Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
David G. Farragut
was born near Knoxville, Tennessee, July 5th, 1801. He died August
14th, 1870, at
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where he was buried with Masonic honors.
Later his body
was removed to Woodlawn Cemetery in Brooklyn.
entered the navy at nine. He became a midshipman at twelve and pursued
under Chaplain Charles Folsom on board the Washington while serving in
Returning to the States in 1820 he passed his Naval examination and
served in the
Mosquito Fleet against the pirates in the Caribbean Sea. In 1825 he was
to Lieutenant; in September, 1841, to Commander, and in September,
1855, to Captain.
In 1858 he took command of the Brooklyn and at the outbreak of the
Civil War was
awaiting orders at Norfolk.
He was the
greatest genius of the War. He was not a fearless man, but a man who
knew a good
risk and had the courage of his convictions. Other officers thought it
impossible to run a fleet up the Mississippi River past the forts, but
heeded not. His tactics were new. Instead of heading up the middle line
of the river
he ran his ships so close to Fort Jackson that the yard-arms touched
and while this fort fired over the ships the one on the opposite fired
general attacks were successful rushes.
of Admiral Farragut stands in Farragut Square in the City of
Washington, D.C. It
is of bronze, of heroic size, and was modeled by the wife of General
Vinnie Ream). The metal from which the statue and the Cohorn mortars
it were cast, was from the original propeller of the Hartford, the
and the castings were made in the foundry of the steam engineering
plant of the
Washington Navy Yard.
memorial was unveiled in the presence of an immense gathering, on April
The flag used in the unveiling ceremonies has a history worth recording.
fleet had laid New Orleans under its guns, Congress in its wisdom and
created the rank of Commodore for Farragut. Knowles, the old signal
on the Hartford, took a blue flag, a "number" from the signal chest,
a star in it, and it was flown, the first Commodore's flag in our navy.
was promoted to Rear Admiral, a grade created for him, Knowles stitched
in a second
star; and when Farragut was made Vice-Admiral, and later Admiral,
the necessary stars to the same old flag.
unveiling of the statue, Bartholemew Diggins, a member of Brightwood
Lodge No. 24
in the District of Columbia, who had been in Farragut's gig crew all
war, asked for that old flag and offered a new one for it. The
Secretary of the
Navy granted his request. Many years afterward, when Dewey returned
from the Philippines,
Diggins asked the writer, who was about to go to New York to make
Admiral Dewey's reception, to present the flag to Dewey. The flag was
and it was the only Admiral's pennant ever flown by Farragut or by
Masonic connection is beyond doubt, the writer has been unable to
identify his lodge.
Naval Lodge No. 87 was instituted at Vallejo, opposite the Navy Yard at
and there are members of that lodge still living who greeted the
Admiral when he
visited there. Surgeon General John Mills Browne of the Navy, who was
in California, as well as Master of Naval Lodge, and also an active
33rd, was intimate
with the Admiral in California, and remembered him as a Mason and a
Masonry. He did not, however, remember the name of his lodge. This is
but one more
object lesson which teaches us the need of better records. The lodge
the funeral at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, has no record of the
His son, Loyall, writes that some orders were conferred upon his father
was a midshipman, at Malta, but he is not positive what those orders
was one of those rare characters who could separate his duties,
and worries, not letting one encroach upon the other. He was
industrious to a fault,
and expected others to keep pace. He was an excellent seaman, which in
his day was
regarded as imperative. He was reserved and dignified, yet
approachable, never letting
a meritorious act of a subordinate pass without a word of approval, but
was as careful
to reprove one committing an error.
By The Belfast Protestant
We, the accredited
delegates of the Protestant churches of Ireland, representing one
million and one
quarter people, beg to submit to the Protestant people of America the
We come here
in the interests of truth and fair play, our views on the subject of
of Ireland from Great Britain having been grossly misrepresented by
in the Sinn Fein propaganda. We have not come here to raise either
religious strife, still less to entangle America in the domestic
affairs of Great
Britain. But we have come believing it is due to the churches and the
we represent to state the real truth about Ireland. The following
a simple statement of facts, the accuracy of which can be tested by
anyone who desires
to do so.
Member of Parliament for South Tyrone,
Chairman of Delegation
Donegal Square Methodist Church, Belfast.
Secretary of Delegation.
Retar Knockbreda Episcopal Church, Belfast.
May Street Presbyterian Church, Belfast.
Townsend Street Presbyterian Church, Belfast.
Donegal Square Methodist Church, Belfast.
Falls Road Methodist Church, Belfast.
The Plea of Overtaxation
IT IS STATED
by Sinn Fein agitators that Ireland is overtaxed by Great Britain. Let
us see how
the matter stands. According to the official returns for 1918-1919 the
contributed by England was $3,455,310,000. From this there was paid out
of the British
Exchequer for local expenditure in England $719,237,500, leaving a
for Imperial needs such as army and navy, consular and other services,
Scotland during the same period contributed to the British Exchequer a
of $486,605,000. She received back for local uses $97,637,500, leaving
for Imperial purposes of $388,970,000. Ireland with practically the
as Scotland, contributed only $186,375,000, receiving back for local
and contributing toward Imperial expenditure a sum of only $75,567,500.
be seen that while Ireland's contribution to the British Exchequer is
than that of England or Scotland, she receives back a much larger
her own internal uses. The enemies of Great Britain claim that
for Imperial purposes represents a loss to her of $75,567,500. Surely,
it will be conceded that as a part of the British Isles she ought to
something toward the protection of her coasts, policing of the seas and
payment of the huge war debt, and upkeep of National affairs generally.
from the question of obligation, is this sum a loss to her? Last year
back $60,000,000 in war pensions, separation allowances, and gratuities
sailors and their dependents living in Ireland. Further, she received
as a bread subsidy, whereby the cost of every loaf of bread consumed in
was reduced in price by six cents. Ireland also received last year more
as out-of-work donation. These figures will illustrate some of the ways
- and there
are many others ‒ in which she indirectly receives back much more than
for Imperial purposes. The plea of over-taxation is therefore
groundless, and the
day on which Ireland should cut adrift from Great Britain would be to
her a day
of disaster and financial ruin.
The Plea of Oppression
also declares that Ireland is denied any real voice in her own affairs.
representation be a test, how does she stand? Ireland, with a
population let it
be remembered roughly equal to that of Scotland, sends 105
representatives to the
British Legislature, while Scotland sends only 75. Ireland's
elected on a basis of one to every forty thousand of the people,
whereas the representatives
from England or Scotland are elected on a basis of one to every
of the people. Thus the vote of one Irishman is almost equal to the
votes of two
Englishmen or Scotsmen, and the Irish vote has often been the
in the British Legislature.
the 32 counties of Ireland possess their own local Councils and again
are subdivided into districts, and by the same franchise, district
elected. All such are Irishmen, chosen by the people to carry on local
in each county, and to strike their own rates of taxation within their
No outside power can interfere with the local rates of the county. In
of these counties all the county councils and most of the district
composed of Roman Catholics. To every office in their gift, these men
appoint only people of their own creed. Yet they are the first to
charge the Protestant
people of Ulster with bigotry. Thus incidentally the charge of
in Ireland is completely disproved. Ireland has indeed the fullest
voice in her
It is also
stated by certain self-constituted envoys from America, who paid a
to Ireland, that men and women are being brutally treated in Irish
prisons. We wish
to point out that in passing sentence on persons convicted of seditious
of a minor character, the various law courts in Ireland desired only to
such persons to be of good behavior for to say, twelve months, and to
treasonable practices. On agreement, the prisoners were at once
discharged. On the
other hand, if they refused to give such an undertaking the alternative
was a short
term of imprisonment. Sinn Fein agitators, in order to pose as martyrs
Irish people and their friends in America, refused to enter into
therefore elected to go to prison. When in prison they refused to eat
food, and proceeded to abuse the jailors and to damage the buildings.
they destroyed a whole wing of the prison, property valued at $10,000.
On the complaint
of the Sinn Feiners and the "American envoys" a government commission
presided over by a distinguished judge, was set up to investigate the
alleged brutality to prisoners. The complainants refused to appear and
their case, and the commission found the charges to be entirely
On the other
hand, can any government abrogate its functions to the extent of
following state of affairs, now alas! rampant throughout the south and
west of Ireland?
Sinn Feiners with blackened faces approach the dwelling houses of
people, Catholic and Protestant alike. On the door being opened a
revolver is pointed
at the hapless occupier. The marauders shout "Hands up!" and the house
is thoroughly searched for arms. Policemen and military officials and
have been brutally murdered in the discharge of their duty, and the
gone unpunished, as no one will come forward to give evidence against
other offenses against the law it is practically impossible to obtain a
the boards of Magistrates in the disaffected districts being
notoriously Sinn Fein
in their sympathies. Even if the magistrates desired, they dare not
terror of reprisal. Because of this, the government has been obliged in
disaffected areas, to set up special courts over which preside two paid
who possess no local interest and who can, therefore, discharge the
duties of the
law without fear. In the higher courts where trial by jury obtains,
been afraid or unwilling to convict in the face of the clearest
evidence and therefore
in such areas, trial by jury has been temporarily suspended. The
the state of matters in the south and west:
A few months
ago sixteen young Methodist soldiers were peacefully entering the
in Fermoy, County Cork, for purposes of worship. They carried their
in their absence from barracks they should be stolen, but they carried
whatever. Suddenly they were attacked by a party of armed Sinn Feiners
murdered one of them in the doorway and wounded others. The ruffians
escape in automobiles standing ready, and from that day to this, not
one of them
has been arrested.
The Plea of Depopulation
topic with Sinn Fein is that of the depopulation of Ireland, which they
to the conduct of Great Britain. They conveniently ignore the fact that
at the time
of the Act of Union in 1800 the population of Ireland was 4,000,000,
and that in
less than forty years, under the Act of Union, the population increased
The Union, therefore, cannot be the cause of depopulation. The factors
First ‒ The
desolating famine of 1846. The potato was the staple food of the
people, and exhaustion
of the soil through lack of fertilizers destroyed the crop for two
In the overcrowded agricultural districts of the west this caused
and no government could avert the consequences of old and defective
and violated laws of nature. Even today it is the work of the congested
board by proper apportionment of the people to the soil and the soil to
and, by the general development of agriculture, fishing and railways,
to make impossible
any repetition of that tragedy.
The inability of Ireland to compete with the vast volume of
which, with open markets, began to pour in from overseas, caused many
to seek brighter
prospects across the ocean.
Third ‒ The
wide opportunities offered by the opening up of new lands in America
drew multitudes of Irish people from their country. Those causes, so
far as they
belong to defective land laws, economic conditions and the social
has long been the aim of legislation to remove.
What the British Parliament
Has Done For Ireland
to redress the grievances from which Irish tenants suffered, owing to
systems of land tenure, the British government has advanced
$700,000,000 at 3 1/4
per cent interest in order that the farmers might purchase their
low rate of interest wipes out both principal and interest in seventy
that after that time there is nothing further to pay. Three-fourths of
country is now so purchased and belongs to the peasant occupiers. There
is no land
system in Europe to compare with this. Scotland and England would
government has loaned, through the district councils of Ireland for the
of laborer's cottages, the sum of $25,000,000 at 2.08 per cent
50,000 and 80,000 of these cottages are now built. They are neat,
built of stone, with slated roofs and with from half an acre to an acre
attached. They are let to the laborer at the nominal rent of from 30 to
weekly. These weekly payments will at the end of fifty years clear off
liability to the British government. The cottages will then become the
of the district councils, to be held in trust by them for the laborers.
derivable from the rents will then go to the relief of the rates in the
in which they are set up. Is there any country today which can furnish
of greater beneficence to the workers on its soil? Neither England nor
possesses a boon like this.
It is charged
by Sinn Fein that Great Britain has prevented or retarded the
development of Ireland.
The preceding facts are part of the reply to this. In addition, the
annually spends $1,250,000 for the development of what are known as the
districts of the west of Ireland. This money is distributed by the
board, consisting of official representatives of the government, local
together with two Roman Catholic bishops and several Roman Catholic
have been built free of cost and curing stations erected for the
the fishing industry. Motor launches have been sold to the fishermen on
system, payment being made as profits are earned, while experts have
from Scotland to teach the Irish how to fish profitably their own seas.
have been built to carry the produce of land and sea to the proper
fresh fish from the west coast of Ireland can now reach the London
markets in twenty-four
no poverty-stricken land. Before the war the Irish people had on
deposit in the
Irish banks a sum of $380,000,000. Today after five years this sum has
to the amazing amount of $760,000,000. A large proportion of this
to the Sinn Feiners of Ireland. There is, therefore, no necessity to go
of the country for money if the Sinn Feiners are really desirous of
If further testimony is needed as to the prosperity of Ireland the
words of the
late Mr. John Redmond, spoken July 1, 1915, will suffice:
the people, broadly speaking, own the soil. Today the laborers live in
today there is absolute freedom in local government and local taxation
of the country.
Today we have the widest parliamentary and municipal franchise. The
the scene of some of the most awful horrors of the old famine days, are
The farms have been enlarged, decent dwellings have been provided, and
a new spirit
of hope and independence is today among the people. In town,
legislation has been
passed facilitating the housing of the working classes ‒ a piece of
far in advance of anything obtained for the town dwellers of England.
We have a
system of old age pensions in Ireland whereby every old man and women
over 70 is
saved from the workhouse and free to spend their last days in
The Plea of Self-Determination
It is claimed
by Sinn Fein that Ireland is a nation, and as a nation possesses the
right to secede
from Great Britain and set up an independent government. We
emphatically deny this
claim and all Irish History is against it. Father McDonald, Professor
of Maynooth, the great training college for the priesthood in Ireland,
the claim. The words of Dr. McDonald may surely be expected to have
In his recent
book, "Some Ethical Questions of Peace and War," [Lib 1920] he denies that Ireland has
of a separate nation, and he plainly declares what all history makes
she never was a nation, "if unity of rule and independence are
nationhood." Ireland in ancient times was but a congeries of warring
that never combined for any common purpose.
In the year
1172 Henry II went to Ireland with the authority of a Bull issued by
IV, confirmed by another Bull promulgated by his successor, Pope
He invaded Ireland for the purpose of restoring order, and the Irish
to him. This was the first occasion on which Ireland knew anything of
and it was created for her by Henry II. Two centuries later, in 1395,
in the reign
of Richard II, the chiefs reaffirmed their submission, but in the reign
VIII the allegiance of Ireland to England was emphatically confirmed by
which met in Dublin on June 12th, 1541, and which formally recognized
Henry as King
the reign of Charles I, a Catholic Confederation met in Kilkenny on
1642. This was an assembly representing Roman Catholic Ireland, and one
of its decrees
was to the effect that "All the inhabitants of Ireland and each of them
be most faithful to our sovereign the King and his heirs and lawful
Fifty years after in the reign of James II the Patriot Parliament
convened in Dublin
in 1689, and presided over by the King in person, recognized him not
only as King
of England but as sovereign of Ireland.
Fein still assert that Ireland was a nation, and will it still be
Great Britain has not fund never had any right to rule in Ireland?
is asserted in the face of these facts that she possesses the right to
what is called
self-determination. There is much confusion of thought regarding this
if it implies that any community forming part of a larger whole, by its
may break away and set up an independent government. Dr. McDonald has a
to say regarding this. He points out that self-determination of a
portion of a country
cannot be admitted unless no injury is to be done to the country as a
and has been for many centuries a part of the United Kingdom and her
disastrously affect the group of which she forms a part. When a large
the United States of America, including many of the Southern states,
right of secession and self-determination, Abraham Lincoln denied the
the North carried on the great war to prevent secession, Lincoln held,
people now admit rightly held, that the forming of an independent
the South would spell disaster to the United States. The same applies
today in relation to Ireland.
however, that Ireland possesses the right to secede, this right equally
to that part of Ireland in which Unionists and Protestants predominate.
two peoples in Ireland, differing in race, mentality and religion. If
secede from Great Britain, Ulster may secede from the rest of Ireland,
how she shall be governed. Lincoln, in American politics, faced the
same kind of
problem which faces Great Britain and Ireland, and he enunciated this
of a large community who make certain claims for self-government cannot
or in substance refuse the same claims to a much larger proportionate
this in 1860. The majority in the state of Virginia decided to join
with the South.
In the western portion of the state was a large compact minority who
secede from the North. Lincoln recognized their right and created for
them the state
of West Virginia. On this analogy if Sinn Fein Ireland possesses the
right to secede
from Britain, then Protestant Ulster may claim the right to decide her
But the claim
of Sinn Fein to part company from the United Kingdom cannot for a
moment be allowed.
Great Britain could not afford to let Ireland go. The war has made
vivid the fact
that if the Sinn Fein rebellion had succeeded and the German landing
had taken place
in Ireland, it would have been a deadly blow to Britain. An Ireland of
dreams would be a menace not only to the peace of Britain, but that of
the world. With her limited resources and peculiar strategic position,
inevitably give rise to complex international situations. For Ireland's
must remain an integral portion of the United Kingdom. Left to herself,
lapse into a state of internecine strife. Ninety-five per cent of
is done with Britain, and with the fiscal barriers which as an
she would immediately set up, her trade with Britain would perish. No
needs the fruit of her agricultural industry, and Great Britain could
from European and other regions overseas. For Ireland's sake, as much
as for Britain's
interest, the union must forever abide.
Sinn Fein and the War
It is fair
at this point to apply the test of the Great War to the record of Sinn
Fein in Ireland.
When the Allies in their fight for the higher freedom of the world were
Sinn Fein stabbed them in the back by raising rebellion in Ireland.
exists that this movement was carried out in concert with Germany. A
German arms carried by a German crew and intended for the rebels, was
off the Irish coast. Sir Roger Casement, who came straight from Germany
in a submarine
with assurances of help, was captured on the coast of Kerry. The
in its main purpose frustrated, involved frightful destruction of life
It also realized Germany's wish to compel the retention of British
troops at home.
The words of Admiral Sims in "World's Work" of November, 1919, describe
the subsequent activities of Sinn Fein:
was no secret the Sinn Feiners sending information to Germany and
plots to interfere with the British-American navies."
At the outset
of the war, young Catholic Ireland responded hopefully to the call of
has not heard of the gallant Munster, Leinster and Connaught regiments,
Catholic as they were? Sinn Fein, however with its bitter anti-British
killed voluntary recruiting, and following upon this came the crowning
A fighting race was prevented from sending its full quota of men to
join their hard-pressed
countrymen in the Irish regiments. Against this dark background stands
out the example
of Ulster. In Ulster out of a population of 1,581,686, 75,000 men
from the rest of Ireland with a population of 2,808,523, 70,000
enlisted. From the
city of Belfast with a population of 400,000, 46,000 joined the colors.
is remembered that in Ulster are the great industries which furnished
so much of
the war material, and that large numbers of men were needed to operate
contribution of the northeast is all the more striking. Ulster
shipyards did 10
per cent of all the government work in the United Kingdom. Ulster made
95 per cent
of all the aeroplane cloth used by the Allies. The Ulster Unionist
members of Parliament
pressed the government to apply conscription to Ireland, and there is
no more thoroughly
progressive body of men at Westminster than the Unionists of Ulster. In
of social reform they are alongside the best minds of the United
Kingdom. Out of
22 members 18 of them are pledged to further for Ireland such a local
measure as Scotland will possess next year.
will indicate something of the mentality and ideals of Protestant
Ulster. It is
not bigotry that desires to preserve in fact and form the integrity of
Kingdom. It is not bigotry that fears the usurpation by ecclesiastical
the inherent functions of the State.
What Is Wrong In Ireland
It is freely
admitted that in olden times Ireland suffered disabilities and wrongs
at the hands
of England. Let it be remembered, however, that it is only within
recent years that humanitarian principles have begun truly to come to
among peoples. In the olden days among all nations the strong hand was
freely employed. Whatever the wrongs Ireland endured, and often she was
greatly to blame, for many years past the story of Britain's dealing
with her has
been one of a generous endeavor to enfranchise, to benefit, and to
Let it also
be remembered that Protestants in Ireland suffered from oppressive
that Presbyterians united with Roman Catholics to oppose harassing
evils. But the
living fact today is that the descendants of those Presbyterians are
among the staunchest
defenders of the Union which Sinn Fein seeks to dismember.
of Scotland in the olden times suffered from harassments comparable to
vexed Ireland, yet today there are no more loyal regions in all the
realms of Britain
than the Scottish Highlands. The whole land of Scotland, paying four
times the amount
of annual contribution which Ireland pays, is unalterable in her
adhesion to the
integrity of the United Kingdom.
When we come
to seek for the explanation of Ireland's troubles, we are brought face
to face with
obtrusive facts. In those regions in which the Roman Catholic church is
the extraordinary authority of the priesthood over their people is
often used in
ways frustrating or retarding legitimate trade and industry. This takes
the southern provinces when Protestants, who throughout Ireland are the
of industry, come under their ban. The following case will illustrate
which could be given:
ago there lived in a small town on the borders of Cavan and Longford a
engaged in the grocery and provision trade. Wishing to develop his
business he added
a bakery branch and soon was known as the vendor of the best bread in
Eve was a Presbyterian, but the district was about eight-tenths Roman
He was not at that time a politician or a party man of any kind
whatever. He only
desired to live quietly and in a friendly fashion, developing his
business. He was
boycotted. One day a respected Roman Catholic lady customer called and
to know the amount of her indebtedness to his store. He was surprised
an explanation, the time for payment not being due. She broke into
tears, said she
had no fault to find with him or the goods sold. She had done business
and his predecessor for years. Her parish priest, she said, had ordered
her to pay
her account and never again to enter the store. She went on to say that
private mass celebrated at her house, she was entertaining the priest
guests to breakfast. The priest, looking at a loaf of bread upon the
who had made it. On being told that it had been brought at the store of
merchant, he lifted the loaf and threw it on the floor saying that he
eat in her house until she procured a "decent Roman Catholic loaf." He
proceeded to forbid her purchasing further in this merchant's store. In
manner this merchant lost dozens of his Roman Catholic customers and
there was no hope of liberty to develop his business, he removed north.
He is now,
as the result of his energy, at the head of a large manufacturing
employment to many people.
A story such
as this with all its serio-comic revelation of the priestly mind, goes
far to explain
the lack of initiative and progress in southern and western Ireland.
in Ireland two claimants to civil power. There is, on the one hand, the
on the other the Hierarchy of the Roman Church. Acting sometimes in
the will of the State and at other times opposing that will, the
its consistent claim to be the dominating factor in civil as well as
in Ireland. Where power is, there lies the seat of government, and no
tolerate the continued passing of its power into the keeping of any
Let us illustrate briefly how the power of the Bishops rules in Ireland.
himself a Roman Catholic and a leader in Irish political life, was
roused to an
amazing protest against the Bishops' "eternal hungering after political
and temporal power," and their "assumption of authority to dictate to
laymen what they should think and do in the affairs of the nation."
in 1916, while the war was raging, and in order to achieve a settlement
proposed to put the 1914 Home Rule Act into force, with the exclusion
of six Ulster
counties. This proposition was accepted by Mr. John Redmond and Sir
but was vetoed by the Hierarchy and the matter dropped.
In 1917 on
the suggestion of the Prime Minister, Mr. Lloyd George, a convention of
Irishmen was set up in Dublin to draw up a scheme of settlement of the
This was a gathering of all creeds. The Sinn Feiners alone refused to
in spite of their absence, it is admitted that this was an assembly
of Irish life. After many months of meeting and at a point when fiscal
under discussion, a significant thing happened. When John Redmond was
certain moderate propositions, the Roman Catholic Bishops were
insisting on drastic
terms. Redmond arose and after referring to an amendment in his own
when I came to the Convention this morning I found that I was opposed
by three of
the highest dignitaries of my own church, some of my political friends
with me, and though I believe I could carry a majority of the
convention with me,
it would split my party and I cannot see that any useful purpose would
thereby. I would therefore ask leave to withdraw my amendment as I feel
I can be
of no further use in the matter."
only statesman southern and western Ireland possessed, against his own
bowed before a will more powerful than his own. John Redmond walked out
Convention and in a few short weeks his life drew to a close. The
to an end. With such forces as Redmond and the Hierarchy divided
what hope was there of a settlement being reached?
In 1917 conscription
had drawn to the colors even the middle-aged men of England, Scotland
and when these lands were being bled white it was proposed to apply
to Ireland. The Bishops of the Roman Catholic Church met and denounced
Archbishop Walsh called it an oppressive and inhuman outrage. The
It may not
be generally known that in Ireland the cost of Primary Education is
by the government, while for the most part control is in the hands of
On the part of Protestants, especially in Ulster, there is a strong
desire to have
the control of primary education placed in the hands of duly elected
such authorities having power to strike a local education rate. Reform
of this kind
is bitterly opposed by the Roman Catholic Hierarchy, who resent any
with their control of education. Owing to the extraordinary growth
years of the city of Belfast, and to the fact that during the war
had entirely ceased, it was found that the school accommodation was
On account of this, several thousands of children were left unfurnished
facilities. The city council formulated a scheme which was embodied in
a Bill introduced
into the House of Commons by a Belfast Unionist Labor Member, supported
by all the
Unionist Members from Ulster. The local Roman Catholic bishop, through
friends, opposed the bill so strenuously that being a private measure,
not pass. Thus even the great predominantly Protestant city of Belfast
in its educational ideals by the representatives of Rome.
In face of
the above facts, it will be evident that the problem of Ireland is one
of deep and
wide issues. It is not merely a question of Home Rule. From the
statements in this
article it will be evident that Ireland possesses the essentials of
wide and generous
liberty. She is not a Poland striving for freedom. It will also be
noted how she
dealt with the Home Rule scheme presented to her, and how it fared with
of Irishmen assembled to prepare a scheme of government for their land.
Rule is not the vital question. It is a question of separation and this
in pressing its propaganda upon America, seeks to appeal to the
sympathy of a freedom-loving
people. To this freedom-loving people we present our case.
for America's aid for its cause, Sinn Fein reminds the people of the
of the part Irishmen played in the War of Independence. Irishmen played
part in achieving the victory of America's cause, but they were not the
of Sinn Fein Ireland. Up to the forties of last century there was
little more than
a trickle of Roman Catholic emigration from Ireland to America. The
stood with Washington were almost entirely Ulster men and their
of Ireland, and they formed 38 per cent of his victorious forces.
our case with confidence before the jury of the American people. We ask
do not allow themselves to be deflected from the path of impartial
of the subject. Believing, as we do, that the welfare of the future
in their keeping, we desire the fullest and most intimate understanding
the peoples of America and Great Britain.
In this spirit
we submit to the people of the great American Republic these few facts
to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
ONE OF THE
supreme needs of our time, as its deepest thinkers agree, is a
conception of the
Common Good worthy of our human enterprise; the perception that the
good of humanity
as a whole actually exists ‒ not as a dream, but as a reality ‒ and
that the good
of any race, nation or class can only be realized in the community of
obligation. For that reason the ancient word is as true today as it was
and as true of a nation as of an individual: "Who seeks his own loses
In one of
his poems William Morris speaks of the problems of our day as a
until they are seen in the light of life's meaning as a whole, and
"looking up, at last we see
The glimmer of the open light,
From o'er the place where we would be:
Then grow the very brambles bright."
seers and thinkers have looked up seeking the meaning of life, the goal
of its uprising
passion and desire, the purpose of its organization in the home, in the
industry, in moral fellowship and spiritual faith; and thus have tried
the way out of the "tangled wood" in which we wander.
of an ideal Republic but his vision no longer satisfies us, because of
of society into castes. There is the Augustinian vision of the City of
when the Eternal City was reeling to its fall ‒ not to name our modern
many and various kinds ‒ in which we see the human mind trying to form
conception of the goal of human development. But all these dawns are
the ideal that shone in the mind of the man of Galilee, to whom we owe
equal, alike in its nobility and grandeur, to our human undertaking. In
did the gentle Teacher more assuredly reveal His greatness than in His
in the communal redemption of humanity; His vision of mankind living by
of love in a Beloved Community here, now, upon earth. He called it the
Heaven, and He exhausted the resources of His incomparable speech ‒
fresh as the
dew and bright with color ‒ to make it real and vivid to men.
If the same
ideal be set forth in the symbolism of Freemasonry, it is a vision of a
‒ noble, stately, sheltering all the holy things of humanity ‒ slowly
the midst of the ages; a Temple building and built upon, each workman
not only a
builder, but himself a living stone, foursquare and finely wrought, to
into the whole; each generation of builders adding an arch, a pillar,
or a spire
‒ as the grey old cathedrals were uplifted, strong and piteous,
matching the masonry
of the mountains in their grandeur, each race of Masons building upon
laid by their vanished comrades. In height, in depth, in breadth and
beauty it is
the noblest vision that has come within sight of our groping human
mind, in that
it flashes before even the dullest mind a vision of something immortal
‒ a sequence
of aim and obligation, of cooperative fellowship, which annuls the
reveals the eternal in time.
be our insight and faith, if our fraternal sentiment is not to
evaporate in misty
eloquence, or else be only a rope of sand; the faith that we are
with the eternal Creative Goodwill, and therefore made to be not only
Brothers, made to share the large innocence of nature and the unfailing
God who cares more for a brother than for all possessions; and that if
we do not
live after the law of our highest nature, a veil falls over the beauty
of the world,
leaving us to wander alone or to struggle together in confusion and
if we are to have a philosophy, much less an ethic, of fraternity we
"that goodness is not merely some form of similar activity of self and
but is really an attitude of each to the other; the realization,
indeed, of spiritual
kinship and unity," (*) ‒ in short, that goodness is community,
mutuality, and that it takes two men and God to make a brother.
as the world now stands, we are faced by four great and urgent issues,
if our civilization
is to endure, much less fulfil its beneficent mission. Each of these
a commanding vision of the Common Good, each is a challenge to the
of humanity, and if we are to meet them we must not lose "the glimmer
open light." First, and chiefly, we must organize the goodwill of the
and make an end of war, otherwise war will leave the Temple of Man a
smoking ruin, as it has well-nigh done today. Second, we must meet the
a corrosive anarchy with a profounder sense of communal fellowship and
in which each counts for one and nobody for more than one, joined with
a sense of
the sanctity of the common will expressed in law, order, and the fair
long as distances were great, and races lived far apart, friction was
felt, but today the world has shrunk to the size of a neighborhood and
mingle. Inter-racial relations will be an acute and vital matter in the
lie ahead of us, doubly so in our Republic where one feels always the
racial suspicion. As a welter of rancor, as a wrangle of irritations it
only brotherliness can solve it. Fourth, the tangle of industrial
unrest is hopeless
if its issues are left to be fought over by extremists, and the
struggle may shatter
a society already cracked by the shock of world-war, here, again, there
is no hope
save in a gradual deepening of communal interest and responsibility,
until, at last,
private interest and vested interest are subordinate to the Common
in the long last, the common good will replace selfish interest as the
even in the market-place, as necessity dictated during the war.
we must measure and interpret all human activities and institutions as
in the service of the Common Good; as they are related to the Temple
we are. Not alone the Lodge, but the Church, the State, the Home, the
of life in art, in science, in industry, in moral endeavor and immortal
here their sanction and consecration. Not otherwise may we know the
worth and meaning
of our individual lives ‒ so brief, so broken, so beshadowed ‒ save as
we see them
in the fellowship of the large purpose of the Master Builder. So, and
only so, are
we redeemed from insignificance and futility, and our fleeting days
epic power and prophecy. It is when we enlist as the fellow-workers of
that life reveals its own eternal quality, and we learn the final
answer to all
pessimisms, all cynicisms, and all skepticisms whatsoever.
The New Age stands as yet
Half built against the sky,
Open to every threat
Of storms that clamour by.
Scaffolding veils the walls
And dim dust floats and falls
As moving to and fro, their tasks
The Masons ply.
* Self and
Neighbour, by W.T.Hirst
At One With All That's Heart -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L.B. Mitchell, Michigan
be at one with all that is that's heart
Would seem to be the mastery of the art
Of knowing well the mistress of the earth
That mothers us and holds for us its worth.
nature realm is all at her command,
The beautiful is lavish at her hand;
We're quite at home within her mystic spell
Because she knows the needs of heart so well.
span of life reveals her thought and care
And she so oft anticipates the prayer.
The while we live we motherly are blest
And find in her, repose at last, at rest.
it is grand to live the conscious part
Of this old world, at one with all that's heart!
FOR THE MONTHLY
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 37
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
on "The Vital, Parts of the Breast" And "The Golden Bowl and the
- At the time you
received your Third degree what particular impression did
the method of reception make upon you?
- Did you look upon this
particular part of the ceremony as simply a matter
of routine, or did you endeavor to think out for yourself the true
meanings of the
words "friendship, morality and brotherly love"?
- Can a man who lives a secluded
life apart from his fellows be said to know
the true meaning of happiness?
- Has the friendship of
fellow-members of your own lodge and those of other
lodges with whom you have come into close contact been a help to you
since you became
a member of the Fraternity?
- Has this friendship caused you
to change your opinion of any of the fellow-members
of your own lodge with whom you had but a speaking acquaintance prior
to your becoming
- Has your own mind been
broadened by such friendships?
- What is your conception of the
- Has this word been misused? Is
a system of morality necessary to the advancement
of the human race? Why?
- What is the derivation of the
- What was probably the sense in
which it was first used?
- What has it become to mean in
- What is "righteousness"?
- Give a few concrete examples of
which you may have knowledge.
- What is "right"?
- "How can brotherhood be
possible among us men?" asks Brother Haywood.
What is his solution?
- What is our idea as to how it
may be accomplished?
- What was the evident purpose of
the men who introduced this reading at this
particular place in our ritual?
- What were your own feelings
when the words fell upon your ears for the first
time during our ceremonies?
- Did they portend at the time of
anything that followed in the ceremonies?
- What is the usually accepted
interpretation of this passage of Scripture?
- What is Brother Haywood's
Have you ever heard an interpretation other than the two here given? If
so, what is it?
Vol. I "When the Almond Tree Blossoms," p. 138.
Brotherly Love, p. 121;
Friendship, p. 286;
Points of Fellowship, p. 572
* * *
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
Part II ‒ Reception ‒ The
Golden Bowl and the Silver Cord the Vital Parts of the Breast
entrance we were received in a manner peculiarly impressive; we were
told that as
the vital parts of the body are in the breast so are the vital things
of the human
world to be found in Friendship, Morality, and Brotherly Love. How
vague are these
words! We have rolled them around in our mouths so much that they have
as billiard bags; they have been used so often for merely oratorical
they have grown nebulous and abstract; and because they have become
smooth and vague
we are prone to let them slip through our minds without depositing
behind them, a thing fatal to an understanding of Masonry, the essence
lies in these three wonderful words.
Man is by
nature a social being. It has been proved that he cannot exist as a
except he live among his fellows, for his very personality itself is a
the language on his lips implies another to hear and to understand; his
and affections seek another in whom to find satisfaction. Not until the
has found other human individuals who can feel with him, think with
him, and act
with him can he know the meaning of happiness. But it is a part of the
our lives that we are so clumsy in uncovering our own souls, and others
are so inexpert
in understanding our secret feelings, that our fellowship is never
that the music of companionship is continually being disturbed by
of misunderstanding. With a friend, however, it is different; he is one
we can live in harmony, as if the two lives could mingle like two
streams, his thoughts
and our thoughts merging and the two spirits living as one. Such a
union is one
of the sweetest experiences in all the world and he who has found his
well congratulate himself as one who has discovered the pearl of great
wonder that our prophets and seers have so often broken into rhapsody
on this theme!
that our literature may count as its richest treasures such utterances
of Emerson, Black, Trumbull, Montaigne, Bacon and Cicero on this theme!
has been stretched to cover so many meanings, it has been forced into
of so many conflicting meanings, and been made fellow to so many crimes
reason, that we can hardly blame many for refusing to discuss it or
even to think
of it. But the word is necessary because the idea of which it is the
sign is a real
and necessary idea. If men misuse it there is all the more reason for
how to rightly use it.
What is morality?
It is derived from a Latin word meaning "custom," and it is probable
the Romans fast used it in the sense of living according to the custom.
times a richer meaning was poured into it so that it has come to mean
life of righteousness." But what is righteousness? It is living the
doing the light things, thinking the right thoughts, a very Masonic
what is right? We might answer that question in two ways; we might say
right is that which gives us the fullest, completest life, for it is
of morality to give us life and give it more abundantly; or, we might
say that right
is conformity to the law of our being. As the scientist seeks to learn
of nature and to conform to them, so does a righteous man seek to
discover the laws
of his own nature in order to conform to them; he obeys the laws of the
living clean and simply, he obeys the laws of the intellect by thinking
prejudice or haste, and he obeys the laws of the heart by loving only
he finds to be good and true.
Love much more might be said, though space may not permit, especially
Love which Masonry inculcates. How can brotherhood be possible among us
are all so unbrotherly, we are so selfish, we are so quick to take or
The solution of this troublesome problem lies in the fact that the one
unbrotherliness is brotherliness. We love our enemies that they may
enemies. We make friends in order to have friends. Brotherliness is a
Brotherhood is not a thing already made, it is a condition we must
create, so that
the very presence of unbrotherliness is a challenge to brotherhood to
do its best.
When our fellows in lodge act thoughtlessly toward us, and bruise and
hurt us, it
is not for us to retaliate; insofar as we are true Masons we shall love
though they are not lovable; simply because the only way in which we
can make men
lovable is by loving them. Brotherly Love, therefore, is a task, a
quite the greatest, the most important, inside the whole compass of
we may say that one of the chief purposes of Masonry is to mobilize all
men of good
will in order that they may help to brother the world into a world-wide
The Golden Bowl and the
sentences which fall on the ears of the candidate as he makes his
mystic round are
so heavy with poignant beauty that one hesitates to intrude the harsh
prose upon such strains of poetry, solemn sweet. We may well believe
that the men
who introduced the reading here had no other thought than that the
words might the
better create an atmosphere in which the coming drama of hate and doom
the more impressively come home to the heart of the participants. If
such was their
purpose neither Shakespeare nor Dante could have found words or
appropriate to the hour. There is a music and majesty in the twelfth
Ecclesiastes which leaves us dumb with awe and wonder and our hearts
open to the
impressions of a tragedy along-side which the doom of Lear seems
the commentators of Holy Writ have seen in the allegory of this chapter
to the decay of the body and the coming of death; to them the golden
bowl was the
skull, the silver cord was the spinal nerve, "the keepers of the house"
were the hands, the "strong men" the limbs; the whole picture is made
to symbolize the body's falling into ruin and the approach of death.
to differ from an interpretation so true in its application and so
its associations. But it must be doubted whether the sad and
disillusioned man who
penned the lines possessed either the knowledge of human anatomy
implied by the
old interpretation or the intention to make his poem into a medical
of senility. A more thorough scholarship has come to see in the
allegory a picture
of the honor of death set forth by metaphors drawn from an Oriental
It had been
a day of wind and cloud and rain; but the clouds did not, as was usual,
after the shower. They returned again and covered the heavens with
Thunderstorms were so uncommon in Palestine that they always inspired
fear and dread,
as many a paragraph in the Scriptures will testify. As the storm broke
men guarding the gates of rich men's houses began to tremble; the hum
of the little
mills wherewith the women were always grinding at eventide suddenly
the grinders were frightened from their toil; the women, imprisoned in
who had been gazing out of the lattice to watch the activities of the
back into their dark rooms; even the revelers, who had been sitting
tables through the afternoon, eating dainties and sipping wine, lost
and many were made so nervous that the sudden twitting of a bird would
to start with anxious surprise. As the terror of the storm, the poet
goes on to
say, so is the coming of death, when man "goes to his home of
mourners go about the streets." Whatever men may have been, good or
brings equal terror to all. A man may have been rich, like the golden
on a silver chain in the palace of a king; he may have been as poor as
pitcher in which maidens carried water from the public well, or even as
the heavy wooden wheel wherewith they drew the water; what his state
not, death is as dread a calamity to the one as to the other. When that
comes the fine possessions in which men had sought security will be
vain to stay
the awful passing into night. "Vanity of vanities; all is vanity." The
one bulwark against the common calamity, the Preacher urges, is to
Creator, yea, to remember Him from youth to old age; to believe that
one goes to
stand before Him is the one and only solace in an hour when everything
ruin and the very desire to live has been quenched by the ravages of
age and the
coming of death.
The Fraternal Forum
Edited By Bro. Geo. E. Frazer,
President. Board Of Stewards
Geo. W. Baird,
District of Columbia.
Joseph Barnett, California.
Wm. F. Bowe, Georgia.
H. P. Burke, Colorado.
Joe L. Carson, Virginia.
R. M. C. Condon, Michigan.
C. E. Creager, Oklahoma.
John A. Danlla, Louisiana.
Jos. W. Eggleston, Virginia.
Henry R. Evans, District of Columbia.
H. D. Funk, Minnesota.
Asahel W. Gage, Florida.
Joseph C. Greenfield, Georgia.
Frederick W. Hamilton, Massachusetts.
H. L. Haywood, Iowa.
T. W. Hugo, Minnesota.
M. M. Johnson, Massachusetts.
P. E. Kellett, Manitoba.
John G. Keplinger, Illinois.
Harold A. Kingsbury, Connecticut.
Dr. Wm. F. Kuhn, Missouri.
Dr. G. Alfred Lawrence, New York.
John F. Massey, Pennsylvania.
Julius H. McCollum, Connecticut.
Dr. John Lewin McLeish, Ohio.
Joseph W. Norwood, Kentucky.
Frank E. Noyes, Wisconsin.
John Pickard, Missouri.
A. G. Pitts, Michigan.
C. M. Schenck, Colorado.
Francis W. Shepardson, Illinois.
Silas H. Shepherd, Wisconsin.
Oliver D. Street, Alabama.
Denman S. Wagstaff, California.
S. W. Williams, Tennessee.
to this Department of Personal Opinion are invited from each writer who
one or more articles to THE BUILDER. Subjects for discussion are
selected as being
alive in the administration of Masonry today. Discussions of politics,
creeds or personal prejudices are avoided, the purpose of the
Department being to
afford a vehicle for comparing the personal opinions of leading Masonic
The contributing editors assume responsibility only for what each
writes over his
own signature. Comment from our Members on the subjects discussed here
will be welcomed
in the Question Box Department.
No. 15 ‒ What Place Ought the Masonic Lodge to Fill in the Civic Life
of the Community?
can the lodge fill in the civic life of the community?
life of most communities is made up principally of religious and
in neither of which is it our desire to become a party directly or
of these fields of activity there is little opening for the lodge in
Were it otherwise
we could wage eternal war on the encroachments of Rome, for example, or
any candidate for office who would use his every effort to keep
separate the Church
and State, and the "Little Red School House" safe for the Flag.
As it stands,
practically every Mason directly, or indirectly through his family
is connected with some religious, social, or political organization
the benefit of humanity.
a field in which the Masonic organization might become a power in the
The organizing of America ‒ of the world ‒ in a fight to the finish
"White Plague" ‒ Tuberculosis.
might become a volunteer in the Great War against this scourge of
lodge a center for the collection and classification of those affected.
Lodge or Jurisdiction a member of a National Masonic Anti-Tubercular
funds would be spent, not for the benefit of Freemasons or their
but for the benefit of the nation at large.
young men were eliminated from our draft and over 22,000 from our camps
of the "White Plague"; this 90,000 represent a large percentage of our
national manhood, to say nothing of possibly a like number of our
has been done for these youths? NOTHING ‒ They were turned back into
a horrible thought to contemplate.
an opportunity for the Freemasons of America, the opportunity still
exists to take
every case and assume responsibility for its correction, alleviation,
or cure. We
could establish camps like our military training camps, well located,
and of great
capacity, or take over those already in existence before they are
relegated to the
dump pile, or scrap heap, and in these establish our National Masonic
Camps, where these suspects and those already affected could be
scientifically handled, free of all expense to the individual, the
the nation, but carried on by the voluntary subscriptions of the Craft
or by assessments systematically collected from the brotherhood by all
Jurisdictions through their dependent lodges.
We are continually
being asked what we as Masons are doing for the benefit of humanity at
the good of our various communities in particular? and I ask you what?
pride we would point to such a scheme, or any such effort for the
the condition of our suffering fellow creatures, and give the world a
of what we Freemasons mean when we speak of the "Brotherhood of Man."
‒ J. L. Carson, Virginia.
* * *
Mind," A Problem.
of the Masonic Lodge in the civic life of the community is that of a
from which flows Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and Justice.
mind is seriously agitated. Labor strikes; doubtful condition of
ever ascending scale of prices; active, pernicious efforts of the
and political uncertainties; these seem to be hastening the average
We must "sober
up." Permanent solution can be the result of only sincere and
thought. We cannot depend upon the decision of a "disinterested" mind
for we are all directly interested in the serious problems which
confront us. We
must bring our minds to a condition fit for discernment and decision.
lodge affords a place for all good men to learn to subdue their
contending minds may meet on the level; there the searching rays of the
may expose the selfishness, the prejudice, the avarice, the vices which
the security of our established institutions; there those discordant
within us may be dissolved; there both wisdom and courage are inspired
by the Grand
is useless to the community unless those fortunate citizens who enjoy
will by counsel and example extend its beneficent influences beyond the
of the lodge room. With his own passions subdued, his mind free from
his ambitions stripped of personal interest, the Mason is in position
to influence and to lead, not only in normal conditions but in times
like the present.
Whenever those Masonic cardinal principles have found a permanent place
in the life
of the community, the lodge will indeed have performed its function as
a pure and
beneficent fountain and a solution for our present threatened crisis
will have been
C. E. Creager, Oklahoma.
* * *
"What place ought the lodge to fill in the civic life of the
My view is none, as a lodge, save to so impress the lessons of Masonry
on its votaries
that they will be better citizens in all respects. We are a unique
Our basic principles include all good in religions, politics, (in its
and personal life, but in no particular should they ever be specific.
views each question from a different angle and each Mason should be
be active in all civic affairs according to his personal views. The
be his resting place, free from all mention of religious or political
you prefer the term) questions.
This is the
Virginian conception of Masonry's mission and has been for more than
Agitation for what is termed "a progressive science," west of the
is the great reason we are to a man determined to be led into no
I know this view will not please those we deem misguided Masons, who
Grand Bodies and progressive movements in Masonry like the Masonic
and I doubt if this article will appear in the discussion at the
triennial or be
published in THE BUILDER, but you asked for my views and I give them
assure you that they are the views of Virginia to a man, so far as I am
We hold that the mission is to teach Masons to "walk uprightly in our
stations in life before God and Man." We do not interfere as to how he
it in either case.
Jos. W. Eggleston, P. G. M., Virginia.
* * *
Education in Civic Duties.
lodge in any community should fill its natural place as a source of all
law abiding and elevating and be practically an institution that would
highest type of citizenship. Men who would be able to draw the fine
between honor and honesty, men who would be able to discern the fact
that the probity
and morality of a community and a nation is only a reflex of that of
men who will fearlessly stand for the right and who will not hesitate
their opinions by speech and ballot.
in his community, ought to stand for everything that will promote good
administered in the interest of all the people and primarily as means
to that end
he should be an advocate of ample facilities for free public education,
and unhampered by the powers or doctrines of any church or creed.
are prone to regard the conferring of degrees as the main reason for
In fact in this day of popular Freemasonry, they would appear to be
pure and simple, when as a matter of fact part of the time should be
the direct education of the membership upon lines indicative both of
and Masonic duties.
John A. Davilla, Grand Secretary, Louisiana.
* * *
Lodge, in my opinion, should fill its ancient place in the civic life
of the community.
We may well
strive to make our Fraternity do its work as well as did our elder
had a wonderfully broad experience and vision, even if a less
than we have. Care must be taken, lest in trying to improve Masonry, we
and Washington were often sorely tried, yet they did not drag Masonry
nor endeavor to make it a fraternal insurance association.
and inspiring men, Masonry has made the Revolutionary War and the
Government a success.
a progressive moral science. It is a course of ancient hieroglyphic
That is its work and place in society.
pure as crystal, were taught by the Great Teacher of men in the little
of Judea. He pleaded with us, not that we work upon others but that we
He pleaded, not for organization, not for laws, not for a plan of
but for the strength to govern ourselves. He taught and exemplified
love and helpfulness.
He taught us to forgive the sinner, the wrong doer, the persecutor. He
us to love one another and our enemies as ourselves.
no particular religious creed but it teaches the fatherhood of God and
of man. It teaches the nobility of work and the justice, inevitability
benefits of proper wages.
lodge should teach all these things as principles and inevitable truths
to be understood,
absorbed and worked into the lives ‒ of its members, not as a
propaganda to be enforced
by its organization.
Asahel W. Gage, Florida.
* * *
Get Facts Before Members.
as membership in every Masonic lodge includes the men of the community
who are selected
for their high moral qualifications, it goes without saying that they,
both as individuals
and collectively, should take a commanding place in all activities
the history of the world is this more important than at the present
time when Bolshevism,
class hatred, social unrest and a total disregard for law and order
activities of a no inconsiderable element of the populations of most of
civilized nations of the world.
membership of every Masonic lodge should be actively identified with
and take a
commanding part in all movements, not only in the community but also in
Nation and the world at large, that tend towards the maintenance of
respect for the law, good living conditions for all, universal and
(especially in the United States of not only all children but of all
of universal military training as a prerequisite for adequate
finally of all movements of a constructive nature tending towards the
intellectual and social uplift of the community.
If such agencies
are already in operation every Mason to the extent of his time and
identify himself with as many of the same as possible and render actual
If such agencies
are not in operation it should be the duty of Masons as individuals or
as a lodge
to organize such in their respective communities. By this I do not mean
that these agencies should be designated as Masonic to the public but
of the community should so direct their activities and take such a
in the conduct and maintenance of the same that the other elements of
would at once recognize that the membership of the Masonic lodge of
is a vital and necessary part of every organization and movement for
In the present
condition of labor agitation and strikes together with the lack of
capital and labor the Mason and his Masonic lodge can do much towards
a harmonious relation between the opposing factions. The vital
necessity of maximum
production to relieve the high cost of living and the fair proportion
to be apportioned between capital and labor together with the vicious
from strikes with consequent loss of production, loss of capital, loss
and consequent still higher cost of living can be presented with
to every capitalist and laborer. If the two million Masons in the
would take an active part in fearlessly and accurately presenting the
through their own agencies or civic agencies already organized, to
and every laborer in this broad land and use their united strength to
the end that
equitable dealings and absolutely good faith be maintained by all
parties ‒ the
laborer, the capitalist and the public –strikes would not only soon be
a thing of
the past but harmony and contentment would quickly prevail.
public spirited citizens can and should accomplish this result.
To sum up
‒ the Masonic lodge, through its membership, should be the vital moving
all that is best in the moral, social, civic and intellectual uplift of
in which it is situated.
G. Alfred Lawrence, New York.
* * *
place ought the Masonic lodge to fill in the civic life of the
The most intimate and closest possible, varying only with the different
and wants of that community. The lodge which lives under the idea that
it is accomplishing
the work prescribed under its charter by conferring a degree now and
then, in a
cloister-cell seclusion, and neglecting its duty to its community is
neither a Masonic
lodge, nor any other thing which is worthy of respect or consideration.
honor which can be conferred on a Masonic lodge is the civic crown of
the highest aim of its existence is to make Masons so that they can go
their community and as a lodge become a civic asset; their influence
felt in every
good cause, the special guardians of the purity and integrity and
our public schools, taking up public work which can only be properly
by some influential organized institution, such as undertaking the
working out and
carrying forward of what is known as the Infant Welfare work of every
as we do in Duluth, where we have the organization, the doctors, the
milk stations, the free clinics four times a week, free prescriptions,
in connection therewith, for instance, or the work of the Atlanta
brethren in looking
after the deformed children of their State, and other ways suitable to
of the community.
is so wide that every lodge can find something to do; the brethren of
will feel that it is living for something, is accomplishing something
Masonry is Work and Action. There is however, one rock to avoid, on
which many split
‒ don't go into partnership with anything, or anybody, neither church
nor any other
institution; pick out something you can swing alone and go to it alone;
get on you
overalls, don't scatter, don't depend on the women show them you can do
without them. Use the rules and landmarks of Masonry, if you know what
to guide you in all good works, and the closer you can get to the great
the better Masons you are, the wider your service to the public the
better you are
following out the tenets of the Order and the more sparkling the jewels
and love of humanity you will be entitled to wear.
T. W. Hugo, Minnesota.
* * *
A Hidden Force.
lodge, with its carefully chosen, worthy and well qualified, duly and
membership, should be the active, enlightened conscience of the
I do not
think the Masonic lodge, as a body, is intended to or should take any
part in public
affairs. Such activities usually result in strife and dissension. If
work is to be done there is almost always an outside organization at
hand to take
it up. The Masonic lodge membership should give it their personal and
assistance but as a body it should not enter into competition. To my
mind, the Masonic
lodge will exert a greater and more lasting influence for good if it
remains a silent,
hidden, educative force which manifests only through the devoted
activities of its
individual members and then, not as Masons, but as men and citizens.
John G. Keplinger, Illinois.
* * *
Fight for Principles.
It is quite
difficult in a few words to define the place of a Masonic lodge in
civic life. As
Masonry can best be taught by means of symbols I would say that it
should be as
a great shining light whose burning radiance is as constant and eternal
Our ancient brethren built their lodges either upon the hilltops or in
that they might detect the approach of enemies from all sides in the
we not say that it was significant also of a more important truth: that
upon which these lodges were founded and the lessons they taught should
and known by all men.
lodge in a community should be evident by what it stands for and by
what it teaches.
It should be a source of knowledge having the confidence of all good
we study the history of Freemasonry as it is associated with that of
we will readily see that Speculative Masonry is a result of
civilization. We cannot
conceive of Masonry in a barbarous country. Such a state of society has
capable of introducing and maintaining its abstract principles of
We are told there are no Masonic lodges in Russia. This will account in
measure for the lack of freedom in that country. Wherever Freemasonry
will flourish and the banner of freedom will wave. With the advent in
of a condition of civilization, Freemasonry has appeared, "grown with
and strengthened with its strength," and in return has proved by a
influence a patent instrument in extending, elevating and refining the
which gave it birth, by advancing its moral, intellectual and religious
of a Masonic lodge in a civic community vary with the time in the life
of a nation
in which it exists, but at all times it should defend against all
enemies, the eternal
principles of liberty, justice and truth ‒ upon which it is founded. I
we are slowly but steadily approaching a crisis, not in the life of one
but of many ‒ nations, and that the time for a Masonic educational
campaign is here.
The public at large should be enlightened as to what Freemasonry is,
what it teaches,
and what it means in the lives of men and nations, and especially
should the younger
generation be trained in the elementary principles and virtues which
their minds and hearts for the reception of the greater lessons ‒ the
of Divine Truth. While membership in a Masonic lodge is not essential
to good citizenship,
every Mason knows how hopeless our citizenship and the world would be
principles upon which Masonry is founded and upon which it lives.
an erroneous idea in the minds of some that Freemasonry is a "secret
and that there are within its teachings many and mysterious wonders
which it would
conceal from the world. The public should know the purpose and
teachings of Freemasonry
and that the secrets are only to safeguard to its members certain
rights and privileges,
essential to the Fraternity. They should know that the moral principles
verities upon which Masonry is founded are applicable in every day and
hour of a
man's life, whether he be in the service of God and his fellowmen, at
vocation, or at refreshment and sleep. Why not make the Masonic Service
both instructive and constructive, and through it, carry an educational
into every community?
John F. Massey, Pennsylvania.
* * *
Endorse All Valuable Institutions.
If we use
the word civics broadly it will include politics, municipal, county,
state and national
elections as well as charities, hospitals, Red Cross, libraries, clean
That a Masonic
lodge as such, should dabble in politics is abhorrent. On the other
hand no better
expression of the broad principles of Masonic charity can be shown than
by the support
of all such worthy objects as tend to the physical, moral or spiritual
of the community.
It is well
known that if a large number of people, closely allied, become imbued
with a spirit;
desire or principle, automatically that spirit, desire or principle
will so permeate
the community or section where they live that it will become the ruling
and that one who is unfamiliar with the section will feel such
influence when coming
this is the place the Masonic lodge should take in the community. Such
permeating the lodge would work like a leaven in the community and
would wield a
powerful influence. This spirit should show expression in the
endorsement of all
institutions for civic or civic betterment not only the institutions of
stone but institutions in the broadest sense.
Julius H. McCollum, Connecticut.
* * *
Insist Upon Justice.
War, in which all the world was engaged, is indeed ended; but the
spirit of great
unrest, which has come because of that war, is active throughout the
And even in this fair land of ours there are not wanting those who, as
into the future, can see nothing but disaster for all these
institutions which we
hold most dear; and there are some who can see no ray of hope. But we
to the Ancient Craft, as the returns come to us from all over the
that as never before men are besieging the doors of our lodges, seeking
into our time-honored institution. It is difficult for us to find time
the great numbers who are knocking at our doors. This state of affairs
it privileges and also responsibilities. Responsibilities which affect
the welfare of Freemasonry, but which are fraught with profound meaning
welfare of our own country and for the welfare of the world at large.
In the various
divisions of our Order there are many high sounding titles which, if
they were coined
today would seem to be absurd. But they come down to us with the
fragrance of the
life of a distant past clinging about them, and the ages have read into
them a meaning
which is peculiarly fine and strong. But among all the titles which
to show, the one which is of most worth in this age of the world is the
of Brother. When we pass the portals of the lodge, all titles which are
in the world slip from us and it makes no difference what rank the
member may hold
outside of the hall, or what station he may occupy, he is, within the
simply one of the brethren.
President once said that no great question is ever settled until it is
So in this present time of unrest there is great need of an institution
so big and
so strong that it shall be able to say that all these questions which
are now causing
discontent can only be settled in one way. And that is the right way,
the just way,
the way in which brethren should settle all questions which arise among
Therefore, it seems to me that Freemasonry, with all that Freemasonry
implies, is an absolutely necessary thing in the world today, and that
of brotherly love, relief, and truth are the most necessary principles
the lives and actions of men should be based. Therefore, we, as members
lodges, should in our communities, in our states, in our nation, stand
for the principles
of sanity and righteousness; and should endeavor to see that no
profiteer on the
one hand, who is possessed of great wealth, shall oppress his
neighbors; and that
no Bolshevik on the other shall be able to pull down and destroy the
of our Government. We should, as rapidly as possible, bring within our
good and worthy men of our communities, and then we should, not as
members of a
political party, but as citizens of the Great Republic, strive to see
to it that
perfect justice is meted out to all men alike.
John Pickard, Missouri.
* * *
In the Charge
of the Entered Apprentice degree we read:
is a social being and it was not intended he should spend his life with
concentrated upon himself; hence, in the social capacity, men should
kind and friendly acts, to promote the happiness of one another."
must, or should, be spent in helping others, as well as ourselves,
upward ‒ "hitch your wagon to a star" someone has said ‒ giving them
hand of Fellowship to aid in pulling them out of the quagmire of doubt,
misery and squalor into which they have fallen, into a higher and purer
thought and living. For people live on the plane of their mental vision.
march of the human race toward Godhood requires the thoughts and
efforts of the
best and strongest people. Masonry is not a selfish organization. Great
‒ cesspools of evil, have been explored, cleansed and purified through
and influence of Masons. It has always been a great, uplifting force in
striving for the betterment of the world's personal, social and civic
‒ the purification of society ‒ teaching men to look toward the Light
into the realms of purity, usefulness and peace.
against the BAD and for the GOOD has ever been waged by Masons. From
days of the Order, Masonry and its kindred Orders, by whatever name
they have been
known, and in whatever age or country found, have been continually and
arrayed to increase the power of the people for GOOD. Bolshevism and
never found any place or favor among Masons. The Brotherhood has worked
by law and
rule in contradistinction to the anarchical methods of the mob and the
influences of tyrannical government.
these results it is necessary to begin in the homes of the people.
These are the
centers of social and civic life. Masonry urges its votaries to use
in everyday life, wherever they may be, for the propagation of the
the sacredness of the home, the purity of womanhood and an upright
conduct in all
the varied relations of life. It teaches the power of prayer, the
God and the Brotherhood of Man.
are that as lodges Masons do not meddle in politics; neither do they
subjects in their meetings. But there is no reason why the improvement
of social and civic conditions as such should not be profitably
worked out, committees appointed, money raised for relief, and various
civic work developed and fostered by and in the Masonic Order. In these
great unrest when the world is torn and bleeding from the horrors of
the most awful
war in history; when strong men's minds tremble and reason is
dethroned, is it not
Masonry's duty to mankind to stem the tide of evil when it is at its
flood and use
its great power to check the dreadful miasma that spreads its poisonous
the very air we breathe? It has ever been the cradle and bulwark of
its emblems have been worn by thousands who have suffered and died in
debacle that others might live; and the crosses that mark their graves
in a foreign
land will forever bear witness of a devotion to duty and the cause of
justice, that carries our minds back to Calvary; and their spirits,
about and around us will be calling to us, their brethren,
lay aside the staff and take up the Sword and Buckler, and manfully
fight our way,
and with valor run our course;" promising that if we do, "the Almighty,
who is a strong tower unto all those who put their trust in Him, shall
be our strength and confidence."
S. W. Williams, Tennessee.
* * *
A School Only.
to the questions regarding the functions of a Masonic Lodge which are
to be of any
real value to Freemasons, must be based upon the teachings of Masonry.
consists of a course of ancient hieroglyphical and moral instructions,
to ancient usage, by types, emblems and allegorical figures" and is "a
regular system of morality veiled in allegory." Its function is to
peculiar system to the individual who is qualified to receive it and so
The function of the lodge is to carry out this feature of Freemasonry.
activities of a lodge are of secondary importance and are not included
in the Masonic
teaches morality to the individual, and the individual improves himself
by using the tools and implements of Freemasonry on himself (not
Of the many
reform movements which have been advocated, the only effective method
is the individual
one. If we learn to subdue our own passions we are doing constructive
work for higher
community life ‒ for civilization.
as now organized, functions in two ways. When opening or closing, or
passing or raising candidates it is actually symbolical, and the
and ceremonies are all symbolical; but when it is transacting routine
is simply an organization of Freemasons. In its symbolic character it
basic truths of morality, but in its character of an utilitarian
may function as anything from a convivial club to a reform society.
seems to teach us that the closer we hold to the real functions the
more we may
hope to accomplish. The Mason who has learned to square his actions by
of Virtue will be a blessing and an inspiration to the community in
he may be permitted to serve. He will be more efficient in political,
and economic life by acting as an individual, than it would be possible
to do if the lodge took upon itself functions which ancient usage does
to warrant and good judgment seems to reject.
is a school of instruction in morality and open to those who apply of
only basic morality.
It does not
it holds to these functions, the greater will be the respect of the
the greater the good to the community.
S. H. Shepherd, Wisconsin.
* * *
Discuss Civic Questions.
This is an
important and at the same time a difficult question. Surely none will
it should take no part in questions or matters of public interest, and
it is equally
certain that there is a boundary line beyond which Masonry should not
go in dealing
with public affairs. I believe no man is quite wise enough to lay down
a rule that
will fit all cases. Much must in every case be left to the enlightened
of the Worshipful Master and of the particular lodge. It might often
one lodge could with entire propriety participate in a public matter
lodge at the same time should have nothing to do with it. A lodge might
at one time
take a hand while at another time it would be inexpedient, if not
wrong, for the
same lodge to do so.
As a general
rule, I believe Masonry should take an active interest in all questions
their aim the improvement of public morals, health, and social and
conditions, taking care never to attempt to bind the conscience of its
any question, but always bearing in mind that liberty of thought and
speech is one
of the cardinal principles of Freemasonry.
of expediency, for the sake of the harmony of the Craft, it should as a
rule refrain from dabbling with any question after it has become a
subject of acrimonious
dispute in the arena of religion or partisan politics.
In all cases,
discussion and action should be conducted with a fraternal and tolerant
becoming a band of brothers "among whom no contention should ever exist
that noble contention or rather emulation of who can best work and best
general rules to guide us, I believe that few questions will arise
where any doubt
will exist as to the propriety or impropriety of Freemasonry's taking a
a public question.
Freemasonry in the past has been unduly conservative on this subject,
in the English-speaking jurisdictions. On the other hand, there is no
at times in some other jurisdictions, it has been too radical.
Freemasonry should make of itself a School of Instruction not only to
but to the community upon every civic question that may arise, barring
are properly classed as religious or partisan political controversies.
Oliver D, Street, Alabama.
By Bro. Gustav A. Eitel,
whom did Henry Wilmans receive the Select Degree, his power to confer
it, and to
transmit the same to others? This is one of the many unsolved problems
the origin of our Masonic degrees.
found among the Eckel papers, recovered some years since, the Rules and
of a Lodge of Perfection founded by him in Baltimore in the year 1792,
that he established a Grand Council of Select Masons in the same city.
As his name
does not appear in the list of the many Inspectors of the Rite of that
from the fact that in both documents he is styled "Grand Inspector
while the other Inspectors of that period are styled Deputies, and from
fact that he was in possession of the 25th, then the highest degree
the others appear to have been in possession of degrees only to the
to the supposition that he may have derived his powers from the same
source as Stephen
Morin ‒ the Council of Emperors of the East and West, France.
was of an ancient and prominent family of Bremen, Germany. It is not
he came to this country, but we find him and his brother Charles Henry
the shipping business on Gay Street, Baltimore, in 1790.
record, like a meteor, was brilliant but transient. In addition to the
mentioned that he occupied, we find him in 1793 as the Charter, or
of Concordia Lodge, No. 13; in the same year Deputy Grand Master, and
in the following
year Grand Master of Masons in Maryland.
at the Communication of the Grand Lodge December 18th, 1794, and
delivered an able
address, when his name disappeared entirely from our records, but I
from other sources that he died in 1795 at the early age of 44 years,
and was buried
in the graveyard attached to Zion Church of this city. If, as many
degrees in question originated in the Rite of Perfection, until we can
where he received his powers as Inspector General of that Rite, we
not know the true origin of the Select Degree.
In 1817 the
Grand Chapter adopted a resolution permitting "all Chapters to open and
Chapters of Select Masters and confer the degree upon such as they may
Prior to this Eckel, and perhaps Wilmans, also conferred the degree in
on those they deemed worthy and who had advanced to the degree of Mark
In the new
Constitution, adopted in 1824, the Select was made one of the regular
degrees and conferred after the Most Excellent, and it was retained as
1852, when it and the Royal Master's degree were worked together in
convened for the purpose upon Most Excellent Masters, just before the
of the Royal Arch upon them.
and Select were conferred in special Councils, as stated, from 1852 to
much pleasure and profit to the Craft, when, for the purpose of being
with the great majority of Grand Jurisdictions of our country," the
adopted a resolution forbidding the conferring of any other degrees
than Mark, Past,
Most Excellent and Royal Arch. Independent Councils of Royal and Select
then organized, representatives from six of which on May 12th, 1874,
formed in the
city of Baltimore a Grand Council for the State of Maryland.
P.S. ‒ Since
the foregoing pages were prepared for the press I have most
possessed of some facts referring to Henry Wilmans that I deem of
to record in connection with my remarks on Cryptic Masonry.
28th, 1788, the Grand Lodge of Virginia warranted a lodge in the City
known as Baltimore Union Lodge, No. 21, and which had more or less
1795. Grand Secretary Brother George W. Carrington has recently
discovered in the
archives of the Grand Lodge of Virginia the returns of this lodge for
1792 and 1793; upon the first mentioned is a memorandum to the effect
that on March
12th, 1792, Henry Wilmans, Past Master of Lodge No. 13, Charlestown,
a visitor; no jurisdiction is mentioned, but believing that the
named was intended for Charleston, S.C., I consulted Bro. Theodore H.
Boston, who kindly investigated the subject for me and found that there
was a lodge
known as St. John's, No. 13, at Charleston, S.C., date of organization
but prior to 1789. There can be no doubt therefore, I think, that this
was the lodge
of which Wilmans was a member and Past Master, and that he must have
time at Charleston prior to coming to Baltimore. I have traced him to
as early as 1790. In the latter part of 1792 he founded in the City of
a Lodge of Perfection and sometime during the same year a Grand Council
Masters; and the probability is that he was at the time affiliated with
at Charleston, and continued so until April 13th, 1793, when he became
and first Master of Concordia Lodge, No. 13, Baltimore.
therefore seem that he was in possession of the degrees of the Rite of
while residing at Charleston, but the question is did he receive them
his powers as Inspector General from the Inspectors then residing at
or did he obtain prior to leaving Europe? I am inclined to the latter
for the reason as stated in my address, that in the two documents in my
he is styled Grand Inspector General; while Myers and Spitzer, as well
all the Inspectors of the Rite Perfection at that date, in this
country, were styled
Deputy-Inspector General. As his name does not appear upon the list of
residing in the country at that period it would seem that he never
them, but exercised his powers of Inspector independently of them.
would now appear certain that the Select Degree was known at Charleston
its introduction into Baltimore by Wilmans, I see no reason to modify
of the claims of the Companions of South Carolina that the Royal and
were known and worked at Charleston as early as 1783, and that rituals
of the same
were deposited in the Council of Princes of Jerusalem in 1788 by Jos.
being, as stated, no evidence whatever other than the unsupported
statement of the
Companions of South Carolina, of their recollection of events that
and forty-six years previously, of the existence of the Royal Master's
And it is
quite certain that there was no connection of the Royal and Select
to the organization of Councils of such by Jeremy L. Cross in 1819. If
any deposit of a ritual of Cryptic Masonry by Myers in 1788, it was
that of the
Select Degree only; and it is possible that he obtained it from Henry
about that time came from Europe, and this gave rise to the story of
origin of the degree, as it is well known that, at that time, Berlin
as the headquarters, and Frederick the Great the patron, of all the
George W. Warvelle, of Chicago, a few years since thoroughly
investigated the origin
of the Royal and Select Degrees [Lib 1895], and in his conclusion
the claim to the paternity of these degrees by the Supreme Council of
jurisdiction. He believes that the Select Degree was formulated and
Henry Wilmans and that the Royal Master's degree was formulated and
Ebenezer, Wadsworth of New York about the year 1807.
COUNCIL, No. 1, NEW YORK
from the printed history of Columbian Council No. 1, of New York City,
that it was
"the first permanent body formed for conferring the Royal Master's
"It was organized September 2nd, 1810, by Thomas Lownds and fifteen
Master Masons." "It was a self-constituted and independent body, owing
allegiance to no one, untrammelled by landmarks, constitution or laws
of its own creation, with inherent powers to confer the degrees in its
or to form other councils for that purpose."
is known of the so-called orders which were associated with the Royal
in the work of the council. They must have appealed to its founders,
for it was
evidently the purpose of Thomas Lownds and his associates to adopt
waifs and give them dignified standing by providing for them 'an house
forever.' Their task of putting the new organization on a firm footing
infinitely complicated by the fact that they did not have unchallenged
over the Royal Master's Degree, with which the council started, nor
over the Select
Master's Degree, which they subsequently added to the list.
some inexplicable reason the Select Master's degree did not figure in
work until 1821, and it was obviously not the intention of the brethren
to use it
when the council was formed. For three months the Royal Master's was
the only degree
a number of years several Orders were also conferred. However, "The
was the only regular degree, the others merely being what for want of a
are called 'appendant orders.'
Super-Excellent degree appeared for the first time in Columbian Council
at the meeting
of December 22nd, 1817, when four candidates received it. After the
order of Knights
of the Round Table had been dropped from the list the following spring,
Master's and Super-Excellent Degrees constituted the entire ritualistic
the Council until December, 1821. On November 25th of that year Thomas
a council of Select Masters of Twenty-seven and conferred the degrees
on ten candidates.
This council was merged with Columbian a week later."
In the Ohio
Grand Council Proceedings of 1880, we find Companion John D. Caldwell
"some facts of Masonic history bearing upon the Royal and Select
In his "sketch" he arranges the early Inspectors General and Deputy
General in chronological order, with a brief statement of their
and "authority," and of the work of each in establishing lodges and
are the authorities on which the Scottish Rite adherents base their
as all our Masonic writers and historians quote from or refer to them,
from the "sketch," et literatum, all that refers to the Royal and
Caldwell uses the caption, "Whence Came We?" and says:
is the origin of Cryptic Masonry in America? When answered properly
there will be
no occasion to carp at carpet-baggers. Active-brained and persevering
have brought to our doors as a continent, as a south, as an east, and a
fragrant juicy fruit that we now relish, although we have improved it
England had in 1717 of Scriptural incident of Masonic ritual went to
France and Germany built on the story, and back came to England the
sublime degrees, Royal Arch, Knights Templar, and Royal and Select
1761 Stephen Morin, a Hebrew, learned in these rituals, received from
authorities in France a patent as Inspector-general of the Rite of
twenty-five degrees ‒ and repaired to St. Domingo, where he practiced
the Rite and
appointed Deputy Inspectors. These Deputies were Brother Henry Andrew
also a Hebrew, Deputy Inspector General for Jamaica and the British
(or, as he claimed by his patent, for West Indies and North America);
Michael Hay Brother Col. Prevest for the Windward Islands and the
Francken, whether authorized or no came with his rituals and patent as
to Albany, New York, and organized in that place four bodies of the new
December, 1767, Ineffable and Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection, Grand
Princes of Jerusalem, Rose Croix Chapter, Albany Sovereign Consistory.
1769 Francken appointed in New York two Grand Inspectors: Dr. Samuel
Sir William Johnson.
Moses M. Hays, an opulent and learned merchant, a Hebrew, a resident of
Jamaica was appointed by Francken (some say by Morin) a Deputy
Inspector for North
America. Hays appointed Isaac De Costa Deputy Inspector; also, Solomon
Bush of Pennsylvania,
and others, Thrice Illustrious Inspectors.
of Grand Elect and Sublime Masons was held at Philadelphia, June 25,
attended as Inspectors Simon Nathan, for North Carolina; Barend M.
Georgia; Solomon Bush, for Pennsylvania; Isaac De Costa, for South
Randall, for New Jersey; Samuel Myers, for Leeward Islands; Moses
and Moses M. Cohen. This body met in the City of Brotherly Love in 1782
Col. Augustus Prevest, also P. Le Barber Dupleisis, a refugee from West
long afterwards a prominent Mason in Philadelphia, and Joseph M. Myers,
General of Maryland.
Frederick Dalcho, having left the Western army as lieutenant, after the
of the war by the treaty of Greenville, in 1795 repaired to Charleston,
a great center for the French Masons after their dispersion resulting
from the revolution
in West India Islands. Here Isaac De Costa had in 1783 organized a
Grand Lodge of
Perfection; and here Myers, Spitzer, and Fort conferred the Sublime
degrees on Col.
John Mitchell, late of the United States army, and by Mitchell on Dr.
24, 1801. Abraham Jacobs, a Hebrew teacher of New York, who was
initiated in St.
Andrew's Lodge, Boston, in 1782, here received the Sublime degrees.
1801, May 31st, the Dela Motta Supreme Council ‒ the first appearance
of a governing
body of the A. and A. Rite ‒ was formed in Charleston, South Carolina.
1801, July 5th, a Grand Council of the Princes of Jerusalem was formed
in same city,
Brother Abraham Jacobs, Sublime Grand Master. 'Twas he that in
organized a similar
Grand Council at Savannah, Georgia.
'In the archives
at Charleston was the ritual of the Royal and Select Degrees, the
of 27, and similar rituals were in possession of the Inspectors in the
1804 and 1805 Inspector Jacobs was at work in New York, conferring the
conferring them upon Thomas Lownds, who was conspicuous afterwards as a
1807 Joseph Cerneau, a Jew from Jamaica, organized a Grand Consistory
in New York
City, and in 1814, 22d January, this Consistory actually formed and
Officers of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar.
1806, 6th August, Abraham Jacobs organized the Sovereign Consistory in
City. In 1808, 19th and 26th November, he conferred the Select Master
of 27 (the
Royal Master Degree perhaps) on the celebrated John J.J. Gourgas, who
was long at
the head of A. and A. Rite, Supreme Council, Northern jurisdiction.
Thus M. M. Hays,
who went to Boston, and in 1802 was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of
for a few years, had the Cryptic degrees. Solomon Bush had them in
the Sublime Lodge at Albany; the Stringers and Yates had them.
while the Council degrees are depreciated as mere side or detached
shall be said of the additional degrees above the twenty-five of
only ones in practice up to the year 1802, when the Thirty-third degree
for the system established known as Scotch Rite had then no existence,
Europe or America? It substantially had American birth at this late
day; while the
rituals of Select Master of 27 were in existence a quarter of a century
to 1802. America then turns carpet-bagger, and sends to Paris in 1804
Count de Grasse
Tilley, one of the founders of the Supreme Council at Charleston, in
with a 'curiosity,' a 'novelty,' the Ancient and Accepted Rite, an
entire new Rite
of thirty-three degrees; and the novelty was by the Grand Orient of
in the College of Rites.
the Supreme Council in 1802 announced its organization, with the
schedule of their
regular degrees, they mentioned 'other degrees in the possession of
not in the Rite, but isolated, ‒ as Select Master, or the elect of 27;
as given under the Constitution of Dublin; six degrees of the Masonry
Scottish Fellow Craft; Scottish Master; Scottish Grand Master; with the
aggregating fifty-two degrees, which are conferred in different parts
of the world,
and communicated generally free of expense to those brethren who are
to understand them.'"
of the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, origin of the Council
degrees was printed
in our 1910 proceedings, from the account by Companion Zimmerman Davis,
of South Carolina, (1909.)
however, was taken from the History of Companion J. Ross Robertson
(1888) and from
Dr. Albert G. Mackey.
the other side of the contention it is reprinted here.
has taken place as to where, when and by whom these degrees were
generally is conceded that they had their origin on the Continent of
were introduced into this country during the latter part of the
eighteenth or early
in the nineteenth century, and were originally side degrees of the Rite
which was founded between 1750 and 1760 in Paris, France, by a number
who styled themselves "The Sovereign Princes and Grand Officers of the
and Sovereign Lodge of St John of Jerusalem." The cryptic degrees were
or side degrees conferred by Inspectors-General of the Ancient and
Rite. The proceedings of the Supreme Council of A. and A. Rite for the
Jurisdiction of the United States, held on December 4, 1802, contains
"On the 21st of January, 1802, a warrant of constitution passed the
the Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem, for the establishment of a
Masons' Lodge in the city of Charleston, South Carolina. Besides those
are in regular succession, most of the Inspectors are in possession of
of detached degrees, given in different parts of the world, and which
communicate, free of expense, to those brethren who are high enough to
them, such as Select Masons of Twenty-seven, and the Royal Arch as
given under the
Constitution of Dublin," etc.
In his History
of the Scottish Rite [Lib 1885], Charles T. McClenachan says:
and Select Masters degrees were side or detached degrees of the Ancient
Scottish Rite. In the Southern States of the Union, the Supreme Council
chartered and fostered Councils of Royal and Select Masters; and as
rapidly as they
were self-sustaining they became independent."
Inspectors-General for the New World by the Grand Consistory of Princes
of the Royal
Secret, convened at Paris in 1761, was one Stephen Morin, who was
present at a consistory
held in Kingston, Jamaica, in 1769, and about that time gave the degree
to one Brother
Francken at Jamaica, who conferred similar authority upon Moses Hayes,
who likewise invested Moses Cohen and Isaac DaCosta with like
authority, the latter
being designated as Deputy Inspector General for South Carolina. Cohen,
authority as Inspector General, gave the degrees of "Select Masons of
to Abram Jacobs, of Charleston, as is evidenced by a diploma to that
November 9, 1790. (Brother Josiah H. Drummond, of Portland, Maine, who
added to Brother J. Ross Robertson's work on the Cryptic Rite by his
of All Grand Councils in the United States," and to whom I am greatly
for much of the material in this paper, says that this is the first
which contains a reference to these degrees.)
therefore, for at least half a century, three distinct authorities
the right by antiquity of conferring the degrees of Royal and Select
Masters ‒ first,
by the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite;
second, by the
Grand Councils of the Rite in various States of the American Union; and
by certain Grand Chapters of Royal Arch Masons, which claimed then, as
as recently as 1888, that the Cryptic Degrees should be given within
the bosom of
a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons.
at the Annual Session of the Grand Chapter of Maryland, the Grand High
K. Stapleton, submitted documents upon the subject of the institution
of the Select
Degree, independent of the Grand Royal Arch Chapters, which were
referred to a committee,
which recommended that a circular be sent to the several Grand Chapters
the matter. When this circular was received by the Grand Chapter of
it was referred to a committee, which made a report, from which the
committee appointed at the last stated convocation of the Grand Royal
in May last, to take into consideration and report upon the propriety
of the different Grand Royal Arch Chapters of the several States
jurisdiction and authority over the Royal and Select Master's Degrees,
and to which
committee were referred the proceedings of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter
upon the subject, respectfully ask leave to state that they have made
and careful investigation into the subjects referred to their
they offer the following statement as the result of their enquiries:
"They have ascertained that the
brothers and companions, Dr. F. Dalcho, Dr. Isaac Auld, Dr. James
and Moses C. Levy, Esqr., with many others, received their degrees in
in February, 1783, in the Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection, then
the city (Charleston), of which body three of the above named brothers
living, venerable for their years and warm attachment to the glorious
cause of Free
Masonry, and highly respected and esteemed in the community where they
have so long
and so honorably sojourned, and they are still members of the same
Your committee have further ascertained that at the original
establishment of the
Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem in this city, on the 20th of
by the Illustrious Brothers Joseph Myers, Barend M. Spitzer, and A.
Inspectors General from Frederick II., King of Prussia, Brother Myers
in the archives of the said Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem
of the said degrees from Berlin in Prussia, which were to be under the
and fostering protection of the above named presiding body. The above
respectable brethren and companions are, and have steadily been,
members and officers
of the said body Princes of Jerusalem; their evidence, therefore, must
upon these points. Your committee are informed that the above named
previously to his return to Europe, while pursuing his mercantile
some time in several of the cities of Virginia and Maryland, where he
a knowledge of the degrees in question.
"The committee further states
that the Grand
Officers and the Sublime Council of Inspectors-General have been since
in the habit of conferring the degrees in question under their
authority in the
Southern and Western States. Your committee have seen and perused the
of these degrees that ever came to America, and old copies of charters
been returned by Councils in States where Grand Councils have been
formed, and the
bodies surrendering have taken other charters for conferring the degree
Grand Councils of Royal and Select Master thus formed.
"From these statements the
Grand Royal Arch
Chapter will readily perceive that these degrees have been under a
regular and independent
Masonic protection and authority for more than forty-six years, and
that they were
thus circumstanced in the United States of America at a period long
the establishment of Grand Royal Arch Chapters, or even of Chapters of
Masons, in any part of the world."
of the above statements made in the report of the committee we have the
1st. A manuscript
record of Brother Peter Snell, who was, in 1827, a member of the
contained the following memorandum:
"Supreme Council Chamber,
February 10, 1827: I hereby certify that the detached degrees, called
Select Master,' or 'Select Masons of 27,' were regularly given by the
Lodge of Perfection (No. 2 in the U.S. of A.), established by Brother
in Charleston in February, 1783, one of the original members of which
M. I. Brother
Moses C. Levy, is still alive, and a member of it to this day, without
be so for a day. And further, that at the first establishment of a
of Princes of Jerusalem in Charleston, in February, 1788, by the
Joseph Myers, B. M. Spitzer and A. Forst, Brother Myers (who succeeded
after his decease) deposited a certified copy of the degrees from
to be under the guidance and fostering protection of the government of
Grand Council of the Princes of Jerusalem."
is extant a ritual of the Select Degree purporting to be made in 1803
by J. Billeaud.
Bro. Drummond has examined it, had it copied, and has no doubt of its
and that it is a copy of the ritual then in use. It came to him from
G. DeSaussure, of South Carolina, who had it from Bro. John H. Honour,
for a long
time Grand Commander of the Supreme Council for the Southern
Jurisdiction of the
United States, to whom it came from his predecessor in that office,
among the archives
of that Supreme Council. He (Bro. Drummond) says: "There is no
this ritual to any governing authority whatever, nor to any degrees of
the third degree. It recognized no permanent body whatever, but it is a
a 'detached' or 'side' degree in every respect."
Drummond also has (in 1888) a copy of a ritual of both degrees bearing
of Moses Holbrook, dated February 10, 1829, in nearly the same words as
above attributed to Bro. Snell. By a certificate, dated a few months
later, it appears
that Bro. Holbrook adopted that of Brother Snell.
So much for
the early introduction of the Council Degrees in South Carolina. We
learn from Drummond
and Dr. Mackey that Cryptic Masonry was gradually more or less widely
throughout the United States as Grand Councils were organized in
1819, in Virginia in 1820, in North Carolina in 1822, and in New York
in 1823, while
single Councils were formed in various States which had no Grand
(To be continued)
Death ‒ The Portal -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald Nancarrow,
Death, I see thee in the distance
Not in the shape long-taught;
No frightening pictures of the grave
To me by thee are brought.
Thou, O Death, I see a lovely arch,
A portal for the Soul
To pass and reach a higher plane
Of evolution's roll.
Thou openest not the doors of night
To bear my spirit down;
Nor past thy pillars do I see
A dazzling jewelled crown.
But upwards still beyond thy heights
There gleams another arch;
And far above, through others still,
I see the path of march.
Ah Death! Thou art not a gate to shun
Or cause my soul to fear,
If, in this stage, I have grown one day
Of God's eternal year.
when rightfully understood, is "A system of pure morality,"
taught. This wonderful code of morals comprehends man's duty to
himself, his fellowman,
his God. Pledges to the faithful performance of these duties are taken
Mason under the most solemn circumstances. This institution of
has stood like the Pyramids of Egypt immovable among the changing
events of the
ages, speaking its message of justice and liberty to every
monarchs have been crowned and dethroned, nations overwhelmed, and the
peopled and destroyed, this institution of ours has stood unchanged and
in its mission for blessing the world. If this has been our glorious
times of peace and war in all the ages of the past, who is prophet
enough to forecast
the invaluable service to be rendered by our honorable order in this
age in which
all the nations of the world have undertaken to become brothers?
J. H. Pace, Grand Orator, Texas.
How the Masonic Lodge Can
Contribute to Community Life
as to what place the Masonic lodge should occupy in the civic life of
is most important. The time calls for practical cooperation for the
benefit of mankind.
If we are to follow the teachings of Freemasonry our duty is to shape
work so that it will tend to that end. If we sit back and allow our
become centered in the dead-waters of the past, if we become
unresponsive to the
pressing calls of the present, we will lose place in the world because
of our lack
of flexibility, and of not being useful in the crisis that confronts us
day and generation.
We live in
times seething with unrest, misunderstanding, and untried propaganda.
are being formed. Class is being ranged against class. Parties are
apart instead of closer together. There is opportunity for us, out of
chaos, to secure permanent gain. There is need for all the influence
that can be
brought to bear to "steady the boat." Much radical action is being
It should not be necessary to tear down present industrial structures,
we refuse to build anew to meet changing conditions. If proper
perspective is maintained
we should see clearly, each of us, his own shortcomings and realize
that he may
not be altogether right nor the other fellow all wrong. Proper guidance
that nothing is to be gained by keeping our eyes glued on past
injustices and that
the best results can be secured only by constructive, cooperative
In our Masonic
lodge work there is need for more than mere exemplifying of the ritual.
need for a broader education. Unless designs are lead to give this
our full duty is not being done to the incoming candidate. There are
known lines of Masonic study:
1. The antecedents of Freemasonry,
its mythology, its symbolism.
2. The history of Freemasonry,
tracing the course of its development from the
earliest days to the present.
3. The interpretation of
Freemasonry, its missions, its ideals, its service
to mankind, ministering to the individual and through him to society.
course, on account of its practical nature is the one; that it seems to
stress should be laid upon at the present time. Much can be learned
from our history
and our antecedents, but the call of the hour is for service, for
action, and not
"A time like this demands
Strong minds, great hearts, true faith, and ready hands."
If our study
time is to be given to the interpretation of the mission, the ideals,
and the practical
service of Freemasonry it will, undoubtedly, produce activity that will
to the general good. The interpretation that each Mason figures out is
count and what will be of worth to that individual and through him to
To my mind,
what Freemasonry needs now is not a rehearsing of moral platitudes, no
high-pitched the thoughts may be, but a series of clean-cut statements
show the potentialities, and the real use of the craft. We need to know
the institution holds or will hold in the thought and action of the
day, and what
part it should take in the seething turmoil of unrest round about us.
We need to
know whether we are bound together for a purpose or purposes
worthwhile. We need
to know, too, granting our aims and ideals are right, if we are
to efficiently carry them out.
main objects are: to make men friends, to refine and exalt their lives,
and to deepen
their faith. If the questions that are troubling the communities today
to be settled, it must be in an atmosphere of mutual recognition and
proper settlement can never be made in an air of hostility and
mistrust. Our Masonic
organization can help furnish this required atmosphere. Within the four
our Masonic lodge rooms are gathered men of every walk and station of
meet upon the level and they part upon the square. Surely such men,
before the Masonic
altar, and under lodge auspices, could meet and discuss questions of
moral and social
import affecting the life of the community without arousing anger and
and after hearing such discussion could go from the meeting better
better than ever able to pursue as citizens, that even course which
alone will keep
us off the shoals. Does it not seem that there is opportunity for the
to be a real steadying influence and serve a broader and more useful
questions of moral and social import are to be discussed within the
of our lodges much education could be accomplished. Education and
are what are most needed today. Our institutions could fulfill no more
than in furnishing the means for this.
should in no sense become a political party, nor yet a society for
Our main strength in past has been that we have announced no political
dogma. Each member has been entitled to his own opinion and it seems to
it would be a great mistake if the discussions were allowed to end in
being passed and in the definite laying down of guiding lines to be
should be most strictly avoided. What is suggested is the mere hearing
so that after having heard it the members could be better informed but
free to form their own opinions.
It is true
we have gone on for a good many years without attempting this. It is
well to remember
that this rule was handed down to us from a time when it was a greater
think certain things than to commit a murder. We are living in a more
This system of suppression and reproof has banished from our lodges
mere form. We deplore the fact that members, many of them, will not
attend the meetings
and bear the burden of their membership. What else can we expect from
men of information
and intellect, if the habit of the usual lodge meeting is to be
continued and nothing
of real mental food is there provided for them? We must get beyond the
of moral platitudes. Too often we are led to believe that by merely
we are doing our duty. We sometimes take great credit to our
such as this is heard within its precincts. We are apt to believe that
these moral truths our full weight and influence is being cast. If we
a useful place in these reconstruction days, it seems to me our lodges
the meeting place for men who are thoughtful members of society. They
must be educational
centers and clearing houses of opinion as to all that tends to the
welfare of the
This is the
day of many new "isms" and "panaceas." One needs to be careful
what course he follows. There is grave danger of deflection from the
The present discontent plainly indicates that there are real ills to be
in every community. No one doubts, for instance, the necessity for a
of wealth. The method of accomplishing this just distribution should be
sought. We have heard a great deal about democracy. There is much
demand for really
democratic government, the referendum and the recall. Latterly, many
have come to the conclusion that it is just as necessary to make
for the world as it is to make the world safe for democracy. More than
else in the world there is need for education and enlightenment.
whether these advanced theories are what is wanted, one might well
study the individual.
Probably the individual you know best is yourself. How much direct
authority should be invested in me? Have I been properly educated to
authority? Do I take the time to study the more complex questions or do
I rely on
someone else to study them and then instruct me? Am I always cool and
where vital questions are concerned? In short do I always think and act
There are many, doubtless, just as strong or just as weak as or weaker
than I. What
about these men? Do they or can they always be trusted to think rightly
questions? Consideration along these lines will, doubtless, convince
most of us
that knowledge and education on every-day subjects that affect the life
of our community
say that we cannot discuss such problems in lodge. It would violate the
customs. The rules laid down by past generations should not be a
today. They may have been necessary in olden times, but times, like
change. In a time like the present one would hardly think it right or
bring together men of superior intellect, establish between them an
and then say that within that relationship each man should be a
nonentity. If Masons
cannot meet and discuss matters of moral and social betterment without
the fault is not in the discussion but in that they are not of the
quality for the
making of Masons.
to the question as to what place the Masonic lodge should hold in the
life of the
community, it seems to me that it almost amounts to asking what work
have we to
do. One of the first works, it seems to me, we should do is to make use
of our splendid
equipment and organization as an educational force. There need be
little fear of
arousing antagonism if we allow men to voice their own opinions. Under
and control this would be unlikely. Any man who would fall away from
the Craft because
it took a stand for education in order that its members might stand
might well be let go as a source of weakness rather than strength. We
to catch the spirit and the impulse of the age. As yet it may be but a
towards the universal brotherhood of man. The harvest of all time is
and this is not a time to sit smugly in sweet content and rehearse
Unless Freemasonry can do more than this, unless she can give her
strength of head, heart and hand, she will be more or less of a
educational influence will not be in any sense a cure-all nor furnish
solution. It would help men to see that there is something better in
life than materialism.
After the refining process of discussion our members would be
than revolutionary, constructive rather than destructive. They would
tremendous influence over the community in which they live. Such a
lead to the better understanding between man and man, and consequently
respect and sympathy one for another. It should develop the principle
of love instead
of hate for our fellow-men. Would it not, also, point unerringly to the
breaking in the East, the dawn of a better day?
P. E. Kellett, Canada.
a fraternal association in which nothing can place one man lower than
ignorance, debasement and crime. Let no man among us think more highly
than he ought to think ‒ let each man esteem others better than
each brother highly for his work's sake. And whatsoever things are
things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are
things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report, if there be
and if there be any praise, think on these things.
Geo. W. Laidley, P. G. M., West Virginia.
is exerted by every human being from the hour of birth to that of death.
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
be our aim to publish in this Department each month a list of such
as we may be able from time to time to secure for members of the
a book listed herein this month may be out of stock next month, and
unobtainable, and for this reason it is recommended that when ordering
pamphlets from these lists the latest monthly issue of THE BUILDER be
and no orders be made from lists more than thirty days old.
monthly reviews the names and addresses of the publishers of the books
in order that our readers may order such books direct from the
of through the Society.
The Spiritual Significance
of Solomon's Temple
Sound of Hammer," [Lib 1914] by Edgar L. Vincent. Price
may be obtained
from the publishers, The Methodist Rank Concern, 150 Fifth Avenue, New
WE ARE glad
to possess this little book of devotional essays. They are such as will
making mellow the hearts of those who have become stony and hard. We
are glad to
recommend its being read, too, as none can read it without being the
the justice of these little better for lessons.
of Solomon's Temple from a spiritual standpoint is set forth in a very
manner in the first essay or two; and from there on the little book
labyrinthine walks exploiting the temple that man is to create.
It is wise,
gentle, inspiring and comforting.
* * *
Old Legends in Dramatic
Seven Who Slept," [Lib 1919] by A. Kingsley Porter.
Published by Marshall
Jones Company, 212 Summer Street, Boston, Massachusetts. Price $1.50.
A play by
A. Kingsley Porter, entitled "The Seven Who Slept," has recently come
to our desk, and has afforded us no little pleasure. Those who enjoy
over of old legends, in story or dramatic form, will appreciate the
reading of this
work. The preface by the author affords a fine treat in intellectual
There is something whimsical in his treatment of the indispensability
of great illusions
to the happiness of man. We find it rather difficult, however, to enter
the thought that those things which are deemed by the author to be
the frankness with which Mr. Porter analyzes the tendencies among men
to take refuge
and comfort by assuming things to be illusory, urges us to commend
reading of his work by all who enjoy keen and subtle observations and
of life. In one place he seems to designate the ancient religion held
by Rome and
Greece as huge illusions, of which there is no trace whatsoever left in
the eternal necessity of illusion in the forward march of the race by
that with the dismissal of the pagan cultists there must needs come
upon the scene
another illusion to take its place.
vacuity, hence his imagination conjures up for him some
will-o'-the-wisp that he
can follow until the futility of following is impressed upon him by the
of greater happiness through the following of yet another
will-o'-the-wisp. We are
persuaded that the orthodox philosopher and theologian, if there are
in the world, will take exception to what Mr. Porter has designated as
but his case is well stated and a fine humor seems to pervade the essay
warrant its reading with deep interest. It will leave one in a mood
of deep reflection upon much that pertains to human happiness.
* * *
An Argument for the Forum
Trial of William Penn and William Mead," [Lib 1670] by Dawn E. Seitz. Price
by Marshall Jones Company, 212 Summer St., Boston, Massachusetts.
has accomplished a splendid work in resurrecting this notable trial
from the musty
records of the past. It has particular significance today, when freedom
press and conscience are being placed in some jeopardy. It will be a
to many, in as much as it will reveal the slowness by which justice
evolves so as
to be meted out to man without favor or prejudice. It may, indeed, be
some profit in connection with the notable exclusion of the socialist
from the New
York legislature. Another service which it is calculated to give, and
if read thoughtfully, is to convince us that while men may be punished,
or even executed, ideas which they may have held will persist. Things
are not always as they should be, and such little books as the author
us may deepen the conviction that the Forum idea must spread.
A place must
be furnished where men can air their views and state their case without
arbitrary interruption that serves, as we believe, to drive them into
passages, there to become as smouldering fires that will ultimately
into insurrection. Our zeal for the protection of our heritage may at
so ill-proportioned that instead of averting the disaster we but hasten
we gleam of the author's intent, the record of this trial is offered to
in the interests of justice and common sense in dealing with new
problems that tend
to affect and change our old ways.
* * *
A New Translation
Theosophic Points, and Other Writings," [Lib 1920] by Jacob Bohme. Translated by
Rollesten Earle, M. A. Published by Alfred A. Knopf, 220 West 42nd St.,
Earle has done a splendid piece of work in his translation of the
writings of Jacob
Bohme. Though the writings are frequently in a difficult strain and
hard to understand, their message is so vital that students of the
who have the mystic bent will find in them a great comfort.
of God is the all-pervading thing. While the visionary flights of the
us with characteristics that belong to the fanatic, nevertheless we are
in the company
of one who is aware that the Eternal Presence is such as men can
with. The delicate, frail shoemaker who protested against the
dogmatism of his day may serve again to give us, in this day, when we
the tremendous claims made by eminent men for spiritualism, a sane
sense of spiritual
values. The book is written, as the author tells us, to aid those who
to "grow in the right man."
of his great love attested to in the manner in which he sought his
continue a source of inspiration to those who seek a consciousness of
of God in our earthly life.
fields he sought in deep prayer the Will of the All-Wise Father and, as
Church historian says, he came away always with a clearer sense of
Peace and Joy.
is one with the other great mystics who have breathed into the world
and into the
hearts of men a clear longing for spiritual happiness and union with
* * *
Mythology of All Races
to draw attention to the publication by the Marshall Jones Co., 212
Boston, of the Mythology of All Races, [Lib 1916-64; (thirteen
in thirteen volumes. As near as
we can judge from the announcement it is one of the greatest works of
eminent scholars that has been entered into for some time.
later, it may be our privilege to review a number of these volumes and
contents in elaborate form. We would advise our readers to communicate
Marshall Jones Co., in regard to this set of books, if they are
* * *
statues of snow, and weep to see them melt.
* * *
Issued by the Society
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER (for delivery about February 1st or 15th)
Constitutions (reproduced by photographic plates from an original copy
in the archives of the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro. J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa,
red buffing binding, gilt lettering, illustrated. A story of the Flag
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," paper covers
Notes on the Comacine Masters," W. Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to
"The Comacines, Their Predecessors and Their Successors," a Masonic
digest of Leader Scott's book "The Cathedral Builders" and containing
the latest researches of Brother Ravenscroft which present a very
logical argument for the connection of Freemasonry of the present day
with the Roman Collegia and traveling Masons of the early times, paper
of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet
of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet
of the Three Degrees, Street, 68 pages, paper covers. The lessons and
symbols of each degree traced to their origin, in every instance that
it has been possible to so trace them. Brother Street gives many
explanations of our symbols in this little book on which our monitors
but vaguely touch
Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite, pamphlet
FROM OTHER SOURCES IN IN STOCK AT ANAMOSA
Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry, by Brother Joseph Fort Newton,
formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER
Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey
Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey
Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey
in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M. Johnson, P.G.M., Massachusetts
History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould
prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all items
The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or registered.
Faith and Hope -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald Nancarrow,
down the endless flood of years
There stands a Bold Majestic Isle,
Where hearts aweary cease their tears,
And aching souls find rest awhile.
And on the headlands of this Rock
A blazing beacon never tires
Our deep and welling fears to lock,
And feed our dying spirit fires.
As to us in an endless wave
Its swelling beams illume the way,
We tread again the checkered pave
And all our journeyings are gay.
give as we would receive, cheerfully, quickly, and without hesitation,
is no grace in a benefit that sticks to the fingers.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
Memorial to George Washington,
1919, issue of THE BUILDER related something about a George Washington
at Alexandria, Va. Not long ago I was in a lodge in Tennessee where
some kind of
an announcement was read regarding an Association taking the matter up,
object of preserving for future generations the Masonic possessions of
What is the Society? Their address? The plan?
Washington Masonic National Memorial Association was organized ten
years ago, at
the suggestion of brethren outside of Virginia, who had visited
Lodge No. 22 in Alexandria. They saw there priceless relics and
mementos of Washington's
Masonic life, preserved with loyal devotion by the lodge of which
was the first Worshipful Master, but not kept in fireproof quarters.
that these relics were properly the heritage of American Masonry, and
that the Fraternity
owed to itself and to posterity the duty of preserving these evidences
membership in and devotion to Freemasonry, agitation was begun to build
memorial, in which these relics should be kept. The lodge acquiesced in
agreeing that if such a memorial were to be built in Alexandria by the
America, they would turn over these relics to the Association in
consideration being that they should be housed in the memorial ‒ as was
proper, since the preservation of the atmosphere of this lodge is in
itself a memorial.
No visitor ever sits in this lodge without feeling that the echoes of
First Citizen's voice are whispering to him. The writer hopes that when
shall have been built, the old lodge hall in which No. 22 met while
its Master may be reproduced with historical accuracy, and such seems
to be the
consensus of opinion on the subject, in the Memorial Association.
to time reports of the progress of this Society towards its aims have
in THE BUILDER. (See issues of July 1915, February 1916, April 1918,
and December 1919.)
recent annual meeting of the Association, held February 23-24, 1920,
the plans for
an intensive campaign for funds were working splendidly in a number of
and many more were about to start. The total amount of the fund raised
approximates $275,000.00, this amount being either in cash or
investments, or in
good pledges to the fund.
is $1.00 per capita from every Mason in the United States. The larger
part of this
will be devoted to the erection of a suitable memorial, and the
remainder will constitute
an endowment for maintenance. Of the funds already in hand, the
Committee on Ways
and Means, acting in conjunction with the officers, appropriated
so much thereof as may be necessary, for the purpose of obtaining a
In due time it is expected that the plan will be presented to the
the campaign is going on in as many States as it is possible to find
who are willing to devote the necessary time to make it a success, and
it is hoped
that every Grand Jurisdiction will be in motion during this year.
A. Watres, Past Grand Master of Pennsylvania, Scranton, Pennsylvania,
of the Association, and in active charge of the campaign: Lawrence H.
Lee, of Montgomery,
Alabama, is Secretary, and John H. Cowles, Past Grand Master of
Kentucky, 16th and
S Streets, N. W., Washington, D. C., is Treasurer.
review of Washington's Masonic career, containing photographs of the
etchings of original documents, etc., is "Washington The Man and The
by Brother Charles H. Callahan, of Alexandria, Virginia, at the present
time a Grand
Warden of the Grand Lodge of Virginia. The proceeds from Brother
are devoted to the propaganda of the Association.
* * *
The Middle Chamber
I agree with
you that the Middle Chamber of the Fellow Craft degree lecture was
intended to symbolize
the pay office ‒ at least that was Preston's idea of it ‒ although the
us that it; was a part of the Senior Warden's duties to pay the Craft
and he was placed in the west for that reason, while the Middle Chamber
not in that part of the building. The Middle Chamber also was middle
only with reference
to one above and one below it ‒ I Kings, VI, 6 ‒ and only one dimension
of it is
given, its width, and a room that is wide only without length or height
but a poor pay office.
I have been
trying for some time to find a Hebrew scholar who would tell me that
the word translated
"chamber" might also mean court; for if the middle court was meant, it
might have a Masonic meaning that would be truly enlightening. The
temple of Solomon
is the only building of the kind, so far as I can learn, that had a
place set apart
for people not of the faith of its builders. Its outer court was the
Court of the
Gentiles, while the one next within it was the Court of the Jews, and
it was middle
with reference to that of the Gentiles and that of the Priests, which
both. Now if the 70,000 Apprentices and 80,000 Fellow Crafts were the
residents of Palestine as would seem to have been the case ‒ II
17 ‒ and were perhaps as a reward for faithful service admitted to the
the Jews, that would mean emancipation ‒ citizenship, a very
Court was also middle with respect to one below and one above it, for
to Ezekiel’s description there were eight steps going up from the Court
of the Gentiles
to the Court of the Jews and seven from the Court of the Jews to that
of the Priests.
But I have
not found a Hebrew scholar who will say that the word translated
might mean court. The most scholarly one I have found says it really
and this agrees with Prof. Paine's translation, as you no doubt know.
Do you not
think it is time that our lectures in all the degrees were rewritten?
little was known about the temple in Preston's time, and he evidently
did not observe
that the description of it in both Kings and Chronicles is for one
whereas our candidates are led to suppose they are to find the Middle
the temple building. The right hand column is on the same side as the
which was on the right over toward the south Kings VII, 39, Chronicles
IV, 10 ‒
so the candidate is really standing between the columns looking toward
and with his back toward the temple building.
Preston has not described the columns accurately, for each had two
chapiters ‒ one
of five and one of four cubits ‒ Kings VII, 16 and 19 ‒ and it was the
one of four
cubits that was ornamented with lily work, probably the lotus of Egypt.
Now of what
was the lotus the symbol? Does it not at least suggest the winged sun?
I can find
no winding stair of 3, 5 and 7 steps in any biblical description of the
though such a stair was undoubtedly a feature of far more ancient
The three and the five would make the eight between the Court of the
that of the Jews, but if there had been three steps by themselves
anywhere in the
temple I doubt whether any Jew would have set foot on them as three was
sacred number. In the blue degrees of the Scottish Rite these steps are
the tracing board as in front of the porch, where they certainly were
C. A. Snowden, Washington.
about the Middle Chamber symbolism does not make clear to me just what
is, but I shall endeavor to answer certain of your questions in hope
that I may
somehow strike the center of your problem.
first place, we must remember that the original records are badly mixed
best Hebrew scholars that have ever lived have never been able to agree
of the details. Therefore, if we find inconsistencies and
improbabilities in our
ritualistic interpretation we must not be surprised.
well to remember that the Temple was more than once destroyed and
rebuilt, not to
mention the numerous remodelings which were almost always going on: it
is hard to
fix on any one detail and say, "There! it is so and so in the Temple at
a time!" Anyhow, what matters it?
translated "chamber" means chamber: it does not in any way refer to
which is a different word in the Hebrew, and which Hebrew writers would
misused, so familiar was it. The wall about the Temple proper was made
hollow: inside the hollow were partitioned little rooms, and there were
or stories, of these rooms: in them the priests and Temple attendants
paraphernalia. If "Middle Chamber" means anything, if such a thing ever
existed, it was probably the second tier of rooms, as just now
I do not
think that "our lectures in all the degrees" should be rewritten. Such
a thing is impossible and undesirable, but I do believe that the
profit greatly by some revising, and nowhere is revising more urgently
in the Middle Chamber lecture, which lecture, in our modern state of
sounds often like the production of a college sophomore.
the Pillars I have already told what little I know about the subject in
issues of THE BUILDER.
find a good scholar's interpretation of all these matters in Charles
"Student's Bible" series, especially in the volume on the "Founders
and Rulers of Ancient Israel." I am using these volumes as college
I find them excellent. Professor Kent is reliable as to erudition, and
his head, which last cannot always be safely averred of writers on the
moreover, he incorporates several valuable bibliographies on these moot
in the appendixes of his various volumes.
H. L. H.
articles on the symbolism of the various degrees in each number of THE
a source of very great interest and profit to me. An idea has occurred
to me, while
reading his explanation of the story of Jephtha in the January number,
which I am
taking the liberty of passing on to you.
Is it not
possible that the inclusion of this story is due to the word
in the sense of a catchword in general literary usage? You will find in
Oxford Dictionary, as the third and figurative definition of the word:
or formula adopted by a party or sect, by which their followers may be
or those not their followers may be excluded." The following examples
Norice, New Gospel 3. ‒ "His followers sequestering themselves to such
of their own way … gave themselves to mirth and jollity, … as if it
were the only
Shibboleth whereby to be discerned from the miserable Legalists that
and sorrow for singe." 1687, Dryden, Hind and P.4:1076. ‒ "For them…
foes a deadly Shibboleth devise." 1771, Wesley. Sermon xliv. ‒ "But he
is the Shibboleth. Is man by nature filled with all manner of evil?”
Letter to Newton, 21 Feb. ‒ "The mere shibboleth of party." 1809,
Familiar Letters (1894) 1. v. 146. ‒ "Knaves and fools invent
shibboleths to keep them ('honest' persons) from coming to a just
two examples are of special interest to us, as both Cowper and Scott
were, I understand,
members of the Craft.
Does it not
seem reasonable that the old ritualist, whoever he was, introduced the
this barbarous chieftain, who crowned his cruel treatment of his
enemies of his
own race and religion and language by the murder of his own daughter as
sacrifice, simply because of the catchword?
of the word, as given by the Oxford Dictionary, is also not without
"The word occurs with the
senses 'ear of
corn' and 'stream in flood': in the passage now referred to LXX (i.e.
the Greek translation of the Bible) and the Vulgate (the Latin
the former rendering: modern commentators prefer the latter, on the
on this view the selection of the word is naturally accounted for as
took place at the ‘fords of Jordan.’ “
The two meanings
will thus account for the way it is "emblematically depicted."
W. Harvey McNairn, Canada.
* * *
of North Carolina Grand Bodies and Ars Quatuor Coronatorum Wanted
our files of the Proceedings of North Carolina Masonic Grand Bodies we
anxious to procure any or all of the following named Proceedings:
of North Carolina, 1787 to 1854, inclusive (Originals preferred.)
Grand Chapter of North Carolina, 1847, 1848, 1851, 1852 1853 and 1854.
Grand Commandery of North Carolina, 1891.
also be glad to purchase the proceedings of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No.
2076 of London,
England, from the time of organization, November 24th, 1894, to date.
R. L. Chandler,
Pansophia Masonic Library,
Southern Pines, North Carolina
* * *
Lodges Named for Roosevelt
Roosevelt Lodge No. 1022, A. F. & A. M., Chicago, Illinois.
9, 1919, and constituted October 21, 1919. The Secretary is Philip
Sultan, 111 West
Monroe Street, Chicago.
Lodge No. 650, F. & A. M., Cleveland, Ohio, constituted October
25, 1919. R.
B. McHenry, 3148 Superior Ave N. E., Cleveland, Ohio, Secretary.
Roosevelt Lodge No. 697, A. F. & A. M., was constituted in
on November 26, 1919. Samuel Eckels, 1319 Alton St., Pittsburgh,
Hubert S. Hopkins, Illinois.
* * *
In the Question
Box for February I took particular interest in the query of "T. A. Jr.,
in which he inquired where he might obtain a bibliography of the best
and the reply thereto.
I think I
asked the same question from many brethren, and was greatly helped by
by the Iowa Masonic Library; but it is such a large subject that I am
still a beginner.
In the course
of my search for bibliographical data I have been fortunate enough to
pick up quite
a collection of old and valuable catalogues and bibliographical works,
valuable of which are the "Masonic Bibliography" by E.T. Carson (1874)
[Lib*] and "Catalogue of Worcestershire Masonic Library," [Lib 1891] with bibliographical notes by
works which I possess, although perhaps somewhat meagre, represent
search in second-hand bookshops with the assistance of several kind
well as a considerable outlay of money.
Most of those
in my possession deal with the older literature and are more for the
use of the
advanced student than for beginners. I believe the time is at hand when
bibliography of Masonic literature should be compiled. If a complete
work of this
kind would not be practical on account of the few who might subscribe
for it, then
it would seem to me a work dealing with, let us say, 2,000 of the most
works would be very valuable.
of the lists of our "Traveling Library" might interest our Texas
I would also suggest that when I first became interested in Masonic
found intense interest in the current catalogues of the various Masonic
houses and bookdealers.
when I have more leisure, it is my intention to compile a list of my
which I believe will be of interest to some of the students interested
in the study
side of Masonry.
library comprises books which, with the exception of numbers 8, 18, 22
and 24, may
be easily obtained. The list follows:
LIBRARY OF THE GRAND LODGE OF WISCONSIN
1. Mackey's Encyclopedia of
Freemasonry in two volumes.
2. History of Freemasonry and
Concordant Orders, by Hughan and Stillson.
3. The Poetry of Freemasonry, by
4. A Concise History of
Freemasonry, by Robert Freke Gould.
5. The Arcane Schools, by J.
6. The Roberts Constitutions,
1722, published by the N. M. R. S.
7. Philosophy of Masonry, by
Roscoe Pound, LL. D.
8. Ancient York Masonic Rolls, by
James B. Bardwell.
9. The Grand Lodge of England, by
A. F. Calvert.
10. Kenning's Cyclopedia of
Freemasonry, by George Kenning, edited by A. F. A.
11. The Builders, by J. F. Newton.
12. Masonic Jurisprudence, by
Albert G. Mackey, M. D.
13. The Symbolism of Freemasonry,
by Albert G. Mackey, M. D.
14. Low Twelve, by Edward S. Ellis,
15. Washington and His Masonic
Compeers, by Sydney Hayden.
16. Symbolic Teachings of Masonry
and Its Message, by Thomas Milton Stewart.
17. Symbols and Legends of
Freemasonry, by J. Finley Finlayson.
18. A Short Masonic History (two
volumes), by Frederick Armitage.
19. Speculative Masonry, by A. S.
Macbride, J. P.
20. Ancient Mysteries and Modern
Masonry, by Rev. Charles H. Vail.
21. Military Lodges, 1732-1899, by
Robert Freke Gould.
22. The Comacines, Their
Predecessors and their Successors, by W. Ravenscroft,
23. Indian Masonry, by Robert C.
24. Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges, by Lionel Vibert, I.C.S.
25. A Concise Cyclopsedia of
Freemasonry, by E. L. Hawkins, M. A.
26. Sidelights on Freemasonry, by
John T. Lawrence, M. A.
27. Things a Freemason Should Know,
by Fred J. W. Crowe, F. R. A. S.
28. The Story of Freemasonry, by W.
29. The Four Old Lodges, by Robt.
Freke Gould. Silas H. Shepherd, Chairman
on Masonic Research, Grand Lodge of Wisconsin.
* * *
The Attainment of Perfection
we accept unconditionally the fact that Masonry is a system of
only in its application. We must build character, we are told, and are
necessary implements, i.e. Masonic teachings with which to perform this
task ‒ for as St. Paul truly says, "There are warring members at
conflict within us."
Now, we are
living in a scientific age, and it seems to me that if the teaching of
is to become more effective we must make the teaching scientific. We
must use logic,
reason and faith ‒ not the blind faith that accepts what someone else
has said or
written, but only what appeals to our reason and common sense. The
Buddha is reported
as saying that we never should accept anything, whether uttered by a
holy man or
written in a sacred document, unless it appeals to one's reason and
sense of justice.
Now how are
we to make the teachings of morality scientific? In the first place we
the fact of the existence of law in our universe. No one denies that if
up a red hot poker, accidentally or not, the result is the same extreme
we recognize the existence of a law which we designate as that of
radiation or heat.
When we violate it we are immediately paid as it were for our
one is foolish enough to jump off the roof of a ten-story building,
well that the law of gravitation will immediately draw us to earth with
of either losing our life or a badly fractured body. These things are
so much so, that there is a general acceptance and obedience of
we enter the domain of Ethics do we find the same recognition of the
law of action
and reaction? I'm afraid not. To be sure there is plenty of lip
acceptance of the
well-known axiom: "Be ye not deceived, God is not mocked, as a man
shall he reapeth." Why do men so willingly violate the law of morality?
it because they do not believe in the above stated law ‒ or is it
because the effects
of moral transgression are not always apparent? Perhaps it is because
men lack faith.
Now having faith is a tremendous thing ‒ faith that expresses itself in
We need not judge others by their actions ‒ they judge themselves by
what they do
We must teach
men that they can no more violate and evade the moral law, known by the
Karma, or the Ethical Law of Cause and Effect, than can a man put out
both of his
eyes and be able to read a newspaper. Men deceive themselves if they
by being shrewd enough to cheat others and glory over their ill-gotten
have escaped punishment of their misdeeds. I use the word punishment,
not in the
sense of a wrathful Deity who is waiting for one of His ignorant
children to commit
a misdeed and then to vent His anger upon him. Not so, but God has
moral as well as physical, and any violations lead to disaster of one
sort or another.
His agents apportion to men in every life they live on earth the exact
previous lives ‒ for how else can you explain the justice of God if you
find a child,
or to put it more clearly, a soul encased in an earthly vesture,
equipped with the
brain of an idiot, while another has a perfectly normal body.
I ask my
Masonic brothers to carefully ponder over what I have written. Perhaps
I have stated
somewhat crudely what I believe to be the true foundation of a Masonic
built without hands. Man becomes perfect only by the knowledge and
God's laws. May His Light shine upon us and all living creatures!
Chester Green, Massachusetts.
important period to a candidate is that period of study and reflection
he has opportunity, undisturbed, to assimilate those sublime lessons
upon entering into Masonic life. Without study and thought, he cannot
Without assimilation, he cannot grow in Masonic stature. It has been a
growing more and more apparent with passing years, to see newly
being importuned to seek other rites and ceremonies without having had
time to become
acquainted with even the rudiments of the sublime lessons placed before
study as Entered Apprentices, Fellowcrafts and Master Masons. The whole
life as such is placed before them. It may be elaborated upon, but
A. E. Emerson, P. G. M., Washington.
A Review of Cryptic Masonry
War95 / auth. Warvelle Geo. W.. - Chicago : Grand Chapter, 1895. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 21. - 0.7 MB.
Catalogue of Books, etc
Tay911 / auth. Taylor George. - London : G Kenning, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 173. - 9.5 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 01 -
Greek and Roman
Gra16MR01 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1916. - Vol.
1 : 13 : p. 530. - Illustrated - 19.7 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 02 -
Eddic - Volume not found
Gra16MR02 / auth. Gray Louis H. - 1916. - Vol. 2 : 13. - Volume not
Mythology of all Races Vol 03 -
Celtic and Slavic
Gra18MR03 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1918. - Vol.
3 : 13 : p. 466. - Illustrated - 18.4 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 04 -
Gra64MR04 / auth. Gray Louis H. - New York : Cooper Square Inc, 1964. -
Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 716. - Illustrated - 26.2 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 05 -
Gra64MR05 / auth. Gray Louis H. - New York : Cooper Square Inc, 1964. -
Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 470. - Illustrated - 16.0 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 06 -
Indian and Iranian
Gra17MR06 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1917. - Vol.
6 : 13 : p. 494. - Illustrated - 21.6 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 07 -
Armenian & African
Gra25MR07 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1925. - Vol.
7 : 13 : p. 525. - Illustrated - 50.6 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 08 -
Chinese & Japanese
Gra18MR08 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1918. - Vol.
8 : 13 : p. 489. - Illustrated - 20.8 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 09 -
Gra16MR09 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1916. - Vol.
9 : 13 : p. 398. - Illustrated - 14.2 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 10 -
Gra16MR10 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1916. - Vol.
10 : 13 : p. 379. - Illustrated - 14.9 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 11 -
Gra20MR11 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1920. - Vol.
11 : 13 : p. 520. - Illustrated - 22.6 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 12 -
Egyptian & Indo-Chinese
Gra18MR12 / auth. Gray Louis H. - Boston : Marshall Jones, 1918. - Vol.
12 : 13 : p. 498. - Illustrated - 20.3 MB.
Mythology of all Races Vol 13 -
Gra64MR13 / auth. Gray Louis H. - New York : Cooper Square, 1964. -
Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 482. - 20.0 MB.
Six Theosophic Points
Boh20 / auth. Bohme Jacob / trans. Earle John R. - New York : Alfred A
Knopf, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 212. - 8.9 MB.
Some Ethical Questions
McD20 / auth. McDonald Walter. - London : Burns, Oates, &
Washbourne, Ltd, 1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 218. - 7.6 MB.
The Book of the Rite
McC85 / auth. McClenchan Charles T. - New York : Charles T McClenachan,
1885. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 635. - 43.3 MB.
The Seven who Slept
Por19 / auth. Porter A Kingsley. - Boston : Marshall Jones Company,
1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 97. - 1.7 MB.
The Trial of Penn and Mead
Pen70 / auth. Penn William. - London : Headley Brothers, 1670. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 73. - 1.8 MB.
Without Sound of Hammer
Vin14 / auth. Vincent Edgar L. - Cincinnatti : Jennings &
Graham, 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 136. - 3.9 MB.