Masonic Research Society
of “Home Rule” on Freemasonry in Ireland
By Bro. W. Copeland Trimble,
SOME of our
American brethren may desire to know the result which would likely grow
granting to Ireland of what is understood as “Home Rule.” If the whole
of the Irish
people were loyal to the United Kingdom and not under the domination of
things might be very different from what they are; but we have to do
as we find them.
Up to the
time of the Unification of States under Garibaldi, Roman Catholics were
to be found
freely in Masonic lodge rooms. Daniel O'Connell and many of the Irish
were members of our order. But the Pope considered that Masonic lodges
used in Italy for the furtherance of the propaganda which wrested from
him the Papal
States and created a new and unified Italy, and hence the decree that
Catholics to join the Order. This decree was frequently referred to in
by Irish Roman Catholic Bishops, and as a Roman Catholic ceased to be a
according to clerical teaching, by the mere fact of going to lodge many
of the Roman
Catholic members of the Order ceased attendance, but others continued
age came upon them.
Home Rule affect Freemasonry in Ireland?
First, What would Home Rule mean? It
generally understood to imply an Ireland separate in government from
Scotland, being governed either by a parliament recognizing the King as
yet independent of control at Westminster, or a separate Republic for
no connection with Great Britain whatever. Be it remembered that at
District and County Councils have control of the whole country in
legislation, and that in Parliament Ireland has, owing to the excess of
over the population, double the power of England and Scotland.
Second. With then, a separate
as the sovereign power in Ireland, we would have a governing body under
of the Roman Catholic priesthood whose exercise and claims of authority
(which, freely interpreted, means everything), and who elect, or cause
to be elected
the various members of Parliament throughout Ireland. Full deference is
these members to the Bishops and clergy, not only in their episcopal or
capacity, but as the controllers of the local politics.
Third. With then, a Parliament to
and to execute the laws, it follows that the Hierarchy would cause
be passed embodying their views and Freemasonry would be prohibited
We are not
left in any doubt in the matter. Before Ireland was handed over in 1898
to the new
regime of County and District Councils, several lodges that had been
to holding their meetings in public courthouses foresaw what would take
made preparations for a change. In Sligo the brethren built a Masonic
Hall; in other
places something similar was done; in Enniskillen a lease was obtained
for a long
number of years from the Board which had, for a rental, allowed Masonic
assemble in one of the rooms in the Town Hall ‒ to guard against a
notice to quit
from a succeeding Board elected under new conditions.
in other places awaited word, hoping that they would be allowed to meet
in the public
buidings as before. But in vain. The local lodge received notice to
quit and had
to make other provision for assemblies. And if a new Parliament were to
in authority there is no manner of doubt in the Craft that all Masonic
would be prohibited, not so much due to the Roman Catholic laymen
to the influence which impels them to obey their clergy in matters
outside the clerical
province, and to them Freemasonry is anathema maranatha.
of liberty in thought and speech in Ireland also varies with ideas held
subjects elsewhere. The prevailing opinion among the Irish peasantry is
that a man
has no right to hold views differing from “the voice of the country” ‒
that the minority should always yield to the majority. In practice this
not always hold good. There are some men of independent mold. But woe
to the man
who differs from his priest, the final arbiter of all such matters!
has a strong hold among Unionist, or Protestant, circles in Ireland,
and it is proud
of its Masonic charities and the quality of its membership. Nor is this
of recent date. The writer possesses the certificate of his grandfather
in the Craft
and Royal Arch degrees, dating from 1797, and other ancient
certificates are preserved
in the Masonic Hall, Dublin, showing that Freemasonry is no new thing
in this island.
But how long it would escape persecution were Ireland to be dominated
by a separate
parliament under some form of Home Rule, is another matter, and I
believe I am expressing
the unanimous opinion of the Fraternity in Ireland when I say that
under Home Rule
the path of the Order would not be an easy one.
British government yields to the Roman Catholic clamor against
Freemasonry. A policeman
formerly, on being attested when joining the force, was prohibited from
membership in any fraternal organization, the Masonic Order alone
this exception has been overruled within the past few years and at the
no policeman, whatever his rank or station, may become affiliated or
with the Masonic Fraternity.
of Freemasonry in Ireland is correct as to the future unless some
security were placed in all Act of Parliament which would set up any
in Ireland. And even then we would doubt security.
FREEMASON of London, England, we reprint the following concerning the
the House of Commons which appeared in the issue of that Journal for
Important Action and Feeble
is demanded by all interested in the welfare of the Craft to the recent
in the House of Commons dealing especially with the relations in one
of Freemasonry with the outer world. We have thought it well to deal
with the subject
in detail, because we feel that the Craft generally, and not only in
be affected by the temper displayed towards Freemasonry in the House of
and most inadequately protested against by members of our own body, of
are a number, and some of much Masonic distinction. It may be urged
that they did
not expect the question to be raised in this fashion; but, the hare
started in full cry on Tuesday, it was hunted to the kill on the
with only one Masonic voice raised in protest, and that by an Ulster
specially noted that he had none of his friends there to support him,
or even to
advise him in the matter.
The Debate in the House of
As a preliminary,
it may be recalled that, in the short-lived strike among the Dublin
Police in October, trouble began over the fact that more than 100
an order of the Chief Commissioner by attending a meeting of the
Ancient Order of
Hibernians and enrolling themselves in the society. The Chief
a notice warning the men that, if they attended the meeting of this
society, they would be liable to “serious consequences,” for, under the
their enlistment, the men were prohibited from joining any political or
except the Freemasons. The advocates of the disaffected men urged that
Order was not as secret a society as the Freemasons, and not more
to the abstention of Roman Catholics generally from membership of the
though there were grievances about rates of pay, this as to Masonry was
It was not,
indeed, a new question, for over ten years ago when Mr. Walter Long was
Mr. J. MacVeagh, a Nationalist member, called attention in the House of
to the encouragement given in the oath of the police to become
Freemasons, and asked
the then Unionist Government to withdraw the preferential treatment
given to that
Order. Mr. Long denied that any encouragement was given to the police
Freemasons, and would not admit that any irregularity was committed in
exception complained of. In more than one quarter of Nationalist
opinion in the
lobby, however, when the question was now brought forward, the
indulged in that the exception made in favor of Freemasonry would be
proved correct, for when, on 7th November, a motion was made in the
House of Commons
by Mr. Duke, K.C., the present Chief Secretary, to read a second time
and Police (Ireland) Bill, introduced to remove the Constabulary's
an English Unionist member, submitted, as an amendment, a declaration
that “in view
of the lack of discipline recently shown by a section of the Dublin
Police it is inopportune to immediately proceed with the further
the Bill.” In so doing, he incidentally said: “I understand that some
400 of the
junior members of the Dublin force have joined the Ancient Order of
A member of the Royal Irish Constabulary, on entering the force, has to
oath, and he swears that he will not belong to any secret society in
any part of the world, with the exception of the Order of Freemasons.
'Hear, hear!'] I am very glad to hear those cheers, which show that the
Freemasons is so popular in Ireland. I am a Mason myself, and I daresay
of the House are members of that Order. At any rate, it is a fact that
takes an oath not to become a member of any secret society except the
The Ancient Order of Hibernians is not a secret society, but it is
its constitution, aims, methods, and so on are pretty well known. If it
semi-secret, it is wholly sectarian; it is confined absolutely to the
faith. No one who is an Orangeman can become a member of that Order,
and to that
extent it is a sectarian society, and a semi-secret one.... I daresay
below the gangway will argue about the Order of the Freemasons. At any
Freemasons take no part in politics. [Hon Members: 'Oh, oh!']”
intersected the remark: “They ruled Ireland for fifty years.”
continued: “They have done so, but the Freemasons are now a great
dealing only with matters of Charity, and with nothing more. I am a
Mason, and I
know that in a Lodge of Freemasons no word of politics is ever
introduced, and hon.
members are very much mistaken if they think that Freemasons allow
politics in their
lodges. I do not think I incur any penalty by saying that, or stating
that the Lodges
of the Order of Freemasons deal only with matters of Charity.”
the Chief Secretary, in replying, observed: “With regard to the matter
of societies, I regard it as a very unfortunate thing that the oath
of societies has any qualification; and, if hon. members desire to
alter that state
of things, then, so far as I am concerned, they will find that my view
is that there
must be equal treatment for everybody in these matters of police
objection to membership of organizations on the part of those who are
for the conduct of the police is to membership of any organization
which may cut
across the primary duty of the police. Taking that view of the matter,
I have had
it under consideration whether, without any regard to the oath under
the Act of
William IV., or to any of these matters, the proper mode of dealing
with this question
of membership of outside organizations is not to say to everybody who
is in the
police, as well as to everybody who comes to join the police, 'You must
any outside organization without the consent of your chief commanding
it is contrary to discipline.' That, to my mind, is the sound mode of
a matter of this kind.”
did not satisfy the Nationalists, Mr. Devlin saying: “If you lay down
as a universal
principle of equality that men who are in a police force of this
character are not
to join societies, then complete and absolute liberty should be
conceded to them.
I am not going to make any attack upon the Freemasons. I know nothing
them. I have no doubt that they are all that members of that
organization in England
have described them to be. But I cannot blind myself to the fact that
in Ireland is a large political organization ‒ is a most powerful and
political machine. Every one of us knows that it eats into and corrodes
social and political life of Ireland. Everybody knows it. Perhaps the
and learned gentleman is ignorant of it. I could give him a list of
made to Government offices in Ireland. In every branch of the public
Freemasons decide ‒ at all events, if they do not decide, look at the
and consider! ‒ I think it will be found that every position above the
of crossing-sweeper, although the Irish people are overwhelmingly
Catholic in the
three provinces of Ireland ‒ ninety per cent are Catholics, but the
great bulk of
these positions are held by those who are hostile to our faith and our
was then read a second time without a division, and two days later it
in committee of the whole House, when the Masonic point came again ‒
and this time
very practically ‒ to the front.
now observed: “Let us allow these constables to belong to no secret
Do not let us have the Hibernians, Orangemen, or Freemasons ‒ at any
rate, so long
as both these forces are under the control of Parliament. What may
they are transferred to the Dublin Parliament does not concern us now.
Up till then,
for the safety of Ireland, for fair play, and on behalf of the peace of
let us lay down once and for all the rule that, so long as we here have
of these forces, so long as they have to look to us for their
emoluments and so
on, we will not allow any member of those forces, be he county
inspector, subordinate officer, head constable, or what not, to be a
member of any
secret society ‒ Freemasons, Ancient Order of Hibernians, or Orangemen.
If the Chief
Secretary will not give us assurances on this point, I should certainly
test the feelings of the House in the matter.”
replied for the Nationalists, remarking: “The other day, when some of
out that both the Constabulary and the Dublin Metropolitan Police, by
oath, are prohibited from belonging to any secret society or any
excepting the Society of Freemasons, several hon. members cried out
that the Society
of Freemasons is not political. I do not know anything about the
Society of Freemasons
in this country, or about the details of its proceedings in Ireland;
but I do know
this, that you may state that fact until you are black in the face, but
not get any man in Ireland to believe it. I speak as an outsider
ignorant of these matters, as being a Roman Catholic, I am obliged to
be, but it
is a very singular thing that the great Society of Freemasons, against
whom I do
not desire to make any attack whatever, in certain countries, in
has become a most powerful and dominating political society. Nobody who
history will challenge that. It is a matter of public knowledge that
the great revolution
in Turkey was carried out by the Grand Lodge of Salonika, and that all
Turks whose names were famous throughout the world at that time, owed a
of their remarkable power ‒ which enabled them to overthrow the
Sultan's rule ‒
to the fact that they were leading and high up in the Masonic Order.
That is a matter
of common knowledge throughout Europe, and it is remarkable that in
and at certain periods the Masonic Society, which in this country may
be, for all
I know, and I believe it is, a purely charitable, social, and
becomes when under the control of certain individuals, and, under the
certain peculiar circumstances, locally a most powerful and formidable
association. It was so in Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. That has been
the case in
Ireland for three or four generations, notoriously, and it is perfectly
deny it. Here is the oath which the Constabulary in Ireland and the
Police are compelled to swear, with one slight variation, to which I
will draw attention
in a moment. This oath ‒ and it is a thing which it is well for the
to take note of ‒ was imposed upon the Constabulary in 1836, at a time
when a great
deal of the Penal Code against the Catholics had been barely repealed ‒
I mean when
the Catholics of Ireland were an oppressed majority of the population,
were kept out of all authority and all social position in their own
oath is: ‒
‘I, A. B., do swear that I will
well and truly
serve our Sovereign,'
and so forth,
and then it goes on to detail the duties which he undertakes to
'and that I do not now belong
to, and that I
will not while I shall hold the said office, join, subscribe or belong
to any political
society whatsoever, or to any secret society whatsoever, unless to the
oath, imposed upon the constables of a Catholic nation where the vast
the people were suffering under cruel oppression from the law, and
where that majority
were forbidden by the Church, under pain of mortal sin, to join this
was an act of high-handed oppression, and was calculated in the eyes of
to mark out the policemen as partisans of the ascendancy faction who
for many years, and this act destroyed all idea of faith on the part of
in the impartiality of the administration of the law. I say, therefore,
infliction of that oath, which has gone on to this hour was a cruel and
insult to the Catholic people of Ireland. Here is the form of oath
taken by the
Dublin Metropolitan Police: ‒
'and that I do not now belong
to, and that while
I shall hold the said office I will not join or belong to, any
whatsoever, or any secret society whatsoever, unless the Society of
of oath, administered to the Dublin Metropolitan Police, admits in the
of the oath that the Freemasons are a political society, because it
says, 'I will
not belong to any political society except the Society of Freemasons.’ “
“The wording of the oath conveys the meaning which even the framers of
Lonsdale (Ulster Unionist): “Or any secret society.”
“That is the situation. In a country governed, as Ireland has always
without the slightest regard to the wishes of her own people, on these
men was imposed
a duty so difficult and delicate that it was almost beyond the
resources of men
to carry out those duties in a way to command the public confidence,
and the Government
in those days went out of their way to frame an oath which would
destroy, in my
opinion, all hope of impartiality on the part of the police.... One of
of the trouble in Dublin ‒ and now that the subject has been raised we
perfectly frankly ‒ is that the belief has grown up amongst the police
‒ and I believe
it to be a sound one ‒ that promotion does not always wait upon merit,
but is the
reward of certain occult influences, outside influences, and political
ought not to enter into the question of the promotion of a police force
What is the Ancient Order of Hibernians? It is not a secret society, it
is not an
oath-bound society, and it is not a political society. It is a friendly
registered under the Insurance Act. It is an open legal friendly
Society which is
open to Catholics. I admit it is a sectarian society, but in Ireland
are a sectarian society closed to Catholics, and all that the police
have done ‒
I admit it is very delicate ground, but they have been smarting under
which have existed a long time ‒ all that it is alleged they have done
‒ I do not
know whether it is a fact ‒ is that five hundred of them have joined
Order of Hibernians. I ask on what grounds of justice can the hon.
member take up
the position that they are not as much entitled to join the Ancient
Order of Hibernians
as the officers are entitled to join the Freemasons? That is an
If the hon. member wants my opinion, I will give it to him. I would not
I were administering the affairs of Ireland, a policeman to join any
would carry it further, and I would not allow any man engaged in the
of the law to join any society. But we know perfectly well that up to
every man engaged in the administration of the law in Ireland was a
say that the law, whether it be administered by policemen, or
magistrates, or prosecutors,
or the Attorney-General, or judges, they ought to be all above
suspicion and stand
equally between His Majesty's subjects, no matter what society they
belong to. Therefore,
I go further than the hon. and gallant member does, as I would require
magistrate, Crown prosecutor, and everyone, whoever he may be, in
carrying out the
law to take an oath that he would not belong or did not belong to any
We all remember the Lord's Prayer, and human nature is weak, and if you
you in the administration of the law a man who is bound to you by the
bonds of an
association you are tempted to be friendly.”
another Nationalist, took the same line, exclaiming: “Let all policemen
stand upon the basis of a common equality. Let them either join the
any other society they like, and let them join the Freemasons or any
they like. If those men are not to have any connection or affiliation,
indirect, with associations, then I say let that be a common principle
to all men in the force.” He then appealed to the Chief Secretary to
he intended to accept an amendment standing in the name of a third
Mr. Nugent, proposing to alter the oath the Irish police had to take.
replied: “I said when the Bill was before us on Second Reading that I
saw no answer
to the objection there was to retaining this exception in favor of the
Freemasons in the oath, and that I proposed to take the necessary steps
with that view. It is difficult to say what I will do on a particular
because it is not quite so simple as to enable me to say Yes or No with
the particular amendment, but, of course, I propose to make the change.”
rejoined: “A great deal of the time of the House, and the time,
perhaps, that ought
to be occupied with other matters contained in this Bill, has already
up in the discussion of this question; and I wanted, as far as
possible, to avoid
the repetition of this discussion, therefore I am very glad to find
that the right
hon. gentleman, in pursuance of the promise which he gave when the Bill
the House on the Second Reading, proposes to accept the amendment which
the name of my hon. friend.”
in moving his amendment, observed: “I have listened to the suggestion
made not by
one speaker, but by all, that this antiquated rule which prohibits men
any secret society other than the Freemasons should be wiped out of
am glad that that is now recognized. I agree that men should not belong
to any secret
society ‒ Catholic, Protestant, or anything else ‒ which, as the Chief
said should cross or interfere with the discharge of their public
duties. But how
is this to apply? … It is a terrible objection to a man that he should
be a member
of an organization of Catholics, but is no objection when he signs the
or joins the Freemasons' organization. The hon. gentleman (Major
that the Masonic organization is a perfectly secret society, from which
are excluded by their religion. In the City of Dublin more than eighty
the people are Catholic, and in the Dublin Metropolitan Police more
per cent of the men are Catholic. They are informed that they can join
organization and have its influence to secure promotion, but that if
they join a
Catholic organization, or the Hibernian Society, it is an entirely
The Ancient Order of Hibernians is not a political society, and is not
society. It is a society registered under the Friendly Societies Act,
are open for inspection to every member of the society, its returns are
the Registrar of Friendly Societies, it is approved under the Insurance
Act as one
of those societies which are to administer it. I can say here, without
fear of contradiction,
that there is no society in Great Britain that has been able to conduct
… It would
be far better in the interests of good government in the interests of
the City and
Metropolitan police, and in the interests of the peace of the city, to
in this critical period whenever you are introducing a Bill which to
will remove some of the grievances under which the men suffer.”
however, was negatived without challenge, it being understood that the
was prepared to meet the point in another way. This other way was by
means of a
new clause, moved by Mr. Dillon expressly to remove a portion of the
old oath, in
the following terms: “The Statutes mentioned in the Third Schedule to
this Act shall
be repealed to the extent mentioned, and in the said Schedule.”
Unionist member (Col. Craig) at this point observed: “I have not really
to consider the question, but, as far as I understand it, a great many
joined the Freemasons' Society, and I would like to ascertain whether
of this amendment might not press rather hardly on those who have
joined a society
which, so far as I understand, he could not leave once having joined
replied: “It is quite true that there are men in the constabulary now
who have joined
the Order of Freemasons, but I do not at all gather that there is any
penalize them, and I understand that the intention is to have a fresh
form of oath
which has not on the face of it that obvious inequality and that
with which the amendment deals. I gather from the hon. member for East
Dillon) that I correctly interpret his desire in this respect, and the
those who act with him. There is an additional reason for it which I
mention. When a man has attained commission rank he has to renew his
oath with regard
to the position, and obviously it would be unjust that a man who has
force upon certain conditions should be deprived of the just
expectation of promotion
because in a different time and in a different temper there was used
what now seems
an obsolete expression. I shall propose to insert a qualification, when
to the schedule, by means of words which provide 'that the repeal, so
far as it
affects persons who join the respective forces after the commencement
of this Act.'
I must say I am glad to accept the proposal which the hon. member has
rejoined: “I accept the qualification which the right hon. gentleman
and I only desire to add this one word. The attitude of the right hon.
has been most conciliatory and most fair, and I am very glad to be able
such a concession, if concession it be.”
was then put and agreed to, and the proposed new clause was added to
the Bill; but
a further discussion took place when, later in the proceedings, the new
was brought before the House in the following terms:-
6 & 7
(Ireland) Act, 1836
from “whatsoever,” where it last appears to “Freemasons.”
6 & 7
Police Act, 1836
from “whatsoever,” where it last appears to “Freemasons.”
having been read a first time, Mr. Muldoon, a Nationalist member, moved
be read a second time, suggesting that a provision preserving the
interests of those
who have already joined the society might, perhaps, more conveniently
after the new Clause 4.
replied: “I think the object desired by the hon. member could be
attained by inserting,
at the end of the first paragraph in the third column, the words, 'so
far as respects
persons who join the Royal Irish Constabulary after the commencement of
and at the end of the second paragraph in the third column, the words,
'so far as
respects persons who join the Dublin Metropolitan Police after the
of this Act.' I think that will meet the hon. member's view. But if he
would be more artistic to do it in a different manner on report, I
daresay we shall
not quarrel over that.”
having been read a second time,
said: “I beg to move, at the end of the first paragraph in the third
insert the words, 'so far as respects persons who join the Royal Irish
after the commencement of this Act.”'
(Nationalist): “After the passing of this Act.”
“It is the same thing. 'Commencement' is the technical expression for
then observed: “I want to enter a protest against this proposal, in
order that it
may be recorded that I did so. I do not intend to press my objection
to say, as a member of the Masonic Order, that I do not think it is
this step should be taken. I see the point of view of hon. members
below the gangway
‒ that, if there is to be a restriction, so far as joining any of these
is concerned, there should be no exception whatever. Hitherto the
has taken a place entirely by itself. It takes no political part
whatever in the
life of Ireland, nor, as far as I know, in the life of England. At the
I am fully alive to the fact that as it is a secret society, hon.
members say that
if there is to be a rule that men of the Royal Irish Constabulary are
not to be
permitted to join any secret society, the rule must apply here also,
and with this
protest I am prepared to waive my objection. I hope, however, that
members of the
Order, whether inside or outside the House, will not regard it as any
the society. We are in the midst of a great war, and we all have to
I have none of my friends here to support me, or even to advise me, in
Therefore I simply enter my protest, and, faced with the fact that we
want to show
a united front wherever we can, and in the interests of the discipline
of the force,
I withdraw my opposition.”
was then agreed to, and a further amendment made, at the end of the
in the third column, to insert the words, “so far as respects persons
who join the
Metropolitan Police after the commencement of this Act.” The schedule,
was then added to the Bill, it being worded thus:-
6 & 7
c. 13. Constabulary (Ireland)
from “whatsoever,” where it last appears to “Freemasons,” so far as
who join the Royal Irish Constabulary after the commencement of this Act
6 & 7
Police Act, 1836
from “whatsoever,” where it last appears to “Freemasons,” so far as
who join the Dublin Metropolitan Police after the commencement of this
was immediately reported to the House, at which stage, despite the
suggestion that it might be possible then to deal with the matter “in a
way,” not a further word was said concerning it; and the measure was
a very few minutes for third reading, which was given to it without
on Wednesday of this week.
Letter Humanum Genus” of Pope Leo XIII
(Concluded From January Issue)
then proceeds to state the materialistic “principles of statesmanship.”
“They maintain that all things are vested in a free people; that power
is held by
the order or permission of that people, so that, if the popular
Princes may be degraded from their rank even against their will. They
the source of all laws and civil duties is either in the multitude, or
in the power
that rules the State, and this when formed by the newest teaching.” And
avers, “that these very sentiments are equally pleasing to the
Freemasons; and that
they wish to arrange States after this likeness and pattern, is too
well known to
need demonstration. For long indeed they have been openly working for
with all their strength and resources.”
the political principles of all English-speaking Masons; not because
they are Free-Masons,
not because these principles are taught in their lodges for they teach
in regard to politics or systems of government; but because they are
Scotsmen, Irishmen, or citizens of the United States; and their Civil
are founded upon these principles. In other countries these are the
have always inspired the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and the
French or Modern
Rite; and these Rites have therefore always been the advocates and
in the Latin countries of Europe, of freedom and constitutional
in this chiefly consist their glory and their honor. The Roman Catholic
been always and everywhere on the side of the arbitrary power Princes
Masonry on the side of the people. Thou hast said truly, O Pope!
Successor of Saint Peter thus announces to the Faithful the law by
which they are
to be absolutely governed, ‒ the law of the Divine right of anointed
“As men are born by the will of
God for civil
union and association, and as the power of ruling is so necessary a
bond of civil
society, that on its removal that society must suddenly be severed, it
He who gave birth to society gives birth also to the rule of authority.
is understood that he in whom power is, WHOEVER HE IS, is God's
so far as the end and nature of human society require, it is as right
to obey lawful
authority, when it issues just orders as it is to obey the power of God
all things: and this is pre-eminently inconsistent with truth, that it
upon the will of the people to cast off obedience at its pleasure.”
one, then, who finds himself actually possessing power, thereby God's
Was Cromwell God's Minister? Was William of Orange God's Minister? Was
the Great? Were William and Mary God's Ministers? Are the King and
Italy God's Ministers? Are the Emperors of Germany and Brazil God's
no! The Pope means those in whom power is, they having lawful
authority, i.e., those
whose rule and power are sanctioned by the Church. How, according to
if it be “pre-eminently inconsistent with truth” that the people may
rid a country
of a ferocious and brutal tyrant, by compelling his abdication ‒ of a
VII., or Philip II., (whose will and that of the Church of Rome Alva
the Netherlands, leaving written there all over the land the
records of the blood-guiltiness of the Church and King), ‒ of a Bomba,
of a Nero,
of a Caligula, of a Borgia, ‒ how is any bloody and brutal miscreant,
purple, to be dethroned? Must the people endure until God shall remove
malefactor by death, that perhaps Commodus may succeed Tiberius, or a
meaner tyrant follow Bomba?
be some power on earth to set free a suffering people. It must not
the will of the people to cast off obedience at its pleasure, ‒ all
ordered to believe.” When, then? When the Church may authorize it; when
may declare the Throne forfeited for crime, and excommunicate the
Ruler, as Heretic
or Free-Mason? Is it not this that is meant?
Pope pronounces by his prerogative of infallibility, and as Vicegerent
of God, whom
it is as unlawful to refuse to obey as it is to refuse “to obey the
power of God
who rules all things,” that the dethronement of James II., Catholic
King of England,
was an act of disobedience of the power of God.
“On the contempt for the
authority of Princes,
on the allowing and approving of lust for sedition, on the granting of
to the passions of the people, bridled only by the fear of punishment,
of necessity arise a change and overthrow of all things.”
he passionately cries, “have begun to have great weight in ruling
States, but they
are ready to shake the foundations of Empires, and to censure, accuse
out the chief men of a State, whenever its administration seems
different from their
wishes. Just so have they deluded the people by their flattery. By
calling in sounding
terms for liberty and public prosperity, and saying that it is owing to
and Princes that the people are not delivered from unjust slavery and
have imposed upon the populace, and have instigated it by a thirst for
to attack the power of both.”
in Italy, was a Free-Mason, and there are perhaps a hundred and fifty
in Italy; and yet a King rules peacefully there, upheld by the
Minister, Depretis, being a Mason. In Brazil the Emperor is a
Free-Mason of the
33d Degree, and there have been no insurrections or disturbances of the
there, though the Free-Masons assemble in some two hundred Lodges and
In Portugal there are a Grand Orient and Supreme Council and sixty or
and the Marshal Duke Saldanha, why by peaceful revolution gave that
Kingdom a constitutional
government, was Ex-Grand Master of Masons; and yet a King reigns
peacefully in Portugal.
In Spain there are two hundred Lodges, and Sagasta is a Free-Mason, and
reigns secure, his throne upheld by FreeMasonry.
the Church and Princes, the Pope exclaims, instigated by Free-Masons,
the people greater expectation than reality of advantage. “Nay, rather,
people, suffering worse oppression, are for the most part forced to be
very alleviations of their miseries, which they would find with ease
if matters were arranged according to Christian ordinances. But as many
against the order arranged by divine Providence, usually pay this
penalty for their
pride, that they meet with a wretched and miserable fortune in the
they rashly expected prosperity and success.”
Colonies in the New World threw off by revolt the intolerable yoke of
of the Spanish Crown, and made themselves free Republics. They were not
with “matters arranged according to Christian Ordinances” by the
for the benefit of a rapacious and cruel government, with those
by Inquisitors. Are the people of Mexico losers thereby? Are those of
Venezuela? The Netherlands, bled nearly unto death, at last, by heroic
and matchless courage, rescued their country from the Satanic rule of
put an end to such Saturnalia of Hell there as that of the Eve of St.
and in carrying away the Pope to Avignon paid Rome in full for the
blood with which
the grey hairs of old Coligni dabbled the stones of Paris. God, by the
of Luther, avenged the murdered Albigenses and Lollards, Huss and
of Prague and Savonarola; seriously disarranging “matters arranged
Christian Ordinances.” Has all this been to the manifest disadvantage
of the people
of the liberated countries of the world? Have the Netherlands, Belgium,
Italy, lost by it? Is France miserable and suffering? Is Germany
Great Britain languish for want of the tender mercies of the Papacy?
Statesman, Edmund Burke, said that he did not know how to draw an
a whole people; but we have thus shown, by the very words, faithfully
of the Roman Pontiff himself, that this Encyclical Letter, which
purports to be
only an arraignment and condemnation of Free-Masonry, is in its
and deepest significance an indictment, not only of the people of every
and Constitutional Monarchy in the world; but of every Protestant
country in the
world; and not only of the people of every Protestant country in the
of all that portion of the people of every Catholic country who have in
centuries asserted the right of the people to have a voice in the
affairs of government,
and to be secure in their persons and lives against the infernal
methods of procedure,
the creation of imaginary crimes, and the cruel torturings upon mere
of such tribunals as the Inquisition. It is a sentence purporting to be
by the voice of God, outlawing and excluding from Heaven all the
patriots and lovers
of liberty and liberators of the people, all the array of martyrs who
in endeavoring to vindicate the right of Humanity to freedom of thought
as wicked and criminal, and contrary to the ordinances of the Christian
not only the laws which permit the solemnization of marriage by the
and those which exclude sectarian religious teaching from schools and
maintained by public taxation; not only the constitutional provisions
which in all
the States of these United States decree the separation of Church and
refuse to the Church any part in the civil government of the country;
not only those
by which the pretensions of the Churches and their right to dictate
be freely discussed by the public press; but also the great principle
on which the
governments of all Republics are founded, of the sovereignty of the
only legitimate source and author of civil power and government. It
divine right of Princes, if held by the Church of Rome to have lawful
to govern men against their will; that they are the Ministers of God;
and that the
people have no power to free themselves from the tyranny and oppression
divinely commissioned scourges and Assassins of Humanity.
It is an
indictment of Humanity itself, for its instinctive struggles to lift
the miseries and indignities of bodily and intellectual bondage to
Priest and Potentate;
for the involuntary and irrepressible aspirations of its Soul towards
knowledge and the free atmosphere of intellectual expansion; and for
the not more
involuntary quiverings of its tortured, racked, wrenched and mutilated
nerves. It is an indictment of Civilization, of Progress, of the Spirit
of the self-respect of the Peoples, of the Progress onward and upward
of the Spirit of the Age, which is the very Inspiration of God; and of
and the beneficent Providence of God, Who loves the people in rags,
hungry and hopeless,
better than He loves the Priests in scarlet and the Tyrants in purple.
and by his Apostolic authority confirming everything decreed by former
Free-Masonry, ratifying their Bulls as well in general as in
particular, Leo XIII.
leaves to his faithful subjects no discretionary power to regard any
those anathemas as obsolete, or to pay respect and obedience to those
of Right, or Constitutions, of the countries in which they live, which
the enforcement of the commands of the Church containing these Bulls.
For he immediately
adds: “Having entire confidence in this respect, in the good will of
those who are
Christians, we beseech them, in the name of their eternal salvation,
and we demand
of them to make it for themselves a sacred obligation of conscience,
never to depart,
even by one single line, from the mandates promulgated on this subject
by the Apostolic
He then proceeds
to direct by what measures and devices the Clergy “are “to cause to
impure contagion of the poison which circulates in the veins of
society, and infects
tearing off the mask of Free-Masonry and showing it as it is.
special discourses and pastoral letters to instruct the people. “Remind
he says, “that by virtue of the decrees often issued by our
predecessors, no Catholic,
if he desires to continue worthy of the name, and to have for his
concern which it deserves, can, under any pretext, affiliate with the
Sect of Free-Masons.”
frequent instruction and exhortation to help the masses to acquire a
religion, expounding, in writing and orally, the elements of the sacred
which constitute the Christian philosophy; and so to increase the
devotion of Clergy
and Laity to the Catholic Church, the result whereof will be increased
secret societies, and greater care to avoid them. To which method of
what is believed by the Church to be truth, and opposing the progress
of what it
believes to be error, a Free-Mason will be the last man in the world to
if it is not to be supplemented by other too well known methods.
And, to engage
with great zeal in increasing and strengthening the Third Order of
in the discipline whereof the Pope claims to have made wise
modifications; so that
“it may be able to render greater service in helping to overcome the
these detestable Sects.”
re-engage in establishing corporation of workingmen, to protect, under
of religion, the interests of labor and the morals of workers; with
patrons, to assist and instruct the proletaires, such as is the Society
Vincent de Paul.
to watch with pastoral solicitude over the young, drawing them away, by
efforts, from the schools and teachers where they would be exposed to
poisoned breath of the Sects: parents, teachers and curates, urged by
guarding their children and pupils against “these criminal societies,”
ever endeavoring to ensnare them; those who have it in charge to
prepare young persons
to receive the sacraments, inducing every one of them to take a firm
not to join any society without the knowledge of their parents, or
consulted their curate or confessor.
For the rest,
to implore the aid of the Lord, with great ardor and reiterated
to the necessity of the circumstances, and the intensity of the…
on account of its former success, the Sect of Free-masons insolently
head, and its audacity no longer seems to know any bounds. United to
by the bond of a criminal federation, and by their secret plans, its
to each other mutual support, and incite each other to dare and to do
violent attack an energetic defense must respond. Good men must unite,
an immense coalition of prayers and efforts. Especially the Virgin
of God, must be besought to become the auxiliary and interpreter of the
displaying her power against the Sects which are reviving the
the incorrigible perfidy, and the cunning, of the Devil. Saint Michael
the revolted Angels into hell, Saint Joseph, husband of the Virgin, and
Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, must also be enlisted: and thus
danger to the human race may be averted.”
of the people in religious doctrine; enlargement of the Third Order of
organization of associations of working men; gaining control of the
the young; and incessant prayer, ‒ these are to be the ostensible means
and defense. A la bonne heure! if no more were meant. But the Church of
never been in the habit of making known the real means or instruments
which it has
determined to use for the suppression of heresy or to repress the
struggles of Humanity
to escape from the intolerable burdens of oppression; and it is not
likely to do
it now. The ostentatious recital of these peaceful means of antagonism
agree with the explicit re-enactments of the Bulls of Clement and
Church has other measures in view than teaching and prayer; and it is
them in Belgium and Brazil. It has mysteries the divulgation of which
Conclaves and Consistories, Generals of the Order, Assemblies that are
their decisions and the means and agents of execution are. The adepts
without discussion obey the injunctions of their Chiefs, holding
ready, upon the slightest notification or hardly perceptible sign, to
orders given them, devoting themselves in advance, in case of
disobedience, to the
most terrible penalties, and even to death; were the order even to
bring about the
murder of another William the Silent, or of the Chiefs of a Republic.
a Past as that of the Church of Rome is, it would have been wise not to
comment upon its real crimes by accusing others of having committed
or exposure of the doctrines of the Jesuits, by libeling those of
It is not
only just and fair and reasonable, but of absolute necessity, to
conclude that anyone
who speaks to men by authority intends the consequences that may
be the effects of his words. It is even of absolute necessity,
sometimes, to conclude
that ambiguous phrases and significant suggestions and veiled meanings,
as they are here, are employed to induce the commission of infamies,
incitation whereunto might startle the conscience of Humanity. And this
of unavoidable necessity, in the interpretation of the mandates of the
Rome against those whom it considers its enemies. For it has never yet
and condemned the maxims of the Spanish Jesuits, or declared the
the Truth or the suggestion of Falsehood, for the benefit of the
Church, to be contrary
to the spirit of the Gospel, or confessed itself ashamed for having so
the infernal enginery of the Inquisition. It is infallible, can never
can never change. It long ago lost all right to expect the world to
give it credit
for honesty of intention or frankness of expression.
Proclamation of Interdict and Excommunication is, it is probable, more
intended as a political manifesto to the Clergy and Catholics of Italy,
Belgium and Brazil, inciting them to treasonable plottings and
the Constitutional Governments of those countries. It preaches to them
a new Crusade,
the purpose whereof is to destroy those governments, to depose the
permit the existence of Free-Masonry in their dominions and the
expression of the
voice of the people in public affairs; and to place in those Kingdoms
of the young in the hands of the soldiery of Loyola, and the power of
Free-Masonry and Heresy and the favouring of liberal government in the
or Inquisition, armed with all its old inhuman and unchristian powers,
the sense of justice of the whole world long ago revolted. In Brazil it
the Arch-Bishop of Rio de Janeiro and the Bishop of Para, and all the
Ultramontane Clergy, to renew the war a few years ago waged by them
against the Emperor and Parliament, and the Laws of the Empire, acting
Emperor as towards one excommunicated, reprobated and accursed.
Thus it menaces
the public peace in those countries, inciting revolt and insurrection
and makes the Lord's Prayer the patent of an Inquisitor, and the Sermon
on the Mount
a warrant for murder.
General of the Jesuits and the Chief Inquisitor of the Holy Office have
their orders to their troops and officials, commanding them to use
exertions to carry into effect the mandates of the Encyclical Letter.
In Spain and
Portugal secret Anti-Masonic Associations are already being organized
orders, and like organizations may be looked for in the United States,
to every other means of warfare against the great principles which
represents, that can be prudently and safely employed.
It is also
a political manifesto, and more, for our neighboring Republic of
Mexico, and those
of Central and South America. There are Grand Lodges and Supreme
Councils of Masons
in most of them; and in all, Masonry is free to exist and work
is powerful and influential. In Mexico, the Ex-President, now President
the Republic, and the Actual President, are 33ds, members of the
of Mexico created by us, as the President Comonfort was a 33d, Grand
that Supreme Council, and as the President Juarez was a Mason. It is
that the population at large of the Republic is uneducated and grossly
and slavishly subservient to the Priesthood; and that it detests and
as heretics, damned by the anathemas of the Church, and unfit to live.
in Mexico has always been the uncompromising and wily enemy of every
of Republican Government, of Free-Masonry, of the principles on which
Governments are founded, and of all the men by whose sublime efforts
Mexico was made and has been maintained a Republic.
It is also
well known that, in consequence of the friendly relations between our
and the extension of railroads in Mexico, built by the capital of our
there now are in that country a great number of citizens of the United
of whom have purchased mines and lands, and are working and cultivating
Letter Humanum Genus is so framed and worded as to be calculated, and
be taken to be artfully and deliberately intended, to incite the
Priesthood in Mexico
to renewed zeal against heresy and heretics, and more persistent and
and better organized and more audacious efforts to destroy Free-Masonry
overturn Republicanism. If citizens of the United States peaceably
in useful avocations, should be assassinated by mobs, instigated, if
led, by the Priests; if Diaz and Gonzales and other Free-Masons should
and the Church should inaugurate a bloody civil war, Pope Leo XIII.
will not be
able, by any special pleading, to avoid the responsibility for all the
that may ensue.
For men have
not forgotten that Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Order of Jesus,
“Visum est nobis in Domino
posse obligationem ad peccatum mortale vel veniale inducere, nisi
nomine J.-C. vel in virtute obedientiae,) juberet.”
has seemed to us
in the Lord that on Constitutions can make it obligatory to commit a
mortal or a
pardonable sin unless the Superior (in the name of Jesus Christ, or in
obedience,) may so order.”
the General of the Jesuits holds the same doctrine to-day, and is ready
it, if occasion should demand, ‒ that the Superior in the Order has the
command an inferior to commit a mortal sin. It is a fruitful and
when the matter in hand is to destroy Constitutional Governments in
still more to be considered by the people of the United States; which,
come fully to comprehend the purport of this manifesto from the
Vatican, they will
consider. The Catholics, whom it proposes to organize into Italian
Colonies or Camps
here, obeying the laws enacted at Rome, regulating their political
action by principles
hostile to those on which Republican Government is founded, and
these upon the young entrusted to their charge, are being thoroughly
its contents and meanings; for it is already being read in all their
whose principle it damns as detestable and wicked, will come to the
it more slowly, feeling, even if Free-Masons, little interest in a
Papal Bull against
Free-Masonry, and little inclined to read so long a paper; and slow to
it is an attack upon the civil institutions and system of government
they live. But they will well understand it by and by, and have
something to say
in regard to it.
it to be of divine obligation for every faithful Catholic in the United
to be at heart the mortal and uncompromising enemy of the principles
the plan and purpose, of the Government under which he lives, and whose
permit him to plot and conspire against it with impunity. It proclaims
it to the
devout believer as a truth spoken by the mouth of God, that the great
principles, dear to the lovers of human liberty in every age, dear
beyond price or expression, to the people of the United States, on
which, as upon
the immovable adamant of eternal truth, their system of government is
false and criminal and wicked, making the United States to be a part of
it his and her duty, therefore, to do all that it may be possible to do
these principles and destroy all that is builded upon them; to gain
far as possible, of the education of youth and convert the young to the
faith; to win or buy for the Catholic Church a power and influence in
of the country.
Encyclical Letter is acted upon as a political manifesto in Ireland.
McCabe, we are told, has written a letter with reference to the
of Lord Mayor for Dublin. He says he is unable to understand how
in honor and conscience cast their votes for Mr. Winstanley, who is
both a Home
Ruler and a Free-Mason. “As a Free-Mason he is a member of a society
to overthrow religion. To Free-Masonry the revolutions of the last
traceable. No one can plead non-participation as long as he remains a
And Mr. Winstanley
has repudiated Free-Masonry to obtain votes; and he has been defeated.
But, ‒ for
which thanks be unto the God of Hosts “from Whom all glories are”! ‒
is mightier than the Church of Rome; for it possesses the invincible
might of the
Spirit of the Age and of the convictions of civilized Humanity; and it
to grow in strength and greatness while that Church, in love with and
its old traditions, and incapable of learning anything, will continue
The palsied hand of the Papacy is too feeble to arrest the march of
It cannot bring back the obsolete doctrine that Kings reign by divine
vain it will preach new Crusades against Free-Masonry, or Heresy, or
It will continue to sigh in vain for the return of the days of Philip
II. and Mary
of England, of Loyola and Alva and Torquemada. If it succeeds in
Kings of Spain and Portugal to engage in the work of extirpating
will owe it to the speedy loss of their crowns. The world is no longer
in a humor
to be saddled and bitted like an ass and ridden by Capuchins and
has inhaled the fresh, keen winds of freedom, and has escaped from
with the herds that chew the cud and the inmates of stables and
kennels, to the
highlands of Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood.
is not likely to forget that the infallible Pope Urban VIII.,
Barberini, set his
signature to the sentence which condemned to perpetual imprisonment, to
and to silence, Galileo Galilei, who, it is known, avoided being burned
at the stake
by denying on bended knees the deductions of positive science, which
the movement of the earth; and on the 2d of July, 1633, the Cardinal of
Barberini in the name of the Pope his uncle, announced to the world the
of Galileo by an Encyclical Letter, from the Latin whereof we translate
“For which matter Galileo, accused and confined in the prisons of the
has been condemned to adjure the said opinion....”
Nor are Free-Masons
likely to forget that when the Bull of Clement XII., which Leo XIII.
and re-enacts, was published, Cardinal Firrao explained the nature of
which were required to be inflicted on Masons, and what the kind of
which the Pope demanded from “the Secular Arm.”
“It is forbidden,”
he says … “to affiliate one's self with the Societies of Masons … under
of death and of confiscation of goods, and to die unabsolved and
without hope of
salvation.” Who will be audacious enough to censure us for replying
a decree which, by revivor of the Bull of Clement, condemns every
the world to death and confiscation, and damns him in advance to die
has not forgotten that when Charles IX. of France and the Duc de Guise
disowned responsibility for the massacre of 20,000 Protestants, and
others, on the
Eve and after the Eve of St. Bartholomew, the Catholic Clergy assumed
adopted it, they said: “it was not the massacre of the King and the
Duke: “it was
the Justice of God.” Then the slaughter recommenced, of neighbor by
women, of children, of children unborn, in order to extinguish
families, the wombs
of mothers cut open, and the children torn from them, for fear they
“The paper would weep, if we should write upon it all that was done.”
that at Saint-Michel, the Jesuit Auger, sent thither from the College
announced to Bordeaux that the Archangel Michael had made the great
deplored the sluggishness of the Governor and Magistrates of Bordeaux.
24th of August there were feasts. The Catholic Clergy had theirs, at
Paris, on the
28th, and ordered a jubilee, to which the King and Court went, and
to God. And the King, who proclaimed that he had caused Coligni to be
that he would have poniarded him with his own hand, was flattered to
by the praises and congratulations of Rome. Do men not remember that
feasts and great gaieties at Rome on account of the massacre? that the
the Te Deum Laudamus, and sent to “his son,” Charles IX., (to win for
whom the whole
credit of the massacre, the Cardinal of Lorraine moved Heaven and
Earth), the Rose
of Gold? that a medal was coined by Rome to commemorate it; and that a
of the bloody scene was made, and until lately hung in the Vatican?
is strong enough, everywhere, now, to defend itself, and does not dread
Hierarchy of the Roman Church, with its great revenues, and its
claiming to issue the Decrees and Bulletins of God, and to hold the
keys with which
it locks and unlocks at pleasure the Gates of Paradise. The Powers of
too, sending their words to one another over the four Continents and
the great Islands
of the Southern Seas, colonized by Englishmen, speak, but with only the
of reason, Urbi et Orbi, to men of free souls and high courage and
It does not
need that Free-Masonry should take up arms of any sort against the
Church of Rome.
Science, the wider knowledge of what God is, learned from His works;
progress of Civilization, the Spirit of the Nineteenth Century; these
are the sufficient
avengers of the mutilations and murders of the long ages of the horrid
have already avenged Humanity, and Free-Masonry need not add another
word: ‒ Except
these: ‒ that there are two questions to be asked, and answer thereunto
of all Roman Catholics in the United States, who are loyal to the
Government under which they live, patriotic citizens of the United
Do not your consciences tell
you that what is
now demanded of you by Pope Leo XIII., by the General of the Jesuits
and Chief Inquisitor
is, to engage actively in a conspiracy against that Constitution of
and the principles on which it is founded; after the dethronement of
that Constitution of Government could not live an hour?
If you cannot see it in that
light, do not your
consciences and common sense tell you, that to approve and favor and
give aid and
assistance to an open conspiracy against every other Republic and every
Monarchy in the world, and the principles on which they are founded, is
a part that is inconsistent with the principles that you profess to be
by here, is in opposition to all the sympathies of the country in which
and is hostile to the influences of its example among the people of
treacherous to your own country, and unworthy of American citizens?
have to answer these questions; for they will not cease to be
reiterated until you
do; and not by Free-Masonry alone.
the Grand Orient aforesaid, the first day of August, 1884, and of the
the, 84th year.
ALBERT PIKE, 33d
‒ A League Of The Nation
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
month of February holds among its days the greatest birth-dates in the
of our Republic: it gave us Washington and Lincoln. It behooves us not
only to recall
their names, but to renew our homage to their patriotic manhood, their
and their practical sagacity, that so, avoiding alike the obscurantist
and the impossibilist,
we may realize our true destiny in our own nation and among the peoples
of the earth.
Living in a time of reaction and irritation, of confusion and
misgiving, we need
to reach into the grave and touch the bones of our prophets, and thus
our faith and our vision.
came up from the south; Lincoln came down from the north. They were
men, each trained for the task appointed him, each bringing to an hour
a great and simple faith, a disinterested devotion to the common good,
acumen led and lighted by an authentic moral insight; and the Republic
is at once
their monument and their memorial. Fidelity to all that is holy in our
no less than our obligation to those yet unborn, demands that we keep
memory and ideals of the men who first organized, and then cemented, a
states into a League of the Nation, changing division and weakness into
power. Three things are supremely needed today, if we are not to lose
our way in
the fogs of party passion, and betray both ourselves and humanity.
all, there must be a profound recognition of the fact, attested by the
men of our race, and confirmed by long tragic experience, that, in the
spiritual forces can hold a nation together and make it truly great.
The great moral
prophets were not the dupes of delusions; they saw straight, and the
storm of great events” through which we have passed proves that they
alone are practical
men. Even Bismarck saw that in the last result victories are won by the
by the moral and spiritual influences, and that fact is made doubly
Force is a failure. Diplomacy is a delusion. Regimented ruthlessness
Unless the finer influences are allowed to have free play, inducing a
and a clearer insight, there is little hope that the prayer of Lincoln
for “a just
and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations” will ever be
reason, every organized moral influence ‒ like Freemasonry ‒ has laid
upon it a
new obligation and a new opportunity. By as much as the world fills up
of moral insight and courage ‒ men who see that Masonry is not a system
manicure, but a method of training men in fraternal righteousness ‒ by
so much our
problems will be solved. The great causes of God and Humanity are not
being blown up, but by the slow, glacier-like mass of morally
indifferent men. So,
when our wise and gentle Craft labors to make men noble, faithful, and
of heart, building their lives into a brotherly world-order, she is
working at the
foundations of society, making all good things better, and all sacred
secure. But to this influence on the individual must be added the
comes of co-operation which, by its intelligence as well as by its
itself felt in behalf of the national life.
Next to a
new sense of the practical efficacy of moral forces, we need, as never
clear, commanding conception of what America means. He is a poor
patriot, and no
Mason at all, who has not asked himself what plan, what purpose, what
Great Architect is trying to work out in our national history? For true
no less than true statesmanship, consists in discerning the way the
is moving and in getting things out of His way. Surely America exists
to build in
the new world a Beloved Community ‒ united, just, and free ‒ where men
race and creed may live and live well, because they live in moral
a sense of common interest and obligation; and loyalty to that ideal is
For the same reason, race, class, party, sect, everything must be
the service of that ideal, that we may fulfill our national destiny and
be of real
service to all humanity.
we need a League of the Nation, uniting all races, classes, and
conditions of men
in a compact body of conviction and purpose, and resolved to bring to
of peace somewhat of the solidarity, the spirit of service and
sacrifice, won by
the war. Unfortunately, we have already lost to a sad extent the new
created by the mighty crusade, but we can never wholly lose the
strength and liberation
that came of united effort in a great enterprise, which must have
even the dullest mind a dim vision of what America means both to itself
and to humanity.
Hereafter, any man who lives altogether for himself, or his party, or
proves false to the men who paid "the last full measure of devotion"
a better ordering of the world in liberty, justice, and goodwill. Here,
can help, and is the better able to help in the nation as it realizes
its own unity
and obligation. Surely we have a right to hope much from the fact that
minds of the Craft are coming into vital contact with one another, and
into a larger
sense of informal but conscious comradeship in a common cause.
By the same
token, no nation can live unto itself without becoming either a menace
or a monstrosity,
as the myopic nationalism of Germany before the war proved. Great
were the footsteps of God, led America into the fellowship of free
peoples in a
crusade of righteousness, and we cannot withdraw. Moral obligations, no
the dictates of humanity, hold us to our comrades, as before a comperil
united us with them in the trenches, on the grey solitudes of the sea,
and in the
consecration of an inexpressible sacrifice. Whatever the name, whatever
of agreement, there must be some new way of working together ‒ either
bonds or otherwise if we are to save civilization from an
For the rest,
I believe in America, as I believe in God, and I know that she will not
or humanity, much less shirk her just responsibility for the public law
of the world. The words of our gracious and wise Emerson speak to us as
today as they did sixty years ago, both as to our duty to be just at
home and the
friend of freedom and peace abroad:
United States! the ages plead,
Present and part in under-song;
Go put your creed into your deed,
Nor speak with double tongue.
Be just at home; then write your scroll
Of honor o'er the sea,
And make the broad Atlantic roll
A ferry of the free.
For He that worketh high and wise,
Nor pauses in His plan,
Will take the sun out of the skies
Ere freedom out of man.
By Bro. Jesse M. Whited,
of Freemasonry practiced in the United States are generally known as
the York Rite
and the Scottish Rite. Properly speaking, they should be termed the
and the Scottish Rite, for the one commonly called York is peculiar in
proceedings only to the United States.
Rite embraces the Symbolic, the Capitular, the Cryptic and the Templar
degrees are conferred in a Lodge and are the Entered Apprentice, the
and the Master Mason. They are called Symbolic because their prominent
mode of instruction
is by symbols.
degrees are conferred in a Royal Arch Chapter and are the Mark Master,
Master, the Most Excellent Master and the Royal Arch. The supplemental
degree of High Priesthood is conferred in a Council of High Priests
upon those who
have been regularly elected to preside over a Chapter of Royal Arch
are called Capitular because they are conferred in a Chapter, the work
meaning "done in a Chapter."
degrees are conferred in a Council. They are the Royal Master, the
and the Super-Excellent Master. They are called Cryptic because the
means a secret vault or underground passage.
degrees are conferred in a Commandery and are the Red Cross, the Temple
Malta. The name Knight Templar comes from the efforts of the Christian
take the temple at Jerusalem from the Mohammedans.
Rite embraces the degrees from the 4th to the 33rd, inclusive. In the
of the United States (which includes all territory south of the Ohio
River and west
of the Mississippi River) the organization of the different bodies, and
conferred by them, are: Lodge of Perfection, 4d to 14d, inclusive;
Croix, 15d to 18d; Council of Kadosh, 19d to 30d; Consistory, 31d to
In the Northern
Jurisdiction (which includes all States north of the Ohio River and
east of the
Mississippi River) the degrees conferred are: Lodge of Perfection, 4d
to 14d, inclusive;
Council Princes of Jerusalem, 15d and 16d; Chapter Rose Croix, 17d and
19d to 32d; Supreme Council, 33d.
subordinate lodges in various states of the United States are situated
in the following
cities and states
From 1919 Directory of Masonic Life Association
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 35
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
Discussion of the above.
The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
* * *
Questions on "The Letter G"
- Before reading the article on
the letter G by Brother Haywood in this issue
of THE BUILDER what was your conception of its symbolic meaning?
- Did you accept the ritualistic
explanation as authentic and final?
- Or had you at any time
subsequent to receiving your Second degree investigated
the subject from other sources? If so, what conclusions did you reach?
- Did the Masons of the
eighteenth century know why the letter G was adopted
as a Masonic symbol?
- Are Masonic students of the
present day agreed upon the subject?
- What is said about it in the
article in Mackey's Encyclopedia?
- Name several interpretations of
the symbol as quoted by Brother Haywood.
- What are two of the most common
- What branch of the sciences was
given the greatest prominence, in the old
Constitutions of Masonry?
- What is a reasonable
explanation for this?
- How are the confused
explanations of the symbol by eighteenth century writers
- How did the letter G ever come
to stand for Deity?
- What was the Kabbala?
- Around what did the symbolic
system Kabbala center?
- What restrictions were placed
upon the real name of God by the ancient Jewish
- What was result of these
- What symbol did the Kabbalists
adopt for the lost name of Deity?
- In what manner is the G
supposed to have been substituted for the Hebrew
- Should there be a distinction
at this day between the G standing for Geometry
and for Deity?
- What had Pythagoras and Plato
to say concerning Geometry?
will men have learned the secret of the letter G?
* * *
Vol. III. Geometry in Masonic Symbolism, p. 349
The Letter G, p. 28.
Vol. IV. "A Certain Point Within a Circle," p. 208.
Vol. V. The Plan of Masonry, p. 269.
Encyclopedia [Lib 1914]:
The Letter G, p. 287;
Kabbala, p. 375
* * *
By Bro.H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Part X ‒
The Letter G
G is so intimately related to the symbolism of the Middle Chamber and
therewith that it will be wise, just here, to attempt an explanation of
letter. "Mysterious" is used advisedly because there has been very
agreement among our scholars either as to its origin or to its meaning.
we can hit upon the manner in which a symbol was introduced into the
ritual by studying
the records of the early eighteenth century in England at which time
and place the
ritual was cast in its modern form, but such a study cannot help us
the eighteenth century Masons were themselves confused about the
matter. This confusion
survives to our own day with some authorities holding to one theory,
others to its
opposite, and still others, like the Grand Master of one American
inclined to throw the symbol out altogether. Mackey, who was always so
was quite as radical as this Grand Master, as is witnessed by this
is to be regretted that this letter G as a symbol was ever admitted
into the Masonic
believes that the G stands for the Greek rendering of "geometry";
that it is the initial of the Greek name for "square"; Brother J.T.
thinks that it may be an old Egyptian snake emblem; others hold that it
the square made "gallows shape," and that this gradually became
into a G. The most common theories, however, are that it stands for
that it is the initial of our word "God." It will be necessary to
these last interpretations more at length, for the evidence seems to
favor one or
the other, or perhaps both together.
read the old Masonic Constitutions without being struck by the
to Geometry in their descriptions of Masonry. The oldest copy of them
to spring from Geometry, as may be seen in the following excerpt:
"On this manner, thru good wit
Began first the Craft of Masonry."
(A.Q.C., vol. 25, p. 97 [Lib 1912]) has pointed out that in
every one of the hundred
or more copies of these Old Charges, or Old Constitutions, Geometry is
among sciences. How can we account for this? The most reasonable
seem to be that Operative Masonry was nothing other than applied
Geometry. The builder
in that early day had no architectural handbook, no blue prints, no
tables of and
his skill consisted in knowing by heart many of the processes of
Geometry, and his
secrets were nothing other than these same processes and the knowledge
them. This being the case, it was natural that he should hold his
science in high
reverence and make its name, represented by its initial letter, to
serve as a symbol
in his lodge. Such, at any rate, is the reading of the matter as held
by a majority
of our best modern scholars.
believe that when Freemasonry became stagnant in the seventeenth
century, so that
very few lodges remained in existence, Freemasons themselves lost the
of the letter G though they retained the symbol because it was so
essential a part
of the system which they inherited. This, so it is believed, accounts
for the confused
explanations made by eighteenth century writers.
How did the
letter G ever come to stand for Deity? It is almost impossible to
answer this question
with any degree of certainty, because the available evidence is so
it is thought by some that an explanation may be found in the
Freemasonry and Kabalism, for it is believed that some of the
by the lodges in the seventeenth century brought a certain amount of
system of the Kabbala centered about the Divine Name. According to
traditions the real name of God, given to the Jewish people through
Moses, was not
permitted to be written, except with the consonants only. At the time
of the exile
the pronunciation, and consequently the true spelling, of the Holy Name
The consonants, J.H.W.H. remained, but what the vowels were nobody
to find the Lost Name became one of the great ambitions of Jewish
priests and scholars,
and this search became one of the principal subjects in the literature
of the Kabbala.
Not having the name itself the Kabbalists were wont to inscribe a
(Yod) in the center of a triangle with equal sides and make this stand
It is supposed
that this symbol was brought into Masonry by the non-operatives who
but that in the course of time the common men who made up the lodges
for the Hebrew initial of the Divine Name, the English initial.
Inasmuch as the
initial letter of God was the same as the initial letter of Geometry
the two symbols
became confused, and at last the old Masonic meaning of G was forgotten.
If this history
of the matter be correct ‒ I have pieced it together from the opinions
by many of our most learned scholars ‒ I do not see that we need to
make any choice
between G as standing for Geometry and G as standing for Deity; the two
merge naturally because men have always seen in the Geometry which is
found in nature the clearest unveiling of the Infinite Mind. The Greek
Pythagoras, who was the first man to raise Geometry to the rank of a
his philosophical system on numbers and their relations. "All things
numbers," he said, "the world is living arithmetic in its development
‒ a realized geometry in its repose." Of a similar mind was Plato, king
Greek philosophers. When asked how God spends his time, he replied,
always geometrizing." "Geometry rightly treated is the knowledge of the
Eternal." "Geometry must ever tend to draw the soul towards the truth."
of the enormous increase in knowledge we who live twenty-five
those thinkers can still agree with them; science has only made more
lucid order, the geometric symmetry of the universe. The very elements
matter is composed group themselves together in regular order; crystals
are a solid
geometry; the plant, the tree, the construction of an insect's wing,
are all symmetrical
in their proportion and rhythmical in their motions; the stars move in
wildest comet inscribes a spiral, and the whole universe is one vast
realm of order
and design. Surely, where there is so much order, there must be an
builds itself on the orderliness of nature so does Masonry seek to
upon the equally certain laws of the human mind. Human beings are not
to the universal reign of law. These axe laws of brotherhood, laws of
of the ideal, as certain in their operations and as undeviating in
as the law of gravity. When men learn these laws, and when they adjust
to them, they will discover that the face of God has been made plain ‒
have learned the secret of the letter G.
or Outline For Lodge Histories
With a view
to uniformity and comprehensiveness, and to assist those brethren
appointed to prepare
their lodge histories, we suggest the following skeleton or outline of
which should be varied according to circumstances. And we here remark
that all members
of the lodge should lend their assistance and co-operation in this
in gathering up the facts which do not appear in the lodge records.
‒ Geographical location, surroundings, history, population, development
condition, social and otherwise, of the community.
‒ Preliminary steps to formation of the lodge. Names of the Brethren
in the movement, and of those who signed the petition for the
dispensation, or charter,
their occupations Masonic records and brief biographies. Other
particulars of interest
connected with them or the lodge in its early stages.
‒ If an old lodge, formed prior to the adoption of the present form, a
of the petition, with signatures, would doubtless be of interest. Give
number of the lodge that recommended the petition.
‒ To what Grand Master or Deputy Grand Master the petition was
presented, his action
thereon and the date. Names of the Brethren appointed Master and
Wardens of the
‒ When, by whom, and in what building, the lodge was opened under
Minutes of the first several meetings, or copious extracts or summaries
showing how the new lodge started off.
‒ If an old lodge, chartered prior to adoption of present form, a full
signatures, of the petition for a charter. To what Communication of the
was it presented, when and where did the Grand Lodge meet, the report
of the Committee
on Lodges Under Dispensation, or other committee, thereon, and the
action of the
Grand Lodge. If refused, follow up the doings of the lodge till the
‒ Where, by whom and in what building, was the lodge constituted? Names
of its officers
given in the charter and installed, minutes or summary thereof and the
other functions incident to the occasion (if any).
‒ Any facts of general Masonic, historical or local interest connected
experiences and progress of the lodge and of Masons in the community.
of the minutes might be of service.
‒ List of all the Worshipful Masters of the lodge and the year in which
elected and installed, in chronological order.
‒ A roll, in chronological order, of all the members of the lodge since
organization, those "made" Master Masons by the lodge in one column,
affiliated in another.
‒ A list of all Brethren who have died while members of the lodge, with
death, and noting observance of the burial service (if any), with names
performing same and other Brethren present.
‒ A brief historical account of the several lodge rooms occupied, the
time of the
occupancy of each, and the circumstances connected with or causing the
the leasing or building of each. A mention of any of the old lodge
appurtenances might be of interest.
‒ All traditions of interest connected with the lodge, especially in
the early days,
and contemporaneous events in the community in which the lodge or any
of the Brethren
were directly or indirectly concerned.
‒ Note time and circumstances connected with each visit of a Grand
the District Deputy Grand Master, to the lodge and the social functions
‒ If the lodge was named for other than the town or some noted
historical or Biblical
character, explain the circumstances with biography of the namesake (if
or history of the case.
‒ Biographical sketches of other prominent and deserving members of the
and present, but avoiding fulsome praises of the living.
‒ Special mention of any member or members of the lodge who have held
any of the Grand Bodies of Masonry in Texas or elsewhere (before coming
in the public service, local, state or national.
‒ Accounts with dates and full particulars, including officers, members
etc., of all notable functions or events in the lodge, public or
private, such as:
(a) St. John's Day celebrations and
(b) Cornerstone ceremonies.
(c) Any others, Masonic, patriotic,
‒ Brief mention of other Masonic bodies, in same town or county, with
date of charter
and other particulars. To these outlines could be added other features
especially of things not preserved in Printed Proceedings of the Grand
Grand Lodge Proceedings, Texas.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
to Andrew Jackson, the seventh President of the United States, hero of
at New Orleans, and Past Grand Master of Freemasons, is in La Fayette
Washington directly opposite the Executive Mansion (now called the
It was the first equestrian statue erected in the Capitol City, and was
on the 8th of January, 1853. Correspondence shows it had been the
purpose to have
a Masonic attendance, but the Grand Lodge was not at liberty to appear
clothing unless Masonic work was to be done, and no arrangements had
been made for
was started through the efforts of the Jackson Democratic Association
$12,000 and Congress appropriated the additional amount of $20,000.
It was modeled
by Brother Clark Mills, who had the courage to pose the horse on its
two hind feet,
and he succeeded in getting a balance, much to the surprise and
admiration of many
people. The memorial was pronounced a splendid work of art and was
praised by the
Press generally. President Jackson is shown in the uniform of a General
of the Army, in the period of 1812.
memorial was dedicated the Capitol City had a population of
including government officials. The park where the monument was erected
a common. The occasion of the dedication (the first that the writer
was probably the largest and most enthusiastic that had ever hitherto
in the city.
Such a thing
as placing another memorial in that little park was never dreamed of,
but when the
memorial to La Fayette was in the course of construction in 1890 the
location arose and it was determined to place it in La Fayette Square,
the old enemies of Jackson materialized and a drastic effort was made
the effigy of Jackson. It was even caricatured in an almanac as
Since then there has been placed a memorial in each corner of the
square and all,
excepting Kosciuso and Rochambeau, were Masons. The Kosciuso statue was
to the government by the Polish Societies (Catholic), and though the
appears on one side, "Racliwics" appears in equally large letters on
other side. The one was his American battle and the other a Russian
and Henry Clay were the two prominent Masons who defied the
Anti-Masonic Party which
had its origin in the alleged "disappearance" of Morgan. These people
essayed to make the Morgan episode a "Party issue" during Jackson's
but "Old Hickory" stood pat and was elected President. More than this,
he was reelected after serving a term of four years.
opposition to the U.S. Bank system caused the destruction of many
though he believed he was protecting the best interests of the
course was not generally approved. His principal opponents in this were
and Daniel Webster. No National Bank existed from that time until the
when they sprang up in every State.
much such a man as Roosevelt ‒ he could separate public from personal
He was easy to get into a fight with, but rarely, if ever offensive.
In his difference
with Mr. Dickinson it is clear that he wished to avoid a fight. In
fact, he commissioned
a friend to so declare. Dickinson, reputed to be fearless, and the best
the State, was the man whom his enemies were using. Finally Dickinson
offensive that Jackson felt obliged to challenge him. Dickinson won the
give the word, and at eight paces gave it, and fired. Finding that
no sign of being hit, Dickinson cried, "My God, have l missed him?";
Jackson fired, and Dickinson’s funeral followed. But Jackson was hit,
being shattered, a rib broken and some intestinal injury that disabled
him for several
with Benton was none the less tragic, Jackson seemed to harbor no
grudge, for they
afterwards became good friends.
Jackson's foreign policy was eminently successful. New commercial
made with other nations, and old ones renewed. Indemnities for
spoliations on American
commerce were obtained from France, Spain, Italy and Portugal, and
were sustained with England. During Jackson’s second term the national
extinguished; Cherokee Indians were removed from Georgia, and the
Creeks from Florida;
and Arkansas and Michigan were admitted to the Union.
We may have
greater men now ‒ but when will we ever see the national debt cancelled
But we are
all intended, not to carve our work in snow that will melt, but each
and all of
us to be continually rolling a great white gathering snowball, higher
larger and larger, along the Alps of human power.
and love mold the form to their own image, and cause the joy and beauty
to shine forth from every part of the face.
of the Lodge Initiation
By Bro. G. Garland Riggan,
of a lodge to its initiation is so important and so evident that even
observer must have noted the closeness of the connection. To a great
many the two
are almost synonymous terms. To them there is no lodge without the
the lodge exists for that initiation. To others who think more deeply,
come closer to the truth, the initiation is the very life and breath of
It exists ‒ it owes its existence to an act of initiation. The lodge
to grow unless it receives candidates. The initiation is therefore
the very existence of the lodge. Moreover the initiation is the power
which calls its members again and again to the sessions of the lodge.
at least half of the attendance of the lodge would not have been
it is a common observation that the attendance upon the lodge sessions
is at the
greatest when the degree work is at its best in both quantity and
the initiation is the means ‒ perhaps the principle ‒ of enlisting the
of the members in behalf of the order. The individual member can do one
of two things for his order, he can attend and he can take part in the
Therefore the initiation is rightly called "work" as it engages the
of the members. The initiation consequently is primal in its relation
to the lodge,
its attendance, its activity and prosperity.
To this commonly
accepted view there must be added that which is not so universally
thought of in
this connection, viz.: that of the candidate ‒ how the candidate
ceremony of initiation? ‒ what is the mental state? ‒ what method shall
to meet that state? These are considerations of first importance not
only to the
candidate but to the lodge itself ‒ In short, the psychology of the
and before the time of the initiation constitutes the very
raison-d'être for all
the ceremony attendant upon the induction of the candidate into the
of the lodge.
of this article is therefore to trace the psychology of the whole
situation in order
that the ceremonies of initiation and their intrinsic worth may be
and on the other hand, that the ceremonies may be improved in
accordance with strict
psychological principles to the end of improving the impression made
upon the candidate
in this most receptive period ‒ in his lodge life.
The Psychological Condition
of the Candidate
who will recall the time of their introduction into the preparation
to the lodge room of a secret order there will be required no argument
that there is a psychological condition of the candidate with which he
the ceremony of initiation. To the candidate who is receiving the
degrees the mental
state is unusually active, with extreme emphasis upon the emotions. The
once experienced will never be forgotten. What is that psychological
- The candidate
craves information concerning the secrets of the degree and
the principles of the order that he seeks to join. By conversation with
who may covertly or overtly have obtained his petition he has come to
there is a mass or body of truth concerning which he is in ignorance.
comments upon the "lofty principles of the order," "the beautiful
work … the impressive degree," all go to strengthen the opinion that he
held more or less distinctly for some time. The candidate therefore
with a feeling of curiosity. If the initiation is even tolerably good
will be easily obtained throughout it all for his interest is enchained
the preparation room. The nature of the degrees as far as he may
him the impression that they are valuable. Therefore his mental
condition is favorable,
the candidate haying ascribed value to the principles and initiation
he has received them. The lodge therefore can count upon the interested
attention of the candidate from the very start.
- The candidate craves an
individualistic experience. In a dim way he realizes
that the initiation is an experience through which he must pass. Even
approaches the hour with a slight feeling of dread owing to the
he feels (not of course knowing what will happen to him), nevertheless
to receive it. "Others have gone that way before him," he is told. The
very fact that he is to undergo a common experience makes him feel that
not be unequal to the test. Moreover if others have endured this he
surely can and
moreover he will. The mental condition therefore is that of pride and
with the secret desire to have the experience. Having heard of the
that he must ride and also of the "beautiful work," he looks for some
individualistic experience which he must undergo ‒ something that is
Therefore he looks for action of some kind. He expects to take part in
‒ for the action to center around him and that either actively or
passively he shall
be the center of attraction in all the movement. This, of course,
requires in his
thought that he shall pass through alone for only as he is alone can he
be the center of attraction and of action in the ceremonies. It is an
whether this feeling is due to the preceding influence brought to bear
candidate by the thought of the ceremony of initiation or rather the
is made to meet the psychological need of the candidate. The author is
to view the initiation as a situation created for the benefit of the
that there is in the candidate a psychological need that calls for
action ‒ individual
action ‒ individual experience and that the initiation is placed as the
introduction to the lodge as a concession to him. The initiation
satisfy this need. Not to face this demand in the initiation is to
candidate in his reception.
candidate is prepared to pledge allegiance to the order with which he
seeks to connect himself. He does not realize that this must be in the
form of an
obligation or an oath unless he has experienced some other initiation,
case, he receives it as a matter of course. But even if he does not
it forms a part of the initiation, nevertheless his mind is prepared
for the obligation
which he finds that he must assume, for latently he has a dim
perception that he
is throwing in his lot with the order and that his interests and its
to be one and the same. Consequently there is all the feeling of
loyalty that is
more or less latent to which he will be glad to give expression in the
of an obligation. To deprive him of an obligation is to take from him
or to fail
to develop by open expression that sentiment which is within him.
that the initiation is more or less physical and in the nature of a
test he is prepared
in spirit that the obligation should be more or less strenuous and
since he knows
that he is not joining for just a few years but, for perhaps the rest
of his life,
he will upon consideration, be willing to recognize the connection
the strongest ties known to mankind.
Again a further
consideration will urge him. These are to be his brethren and, if so,
he is to be
tied to them by some common tie. This tie he will discover could be no
than the tie of the obligation and, without the obligation, there could
no order at all, for fraternity rests upon the realization of an
obligation or a
responsibility for others, which is natural. 4. The candidate is
prepared for fellowship
after initiation. Dimly he realizes that somehow the initiation is the
the fellowship that is to ensue on its completion. This is one of the
he is willing to pass through it. He looks to see, perhaps at the time
or if not
then, afterwards the relationship between these initiations and the
The nation therefore in order to meet his expectations must emphasize
principles or common experience by which the whole brotherhood is
bound. For the
lodge to fail to do this would be to fail to respond to the
psychological need of
The Method of Meeting the
Psychological Condition of the Candidate
more or less, in detail, the psychological condition of the candidate
during the ceremonies of initiation we must now turn to examine how the
can best strengthen and supply that need. Herein is the great success
or great failure
of the degree. A properly constructed ritual will so adapt itself to
condition that the two will fit each other as does the glove the hand
it is made. Let us note:
initiation must give instruction in the principles of the Order. This,
of course, is recognized by every student of the question. The problem
is not so
much what shall be said as how it shall be said and at what times. Now
and common appeal or the means of imparting instruction that is moral
is through symbolism. Symbolism speaks a universal tongue understood by
it is explained. Moreover, its use appeals to the imagination of him
it. The candidate being in a receptive mental condition as has been
shown, is prepared
to receive the instruction in the teachings of the order if given in
the form of
symbols which are later explained. Perhaps he may surmise during the
the initiation that every movement has a meaning and that if he will
only be patient
all will be made clear to him. When he comes to understand them,
however, the meaning
will be impressed upon his mind all the more because at one time they
were not understood.
If, moreover, he has the faculty of imagination the connection ‒ the
between the movement and its explanation ‒ the meaning will delight him
his belief in the order by the cleverness and beauty of the symbolism.
is therefore a response to that which is innate in every man, the use
Human language itself is a symbolism. The very word that we utter is
but a sign
or abbreviated picture of the thing or the mental state that
accompanies the presentation
of the thing. All life therefore is based more or less upon a symbolism
becomes almost instinctive in the human mind. Therefore no better
method of instruction
could be employed than symbolism. Thrice blessed indeed is the secret
has been able to work out a consistent symbolism in its degrees for
symbols it can hope to speak to the human mind better than by any other
to this, there is call for direct instruction. The candidate must be
told the principles
of the Order and not left to infer them altogether. If he has passed
the meaning of which he has not thoroughly comprehended these must be
to him in detail. Here two methods must be used ‒ the eye and the ear.
to psychologists the majority of persons are eye-minded or receive
by the eye than any other way. The lodge therefore must make large use
of the visual.
Its symbolism should be shown completely. If characters are
impersonated they should
wear the robes suitable to the impersonation. All stage properties
should be real
that the impression of reality may be the better realized. Moreover the
should be shown, perhaps by the chart, the object or by the
stereopticon, the principles
of the order. He can grasp them better in that way than in any other,
than by the ear. Still, however, there is a large appeal through the
ear and the
method of instruction through oral comment and the effective degree
must not fail
to make use of plain instructive and beautiful oral explanation
throughout its work.
Between the two, the oral and the symbolic, there should be, if
possible, a connection
in order that there may be unity. The fitting order seems to be first
This is more universal and will impress the candidate, thereby gaining
and fastening his curiosity. This gives large scope for action. Later
on in order
to satisfy this curiosity symbolism can be explained to him and by the
now understood the principles of the order are more clearly impressed
upon his mind.
2. Action must play a large part
in the method of meeting the psychological
condition of the candidate. As has been before said the candidate
expects an experience
and in reality demands it. The initiation, therefore, must place a
upon action. The candidate must be doing something or having something
done to him.
It is not sufficient for him to sit to one side and see something done.
be in the work. It must be done to him else it largely loses its
If the reader
will think over the degree that he has received he must admit that the
has remained most vividly in his mind is the one in which there has
been a large
emphasis upon individual action. There are degrees in which he himself
‒ perhaps alone ‒ in which he was the center of action and in which he
the full force of the action ‒ these are the degrees which will ever
live in memory
of the candidate.
of the lodge is a testimony to the same fact. One of the great elements
in a degree is the large emphasis upon action ‒ action centering around
To illustrate: The great appeal of the Master Mason degree is the large
placed upon the action centering in and around the candidate and the
of a story in animated action ‒ these are the forces that bring the
after night to see the third degree above all others. The universal
that even the occasional lodge-goer will always seek out the third
degree and attend
that one even if he is never seen for the first and the second degrees.
for this has been stated ‒ the large use of action in the degree. The
in lodge circles, in our opinion, does violence to the psychological
The common procedure today is that of large classes in which the
not take part ‒ an individualistic part ‒ in the work. He with his
ninety and nine
fellow candidates are ushered into the lodge room, given a front seat
and look upon
the degree as it is conferred in more or less spectacular form. In all
he is quiescent. He does nothing save look upon the action of others.
He is not
the center of the action but merely a spectator of it. Moreover the
fact that he
is but one of a score or more makes him lose the individuality that
ought to be
brought out upon the occasion of his initiation. The man does not
receive the individual
attention that should be his, in response to the psychological need.
result is that he goes away from the ceremony of initiation more or
because he has had no action ‒ no individualistic action on his part.
may admire the costumes, scenery and the principles as exemplified by
in the action of others, nevertheless they have not taken hold of him
in the way
to produce a lasting effect.
been the great power of the third degree in Freemasonry. It is that the
is the center of action ‒ that he is singled out ‒ brought to the
the stage of action. He who ‒ has received this degree can never
eradicate the impression
that is made by this individualistic experience. Therefore the present
to degree teams and large classes is doing direct violence to the
principles of the candidate. The result will be that the candidate will
the hold of the principles that he should, which he otherwise would
have had, and
of course cannot set them forth in his life because of the failure of
to impress them upon him at the most impressionable time in his lodge
of lodge procedure is to eliminate all that comes under the head of
work," "horse play" or unwarranted physical action. This has been
gradually eliminated because in some instances it has been unwisely
was hence objectionable. The pendulum seems now to be swinging in the
and all action is sometimes removed, to such a degree that all the
interest is taken
out of them. There is no more "horse play" but there is no more tense
is nothing that so impresses a candidate as physical action ‒ movement
of the body
in some form. He is prepared in thought for a certain amount of
roughness in the
initiation and not to have it there is to leave him unsatisfied. He
view the whole procedure as a very "tame affair" if he has not received
some action throughout the performance and having an opinion that the
is devoid of interest he does not possess the enthusiasm necessary to
other possible candidates. The great success and prosperity of the
order of the
Mystic Shrine is due in no small measure, if the report is correct to
of physical action in its degree work. Even if the "sands are hot" the
Shrine does not fail to attract its quota of devotees and candidates
say that there is some of the element of the brute left in mankind.
This must be
admitted. But however that maybe there is an innate desire even in the
the child as well as in the heart of the man to be the center of
action, if passive,
to be the center of the received action and the man who is but a
demands that this psychological need be grafted. We therefore think
that the rituals
should be so revised as not to do violence to this principle laid down
by the psychological
3. The candidate is prepared to
receive, and the initiation should therefore
provide, an obligation. As has been indicated the candidate craves
loyalty and his allegiance ‒ he must declare them. The obligation gives
opportunity. To be a success from a psychological point of view an
a. It involves action. The
candidate must do something during the time that
the obligation is administered to him or something must be done to him
at that time.
If the obligation can be so arranged in the initiation that it will
come as a climax
it will be all the more impressive especially if the action either by
hand or body by which the candidate must assume the obligation, is
b. The obligation must furnish the
basis of the fellowship that ensues. It must
lay the foundation of a responsibility that the candidate assumes and a
that the other members of the order have with reference to the newly
He must be made to feel by its provisions that he is being vitally
related to the
order and its fellowship. For the obligation to fail here is to fail at
point and to leave some feelings forever unsatisfied in the heart of
‒ feelings that will affect his conduct towards the lodge ever
c. The obligation must be
administered impressively. This perhaps is the reason
why in so many orders that the obligation is administered with the eyes
the hoodwink being on the candidate. Shut from the world of light by
he can give himself more in thought to the obligation that he is
receiving and the
impression made by the obligation is thereby rendered greater and more
In addition to this if there can be some symbolical movement in the
the penalty on the candidate or the re-enforcing of the obligation by
that the candidate must perform immediately upon the assumption of the
the impression created by the obligation will then be made all the
greater. To those
who have had the degrees in any secret order where such methods have
instances will readily be brought to mind and upon analysis, will be
found to be
one of the most effective parts of the initiation.
4. The principles of the order
must be embodied in the obligation to some extent.
It stands to reason why that the majority of the obligations are taken
in the presence
of Almighty God for upon the basis of Deity and the belief and
recognition of Deity
the lodge holds its existence and it is only proper that at the time of
there should be an emphasis upon that principle.
5. Moreover, the terms of the
obligation should show forth the principles of
the order in concrete fashion by demanding certain concrete acts and
other concrete acts. This method will occur to the participant in the
in Masonry as one of the most effective parts in that obligation as
this standpoint the obligation of the third degree is more impressive
than the obligations
of the first and second.
Of all these
things, we see that there must be a great emphasis upon the time, place
and content of the obligation in order to satisfy the psychological
need of loyalty
to the lodge and its brothers that is in the heart of the candidate.
6. The initiation should give an
opportunity for the candidate to participate
at once in the fellowship, duties, responsibilities and benefits of the
is perhaps one of the reasons why nearly every impressive initiation
gives a souvenir
to the candidate, though it is not the only means by which the order or
is to be remembered, but rather is a visible sign to him that he
belongs to the
fellowship of the lodge and is a part of it. This same impression is
by sometimes extending the hand of fellowship after the initiation in
order to make
the candidate realize that he is indeed a member.
7. Again the initiation should be
the means of identification of the member
and of his right to the privileges of the order. Not only is it the
door of his
entrance to the order but it should be the means of the recognition
that he is entitled
to its benefits. The emphasis placed upon it will but strengthen its
in his mind. If he is receiving a number of degrees and catches the
idea in the
conferring of the first degree that all the others which he shall
receive are but
the means (or are to be used as the means) of identification he will
the initiation all the more. All these considerations should be brought
out by the
lodge in its ceremonial initiation in order that the psychological
the candidate might again be satisfied.
Some Practical Points in
the Application of the Psychological Method
view the psychological method in general let us now observe some of the
applications as found or as should be found in the practical ceremony
1. When one faculty or one of the
senses is closed temporarily a greater appeal
must be made to the other avenues that are left open. If the candidate
in a stage of the ceremony the appeal must be made in other ways ‒
through the ear
and through touch, or even through the sense of smell. The lodge should
to introduce music at the time that the candidate is hoodwinked. The
be appropriate, of course, but even if it is not so very appropriate it
appreciated all the more by the candidate because it is about the only
that he can receive at the time and can therefore give himself
undividedly to it.
can recall upon a similar occasion that he heard the hymn "There is a
that is fairer than day" as it seemed to him then most impressively
reality it was most indifferently sung upon that occasion but because
the eyes were
closed the audible impression was rendered all the greater and in fact
made up for
the deficiency in the harmony.
should the odours of the lodge room not interfere with the impression
the candidate. If incense is to be burned let it not be burned when the
the candidate are closed. Surely he should not at the time when perhaps
he is most
solemnly impressed meet the smell of tobacco smoke or of the fetid air
of the lodge
room. All these would but tend to distract his attention and detract
from the ceremony.
when hoodwinked especially, is also cognizant of the handling of his
efficiently or inefficiently done. There should be care in the
the lodge-room that in the handling of the body of the candidate it be
done in such
a way when he is hoodwinked that it will not interfere but strengthen
impression. Again the candidate is also conscious of the way in which
the work is
delivered to him and the way in which the ritual is recited, whether
poorly or well.
There is therefore the great need for proficient ritualists at this
time in order
that the candidate may be duly impressed and not interfered with by the
of memory. In a word the candidate is, at the time that his eyes are
alive to sound, and smell and touch. All these should be used to the
of the impression of the moment.
2. Great care should be taken with
the scene that is observed by the candidate
when the hoodwink is removed. This is a part wherein all the lodge
If there is a special line formation then let that formation be
in order that the first impression may be fitting and lasting. The
will as a rule not soon forget the first sight. It is engraven upon his
The lodge should therefore by the cooperation of all, seek to make that
pleasing and correct.
3. Great attention should be paid
to the scenic effect. Lodge rooms should be
especially well furnished. Their walls are not the place for pictures
that do not
strengthen the impressions of the moment of initiation. To look at the
walls is to observe the photographs and portraits that look down from
placed there to perpetuate the memory of good men but they do not
impression of the hour of initiation.
A lodge should
spend money upon proper robes and stage effects, etc. This is not
for the candidate properly impressed by an initiation will be stirred
to get others
for the rite of the order or, if he is not allowed to solicit openly,
will stir up others to join. The bareness of many lodge-rooms is one of
causes for the dead and half dead condition of some of the country
lodges. A proper
expenditure therefore upon equipment is not only laudable but necessary.
4. In keeping with the foregoing
suggestion large use should be made of instruction
by use of the eye. This, as has been indicated, can be done by the use
and in part by the use of the object as there may be need. If possible
the lecture by the use of the concrete object the impression is greatly
The author recalls upon one occasion that the symbols in connection
with the lodge
stereopticon but by small models of the symbols themselves. The
impression was heightened
in accordance with the psychological law that the mind prefers the
even to the representation of it.
5. The initiation should contain
an element of surprise. If the candidate can
forecast what is to happen to him his interest is greatly decreased.
Those who have
received degrees in different orders can bear witness to the fact that
one of the
most impressive things is a surprise ‒ some unexpected turn of the
are the surprises all the more impressive if they are connected with
of the degree and, if unappreciated by the candidate, at least they are
upon the audience. However, the candidate rarely ever fails to perceive
of the strong points of the initiation of the third degree is that one
thing ‒ the
surprise of the second half of the degree.
6. Attention should be paid to the
large influence of the physical action in
the degree work and of its power upon both audience and candidate. The
of the firm opinion that the degree should not be made less strenuous
be conferred with more dignity with all its strenuousness. Those who
are as assisting
in the conferring of the degree should take pains not to laugh but
the roughness of the physical action as a mere incident in the proper
of the degree. Viewed in this light even the roughness becomes most
teaches its own lesson. The fault therefore and the need of improvement
not so much in the work but in those that confer the degrees that they
to observe the decorum of the occasion.
7. The important place held by the
obligation in the ceremony of initiation
should not be forgotten. In character, administration, its connection
has preceded, its relation to the fraternity, the principle of the
order, and its
secrecy as related to the rest the world ‒ all these should be
Though it may not be of such importance or interest to the spectator,
it must ever
be held in mind that it one of the most impressive parts of the
as regards the candidate and is so received by him.
We must therefore
conclude that the ceremony initiation fills a psychological need in the
It is not therefore a thing to be slurred over but a thing to be most
considered from every angle a and more especially from the standpoint
seeing that after all is said, the very purpose of the lodge is to
mind or the soul of the initiate a that the ceremony of initiation is
the only way
(or the most important way) of accomplishing that end.
and to feel, constitute, the two grand divisions of men of genius ‒ the
men of reasoning
and the men of imagination.
nothing strictly immortal, but immortality. what ever hath no beginning
may be confident
of no end.
Sir Thomas Browne
The Rule of Gold ‒ Or the
A LABOR journal
not long ago made much about the observation of an eminent Frenchman
who was quoted
as saying that the cause of the downfall of monarchies was poverty, and
cause of the downfall of republics was their wealth. (Coming to our
notice at a
time of such vital national controversy over the distribution of
wealth, and the
betterment of our social condition, it has caused us to question
whether this may
not prove to be the ultimate fate of these United States. A
certainly serves to bring out for our notice certain forces that will
to the death of the Republic that we have created if they are not
speedily and effectively
In any case
the Frenchman's observation ought to challenge us in such a manner as
us to take full measure of our national circumstances and the effort to
must be along the line that will discern in general the nature of the
agencies that are present with us.
of our social ills must be comprehensive, and the adjustment that is
made must be
made without fear or favor. We must fully recognize that as we have
rights that are unquestionably guaranteed by the Constitution of these
even so there are things in our midst that are fundamentally wrong,
the spirit of the Constitution, and ever militating against the
the nobler order in which justice and equity and social tranquility
will be the
lot of each and all.
In our investigation
let us inquire briefly what part wealth is playing in our national
We speak of demoralization advisedly, and intend merely to indicate
tendencies which, if unchecked, will surely bring it to pass. The
which competition has been carried on in trade, the unpitying cupidity
elements of our population have been kept above the subsistence line,
and the lawlessness
which we have tolerated to abuse our liberties has fomented a situation
anarchy can only be the logical expression if we do not change things.
If we make
a category of our national ills, foremost in interest will be the
capital and labor
problems. So dominant is the situation revolving around these two
factors of our
civilization that we may well believe that an effort to ascertain the
of the public would find them sharply drawn into either one of these
for things have so resolved themselves that each finds himself vitally
in the claims of either one of these two powers.
Of a verity
the rule of gold is the most potent thing in the life of this nation at
and the golden rule concerns itself only with yesterday and with One
and practiced it and who lived long ago. He was deemed to be
impractical, void of
business vision and his sole claim to an eternal hearing is his
men should live in peace and unity.
Let us solemnly
ponder again the observation of the eminent Frenchman who declared that
of republics was due to their wealth, and let us with equal solemnity
to whether the golden rule or brotherly dealings with reference to ends
filthy lucre may not be the most profitable basis for our assuring the
of this nation as an exemplar of morality and wise government, before
all the peoples
of the earth.
we are safe in presuming that the quest for wealth is indeed a quest
for power that
life itself may be enjoyed in its fullest measure; but past history
warrant us in believing that the acquisition of wealth has militated
for human downfall than human uplift. The glory that was Rome ought to
be a perpetual
warning against the quest of wealth for the pleasures that it brings.
We are working
out the problem of human life from wrong premises. Our salvation is
the plane of selfish aspiration and factional or partisan cupidity.
What we have
indicated may be conceded to be the aspiration of the rich and
powerful, and such,
too, may be said to be the aspiration of those who are in a less
Each faction is striving after wrong ends, by entertaining false
standards of what
is the greatest good in life. A shoddy imitation of the rich can never
to the poor. The insane effort to outdo the luxurious enjoyments of
never be conducive to the establishing of an exemplary morality. Let us
that we are not only living in too many instances beyond our means, but
we are living
just as frequently beyond our necessities and the warfare for the
division of the
spoils is continually aggravated.
A short while
ago a certain financial journal of high standing stated that what our
most was a revival of religion. In this we heartily concur. For
religion would rivet
men's attention once more upon righteousness. We would deal with men as
welfare and happiness would gain preeminence over exploitation, wages,
and hours. Religion would repudiate the nauseating sensationalism that
which is at once both an indication of our inferior taste and a witness
to our deterioration.
would insist that in art, music and literature things should be
measured again by
their fitness to disseminate the ideals of beauty and goodness. And the
of all good men, as we understand it masonically, is one of the most
for this purpose that exists in the world today. We are to insist that
god quantity shall be supplanted by quality, that cheapness and
give way for workers whose pattern will be discovered in those Builders
our Masonic ancestry. We are to see that thrift once more is crowned
and the spendthrift
eternally banished. We are to give to labor the respect due unto its
worth and dignity;
we are to change life by an application of our highest-ideals in the
spirit of religious
enthusiasm by consecration and sacrifice to the only worthy and
can the republic be saved from the things that the possession of wealth
to and that in themselves contain the malignant energies of
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
if you wish to learn something concerning any book ‒ what is its
nature, what is
its value, or how it may be obtained ‒ be free to ask him. If you have
read a book
which you think is worth a review write us about it; if you desire to
book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get it, with no charge for the
this YOUR Department of Literary Consultation.
Symbolism of the Three Degrees
of the Three Degrees," [Lib 1924] by Brother Oliver Day Street,
from THE BUILDER. Sixty-eight pages, paper covers. Price 35 cents.
in lots of twenty-five or more for presentation by lodges to members.
like to draw the attention of our readers to a work by our Brother
Oliver Day Street,
of Alabama, entitled "Symbolism of the Three Degrees." The book first
appeared as a series of articles in THE BUILDER. The highest
commendation is due
Brother Street for the remarkably lucid exposition of the significance
of the three
degrees in so small a space. The generous amount of references appended
to the work,
coupled with their use evidenced in the writing, is indicative of
Masonic scholarship and breadth of reading.
It is a work
of such character as will readily make intelligible to the initiate the
of our Order and it furnishes ample and satisfactory references to such
the Mason might care to read for further light and information on the
Editor would commend this to lodges desiring to place in the hands of
initiates a work that would prove both interesting and fruitful to the
* * *
A Model Lodge History
of Altemont Lodge," [Lib*] by Dr. Fred S. Piper, 20 Clarke St.,
One of the
needs of local lodges today is a local historian, one who can compile
of history in connection with the lodge that ought to be preserved.
There has recently
come to our desk a small book containing the History of Altemont Lodge
No. 26, Petersborough,
New Hampshire. It covers the period from its founding in 1815 to its
1915. Brother Dr. Fred Smith Piper is its author, and he has done his
work in such
a way as may well stand as an example for other historians. Very
suggestive is his
dissertation on how Altemont came to be selected as the name of the
lodge. The glimpse
that he gives us of the early members is one that gives us a full
the ruggedness of the Fathers of the Craft in this country.
As he endeavors
to record from year to year the working of the lodge, many things of
to our notice. Among the early chronicles we discover the practice of
on the candidates for each degree, and Altemont seemed to have been
in giving up the practice. A little later there is the record of a
trial in which
we see that there was no easy tolerance of those who did not keep close
to the path
of Masonic virtue. Still later there is the record of a vote
prohibiting the further
expenditure of the lodge's money for liquor. As our historian
continues, he arrives
at the Morgan controversy. There is quite a vivid impression given of
period and the relative attitude of the lodges of New Hampshire at that
apparently did not stand out as some of the other lodges, but it is
might have been some meetings held of which no record was kept. We have
evidence here of the ruggedness of soul that Masons of that period must
courage must of necessity have been fundamental for only one who
adhered to his
convictions through thick and thin could afford to be a Mason those
days. Our historian
indulges in some splendid observations on Masonry and its teaching and
character. His effort in this direction we believe to be a reflection
of the temper
that characterized those who have been members of Altemont. Not a large
one given to serious work and weighty matters.
is taken by our brother in the public achievements of its distinguished
It is indeed a worthy record, which may be amplified upon and as
may serve as an example for the much needed historian in all lodges. It
a matter of perennial delight to those interested in a local body if
brother would extract from the record such facts as when read would
historical things of interest that have taken place during the life of
and there is no estimating the value of the record of the distinguished
have attained position and power in public life, who attribute their
to Masonic fellowship and inspiration. Let this work of recording the
lodges be considered seriously and may it result in the realization of
will add luster to Masonic data.
* * *
A Comparison of Present-Day
Conditions with Those of the Fifteenth Century
Towns," [Lib 1920] by Ralph Adams Cram.
Published by Marshall
Jones Company, 212 Summer Street, Boston, Massachusetts, at $1.25.
Cram has a decisive challenge for the moment in his book "Walled
We could wish indeed that this book could be placed in the hands of all
men among the Craft. It is a practical suggestion and practical because
of its suggestiveness
of a way out of our present social and economic difficulties. Its
a sharp contrasting of conditions existent in the fifteenth century and
day. None but an artist could have depicted so realistically the
of fifteenth century civilization. And none but one who is sharply
the presence of all the moral ugliness that darkens the sun could
as they are existent today.
could not make one feel more keenly the dark moral limitations of our
has Cram. His "Walled Towns" is a thundering protest against the
of our civilization with its emphasis on quantity rather than quality.
picture of all Walled Towns, such as would be practical for our time
could we but be persuaded to try it, is a picture of the town of
as our author informs us, is about forty miles from one of the great
cities of New England.
Town offering as it does a remedy for our existent social awryness is
establishment wherever men will experiment along its lines. As a factor
in our national
betterment it is not dependent upon the solution of every problem at
or some other metropolis. Trade unions could well learn a lesson from a
the idealisms that actuated its prototypes, the Gilds.
us say, it is a volume comprehensive in its suggestiveness and a
to all who would see a more equitable and righteous social and economic
existing, who love beauty in preference to ugliness, and who prize
attainment in work and art, rather than the meddlesome blundering which
and tears down with reference to filthy lucre. A sane book by a man who
that society should be governed and its problems adjusted in reference
to God and
for the good of Man.
* * *
A History of Knight Templarism
of Knights Templar of Pennsylvania," [Lib*] compiled by Julius F.
and Curator of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Issued by the Grand
Lodge of Pennsylvania.
Members of the Society interested in securing a copy of this work are
communicate with "The Librarian, Masonic Temple, Philadelphia,
regarding the sale price of the book.
Lodge of Pennsylvania is to be congratulated on the issuance of this
decorated volume. It contains brief epitomes of the history of Knights
reference to their work in Ireland, Scotland and France and the
Templary in those countries with its establishment in the United States.
played by the Army Lodges in introducing Knight Templary in this
country is admirably
so forth. The book as referred to, is amply illustrated with plates of
charters and certificates pertaining to its early days in this country.
of worthy and eminent Knights lend grace to its pages.
Sachse has not lived to receive this congratulation on his fine
his splendid researches have long ere this brought their deserved fame.
in particular has resulted in bringing together a valuable array of
material. It is a fitting crown to a life full of achievement in behalf
of the Fraternity
to which the life was so largely given. The Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, while they
mourn his loss, will have a cherished memory and a prodigious record of
done within their Jurisdiction in behalf of Freemasonry the world over.
* * *
"How To Make Perfection
to Make Perfection Appear," [Lib 1919] by Katharine Francis Pedrick.
$1.25. Published by Lothrop, Lee & Shephard Co., 93 Federal
book is indicative of the author's wide reading and deep thinking. From
work we gather that she is a practical mystic. In some measure a
her plea for more idealism with reference to the great unseen is
carried on in this
divinity of man is charmingly stated in a chapter dealing with the way
of the spiritual
idealist. For a book dealing in metaphysical subtleties it is written
in a manner
that makes it pleasantly readable and spiritually helpful. Harmony with
within ought to be the supreme effort of everyone for knowledge, love
are potential factors in the life of every man.
with God is the paramount issue dealt with throughout the book and the
spirit reealed therein will be conducive to attracting people to the
other of the author's works after finishing this one.
* * *
Publications Issued by the Society
| 1915 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1919 bound volume of THE BUILDER (for delivery
about February 1st or 15th)
| 1722 Constitutions ( reproduced by photographic
plates from an original copy in the archives of the Iowa Masonic
Library, Cedar Rapids). Edition limited,
| Philosophy of Masonry, Roscoe Pound
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," Bro.
J. W. Barry, P. G. M., Iowa, red buffing binding, gilt lettering,
illustrated. A story of the Flag and Masonry,
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag,"
| "Further Notes on the Comacine Masters," W.
Ravenscroft, England. A sequel to "The Comacines, Their Predecessors
and Their Successors," a Masonic digest of Leader Scott's book "The
Cathedral Builders" and containing the latest researches of Brother
Ravenscroft which present a very logical argument for the connection of
Freemasonry of the present day with the Roman Collegia and traveling
Masons of the early times, paper covers, illustrated
| Symbolism of the First Degree, Gage, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Third Degree, Ball, pamphlet
| Symbolism of the Three Degrees, Street, 68
pages, paper covers. The lessons and symbols of each degree traced to
their origin, in every instance that it has been possible to so trace
them. Brother Street gives many explanations of our symbols in this
little book on which our monitors but vaguely touch
| Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite,
Publications from other sources, kept in stock
| "The Builders," a Story and Study of Masonry,
by Brother Joseph Fort Newton, formerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER
|| $ 1.50
| Mackey's Encyclopaedia, 1919 edition, in two
volumes, Black Fabrikoid binding
| Symbolism of Freemasonry, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Jurisprudence, A. G. Mackey
| Masonic Parliamentary Law, A. G. Mackey
| Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750, Melvin M.
Johnson, P.G.M., Massachusetts
| Collected Essays on Freemasonry, Robert Freke
| Concise History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke
prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all items
The latter will be sent by regular mail not insured or registered.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
A Bibliography of Masonic
Can you tell
me where I may obtain a bibliography of the best Masonic literature?
T. A. Jr., Texas.
bobs up almost daily in our mail from new members who are constantly
Society. We have been replying to these inquiries by referring these
the monthly book lists published in the "Library Department in each
THE BUILDER since it has become an impossibility to secure but few of
works which have been published in the past few years. To secure many
of the older
publications is out of the question entirely.
work on the Comacine Masters, by Brother Ravenscroft of England, of
which we secured
the only remaining copies in the hands of his English publishers
ago, is now out of print. We recently purchased one hundred copies of
History of Freemasonry" from England and immediately placed an order
hundred, but the publishers write us that this is now "out of print"
that no further copies are available. We hope, however, to hear from
the course of the next month or so to the effect that a new edition is
D. D. Berolgheimer, Librarian of Johnkeer Lodge No. 865, of Yonkers, N.
of the few literary lodges in the United States, has furnished us with
list of Masonic works suitable for a Masonic library, but he states
the average Mason who has not made a lengthy study of Masonry would
beyond his depth if he attempted to read some of the works included
this list we wish to impress upon the members of the N.M.R.S. that we
are not in
a position to obtain copies of these books for them, nor do we believe
of them are on the market. It is quite possible, however, that some of
them as well
as others of value not here listed, may be picked up here and there in
in second-hand books, and we would recommend that strict search and due
be made among the several establishments of this kind in every city to
see if any
of them may be found. Assist us, brethren, in digging up these
treasures that may
be lying here and there among the rubbish, and, if you do not want them
own library, inform us of any such finds, giving the price, condition,
of the dealer from whom they may be purchased, that they may find a
place in the
libraries of those who may have been searching for them for a long time.
J. G. Letters on the Masonic Institution. 1847. [Lib 1847]
Anderson, Jas. Constitutions (1723). First edition. Reprint 1855. [Lib 1723]
Anderson, Jas. Constitutions (1738). Second edition. Reprint 1855. [Lib
Anderson, Jas. Constitutions, Revised by J. Entick. Third edition.
1756. [Lib 1756]
Anderson, Jas. Constitutions, Revised by J. Entick. Fourth edition.
1767. [Lib 1767]
Anderson, Jas. Constitutions, Revised by J. Nourthouck. Fifth edition.
Ashe, J. The Masonic Manual, Revised by Oliver. 1855. [Lib 1899]
Barratt, N. S., and Sachse, J. F. Freemasonry in Pennsylvania,
1727-1907. [Lib 1908;
1, Vol 2, Vol 3]
Barruel. History of Jacobinism, etc. Four volumes. [Lib 1799; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4]
Baxter, R. H. Suggestions for a Course of Masonic Reading. 1917. [Lib*]
Blake. The Realities of Masonry. 1879: [Lib*]
Begemann, W. Origin and Beginnings of Freemasonry in England. (German.)
Boyden, W. L. Classification of the Literature of Freemasonry. 1915.
Bromwell. Masonic Restorations. [Lib*]
BUILDER, THE. Volumes I, II, III, IV and V. 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918 and
Churchward, A. Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man. Second edition.
Churchward, A. Origin and Antiquity of Freemasonry. 1898. [Lib*]
Condor, E. The Records of the Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons.
Crawley, C. Caementaria Hibernica. Three parts. 1895-1900. [Lib 1726]
Crook, A. Compilation and Digest. Grand Lodge of New York. 1911. [Lib*]
Cross, J. Masonic Chart. First, second, third or fourth edition. [Lib 1826 (fourth Ed)]
Crowe, F. J. W. The Master Mason's Handbook. Fifth edition. 1915. [Lib 1890]
Crowe, F. J. W. Things a Freemason Should Know. 1909. [Lib*]
Dermott, L. Ahiman Rezon. First, second, third, fourth, fifth or sixth
[Lib 1764 (second Ed)]
Dermott, L. Ahiman Rezon. First American edition. 1805. [Lib 1805]
Fellows, J. Exposition of the Mysteries of Ancient Egyptians,
and Freemasons. 1835. [Lib 1835]
Findel, J. G. History of Masonry. 1866. [Lib 1866]
Finlayson, J. F. Symbols and Legends of Freemasonry. 1889. [Lib*]
Fort, George F. Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry. 1875.
Gorringe, H. H. Egyptian Obelisks. 1882. [Lib 1882]
Gould, Robert Freke. History of Masonry. Six volumes. 1884-7. [Lib
1884; 4 Volumes
Edition); 4 Volumes (Jack Edition)]
Gould, Robert Freke. Concise History of Freemasonry. 1904. [Lib 1904]
Gould, Robert Freke. The Four Old Lodges. [Lib 1879]
Gould, Robert Freke. The Atholl Lodges. [Lib 1879]
Gould, Robert Freke. Military Lodges. [Lib 1899]
Grant, H. B. Some of the Ancient Landmarks. 1894. [Lib*]
Grant, M. R. True Principles of Freemasonry. 1916. [Lib*]
Halliwell, J. O. Early History of Freemasonry in England. 1840. [Lib*]
Hardie, J. New Freemasons' Monitor. First or second edition. 1818 or
Hughan and Stillson. History of Freemasonry and Concordant Orders.
1892. [Lib 1891]
Hughan, W. J. Masonic Sketches and Reprints. 1871-6. [Lib 1871]
Hughan, W. J. Constitutions of the Freemasons. 1869. [Lib*]
Hughan, W. J. The Old Charges of British Freemasons. Second edition.
Hughan, W. J. Origin of the English Rite of Freemasonry. New edition.
Hutchinson, W. The Spirit of Masonry. Revised by Oliver. 1855. [Lib 1795]
Johnson, M. M. Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750. 1916. [Lib 1916]
Josephus. Works of. Any good edition. [Lib 1870; 2014]
Lodge of Research No. 2429. Transactions.
Lyon, D. M. History of the Ancient Lodge of Edinburgh. First or second
1873 or 1901. [Lib 1873]
Mackey, A. G. Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry. Latest edition. [Lib 1914]
Mackey, A. G. Manual of the Lodge. New edition. 1871. [Lib 1891]
Mackey, A. G. Lexicon of Freemasonry. 1845. [Lib 1869]
Mackey, A. G. Symbolism of Freemasonry. 1874. [Lib 1921]
Mackey, A. G. Masonic Jurisprudence. [Lib 1872]
Mackey, A. G. The Mystic Tie. [Lib*]
Mackey, A. G. Ahiman Rezon. [Lib*]
Mackey, A. G. Masonic Parliamentary Law. [Lib 1875]
Mackey and Singleton. History of Freemasonry. Seven Volumes. 1898. [Lib
Macoy, R. Obituary Rites of Freemasonry. 1868. [Lib*]
Macoy, R. General History, Cyclopaedia and Dictionary of Freemasonry.
Manchester Association for Masonic Research. Transactions Volume I,
1910, and subsequent
Moldenke, C. E. The New York Obelisk. 1891. [Lib 1891]
Morris, R. William Morgan, or Political Anti-Masonry. 1883 [Lib*]
Newton, Joseph Fort. The Builders. 1916. [Lib 1914]
Oliver, G. History of Freemasonry, 1829-1841. 1855. [Lib 1841]
Oliver, G. Dictionary of Symbolic Masonry. 1855. [Lib 1853]
Paine, T. Origin of Freemasonry. 1811. [Lib 1810]
Pennel, J. Constitutions ‒ Irish. 1730. Reprint. [Lib*]
Pike, A. Morals and Dogma, with index. 1905. [Lib 1871]
Portal, F. Comparison of the Egyptian Symbols with those the Ancient
by Simons. 1904. [Lib 1904]
Pound, Roscoe. Philosophy of Masonry. 1915. [Lib 1915]
Preston, W. Illustrations of Masonry. 1855. [Lib 1855]
Quatuor Coronati Lodge No.'2076. Transactions. Volume I to XXX.
Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076. Reprints.
Ramsay. Revelations of Masonry. [Lib*]
Ravenscroft, W. The Comacines. 1910. [Lib 1910]
Ravenscroft, W. Further Notes on the Comacine Masters. 1918 [Lib*]
Rebold, E. General History of Freemasonry in Europe. [Lib 1868] Translation by Brennan. 1867.
Roberts, J. Old Constitutions. 1720. Reprint. [Lib*]
[Lib 1871; Facsimiles of the
of 1722, 1723, 1726, and 1730]
Ross, P. A Standard History of Freemasonry in New York Two volumes.
1899. [Lib 1899]
Sachse, J. F. Old Masonic Lodges of Pennsylvania. 1912 ‒ 1913. [Lib
1, Vol 2]
Sadler, H. Masonic Facts and Fictions. 1889. [Lib*]
Sadler, H. Masonic Reprints and Revelations. 1898. [Lib*]
Scott, Leader. Cathedral Builders. 1899. [Lib 1899]
Speth, G. W. Course of Masonic Reading. 1899. [Lib*]
Steinbrenner, G. W. History of Masonry. 1864. [Lib*]
Stone, W. L. Letters of Masonry and Anti-Masonry. 1832. [Lib 1832]
Thomas, F. Etiquette of Freemasonry. [Lib*]
Town, Salem. Speculative Masonry. 1818. [Lib 1818]
Valette. Bicentenary of Freemasonry. 1918. [Lib*]
Waite, A. S. Secret Traditions in Masonry. Two volumes. 1912 [Lib 1911;
1, Vol 2]
Webb, Thomas Smith. Freemason's Monitor. Any edition, 179 to 1822. [Lib
1818 or Lib 1859 or 1865]
Weisse, J. A. The Obelisk and Freemasonry. 1880. [Lib 1880]
Wilson, T. The Swastika. 1894. [Lib 1896]
Conferences of Grand Masters. Proceedings. NewYork. 1914
Conferences of Grand Masters. Proceedings. Cedar Rapid 1918.
Proceedings of Grand Lodge of which library owner is a member
Constitutions of Grand Lodge of which library owner is a member.
* * *
Old Lodges" Of England
Can you give
me information concerning the "Four Old Lodges" which met in 1717 to
the Grand Lodge of England?
J. M. L., Wyoming.
Old Lodges" which united to form the Grand Lodge of England, as given
in his larger "History of Freemasonry" are:
No. 1, which met at the Goose and Gridiron, in St. Paul's Churchyard,
until 1729, and removed in the latter year to the King's (or Queen's)
the same locality, where it remained for a long period. In 1760 it
assumed the title
of the "West India and American Lodge," which ten years later was
to that of the "Lodge of Antiquity." In 1794 it absorbed the Harodim
No. 467, a mushroom creation of the year 1760. At the Union, in 1813,
position in the new roll having devolved by lot upon No. 1 of the
lodges, it became, and has since remained, No. 2.
to the Engraved List of 1729 this lodge was originally constituted in
Morris and Josias Villeneau, both in their time Grand Wardens, were
among the members
‒ the former being the Master in 1723, and the latter in 1725. Benjamin
engraver, belonged to the Lodge in 1730; but with these three
exceptions the names,
so far as they are given in the official record, do not invite any
after Preston's election to the chair, when the members suddenly awoke
to a sense
of the dignity of the senior English lodge, and became gradually
the importance of its traditions.... From Preston's time down to our
own, the Lodge
of Antiquity has maintained a high degree of preeminence, as well for
of constitution, as for the celebrity of the names which have graced
its roll of
members. The Duke of Sussex was its Master for many years; and the
of Albany in more recent days filled the chair throughout several
No. 2 met at the Crown, Parker's Lane, in 1717, and was established at
Head, Turnstile, Holborn, in 1723 or earlier. Thence it moved in
succession to the
Green Lattice, Rose and Rummer, and Rose and Buffloe. In 1730 it met at
and Gate, Holborn; and, appearing for the first time in the Engraved
List for 1736,
was struck off the roll at the renumbering in 1740. An application for
was made in 1762, but, on the ground that none of the petitioners had
members of the lodge, it was rejected. According to the Engraved List
the lodge was constituted in 1712.
No. 3, which met at the Apple Tree Tavern, in Charles Street, Covent
1717, moved to the Queen's Head, Knave's Acre, in 1723 or earlier; and
intermediate changes ‒ including a stay of many years at the Fish and
Street, Soho Square ‒ appears to have settled down, under the title of
of Fortitude, at the Roebuct Oxford Street, from 1768 until 1793. In
1818 it amalgamated
with the Old Cumberland Lodge ‒ constituted 1753 ‒ and is now the
Old Cumberland Lodge, No. 12.
informs us that, after the removal of this lodge to the Queen's Head,
difference, the members that met there came under a New Constitution
(in 1723) "tho'
they wanted it not"; and accordingly, when the lodges were arranged in
of seniority in 1729, Original No. 3, instead of being placed as one of
at the head of the roll found itself relegated by the Committee of
the eleventh number on the list. This appears to have taken the members
‒ as well it might, considering that the last time the Four were all
at Grand Lodge ‒ April 19, 1727 ‒ before the scale of precedence was
conformity with the New Regulations enacted for that purpose, their
and Wardens answered to their names in the same seniority as we find to
when the "Book of Constitutions" was approved by the representatives of
lodges in 1723. But although the officers of No. 11 "represented that
lodge was misplaced in the printed book, whereby they lost their rank,
prayed that the said mistake might be regulated" ‒ "the said complaint
was dismissed." It is probable that this petition would have
very different fate had the three senior lodges been represented on the
No. 2 ‒ also so numbered in 1729 ‒ "dropt out" about 1736, the lodges
immediately below it each went up a step in 1740; and Original No. 3
the eleventh to the tenth place on the list. If the minutes of the
Charity covering that period were extant, we should find, I think, a
by the subject of this sketch against its supersession, for one was
at the next renumbering in 1756 ‒ and not altogether without success,
as will be
seen by the following extract from the minute book of one of the lodges
on the list:
July 22 1755. ‒ "Letter being
the Grand Secy: Citing us to appear at the Committee of Charity to
answer the Fish
and Bell Lodge (No. 10) to their demand of being placed prior to us,
viz. in No.
3. Whereon our Rt Worsl Masr attended & the Question being
propos'd was answer'd
against (it) by with Spirit and Resolution well worthy the Character he
and being put to Ballot was cared in favour of us. Report being made
of the said proceedings thanks was Return'd him and his health drank
Zeal by the Lodge present."
defeated in this instance, the officers appear to have satisfied the
their lodge was entitled to higher number than would fall to it in the
course, from two of its seniors having "dropt out" since the revision
of 1740. Instead, therefore, of becoming No. 8, we find that it passed
heads of the two Lodges immediately above it, and appeared in the sixth
the list for 1756; whilst the Lodges thus superseded by the No. 10 of
changed their relative positions in the list for 1756, with the result
8, and 9 and 10 in the former list severally became 8, 7, and 6 in the
or to express it in another way, Nos. 8 and 10 of 1755 change places in
I have observed: "The supersession of Original No. 3 by eight junior
in 1729, together with its partial restoration of rank in 1756, has
much confusion into the history of this Lodge, that for upwards of a
identity with the 'old Lodge,' which met at the Apple Tree Tavern in
to have been wholly lost sight of."
of this lodge cannot be even approximately determined. It occupied the
in the Engraved Lists 1723 and 1725, and probably continued to do so
The position of the lodge in 1729 must have been wholly determined by
the date of
its warrant, and therefore affords no clue to its actual seniority. It
impossible to say whether it established earlier or later than original
No. 2 (1712),
nor pace Preston can we be altogether sure ‒ if we assume the
precedency in such
matters to be regulated by dates of formation ‒ that Fortitude and Old
Lodge would be justified in yielding the pasS, even to the Lodge of
to the meeting at the Goose and Gridiron Alehouse, on St. John the
1717, Findel observes, "This day is celebrated by all German Lodges as
day of anniversary of the Society of Freemasons. It is the high-noon of
the day of light and roses, and it ought to be celebrated everywhere."
to me, however, that not only is this remarkable incident in the
history of the
Lodge of Antiquity worthy of annual commemoration but that the services
of the Fortitute
and Old Cumberland Lodge, in connection with what may termed the most
event in the history of the Craft are at least entitled to a similar
The first Grand Master, it is true, was elected and installed at the
under the banner of the Old Lodge there, but the first Grand Lodge was
constituted at the Apple Tree under similar auspices. Also, we must not
that the lodge at the latter tavern supplied the Grand Master-Sayer who
and installed in the former.
No. 4 met at the Rummer and Grapes Tavern, Channel Row, Westminster, in
its representatives ‒ George Payne, Master, Stephen Hall and Francis
‒ joined with those of nineteen other lodges, in subscribing the
of the Constitutions in January, 1723. The date of its removal to the
which it became so long associated, and whose name it adopted, is
is shown at the "Horn" in the earliest of the Engraved Lists,
of the year 1723, but there are grounds for believing that this
the close of the period embraced by the Grand Mastership of the Earl of
which would render it of later date than the following extract from a
of the period:
"There was a great Lodge of the
Society of the Free Masons held last week at the Horn Tavern, in Palace
which were present the Earl of Dalkeith, their Grand Master, the Deputy
the Duke of Richmond, and several other persons of quality, at which
time, the Lord
Carmichael, Col. Carpenter, Sir Thomas Prendergast, Col. Paget, and
were accepted Free Masons, and went home in their Leather Aprons and
of these five initiates, two of whom were afterwards Grand Wardens, are
the earliest list of members furnished by the Lodge at the "Horn" ‒ in
conformity with the order of Grand Lodge. From this we learn that in
1724 the Duke
of Richmond was the Master, and George Payne the Deputy Master, whilst
Hardine and Alexander Choke were the Wardens. The character of the
lodge has been
already glanced at, but the names of its members during the years 1724
will be given in full in the Appendix to which therefore it will be
to do more than refer. Among the private members were Desaguliers and
neither of whom in the years 1724-25 held office in the lodge.
page allotted to Original No. 4 ‒ or No. 3 as it became from 1729 ‒ in
Lodge Register for 1730, is a blank, and after that year there is no
list to consult
for nearly half a century; when we again meet with one in the official
where the names of the then members are headed by that of Thomas
member from 1768."
Hardine was the Master in 1725, the office becoming vacant by the Duke
election as Grand Master. There is hide doubt, however ‒ to use the
of "Old Regulation XVII." ‒ by virtue of which the Duke was debarred
continuing in the chair of the "Horn Lodge," whilst at the head of the
Craft ‒ that "as soon as he had honourably discharged his Grand Office,
returned to that Post or Station in his particular Lodge, from which he
to officiate above." At all events he was back there in 1729, for on
of that year, the Deputy Grand Master (Blackerly) informed Grand Lodge,
of the "Duke of Richmond, Master of the Horn Lodge," as an excuse for
the members not having brought charity, like those of the other lodges,
"were, for the most part, persons of Quality, and Members of
and therefore out of town at that season of the year. The Duke was very
to his duties in the lodge. He was in the chair at the initiation of
the Earl of
Sunderland, on January 2, 1730, on which occasion there were present
the Grand Master,
Lord Kingston, the Grand Master elect, the Duke of Norfolk, together
with the Duke
of Montagu, Lords Dalkeith, Delvin, Inchiquin, and other persons of
in the same year, he presided over another important meeting, when many
noblemen, and also William Cowper (D.G.M., 1726), were admitted
members, and was
supported by the Grand Master (Duke of Norfolk), the Deputy
(Blackerly), Lord Mordaunt,
and the Marquesses of Beaumont and Du Quesne. The Duke of Richmond
Mastership in April, 1738, and Nathaniel Blackerly was unanimously
chosen to fill
his place. Original No. 4 was given the third place in the Engraved
List for 1729,
and in 1740 became No. 2 ‒ which number it retained till the Union.
3, 1747, it was erased from the list, for non-attendance at the
but was restored to its place September 4, 1751. According to the
‒ "Bro. Lediard informed the Brethren that the Right Worshipful Bro.
L. G. M., and several other members of the Lodge lately held at the
Yard, Westminster, had been very successful in their endeavours to
serve the said
Lodge, and that they were ready to pay 2 guineas to the use of the
and therefore moved that out of respect to Bro. Payne and the several
(late Grand Masters) who were members thereof, the Said Lodge might be
and have its former rank and Place in the Lists of Lodges ‒ which was
Earl Ferrers was master of the "Horn Lodge" when elected Grand Master
of the Society in 1762.
16, 1766, at an "Occasional" Lodge, held at the Horn Tavern, the Grand
Master, Lord Blayney, presiding, His Royal Highness, William Henry,
Duke of Gloucester,
"was made an entered apprentice, passed a fellow craft, and raised to
of a Master Mason."
and his two brothers, the Duke of York and Cumberland, eventually
of the "New Lodge at the Horn," No. 313, the name of which, out of
to them, was changed to that of the "Royal Lodge." At the period,
of the Duke of Gloucester's admission into the Society (1766), there
were two lodges
meeting at the Horn Tavern. The "Old" Lodge, the subject of the present
sketch, and the "New" Lodge, No. 313, constituted April 4, 1764. The
was initiated in neither, but in an "Occasional" Lodge, at which, for
all we know to the contrary, members of both may have been present. But
date the decadence of the "Old Horn Lodge" may be said to have first
in, whether directly after the formation of a new lodge at the same
tavern, or later,
it reached its culminating point about the time when the Duke of
the example of his two brothers, became an honorary member of No. 313.
March 4, 1767, and on April 1 of the same year, the Dukes of Gloucester
attended a meeting of the junior Lodge, and the latter was installed
its W. M.,
an office he also held in later years.
List for 1767 shows the "Old Horn Lodge" to have removed from the
of that name to the Fleece, Tothill Street, Westminster. Thence, in
1772, it migrated
to the King's Arms, also in Westminster, and on January 10, 1774,
themselves in a declining state, the members agreed to incorporate with
a new and
flourishing lodge, entitled the Somerset House Lodge, which immediately
their rank." So far Preston, in the editions of his famous
published after the schism was healed, of which the privileges of the
Lodge of Antiquity
had been the origin. But in those published whilst the schism lasted
he tells us, that "the members of this Lodge tacitly agreed to a
of their rights as one of the four original Lodges by openly avowing a
of their Master in Grand Lodge. They put themselves entirely under the
of Grand Lodge; claimed no distinct privilege, by virtue of an
but precedency of rank, and considered themselves subject to every law
of the Grand Lodge, over whom they could admit of no control, and to
they and every Lodge were bound to submit."
indeed, of this evidence, is much impaired ‒ and must appear so, even
to those by
whom Preston's veracity is regarded as beyond suspicion ‒ by the
necessity of reconciling
with it the remarks of the same writer after 1790, when he speaks of me
old lodges then extant, acting by immemorial constitution.
status of the junior of these lodges stood in no need of restoration at
of Preston, or of any other person or body. In all the official lists,
after its amalgamation with a lodge lower down on the roll, from 1775
to the present
year, the words "Time Immemorial" in lieu of a date, are placed
its printed title. Nor is there any entry in the minutes of Grand
Lodge, which will
bear out the assertion that at the fusion of the two lodges there was
of independence on the part of the senior. The junior of the parties to
‒ in 1774, the Somerset House Lodge, No. 219 ‒ was originally
constituted May 22,
1762, and is described in the Engraved List for 1763 as "On Board H. M.
the 'Prince,' at Plymouth"; in 1764-66 as "On Board H. M. Ship the
and in 1767-73 as "the Sommerset House Lodge (No. 219 on the numeration
1770-80) at ye King's Arms, New Bond Street."
Dunckerley (of whom more hereafter), a natural son of George II., was
into Masonry, January 10, 1754, whilst in the naval service, in which
the rank of gunner; and his duties afloat seem to have come to an end
at about the
same date on which the old "Sea Lodge" in the "Prince" and lastly
in the "Guadaloupe," was removed to London and christened the "Somerset
House," and most probably by way of compliment to Dunckerley himself,
the name of the place of residence where quarters were first of all
him on his coming to the Metropolis. In 1767 the king ordered him a
pension of 100
pounds a year, which was afterwards increased to 800 pounds, with a
suite of apartments
in Hampton Court Palace.
records merely inform us that Dunckerley was a member of the Somerset
after the fusion, and that he had been a member of one or both of them
beyond which year the Grand Lodge Register does not extend, except
viz., at the returns for 1730, a gap already noticed, and which it is
to bridge over from one end as the other.
Dunckerley's we meet with the names of Lord Gormanstone, Sir Joseph
Hampden, Rowland Berkeley, James Heseltine, and Rowland Holt, and later
Admiral Sir Peter Parker, Deputy Grand Master. In 1828 the Lodge again
to amalgamation, and absorbed the "Royal Inverness" Lodge, No. 648. The
latter was virtually a military Lodge, having been formed by the
officers of the
Royal North British Volunteer Corps, of which the Duke of Sussex (Earl
was the commander. Among the members of the "Royal Inverness" Lodge
Sir Augustus D'Este, son of the Duke of Sussex; Lord William Pitt
Matthews the elder, "comedian"; Laurence Thompson, "painter,"
the noted preceptor; and in the Grand Lodge Register, under the date of
May 5, 1825,
is the following entry, ‒ "Charles James Matthews, Architect, Ivy
Lodge at the Horn," which we have traced through so many vicissitudes ‒
reasons already given in the sketch of the Lodge of Antiquity ‒ dropped
second to the fourth place on the roll at the union; and in 1828
assumed the title
of the "Royal Somerset House and Inverness Lodge," by which it is still
described in the list. It is a subject for regret that no history of
Lodge has been compiled. The early minutes, I am informed, are missing,
materials for a descriptive account of a Lodge associated with such
still exist, although there May be some slight trouble in searching for
the Masonic jottings in the early newspapers, and the waifs and strays
Hall, will be found a great many allusions to this ancient Lodge. Of
are afforded in the sketch now brought to a close, which is mainly
based on those
sources of information.
Two Shrine Histories
Council, at its last session held at Indianapolis, approved and ordered
for general sale and distribution, an official history of the Mystic
details may be obtained from Recorder B. W. Rewell, Masonic Temple,
J. Harry Lewis, Minnesota.
of the Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine was published
in 1916. Particulars
may be obtained concerning this work from George L. Root, San Antonio,
Wm. L. Boyden, District of Columbia.
* * *
Proceedings of Quatuor Coronati
I have a
complete file of the Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076,
volumes 1, 3, 6, 7 and 8. I would be very glad to procure these
volumes, bound or
Wm. F. Bowe, Augusta, Georgia.
* * *
The Tomb Of Hiram, King
with the article "The Tomb of Hiram, King of Tyre," which appeared on
page 5 of the Correspondence Circle Bulletin section of the November
number of THE
BUILDER, I am sending you a clipping on the subject from a recent copy
of the NEW
YORK TIMES which will doubtless be of interest to our members. It is
signed by Chayim
Tobin, and reads as follows:
that the horrors of war are over, the interest of all Jews, Gentiles,
should be roused when they learn of the proposed expedition that has
for its object
the excavation of the site of the Tomb of Hiram King of Tyre, that has
ruined by the Tyrians. For now that the day of the Turk has passed,
that of the
Bible student and the archaeologist has dawned.
soldiers occupy Jerusalem who are unlocking the secrets of
Christianity, which also
opens the gates to El Sur or Tyre, that can now be scientifically
is well worth while, for beneath its soil are remains of valuable
Close to the city the mills are still running that cut the cedars of
the house of Solomon, while about two hours' ride to the southeast of
Tyre are the
remains of the tomb, in fairly good condition, called by the natives
that contains, it is said, the ashes of Hiram King of Tyre (II.
3-11.) The excavation of the site may throw light on the history of one
of the first
three Grand Masters of the Craft of Freemasons.
is hoped that 'masons' marks' may be found in the cornerstone of the
tomb with other
important links in the historic chain that connects the craft with the
of King Solomon's Temple a thousand years before the Christian era.
brethren should be personally interested in the excavation of the Tomb
King of Tyre, as well as Bible students who will find a new field
opened to them."
A. J. Audett, New York.
* * *
A Need for the Right Kind
others I am yet in the "Northeast Corner," although according to custom
I have been "raised" beyond that mark, and I feel the need of Masonic
study and research. Yet there does not seem to be a kindred feeling
whose Masonic positions should cause them to step forth and lead the
many like myself.
I wish these local units (study groups) of the Society could be so
there would be a general movement to create and build.
Victor E. Vieira, Idaho.
* * *
A Freemason for 72 Years
‒ Is This the Record?
Veteran Association of the District of Columbia has on its rolls the
W. Curry, born at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 15, 1824, and now in his 96th
Curry was initiated into Masonry in Madisonville Lodge No. 143,
August 9, 1847, and has therefore been a Freemason more than 72 years.
is desirous of ascertaining whether any member of the Craft now living
has a longer
record than Brother Curry, who was Chaplain of the 53rd Indiana
the Civil War.
L. D. Carman, District of Columbia.
The Heartness and the Smile -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
left it to my heart to find the place
In some fair realm, some boundary untraced, ‒
Some place where thought had never left a mar, ‒
Some place beneath an unexploited star
Where free from all the cobwebs and the snares
Adown the ways of human thoroughfares
The truth might gleam from nature's heart to mine
First handed in its clarity sublime
That I might find, unhindered and alone
The heart of things, ‒ the secrets all her own,
Realities of rare intrinsic worth
As measured by the values of the earth, ‒
The things that faith alone cannot beguile, ‒
The heartness that gives to the soul its smile.
A Concise History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
A Dictionary of Symbolical
Oli53 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1853. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 408. - 12.0 MB.
A History of Free Masonry from
1829 to 1840
Oli41 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1841. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 156. - 7.3 MB.
A History of Freemasonry in
Reb68 / auth. Rebold Emmanuel. - Cincinnatti : American Masonic
Publication Association, 1868. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 431. - 25.6 MB.
A History of Freemasonry in New
Ros99 / auth. Ross Peter. - New York : The Lewis Publishing Company,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 878. - 28,1 MB.
A System of Speculative Masonry
Tow18 / auth. Town Salem. - Salem : Dodd and Stevenson, 1818. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 284. - 9.9 MB.
A Textbook of Masonic
Mac721 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Clark, Maynard,
Publishers, 1872. - 7th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 571. - 28.1 MB.
Der64 / auth. Dermott Laurence. - London : Robert Black, 1764. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 271. - 10.0 MB - Not Searchable - Illustrated.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
An Exposition of the Mysteries
or Religious Dogmas of the Ancient Egyptians, Pythagoreans, and Druids
- Also an Inquiry into the Origin, History and Purport of Freemasonry
Fel35 / auth. Fellows John. - New York : John Fellows, 1835. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 421. - 24.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 025 - 1912
Ars12 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 529. - 35.8 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And55 / auth. Anderson James. - London : Jno W Leonard, 1855. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 120. - Fac-Simile of 1723 Edition - 7.3 Mb.
Book of Constitutions
And67 / auth. Anderson James. - London : W Johnston, 1767. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 445. - 31.5 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And56 / auth. Anderson James / ed. Entick John. - London : J Scott,
1756. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 345. - 25.6 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Cra26 / auth. Crawley Chetwode. - 1726. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 20. - 2.0 MB.
Classification of Masonic
Boy15 / auth. Boyden William L. - Washington DC : [s.n.], 1915. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 33. - 0.7 MB.
Jos14 / auth. Josephus Flavius. - Pictou : ronigo, 2014. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 1349. - 5.6 MB - Digital Version - No Illustrations.
Jos70 / auth. Josephus Flavius / trans. Whiston William. - London :
London Printing and Publishing Co.; Ltd., 1870. - p. 917. - 95.2 MB.
Gor82 / auth. Gorringe Henry H. - New York : Henry Gorringe, 1882. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 250. - 16.7 MB.
Por04 / auth. Portal Frédéric baron de / trans. Simons John W. - New
York : Macoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Company, 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 90. - 4.9 MB.
Freemasonry In America Prior To
Joh16 / auth. Johnson Melvin M. - Cambridge : Caustic-Claflin Co.,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 242. - 4.7 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac08FP1 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 526. - 13.9 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac09FP2 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1909. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 518. - 11.8 MB.
Freemasonry in Pennsylvania Vol
Sac19FP3 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1919. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 507. - 13.0 MB.
General History, Cyclopedia
& Dictionary of Freemasonry
Mac701 / auth. Macoy Robert. - New York : Masonic Publishing Co., 1870.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 683. - 24.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry (Jack)
Gou82Jack1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Thomas C. Jack, 1882. -
Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 258. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry (Jack)
Gou83Jack2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Thomas C. Jack, 1883. -
Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 264. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry (Jack)
Gou84Jack3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Thomas C. Jack, 1884. -
Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 258. - 14.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry (Jack)
Gou85Jack4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Thomas C. Jack, 1885. -
Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 263. - 14.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Jacobinism Vol 1
Bar99HJ1 / auth. Barruel Abbe. - Hartford : Cornelius Davis, 1799. -
Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 244. - 11.2 MB.
History of Jacobinism Vol 2
Bar99HJ2 / auth. Barruel Abbe. - Hartford : Cornelius Davis, 1799. -
Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 277. - 13.9 MB.
History of Jacobinism Vol 3
Bar99HJ3 / auth. Barruel Abbe. - Hartford : Cornelius Davis, 1799. -
Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 271. - 13.8 MB.
History of Jacobinism Vol 4
Bar99HJ4 / auth. Barruel Abbe / trans. Clifford Robert. - Hartford :
Cornelius Davis, 1799. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 404. - 21.5 MB.
History of Masonry and
Hug91 / auth. Hughan William J / ed. Hughan William J. and Stillson
Henry L.. - New York : The Fraternity Publishing Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 863. - 63.4 MB.
How to make Perfection Appear
Ped19 / auth. Pedrick Katherine F. - Boston : Lothrop, Lee &
Shepard Co, 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 236. - 3.8 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre55 / auth. Preston William and Oliver George. - New York : Jno. W.
Leonard & Co., 1855. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 412. - 29.6 MB.
Letters on Masonry and
Sto32 / auth. Stone WIlliam L. - New York : O Halsted, 1832. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 584. - 40.9 MB.
Letters on the Masonic
Ada47 / auth. Adams John Q.. - Boston : Press of T. R. Marvin, 1847. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 321. - 7.6 MB.
Lexicon of Freemasonry
Mac69 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Philadelphia : Moss & Co.,
1869. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 522. - 24.7 MB.
Manual of the Lodge
Mac91 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Effingham Maynard &
Co, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 261. - 14.1 MB.
Masonic Parliamentary Law
Mac75 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Philadelphia : Moss & Company,
1875. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256. - 4.1 MB.
Masonic Sketches and Reprints
Hug71 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1871. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 158. - 4.2 MB.
Military Lodges. The Apron and
Gou99 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Gale & Polden, Ltd.,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 280. - 13.7 MB.
New Freemasons Monitor
Har18 / auth. Hardie James. - New York : George Long, 1818. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 376. - 15.7 MB.
Old Charges of British
Hug72 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : Simpkins, Marshall &
Co., 1872. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 8.2 MB.
Old Masonic Lodges of
Pennsylvania Vol 1
Sac12OL1 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1912. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 484. - 13.6 MB.
Old Masonic Lodges of
Pennsylvania Vol 2
Sac13OL2 / auth. Sachse Julius F. - Philadelphia : GL of Pennsylvania,
1913. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 483. - 14.5 MB.
On the Origin of Freemasonry
Pai10 / auth. Paine Thomas. - New York : Elliot and Crissey, 1810. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 35. - 4.7 MB.
Symbolism of the Three Degrees
Str24 / auth. Street Oliver D.. - Anamosa : National Masonic Research
Society, 1924. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 52. - 0.4 MB.
The Atholl Lodges
Gou791 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Spencer's Masonic Depot,
1879. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 2.0 MB.
The Cathedral Builders
Sco99 / auth. Scott Leader. - London : Sampson Low, Marston &
Co., 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 520. - 16.1 MB.
The Comacines Their
Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 94. - 3.4 MB.
The Early History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry
For81 / auth. Fort George F.. - Philadelphia : Bradley & Co.,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 514. - 21.2 MB.
The Four Old Lodges
Gou79 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : Spencer's Masonic Depot, 1879.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 90. - 4.6 MB.
The Lodge of Edinburgh
Lyo73 / auth. Lyon David M. - Edinburgh : Blackwood and Sons, 1873. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 480. - 17.4 MB.
The Masonic Manual
Ash99 / auth. Ashe Jonathan. - New York : Jno. W Leonard & Co,
1799. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 241. - 12.0 MB.
The Master Mason's Handbook
Cro90 / auth. Crowe Frederick J W. - London : George Kenning, 1890. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 105. - 2.5 MB.
The New York Obelisk
Mol91 / auth. Moldenke Charles E. - New York : Anson D F Randolph and
Co, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 213. - 13.2 MB.
The Obelisk and Freemasonry
Wei80 / auth. Weisse Johann. - New York : J W Bouton, 1880. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 223. - Illustrated - 6.6 MB.
The Old Constitutions of 1722
Unk71 / auth. Unknown / ed. Cox John E.. - London : Bro. Richard
Spencer, 1871. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 298. - 7.9 MB.
The Philosophy of Masonry
Pou15 / auth. Pound Roscoe. - [s.l.] : The Builder Magazine, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 53. - 0.3 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.
The Signs and Symbols of
Chu13 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
Company, Ltd, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 546. - 59.2 MB.
The Spirit of Masonry in Moral
and Elucidatory Lectures
Hut95 / auth. Hutchinson William. - Carlisle : F. Jollie, 1795. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 370. - 13.8 MB.
Wil96 / auth. Wilson Thomas. - Washington : The Government Printing
Office, 1896. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - Illustrated - 14.7 MB.
The Symbolism of Freemasonry
Mac21 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Chicaco Ill. : The Masonic History
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - Revised by Robert I. Clegg.
The True Ahiman Rezon
Der05 / auth. Dermott Laurence. - New York : Southwick &
Hardcastle, 1805. - 3rd Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 17.0 MB -
The True Masonic Chart
Cro26 / auth. Cross Jeremy. - New Haven : Jeremy Cross, 1826. - 4th
Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 313. - 19.2 MB.
Cra20 / auth. Cram Ralph A / trans. 1. - Boston : Marshall Jones
Company, 1920. - 1 : p. 108. - 4.1 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web65 / auth. Webb Thomas S / ed. Fenton James. - Cincinnati : C Moore,
1865. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 145. - 12.4 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web59 / auth. Webb Thomas S / ed. Morris Rob. - Cincinnati : More,
Wilstach, Keys & Co., 1859. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 407. - 18.6 MB.
Webb's Freemason's Monitor
Web18 / auth. Webb Thomas S. - Salem : Cushing & Appleton,
1818. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 314. - 13.8 MB.