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The Builder Magazine

January 1920 – Volume VI – Number 1

The National Masonic Research Society


Table of Contents


Summary of Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Masonic Service Association of the United States

By Bro. Geo. L. Schoonover. Chairman Executive Commission

Though charged with a tremendous responsibility by the Association, the writer cannot refrain from giving to his brethren a summary of the hopes and aspirations which caused the notable assemblage gathered at Cedar Rapids to adopt a comprehensive Plan and Scope of operations directed toward the future welfare of American Freemasonry. If he shall fail to do acceptably the part which has been assigned him, the fault will lie in his state of unpreparedness, in failing to measure to the high responsibility. He believes in the fulfillment of the program, and believes also that only the closest sort of co-operation on the part of the whole Craft is America will bring the success which a program conceived in so splendid a spirit deserves. The measure of helpfulness which has been mutually promised by those who participated in the session bespeaks success. This Fraternity of ours is capable of success. Progress will necessarily be slow. But, regardless of all personalities, a beginning has been made which should ultimately put Freemasonry in the vanguard of those who would serve man-kind. The Craft are entitled to know what has been done in preparation for that service, and the methods which are to be selected for performing it.


IT WILL be remembered that at the Conference of Grand Masters and Representatives held in November, 1918, "The Masonic Service Association" was proposed to the Grand Lodges as a form of organization, along the lines of a federation, which would for the future give to American Freemasonry a national voice. The need for such a voice, and the feeling that in times of national emergency there should be some method of uniting the re-sources of all our Grand Lodges in behalf of efficient service, had been impressed upon the brethren present by our inability to serve our soldier brethren during the Great War. It was the general conclusion that, while undoubtedly influences outside of the Fraternity had been active in preventing recognition of Freemasonry as an agency entitled to perform such service, yet as a matter of fact the state of our utter disunity had made it impossible for us to present our case. We had no way of proving that we had a country-wide desire to serve, at a time when only national agencies could be considered by the government. The plan of federalization which was proposed at this meeting has been given publicity during the past year. It has been presented to the Grand Lodges, thirty-seven of whom have approved it. The meeting of the Association was assembled at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, on Armistice Day, November 11, 1919, for the purpose of perfecting the tentative organization proposed a year ago. "Service to Humanity" was interpreted one year ago in very general terms, under two heads, "Relief" and "Education and Enlightenment." It remained for this organization meeting to define these terms. "Relief" had been provided for, and the form of proposed service adopted then was incorporated in the By-Laws of the Association. Consideration of the "Education and Enlightenment" clause received close consideration at this session, and an outline of the deliberations and conclusions of the delegates present follows. It may well be that from time to time this summary will be enlarged upon in future publicity, but for the sake of brevity and comprehensiveness this survey must be condensed so as to give only a birds-eye view of the accomplishments of the session.

I.                What The Masonic Service Association Did Not Do.

a.    Infringe in any way upon the sovereignty of any Grand Jurisdiction.

b.    Form a General Grand Lodge, or take any step looking thereto.

II.              What The Association Did Do.

a.    Appreciated the responsibilities resting upon the Fraternity at this time.

b.    Endeavored to rise to those responsibilities by providing a way to serve.

c.    Provided for a mobilization of Masonic brain-power to meet its problems.

d.    Provided a practical Constitution and By-Laws ‒ the Working Machinery.

e.    Adopted a carefully thought out Educational Program,

f.      Expressed the convictions of Freemasonry upon present-day problems in ringing resolutions, which s the world can understand.

g.    Brought together the representatives of thirty-four Grand Jurisdictions upon common ground when they came to know each other and to realize that they could unite and work, in peace and harmony to the glory of God and for the service of mankind.

III.            How It Was Done.

a.    By giving every one of the thirty-four Grand Jurisdictions represented at the session an opportunity to advance its particular contribution to the Cause.

b.    By remaining strictly within the plan and scope of effort which was outlined in the tentative plan c organization at the Conference in November, 1918.

c.    By surveying the entire field of need for service in America, both as regards relief and education, i an effort to ascertain that particular form of service which in the present unsettled state of thing Freemasonry ought, by virtue of its peculiar genius and position, to give.

d.    By seriously considering the state of unrest prevailing today in America and the rest of the work going to the roots of the causes therefor, confessing the weaknesses of our past performance, an pledging the Craft to forward-looking effort, on the broadest possible lines, for the future.

The Outstanding Features of the Meeting

I.                Apprehensions under Which the Representatives Met.

a.    The feeling, on the part of a few who were not present at the Conference last year that, despite of resolutions to the contrary, the formation of a National Grand Lodge might be in anticipation among the leaders.

b.    Fear lest Freemasonry might be permitted to deteriorate into an "Anti-" society.

(Both of these fears were dissipated absolutely by the spirit of brotherhood which pervaded the meeting, and the positive steps taken to breathe unity, but not uniformity or legal control, into the organization.)

II.              The Conceded Position Of Freemasonry Regarding Modern Problems

a.    We cannot press our ideals upon the world, as a Fraternity, but individual Masons must do it. We must therefore educate the individual so that he will understand these problems.

b.    Freemasonry is looked up to by the world, whether we will it so or otherwise, as an educational agent; and a molder of public opinion. As such, the Fraternity as a whole has a tremendous responsibility

c.    Freemasonry should therefore speak its mind on world problems.

d.    Its educational processes should be based upon its landmarks, and should make its age-old lesson teach its membership new duties, as the modern age demands.

e.    The rank and file of the Craft expect this Association, acting in behalf of the great body of the Fraternity, to come out into the open and with unified voice, speak for Freemasonry.

f.      Masonry should be resistant to the enemies of law and order.


III.            How It Was Considered That A Comprehensive Plan Should Be Conceived And Carried Out.

a.    Any educational program must have for its foundation the one great Landmark, the Brotherhood c Man based on the Fatherhood of God.

b.    If we are to give Masonic service we must recognize conditions as they are. Necessarily we must know what they are.

c.    We must first look within the Fraternity, to find the problems existing there.

d.    We must have in view the larger viewpoint of American Masonry as a whole, and not the problem which affect each Jurisdiction locally.

(1) Our outstanding weaknesses are vanity and office-seeking.

(2) The Blue Lodge has too often been treated as a stepping stone.

(3) Statistics of membership increase are not reassuring when too little attention is paid to th spirit of Masonry.

(4) The Grand Lodges should control Freemasonry. They must hold themselves responsible for improper developments in the past.

e.    We must proceed along strictly Masonic lines, and work inside our lodges.

f.      Our greatest field of immediate service lies in that vast army of young men who are flocking to our doors, some seeking light, some buying a luxury ‒ all needing real education in fundamental Masonic principles.

g.    Continuous, not emergency service, is necessary.

h.    We must forever recognize that the strength of Freemasonry rests upon the moral force and intelligence of the individual Mason.


IV.           What Our Work In The Lodges Should Aim To Do.

a.    Assimilate the tremendous number of our candidates. The lodges are deteriorating into degree mills not altogether through their own fault. The congestion must be relieved ‒ that is a local problem ‒ but intelligent explanation of the ideals, aims and objects of Freemasonry to our candidates is a universally present problem, and must be a new phase of our labor. This effort must be interpretative of the work.

b.    We know that the Worshipful Master who is well educated and forceful makes the lodge a hive of industry and constructive work during his term of office. This Association must somehow help to make it possible for the lodge to retain these characteristics when the Master is not so fortunately situated. Proper thought and preparation will enable us to supply a reservoir of information adapted to these purposes.

c.    Masonry professes to be a "Progressive Science." We must make it so.

d.    Our lodge membership must be encouraged to discuss the needs of the times, and material must be afforded them so that they can do it intelligently.

e.    A bureau of dissemination, or clearing house, is therefore needed.

f.      Some system must be devised whereby intelligent lecturers may be supplied to the lodges wishing to better inform their membership on the problems which face us, as Masons and as Americans.


V.             Position Which the Masonic Service Association Must Occupy. In Relation To Grand Lodges.

a.    It must be the servant of all, and the master of none.

b.    Some sort of a centralized bureau must be erected which will keep in constant touch with the heads of our several Grand Lodges, so that the type of service which each needs may be afforded.

c.    The organization must be simple and economical, and yet must afford a comprehensive service. To this end, it should avail itself of every existing sympathetic agency which is available, on a basis of mutual helpfulness.

d.    Details of this labor must not be crowded onto already overburdened Grand Lodge officials.


VI.           Plan And Scope Of Organization Adopted Following The Foregoing Suggestions.

a.    Meetings of the Association were made annual, instead of triennial as proposed a year ago, in order to insure continuity of program, upholding of interest, further development of details along practical lines, and responsibility for performance.

b.    The office-seeker was eliminated from the organization.

c.    The basic principle is the formation of a Masonic Clearing House.

d.    It was felt that we must recognize our responsibilities, and be unafraid of anything except wrong.

e.    Our program must be our own; constructive; adopted because we see a need, and aspire to perform a service.

f.      The fact was recognized that a mere enunciation of principles, if they remain passive, has but little value. Our peculiar need just now is to galvanize those principles into action.

g.    Declaration of principles ‒ scope of activities.

Declaration of Principles

The Masonic Service Association of the United States, among its principles, does specifically set forth and declare:

1.              We believe in the existence of one Ever-Living and True God, and that all men are His children, and therefore are Brothers.

2.              We reaffirm, without qualification, those principles for which Freemasonry has stood from time immemorial ‒ self-government, by, of and for the people, reverence for law, and respect for constituted authority.

3.              We declare in unequivocal terms our conviction that a free public school system is essential to the perpetuity of American institutions. While recognizing the right of the individual to provide for himself other forms of elementary education, we believe that the State should exercise general supervision over the same, so far as supervision is justified by the general good in safeguarding our American institutions.

We urge the speedy enactment of laws forbidding elementary education in a language other than English.

We believe that every child in America is entitled to an elementary education at public expense, and that the State should provide ample funds for that purpose.

4.              We believe that thrift is a patriotic duty; that economy is a civic virtue, and that waste in any form is un-Masonic, unpatriotic and vicious.

Scope of Activities

Among the primary purposes for which this Association was formed were Masonic relief and visitation, the method of affording which is amply provided for in the tentative Constitution adopted November 28th, 1918.

Said purposes further include the service of Mankind through education and enlightenment, the means of which are not therein provided for or set forth.

We recommend that the scope of the activities of this Association be declared to be as broad as the Universal Principles of Freemasonry, and to embrace, as those principles embrace, the entire field of human knowledge and truth, in their application to the welfare of the members of the Craft, and through them to humanity at large.

To carry into effect the aims thus declared, we recommend the creation by the Executive Commission of this Association of such agency or agencies, as they shall deem proper, to undertake and carry out, under the control and supervision of the Executive Commission, the following activities:

a.    Masonic research and dissemination of Masonic truth.

b.    The investigation of and report upon, such subjects of interest to the several Grand Jurisdictions as they may from time to time request.

c.    The inculcation of the principles of true democracy.

d.    A strong and aggressive program of Americanization. An instruction and lecture service, of which the Grand Jurisdictions may avail themselves.

e.    The Constitution of the Association, its most fundamental document, being of equal interest and importance, is likewise set out in full, as follows:

Constitution of the Masonic Service Association of the United States

Name ‒ The name of this Association shall be the Masonic Service Association of the United States.

Object ‒ The object of this Association shall be the Service of Mankind, through education and enlightenment, financial relief and Masonic visitation, and ministering to, comforting and relieving the members of the Fraternity and their dependents, particularly in times of distress and disaster, whether caused by war, pestilence, famine, fire, flood, earthquake or other calamity.

Membership ‒ The membership of this Association shall be composed of the Grand Lodges of the United States which have heretofore voted, or may hereafter vote, to become members of the Association.

Representation ‒ The meetings of this Association shall be composed of such accredited representatives as may be chosen by each member Grand Jurisdiction but each member Grand Jurisdiction shall be entitled to only one vote.

Administration ‒ For the purpose of administration the United States shall be divided into Divisions, as follows:

New England Division:

Connecticut – Massachusetts – *Maine – New Hampshire – Rhode Island – *Vermont

Great Lakes Division:

*Ohio – **Illinois – **Indiana – Michigan – *Wisconsin

North Pacific Division:

Idaho – Montana – Oregon – Washington – Wyoming

North Atlantic Division:

New Jersey – New York – Pennsylvania

Gulf Division:

Alabama – Florida – Georgia – Louisiana – Mississippi

Corn Belt Division:

Iowa – Minnesota – Nebraska – North Dakota – South Dakota

Southwestern Division:

Arizona – *New Mexico – Texas

South Atlantic Division:

Delaware – District of Columbia – Maryland – North Carolina – South Carolina – *Virginia – *West Virginia

Central Division:

*Arkansas – *Kansas – Kentucky – Missouri – Oklahoma – Tennessee

South Pacific Division:

*California – Colorado – Nevada – Utah – Philippine Islands

* Not now members of the Association
** Represented at the meeting but not members

Meetings ‒ The stated meetings of this Association shall be held annually.

Quorum ‒ A quorum of this Association at any stated or called meeting shall consist of the accredited representatives of fifteen member Grand Jurisdictions.

Officers ‒ At each meeting of this Association, the Association shall elect a Chairman and such other officers as may be deemed necessary, who shall serve for the meeting only.

Executive Commission ‒ The management and direction of the affairs of this Association shall be vested in an Executive Commission, composed of a Chairman to be elected annually by the Association, and ten members, one from each Division, to be elected annually by this Association, all of whom shall serve until their successors are elected and qualified.

The Executive Commission shall have power to elect and appoint a Vice-Chairman of the Executive Commission, Secretary and Treasurer of the Association and such other officers, committees and employee as they may deem necessary; to fix their compensation, if any, and to fill all vacancies.

Amendment ‒ This Constitution may be amended only at a stated meeting of the Association by a two-thirds vote of the members present at such stated meeting, and after such proposed amendment has been sent to the Grand Secretary of each member Grand Jurisdiction at least thirty days before the stated meeting at which such amendment shall be acted upon, provided that this Constitution shall never be amended in such manner as to provide or permit the development of this Association into a National Grand Lodge.

Withdrawal ‒ Any member Grand Lodge Jurisdiction of this Association may withdraw on ninety days' written notice given by registered mail to the Chairman of the Executive Commission and upon fulfillment of all its assumed obligations to the Association.

By-Laws of the Masonic Service Association of the United States

Duties of Officers ‒ The Chairman of the Executive Commission shall be the Executive Officer of this Association. He shall call to order all stated and special meetings of the Association, and shall preside at all meetings of the Executive Commission, provided that the Chairman of the Executive Commission shall be ineligible to serve as Chairman of this Association. He shall perform all acts and do all things necessary to carry out the purposes of the Association, subject to the direction or ratification of the Executive Commission. He shall, upon the written request of any three members of the Commission, call a special meeting of the Executive Commission.

The Vice Chairman shall perform all the duties of the Chairman in his absence or disability. The duties, powers and responsibilities of other officers, committees and employees of the Association and of the Executive Commission shall be fixed by the Executive Commission.

Meetings of the Association ‒ The time and place of the Annual Meeting of this Association shall be fixed by the Executive Commission and notice thereof shall be sent by, or under direction of, the Chairman of the Executive Commission to the Grand Secretary of each member Grand Jurisdiction, at least sixty days before the designated date of such meeting.

Special meetings of the Association may be called by the Executive Commission at such times and places as it may deem necessary, upon twenty days' notice of such meeting. The business to be transacted at such special meeting shall be set forth in the call.

Special meetings of the Association shall be convened by the Executive Commission at times and places designated by the Commission upon the request of fifteen or more member Grand Jurisdictions.

Voting ‒ At all annual and special meetings of the Association each member Grand Jurisdiction shall be entitled to one vote in all elections on all questions affecting Constitution and By-Laws, and upon all other questions upon which a roll call is demanded. This one vote is to be determined by each member Grand Jurisdiction or by its representatives present and cast by the Grand Master or Chairman of the Delegation.

Nominations and Election of Members of Executive Commission ‒ Members of the Executive Commission shall be elected at the annual meetings of the Association and may be nominated by the representatives present of their respective administrative divisions, provided such nomination may be rejected by the Association.

Quorum of Executive Commission ‒ The Executive won shall meet at the call of the Chairman, and five members thereof shall constitute a quorum.

Relief ‒ Upon the occurrence of disaster of greater magnitude than a local calamity, the Grand Masters of the several member Grand Jurisdictions within the division in which said disaster may occur shall appoint a committee to survey the needs and report forthwith its findings to the Executive Commission. The Executive Commission shall thereupon take action on the report of said Grand Masters to the end that necessary funds shall be provided and properly disbursed.

Disbursement of Funds ‒ Funds of this Association shall be disbursed only by checks signed by the Treasurer and countersigned by the Chairman of the Executive Commission. An itemized and audited report of all receipts and disbursements shall be made by the Treasurer to each annual meeting of this Association.

Report of Executive Commission ‒ The Executive Commission shall make a detailed report in writing to each annual meeting of the Association of all their activities since the last annual meeting.

Order of Business ‒ The order of business for all meetings of this Association shall be as follows:

1.              Call to Order.
2.              Invocation.
3.              Roll Call.
4.              Election of Officers.
5.              Opening Exercises.
6.              Reading of Minutes.
7.              Appointment of Committees.
8.              Report of Executive Commission.
9.              Report of Treasurer.
10.          Unfinished Business.
11.          New Business.
12.          Adjournment.

Amendment of By-Laws ‒ The By-Laws of this Association may be amended at any stated meeting thereof by a majority vote of the members present.


a.    Relief. Having read the foregoing Constitution, the following clause from the By-Laws, it can be readily seen, will afford a prompt and comprehensive method of dealing with any calamity arising in the future.
"Relief ‒ Upon the occurrence of disaster of greater magnitude than a local calamity, the Grand Masters of the several member Grand Jurisdictions within the division in which said disaster may occur shall appoint a committee to survey the needs and report forthwith its findings to the Executive Commission. The Executive Commission shall thereupon take action on the report of said Grand Masters to the end that necessary funds shall be provided and properly disbursed."

b.    Investigation and Research.

(1) To co-operate with existing sympathetic agencies.

(2) To so build as to be able to answer inquiries from thoughtful Masons, directing them to competent sources where satisfactory answers may be obtained, in the event that the Association's resources do not cover the inquiry.

(3) To direct the reading of Masons desiring to inform and educate themselves along particular lines.

(4) To collect authentic material regarding present-day movements, so that Masons may have unbiased information regarding any which tend to destroy our liberties and the foundations of our Government.

c.    Dissemination.

(1) To prepare for distribution of the lodges" digests of information collected, and inspire the presentation of articles which will bring the needs of the day to Masons everywhere.

(2) To organize a speakers' bureau, enabling the lodges to secure at reasonable cost the services of men who can inspire, as well as inform the membership, along the Iines of the educational program.

d.    The working out of the detail, as outlined in the Plan and Scope Report, was left to the Executive Commission.

Thoughts Advanced Regarding The Program Of Americanization.

a.    Things that we must recognize:

(1) That support of Country comes only second to duty to God.

(2) That education must go hand in hand with the development of democracy, as it has done throughout all history.

(3) That leadership, not narrow vision, is required now in America.

(4) That reverence for law should be the political religion of the United States.

b.    What we must do, that Masonry may be a balance wheel in this day of crisis:

(1) Teach every member of the Fraternity what is required of a loyal citizen.

(2) Stand for Americanism in Peace as in War.

(3) Emphasize the individual responsibility of our citizens.

(4) Support the public schools as the foundation of our liberties.

(5) Help to outgeneral the strategy and propaganda of those enemies of America, who are working now from within.

c.    American Masonry's Pledge. The following resolution, unanimously adopted, tells where Freemasonry in America stands:

"Whereas, throughout the length and breadth of our beloved country, fostered by suspicion and nurtured by treachery, there is a growing sentiment directed at and threatening the foundations of American liberty; this specter of destruction traveling sometimes under the head of Bolshevism, as that term is understood in America, and sometimes under the false theory of the I. W. W., exaggerated Socialism and other kindred destroying institutions; therefore,

BE IT RESOLVED, By the Masonic Service Association of the United States, in convention assembled, recognizing and appreciating the great peril which threatens the very foundation of our Country, its liberty, freedom and right of self-government, and believing that our future and the future of our loved ones rest upon the manner in which we meet and combat this threatening evil, we now, in keeping with our precepts, pledge ourselves to the full limit of our power and financial resources, and hereby offer our government our unstinted and unqualified services, to stamp out and forever eradicate from our country any organization which is opposed to the cause of American democracy, American freedom and American fidelity ‒ the three great principles upon which our country was founded, and upon which we have grown from the struggling people of the Pilgrim Fathers to the leaders of the civilized world.

RESOLVED FURTHER, That the Masonic Service Association of the United States recognizes and countenances, as being fitted for the honors of citizenship, only those who measure up to the full standard of one hundred per cent. Americanism."


The Spirit of Brother Robert Burns

Address delivered by Bro Rev. Dr. Fort Newton, Past Grand Chaplain, Iowa, U. S. A., in proposing the toast "To the Immortal Memory of Bro. Robert Burns," at the Buns Meeting of the Scots Lodge, No. 2819, English Constitution, on 24th January, 1918.

We are met this evening, as I understand it, just to love Robert Burns and one another. Somehow I feel that Burns would rejoice to be here, for he loved more than all else that festival that was half a frolic and the feast where joy and goodwill were guests. The social magnetism of his spirit found its way into his songs, and we feel it to this day, and he was nowhere happier, nowhere more welcome, than in the fellowship of his Masonic Brethren. Higher tribute there is none for any man than to say, justly, that the world is gentler and more joyous for his having lived ‒ and that was true of Burns, whose very name is an emblem of pity, joy, and the genius of fraternity. And it is therefore that we love Robert Burns, as much for his weakness as for his strength, and all the more for that he was such an unveneered human being. If he was a sinner, he was in that akin to ourselves, as God wots, a little good and a little bad, a little weak and a little strong, foolish when he thought he was wise, and wise, often, when he feared he was foolish. It is given to but few men thus to live in the hearts of their fellows; and, to-day, from Ayr to Sidney, from Chicago to Calcutta, the memory of Burns is a sweet perfume. Yes, more than a fragrance, it is a living force uniting men of many lands, by a kind of Freemasonry, into a league of liberty, justice, and pity.

There is a certain fitness in a man of my country proposing this toast to the Memory of Robert Burns. Mark Twain, the Lincoln of our literature, used to say that our American Civil War was a fight between Sir Walter Scott and Robert Burns. Of course, it was an exaggeration, but none the less a picturesque way of stating a fact. We of the South read Sir Walter Scott for his pride of blood and extraction, for his grace and charm of courtesy, for his pictures of an old romantic feudalism ‒ and, I may add, for the strength and sweetness of his genius. Our Southern society, for all its culture and hospitality, was the old feudalism trans-planted to the New World. The Yankees read Robert Burns, who said that "a man's a man for a' that," whether white or black or brown. That is to say, our Civil War was a clash of ideals, each growing and struggling to be free, an old feudalism against a new uprising democracy of which Burns was the God-endowed prophet. And so the conflict was inevitable.

About the walls of Troy, as Homer saw it, two battles raged, one on the earth between Greeks and Trojans, one in the viewless air between gods and goddesses. So to-day, above the long, winding, ragged lines of the greatest of all wars, two battles are raging ‒ a battle of guns and a battle of ideals. It is a conflict of two conceptions of life and civilization which cannot live together on this earth and keep the peace; and we are struggling together to decide which ideal shall shape the destination of mankind. One in arts and aims and ideals, and now, at last, one in arms, the land of Lincoln and the land of Burns are fighting for the fundamental truths which Burns set to everlasting music.

Some there are who dream of a vague blur of cosmopolitanism, in which all local loyalties, all heroic national genius shall be merged and forgotten. Not so Burns. He was distinctively a national poet, striking deep roots into his native soil, and, for that very reason, touching a chord so haunting that it echoes forever. When Burns appeared the spirit of Scotland was at a low ebb. Her people were crushed and her ancient fire almost quenched. Her scholars blushed to be convicted of a Scottism in speech. It was at such a time that Burns came, inspired by the history of his people, the traditions of Wallace and Bruce stirring him like a passion, his soul attuned to the ancient ballads of love and daring, singing the simple life of his nation in their vivid and simple language. He struck with a delicate but strong hand the deep and noble feelings of his countrymen, and somewhere upon his variegated robe of song will be found embroidered the life, the faith, the genius of his people. He made it a double honour to be a Scotsman. It is therefor that the men of Scotland love him, as, perhaps, never people loved a poet, and make his home at once a throne of melody and a shrine of national glory.

"The Memory of Burns," cried Emerson, "I am afraid heaven and earth have taken too good care of it to leave us anything to say. The west winds are murmuring it. Open the windows behind you and hearken to the incoming tide, what the waves say of it. The doves perching on the eaves of a stone chapel opposite may know something about it. The Memory of Burns ‒ every man's, every boy's, every girl's head carries snatches of his songs, and they say them by heart; and, what is strangest of all, never learned them from a book, but from mouth to mouth. They are the property and the solace of mankind."

If ever of any one, it can be said of Robert Burns, that his soul goes marching on, striding over continents and years, trampling tyrannies down. He was the harbinger of the nineteenth century, the poet of the rights and reign of the common people, whom, it has been said, God must love because He made so many of them. The earth was fresh upon the tomb of Washington when that century was born; it discovered Lincoln and buried him with infinite regret. Indeed, had Burns reached his four-score years, he might have known our peasant-President; he surely must have known him by fame and warm appreciation. In this way Lincoln knew him and fondly repeated the somber stanzas of "Man was made to Mourn," because it suited the temper of his melancholy spirit. But the victorious melody of the age of Lincoln first found voice in the songs of Burns, as the Greek singer inspired Petrarch with the fire that forced the Renaissance, and out of the inertia of the Middle Ages created modern times. So, when Taine came to account for that age he found that its spirit "broke first in a Scotch peasant, Robert Burns" ‒ a man of all men most fitted to give it voice, because "scarcely ever was seen together more of misery and of talent."

This is not the time to rattle the dry bones of literary criticism ‒ a dreary business at best, and a dismal business at worst. It is by all agreed that Robert Burns was a lyric poet of the first order, if not the greatest song-writer of the world. Draw a line from Shakespeare to Browning, and he is one of the few tall enough to touch it. The qualities of Burns are simplicity, naturalness, vividness, fire, sweet-toned pathos, and rollicking humor ‒ qualities rare enough and still more rarely blended. But he was a man first, and his fame rests upon verses written swiftly, as men write letters, and upon songs that were as spontaneous, as artless, and as lovely as the songs of birds. But the spirit of Burns was not merely local. His passion for liberty, his affirmation of the nobility of man, his sense of the dignity of labor, his pictures of the beauties of nature, of the pathos and hard lot of the lowly, of the joys and woes and pieties of his people find response in every breast where beats the heart of a man. Surely no one, since the Son of Man lodged with the fisherman by the sea, has taught more clearly the brotherhood of man and the kinship of all breathing things.

That which lives in Robert Burns, and will live while human nature is the same, is his love of justice, of honesty, his touch of pathos, of melting sympathy, his demand for liberty, his faith in man, in nature, and in God ‒ all uttered with simple speech and the golden voice of song. His poems were little jets of love and liberty and pity finding their way out through the fissures in the granite-like theology of his day. They came fresh from the heart of a man whom the death of a little bird set dreaming of the meaning of a world wherein life is woven of beauty, mystery, and sorrow. A flower crushed in the budding, a field mouse turned out of its home by a ploughshare, a wounded hare limping along the road to dusty death, or the memory of a tiny bird who sang for him in days agone, touched him to tears. His poems did not grow: they awoke complete. He was a child of the open air, and about all his songs there is an outdoor feeling. He saw Nature with the swift glances of a child ‒ saw beauty in the fold of clouds, in the slant of trees, in the lilt and glint of flowing waters, in the immortal game of hide-and-seek played by sunbeams and shadows, in the mists trailing over the hills. The sigh of the wind in the forest filled him with a kind of wild, sad joy, and the tender face of a mountain daisy was like the thought of one much loved and long dead. So the throb of his heart is warm in his words, and it was a heart in which he carried an alabaster box of pity. He had a sad life and a soul of fire, the instincts of an angel in the midst of hard poverty; yet he lived with dash and daring, sometimes with folly, and, we must add ‒ else we do not know Burns ‒ with a certain bubbling joyousness, a lyric glee as of a bird singing in the boughs.

Such was the spirit of Robert Burns ‒ a man passionate and piteous, compact of light and flame and beauty, capable of withering scorn of wrong, quickly shifting from the ludicrous to the horrible, poised between laughter and tears ‒ and if by some art we could send it into all the dark places of the world, pity and joy would return to the common ways of man. Long live the Spirit of Robert Burns. May it grow and glow to the confounding of all unkindness, all injustice, all bitterness.

"He haunts his native land
As an immortal youth; his hand
Guides every plough.
His presence haunts this room to-night
A form of mingled mist and light
From that far coast."

His feet may be in the furrow, but the nobility of man-hood is in his heart, on his lips the voice of eternal melody, and in his face the light of the morning star. I give you the toast, "To the Immortal Memory of Robert Burns!"


The Songs Of Burns -- [A Poem]

Kelso Kelly

'Tis a little land that claims his birth,
But over the world wide,
His songs are sung
By old and young;
In the melting strains of the Scottish tongue,
With hallowed mirth are his sweet songs sung
At every Scot's fireside.

There's never a land on the earth's broad breast,
From Clyde to the furthest sea,
But loves the sound
Of his name renowned,
And as oft as his natal day comes round
Wet eyes in the West to the Doon's green ground
Look homeward wistfully.

There's never a voice so sweet, so glad,
Floats over the lone sea-foam,
As the woodland wile
Of the Bard of Kyle,
Whose notes can the mourner's grief beguile,
Till eyes that are sad wear a welcome smile
At a glimpse of the hills of home."


The Anchor and the Ark -- [A Poem]

By Bro. Frank C. Hickman. Michigan

The Sun goes down mid clouds of gold
The twilight follows fast;
Night comes with footsteps damp and cold;
The light of day is past.

But as we sail life's troubled sea,
Tho' night be on the wave;
Our anchor'll moor us to the lee,
Where all is calm and safe.

There, is a "peaceful harbor" where,
The wicked can't annoy,
And weary ones are rested there,
And hearts are filled with joy.

Our bark will bear use safely, too;
That good old "Ark Divine,"
That's e'er so old, yet ever new, And sails in every clime.

"The emblem of well grounded hope;"
"A life well spent," and mark ‒
That these are represented by
The Anchor and The Ark.


To most men experience is like the stern lights of a ship, which illumine only the track it has passed.

 ‒ Coleridge.


Theodore Roosevelt, Master Mason

By Bro. Herbert S. Hopkins, Illinois

THEODORE ROOSEVELT, former President of the United States, was initiated in Matinecock Lodge, No. 806, F. & A. M., at Oyster Bay, N. Y.; on January 2, 1901, while Governor of the state of New York. He was passed on March 27 of the same year and was raised on April 24 in the presence of a distinguished assemblage of Masons with the Grand Master of New York in the East and three past Grand Masters taking an "important" part in the work.

An account of this meeting in the Masonic Standard (New York City) of April 27, 1901, says:

"R. W. Edward M. L. Ehlers, Grand Secretary, presided as Master. The candidate passed a perfect examination in open lodge. R. W. Frank E. Haff, D. D. G. M. of the 1st district, and R. W. Theodore A. Taylor, Grand Treasurer, assisted in the first section. Bro. Dr. Root of Matinecock Lodge, a warm personal friend of the candidate, acted as senior deacon.

"In the second section M. W. John Stewart, M. W. Wm. A. Brodie and M. W. John W. Vrooman, Past Grand Masters, rendered valuable assistance. The Grand Master, M. W. Charles W. Mead, raised the candidate. The historical lecture by M. W. Wright D. Pownall was an eloquent and ornate explanation of the symbolism of Freemasonry."

There were present in addition to those named, the full official corps of the Grand Lodge of New York, the Grand Master and two Past Grand Masters of Connecticut and two Past Grand Masters of New Jersey.

So much for the ceremony by which Theodore Roosevelt was made a Master Mason.

That Masonry made a deep and lasting impression upon the mind of the candidate is evidenced by some of his recorded Masonic addresses. Perhaps the most notable of these was the address before the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania on the occasion of the sesquicentennial of the initiation of George Washington, which was held on November 5, 1902, in Philadelphia. In this address, perhaps the most widely quoted Masonic utterance of the last quarter century, Bro. Roosevelt, then President, after a brilliant reception by the Pennsylvania Grand Lodge, told the Grand Master that he enjoyed meeting with his brethren in some little lodge room "the one place in the world where brothers meet on the level and where they can speak their thoughts without being misquoted and misunderstood."

In the course of his speech, Bro. Roosevelt said:

"One of the things that attracted me so greatly to Masonry that I hailed the chance of becoming a Mason was that it really did act up to what we, as a government and as a people are pledged to, ‒ of treating each man on his merits as a man. When Brother George Washington went into a lodge of the fraternity he went into the one place in the United States where he stood below or above his fellows according to their official position in the lodge. He went into the place where the idea of our government was realized so far as it is humanly possible for mankind to realize a lofty ideal. And I know that you will not only understand me, but sympathize with me, when I say that, great as my pleasure is in being here as your guest in this beautiful temple and in meeting such a body of men as this that I am now addressing, I think my pleasure is even greater when going into some little lodge, where I meet the plain, hard working men ‒ the men who work with their hands, and meet them on a footing of genuine equality, not false equality, of genuine equality conditioned upon each man being a decent man, a fair dealing man…

"Masonry should make, and must make, each man who conscientiously and understandingly takes its obligations a fine type of American citizenship, because Masonry teaches him his obligations to his fellows in practical fashion…

"Masonry teaches and fosters in the man, the qualities of self-respect and self-help, ‒ the qualities that make a man fit to stand by himself, ‒ and yet it must foster in everyone who appreciates it as it should be appreciated the beautiful and solemn ritual ‒ it must foster in him a genuine feeling for the rights of others and for the feelings of others; and the Masons who help one another help in a way that is free from that curse of help, patronizing condescension."

Such was the Rooseveltian theory of Masonry enunciated only a few months after he was made a Mason. It was the theory which he held to until he died.

In one of his last interviews, Bro. Roosevelt is quoted in the July, 1919, McClure's Magazine as saying:

"I violate no secret when I say that one of the greatest values in Masonry is that it affords an opportunity for men in all walks of life to meet on common ground, where all men are equal and have one common interest.

"For example, when I was President, the Master was Worshipful Brother Doughty, gardener on the estate of one of my neighbors, and a most excellent public-spirited citizen, with whom I liked to maintain contact. Clearly I could not call upon him when I came home. It would have embarrassed him. Neither could he, without embarrassment, call on me. In the lodge, it was different. He was over me, though I was President, and it was good for him and good for me.

"I go to the lodge, and even the folks who do not belong to or believe in the order rather like it that I should go. They seem to feel it's part of the eternal fitness of things. Whenever I return from one of my journeys, I always go there to tell of the lodges I have visited, in Nairobi in Africa, in Trinidad, or the quaint little lodge I found away up on the Ascension River. They sort of feel I am their representative to these lodges, and they like it. There's a real community of interest,"

No sketch of Bro. Roosevelt would be complete without reference to the important discovery made by the Grand Master of the District of Columbia when the cornerstone of the Masonic Temple in Washington was laid. In the minutes of the special communication of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia for June 8, 1907 we find:

"The President of the United States, Bro. Theodore Roosevelt, accompanied by his Secretary. Bro. William Loeb, Jr., and his personal escort, Bro. William B. Hibbs, arrived, his coming being signaled by 'The Star Spangled Banner' by the Marine Band. He was invested with an apron by the Grand Master." And just then, according to tradition, a gust of wind lifted the Presidential coat-tails revealing a healthy pistol on each hip! In his speech that day, Bro. Roosevelt said:

"I have but a word to say to you and that word must always be appropriate in any Masonic meeting where the name of Washington is mentioned. I ask of each Mason, of each member, of each brother, that he shall remember ever that there is upon him a peculiar obligation to show himself in every respect a good citizen; for after all, the way in which he can best do his duty by the ancient order to which he belongs is by reflecting credit upon that order by the way in which he performs his duty as a citizen of the United States."

Bro. Roosevelt's last lengthy Grand Lodge address, before the Grand Lodge of New York in 1917, was so widely quoted and is so recent that extracts from it are needless.


Comparison -- [A Poem]

By Bro. Gerald A. Nancarrow. Indiana

To him, whoein the pride of wealth and power,
And love of self, and stress of busy hour,
Has come to view himself as nearly God;
Who walks beyond the ways that once he trod
And far above the reach of fellowman,
Calls the glorious voice of Night to scan
Her blazing book, and from it learn how small
A part he is of Universal plan.

The flower, the bee, the tossing brook,
The soaring eagle and the noisy rook,
Each is a tiny dot in God's great plan,
And each in his own way doth try to span
Eternal years between himself and God.
The blade of grass beneath the pressing clod
With zealous faith moves upward to the Light
That goal toward which all beings slowly plod.

Though man has climbed the nearest to the sun
No man has all his upward climbing done;
And he who, in the pomp of worldly power
Feels himself upon a stilted tower,
Should view majestic mountains from afar;
Should watch the waves roll up along the bar;
Gaze on the mighty ocean's endless move,
And oft compare his being with a star.


The spirit of the world has four kinds of writs diametrically opposed to charity, resentment, aversion, jealousy, and indifferences.


Look inwards, for you have a lasting fountain of happiness at home that will always bubble up if you will but dig for it.

 ‒ Marcus Aurelius.


Correspondence Circle Bulletin ‒ No. 34

Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood



THE Course of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the references to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be worked up as supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course with the papers by Brother Haywood.


The Course is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided, as is shown below:

Division I. Ceremonial Masonry.

A. The Work of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.

Division II. Symbolical Masonry.

A. Clothing.
B. Working Tools.
C. Furniture.
D. Architecture.
E. Geometry.
F. Signs.
G. Words.
H. Grips.

Division III. Philosophical Masonry.

A. Foundations.
B. Virtues.
C. Ethics.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
F. Mysticism.
G. The Secret Doctrine.

Division IV. Legislative Masonry.

A. The Grand Lodge.
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.

B. The Constituent Lodge.
1. Organization.
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
4. Visitation.
5. Change of Membership.

Division V. Historical Masonry.

A. The Mysteries ‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.

* * *


Each month we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following the foregoing outline. We are now in "Second Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page two, preceding each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the chairman of the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point touched upon in the paper.

Whenever possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin articles from other sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered by Brother Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus be presented.

The monthly installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin should be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the Committee will have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of the meetings and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over and studied the installment in THE BUILDER.


Immediately preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may compile papers of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile original papers, or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations or additions.


The Lodge should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live" members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a special meeting of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which no business (except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to be given to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the Research Committee. This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for the evening. All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned should be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's paper.


1. Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers thereto.

(Suggestion: While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make notes of any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be distributed among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)

2. Discussion of the above.

3. The subsequent sections of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same manner.

4. Question Box.

* * *

Questions on "The Liberal Arts and Sciences ‒ The Ammonitish War ‒ Corn, Wine And Oil"


  • What branches of learning were taught in the medieval system of education?
  • How were they divided?
  • What is the meaning of "trivium"? of "quadrivium"?
  • What studies comprised the former group? the latter group?
  • After mastering these studies what sort of an education was the graduate said to have acquired?
  • What are the schools in which such subjects are taught called?
  • Why did the early Operative Lodges take up the study of the Liberal Arts and Sciences?
  • At what period was the Master Mason first required to take up such study?
  • Did the Liberal Arts and Sciences always occupy a place in the Second degree as at present? If not. when were they placed there?
  • Do you believe that Preston's idea of making Masonry a "school" should be modernized to meet present-day conditions, and put into effect in our lodges?
  • Do you agree in the statement made in paragraph "f" under subdivision "3" of the "Summary of the Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Masonic Service Association of the United States" which appears on page 5 of this issue of THE BUILDER? If not, why not?
  • What is your opinion regarding paragraph "a" under subdivision "4" on the same page?
  • Paragraph "b"? paragraph "c" ? paragraph "d"? paragraph "e"? paragraph "f'"? What is your opinion regarding paragraphs "b" and "c" under sub-division "7" on page 8?


  • What is Brother Haywood's answer to his questions concerning the location of the Arts and Sciences in the middle of our ritual, why the lectures devote so much space to them, and what connection they have with a man's Masonic Life?
  • Do you agree with him? If not, on what particular points do you disagree, and why?


  • Have you ever heard a satisfactory explanation for the connection of the use of a sheaf of grain with the war between Jephtha and the Ephraimites? If so, what is it?
  • What was the cause of the Ammonitish war?
  • Who was Jephtha?
  • How did he intercept his enemies?


  • How did the custom originate of placing gifts on altars to appease the gods in early times?
  • How was the nature of the gifts determined?
  • Whence originated the present-day custom of depositing records and valuables in the corner stones of buildings?
  • What is Brother Haywood's interpretation of the symbolism of corn, wine and oil?
  • Can you give a different interpretation?

* * *

Supplemental References


Vol. I.--William Preston, p. 7.
Vol. II.--Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences, p. 241.
Vol. III. ‒ Corn, Wine and Oil, Feb. C. C. B. p. 8.
Vol. IV. ‒ Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences, pp. 177, 267;
Wages of a Fellow Craft, p. 267.
Vol. V. ‒ Freemasonry and Education, p. 294.

Mackey's Encyclopaedia [Lib 1914]:

Ammonitish War, p. 54;
Cornerstone, p. 178;
Corn, Wine and Oil, p. 179;
Ephraimites, p. 247;
Jephthah, p. 867;
Liberal Arts and Sciences, p. 444.

* * *

Part IX ‒ The Liberal Arts And Sciences ‒ The Ammonitish War ‒ Corn, Wine And Oil

I – The Liberal Arts and Sciences

The educators of the Middle Ages taught seven branches of learning in their school and these were divided into two groups, the first of which was called the "trivium" meaning "where three roads meet," and the second "quadrivium," "where four roads meet." Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic comprised the former groups usually, and it was these subjects the young student in college first studied; the latter group included Arithmetic. Music, Astronomy, and Geometry. When all of these subjects were mastered the man was said to have a "liberal education" and the school in which they were taught was called (as it still is) a "college of liberal arts."

This educational system was in vogue when the earliest Operative Lodges were practicing, and it was inevitable that the Masons, who refused to permit their Gild to become a mere labor organization, should in-corporate the Liberal Arts and Sciences in their schemes of study and in their literature. Brother Conder informs us that as early as the fourteenth century the London Society of Masons "required the Master Mason to be acquainted with the seven liberal sciences." In the Ahiman Rezon, much used by the "Ancients" in the eighteenth century, we have a reminiscence of this in the following bit of doggerel:

"The grammar rules instruct the tongue and pen,
Rhetoric teaches eloquence to men;
By logic we are taught to reason well,
Music has claims beyond our power to tell;
The use of numbers, numberless we find;
Geometry gives measure to mankind.
The heavenly system elevates the mind.
All those, and, many secrets more,
The Masons taught in days of yore."

This doggerel is really a free paraphrase of a few lines from the oldest of our Manuscripts, written about 1390, and it goes to show that for four or five centuries the Arts and Sciences had held a prominent place in the thought, as well as in the Ritual and Constitutions, of Freemasons.

In the beginning of the eighteenth century the Liberal Arts and Sciences were embedded in the First degree; after the revision of the ritual they were moved to the Second degree, where they very naturally served Preston's scheme for making this degree a little course in education. There they still remain; if they can no longer fulfill Preston's great purpose they may still very fittingly remind us of the place which such culture must have in the life of every complete and well-furnished Mason.


To enter into any detailed analysis of the seven subjects is obviously impossible here, though it might prove more interesting than we would think; but we may well ask ourselves, why are these Arts and Sciences set in the middle of the ritual? Why do the lectures devote so much space to them? What possible connection can they have with a man's Masonic Life? I believe that we can find a satisfactory answer to these questions by recalling a bit of history.

During the so-called Dark Ages what few scholars there were in Europe devoted themselves almost entirely to studies that had little or no connection with human life; they debated such questions as, What are the attributes of Deity? what are angels? what are demons? what is being? what is existence? how many angels can stand on a point of a needle? etc. After the great Revival of Learning had come, with its rediscovery of history, of nature, of human life, and of classical literature, the scholars turned from the old subjects to themes that were nearer to life-history, the arts, science, politics, and so on. The men who took up these studies were called Humanists because they were more interested in questions related to the life and needs of humanity than they were to the dry-as-dust discussion of metaphysics; and they urged in favor of their new studies that they would "humanize" men who would pursue them.

I believe that Masonry is justified in retaining the Liberal Arts and Sciences in its ritual just because they still have power to humanize us, to "improve us in social intercourse," to make us broader of mind, more tolerant in opinion, more humane in action, and more brotherly in conduct.

Besides, knowledge of them, even a little knowledge of them, can make us more useful to the lodge. The brother who understands enough grammar to write a paper to be read to his brethren; who has studied enough rhetoric to learn how to speak well in open lodge; who has so disciplined his mind by logic as to think straight and clear without prejudice or passion; who has an appreciation of a fine art like music so as to be mellowed and softened by the charm it throws about one's personality; who has had his mental outlook broadened and his store of knowledge enriched so as to have useful information to place at the disposal of the Craft; such a brother, it seems to me, is one who exemplifies the Masonic love of light.

We may go a step further. Suppose a lodge member is critical, captious, fault-finding, prejudiced, and ignorant; he adds nothing to the Brotherhood and he is a cause of trouble. If the lodge could persuade him to ascend the seven steps of the arts and sciences, consider how it would affect him; his prejudice and vanity would drop away, for these are fruits of ignorance; his enlarged mind would make him more tolerant of others' opinions and more patient with others' faults, for great knowledge always begets humility. The man who has captured even a little vision of the wide world of knowledge can never be bigoted or vainglorious because he has learned how little he himself really knows. Masonry needs to cling to the Arts and Sciences for the sake of brotherhood itself!

III - The Ammonitish War

I am frank to confess to a feeling of embarrassment as I come to deal with this subject. It is easy to see the reasonableness of using a sheaf of grain as a symbol peculiar to Fellow Crafts because it may well typify the fruit of that toil which is enjoined on the candidate in the Second degree; but why this has been connected up to the barbarous war between Jephtha and the Ephraimites is something that has escaped my search. There are no records at hand to show when and by whom the story was introduced into the Ritual nor can the internal evidence give us any light except the hint that to some old ritualist, familiar with the Scriptures, "corn" may have suggested "shibboleth" and that in turn brought back the story of the war. But this is only conjecture and I must leave it at that, except to retell the strange story of the fords of Jordan which may have grown dim in my readers' minds.

For many years the Jewish tribes had been harassed on one side by the Philistines and on the other by the Ammonites, the latter a rude Bedouin tribe of crafty, fearless, desert people. Made desperate by their losses the Israelites at last gathered behind a semi-barbarous chieftain from the land of Tob, a region just north of the Ammonites and as full of folk almost as barbarous as they. This chieftain, whose name was Jephtha and who suffered the disgrace of illegal birth, easily bested the foes and was afterwards made one of the Judges of Israel. (See book of Judges.)

On this the men of the Jewish tribe of Ephraim became jealous of the new leader and undertook to destroy his power. They crossed over to the east side of the Jordan where Jephtha lived and there engaged him in war. After he had thoroughly whipped them he set groups of his men at each of the Jordan fords to intercept the refugees. But Jephtha discovered that the Ephraimites were so much like his own soldiers in appearance that confusion would result so he hit upon the ingenious expedient of having every suspect undertake to say "shibboleth" as he waded across the river. The Ephraimites were so unable to frame the sound of sh as Englishmen are to pronounce the Scotch ch; the nearest they could come to the pronunciation was "sibboleth." This betrayed them, and forty-two thousand were slain.

This is a strange tale and it is difficult to see what connection it has with the ritual, except that "shibboleth" may mean "corn" (that is, "grain"; it may also mean "stream"), and that some ritualist, having knowledge of this, used the story of the Jordan fords as a sure means of keeping the Mason in remembrance of the pass and token of the pass of a Fellowcraft.

IV – Corn, Wine and Oil

Among all primitive peoples the gods were supposed to have need of food; from that idea arose the custom of placing gifts on the altar, a custom as universal as it was ancient. The nature of the gifts was determined, usually, by the occupation of a people; the shepherds, for example, offered a sheep or a lamb, while agricultural peoples appropriately gave fruits or grain. This explains why it was that the Greeks and Romans, in their early periods, so often brought to their altars gifts of corn, oil and wine.

The same people also were accustomed to offer similar gifts to the gods when they undertook the erection of a building. Thinking to appease the gods for taking possession of the soil they would place fruits and grains in the bottom of the foundation pits, a practice well described by Ovid in his mythical history of the building of Rome, "a pit is dug down to the firm clay," he writes, "fruits of the earth are thrown to the bottom, and a sample of earth of the adjacent soil. The pit is filled with the earth, and when filled an altar is placed over it," etc. The present day habit of placing valuables in a cornerstone is a reminiscence of that ancient custom.

The Masonic reader will understand from this our custom of using corn, wine and oil in the dedication of Masonic buildings, but these things have a very different significance in the Fellowcraft lecture. There they symbolize the wages of the workmen, alluding to Nourishment, Refreshment, and Joy. This symbolism interprets itself. It is nothing more than a figurative manner of saying to the Candidate: "If you actually put into practice the teachings of this degree you will receive a rich reward; you will be nourished in mind and body; you will be refreshed by the consciousness of work well done; you will know the joys of brotherhood, of achievement, of a life well lived." Compared with such wages money compensation is a very poor thing.

* * *


The attention of Study Club members is called to the announcement on the inside back cover of this issue of THE BUILDER inviting communications from all thinking Masons concerning the Plan and Scope of the Masonic Service Association of the United States as presented in the Summary of Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the Association beginning on the title page of this issue.

Having discussed some of the phases of the matter at the Study Club meeting at which the preceding study lesson was used you may have some good suggestions to make that will be of value to the Association. If so, send them in to Brother Schoonover, Chairman of the Executive Commission.


The Encyclical Letter "Humanum Genus" of Pope Leo XIII

In the November, 1919, issue of THE BUILDER we published, in response to many requests from members of the Society, the Encyclical Letter "Humanum Genus" of the Pope Leo XIII [Lib 1884], which was followed in the December number by an extract from the Allocution of Brother Albert Pike, Grand Commander of the Supreme Council 88, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, having especial reference to the Pope's Letter. In this issue we give the "Reply" to the Bull [Lib 1884]. as made by Pike in August, 1884.

TO THE BRETHREN of our Obedience throughout all our Jurisdiction:

It is known unto you that Leo XIII., at present the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, claiming to be the successor of Saint Peter the Apostle, infallible, and the Vicegerent of God, has lately issued an Encyclical Letter to the Catholic World, to be known hereafter, from the words with which it begins, as the Letter Humanum Genus, in calumnious denunciation of Freemasonry and Free-Masons.

The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Free-Masonry which, a century and more ago, accepted the Apostolate of Civil and Religious Liberty, and hath, since then, not faltered in its purpose of making these as common among men as light and air, has not thought it necessary to be in haste, here in the United States, to make reply to the Bull of Excommunication of the Roman Pontiff; because it finds, in the Letter itself, the most sufficient proof that it does not need to feel any fear for the result of the long controversy which, forced by the Church of Rome a by its Jesuit soldiery and by its bloody and ferocious Tribunals of the Holy Office, on long-suffering Humanity, has brought upon itself signal discomfiture, with immense loss of temporal and spiritual power.

Least of all will it, now or at any time, or anywhere, seek to conciliate the Church of Rome, or to plead in avoidance of its denunciations, that it does not in any wise intermeddle or concern itself with questions of civil government or religion. It leaves that to those Bodies and Journals, to which it may deem advisable or expedient, reminding them that it long ago said to them this, which it may now be profitable for them to ponder upon:

"In this Free-Masonry we do not disclaim all the attributes that once distinguished the Order, except a portion of its morality; nor protest against the suspicion that it has a political and religious creed, as though it were an accusation of crime. It is not a negative but a positive Institution, that does not rely upon the insignificance of its objects to make it sufficiently contemptible not to excite the fears of Emperors and Kings. The sedulous disclaimer by English and German Masonry, and very recently by that of France, of all pretense to religious or political principle, has not averted the thunderbolts of the Vatican, and the humiliation has, so far, been fruitless."

But it is the right of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Free-Masonry to make answer if it sees fit, and to carry the war into the quarters of error, however willing it might be to leave the Encyclical Letter to have its effect, and work to the Church of Rome all the harm it may, without comment. It neither fears the Pontiff, nor concerns itself about his vituperations; and it could do itself, and the great cause in which it is enlisted, sufficient service, perhaps, by republishing the Letter, and giving to it as wide publicity as possible.

We will probably do that hereafter; as we have already, some years ago, published in full translations of the equally formidable Bulls of the Predecessors, Clement and Benedict, of the present Pope. Neither should we be concerned if it were to be thought, by the outside world, in case we should remain silent, that our Free-Masonry is afraid to reply, or feels that it cannot efficiently defend itself. But, as it seems to be considered by many of you, our very dear Brethren, that we ought to make answer for you, we willingly undertake to do so, for ourselves and you, and for our Free-Masonry, as far as we may have authority to speak for it.

In doing this we shall not set forth the whole Letter, nor quote from it at very great length; but only so far as it may be necessary to set its words forth, to enable you and others who may read what we write, to see against what it in reality is that the Church of Rome launches its no longer formidable lightnings.

In its long war against Humanity and human progress, against Science and Civilization, and against the truth of God revealed in Nature, the Roman Church has been greatly shorn of power and influence, until it has become but the feeble effigy of what it was in 1488, when it made Tomas Torquemada Inquisitor of the Faith in Spain, and in the eighteen years of that Official's rule, burned at the stake in that Kingdom eight thousand eight hundred Hebrews and Heretics.

But the Pope is still a great religious Potentate, wielding an immense influence, especially over ignorance, throughout a large part of Christendom, with an army of over 11,000 Jesuit Fathers, Professors and Coadjutors, of whom there are nearly 2,000 Fathers in England and the United States. While Free-Masonry has never feared, it has never undervalued its mighty antagonist, and it does not under-estimate him now, although it listens with equanimity to these words, with which his Letter begins:

"The Human Race, after its most miserable defection, through the wiles of the Devil, from its Creator, God the giver of celestial gifts, has divided into two different and opposite factions; of which one lights ever for truth and virtue, the other for their opposites. One is the Kingdom of God on earth, the true Church of Jesus Christ, … the other is the Kingdom of Satan… But at this time those who support the worst faction seem all to be conspiring and striving most vigorously, led and aided by what is called Free-Masonry, a society of men most widely spread and firmly established. For now in no way concealing their designs, they are rousing themselves most boldly against the power of God; undisguisedly and openly they are planning destruction for the Holy Church, and they do so with this intention, ‒ that they may, if it be possible, completely despoil Christian Nations of the benefits obtained through Jesus Christ our Savior."

"In so pressing a danger, in so monstrous and obstinate an attack on Christianity, it is Our duty to indicate the peril, to point out Our adversaries, and as far as we can to resist their plans and designs, that those whose safety has been entrusted to Us may not perish everlastingly; and that the Kingdom of Jesus Christ, which We have received to protect, not only may stand and remain unimpaired, but may even be increased throughout the world."

This is clearly a manifesto against every other Church, calling itself "Christian," than the Roman-Catholic Church, as no part of "the Kingdom of God upon Earth," of "the true Church of Jesus Christ"; as in no wise dispensing among men "the benefits obtained through Jesus Christ our Savior." The Pope has alone received "the Kingdom of Jesus Christ" to protect. All so-called "Christianity," except the Roman Church, is "the Kingdom of Satan." Thus this Letter is the shrill and discordant war-cry of Intolerance and of "death to Heresy," sounded from the summit of the Vatican, and echoing and re-echoing over the world.

"Therefore, whatsoever the Popes our Predecessors have decreed to hinder the designs and attempts of the Sect of Free-Masons; whatsoever they have ordained to deter or re-call persons from Societies of this kind, each and all we do ratify and confirm by our Apostolic Authority."

And these are specially stated to be, the Bull In Eminenti of Clement XII., dated 27th April, 1738 [Lib 1738], confirmed and renewed by that beginning Providas of Benedict XIV., 17th of May, 1751 [Lib 1751]; the Edict of Pius VII. [Lib 1821], in 1821, and the Apostolic Edict Quo Graviora of Leo XII. [Lib 1826], in 1825; with those of Pius VIII., in 1829 [Lib 1829], Gregory XVI. [Lib 1832], in 1832, and Pius IX., in 1846 [Lib 1846], 1864 [Lib 1864], etc.

The title of the Bull In Eminenti of Clement XII. is "Condemnatio Societatis seu Conventiculorum de Liberi Muratori, set the Free-Masons, under the penalty ipso facto incurred, of excommunication; absolution from it, except in articulo mortis, being reserved to the Supreme Pontiff."

Let us give the exact language, translated, of the closing sentences of this celebrated Bull. It will sound strangely, even to Catholics, at this day; but their Spiritual Sovereign has, by plenarily confirming and re-enacting it, made it a part, in the very words, of his Letter Encyclical:

"We will, moreover, and command, that as well Bishops and Superior Prelates, and other Ordinaries of particular places, AS THE INQUISITORS OF HERETICAL PRAVITY UNIVERSALLY DEPUTED. of what State, degree, condition, Order, dignity or pre-eminence soever, proceed and inquire, and restrain and coerce the same, as vehemently suspected of heresy, with condign punishment; for to them and each of them we hereby give and impart free power of proceeding, inquiring against, and of coercing and restraining with condign punishments, the same transgressors; and of calling in, if it shall be necessary, THE HELP OF THE SECULAR ARM.... Let no one, therefore, infringe, or by rash attempt contradict, this page of our Declaration, Condemnation, Command. Prohibition and Interdict; but if any one shall presume to attempt this, let him know that he will incur the indignation of Almighty God, and of the blessed Apostles Peter and Paul"

The Bull of Benedict XIV., "By which," the title reads, "certain Societies or Conventicles, de Liberi Muratori, seu the Free-Masons, or otherwise callei iterum damnantur et prohibentur, with invocations to the arm and aid of the Secular Princes and Powers, was issued to remove doubts whether the penalty of ex communication ipso facto pronounced by Clement, was still in full force, not having yet been confirmed by Benedict. It prescribed how absolution might be obtained by penitents renouncing Masonry; but incite the competent judges and tribunals to proceed with renewed activity against the violators of that Constitution of Clement, and he confirmed it in its very words inserting it in full in this his own Bull.

And he specially declared that "among the grave causes of the aforesaid prohibition and damnation, on is, that in such Societies and Conventicles, men of an Religion and Sect whatsoever do consociate; whereby it sufficiently appears that great mischief to the writ of the Catholic religion may arise."

The Archbishop of Avignon, publishing this Bull on the 22d of July, 1751, to the Clergy and Faithful of his Diocese, required all Free-Masons therein to renounce the Order, addressing themselves to him or to the Father Inquisitor or one of the Vicars-General; an specially commanded, on penalty of excommunication those having possession of a certain manuscript-book containing the Regulations of the Order, and the signatures of those admitted into it, to place it, as soon as possible, in his hands, or those of the Inquisitor; an anyone knowing 'where it was, to give information thereof. And he said, "If any one, which God forbid! is blind and hardened enough to still persist in these Societies named Free-Masons, or called by any other name, let him know that we will proceed against him as suspected of heresy, according to the full rigor of the law."

The ratification and full confirmation of everything in these Bulls of Clement and Benedict, formally ex-communicates ipso facto every Free-Mason in the world: and, so far as the Pope can do it, releases the people of Germany and Brazil from their allegiance to their Emperors, and those of Sweden and Norway and the Netherlands from their allegiance to their Kings and, when the Prince of Wales shall become King, will release every Catholic in Great Britain and its Colonies from their allegiance.

How fully these Excommunications ipso facto, as references of cases, as of heretical pravity, to the inquisition, with power to call on the Secular arm, at light again the fire of Hell on earth at new Autos da Fe are re-enacted by the new Bull Humanum Genus, will fully appear from the words which we next quote:

"Seeing then that the purpose and nature of Free-Masonry has been discovered from the clear evidence of facts, from the knowledge of its causes. from the publication of its laws, rites and documents, and from the confirmatory testimony of those who had part in it, this Apostolic See has declared and clearly proclaimed that the Sect of Free-Masons, established against law and right, is dangerous no less to Christianity than to the State, and has proclaimed and ordered, under the heavier penalties used by the Church against the guilty, that no one should be enrolled in that Society."

"And this action of the Popes seemed to be entirely approved by many Princes and rulers whose care it was either to proceed against the Masonic Society before the Apostolic See, or of themselves to condemn them to punishment, by laws passed for this purpose, as in Holland, Austria, Switzerland, Spain, Bavaria, Savoy and other parts of Italy."

"Proceedings against it before the Apostolic See" ‒ that is, making their subjects victims of the merciless and remorseless Inquisition, in Portugal. "Or by laws passed by themselves, to condemn them to punishment," like that of Ferdinand VII. of Spain, of August 1st, 1824, ‒ a decree expedited condemning to death all Free-Masons who should not declare themselves such within thirty days; after which time all were to be hung within twenty-four hours, without further form of trial, who might be recognized as Free-Masons, not having so declared themselves.

The Masons of France do not forget that, soon after the Bull In Eminenti issued, (of April 27, 1738,) a French writer on Free-Masonry was burned to death at Rome: nor those of Portugal the memorable Bull of 1st September, 1774, which proclaimed and eulogized he services rendered to the Papacy in Portugal, since 1732; viz., that there had been made to do penance in public Autos 23,068 persons; that 1,415 had been burned; that 2,000 had been thrown into the Tagus, and more than that number had died in prison: nor those of Spain, that Riego was brutally put to death at Madrid, Palacios at Cadiz, Gaivez at Granada, and those in Sevilla and Barcelona, for the sole offence of being Masons.

In 1737, Clement XII. issued an Allocution, authorizing the mission of an Inquisitor to Leghorn, because a Lodge there was said to receive Roman Catholics, Protestants and Jews.

It is the crowning glory of Free-Masonry that, requiring only that a Candidate shall believe and put his trust in a living and personal God, a beneficent and Protecting Providence, to whom it is not folly to pray; and shall believe in the continued existence of the Soul of man after the death of the body, it receives into its lodges the Christian of every sect, the Hebrew, the Moslem and the Parsee, and unites them in the holy bonds of Brotherhood.

In the eye of the Papacy, it is a crime to belong to an Order which is thus constituted; and this the Letter of the Pope Leo (successor of "Divus Alexander VI., ste Deus"), preaches to Catholics living in a Republic, the very corner-stone of which is religious toleration, and which was peopled in large measure, at first, by Puritans, Quakers, Church-of-England-men and Huguenots.

"Under the heavier penalties used by the Church against the guilty." Yea, under the heaviest; to which, if that Church could do it, it would again resort to-day. We have seen a Catholic Ultramontane Archbishop, in Brazil, within a few years, excommunicate all the Free-Masons in his jurisdiction; forbid the administration of the Last Sacraments to Masons dying; forbid their burial in consecrated ground; forbid the Priests to solemnize the Rites of Marriage between a Free-Mason and any woman, and so compel the Parliament of that Catholic country to make lawful a marriage solemnized by a civil magistrate.

We know what these heavier penalties of the Church were. They are the same as when, at Toledo, in 1486, 27 persons were burned by the Inquisition, chiefly for being Hebrews; and at Seville, in 1481, 2,000, for the same crime, two thousand human beings, roasted to death by slow fires, assassinated in the name of a religion of peace; ‒ the same, as when, in Spain, from 1481 to 1498, Torquemada burned eight thousand eight hundred men and women; ‒ as when his successor, the Dominican Friar Diego Deza, successively Bishop of Samora, Salamanca, Jaen and Palencia, and Archbishop of Sevilla, in eight years, from 1498 to 1506, burned 1,664; ‒ as when his successor, the most celebrated Archbishop of Toledo, Cisneros, a Franciscan Brother, from 1507 to 1517, burned 2,586; ‒ as when the Cardinal Adriano, Bishop of Tortosa, succeeding Cisneros as Inquisitor-General, from 1518 to 1522, burned 1,344; ‒ as when the Cardinal Alonso Manrique, Archbishop of Sevilla, succeeding him, from 1528 to 1538, burned 2,250; ‒ as when Taveda, Archbishop of Toledo, succeeding Manrique in 1589, and dying in 1545, burned alive 840; ‒ as when Cardinal Loaisa, General of the Dominicans, Confessor of Charles V., Commissary-General of the Crusade and Archbishop of Sevilla, from the 15th of February, 1546, to the 22d of April in the same year, burned 120; as when his successor, Fernando Valdes, Archbishop of Sevilla, from 1547 to 1566, burned 2,400; ‒ as when, from 1566 to 1572, Cardinal Espinosa burned 720; and from 1572 to 1594, Pedro de Cordova Ponce de Llano, Bishop of Badajoz, Inquisitor-General, burned 2,816; and Jeronimo de Lara, Bishop of Cartagena, in a few months, 128; and Pedro Portocarrero, Bishop of Cuenca, Inquisitor-General from 1596 to 1599, burned 184; and Fernando Nino de Guevara, from 1599 to 1602, burned 240; and Juan de Zuniga, Bishop of Cartagena, in a few months, 80; and Juan Baptista de Azevedo, from 1603 to 1607, 400; ‒ as when, from 1643 to 1665, the Inquisitor-General Diego Arce y Reinoso burned 1,422; and Diego Sarmiento de Valladares, from 1669 to 1699, burned 1,248; ‒ as when, from 1699 to 1720, 884 were burned; and from 1720 to 1733, by the Inquisitor-General Juan de Camargo, 442; 238 from 1733 to 1740; 136 from 1742 to 1745; 10 from 1746 to 1759, and 4 from 1750 to 1785.

As when, in all, from 1481 to 1785, besides the thousands upon thousands murdered by the Inquisition in other ways, thirty-four thousand six hundred and fifty-six men and women were burned to death, in Spain alone; and 304,451 endured other heavy punishments. What a Devil's Carnival, of the Church that so hates Free-Masonry!

Civilized Humanity was successfully endeavoring to forget these and a thousand other atrocities of savage mercilessness that seem to those who have not read history to be incredible and monstrous fictions. It was beginning to believe that the Church, which had during three hundred long years resorted to and availed itself of the methods and practices of its creature, the Holy Office, or Inquisition, had become humanized and en-lightened, by the beautiful influences of Science and an immensely larger knowledge of Humanity and of God, acquired by studying the great Book of Nature, His first and absolutely authentic Revelation of Himself. It was believed that the Papal Despotism, Vice-regency of God in its own estimation, would not to-day, if it had the power, imprison or torture an observer of nature who should deny that, at the command of Joshua, in order to enable the Israelites to slaughter the Amorites satisfactorily, the Sun stood still upon Gibeon in the midst of Heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day, and the Moon stayed in the Valley of Ajalon. It was not believed that it would now, if it could, visit with "the heavier penalties" a physician who might doubt whether, when Christ abode on earth, Devils found homes somewhere in the interiors of men, and when compelled to vacate these homes, sought new abodes in the swine, grubbing for roots in the arid soil of Galilee.

It was believed that the Church Infallible had at least tacitly relinquished some of the gross absurdities of its old belief, errors and fallacies contradicted and exploded by the revelation of the Creator Himself, made known to men by His hand-maidens, Geology and Paleontology, Chemistry, Astronomy and Dynamics. It was not supposed, that, if it still had the power, the Church of Rome would to-day sentence Darwin and his disciples even to march in procession in an Auto da Fe grotesquely clad as heretics, much less burn them alive, as it would with great rejoicing have done three centuries ago.

It was believed that the Pope looked with at least tolerant and indulgent eyes upon the people of the great Protestant Kingdoms and Countries, upon the Clergy and Laity of other denominations of Christians, upon even such Hebrews as Sir Moses Montefiore; felt that the Turk, the Moor, the Parsee or the Hebrew was entitled to somewhat more merciful consideration and greater immunity from torture and mutilation than the dog, the wolf or the hyena; and no longer considered it to be contrary to the law of God for men to insist upon imposing constitutional restrictions upon Autocracies and Despotisms, and for the People to demand to have a voice in the making of laws.

We, here in the United States, fondly believed in the entente cordiale between our Constitutional Republicanism and the humanized Church of Rome. Free of all apprehension of danger from its ambition, slow to believe that it would gladly, if it could, turn back the hands upon the dial of Time, rob Humanity here of all the civil, political and religious rights which it has acquired in the long and bloody struggle of ages against its murderous oppressors, and put in force from Ocean to Ocean and from the Arctic Seas to the Gulf of Mexico the ferocious regime of Loyola and Torquemada, we looked with indifference on its acquisition everywhere of property of immense value, free from taxation, on its creation here of Princes of the Church, on its energetic proselytism, and on its stealthy approaches to power.

There has never been, in this country, any opposition on the part of Free-Masonry to Catholicism as a religion. One great and cardinal principle of our Order being Toleration, perfect and absolute, the right of every man to worship God in accordance with the convictions of his own conscience, we have not even felt indignation when the educational establishments of Catholicism have made priests of our sons, and devotees or nuns of our daughters. With a hundred thousand members of the Roman Catholic faith in its Lodges, in the various Latin countries of the world, the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite could have no dislike to Catholicism as a religion. It has only denied its right to compel men to profess a belief in what it might, in its pretended infallibility, decree to be religious truth, and to persecute with rack and fagot, or otherwise, and grill and roast alive those who do not consent to believe that which they cannot believe.

Free-Masonry here has not been willing to think that the Head of the oldest and greatest of Christina Churches, successor of the penniless Galilean Fisher-man Peter, dreamed of renewing and reviving against the Order throughout the whole world, the Bulls of his predecessors Clement and Benedict, and of excommunicating and declaring subject to the heavier penalties of the Church the Emperor and Crown-Prince of Germany, Masons and Patrons of Masonry; the Crown-Princes of the Netherlands, of Denmark and of Great Britain, and the King of Sweden and Norway, Grand Masters of Masons; the Emperor of Brazil, member of the Supreme Council of that Empire; the President and Ex-President of Mexico, the Ex-President of Honduras, the President of Venezuela, Sagasta, Prime Minister, and Ex-Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of Spain, with hundreds upon hundreds of the great, wise men of the age in every civilized country in the world. For, by thus reviving and confirming all the enactments of his Predecessors, it is decreed that the Inquisition, if its existence and powers can be restored, will have the power and right, and find it to be its duty, to cause to be dug up and burned in an Auto da (as it has in its days of power and irresponsibility done by its sentences with the mortal remains of relapsed Jews and heretics,) the bones of Bishops of the Episcopal Church, of Chief Magistrates of Republics, of great Princes and immortal Patriots, of Riego and Juarez, of Garfield and Garibaldi and Washington. But suddenly, the ghastly specter of a hideous and frightful Past, stands in the twilight after the red sunset of the Papacy, upon the summit of the Vatican, and cries out this baleful proclamation to a startled world:

"For this reason, when We first came to the helm of the Church, We saw and plainly felt that, so far as was possible, We ought to resist this enormous evil by the opposition of our authority. Having often obtained a favorable opportunity, We have attacked the chief heads of the doctrines into which the perversity of Masonic opinions seemed especially to have entered.... Moreover, by the Letter beginning 'Diuturnum,' we have marked out and set forth a form of political power in accordance with the principles of Christian wisdom, wonderfully coherent both with the nature of things. and with the safety of Peoples and Princes. Now therefore by the example of our Predecessors we have decided to proceed directly against the Masonic Society itself, against their whole teaching, their plans and habit of thought and act, so that the poisonous strength of that Sect may be more and more brought to light, and that this may avail to check the contagion of the dangerous plague."

Thus this Letter, beginning "Humanum Genus," The Human Race, is not only an open declaration of war against Free-Masonry, unexpected, but not unwelcome; but it is, as will be more fully seen as we proceed further with it, much more than that, and fitly beginning with those words; because, if what has come to pass during the last hundred years, not only in Protestant countries, but in Catholic countries as well, in the matter of civil polity, the advancement of scientific knowledge, and immunity from persecution and torture, has been for the benefit of the Common People, this Encyclical Letter is a Declaration of war against the Human Race.

It is not unwelcome to Free-Masonry, we repeat; not because Free-Masonry desires hostile relations with the Church of Rome, but because it prefers open war to covert hostility: and it has long known that, in these United States, and especially in Louisiana, the influence of that Church has been constantly exerted against itself, while there has been seeming peace, by attempts to procure renunciation of Masonry from Masons on their deathbeds, and by making wives agents of the Priesthood, to persuade their husbands, if by persuasion they could effect it, and if not, then by persistent discontent and querulous complaining, making home a Purgatory, to force them, either to renounce Free-Masonry altogether, or at least to cease to attend the meetings of the Lodges, and be no longer actively engaged in the good works of the Order.

Having informed those to whom the Letter is addressed that he had already expressed to them his views in regard to the proper form and nature of political government, the Pontifex Maximus proceeds to allege that Free-Masonry is endeavoring to carry into real effect the views of the Materialists; than which nothing could be more untrue, in regard to the Free-Masonry of all English-speaking countries; and in reply to which, as to other countries than these, it is true to say that not one Free-Mason in a thousand, anywhere, is a Materialist, except in France and Belgium; and that even in these two countries, those who are far from being Materialists outnumber the latter five-hundred fold.

The Letter proceeds to make proof of its assertion in these words, speaking of Free-Masonry:

"In truth, with long and pertinacious labor, it exerts itself for this purpose, that the rule of the Church should be of no weight, that its authority should be as nothing in a State; and for this reason they everywhere assert and insist that sacred and civil matters ought to be wholly distinct. By this they exclude the most wholesome virtue of the Catholic religion from the laws and from the administration of a country; and the consequence is that they think whole States ought to be constituted outside of the institutes and precepts of the Church."

In other words, the Roman Church protests against that fundamental principle of Constitutional government, dear above almost all else to the people of the United States, that Church and State should act each within its proper sphere, and that with the civil government and political administration of affairs, the Church should have nothing to do. The people of the United States do not propose to argue that with the Church of Rome.

"Nor are they content," the letter continues, "with neglecting the Church, their best guide, unless they injure her by hostility. And in truth, they are allowed with impunity to attack the very foundations of the Catholic religion, by speaking, writing and teaching. Alas! Humanity has at last an opportunity, not in Protestant countries only, but in Italy itself, in Spain and Portugal, in Mexico and Brazil, and all South America, in speech and writing, to utter its thought, arraign its oppressors and defend the rights given by God; and there is no longer an Inquisition to burn at the stake those who are too free with tongue or The people of the United States will never permit Church to circumscribe the freedom of the Press; nor can they ever be made to believe that free discussion will be for the discomfiture of Truth and to the profit of Error, unless God ceases to be on the side of Truth.

The Letter then complains of various measures the Italian Government to the injury of the Papacy; to which that government is probably not afraid of the Pope's appeal to the public opinion of the world. One sentence only we quote:

"We see the Societies of Religious Orders overturned and dispersed."

Yes, on 3d of September, 1759, all Jesuits were banished from Portugal and its dominions; and other Catholic countries, not urged thereto by Free-Masonry, have found it necessary to their own peace and well-being to do same. And it proved to be an unfortunate day for Brazil when, not very many years ago, offering asylum to the Jesuits expelled from other countries, entrusted to them the charge of the public institution of education; and Jesuitism and Ultra-montanism undertook to possess themselves of the government of country and suppress Free-Masonry.

"If," the Pope says, "those who are enrolled in their number are by no means ordered to forswear set form the Catholic Institutions, this indeed is so far from being repugnant to the designs of Free-Masonry that it rather serves them. For, in the first place they easily deceive in this way the simple and incautious and offer attractions to far more persons. Then, moreover, by accepting any that present themselves, matter of what religion, they gain their purpose urging that great error of the present day, viz., questions of religion ought to be left undetermined, and that there should be no distinction made between varieties. And this policy aims at the destruction of all religions, specially at that of the Catholic Religion, which, since it is the only true one, cannot be reduced to equality with the rest without the greatest injury."

Questions of religion, then, must not be left undetermined, and distinction must be made between varieties; and the Catholic religion must be determined to be the only true one. How? By what power? By the Sovereign, by the Civil Power? or shall the power to decree itself the only Church "possessed of the Kingdom of God," be admitted to be inherent in the Catholic Church itself ? Of course, this. Is not the Pope infallible? Is he not Jove, and Divus, and Iate Deus? In either case, the power to prohibit the existence of all other Churches must follow; the power to punish adherence to other creeds as heresies, civil power and criminal jurisdiction, the power of repression, of punishing relapses, must be vested in the Jesuits, and in the Inquisition, revived, and armed with all its old powers. All means to effect the absolutely necessary end of suppression and extirpation must be legitimate, and the reign of the Devil of persecution and torture must begin again.

Free-Masonry opens its doors to men of all religions alike; and the most splendid jewel of the prerogative of the Scottish Free-Masonry in the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States is, that on Maundy-Thursday and Easter-Sunday, the Episcopal Clergyman and Hebrew Rabbi can and do stand together at its altars, in presence of the Seven Lights, the latter thanking God that he has at length found one place where he is the perfect equal and full brother of men of the Christian faith. Never, never will that Free-Masonry permit this jewel to be filched from it by craft and treachery, and fraud and falsehood, or torn from it by force. It has been once attempted here, and failed; and it will always fail.

The Encyclical Letter then makes this extraordinary statement, to which every Free-Mason in every English-speaking country in the world, and those of every other, with but two or three exceptions, will oppose either an indignant or contemptuous denial; for, as a charge against Free-Masonry in general, it is a shameless libel:

"But, in truth, the Sect grants great license to its initiates, allowing them to defend either position, that there is a God, or that there is no God; and those who resolutely maintain that there is none are initiated as easily as those who think indeed that there is a God, but hold about him views as depraved as are those of the Pantheists."

The Grand Orient of France has been proclaimed by the Free-Masonry of Great Britain and the United States to be no longer a Masonic Power, because it has struck out of its Constitution the requirement of a declaration of belief in the existence of a God; not denying it, but, as it claims, leaving entire freedom of conscience. And when the Convention of certain Supreme Councils, at Lausanne, substituted for the word "God" the phrases "Force Superieure" and "Principe Creative," we denounced it as a departure from Masonry, is principles, and it was finally abandoned. By the Ancient Ritual of Free-Masonry, and by its fundamental Law, no Atheist can be made a Mason, any more than a woman can; and no person can be initiated without kneeling "for the benefit of Lodge-prayer," and professing that he puts his trust in God. It is true that there are Lodges in France and Belgium, and perhaps Italy, which do not deny initiation to one professing himself an Atheist; but these are condemned with almost entire unanimity everywhere else in the world. Free-Masonry is not responsible for private vagaries of unbelief in France. If its principles were what the Pope alleges them to be, there would not be thousands of clergymen, Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and of other denominations, members of Masonic Lodges in all the English-speaking countries, and very many of them members of the higher Bodies of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.

The Pope next proceeds to speak of the subjects of marriage, education and civil government; and it is herein that the full scope and intent of the Letter appear.

The Materialists, he says, have this system: "Marriage, they say, belongs to the class of contracts: it can lawfully be rescinded at the will of the contracting parties; and power as regards the marriage-tie is in the hands of the civil rulers. In educating children, they consider that no religious instruction should be given according to any fixed and determined purpose: it is to be open to each, when grown up, to follow what religion he may prefer."

And then he says: "Free-Masons, moreover, clearly assent to these very principles; and not only do they assent, but they are, and have long been, anxious to introduce them into habit and usage."

To prove this, for it is the only thing that he offers in justification of the assertion, he says: "Already in many regions, and those, too, belonging to the Catholic faith, it is decided that no marriages shall be deemed lawful except those contracted by the civil rite: in some places divorces are allowed by law; in other places efforts are being made that they should be so allowed as soon as possible. Thus, what they are hastening to is, that the nature of marriage may be converted into unstable and temporary unions, which passion may form, and passion again dissolve."

Pope Leo XIII. does not know, and has not a shred of evidence to convince him, that Free-Masonry takes into consideration, in any way, the question of the mode of marriage. That is a matter wholly foreign to Free-Masonry, and about which as an Order it has never sought to ascertain the collective opinion of its members. Each has his own opinion, whatever it may be; and no other Mason has anything to do with that opinion. Marriage has been declared by legislation in many countries to be a civil contract; but it is certainly not known among Masons that Free-Masonry, as an Order, or by any sort of concert among any considerable number of its members, has borne any part in procuring such legislation anywhere. We doubt if any Mason in England or the United States ever heard the subject mentioned in a Lodge. Nothing could more certainly ........

Unfortunately, the remaining part of this issue is missing.


Works Cited

An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One with Graphics.

Bull - Ecclesiam
Pop21 / auth. Pope Pius VII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1821. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 6. - 0.3 MB.

Bull - Humanum Genus
Pop84 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1884. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 24. - 0.5 MB.

Bull - In Eminenti
Pop38 / auth. Pope Clement XII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1738. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 4. - 0.2 MB.

Bull - Mirari Vos
Pop32 / auth. Pope Gregory XVI. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1832. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 11. - 0.2 MB.

Bull - Providas Romanorum
Pop51 / auth. Pope Benedict XIV. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1751. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 6. - 0.3 MB.

Bull - Quanta Cura
Pop64 / auth. Pope Pius IX. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1864. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 10. - 0.2 MB.

Bull - Qui Pluribus
Pop46 / auth.
Pope Pius IX. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1846. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 14. - 0.3 MB.

Bull - Quo Graviora
Pop26 / auth. Pope Leo XII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1826. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 22. - 0.2 MB.

Bull - Traditi Humiliati
Pop29 / auth. Pope Pius VIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1829. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 7. - 0.2 MB.

Humanum Genus Reply
Pik84 / auth. Pike Albert. - [s.l.] : AASR, 1884. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 40. - 37.1 MB.

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