated as the Democracy of Method
with the Democracy of the Ideal is amply illustrated.
may take exception to what he suggests as a possible way out of our
viz: by returning to monastic practices in community living, none
however can read
and not be profoundly stirred by the challenge that is set forth in his
backed by his acute observation of great historic epochs.
* * *
A New Work on Psychic Research
Book of the Damned," [Lib 1919] by Charles Fort. Published by
Boni Liveright Company, 105 West 40th St., New York. Price $1.90.
We can do
no better in commending this book than to insert a foreword in
connection with it.
In this amazing
work ‒ the result of twelve years of patient research ‒ the author
presents a mass
of evidence which has hitherto been ignored or distorted by scientists,
to the certainty not only of life in other planets, but of
them and this earth.
would be incredible without the formidable mass of evidence adduced,
author's argument, which he develops in a fascinating manner with
of sardonic humor and flashes of sheer poetic insight.
* * *
For Better Thinking and
Higher Powers of Mind and Spirit," [Lib 1917] by Ralph Waldo Trine.
by Dodd, Mead & Co., 4th Ave. and 30th St., New York. Price
Trine possesses in marked degree the ability to state old philosophic
terms of modern thinking. To those who have been permitted to enjoy the
of the wise men of the past, many of his sayings will sound quite
Nevertheless the age always requires men who can become vehicles of
and uplift to those who are too busy with the busy toils of a material
may be considered the foremost and best loved of the exponents of new
the country today. His latest volume, "The Higher Powers of Mind and
transcends the usual channel in which the new thought test travels.
on the World War and International Peace show his grasp of big problems
in a very
practical fashion. His plea for the understanding of the life of the
man of Galilee
is both wise and suggestive, and his observation upon military
that Universal Training is not incompatible with the best interests of
is very timely.
book will enhance in value the treasury of books on better thinking and
* * *
| Publications Issued by the Society
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| 1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1919 bound volume of THE BUILDER (for delivery
about February 1st or 15th)
| Philosophy of Freemasonry, Pound 1.251722
Constitutions ( reproduced by photographic plates from an original copy
in the archives of the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro.
J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, red buffing binding, gilt lettering,
illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry,
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag,"
| "Further Notes on the Comacine Masters," W.
Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to "The Comacines, Their Predecessors
and Their Successors," a Masonic digest of Leader Scott's book "The
Cathedral Builders" and containing the latest researches of Brother
Ravenscroft which present a very logical argument for the connection of
Freemasonry of the present day with the Roman Collegia and traveling
Masons of the early times, paper covers, illustrated
| Symbolism of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Three Degrees, Street, 68
pages, paper covers. The lessons and symbols of each degree traced to
their origin, in every instance that it has been possible to so trace
them. Brother Street gives many explanations of our symbols in this
little book on which our monitors but vaguely touch
| Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite,
| PUBLICATIONS FROM OTHER SOURCES IN IN STOCK AT
| "The Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry,
by Brother Joseph Fort Newton, formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER
|| $ 1.50
| Mackey's Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two
volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
| Symbolism of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey
| Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M.
Johnson, P.G.M., Massachusetts
| Concise History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke
prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all items
The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or registered.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
Mormons and Masons
I would like
to know, through the Question Box in THE BUILDER, if Brigham Young, the
was a Mason, and if there is any objection to a Mormon becoming a Mason?
L. L., Montana.
not believe that Brigham Young was ever a member of the Masonic
Gould's History we learn that the Grand Lodge of Illinois, in 1842,
granted a dispensation
for a lodge at Nauvoo, the Mormon settlement, in which 286 candidates
and nearly all passed and raised. The Grand Lodge appointed a committee
the work of the lodge, and this committee made a favorable report,
dispensation was continued and dispensations granted for three more
at Nauvoo and one at Keokuk, Iowa, the territory of Iowa being at that
the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Illinois. At the next session of
Lodge the records of these lodges were withheld, and after examination,
Lodge refused charters and withdrew the dispensations. The Nauvoo
lodges were composed
mainly of Mormons, who continued to work in spite of the action of the
and refused to deliver the dispensations to the committee appointed to
at the next session of the Grand Lodge these associations were declared
to be clandestine,
and all those hailing therefrom were suspended, and a circular to that
ordered to be sent to the other Grand Lodges and published in all
The Keokuk lodge, or certain members of it, sent in a petition to have
renewed, averring that they had not violated Masonic law to their
Grand Lodge ordered an investigation during the recess, but it does not
any further action was taken.
4, 1866, the Grand Master of Nevada issued a dispensation for Mt.
Moriah Lodge at
Salt Lake City, Utah, under which the lodge was organized the next day.
a question arose in relation to the treatment of Mormons, who claimed
to be Masons,
and it was submitted to the Grand Master. He, undoubtedly aware of the
Mormon episode, for reply issued an edict forbidding the admission as
and the affiliation as members, of Mormons claiming to be Masons, and
of petitions from Mormon candidates. The lodge was deeply aggrieved and
but submitted to the order of the Grand Master. A meeting was held,
a petition sent to the Grand Lodge to modify the edict, so that
Mormons, not polygamists,
would be excepted from its operation; also the dispensation was
returned with a
petition for a charter; but the Grand Lodge approved the edict of the
declined to grant a charter, and continued the dispensation: the lodge
than sorrow-stricken"; but worked on, obedient to the edict, for
Then a petition for a charter vitas presented to the Grand Lodge, but
with the statement that, unless they could have a charter unrestricted
by the edict,
they respectfully declined to take any; the Grand Lodge promptly
accepted the surrender
of the dispensation, and refused to grant a charter. They then
presented a petition,
reciting the circumstances, to the Grand Lodge of Montana at its
8, 1867. That Grand Lodge declared the assumption of the petitioners,
that the Grand
Lodge of Nevada did not possess the power to decide who are not proper
be admitted into its subordinate lodges, was "subversive of the
of Masonry," rejected the petition for a charter, and referred the
to the Grand Lodge of Nevada for a "redress of their alleged
as that Grand Lodge was "abundantly qualified, as we believe they are
to render justice in the premises." The petitioners then applied to the
Master of Kansas for a dispensation, which he issued November 25, 1867,
and a charter
was granted by the Grand Lodge, October 21, 1868.
and Wardens of Wasatch Lodge, chartered by the Grand Lodge of Montana,
1867; Mount Moriah Lodge, chartered by the Grand Lodge of Kansas,
October 21, 1868;
and Argenta Lodge, chartered by the Grand Lodge of Colorado, September
all located at Salt Lake City, met in convention January 16, 1872, and
17, 1872, "regularly organized" the Grand Lodge of Utah. Wasatch Lodge
had previously worked under dispensations dated October 22, 1866, and
dispensation dated April 8, 1871. The Grand Lodge of Missouri chartered
Lodge, June 1, 1860, but it surrendered its charter the following year.
this new Grand Lodge had begun to function, an important question arose
of its peculiar surroundings. A member of one of its lodges joined the
and for this cause, upon regular proceedings, he was expelled by his
the expulsion confirmed by the Grand Lodge. The matter attracted the
the other Grand Lodges, and many of them, at the request of the Grand
Lodge of Utah,
took formal action in relation to it. It was objected against the
Masonry never interferes with the religious views of any member of the
This was admitted, but the expulsion was quite unanimously sustained on
that acts, in violation of Masonic or moral law, are not justified, nor
thereof shielded from punishment, although such acts are in accordance
are enjoined by, his religious views. Freedom of conscience, to the
extent of committing
crime, is no more tolerated by Masonic, than by civil law.
been promised by a prominent Utah brother a series of articles on
Freemasonry in that State for early publication in THE BUILDER.
* * *
Ownership and Control of
Chicago Masonic Temple
Mason recently told me that the Masonic Temple in Chicago was owned and
by Catholics and rented by them to the various Masonic bodies meeting
there any truth in this statement?
Temple, located at State and Randolph Streets, Chicago, was originally
a stock company, the stock being widely scattered among various
interests. The stock
was, however, gradually absorbed and merged into a trusteeship known as
Temple Trust"; the controlling interest in the building being owned by
estate of N. W. Harris and A. O. Slaughter, and the Barhydt and Bodman
the minority interests or stock being held by various individuals and
as is known none of the stock is held by Catholic interests.
is managed by the real estate firm of Willoughby & Co.,
Chicago, composed of
E. M. Willoughby and J. E. Swanson, both of whom are members of the
Council, Commandery, Consistory and Shrine.
Lodges, three Chapters, one Council and two Commanderies hold their
Bureau of Service and Employment,
* * *
The Blue Lodge Emblem
please explain through THE BUILDER why the letter "G" is placed inside
the square and compasses? Why not the level or trowel, or some other
E.C.M., Kansas. No reason can be given. "G"
is one of the more important symbols; emblem makers have therefore
make use of it in Masonic lapel buttons, watch charms, etc. Its being
with the square and compasses is purely accidental
H. L. H.
* * *
"The White Shrine"
And the "Order of Amaranth"
What is "The
White Shrine," also the "Order of Amaranth"?
O.I.O., North Dakota.
"White Shrine" and the "Order of Amaranth" are degrees to which
only members of the Eastern Star are eligible
of Amaranth" was invented by J. B. Taylor, of Newark, N. J., but it was
and improved by Robert Macoy of New York. The Supreme Council of the
rite was established
June 14, 1873, with Robert Macoy as Supreme Patron and Robert Morris as
Shrine" was founded by Charles D. Magee, Chicano. Ill. in 1894. It is
present time an active and growing organization.
A Proposed Remedy for Disappointment
and Apathy in Masonry
suggestions are made in response to the editorial "A Confession and a
in the March issue of THE BUILDER.)
be denied that thousands of Masons finish their degree course in
Masonry with a
feeling of disappointment and the thought, generally unexpressed, that
not received all that they had been led to expect to receive. This is
enter into Masonry with the expectation of receiving something that
be obtained ‒ an unexpressed "something" which is traditionally
to be attainable in Masonry, and nowhere else; yet we do not take the
explain to the candidate for Masonic membership just what he has a
right to expect
to find. The result is "Masonic Apathy" in thousands of our members.
As a remedy
for this condition the following suggestions are offered:
candidate receives his first degree let him be given a short, carefully
lecture, preferably uniform for every jurisdiction, and incorporated in
just as are the printed lectures of the various degrees, in explanation
of the history
of Masonry, what Masonry is, and what Masonry has stood for throughout
Let this lecture be given with utmost seriousness in a most impressive
by the very best man for the purpose in the lodge, whether an officer
might well be somewhat in the form of a "charge" and, for example,
to the following, it being understood that the example given is but a
merely for the purpose of illustrating the idea:
Mr. A. B.,
you have made application to this lodge to be received among us, and
among all the
duly recognized Masons of the world as an equal ‒ more than an equal,
as a brother.
It has been the pleasure of this lodge to favorably act on your
petition and to
grant your request.
proceeding with the actual conferring of Masonic degrees upon a
candidate, it is
the custom of this lodge to explain to him what Masonry is, and what he
to find in it for himself, and what Masonry, as an organization, and
individual members, of which you aspire to the honor of becoming one,
owes to the
have heard it said that Masonry is not a religious organization, that
it is not
a political organization, and that it is not a charitable organization
‒ or if you
have not heard these statements, you hear them now ‒ and they are all
is, all are true in a narrow sense ‒ in a wide sense they are all
untrue, for Masonry
is the custodian of the greatest religious faith, the belief in God and
of the soul. Masonry, without partisan affiliation or narrow political
a supporter of civic righteousness, sturdy citizenship, and freedom to
each man in his own way. And Masonry regards with charity the works and
all men. Never in your Masonic life forget or neglect these principles
for by remembering them and acting in accordance with them you will do
in carrying forward the proud history of Masonry.
of Masonry has been many times written yet never wholly correctly, and
in all probability
never will be. The origin and early history of Masonry is lost in the
the later history of Masonry, that is its history as an organization
such as we
now know it, is in many respects incomplete and confused. Masonry's
history extends back little beyond 1717, but from internal evidence,
which you will
later have the privilege of yourself considering as a fruit of your
it plainly appears that Masonry, broadly considered, is many, many,
of years, older than 1717.
When I refer
to the internal evidence of Masonic age, I refer not to Masonry's
history as APPARENTLY
taught in the degree work, but to its history as REALLY taught by the
work in the
lodge ‒ its teachings by means of symbols, the manner in which its
Great Truth is
taught, its concealed references, and so forth. All these things can
to you only by the most careful consideration and utmost thoughtfulness
part, to-wit, by YOUR OWN Masonic labor.
of Masonry, as APPARENTLY taught by the degree work is frankly, to a
a hodge-podge of historic untruths, or at best historic truths
You are not to consider the degrees as history, but rather to consider
them as allegories,
each teaching by one of the most ancient methods known to the human
mind, an important
moral truth. First learn the lesson of the particular allegory and
then, if you
so please ‒ and I sincerely trust you will ‒ discover by the study of
just what is history and just what is purely allegory.
of Masonry are those of the Master's lodge, popularly called the "Blue
those of the Royal Arch Chapter; the cryptic degrees of the Council;
degrees of the Commandery, and the degrees of the Scottish Rite. The
degrees, when received, constitute you a Master Mason, so far as your
right to receive
the privileges of a Master Mason are concerned. The other degrees are
to aid you
to a better understanding of what the Blue Lodge degrees are intended
to teach you.
It is no concern of any Master Masons' lodge whether or not you take
"higher degrees," and do not take what I have said to you as an attempt
to in the least influence you in the matter ‒ but this I may say: That
who rightly understands the lessons of the Blue Lodge and diligently
is the Masonic equal of any Mason, no matter what that Mason's degree
may be, and
no amount of degree taking can make a true Mason of any man who does
the teachings of the Blue Lodge.
have heard of the "secrets of Masonry." If you expect to obtain the
SECRET of Masonry by the mere taking of degrees, you are inevitably
disappointment. For the TRUE SECRET is an inexpressible knowledge of
how to act
and how to conduct yourself throughout your life, learned, each man for
by thoughtful contemplation of the simple teachings of Masonry.
you learn this TRUE SECRET you will be able to do your part in helping
do its duty in the world. That duty of Masonry is that it exert all its
all its influence toward the betterment of the world by all means
more specifically by making good citizens and by preserving man's
to life, liberty, the pursuit of happiness and freedom to worship God
each man in
his own way.
Mr. A. B., I, in the name of this Master Masons' lodge, wish you God
speed on your
introduction into Masonry.
Harold A. Kingsbury, Delaware.
* * *
What Masonry Means To a
editorial entitled "A Confession and a Challenge" has prompted me to
down a few lines; not as an acceptance of the "challenge," for there
many pointed questions in the article beyond my poor ability to answer,
to give my own experience. My Masonic career has many points in common
of the composite doughboy:
I am a man
in my late thirties, and never had the slightest interest in Masonry
till a little
over three years ago. What prompted me to ever take an interest? I do
unless it was the subconscious influence exerted by the fact that most
of my friends
were Masons. However, no one of them ever asked me to petition the
lodge. I just
found out one day that I wanted to be a Mason.
the M. M. Degree December 7th, 1916, was made a Royal Arch Mason
January 31st, 1917,
took the Commandery all in one day on March 12th, 1917, and the Shrine
1917. At the December Reunion of the Scottish Rite in the same year I
took the degrees
through to the 32nd. In April, 1919, I was accepted into the Council,
and also received
the Super-Excellent. Thus you will see that I took my Masonry in rather
doses, without having time to digest as I went along.
past three years I have had the honor of holding office in my Blue
Lodge, and am
at present the Master. I also hold office in one of the higher bodies.
is not set down with any idea of being a boast. It is simply a
statement of facts
in the life of one Mason of the millions who live in America today.
friend or brother of the Blue Lodge ask me, "Would you advise me to
the degrees I can?" I should say "Yes, if you are prepared to read and
study in the wonderful field of research and inspiration opened up for
I should advise him especially to take the Scottish Rite, the most
for moral and spiritual uplift and inspiration extant.
says, "… But I've stopped learning about it, and really know less than
I was studying the first three degrees. There's some mystery about it.
I don't understand
yet what it's all about. I've rushed through. I've seen it all. But I
us has "digested" it all? To whom is its great mystery an open book?
along the same lines, who understands all the teachings of the
Scriptures, the Apocalypse
of St. t John, or the Kabala, or the Avesta of Zoroastrian teachings?
No two persons
receive the same impressions, or derive the same benefit from a given
topic of study.
But is not each one bettered by reading the works of, or books about
the great thinkers,
patriots, or philosophers? Why has Doughboy stopped learning about
he has at his command such books as "History of Freemasonry and
Orders," [Lib 1891] "A Concise History of
"Morals and Dogma" [Lib 1871] of the Scottish Rite,
Encyclopedia," [Lib 1914] "The Comacines," [Lib 1910] "Legenda" of the various
Scottish degrees, and a host of others?
To me Masonry
is not a sect, a faction, a creed, or a religion. Masonry is an
influence, an inspiration,
and a philosophy. The benefits are not to be derived but in a minute
part from the
hearing of degrees, the "patter" of the work. Lodge meetings are most
necessary, and the degrees are the very heart of the Order. But if
Masonry is put
off when lodge closes, to be resumed only at the next meeting; then it
is not fully
appreciated. Masonry can, and should be taken into the home for study,
not the finding of a word spelled with letters. It is not being able to
a ritual, or the wearing of a pin. Masonry is not the bare reading of
the past, or facts of the present.
the change for the better effected in the lives of its members; the
toleration for the opinions of others, of charity in its broadest
meaning, and the
desire to get into action for fellow men, instead of drifting along.
the mystery of life and how best to live according to each one's
ability and circumstances.
A Montana Brother.
* * *
The Free Public School
resolution recently adopted by the Grand Lodge of Mississippi should be
to readers of THE BUILDER:
PUBLIC SCHOOL; THE GREATEST UNIFYING FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF
DEMOCRACY IN THE
Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Mississippi, in
the free public school the chief bulwark of the State and Nation, to be
the sole dominion and direction of the State, and so far as the efforts
Masonry in Mississippi is concerned, its voice, vote and influence will
at all times
be exerted in keeping it so.
any individual or other influence, be it political or ecclesiastical
to destroy the free public school system as now operated in this
country, as an
enemy of our American institutions, the State and Nation, and the
object to attack
by the institution of Free Masonry.
that all teachers in our free public schools, to whom are entrusted the
of our national endurance, should be those who cherish the value of the
of true Americanism above all other power on earth, be it political or
those who recognize the authority only of a just and merciful God who
heaven and earth, and also, that of this great American government.
that the highest type of manhood and womanhood may be secured as
teachers in our
free public schools, that they be paid generously, and be required to
loyal, efficient service will be expected at their hands.
that all teachers employed in our free public schools be required to
take an oath
of allegiance to the State and Nation, particularly in all matters
free public school system, as against any other influence whatever.
Be it further
resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be furnished our Senators
in Congress and also the legislative bodies in Mississippi, now in
J. W. McCant, Mississippi.
* * *
He Who Has Not Mastered
the Entered Apprentice Degree Can Never Receive Master's Wages
in the March number of THE BUILDER is highly significant.
went "over the top" in France, is nearly "over the top" in Masonry,
having attained the 32nd degree, and is asking the question "What does
really try to teach?"
I would suggest
that he go back and take the Entered Apprentice degree over again and
to subdue his passions and improve himself in Masonry," using the four
virtues to do so, that when he has truly mastered and can put into
Fortitude, Prudence and Justice, his passions will be under control.
foundation upon which to build, his Masonry will be but "sounding
as he has found it.
He will then
be ready, but not before, to be instructed in the mysteries of the
letter G. and
learn the wages of a Fellow Craft. When he has mastered this degree he
will be ready
for the life-long quest "to receive the wages of a Master Mason." This
will keep him employed and intensely interested through life.
He will find
that he will never "receive Master's wages" unless he masters the
A. K. Bradley, Texas.
* * *
The Lesser Lights
I wish to
thank you for the copy of THE BUILDER for September, 1918, recently
sent me in reply
to my query for information concerning the situation of the lesser
lights in the
various jurisdictions. My difficulties are now settled, which goes to
show how important
it is to have a complete file of THE BUILDER.
It may be
of interest to you to know that in Cornwall Lodge, Cornwall, Ontario,
lights are placed at the corners of the lodge room, in the northeast,
and southeast, if I remember correctly.
In our lodge
rooms we have not only the altar lights, which are referred to in the
the "auxiliary lights," but also lights on the officers' pedestals, and
on the walls above their three chairs. The latter are used only in the
W. Harvev McNairn. Ontario.
Keep Me Striving -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald Nancarrow,
keep me striving after Thee, my God,
I ask no lighter way to tread;
I seek not flowers but e'en the rod
And feed my soul on hunger's bread.
For I would grow to Thee in nature's part
Not at a bound to scale the heights,
But by the hungerings of my heart
Reach up and on through blackest nights.
To win to Thee though eons intervene,
Though I shall labor through the dust
A thousand groping lives which lie between ‒
I shall for Thou hast said I must.
is the successive disenchanting of the things of life; it is reason
the heart's spoils.
‒ J. Petit-Senn
A Concise History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
A Concise History of
Gou51 / auth. Gould Robert F / ed. Crowe Frederick J. W.. - London :
Gale & Polden Limited, 1951. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 10.3 MB.
A Lover of the Chair
Gas19 / auth. Gass Sherlock B. - Boston : Marshall Jones Company, 1919.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 310. - 7.5 MB.
A Review of Cryptic Masonry
War95 / auth. Warvelle Geo. W.. - Chicago : Grand Chapter, 1895. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 21. - 0.7 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
Arctic Exploration Vol 1
Kan56 / auth. Kane Elisha K. - Philadelphia : Childs &
Peterson, 1856. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 480. - 26.4 MB.
Arctic Exploration Vol 2
Kan561 / auth. Kane Elisha K. - Philadelphia : Childs &
Peterson, 1856. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 479. - 23.6 MB.
Freemason's Monthly Vol 07
Moo48FM07 / auth. Moore Charles W. - Boston : Tuttle & Dennett,
1848. - Vol. 7 : 32 : p. 786. - 66.9 MB.
History of Masonry and
Hug91 / auth. Hughan William J / ed. Hughan William J. and Stillson
Henry L.. - New York : The Fraternity Publishing Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 863. - 63.4 MB.
Leaders of Industry
Wil20 / auth. Wildman Edwin. - Boston : The Page Company, 1920. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 366. - Illustrated - 15.6 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
The Blue Bird
Mae16 / auth. Maeterlinck Maurice / trans. Mattos Alexander Teixeira
de. - New York : Dodd, Mead & Co, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 287.
- 3.9 MB.
The Blue Flower
Van041 / auth. Van Dyke Henry. - Toronto : The Copp Clark Co., Limited,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 10.7 MB.
The Book of the Damned
For19 / auth. Fort Charles. - New York : Boni and Liveright, 1919. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 297. - 7.7 MB.
The Comacines Their
Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 94. - 3.4 MB.
The Higher Powers of Mind and
Tri17 / auth. Trine Ralph W. - New York : Dodge Publishing Company,
1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 242. - 12.3 MB.
The Holy Grail and other Poems
Ten70 / auth. Tennyson Alfred. - Boston : J E Tilton and Company, 1870.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 152. - 5.5 MB.
The Holy Scriptures according
to the Masoretic Text
Unk17 / auth. Unknown. - Philadelphia : The Jewish Publication Society
of America, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1147. - 48.2 MB.
The Nemesis of Mediocrity
Cra17 / auth. Cram Ralph A. - Boston : Marshall Jones Company, 1917. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 56. - 1.7 MB.
The Wandering Jew Vol 1
Sue46WJ1 / auth. Sue Eugene. - London : Chapman and Hall, 1846. - Vol.
1 : 3 : p. 559. - 28.6 MB.
The Wandering Jew Vol 2
Sue46WJ2 / auth. Sue Eugene. - London : Chapman and Hall, 1846. - Vol.
2 : 3 : p. 405. - 22.1 MB.
The Wandering Jew Vol 3
Sue46WJ3 / auth. Sue Eugene. - London : Chapman and Hall, 1846. - Vol.
3 : 3 : p. 416. - 21.2 MB.
Washington`s Masonic Correspondence
Sac15 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Lancaster : New Era Printing Co.,
1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 182. - 11.6 MB.