Masonic Research Society
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird. P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
Secretary of the Treasury, the close friend of Washington, is mentioned
45 of "The Old Masonic Lodges of Pennsylvania," and on page 58, as
a sum of money for the lodge, and on page 73 as having been raised to
of Master Mason on the 16th of December, 1757, in the second lodge of
been so much written about this most interesting patriot that it might
of place to dwell at length on his literary, military or diplomatic
from a Scotch father, a French Huguenot mother, and was born in the
His opportunities for education were limited. He was at first a clerk.
a description of a hurricane at St. Kitts, which was largely copied and
attention to him.
possessed a splendid memory, a logical mind, and with them industry and
He was a man of splendid disposition, having consideration for
everybody, with a
fixed determination to do right.
He had one
misfortune ‒ he was handsome. A handsome fellow is usually envied by
the men and
spoiled by the girls. He was born at Nevis in January 1757, and was
killed in a
duel at Weehawken in July 1804, when only 47 years of age. The modest
his grave in Trinity Churchyard, New York City, is visited by many.
mother he learned French, but English was the language at Nevis, and
when he went
to New York for his education he was well versed in both languages.
newspaper work soon placed him in the class of the better literatus of
his ability to speak in two languages, his charming voice, handsome
and his magnetism induced followers.
war began he became an Artillery Captain. His military operations were
His replies in Holts Magazine to the attacks of Mr. Seabury upon the
Congress brought Hamilton into the limelight. In 1777 Washington made
him his aide-de-camp
with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. It should no longer be repressed
was much jealousy between the colonies, and Washington availed himself
of the grand
ability of Hamilton to smooth the Governors of the Colonies the right
way and bring
peace and harmony among them, which he did admirably. His knowledge of
him to smooth out difficulties with our allies, though on one occasion
he was roped
into being a second in a duel between Laurens and Lee. He was, however,
was at West Point at the time Arnold deserted. He strongly urged a
the request of Andre, to be shot instead of hanged.
the second daughter of Philip Schuyler, after which he resigned his
place on Washington's
staff and became a commander of a New York Regiment, but soon afterward
to Congress, taking his seat in November 1783. In Congress he soon
in the matter of the settlement of the public debt. The nation was
its credit as limited, its expenses were reduced to a minimum, the Army
were dismantled and the officers and crews discharged, only one Navy
John Paul Jones, but as a Commissioner, however, to remain in France
for the purpose
of settling our tangled relations. Ships were owned by each nation, and
jointly. Crews in French hulls were sometimes American, and vice versa.
the problems Jones was obliged to reconcile, but he died before his
work was finished
and though the Republic owed him $60,000 at the time of his death, he
became the first Secretary of the Treasury and was well qualified for
His efforts went far toward establishing our credit; far toward
fostering our commerce
and establishing schemes of economy which have led to the wealth of the
It is a pity we ever departed from the ways of Hamilton.
has never lived a positive man ‒ one who dared to do what he believed
but that man made enemies. Jealousy is the cause of so much of this
If a man cannot be crushed; if his defense is invulnerable; if his
overwhelming, you have only to associate his name with an attractive
woman and make
the most vague insinuation, and the public will believe you.
We are not
quoting from the press, but from the gossips of the Capital who have
for ages. The writer was born in Washington and, when not absent on
has always lived at the Capital. More than that his parents and
and lived in the Capital City. The gossips give a story of interest. A
and attractive lady, greatly pleased with the dimpled cheeks and rosy
face of Hamilton,
proceeded to make him believe she was enamored of him. Let us drop the
for a moment.
It was not
long before an infuriated husband appeared at Hamilton's office, asking
heart-balm. He did not talk shooting, but threatened publication. The
game was apparent
and Hamilton was not the kind of man to submit. He refused to pay the
at the appointed time the daily papers printed the scandal, but with no
of the demand that had been made for money. The sensation, as might be
came as a great shock.
published a card acknowledging his guilt, offering no excuse and
begging the public
pardon. He made no counter-accusation, nor did he invite attention to
charms of the lady. The public seemed to forgive, and the incident was
had offended Aaron Burr, by opposing him in his candidacy for Governor
of New York.
Burr challenged Hamilton and they fought with pistols in Weehawken.
at the first fire. As a child I often heard the story of Burr
practicing for this
duel. Walking in his garden with a book he would suddenly draw and
fire, and in
this way became proficient in such tactics.
modest little memorial in Old Trinity Churchyard is thus inscribed:
patriot of incorruptable integrity
The soldier of approved valor
The Statesman of consummate wisdom
Whose talents and virtues will be remembered by
A grateful posterity
Long after this marble shall have mouldered
He died July 12th, 1804, Aged 47
By Bro. Reginald Wright
At a dinner
given in honor of Bro. Col. H.H. Whitney, of Gen. Pershing’s staff, as
of the Overseas Masonic Club, Paris, on June 20th, 1919, the following
delivered by Bro. Reginald Wright Kauffman, author of the American war
and the Secretary of the Club was requested by Bro. Whitney and members
of the Overseas
Masonic Club and the Masonic Overseas Mission, to send a copy of the
to THE BUILDER for publication.
the copy retained by Brother Connaway, the Secretary, was lost, but we
able to obtain another from Brother Kauffman and we believe it will
have lost none
of its interest through its delayed publication.
who should know more of such matters than I do, it has been said that
War, differing from all preceding conflicts in the extent of its
involving more countries and more combatants than any other struggle
authentic history differed from every other conflict also in this: that
no outstanding hero, no figure to claim the admiration or devotion of
authorities aver that, just as the war now ended has been vast beyond
‒ just as it has evolved theretofore undreamed ‒ of engines of
destruction and produced
inventions for wholesale slaughter by scientific means ‒ so it has
endeavor and robbed the soldier of his military acclaim.
"Victorious," to which you, Bro. Toastmaster, have so flatteringly
was written to controvert such assertions. It was written to pay what
could to the sole heroic figure that, it seems to me, the chaos of the
months has flung upon our ensanguined horizon: I mean the fellow in our
American Enlisted Man.
It has been
my fortune to see a deal of the fighting that began in 1914 and that
hope to end by their League of Nations and the Peace of Versailles. I
when I left Antwerp eight hours before the Germans entered it, I got
aboard a troop-train
that, I was told, carried what remained of the Belgian Army ‒ and how I
almost as much room on that train as the Belgian Army did; I never
expected to see
it as a battling force again. Time passed; the dripping shuttle of the
to and fro, and I found myself in the first-line beyond La Panne. I was
portion of the long front which, of all others, was then the worst to
the hardest to maintain. Trenches could not be dug, because to dig two
to reach water; the dead were buried above ground, and the enemy
ten-to-one. Yet there was the Belgian Army, ensconced behind perfect
in cleanly order, young, vigorous, calm, heroic. And the Belgian
Jasse as they call him, was the force that made this possible. Nor can
I ever forget
the courage of the Tommy or any of his British brothers-in-arms. During
Battle of Flanders I happened to be with a unit of the English Army in
had been many recent replacements ‒ Cockneys mostly ‒ unused to war, of
there was considerable doubt. How would such fellows behave under fire?
shell exploded in a trench in which were five veterans and a single
the smoke cleared a little, one of the veterans looked at the body of
cried to his comrades:
God, just see Bill: his heady blown off!"
a moment of silence, and then came the thin, complaining voice of the
right, old top; but where is 'is 'is 'ead? Carn't you find it for me?
'E was smokin'
To the stubborn
heroism of the French poilu, moreover, we owe the maintenance of
the Allied line for three-fifths of the war. I know a Breton widow who
sons of whom one had gone to America and, prospering, sent home money
his mother. In 1915 she wrote him: "Your two brothers have been killed
come home anal die for France" ‒ and the boy came home and died before
Quintin. When the cause was at its blackest hour, I have sat in the
Verdun and have seen men come in from the trenches for a one-day rest ‒
had been fighting since the outbreak of hostilities. They were cold,
they were wet,
the filth of the dugouts was still caked upon them; many were slightly
all were in a state of exhaustion; yet when one of their number began
to sing "You
Shall Not Pass," their eyes glistened, their bodies stiffened, they
‒ they joined in the refrain, and they forgot everything but that they
for their country; they were glad to go back and fight!
The men of
Belgium, France and England were heroes; they were heroes that the
world will do
well to remember; that it will do ill ever to forget. But the
native-land of the
Jasse had been devastated; the patrie of the poilu had been invaded,
the homes of
the Tommies had been shelled from the air, whereas, from across the
there came your countrymen and mine, lads who had no reason to nourish
revenge in their hearts, boys brought up in the prospect of perpetual
fellows whose fatherland had summoned them to fight ‒ for what? Not for
not for conquest, not for anything ‒ remember the public avowals of the
whatever has been the outcome ‒ not for anything but the worldwide
democracy. What, I ask you, of them?
We have heard
tonight of how, raised from the ranks by fiat of the War Department
that could not,
or would not, help them to the insignia of the grade to which it
hundreds of these enlisted men borrowed from the Masonic Overseas
Mission the scant
price of their shoulder-bars, and how every one of them has paid his
debt. We have
heard of the difficulties that this commission encountered at
directed to go abroad as Y.M.C.A. secretaries if it hoped to go at all,
Fosdick quoted the American commanding-general in France as opposed to
presence here and that when it finally came, the doughboy welcomed it.
I think that
you know how he welcomed it and why. He welcomed it because he is of
the stuff of
which Free Masons are made, and it was as such that he welcomed it.
I knew the
American Camp in France from its earliest days, and I knew the first
At the Camp, men were billeted, God knows why, in reeking stables, with
roofs, the cattle housed beneath them. In the trenches they found
arctic surroundings, clothed in summer uniforms, wrapped in newspapers
adequate overcoats, their frost-bitten toes bursting from their
They found themselves in the condition of the Continentals at Valley
Forge, in the
condition of the Federal Ninth Army Corps when, after the Kentucky
re-enlisted to a man "for the duration of the war." And these boys of
yesterday were the worthy sons of their fathers of the Civil War and of
of the Revolution: they knew that they were not there to complain, and
not complain; they knew that they were there to fight ‒ and how they
fought no tongue
can ever justly tell.
the terrible Spring of 1918, I was in Brest. The enemy thundered at the
Paris, and in our own lines there was nothing but disorder and delay.
At the American
port I saw over three miles of docks that resembled a house into which
a vast family
had just moved. From one end of the place to the other ran almost
ramparts, fifteen, to twenty feet high, piled with material of war that
could not reach the front. Mail-bags, motorcars and wagon-parts lay
there, and had,
some of them, lain there for months. Food rotted before one's eyes. I
witnessed a more dispiriting spectacle.
Then a Y.M.C.A.
secretary, a Mason, carried me to barracks to speak to soldiers newly
I stood on a low stage at the end of a vast, tunnel-like hut, and the
had the soldiers sing for me:
"While you are sleeping,
Your France is weeping:
Wake from your dreams, Maid of France!"
slowly, giving full weight to every word and conferring a true dignity
on what they
"Her heart is bleeding:
Are you unheeding?
Come with the flame in your glance!"
I saw them
as a sea of faces upraised to mine. The secretary had been telling them
not as a Y.M.C.A. man, but as a correspondent, knew what real fighting
was and would
tell them of the high battle in which they were now so soon to bear
"Through the gates of Heaven,
with your sword in hand,
Come, your legions to command!"
arrived from the horrors of the front; they fresh from their clean
homes: a sea
of boys' faces, eager, earnest, faithful! They were come as conscripts,
but as willing
ones; they were come here to die ‒ and they knew it, and were ready. By
God, I tell
you, gentlemen, I never before realized what a splendid thing it was to
be an American!
I might continue
with sketches of the doughboy ‒ and that word "Doughboy," coined to
the infantryman, now stands for every private in our Army ‒ I might go
on with sketches
of him in seven different forms of battle, but I content myself with
only one more.
It is a sight I caught of men I knew going into action.
It was a
gray land on a gray day. The barren fields stretched eastward under a
humid sky. From out that way, fighting through the dense atmosphere,
came now the
rumble of the distant battle's guns. Gun-carriages crawled along, the
of the field artillery dull in the scanty light, the wheels heavy with
masses of blue clay. The infantry, at route-step, marched with feet
was no bragging, no rude assurance: only a very certain, though very
a lad that had been working his way through Harvard, starving himself
in a garret,
because he wanted to become a teacher: the brutal fist of Berlin had
and the boy forever forewent his dreams, put aside his ambitions,
he had sacrificed so much to gain ‒ and volunteered. His frugal life,
of self-denial, even his conscious meannesses and skimpings ‒ they
seemed to me
to form a veritable halo around that youngster's head.
an older man, the husband of a wife, the father of a family. He had
closed up, when
drafted, business that he had just succeeded in clearing from debt. "Of
I don't like it," he confessed to me; "but of course I wouldn't have
at home even if I could, because I know we're here to stop the secret
that ends tyranny and to end autocracy, even in America."
had come to rest, but now the darkness grew suddenly deeper. The bugles
I knew whither, through the faint twilight, the thoughts of these men
they had gone to mothers, wives and sweethearts in quiet American
towns, to Americas
homesteads and American ways, to the great, bungling busy, loving,
that we cherish and will die for and that we call the U.S.A.
bugle shrilled into the dark.
already there ‒ the double lines of them, the long, narrow packs on
two lines of them rising out of the dull night and passing into it
dress ‒ right dress ‒ right dress!"
passed along. The men shuffled in the mud, the lines straightened, the
had come to this. All their love and longing, all their business deals
and economies ‒ all their hopes and fears had come to this night in
France, to the
wet and the cold and the now close-by trenches, to the "arrow that
darkness and the pestillence that destroyeth by noonday" ‒ and not a
them all was visibly sorry.
right ‒ march!"
went to their shoulders. They turned ‒ by rows of four they turned ‒
and swung off
eastward toward those distant growling guns ‒ swung off on their way to
believed, and they were prepared to make sacrifice for their beliefs,
and so, even
into the darker darkness of the grave, they did not march without the
the Immortal Friend. As truly as I stand here tonight, I tell you that
God marched along with them.
I am not what most of you would call a religious man, but I have always
in the Supreme Architect, and that Architect has given me the chance to
in the American Enlisted Man In His wisdom, God has given America this
heritage, the heritage of the men that fought and came home, and the
men that fought
and fell. In the ideal of those fellows, however hidden by a modesty
over itself a blushing coarseness, He has indeed built up for us and
for our country
a mighty salvation. If we save that, if we carry on the work that they
began, if we end autocracy at home as they tried to end it abroad, we
and in the only possible way, "make the world safe for democracy" but
if we waste what they have done, if we neglect the pure principles of
in our national life, if we tolerate ideals that militate against those
of the Fathers
of the Constitution in the severe and imminent days of reconstruction,
then, I assure
you, we shall l committing the sin against the Holy Ghost and leading
our land to
For my part,
I do not believe that we shall so err. I have a faith in American
manhood that cannot
be shaken. Because I have seen the American Enlisted Man in battle, I
America. It is the America Enlisted Man, in very truth, that has given
old America to Americans. He fought for you; fight you now with him.
Rise with me,
I conjure you, and drink the health of THE AMERICAN DOUGHBOY
health, from health contentment spring;
Contentment opens the source of every joy.
‒ James Beattie.
eyes and ears open if you desire to get on in world.
By Bro. Gustav A. Eitel,
have come to us for information concerning the origin and history of
of the Cryptic Rite, or the "Council" degrees. To Brother Wm. F. Kuhn,
of Missouri, was assigned the task at the last meeting of the General
of compiling for that Body an official history of the degrees. When
history is completed Brother Kuhn has promised it to us for publication
in THE BUILDER.
In the meantime we give to our readers the following article prepared
by a committee
of the Maryland Grand Council of which Brother Eitel was the chairman.
remarks of this committee are self-explanatory. For the benefit of the
of our jurisdiction, few of whom have access to what has been written
degrees of the Cryptic Rite ‒ their origin, their introduction and
in our country ‒ we present, without comment, what your Committee has
to gather from the writings of the several accepted authorities and
It is not
the Committee's intention to give an exhaustive history of the degrees,
sufficient data to enable our Companions to get a far understanding of
of the degrees, and of the claims made of their origin and
None of the
later day Masonic writers have given this subject more research and
study than our
late Companion Edward T. Schultz, and we present in full from his
of Freemasonry in Maryland," (1884,) Vol. I, pp. 335-344:
The Cryptic Degrees
has existed regarding the origin of the Degrees of Royal and Select
also as to the date where, and by whom they were introduced into this
would appear that the Royal Master's Degree was first known and worked
in the Eastern
States, while the Select Degree was first known, and at a much earlier
the Southern and Middle States.
the early Masonic writers of the country concede that Philip P. Eckel
Niles of Baltimore had, at an early period, the control of at least the
and that from them emanated the authority under which it was introduced
of the other jurisdictions of the country.
In an article
in Cole's Ahiman Rezon (1817) [Lib 1817], written by Brother Hezekiah
on the Select Degree, occurs the following: "Though this beautiful
known to some persons in many parts of the United States, we are not
it is worked in anywhere but in Baltimore. We have been told that a
of Select was held at Charleston, S. C., many years ago, but believe it
Dove, of Virginia, speaking of the Select Degree, says: "This beautiful
is comparatively of modern origin, having been with the Degree of Royal
in the possession of a distinguished Chief in the State of Maryland as
honorary Degree, elucidatory of and appendant to Royal Arch Masonry,
and by him
conferred without fee; he delegated authority to others to use them in
way, until the year 1824, when the Grand Chapter of Maryland, with his
took charge of the degrees and ordered them to be given before the Most
Master, where all intelligent workers in the Royal Arch must at once
propriety of their location."
in his History of Freemasonry in South Carolina [Lib 1861], under the head of Cryptic
says: "For many years there have been three distinct claims urged for
over these degrees in America ‒ first by the Supreme Council of the
next by some of the Grand Chapters; and lastly by the Grand Councils
the Subordinate Councils of each State."
with this question of jurisdiction is another in reference to the
of the Degrees, and as to the person or persons by whom they were first
into America. The Masons of Maryland and Virginia contend that the
Royal and Select
Degrees were introduced by Philip P. Eckel, of Baltimore, one of the
and enlightened Masons of his day, who in 1817, communicated them to
Jeremy L. Cross,
and gave him authority to confer them in every Royal Arch Chapter which
visit in his official character."
extracts are quoted from the history of Brother Robert B. Folger [Lib 1862], of New York:
"The Masons of that day (1816)
in opinion concerning the proper place to which these degrees (Royal
belonged. One party preferred that they should be kept separate and
left where they
were ‒ a separate system. At the meeting of the General Grand Chapter
in 1816, the
whole matter then came up for discussion; Mr. Eckel, of Maryland,
taking a very
prominent part in advocating the union of these two degrees with the
the Royal Arch Chapters. The discussion became warm and lasted the
better part of
two days, when the motion to unite them with the Chapter Degrees was
immediately after adjournment, the State Grand Council of Royal Masters
and the different Councils then came under that governing power, and
up to 1828. It was this move on the part of the General Grand Chapter,
a recognition of those degrees, that determined Mr. Cross in his future
"Mr. Eckel, the Baltimore
went home; and when Cross, who at that session of the General Grand
been appointed and confirmed as General Grand Lecturer, started on his
tour, he stopped at Baltimore and purchased and received the privilege
and Niles to erect and establish Councils of Royal and Select Masters
the Southern and Western States. This privilege he carried out pretty
beginning with New Jersey; and all the Councils in existence in those
in his narrative were established by himself, also the Eastern States,
above quotations it will be perceived that it was the general belief
that the control
of the Royal and Select Degrees were vested in Eckel and Niles.
But we think
Bros. Dove, Mackey, Folger, and others, make a great mistake in
coupling the Royal
Master's Degree with the Select, in connection with the names of Eckel
for there is no evidence whatever to show that these brethren ever
claimed control of the Royal Master's Degree, or that they were even in
of that degree at the periods named by them.
Drummond, of Maine, states on apparently good authority, that Eckel did
the Royal Master's Degree until 1819; that in that year he and Bro.
Benj. Edes of
Baltimore, received it from Ebenezer Wadsworth of New York. This is
for there is no mention of that degree being worked in this
jurisdiction in any
document, or upon the records of the Grand Chapter or of its
than 1850. Bro. Cole in 1817 speaks of it incidentally, but not as
among the degrees
Degree is recognized by the Constitution of the Grand Chapter adopted
in 1824, but
there is no mention of the Royal Master's Degree.
the Warrant granted to Cross by Eckel and Niles, a copy of which, taken
from a photograph
copy of the original, in the possession of Bro. Wm. R. Singleton of
is here inserted, and from which it will be seen that the Select Degree
TO ALL WHOM IT MAY CONCERN.
Imprest with a perfect
conviction that the knowledge
of the mysteries of the degree of Royal Arch are eminently promoted by
of those revealed in the Council of Select Masons; and Whereas the said
Select is not so extensively known as its wants and the good of the
Therefore Know ye, That
reposing especial confidence
in my beloved and trusty Companion Jeremy L. Cross I do hereby, by the
in me vested, authorize and empower him to confer the said degree as
In any place where a regular Chapter of Royal Arch Masons is
established, the officers
or members approving, he may confer said degree according to its rules
but only on Royal Arch Masons who have taken all the preceding degrees,
as is required
by the General Grand Chapter. When a competent number of Select Masons
made, he may grant them a Warrant to open a Council of Select and
confer the degree
and do all other business appertaining thereto.
Given under my hand and seal at
27th day of May, A. D. 1817 and in the year of the Dis. 2817.
PHILIP P. ECKEL,
Thrice Illustrious & Grand Puissant in the Grand Council of
Select at Baltimore
& approved as G. G. Scribe.
Approved & attested as
Ill. in the G. Council.
In the first
Warrants issued by Cross under this commission the Companions were
form themselves into a regular Council of Select Masters," but in the
issued by him in 1819 and thereafter the "High Powers in him vested by
Grand Council at Baltimore," were enlarged to include the Royal
In view of
the action taken subsequently by the Brethren of Baltimore, there is
to believe that the "enlarged powers" under which Cross claimed to act
were not granted or authorized by Eckel and Niles.
At the Session
of the Grand Chapter held in 1827, Jos. K. Stapleton, Grand High
"documents upon the subject of the institution of the Select Degree
of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter," which were referred to a committee,
that a circular be sent to the several Grand Chapters regarding the
matter and which
was adopted. A copy of this circular is here inserted:
I am instructed
by the Grand Chapter over which I have the honor to preside, to address
through you your Grand Chapter, upon the unsettled state of the Degree
Mason ‒ a subject deemed by us of sufficient importance to claim the
attention of your Grand Chapter.
existed under the authority of a distinguished chief in the State of
without the recognizance of our Grand Chapter, for many years; until,
in the year
1824, upon the revision of our Constitution, it appearing evident that
Degree not only has an intimate connection with, but is in a measure
as preparatory to and elucidatory of, that of the Royal Arch; it was
by our Grand Chapter, and required to be given by our subordinate
Chapters, in its
proper order, immediately preceding that of the Royal Arch. Under this
we have since progressed, much to our satisfaction ‒ but it is with
we have learned that Councils or Chapters of Select Masons have been
in some of our sister States, independent Royal Arch Masonry, avowedly
of, but we are satisfied, through a great mistake or actual abuse of
delegated, or meant to be delegated, in relation to the Select Degree.
therefore beg leave respectfully to recommend to you Grand Chapter the
of this degree, and the circumstances under which it exists, if it does
your jurisdiction; with the hope that you will see it to be for the
of the Craft take the said degree under your recognizance and control,
to whom of
right it belongs, and thereby do away what is felt to be a grievance by
chiefs, whose authority, delegated to a limited extent and for special
has been perverted for sordid purposes, by the creation of an
never contemplated by them; and which we believe to be inconsistent
with the spirit
and best interests of our institutions.
JOS. K. STAPLETON Grand High Priest.
It will be
seen that Bro. Cross is charged with having abused the "authority,
or meant to be delegated" to him. It has been said by old Masons in the
of the writer that for his course of action in this matter, he was
expelled by the
Grand Chapter; but there is nothing in the records to warrant such an
of the powers claimed to have been received from Eckel and Niles, Cross
some thirty-three Councils in various parts of the United States, he
his powers to others, who in like manner issued Warrants for Councils
of Royal and
Select Masters. It is said that as high a sum as one hundred dollars
for a Warrant. From all that has been stated, it is evident not only
and Niles claimed to have had the supreme control and authority over
Degree, but that this claim was generally regarded valid, and it is
equally as evident,
we think, that these Brethren never claimed the control of the Royal
It has always
been a question of much interest with Masonic writers to know the
these Brethren received their authority and control of the Select
Degree. An old
document that most unexpectedly came to the knowledge of the writer
about a year
ago, settles that question beyond a doubt. It is as follows:
In the year of the Temple, 2792, our thrice illustrious Brother, Henry
Grand Elect, Select, Perfect Sublime Mason, Grand Inspector General,
and Grand Master
of Chapters of the Royal Arch, Grand Elect and Perfect Masters' Lodges
Knight of the East, Prince of Jerusalem, Patriarch Noachite, Knight of
the Sun and
Prince of the Royal Secret, did by and in virtue of the powers in him
establish, ordain, erect and support a Grand Council of Select Masons
in the City
of Baltimore and wrought therein to the great benefit of the craft and
to the profitable
extension and elucidation of the mysteries of Masonry ‒ and whereas, we
to these presents are by regular succession possessor of all the
and immunities and powers vested in any way whatsoever in the said
of Select Masons, considering the great Advantages that would accrue to
in an extension of the knowledge of the Royal Secret as introductory
to, and necessary
for the better understanding of the Superior Degrees.
whom it may concern, that we do hereby authorize and empower our trusty
Companions, K.S. ‒ K.T. ‒ H.A. ‒ of the same, to open and to hold a
Chapter of Select
Masons in the City of Baltimore, under such By-Laws and regulations as
may be enacted
and established for the government of the same, subject to the
rules and regulations:
The Degree of Select Mason shall not be conferred on any one that has
not past the
Chair and received the Honorary degree of Mark Master Mason, nor shall
it be conferred
for a less sum than Dollars.
The Officers and Members of the Chapter shall pay due obedience to any
of the Grand Council which shall be consistent with the Rules of the
duly respect the Officers and Chiefs thereof, and the three Chief
Officers of said
Chapter shall in virtue of said Officers constitute a part and be
Members of the
Grand Council. The said Council shall not levy or receive of any
Chapter more than
‒ Dollars per annum exclusive of the Secretary's fees for Warrants,
or other Official Writings, which shall in no case exceed a reasonable
for the labor and trouble of furnishing the same.
In case the G.R.A. Chapter of the State of Maryland and District of
the General Grand Chapter of the United States shall assume and take
charge of the
Degree of Select Mason, then and in that case all power and authority
presents shall cease and determine forthwith, provided a charter of
is granted to this Chapter.
The three Chief Officers of the Chapter must, and always shall be Royal
Select Masons made under the authority of a Royal Arch Chapter, and by
Priest thereof in the Jurisdiction of the State of Maryland and
District of Columbia,
shall be acknowledged and received as such by said Select Chapter,
shall be known by the name of ‒ Chapter of Select Masons, No. 1.
whereof, we have Signed our names and affixed the Seal of the Grand
] PHILIP P. ECKEL,
It will be
noticed that all that was needed to make this document effective was
of dates, names of officers, and the price to be charged for conferring
From some cause the dispensation was not used, but the fact is fully
stated by Eckel and Niles, under their hand and seal, that they were,
succession, possessors of all the rights, privileges, and immunities
vested in any way whatsoever in the said Grand Council of Select
had been instituted in the City of Baltimore in the year 1792 by Henry
"Grand Inspector General."
in connection with the Rules and Regulations of the Lodge of Perfection
been quoted, leaves no room for doubt that Wilmans was an Inspector of
of Perfection, and that he exercised in the City of Baltimore in 1792
claimed by such Inspectors. But from whom did Wilmans acquire his
powers of "Grand
Inspector General," and the authority "to establish, ordain, erect and
support a Chapter of Select Masons?"
we cannot answer the question, nor could the Brethren in various parts
of the country,
to whom we applied. The name of Wilmans does not appear upon any
register or document
in the archives of the Supreme Council of the Southern Jurisdiction, or
other known document or record containing the names of the early
the fact that in both the documents he is styled "Deputy Inspector" led
to the supposition that he might have derived his powers from Europe;
which supposition, letters were addressed to the Grand Lodges at Berlin
while the result of the correspondence which ensued, was of an
nothing in regard to his Masonic character could be learned.
It has been
ascertained that Wilmans was a native of Bremen, and that he emigrated
to this country
and settled in Baltimore, as early at least as the year 1790. The first
of his name on the records of the Grand Lodge is in connection with
in 1793, of which he was appointed the first or Charter Master. In the
he was elected Deputy Grand Master, and in the following year Grand
Master of Masons
in Maryland. The register of the Old Zion Lutheran Church, of this
City, shows that
he died in 1795.
In a MSS.
book of Moses Holbrook, of South Carolina, written in 1829, it is
stated that Joseph
Myers, a deputy Inspector General, deposited in the year 1788, in the
the Grand Council of Princes of Jerusalem at Charleston, "a certified
of the Royal and Select Masters' Degrees, received from Berlin."
This is evidently
an error, so far as it relates to the Royal Master's Degree. As
initiated, the degree
was first known in the Eastern States, and the earliest reliable
mention of it there
is in the year 1809.
wrote his book in 1829, at which time both degrees were conferred at
and naturally he connected the two in his statement; making a similar
others do when stating that Eckel and Niles claimed the control of the
degree. The book referred to, contains also the statement, that
the year 1788, Joseph Myers was for a time located in Baltimore.
receive the Select Degree from Myers, or did Myers receive it from
If the degree
came from Berlin, it is quite probable that Wilmans brought it with
him, as he came
from Germany about the time mentioned for the deposit, in the MSS. of
a tradition existing in the Eastern States, that Eckel received the
a Prussian temporarily sojourning in Baltimore. The period of Wilman's
in Baltimore was perhaps not over eight years, and with some propriety,
have been regarded as a sojourner, ‒ and a Prussian.
It is stated,
but upon what authority we know not, that the Royal and Select Degrees
by Andrew Franken at Albany in 1769, and that he conferred them upon
who afterwards removed to Maryland; but we have not been able to find
upon any of the records of this jurisdiction.
or traditions, it will be seen, all point to Maryland as the source
the Select Degree or (as the writer will have it,) Royal Master's
Degree also was
subsequently introduced into other parts of the country.
says: Eckel at the Session of the General Grand Chapter advocated "the
of the degrees with the services of the Royal Arch Chapter." This has
been the opinion of the Companions of Maryland.
to 1852, the Select alone was worked in the Chapter. After 1852, both
worked in Councils specially convened for the purpose, after the Most
and just before the conferring of the Royal Arch degree. At one period,
they were, as stated by Bro. Dove, conferred before the Most Excellent.
At the Centennial
Celebration of the Grand Chapter of Maryland in 1897, Companion Edward
delivered an Address on "Royal Arch Masonry in Maryland." At the
of this paper he augments and amplifies his previous history of "The
Degree' by new and additional evidence and proofs.
in some parts the statements of his earlier history of the degrees are
yet to attempt to excerpt would destroy its value; and as these
have not been heretofore embodied, and, that they may be preserved in
Council proceedings, we print that part of the Address in full:
known as the Royal and Select Masters, termed Cryptic Masonry, have
been so closely
allied to Royal Arch Masonry in our jurisdiction that a history of the
one is not
complete without a reference to the other; one of the degrees of this
Select, having been known and worked in our jurisdiction before the
the Grand Chapter, and indeed, before the organization of Chapters
the earliest known date of the introduction of the Royal and Select
be placed at least a half century later than that of the introduction
of the Royal
Arch, their origin is equally as obscure as that degree.
degrees are undoubtedly, of European origin, the first mention of them
in this country, and the earliest authentic evidence of the conferment
of them is to be found in our own City of Baltimore.
of the many writers upon the subject of these degrees has assigned a
to Maryland in connection therewith; but errors are so blended with the
their statements, that it would seem to be a duty we owe to the memory
of the fathers
of Royal Arch and Cryptic Masonry in this jurisdiction, that in this,
year, we should eradicate these errors.
and Folger, as well as nearly all writers who have followed them, state
terms that in the early part of this century the Maryland Companions
Philip P. Eckel "a distinguished Chief" in their State had the custody
and control of the Royal and Select Degrees.
This is true
so far only as regards the Select Degree; there being not a scintilla
to show that either Eckel, his coadjutors, or their descendants in this
claimed or exercised any control of, or authority over the Royal
On the contrary neither of them was in possession of that degree until
later than the period of which these writers speak.
in his history of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, says: "At the
of the General Grand Chapter held at New York in 1816, the subject of
and Select Degrees came up for discussion; Mr. Eckel of Baltimore, took
part in advocating the union of these two degrees with the services of
Arch Chapters. The discussion was warm and lasted the better part of
two days, when
the motion to unite them with the Chapter degrees was lost."
This is not
true, there being no reference to the subject in the printed
transactions of the
General Grand Chapter. I wrote to Companion Christopher G. Fox, General
who kindly examined the original proceedings in his custody, and he
wrote me that
there is no mention whatever of these degrees in the transactions of
Eckel may have urged the members individually to agree with him to a
union of the
Select with the Chapter degrees, for it is well known that he greatly
a union; but it is not at all probable that he could have advocated a
a degree of which he was not in possession, the Royal Master's degree
conferred upon him, and Companion Benjamin Edes, until 1819 by Ebenezer
of New York.
and misleading error into which these writers have fallen is, that in
the year 1817
Jeremy L. Cross, the celebrated Masonic Lecturer, received the Royal
degrees from Philip P. Eckel and Hezekiah Niles, and that he purchased
the authority to confer said degrees upon Royal Arch Masons and to
Councils of the same.
are Eckel and Niles conferred the Select degree upon Cross on the
occasion of a
visit by him to Baltimore in the year named, and these Compassions gave
permission to confer it upon such as he might find worthy and
qualified, but under
the sanction of a Chapter Warrant and without fee. "Cross was greatly
with the beauties of the degree and of its importance and value to a
of the Royal Arch. But to confer it under the sanction of a Chapter
without fee did not accord with "his sordid purposes." He therefore,
the idea of establishing Councils independent of Chapters, and
the degree upon a number of Companions at Windsor, Vermont, and on July
organized at that place a Council of Select Masters. He then wrote to
date of July 17th, 1817, requesting and urging him, as "Thrice
and Puissant in the Grand Council of Select at Baltimore," to confirm
in the establishment of the Council at Windsor, and to empower him to
similar Councils elsewhere. (After Cross's death a copy of a letter
written to Eckel
containing such a request was found among his papers.)
It is not
known what answer, if any, Eckel made to this request, but subsequent
made it quite sure that such an authority was not given to him. It is
was found among Cross's effects a document in his handwriting,
purporting to have
been signed by Eckel and Niles, giving him such authority; it is dated
1817, nearly two months prior to the time when he asked that such power
Josiah H. Drummond of Maine, who has more thoroughly examined the
origin and history
of the Council degrees than anyone, especially Cross's connection
this document, in connection with undoubted signatures of Eckel and
Niles, to experts
in handwriting. He also sent photographic copies to Brethren in various
the country, all of whom, except one, (and he has since reconsidered
pronounced the signatures thereupon to be not genuine. (2)
I also submitted
one of these photographic copies to experts in handwriting in our city,
whom were bank officers, and every one, by a comparison of Eckel's and
in my possession, pronounced the signatures on the document in
If I am asked,
why refer to such matters at this late day?; why throw a shadow on the
of a deceased Companion?; I reply, justice to the reputations of
deceased, whose memories are dear to the heart of every Maryland Mason,
that the truth be told. For if this document be genuine, then Philip P.
Niles, Henry S. Keatinge and Joseph K. Stapleton basely slandered a
Royal Arch Mason when they stated repeatedly, that such authority was
to Cross by Eckel and Niles. Such a denial was incorporated in a
issued by the Grand Chapter of Maryland in 1827, copies of which were
sent to all
the Grand Chapters of the country, including the one of which Cross was
As Companion Drummond says, "Is it credible that if this document had
genuine, he would not have produced it when so gravely accused?" He
special denial, expressed or implied, till more than twenty-five years
and all that was done then was to say that he received a Warrant from
Niles to confer the degrees and grant Warrants.
authority falsely claimed to have been received from Eckel and Niles,
many Councils in the North, South and West and deputized others to do
At first these were for the conferring of the Select Degree only, but
in the year
1818 he received the Royal Master's Degree, when he united that degree
Select in Councils.
these were the first Councils of Royal and Select Masters ever
and whatever virtue there may be in the present Council system, now so
practiced in this country, the credit of its inception is wholly due to
Cross, in whatever light his questionable methods to effectuate its
may be viewed.
We thus see
that in the early part of this century it was generally believed that
Eckel had the custody and control of the Select Degree but neither he
nor any of
his contemporaries has left us the slightest intimation as to the
he received the degree and his power of control thereof.
that most unexpectedly came into my possession some years ago, settled
beyond peradventure. It is a Dispensation or Warrant for the, formation
of a Chapter
of Select Masons at Baltimore, signed by Philip P. Eckel and H. Niles.
In the preamble
to this document, it is recited, that in year of the Temple 2792 (1792)
Illustrious Henry Wilmans, Grand Inspector General, etc., did, "by
power in him legally vested, establish, ordain and support, a Grand
Council of Select
Masons in the City of Baltimore, and wrought therein to the great
benefit of the
Craft, etc.," and that "the subscribers, (Eckel and Niles) are, by
succession, possessors of all the rights, privileges, immunities and
in any way, whatsoever, in said Grand Council of Select Masons.
It is to
be regretted that this document is not dated and that the blanks for
the names of
the officers are not filled in, as it shows that in all probability the
of the Body was not, at that time at least, consummated; but as the
Eckel and Niles, as well as the seal of the Body of which they were
undoubtedly genuine, and the document having been found in the
possession of a descendant
of one of the signers, it must be accepted as evidence of the facts
namely, Henry Wilmans established a Grand Council of Select Masons in
in the year 1792, and that Philip P. Eckel and H. Niles were, by,
the possessors of the power heretofore residing in said Wilmans.
we boldly assert, is the earliest authentic evidence so far produced of
of the Select Degree; the earliest authentic evidence of the conferment
of the Royal
Master's Degree being in a so ‒ called Grand Council of Royal Masters
at New York
"Grand" used by these Bodies must not be construed as it is in our day.
The term was at that time assumed by all Masonic bodies which claimed
of constituting other bodies of like character.
It has, however,
been asserted that both the Royal and Select Degrees were conferred in
of Perfection established at Albany, New York, in 1766 by Andrew
Franken, who received
his power of Deputy Inspector General of the Rite of Perfection from
at Jamaica, who had received his powers to propagate that Rite in the
from the Council of Emperors of the East and West in France, but no
has been produced to substantiate this statement.
It is also
claimed by the Grand Chapter of South Carolina and the Supreme Council
for the Southern
jurisdiction, that both degrees were conferred in the Lodge of
at Charleston in 1783.
As has been
adverted to, in 1827 the Grand Chapter of Maryland addressed a circular
the other Grand Chapters of the United States, in which, after
referring to the
action of Cross and others in the formation of Councils independent of
Chapters, the Grand Chapters are urged to take the Select Degree under
where of right it belongs. "The Grand Chapter of South Carolina
circular to a special committee, who made a report in 1829, which was
three brethren then living received the Royal and select Degrees in the
Lodge of Perfection at Charleston in 1783, and that the Grand Officers
have been steadily conferring said degrees under their authority in the
West. That the committee has seen and perused the first copy of these
ever came to America and old copies of Charters that have been returned
in States where Grand Councils had been formed. Furthermore, that in
Myers, a Deputy Grand Inspector, deposited in the Council of Princes of
at Charleston, certified copies of said degrees from Berlin, Prussia."
Drummond who saw what purports to be a certified copy of the rituals
Joseph Myers, says:
ritual annexed is certainly not a copy of the one deposited, for the
ritual of the
Select Degree refers to the Royal degree, and moreover both of them
Supreme Council as the governing authority, and that body did not exist
As has been
stated, there is no mention of the Royal Master's Degree found
anywhere, other than
in this report, earlier than 1807. It does not appear in either the
1802 or 1807
published list of the many degrees, some fifty-five, conferred by the
no evidence that these Inspectors or Supreme Council ever issued
Warrants for the
formation of Council or Grand Council earlier than 1860; the returned
the committee "saw and perused" were those issued by John Barker
to 1818. This Companion claimed to act as the agent of the Supreme
Companion Drummond is of the opinion that he never received any
authority to do
so from that body. It is believed he received the degrees from Cross.
theory of the origin of the degrees must of course be classed with the
the Great theory of the origin of the so-called high degrees; no one at
gives to it any credence whatever.
While I would
not for a single moment question the veracity of the distinguished
the committee of the Grand Chapter of South Carolina, it really seems,
in view of
the facts stated, that their entire report must be received with
The evidence adduced does not, in my opinion, warrant the conclusions
the Companions of South Carolina and the Supreme Council.
(To be continued)
impression upon the seal is too indistinct to be read.
(2) See History of the Cryptic Rite, by J. Ross Robertson.
(3) See History of the Cryptic Rite, by J. Ross Robertson.
By Frank Allaben, President
National Historical Society
many efforts being made these days to define Americanism it is
refreshing to find
one that is crystal clear. Masons have an unfailing desire to uphold
of the United States, because they believe that that document is the
Americanism. This article, from the pen of one who is not a Mason,
gives us in simple
form concrete examples of how some of the theories now being advanced
for our civic ailments are opposed to the most vital principles
contained in our
Constitution. The author is President of the National Historical
Society, an organization
very similar to that of this Society in its general plan. We publish
with the author's consent, granted because he feels that Freemasonry is
to the advancement of American citizenship. Delivered originally as an
the Bergen Reformed Church Men's Club, we feel that it is entitled to
study of the members of this Society.
is Americanism; and I hope we may gain new inspiration and renewed
courage by contrasting
the principles which constitute Americanism with two other sets of
just now threaten our national peace and the welfare of the world.
One of these
hostile sets of principles is today at work underground, plotting, as
possible, to throw our social order into sudden confusion by great
in order that under cover of these a small fraction of our population,
of revolution and anarchy, may overthrow the principles of Americanism,
machinery of American government and convert the powers we have
ordained for justice
into a weapon of violence to confiscate private property and dominate
means of life. This is the plot of an unscrupulous minority to crush
safeguards under a reign of terror in order to rob and ruin the great
law-abiding Americans as the Russian people have lately been robbed and
You need no argument from me to convince you that this conspiracy of
must be fought to its death. I seek, therefore, only to make the
of socialistic absolutism more apparent by showing that its fundamental
are totally subversive of and utterly irreconcilable with Americanism;
while I also
wish to point out how these doctrines of destruction may be overcome
of the personal liberty guaranteed to all by Americanism.
evil now challenges and imperils Americanism. I refer to the abuse of
power by organized
labor and organized capital, by some even claimed as an unalienable
right, in declaring
and carrying on private economic war against one another in our
by means of the strike and the lockout, with their attendant evils of
assaults, murders, arson, theft, and economic destruction. Fortunately,
are simply abuses of usurped power, developed under years of
toleration, and, unlike
the conspiracies of socialistic absolutism, are not aimed against our
nor intended to subvert our institutions and manner of life. But, in
the light of
the historic principles of Americanism, these practices belong to
license and not
to liberty. They are not rights, but tolerated wrongs. All other
given up the barbarism of private war, and resort only to their
law-courts to compel
justice; and organized labor and capital have no inalienable rights
which do not
belong to all of us. Their violences we have simply suffered for a
time, with the
optimistic hope of Americans that they would solve their problems and
reach a stable
the labor strike has become a great peril; for it is behind organized
the "red" conspiracy against our governmental safe-guards lurks and
gathering energy to spring out upon us suddenly, camouflaged under the
of some great labor strike. All the European assaults of bolshevism,
or abortive, have leaped out of the whirlwinds of labor strikes; while
today revolutionary radicalism secretly struggles to seize the
machinery of organized
labor as a tool for the destruction of organized government.
labor-strike has become a great problem for the American people. It
should be solved,
and solved speedily. I believe it can be solved by a simple application
principles. Therefore let us turn now to a brief examination of these.
is defined by the Declaration of Independence, which, basing its
doctrine upon "the
Laws of Nature and of Nature's God," asserts the rights of man in one
sentence: "We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are
equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable
among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to
rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just
powers from the
consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes
of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it,
and to institute
new government, laying its foundations on such principles and
organizing its powers
in such form as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety
was received with acclaim by our colonial forefathers, who also
boundless joy in bonfires, torch-light processions, the firing of guns,
ringing of bells. Samuel Adams bears witness that the people received
of their rights "as though it were a decree promulgated from heaven."
And out of
heaven it came ‒ an assertion in proof of which I cite the great fact
that in little
more than one hundred and forty years these principles have covered the
have been received as self-evident by practically all mankind,
Christian and pagan.
To me this is conclusive evidence of two things: first, that the Divine
Who rules this world, in Whose existence and beneficent guidance I
must be greatly interested in opening to all peoples the door of
liberty first opened
to our fathers; and, second, that our fathers' statement of the
principles of liberty
and righteous government, since it carries instant conviction to the
must have gathered the fundamentals of just human government out of
of nature and of nature's God."
If this be
true we should cherish these principles of Americanism as a sacred
trust, held by
us as trustees, for ourselves, for our posterity, and for the world;
and we should
reject with jealous zeal any doctrine or practice which transgresses
In the light
of these principles let us test two doctrines made in Germany, the
doctrine of autocratic
government promulgated and practiced by Prussian royalty and nobility,
and the doctrine
of socialistic government proclaimed by Karl Marx. Let us apply the
four great tests
the appeal of our Declaration of Independence to "the laws of nature
nature's God" is the acknowledgement that eternal principles of right
exist and can be deduced by man from the laws of God and nature. But
and German socialism both deny this great truth. The German ruling
class held that
human government is above all standards of right and wrong, doing what
to accomplish its selfish ends; and under this doctrine Germany set out
the world with shocking atrocities. This autocratic anarchy, this
of all our normal standards of righteousness, is what we fought and
the late war, thus reasserting the American doctrine that the laws of
of nature's God establish standards of right to which individuals,
governments are all alike amenable. But the doctrine of socialistic
even more than the doctrine of autocratic absolutism, declares war
against all the
standards or right acquired by man through painful centuries, proposing
governments like ours, wreck man's social order and industries,
property, deny religious and political liberty, and even invade the
marriage and the rights of the family circle. Before our eyes, in
Russia, we see
these happy gains of human progress trampled into the slime of
and the war for Americanism will not be won until, with the idol of
the idol of socialistic absolutism is broken and cast out.
in stating that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by
with certain unalienable rights, including life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness,
and that governments are instituted among men to secure these rights,
of Independence simply asserts man's relationships in nature, the
God and the brotherhood of man, with the obvious truth that just
recognize and protect the equal rights and privileges of all the
members of man's
one race and family. But autocrats and socialists alike oppose this
preach class-hatred and class-war, each holding that government must be
either by the upper crust or by the proletariat. In other words,
autocracy and socialism
beat the world with the same stick of class-rule, and only quarrel as
to which end
of the stick shall do the beating. Autocrats believe in government of
by autocrats, for autocrats. Socialists believe in government of the
by the proletariat, for the proletariat. But Americans believe in
the people, by the people, for the people; and by this we mean
government of all
the people, by all the people, for all the people.
I may add
that the right to pursue happiness is the right of private ownership ‒
of each individual to pursue and to possess property and all the things
which can be enjoyed without invading another's right to pursue them.
denial of this right of the individual, to pursue and possess as his
own the things
which make men happy, is the cardinal error of all forms of socialism.
the statement of the Declaration of Independence, that governments
just powers from the consent of the governed," is necessarily the
that the will of the majority must prevail in all cases where a people
judgment. This principle underlies our Constitution, and was sealed by
blood in our Civil War. Yet autocracy and socialism alike attack this
of government by seeking to impose the tyrannies of minorities upon the
of the earth.
while Americanism gives to the majority the right of decision in all
to debate; it is its glory first of all to secure the rights of the
guaranteeing individual liberties which are not open to debate. Thus
and socialism trample the rights of great majorities, Americanism
protects the rights
of a minority as small as one man.
of the United States is simply a wonderfully successful plan of
government to carry
out the principles and secure the rights proclaimed in the Declaration
It provides a representative organization through which the people may
their executive, legislative, and judicial powers on the principle of
yet in the very document by which they ordain this, the people have
representatives from invading certain fundamental rights guaranteed to
rights, which no executive power, nor legislature, nor law-court may
the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, except when rebellion or
its suspension; include immunity from bills of attainder, ex post facto
unequal taxation; include religious freedom; freedom of speech; freedom
of the press;
the right to assemble peaceably; to petition Government for redress of
to keep and bear arms; and to be secure, in person, house, papers and
unreasonable search and seizure; include the right of trial by jury,
even in civil
suits, involving more than twenty dollars; with exemption from bearing
one's self; and include the right never to be deprived of life,
liberty, or property,
without due process of law; with the full right of private ownership of
which may not be taken, even for public use, without just compensation.
privileges, and exemptions, the Magna Charta of personal liberty, are
by autocracy and socialism. In denying the right of private ownership
socialism attacks what man most prizes, next to life and liberty; and
today the curse of socialism has robbed the people of religious
of speech, freedom of the press, the right to assemble peaceably, and
to petition government for redress of grievances, robbing them of these
as any crowned tyrant could rob them.
Do not the
four tests we have made identify Germen autocracy and German socialism
as twin deformities,
the two halves of one evil, a monstrous double birth out of the
perverted womb of
class-hatred? But this brings us again to our necessity of
self-defense. We have
conquered German autocracy on the battlefield; but German socialism
our midst. Can we conquer this ruthless propaganda without violation of
In the first
place we should support our Government in prosecuting all citizens and
all foreigners who can be convicted of instigating violence; and we
our legislators to enact strict laws covering such crimes; for there is
of Americanism that teaches us to tolerate illegal assaults upon our
In the second
place the carrying on of secret and anonymous propaganda against our
of government should be made a criminal offense; for our constitutional
of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right of peaceable
of petition for redress of grievances, are only intended to afford
and honest conviction full opportunity of expression in open publicity
men can hear and judge.
In the third
place we must overcome evil with good, defeat error with truth, drive
out the darkness
by bringing in the light. For years we have let socialistic books and
multiply and spread without any serious attempt to answer them, and
tens of thousands
of Americans have been deceived. "Where no vision is, the people
We may win a temporary skirmish by policies of repression; but if we
would win our
children and posterity, we must arm every American with the light of
We should place in the hands of every man, woman, and schoolchild an
exposure of the sophistries of socialism, with a record of its deeds in
and of its plottings here, contrasted with the justice and blessings of
the envy and the admiration of the whole world. This is the way to
doctrine. The triumphs of Americanism are triumphs of enlightenment.
I return to the problem of the labor-strike and lock-out. These
cease, for they are acts of private war, and in a day when all nations
seek a league
to substitute law for wars between peoples, it certainly is incongruous
to continue to license private war in the bosom of their own family.
violences must cease, for they now conceal threats against the
existence of our
Government and liberties.
like the rest of us, labor and capital must take their cases to the
they are entitled to the best safeguards of American justice, and
labor, at least,
will feel itself defrauded if it must take justice from some Federal
or central court of judges, far removed from the locality where the
Labor and capital are entitled to trial of their causes by jury, and to
the communities where the troubles start, and where the facts can be
by competent witnesses.
labor, like organized capital, is now equipped with expert leaders, and
labor trials, where decisions are far-reaching, these experts on either
assist with their extensive knowledge. In all such trials the American
an interested party, equally with labor and capital. For if labor
wages, or capital receives larger dividends, the American people must
pay them out
of the higher prices charged them. Thus in important labor trials the
be represented by Government experts who are able to present statistics
out significant facts.
so immense as labor violence can be barely touched in its most
at the end of a brief address. But if a true solution appears in a
short, it bears testimony to the power of American doctrines as
of political difficulties.
Let us trust
Americanism, applying it to our problems with constantly increasing
for all our difficulties grow, not out of our national principles, but
out of our
departures from them.
What we need
most is not so much to realize the ideal as to idealize the real. ‒
FOR THE MONTHLY
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 36
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "Third Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
on "Introduction to Third Steps"
- In a study of Third Steps shall
we expect to find architectural symbolism
as in our preceding studies?
- In what terms were the
teachings in First and Second Steps given to us?
- Of what will our new studies
- Who originated our Third
degree? and when?
these questions ever been satisfactorily answered?
- How many degrees were there at
the beginning of the Grand Lodge period?
- What were they?
- Why was the old Apprentice
degree divided into two parts?
- When was this division made?
- Did this change meet with
- Was the new degree universally
worked immediately after the division?
- Why was the new degree so slow
to meet with universal approval?
it welcomed by Masons outside of London?
- Who is believed to have been
responsible for the introduction of this new
- What was the new material
introduced between 1723 and 1738?
- Why does Brother Haywood not
believe that it was the Hiram Abiff legend?
- What is Brother Haywood's
theory concerning the substance of this legend?
- His answer to the question, Who
imported the new material?
- Was the Third degree as
elaborate from the first as it is now?
- Is it worked uniformly in all
countries? In all Grand Jurisdictions in the
you received the degree in another State than the one in which you now
reside, state for the benefit of the other members of your Study Club
some of the
details in which the work as you received it differs from that of the
where you now live.
- What is the possibility of our
learning the full details concerning the origin
and early working of the degree in the very near future?
- Do we have record of similar
legends in existence before our present Masonic
system was established?
- Can you cite some of them?
- What is the purpose of this
is its secret?
* * *
Vol. II. ‒ Differences of Ritual, p. 381;
Some Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism ‒ The Third Degree, p. 109;
Uniform Work, pp. 348, 382;
York Rite, p. 327.
Vol. III. ‒ Causes of Divergence in Ritual, Nov. C.C.B., p. 4;
The Lodge and The Candidate ‒ The Degrees, Nov. C.C.B., p. 1.
Vol. IV ‒ The Degrees Problem, April C.C.B., p. 6.
Degrees, p. 203
* * *
Part I ‒ Introduction to Third Steps
By Bro. H.L. Haywood,
one enters into a study of the Third Steps he finds himself in an
different from that of the First and Second: the opening and closing
are similar to theirs but the architectural symbolism which was in them
feature is here crowded into the background by a symbolism of a very
for whereas the first two degrees deliver their message in the terms of
the Third speaks of a living and a dying and a using again. Its
language is that
of life and death. And so compact is it of profound meanings that it
suggestions, as many scholars have noted, from which the highest grades
their magnificent teachings.
By what men
the degree was made, or when, are questions on which our authorities
differ so widely
that one student ‒ Brother Robert I. Clegg ‒ has collected no fewer
different theories, while another ‒ Brother Hextall ‒ has found
interpretations. Where so many scholars have failed to discover a
it would ill become me to offer a theory of my own, and I must content
state, as nearly as I can, such positions is the majority have agreed
on. It seems
that in the beginning of the Grand Lodge period there were at most but
these being known as the Apprentice and Fellow Craft or Master Mason
latter being convertible terms. But during this same period as much new
‒ new at least, to the ritual of initiation ‒ was introduced that it
to break up the old Apprentice degree into two parts leaving the old
Second to become
the new Third. This was done for the sake of convenience, as the
grown too long for only two evenings. This division was made some time
The new arrangement
was a long time in gaining a foothold among the brethren. At first only
a few were
made Masters and then only in Grand Lodge; in fact so few knew how to
on" the degree that for some time special "Masters' Lodges" were
organized for the purpose. The progress of the tri-gradal system was
in countries other than England; Gould notes that the Third did not
in Scottish Lodges until after 1770.
Why was the
Third so slow in "taking on" if it was the old Second degree? The
of the problem seems to be that so much new material had been added to
it that it
had become practically a new ceremony. There is even some reason to
it was this new material which gave offense to many old Masons living
at a distance
from London, who were thereby led to form the rival Grand Lodge of "the
By whom was
this new material introduced? Some attribute the innovations to
to Dr. Desaguliers; others, of whom Pike was one, held to the theory
that at the
time of the Revival certain groups of Speculatives seized the
opportunity to embody
some of their own ideas in the ritual. Another theory, more reasonable
it seems to me, will be brought out when we seek to answer the next
the new material introduced between 1723 ‒ 1738? Many of our scholars,
majority, would answer, "The Hiram Abiff legend." As we are to devote
a section to this we cannot go into that matter here except to say that
unreasonable, on the face of it that so elaborate a drama, occupying
part of one whole degree, could not have been bodily imported into the
a wholly new thing; the conservative "old Mason," of whom many were
during the Revival period, would not have tolerated so huge an
innovation. The more
reasonable theory is that the substance of the legend, and materials
thereto, had long been a part of the floating tradition of the Craft if
as there is some evidence to show, it was not a part of the old
This would answer the question: Who imported the new material? No one
man or group
of men imported it; "the Third Degree was not made, it grew ‒ like the
cathedrals, no one of which can be ascribed to a single artist, but to
of men working in unity of enterprise and aspiration." To this it may
that the degree has not ceased to grow, in America at least, for it is
here than in England, even as it is more elaborate there than in other
‒ more elaborate, and different.
By whom the
degree was made, and when, will furnish material for many debates in
years to come
and in the lap of that future must the problem be laid but of one thing
we can be
very sure, the idea shined in the ceremony is so old that we find it
the motif of initiatory dramas long before the dawn of history. In
every one of
the Ancient Mysteries, so far as we have any memorials of them, the
in the violent death of some just person and his being raised again. In
guises was this idea presented but always did it convey the same truth
‒ that in
men there is something that cannot die, that this "something" is akin
to the divine, that it can be given the rule of a man during his earth
and that it is the purpose of initiation to discover and to crown this
in human life. This is nothing other than Regeneration; it is nothing
Eternal Life, the life of God in the soul of man lived in the bounds of
space and under human conditions. Such, I take it, is the secret of our
To elicit that secret, and to expound it, will be the task of the
of our study.
* * *
The Need for Masonic Study
be impressed upon the minds of our members that there is in our
to help them in their every-day living, which the seeker who is willing
a small portion of his time to the quest may easily obtain. The reward
of his endeavors
will appear in the higher development of the individual with vision of
service to humanity. Many of our lodges in Minnesota have taken hold of
with a will, but there must be follow-up work that these beginnings may
not be lost.
In my appeals
to lodges I have attempted to show the meanings of the degrees, and the
make to each Mason. I am confident that if fostered intelligently
Masonry may be
made to become dynamic, awakened out of its apparently dormant or
What is more,
I am satisfied that Masons are eager to receive whatever can be given
them in the
way of Masonic knowledge, information or assistance to study. It might
be well to
urge that greater emphasis be placed upon the monitorial readings to
in the preparation room and so make real the fact that study must be
every phase of Masonry, and if the candidate is unwilling to devote at
least a part
of his time to such study he should be informed that it would be better
to proceed no further.
symbolism and philosophy are set forth in beautiful language, but they
must be interpreted
by the individual in terms of his own need. Many of our phrases are
to the antiquity of the institution ‒ these should be carefully
analyzed to be understood
and applied. Herein lies the opportunity of the older and better
and at the same time the responsibility of the lodge to the candidate
out. If this responsibility is accepted and the opportunity for a
of Masonry is offered, Masonry will flourish, not in numbers only, but
in the quality
of its members as well.
accept the challenge for a citizenship that will stabilize free
government and secure
an enlightened democracy, thus making the world safe for democracy. It
its votaries to think in terms of civic duty, common interest and
The true Mason has always been ready for service, kindly in his
the tenets of his profession, brotherly love, relief and truth. There
are many such
among us today and we know them by "the perfect points of their
for more light, willing to receive information and may be interested in
of Masonry if they can be induced to read some Masonic literature,
those published in our own and other jurisdictions which put the facts
of the institution in a simple and straightforward manner.
officers of our lodges are anxious to help the membership to a fuller
understanding of the teachings and principles of the institution great
is being awakened.
be a departure from the formal notices of lodge meetings. In other
words, more attention
should be devoted to modern advertising of their meetings.
past several months I have visited fifty or more of our lodges in the
the Study Club movement and without exception all of these lodges have
a desire for more visitations of this character ‒ they want help and
whatever will bring light.
is ripe and crucial in Minnesota for a real awakening among Masons in
they may march together, shoulder to shoulder, to the drumbeats of high
principles which will sound the death knell of the slavery of
passion and low motives.
As the founders
of our liberties marched and fought, so let us, Masons of Minnesota,
march and fight
for true manhood, home and country, until we can say that we have
achieved a civilization
as lasting in its grandeur as those mighty monuments that dot the banks
of the historic
Bro. R. E.
Committee on Masonic Study and Research Grand Lodge of Minnesota.
Beauty from Ashes Here -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
from ashes, ‒ if so be the soul
Is forging on towards its glory goal, ‒
For it must first within the life repose
Though ashes lie upon its trail of woes,
The heart may pluck its flowers by the way
E'en though the green of years be turned to gray.
It is for it, though skies but slowly clear
To qualify e'en through the ashes here.
For all it is and has must now appear
Though hopes deferred may start the flowing tear,
It is for it to brave each searching test
For it may be that it was for the best.
O, it may 'mong the ashes scattered round
Rich harvests find upon life's sacred ground!
The way may hold so much to bless and cheer
That beauty rare may spring from ashes here.
So while upon the pathway that we tread
The ashes lie, 'tis there our hopes are spread
The fairest flowers may bloom for us today
Because they grew in sorrow's yesterday.
From ashes there may new creations spring,
The price is paid for each new offering
May strew the path whereon we forward go
With all the best that mortals here may know.
Why We Enumerate
By Bro. U.R. Partlow, Arkansas
article by Brother Partlow, while containing no particular reference to
will, appreciated by many readers of THE BUILDER who have a liking for
of ten dots in a triangular form of four rows, called the "tetractys,"
was emblematic of the Tetragammaton, or sacred name of four letters,
and this figure
was held in high veneration by the Pythagoreans who are said to have
most solemn oaths, especially that of initiation, upon it. In the
symbols of Masonry
the sacred delta bears the nearest analogy to the tetractys of the
is attributed with asking the question, "Why do all men, barbarians is
as Greeks, numerate up to ten and not any other number?" Aristotle,
that time, had made a very wise and true observation for with but one
the statement of Aristotle is true.
co-eval with spoken language and probably antedates even symbolism.
must have had some way of recording results of his fishing and hunting
the number of warriors in opposing camps as well as of the friendly
records many methods of keeping this record and with one exception all
was done in terms of ten.
this is to be found in the mode of reckoning by the Paloni Indians of
Dr. Hoffman reports that each year these Indians chose from their
representatives to visit the San Gabriel settlement to sell native
Indian sending blankets provided the salesman with two cords of twisted
wool, one of which was used for the purpose of keeping a record of
and the other cord for keeping record of the blankets sold. For every
a knot was tied in the cord and when the sum reached ten reals a double
Peruvians used a method similar. Edward Clodd says: "The quipu has a
and is with us in the rosary upon which prayers are counted, in the
knot tied in
the handkerchief to help a weak memory, and in the sailor's log line."
quipu consisted of a main cord to which were attached at given
distances other cords
of different colors to represent different objects, such as cattle,
and etc., and for every ten of anything a single knot was tied in the
cord and for
twenty, two knots, for thirty, three knots and so on, thereby proving
of reckoning by ten.
gives an interesting example regarding the number concept. He says:
a century ago travelers in Madagascar observed a curious but simple
mode of ascertaining
the number of soldiers in the army. Each soldier was made to go through
in the presence of the principal chiefs; and as he went through a
pebble was dropped
on the ground. This continued until a heap of ten was obtained, when
one was set
aside and a new heap begun. Upon the completion of ten heaps, a pebble
was set aside
to indicate one hundred, and so on until the entire army had been
Before the use of writing paper the British exchequer used a system of
and accounting at was interesting as well as curious. The method as by
use of tally
sticks on which notches were cut, a deep notch for a pound, a shallow
one for a
shilling. The stick was then sawed half in two near one end and split
down to the
cut, each half bearing a record the notches. One piece was given to the
the other half was kept. A great mass of these sticks was deposited in
of the Parliament building and in 1834 a bonfire was made of them. So
great as the
accumulation of these sticks that from the great bonfire and heat that
October 16, 1834, a furnace became overheated and set fire to the
building and in
a few hours the House of Commons and House of Lords were in ashes.
tax-gatherers kept account of the assessable property by means of cords
knots were tied and they carried one for every ten.
It can be
seen that calculating by tens was a method in general use among ancient
W.R.R. Ball in his Short History of Mathematics, page 127, says 'The
of whom I have read who did not count in terms of either five or some
five are the Bolans of West Africa who are said to have counted by
seven, and the Maoris who are said have counted by multiples of
exceptions are hard to explain in terms of other methods.
have shown the same aptitude in representing numbers by means of tens,
inventions have been devised to expedite these; namely pebbles arranged
of tens, and from these developed the abacus. Ball, in his History of
says: "This instrument (abacus) was in use among nations so widely
as the Etruscans, Greeks, Egyptians, Hindoos, Chinese, and Mexicans;
and was, it
is believed, invented independently at several different centers. It is
common use in Russia, China and Japan." It is rather interesting to see
similarity in calculating and reckoning among primitive people
they are isolated from each other by impassable barriers, such as
oceans, seas and
mountains. One is led to look for this cause in some natural means
common to all
races. Aristotle in commenting upon the matter of peoples enumerating
by tens and
not by other numbers, remarks that manifestly it is not by chance. He
truth is, what men do upon all occasions and always they do not from
from some law of nature. Whether is it, because ten is a perfect
number? For it
contains all the species of number, the even, the odd, the square, the
linear, the plane, the prime, the composite, or is because the number
ten is a principle?
For the numbers one, two, three and four when added together produce
ten. Or is because the bodies which are in constant motion are nine? .
. . Or is
it because all men from the first have ten fingers? As therefore men
of their own by nature, by this set, they numerate all other things."
Ball, of Trinity College, Cambridge, in commenting on this same
subject, says: "Up
to ten it is comparatively easy to count, but primitive people find
in counting higher numbers; apparently at first this difficulty was
the method (still in use in South Africa) of getting two men, one to
count the units
up to ten on his fingers, and the other to count the number of groups
of ten so
formed." "The number five is generally represented by the open hand,
it is said in almost all languages the word five and hand are derived
from the same
root word. It is possible that in early times men did not readily count
and things if more numerous were counted by multiples of five." Prof.
goes further and says: "That some tribes seem to have gone further and
use of their toes were accustomed to count by multiples of twenty. The
example, are said to have done so. It may be noticed that we still
count some things
(for instance sheep) by scores, the word score signifying a notch or
on the completion of the twenty."
It can be
seen that man carries with him a natural counting machine, ‒ that is
of his hands, and from all authority it appears that the counting on
was the beginning of the number concept, for with exceptions named
above all reckoning
has been in multiples of five, and that in all instances nearly have
have an interesting kind of digital signs and the same was
interestingly told in
Leslie's and well-illustrated in that magazine a few years ago. Since
has three joints, the thumb nail of one hand touch the joints in
up one side of the finger, down the middle, and again up the other
giving nine applicable to the decimal notation. On the little finger
units, on the next tens, on the next hundreds, etc. I relate this
incident to show
various methods of calculating, and are based upon the "ten system."
of struggle primitive man learned the use of making some definite
account of the
reckoning with his hands in order that a definite record might be kept.
us to consider the origin of numbers with especial reference to how
they are made.
One, of course, is made by one mark, and in fact all other of the
made by the number of marks it represented. Ultimately the straight
lines were discarded,
the corners becoming rounded and the numerals are rounded as we have
The use of
the alphabet as numerals probably dates from about 500 B.C. The Greeks
letters of their alphabet as symbols for numerals, the first nine
letters of the
alphabet being used for the first nine numbers, the next nine numbers
for the numbers
ten, twenty, thirty, etc. As the Greek alphabet consisted of but
three obsolete letters were introduced or interpolated. The Greek mode
fractions was simple, the denominator simply being written under the
used their alphabet in the same way, each letter having a numerical
as well as representing certain sounds in the formation of words and
had a strange system inasmuch as sixty was the base. It is presumed as
was at that time reckoned as 360 days, thus dividing the circle into
360 equal parts,
and that the perimeter of the circle was divided into six equal parts
off the length of the radius upon the circumference. Further the
a basal number of 12,960,000, and if you raise 60 to its fourth power
will be this famous number. Prof. Hilprecht thinks that 12,960,000 is
number of Plato. It is said that the number 12,960,000 is constructed
the minimal number of days of gestation in the human kind, and if the
216 be interpreted
as day, together with 12,960,000 the latter number gives 36,000 years,
Platonic year," which was the Babylonian cycle.
famous system was that of the Hindus which assigned a symbol to each of
numbers. In the Hindu notation each number has in addition to its
an acquired value by reason of position. Thus 3 standing in the second
have a value of thirty, while in the first place it would have its
only. The best we can say is that the origin of the Hindu's system of
shrouded in mystery as many other Oriental customs are; for the reason
attribute all great inventions or discoveries to a direct revelation of
history of Oannes, the Babylonian god of mathematics and learning, is
of primeval belief that all human knowledge goes to divine revelation.
the great Babylonian law giver, claimed to have received his legend
from the sun god. Moses, the Hebrew law giver, claimed to have received
directly from God, yet much of the law of Moses is identical to the law
indicating that Moses had some acquaintance with the laws of his famous
into the origin of the numeral system, as in all other knowledge of
we are confronted with the fact that knowledge was from remote
antiquity up to the
period almost of public education, concealed from the masses and was
in the breast and the hearts of the priestdom. Also, no method of
existed except by tradition, symbols, legends and written hieroglyphic
and other destructible materials.
Let It Be Done."
American Masons make our new-found unity to mean? To ask the question
in this way
implies limitations. "WHAT CAN IT NOT BE MADE TO MEAN?" would be the
way of putting it. The possibilities of cooperation among the brothers
of our Craft
are without limit. Recognition of our common aims is almost at hand. In
the rank and file of our Fraternity are coming to believe that
Freemasonry has a
mission to perform in the world today. The history of every
organization which grows
to the maturity implied in the word "institution" is that it lives if
it performs the functions for which God intended it. If it dies, it
does so for
one of two reasons, either it has FAILED to meet the responsibilities
it, or it dies after having accomplished its mission.
egotistical Mason in America would not say that we have accomplished
‒ especially when he ponders the five years of world history just
closed. He who
would admit that Freemasonry is doomed to fail in its mission would be
Mason, the optimistic Mason, the brother who has glimpsed the true
meaning of "Brotherhood,"
believes that Masonry is ordained to work in the present generation for
of its time-honored prophecies. Talk to him and see if this is not
true. Come to
my desk and read the letters he is writing, and you will believe.
is written there. "Determination" is written there. "God prosper
the vision of the Masonic Service Association" is written there. "Let
us work together, after a common plan, for the fruition of
the battle cry of the thinking Mason of today, who sees the foundation
of the world
crumbling because the cement of brotherly love is being dissolved.
Commission of the Masonic Service Association, after two months of
of the task imposed upon it, has tried to define "Service." It has
to create a practical machinery capable of carrying into effect the
objects of the
Association. Foundations only have been laid. But the general plan for
has been drafted. It will be found in the center of this issue of THE
has been furnished by the Commission to every other Masonic magazine
we are in touch.
claims to be only a method of cooperation. The immediate tasks before
us are succinctly
stated in terms the spirit of which cannot be misinterpreted. The
method of approaching
those tasks is indicated. The Commission is able to promise more than
of its own members, for it has the assurance of many of our ablest men
the country that they will help us to the limit of their abilities in
One thing, and one thing only. The active and enthusiastic cooperation
of our several
Jurisdictions themselves. If each of our Grand Lodges, through its
will use its best efforts to adapt this program to the use of the Craft
boundaries, Masonry will begin to move forward, unitedly.
It is no
small thing that the Executive Commission, drawn from eleven different
the United States, each member having his own individual viewpoint,
a three-day session devoted exclusively to this problem of cooperation
and, BY UNANIMOUS
AGREEMENT, build a program of cooperation and state it in words! Yet
that is exactly
what did happen. They came together wondering whether so tremendous a
faces the Masonic Fraternity could be expressed in terms upon which
they could all
agree. They faced the problem together, as brethren. They did agree.
Grand Bodies cooperate to make the administration of the Association
considering the proposed plan with the determination to make it
succeed? Each will
use that part of the machinery of organization which meets its
Each must carry out the proposed plans as the judgment of its leaders
The way is provided. It is a practical way.
Mason should put his shoulder to the wheel. Together we can insure REAL
* * *
A Confession ‒ and a Challenge
Who am I?
I am one of the more than 100,000 young men who, during the year 1919
the doors of your Masonry. I was accepted, and initiated. I was passed
to the sublime degree of a Master Mason. I took my first degree on a
morning, the lodge having favored my convenience. For nearly nine hours
other young men receive the degree. It impressed me to the very depths
of my soul.
I had found what I wanted ‒ fellowship, earnestness, reverence for
With relief I missed dogma. I subscribed to no creed. Yet I was told
that the new
path which I had commenced to tread led to heights still to be climbed.
I was content.
I took your
lessons seriously. I worked hard to learn your catechism. I was
no idle curiosity should be impugned to me. I had come to learn, and I
In like spirit I was passed. Again I studied. I was raised, in more
one. I was raised above myself. You men who performed the ceremonies
upon me will
never know how great your impression was. I caught something of your
I took the Masonic lesson home to myself. If in making application for
there had been anything of unworthy motive, or if I had expected to
I was ashamed. You illumined my path. You placed a star before me to
guide me. I
tried to learn all that you had to teach me. Dimly I realized its
vastness. I was
humble in your presence. I was determined that you should never be as
me as I was of my own ignorance.
I have been a regular attendant. I have not sought to obtain an office
I am not
yet worthy of honors. I only want to learn.
Now I have
become "proficient." I am able to "travel in foreign countries."
I know my tests. I can prove that I have received the degrees.
I have been
"traveling" a little, here and there, as my duties in life have
I have visited other lodges. I have seen the three degrees exemplified
four or five
times a month. I know the rote. I have even learned all the parts in
Apprentice degree, though I never expect to have a chance to confer it.
has several hundred members, and there is no use in my aspiring to hold
I have even
learned the challenge of the first degree. It is "great stuffy" and I
love it. I should like to give it, some day. Wonder if I'll ever have a
* * *
It is six
months since I wrote the above. We had our election last night. The
of our lodge was elected Master. The Senior Deacon was elected Junior
brother whom I do not know and have never seen was appointed Junior
Deacon. He will
go "up the line" as they describe it to me. The new Junior Deacon has
been a Mason six years, they say, and has never held an office until
I wish our
lodge wasn't so large! A young fellow would have a chance, then. But I
is all right.
shoved a "Chapter" petition under my nose tonight. Said if I wanted to
"get it all," I ought to belong to the "higher bodies." Wonder
what they are? I was told I would be a Mason when I received the third
* * *
elected in the Chapter, now. As soon as I get that, I'll take the
‒ Brother Jones, whom I met coming out of the church last Sunday told
me that the
"Black Cross" degree was the "ne plus ultra" of Masonry. There
was a "Consistory" meeting in town last week, too. It lasted four days.
And then on Friday night there was a "Shrine" meeting. I met some of
"Shriners" in the temple parlors. They surely were a bunch of good
It looks as if I was going to spend at least $250.00 in getting
I'm through! It certainly is a luxury. I cannot really afford it, but I
know what Masonry really is. There is much that I do not understand.
They told me
it would all be explained in the Chapter. But it wasn't. I want all
they have to
* * *
it all. It is exactly twelve months since I took my first degree, and
I'm an "R.A.M.",
"K.T.", "32d," ‒ yes, and a "Noble of the Mystic Shrine,"
too. Everything but the 33d and they say I shall have to wait fifteen
or thirty or forty years for that, if I ever get it.
If I go to
all the "bodies" it will take me three or four nights a week, and to
the benefit of the Scottish Rite and the Shrine I'll have to lay off at
weeks a year. But it is all grand! It is worth it! My wife doesn't
think so. She
wonders what it must be, to attract me so much.
* * *
been to lodge for three weeks. It is the first week I've missed going
to at least
one session of some kind, since I was first initiated. But I've been
lot, these three weeks. I was talking to Brothers J. and K. last
I met them down at the American Legion meeting. J. took the work two
I did; K. was "passed" the same night I was. Both of them finished up
about the same time I did. They asked me whether I thought, after
taking the other
degrees, that it would be worthwhile for them to "go on up" ‒ as one of
them expressed it.
I said NO!
surprised. But I told them ‒ they're good friends and splendid fellows,
and we "went
over the top" together just before the Armistice ‒ my whole story about
I told them
I was disappointed. I expected so much ‒ perhaps too much, when I
I liked it at first, and I love it still. But I've stopped learning
about it, and
really know less now than I did when I was studying the first three
some mystery about it. I don't understand, yet, what it's all about.
through. I've seen it all. But I haven't digested it. Now, I've got a
education. I can read, I think, as intelligently as the average. I
follow the "Literary
Digest," as well as read several other magazines. I've tried to find a
Masonic magazine. Hunted high and low, until Brother L. (who has never
office, though he's been a Mason thirty years) told me about "THE
I like it,
but some of it is over my head.
to older brethren. They cannot give me what I'm after. I have read
where Masonry came from. I'm glad to know that. But, honestly, fellows,
I want to
know what Masonry is doing, today. Maybe I don't understand it as I
that is the reason why I chafe about it. But I want to know what it is
really tries to teach!
up to lodge once in a while, now," replied J. "I've been asking the
and Wardens until I'm ashamed to ask them anymore. Besides, they cannot
questions. They say they're too busy conferring degrees. But, honestly,
they do not know themselves!”
* * *
is not a literal experience of one doughboy. It is the combined story
of three or
four to whom ye scribe has had the privilege of talking during the past
Is it not time for us to stop and think of what we are doing? Is it not
a program of Masonic education be announced, and carried into every
lodge in the
United States? Dare we be slow in answering honest questions like
these, and justifying
the hopes of the young men who are flocking to our doors?
lesson home and your lodge and my lodge, your Grand Master and my Grand
will vie with one another to see which can arrange programs that will
inevitable slump if we keep taking young men in at the rate of 100,000
a year and
do not teach them that which they need to know.
is to us, my brethren. We accept these young men ‒ but we are not
It is to
meet conditions such as are pictured in this article that thinking
Masons are coming
to feel that every Jurisdiction should join with each other to try to
inquiry (sometimes spoken, often unuttered,) of these sincere young men
learned the meaning of "efficiency" and want to do the work which their
conscience tells them they ought to do in making Masonry a real part of
The Coin of God -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
mere existence counts for worth,
We came, we're here as parts of earth, ‒
As parts of its all-nature plan
We live and act the part of man;
But higher values there must be
Than those of mere nativity.
And if there's value we must pay
The price beyond the right to stay, ‒
The price above the normal need
Or privilege that we may plead, ‒
The price that pays for something worth
More than can be derived from earth.
And we must duly share in things
Beyond what just mere living brings;
Our entries on life's balance sheet
Must for the higher realm be meet,
And if thereon there's credits made
'Twill show that we in kind, have paid.
And just as we invest in gold, ‒
The soulful things of worth untold, ‒
Just as we pay the price of life
Above its elemental strife, ‒
Just so much then will worth appear, ‒
The coin of God, so precious here.
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
if you wish to learn something concerning any book ‒ what is its
nature, what is
its value, or how it may be obtained ‒ be free to ask him. If you have
read a book
which you think is worth a review write us about it; if you desire to
book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get it, with no charge for the
this YOUR Department of Literary consultation
Speaking Of Books
A GREAT MAN
once told us that we should not read any book that was not at least a
The tendency today, apparently, is to read as many books as possible
that are not
a year old. Booksellers, publishers and newspapers everywhere seem to
vie with each
other in announcing the enormous sales of the best sellers. Reading
a best seller is fast convincing us that enormity in sales of best
sellers is far
from indicating a heightening of the taste for real literature among
people. We have often heard it said by a dear friend that the many
people love the
photo play, as it spares them the necessity of exercising their brains
‒ an observation
of course in which opinion may differ. Our opinion is that there is a
sort of sensuous
intoxication bordering too frequently on the sensual that lends
to the best seller and the photo play that keeps them first among the
the affections of the mass of the people. However that may be, the
in what sells for a book, and that which is dramatized on the screen,
enough for us stating that our interest in things bookish is very much
track. Let us as Masons solemnly ponder this fact that those immoral
are undermining society are intensely aggravated by the realism of the
books that are so vociferously handled as best sellers. Divorce, crime,
and the other malignant ills are not going to be mitigated by our
present book method
of portraying ugly realism.
If this land
of ours exists for aught under the starry blue, it stands for homes
where the hearth
is a sanctuary, it stands for clean men, women and children. It stands
for the things
of beauty and goodness, justice and benevolent government. "To your
O Israel," was a cry among our ancient brethren when the world was out
To our knees must we come too, that arising from them, we might catch a
the finer things. We need respite from bestsellers and sensational
films with their
leprous taint. As Masons let us be sure that our shelves are richly
those books that have stood the test of time. As Masons and Americans
we have yet
in our literature those of an older day whose eyes were freer than to
or if they did see it they did not place a halo about it. Hawthorne,
Howells, to read them today, is as partaking of rich draughts that come
wells in Elysian Fields. We have aped in literature those mad
sensualists of lands
abroad, and the day of emulation of their great ones seems to have
passed. The other
day we read George McDonald's "Robert Falconer," a wise and good work.
We confess to having found it in some measure laborious, but we arose
stronger for having read it. We read Silas Lapham, too, and came away
with a sorrow
because so few books of fiction in this land were of its noble quality.
day of revaluation and adjustment we need as Lincoln needed, in his
the ministry of books that are as a gift of the gods, and not those
of maudlin sentimentalists that delight in naught save those things of
* * *
Our Huguenot Ancestors
Blood in America," [Lib 1911] by Lucian Fosdick. Price
$2.50. Published by
The Gorham Press, 7-11 West 45th St., New York, N. Y.
A book that
has stirred our blood recently has been Lucian Fosdick's "French Blood
The heroic qualities of the Huguenot ancestors of those of French blood
is set forth in admirable fashion. Not a few surprises are in store for
as the author essays to set us right about the nationality of the
of them were of French extraction we are told, who having sought refuge
found in due process of time their names to be Anglicized. John Alden
many will be shocked in discovering, were really French Huguenots. For
of the pudding of course there is but one avenue, and that in this
case, is to read
interest and greater importance is the history of those connected with
of this great Republic. And of especial interest to Masons will be the
many of these were active members of the Craft. The author indeed has
to set aside a chapter under the caption of the French in Freemasonry ‒
indeed that is wondrous with its names of patriots and suggestions of
efforts in the Revolutionary period. We would urge its reading by the
for no other reason ‒ and there are many ‒ than that it is one of the
books that we have been privileged to read of late, that will resolve
be as heroic as those godly Huguenot exemplars, whose tales Fosdick has
retold in their fight against religious tyranny and oppression.
* * *
A Biography of General Grant's
Military Secretary ‒ The Last Grand Sachem of the Iroquois
of Ely S. Parker," [Lib 1919] by A.C. Parker. Published by
the Buffalo Historical
Society, Buffalo, N. Y.
thoughtfulness of the author, we are in receipt of a splendid biography
Ely S. Parker, the last Grand Sachem of the Iroquois, and General
is valuable from a number of angles. Its able setting forth of Indian
life, its vivid description of the rise of the General from a position
among his own people to one of great power among the whites; and its
from an Indian standpoint of the wrongs suffered by the redmen at the
hands of the
whites, gives it a pertinent historical significance. That both the
author and the
subject of the book were Masons is amply assured by the frequent
allusions to Masonic
a chapter devoted to the General's Masonic career, and an extract from
indicates his tender solicitation for the order. "I feel assured," says
he, "that when my glass is run out and I shall follow the footsteps of
race, Masonic sympathies will cluster around my coffin, and drop in my
ever green acacia, sweet emblem of a better meeting.” Of vivid interest
is the General's
effort to get into the army in the early sixties and his refusal by
He was disqualified on account of his being an Indian, but later he was
and ultimately attached to General Grant's staff. He had known Grant
and as our author suggests, rendered him some signal service, when
Grant was an
obscure Captain in the West.
touching are the pictures of the General's friendships with prominent
his patriarchal mindfulness for the betterment of his own people has
preservation of the name of the last Grand Sachem in the historical
annals of our
* * *
A Book of Promise and Hope
Hill of Vision," [Lib 1919] by Frederick Bligh Bond,
F.R.I. B.A. Published
by Marshall Jones Company, 212 Summer St., Boston, Mass. Price $1.50.
At this time
of writing we are entertaining in this country Maurice Maeterlinck and
Lodge. A contemporary has referred to the one as having an interesting
and the other as being probably the most popularly known advocate of a
Spiritualism. After commenting further on the notables he cites that
the solid men
of England are interested in Spiritualism but concludes that the
movement is not
likely to gain much foothold in America. However that may be, solid men
are from time to time surprising us with declarations in regard to it,
frequently come from unlooked for quarters. Notably of late, espousing
in Spiritualistic phenomena and enhancing the interest in Spiritualism
is Dr. Russel
H. Conwell, of Philadelphia, the eminent Baptist Divine.
in the subject has not been generated by any psychic experience ‒ we
keep the open
mind and we plead as our sole interest the desire to draw the attention
of the Craft
to such books as are the statements of the conviction of men who will
our respect of their opinions, even though we do not agree with them.
Cram has written the introduction to the Hill of Vision. In it he sets
association with the author and the author's effort in resorting to
to locate the Edgar Chapel among the ruins of Glastonbury. His search,
we are told,
is successful as a result of the information revealed. Their spirit
it is of interest to know, are scholastic and prophetic. Especially is
in the Scripts that pertain to the Great War. An admirable case is made
that a prediction of the end of the Great War did actually transpire at
date. The book further contains a powerful analysis of the world forces
and its suggestions regarding the aftermath are extremely pertinent,
and many things
prophesied are indeed coming to pass under our very eyes. It is a book
and of hope whether arising out of the subliminal consciousness of its
the communications of those who are among the Cloud of Witnesses. The
and philosophic dissertations will afford a feast for those
appreciative ones, into
whose hands this little book chances to come.
* * *
Gould's "Concise History
History of Freemasonry," [Lib 1904] by Robert Freke Gould.
by Gale & Polden, Ltd., London, England. Copies may be had
through the National
Masonic Research Society, Anamosa, Iowa. Price $4.50, postpaid.
great names in Freemasonry ever to be counted with, is that of Robert
His name is always a synonym for Masonic Research. His prodigious
labors so nobly
embodied in his works are a priceless heritage to the Masonic Craft.
Could he but
speak to us he probably would say of his works that "this was the best
for the rest, I have lived just as other men." It is needless for us to
further upon the character of his gifts of research as our business
here is but
to urge upon Masons the indispensability of having some of his works in
We often hear it said that not to have read such and such a book is not
to be a
well-read man, and in view of this we could say that not to have read
works that are standard, is to find one's self frequently in the class
of the limited
in Masonic knowledge. To read many books is not the privilege of the
many, but to
the many a liberal education, we are told, is afforded if they but sit
a day at a five-foot bookshelf, where the best of the world's
literature is available.
The basic fault today as it pertains to growing wiser through the good
use of books,
is not our little reading, but the character of the reading that we do.
Even so among
us Masons. Our Masonic information has oftentimes been derived from
are chimerical or highly speculative. Masonry probably has suffered
more from nonsensical,
fanciful literature, loaded to bursting with impossibilities, as much
as any movement
since the dawn of time. We would submit Gould's Concise History as one
of the great
necessary corrective books of Masonry. As a brief compendium of the
in the aggregate make our antecedents, it is in a field by itself. It
is not a book
that will read like a best seller, it is rather like a profitable mine
one can go again and again and bring forth treasures. It disillusions
us by setting
forth to us in dispassionate manner those movements of the past in
of the Spirit of Freemasonry is seen, but only by a prodigious stretch
of the imagination
can be identified with the Freemasonry that we know. Cyclopedic in
nature it is
the admirable handbook necessary to the new initiate coming from the
hands of one
of the greatest Masonic scholars that will give an estimable
appreciation of the
greatness of the order to which he belongs. It is a story of the
the Craft, and its trials and expansion affords it being eminently
useful on any
Masonic library shelf.
Issued by the Society
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE: BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
Constitutions ( reproduced by photographic plates from an original copy
in the archives of the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition
of Masonry, Roscoe Pound
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro. J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa,
red buffing binding, gilt lettering, illustrated. A story of the Flag
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," paper covers
Notes on the Comacine Masters," W. Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to
"The Comacines, Their Predecessors and Their Successors," a Masonic
digest of Leader Scott's book "The Cathedral Builders" and containing
the latest researches of Brother Ravenscroft which present a very
logical argument for the connection of Freemasonry of the present day
with the Roman Collegia and traveling Masons of the early times, paper
of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet
of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet
of the Three Degrees, Street, 68 pages, paper covers. The lessons and
symbols of each degree traced to their origin, in every instance that
it has been possible to so trace them. Brother Street gives many
explanations of our symbols in this little book on which our monitors
but vaguely touch
Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite, pamphlet
FROM OTHER SOURCES IN IN STOCK AT ANAMOSA
Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry, by Brother Joseph Fort Newton,
formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER
Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey
Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey
Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey
in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M. Johnson, P.G.M., Massachusetts
History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould
prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all items
The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or registered.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
'Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
promptly by mail before publication in this department.
Information Desired On Scandinavian
I am making
a special study of Scandinavian Masonry and would particularly like to
1. The present status of Norwegian
2. The exact degrees worked.
3. The requirements of candidates
as regards religious belief.
4. Would a Master Mason from the
United States be able to gain admission with
the knowledge and means of recognition at his command?
5. The influence of Rosicrucianism
and Swedenborgianism, and also of the old
Druids and Drottars on Norwegian Masonry.
O. Ingmar Oleson, North Dakota.
sent such material to Brother Oleson as we have been able to dig out of
Bureau and library, but this has been somewhat meagre so far as present
in the Scandinavian countries is concerned. We should like to hear from
of the Society as may have made late investigations on the foregoing
* * *
Attitude of German Grand
Lodges Toward The Masonry Of Other Countries
like to know on what grounds German Masons severed relations with the
of other nations during the late war.
Henry E. Mielke, California.
we have no method of ascertaining the present attitude of the German
toward the Masonry of America and other countries allied against
the war we are publishing a report of a "Special Committee on Fraternal
with the Grand Lodges of the German Empire" of the Grand Lodge of
which, we believe, will throw practically as much light on the question
as is at
this time obtainable. This report follows:
years the published Proceedings of this Grand Lodge have set forth
lists of Grand
Representatives of Grand Lodges with which this Grand Lodge was in
These lists include the Grand Lodges of the United States, which
the Grand Lodges of England, Scotland, Ireland and the colonies of the
Egypt, Cuba, the Philippine Islands, Porto Rico and Valle de Mexico.
lists included a list of seven lodges under the subs title
German Grand Lodges."
mentioned list does not appear in the published Proceedings for 1918,
for what reason
we are not advised, as no action was taken by this Grand Lodge at the
of 1918, touching the matter here involved, except the appointment of
be noticed that the German Grand Lodges with which we were in fraternal
are under the jurisdiction of the "Confederation of German Grand
leads to the conclusion that there is a "German Grand Lodge Diet," and
a "Grand Lodge League of Germany" in addition to the "Confederation
of German Grand Lodges."
not concerned at this time with the number of so-called Grand Lodges in
for the reason that our fraternal correspondence was limited to those
which are listed as members of the "Confederation of German Grand
been very difficult to secure authentic information as to what action,
if any, has
been taken by Grand Lodges of the German Empire, or their constituents,
matter here under consideration.
extracts taken from the March, 1917, Bulletin of the "International
for Masonic Affairs" are presented as showing the state of mind of some
Masons and Masonic writers:
COILING SERPENT OF HATRED"
Masonry of Germany alone," writes a German newspaper, "deserves esteem
war," says a German writer, "has taught us that the Masonry of our
must become exclusively national. It must wear a German dress, and have
character. It must renounce every connection with the World's Masonry."
War," says another German journalist, "has destroyed all ideas of
Internationalism. International Masonry has become bankrupt. This
opinion is general
in all German lodges. Masonic Cosmopolitanism is, therefore, a fiction.
has no need for the 'International,' which has nothing to offer it."
so-called English Masonry, which made such a boisterous entrance into
in 1717, notwithstanding its unimportance, was very different from what
Masons represent to ourselves as models of virtue. It was a very narrow
‒ and very
English ‒ organization which had absolutely no thought of a union of
great extension of the idea to the whole of mankind is the work of
'Deutschtum'; it is only the German brain and the German heart that can
enterprise to a successful end, together with the current of the
Let us be frank; for us Germans, our ideal dream of Internationalism
has come to
naught. Instead of being figurants we have become actors. In future we
continue to practice the model of Masonic virtues, but we shall not
carry them out
into the vast world."
Masonry does not possess a single spark of the Masonic spirit. Our
is truly German. or, in a wider sense ‒ Germanic. English Masonry is
vanity and sport: in it there is no trace of our spiritual
comprehension. In France,
Masonry works in politics, to which it sacrifices the great part of its
International Masonry is dead, and notwithstanding all efforts to the
will remain dead. Let us, therefore, be German Freemasons, and work in
our own way."
here is the conclusion arrived at by a brother: "We German Freemasons
have nothing more to do with international relations, and above all we
no official relations. Long live German Freemasonry! Down with
It has deceived the world long enough and now deserves to be struck
Here, as elsewhere, it is "Germany above all."
above expressed may be the extreme views of individual German Masons
writers, and not fairly representative of the mental attitude of the
of the Craft of the German Empire. We sincerely hope that this is the
from the best information which we have that during the years 1914,
1915 and 1916,
the Grand Lodges of Germany with which we were in fraternal
the Grand Lodges of the "Confederation of German Grand Lodges," passed
and promulgated edicts severing fraternal relations with all Grand
Lodges of enemy
of war by the United States, April 6, 1917, against the German Empire,
placed the Grand Lodges of the United States under the edicts of the
of the "Confederation of German Grand Lodges," passed and promulgated
in 1914, 1915 and 1916.
words, fraternal relations between the Grand Lodges of the
German Grand Lodges" and the Grand Lodge of Colorado are interdicted by
action of said German Grand Lodges above set forth.
of the opinion that fraternal relations were thus severed with the
Lodges without the necessity of any retaliatory action on our part, and
that they be so considered and that all necessary proceedings as to the
of commissions, etc., be taken by the proper officers of this Grand
landmarks of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, published in the January
issue of THE
BUILDER, opens up a new phase of Masonic penalizing in the following:
The only penalties known to Masonry are FINES, reprimand, suspension
for a definite
period, and expulsion."
I have been
a Mason for thirty years, and never before even heard of such a penalty
as a fine
warranted by Masonic law.
any authentic record of any lodge, or Grand Lodge, having fined a
Mason? If so,
for what offense? and to what purpose was the fine applied?
to me, is as curious as are some of the allegations contained in the
and I am interested to learn further of "Masonic fines."
Gene T. Skinkle, Illinois
some of our Kentucky brethren give us a few concrete examples?
* * *
What Would Be The Status
Of Freemasonry Under "Sinn Fein" Government In Ireland?
In this community,
and I presume where conditions are thought to be favorable all over the
we are about to witness the beginning of a "drive" to place the bonds
of the "Irish Republic." There is a phase of this situation to which I
have as yet seen no reference made, and which I believe is of vital
concern to American
Masons. What would be the status of the Grand Lodge of Ireland under
such a government
as is proposed for Ireland by Mr. de Valera and his followers? I have
seen no contradictions
to the statements that the Sinn Fein movement has the hearty approval
of the Roman Catholic hierarchy in Ireland (and for that matter, in
also) and on the other hand there is considerable evidence to support
This being so, is there any reason to suppose that the Grand Lodge of
meet with any more favorable treatment than has been received by
Freemasons in Austria,
Portugal, and in some of the South American countries where clerical
controlled the government?
I do not
see how American Freemasons can remain indifferent to the possible fate
of a Grand
Lodge of such ancient and honorable traditions, and one which has been
close ties of affiliation to the Grand Lodges of the United States. I
would be glad
to have your comment on this matter.
Francis H. Coffin, Pennsylvania.
communication was received after the February number of THE BUILDER
article by Brother Trimble on "The Effect of Home Rule on Freemasonry
had gone to press.
* * *
Opportunity for a Better Knowledge of Masonry
of Masonic research is so vast that there is abundant room for many
than are at present engaged in exploring the rich veins of history,
legend and tradition.
we are fortunate in having THE BUILDER to act as both promoter and
of this work, furnishing moreover a storehouse for whatever material of
obtained from the same. The quest is alluring and the assured return to
is well worth the labor involved.
in studying the religion of the ancient Egyptians, one learns of their
use of amulets and further search reveals the fact that among these
evil are found
which because of its phonetic value NEH, (protection,) assured divine
to the soul. Also interpreted as an admonition 'to act rightly to act
level, SEKHEKH, emblematical of the moderation and justice which were
on behalf of the dead."
and signs are met with in the temples and ruins of buildings excavated
Mexico, among the Incas of Peru, and in the Caroline Islands.
are unlimited. The opportunity is here. Not to take advantage of it is
to miss a
great deal in Masonry.
Curtis G. Culin, New Jersey.
* * *
THE BUILDER and the editors were indeed fortunate in their opportunity
enjoy the articles by Brother Dudley Wright on the above subject.
Through his scholarship
we received a comprehensive outline of a once powerful fraternity,
which seems to
have been resurrected, or reincarnated, in the Freemasonry of today.
A few gleanings
may perhaps be permitted to one who has always been attracted by
Eleusis and all
the name connotes, and I offer them in the hope that others may find
itself means "the Place of the Coming," as it marked the spot on the
coast where the distracted mother first landed when she had started on
search for the stolen Proserpine. The Triptolemus mentioned in the
of the story appears to have been rather a method of cultivation than a
although he is used to represent mankind as a recipient of instruction
inhabitants marked the anniversary of this event by a festival and
naturally grew more elaborate as time passed. When they were finally
Athenians in one of the fratricidal wars which so long disturbed
the festival was taken over with other loot by the victors and adopted
own system of rites, as has happened into so many other customs related
Eleusis was an obscure little town, having no other reason for its
classical history, even as Oberammergau in Bavaria has a world-wide
fame for the
Passion Play conducted decennially by its pious townsfolk, but that
giving valuable evidence of the strong religious instinct inherent in
and conditions of men, which forces them to raise objects of worship
and build revered
legends wherever they are gathered together.
the nature of these observances, it is not wise to take the statements
of the Church
Fathers without a few grains of salt, for they were, almost all of
partisan in matters of system; and there is enough other evidence
to that which is so clearly prejudiced. There is also the analogy of
our own lodges
today, for those who visit much know that some delight in being "noise
others are not particular as to any perfection of word rendering in
their work so
long as the sense is adequately conveyed, and others believe in a due
dignity both ceremonial and social. So too must the ancient hierophants
subordinates have differed during the long centuries in which Eleusis
and all we have today is the scattered impressions of those whose
survived the tooth of time and the torch of the invader.
it is true that Sophocles in his "Antigone ' speaks of Bacchus as "Thou
who reignest in the arms of the goddess of Eleusis" (Ceres), yet we are
in believing that the two modes of celebration were widely different in
character. The Bacchanals sought liberation from the flesh and union
God by exhausting sense impressions of the most violent type. We have
word from them to convey just such an idea in "orgies," but this is
another form of an older Greek word "ergo" or "ergon" which
Homer uses to indicate both the hard labors of war and the equal toil
of Eleusis, on the contrary, sought to lead their votaries by an inward
the same goal. Certainly they had a spectacular element, for like our
of today they appealed to and received almost all classes of citizens,
take their obligations seriously and those who regard them as only a
to the social privileges and prestige of membership. Still, barriers
that homicides and others, and those whom we would call "mediums" were
not admitted; even the autocratic Nero being unable to force his way
in, as Suetonius
from all this, the chief value for us lies, I think, in the picture of
brethren trying to find their way to the Great Architect in His Temple
securely from the flippant, yet right next to every honest seeker. The
portrayed the drama of a great experience in the evolution of every
For over eighteen hundred years they directed the minds of their
almost all that is good in modern Christianity, such as the life after
due rewards of virtue and iniquity, and the immanence of Divinity; only
atonement was lacking, and that idea ‒ which had not then been taught ‒
a concession to human frailty than a stirring of the will to meet
bravely the trials
of life, to stand as victor by resolution of the Warrior fighting
within each one
By the end
of the fourth century A.D. the Mysteries of Eleusis had run their race
their usefulness. Their physical death may be said to date from the
Alaric and his Goths in A.D. 396 but they had been solemnly renounced
by the emperor
Theodosius some two years earlier. Unlike the Collegia Fabrorum they
had no Comacine
Masters to lift the torch of knowledge from their failing hands and
through the Dark Ages of mediaeval ignorance which eclipsed the glories
Rome, and Byzantium while retaining their cruelties. The shrines of
now a pasture for goats and its sunny hillsides see only the perennial
wooing as conducted by a humble peasantry. Legends remain in plenty
the local folklore, even as the heroic figures of forgotten years
reappear in the
twilight tales of many another fallen race. But of outer physical
relics there are
now none save the timeworn statue of Ceres, alone and unworshipped, a
mark for curious
eyes, in the quiet hall of the Library of Cambridge University. Thus
again written "Ichabod.”
In case any
reader of THE BUILDER would like to follow up this avenue of research,
some sources of information that should be useful:
of Greece, Vol. 1.
Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Vol. 73, 1853.
Contemporary Review, Vols. 37 and 38, 1880.
Lenormant's encyclopedic articles on the Eleusinian Mysteries.
Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. 26, 1901, an article by Daniel Quinn.
of the Eleusinian Mysteries in modern Greek folklore," by G. F. Abbott
19th Century," Vol. 63, 1908.
Mysteries and the Gospel Narrative," by Slade Butler, in "The 19th
Vols. 57 and 60, 1905-6.
‒ N.W.J. Hayden, Ontario.
in the United States, England, Scotland, Ireland, Australia and Canada
IN DECEMBER, 1919
Bro. John P. Keys. Pennsylvania
| United States
|| Masonry First Planted
|| Formation of Grand Lodge
|| Number of Lodges
|| GRAND MASTER
|| GRAND SECRETARY
|| Robert S. Teague, Montgomery
|| George A. Beauchamp, Montgomery
|| James H. Barrett, Douglas
|| George J. Roskruge, Tucson
|| G. W. Wells, Imboden
|| Fay Hempstead, Little Rock
|| Bradford Webster, San Francisco
|| John Whicher, San Francisco
|| Frank L. Bishop, Denver
|| Charles H. Jacobson, Denver
|| Wallace S. Moyle, New Haven
|| George A. Kies, Hartford
|| George B. Hynson, Wilmington
|| Harry J. Guthrie, Wilmington
District of Columbia
|| Joseph H. Milans, Washington
|| Arvine W. Johnston Washington
|| T. Picton Warlow, Orlando
|| Wilbur P. Webster, Jacksonville
|| Robert J. Travis, Savannah
|| Frank F. Baker, Macon
|| Arch Cunningham, Boise
|| George E. Knepper, Boise
|| Daniel G. Fitzgerrell, Normal
|| Isaac Cutter, Camp Point
|| Charles J. Orbison, Indianapolis
|| Calvin W. Prather, Indianapolis
|| W. A. Westfall, Mason City
|| Newton R. Parvin, Cedar Rapids
|| Owen J. Wood, Topeka
|| Albert K. Wilson, Topeka
|| W. Carson Black, Barbourville
|| Dave Jackson, Louisville
|| Rudolph Krause, Lake Charles
|| John A. Davilla, New Orleans
|| Silas B. Adams, Portland
|| Charles B. Davis, Portland
|| Charles C. Homer, Jr. Baltimore
|| George Cook, Baltimore
|| Leon M. Abbott, Boston
|| Frederick W.Hamilton, Boston
|| Charles B. Eddy, Grand Rapids
|| Lou B. Winsor, Grand Rapids
|| George M. Stowe, Wadena
|| John Fishel; St. Paul
|| L. A. Benoist, Natchez
|| Frederick G. Speed, Vicksburg
|| John W. Bingham, Milan
|| John R. Parson, St. Louis
|| W. L. Parmelee, Butte
|| Cornelius Hedges, Jr., Helena
|| John J. Tooley, Broken Bow
|| Francis E. White, Omaha
|| Wm. B. S. Park Las Vegas
|| Ed. D. Vanderleith Reno
|| Harry G. Noyes, Gorham
|| Harry M. Cheney, Concord
|| Wm. L. Daniels, Trenton
|| Isaac Cherry, Trenton
|| Alex D. Goldenberg, Tucumcari
|| Alpheus A. Keen, Albuquerque
|| William S. Farmer, Syracuse
|| Robert J. Kenworthy, New York
|| Henry A. Grady, Clinton
|| William W. Willson, Raleigh
|| Amil P. Lenhart, Bismark
|| Walter L Stockwell, Fargo
|| Isaac Kinsey, Toledo
|| J. H. Bromwell, Cincinnati
|| O. L. Conner, Vinita
|| Wm. M. Anderson, Oklahoma City
|| Earl C. Bronaugh, Portland
|| James F. Robinson, Portland
|| John S. Sell, Greensburg
|| John A. Perry, Philadelphia
|| Herbert A. Rice, Providence
|| S. Penrose Williams, Providence
|| W. W. Wanamaker, Orangeburg
|| O. Frank Hart, Columbia
|| James Roane, Yankton
|| Geo. A. Pettigrew, Sioux Falls
|| Thomas Steele, Jr., Ripley
|| Stith M. Cain, Nashville
|| A. A. Ross, Lockhart
|| W. B. Pearson, Waco
|| Arthur C. Wherry, Salt Lake City
|| F. A. McCarty, Salt Lake City
|| Edwin L. Wells, Lyndonville
|| Henry H. Ross, Burlington
|| 28467 Sol. Cutchins, Richmond
|| Charles A. Nesbit, Richmond
|| T. E. Skaggs, Olympia
|| Horace W. Tyler, Tacoma
|| George S. Laidley, Charleston
|| John M. Collins, Charleston
|| Charles E. Shane, Eau Claire
|| William W. Perry, Milwaukee
|| Geo. E. Brimmer, Rawlins
|| Joseph M. Lowndes, Lander
|| W. F. Lippitt, San Juan
|| Jose G. Torres, San Juan
|| Milton E. Springer, Manila
|| Newton C. Comfort, Manila
|| Duke of Connaught London
|| P. Colville Smith London
|| Gordan Gilnlour Edinburgh
|| David Reid Edinburgh
|| Earl of Donoughmore Dublin
|| Lord Plunket Dublin
New South Wales
|| William Thompson Sydney
|| Arthur H. Bray Sydney
|| Oliver Nicholson Auckland
|| Malcolm Niccol Auckland
|| James Stodart Brisbane
|| Charles H. Harley, Brisbane
|| Eustace B. Grundy Adelaide
|| Chas. R. J. Glover Adelaide
|| Wm. Elison Macartney
|| John Hamilton Hobarth
|| F. T. Hickford Melbourne
|| Charles J. Barrow Melbourne
|| Archbishop of Perth Perth
|| John D. Stevenson Perth
|| W. J. Botterill Red Deer
|| S. Y. Taylor Calgary
|| S. J. Willis, Vancouver
|| W. A. DeWolf-Smith New Westminster
|| Alexander McIntyre, Winnipeg
|| James A. Ovas, Winnipeg
|| Hedley V. Bridges, Fredericton Jnct.
|| Twining Hartt, Saint John
|| George D.MacDougall, New Glasgow
|| James C. Jones, Halifax
|| William H. Wardrope, Hamilton
|| William McG. Logan, Hamilton
Prince Edward Isl'd
|| Benjamin Rogers, Charlottetown
|| E. T. Carbonell, Charlottetown
|| A. B. Wood Montreal
|| W.W. Williamson, Montreal
|| James McCauley, Moose Jaw,
|| William B. Tate Regina
A Concise History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
Col17 / auth. Cole Samuel / ed. Cole Samuel. - Baltimore : Benjamin
Eder, 1817. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 444. - 22.5 MB.
Freemasonry in South Carolina
Mac61 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Columbia : South Carolinian Steam
Power Press, 1861. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 567. - 33.2 MB.
The Hill of Vision
Bon19 / auth. Bond Frederick B. - Boston : Marshall Jones Company,
1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 161. - 5.5 MB.
The Life of Ely S Parker
Par191 / auth. Parker Arthur C. - Buffalo : Buffalo Historical Society,
1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 371. - 20.4 MB.
The Scottish Rite
Fol62 / auth. Folger Robert B. - New York : Robert B Folger, 1862. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 784. - 24.6 MB.