Masonic Research Society
Letter "Humanum Genus" of the Pope Leo XIII
As a result
of the publication of "A Catholic Treatise on Masonry" from the
Encyclopedia, in the July, August, September and October issues of THE
we have been asked by a large number of our readers for further light
on some of
the papal edicts against Freemasonry mentioned in the last instalment
of that article.
For the enlightenment of these inquirers and the Fraternity at large we
one of the most prominent of these rescripts, the letter "Humanum
of Pope Leo XIII, issued on April 20th, 1884. [Lib 1884]
the then Grand Commander of the Supreme Council 33d for the
Southern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite, called attention of the
Craft to this
encyclical letter in his Allocution delivered before the Supreme
Council in October
of the same year and then issued a reply to it. [Lib 1884] The extract
from Brother Pike's
Allocution and his reply to the Bull will follow in early issues of THE
To all venerable
Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, and Bishops in the Catholic world
who have grace
and communion with the Apostolic See: Venerable Brothers: Health and
Benedictions THE HUMAN RACE, after, by the malice of the devil, it had
from God, the Creator and Giver of heavenly gifts, divided itself into
and opposing parties, one of which assiduously combats for truth and
other for those things which are opposed to virtue and to truth. The
one is the
Kingdom of God on earth that is, the Church of Jesus Christ; those who
adhere to which from their soul and conductively to salvation must
serve God and
His only begotten Son with their whole mind and their whole will. The
other is the
kingdom of Satan, in whose dominion and power are all who have followed
example and that of our first parents. They refuse to obey divine and
and strive for many things to the neglect of God and for many against
twofold kingdom, like two states with contrary laws working in contrary
Augustine clearly saw and described, and comprehended the efficient
cause of both
with subtle brevity in these words: "Two loves have made two states:
of self to the contempt of God has made the earthly, but the love of
God to the
contempt of self has made the heavenly." (De Civ. Dei, lib. xiv., chap.
The one fights
the other with different kinds of weapons, and battles at all times,
always with the same ardor and fury. In our days, however, those who
evil one seem to conspire and strive all together under the guidance
and with the
help of that society of men spread all over, and solidly established,
call Free-Masons. Not dissimulating their intentions, they vie in
power of God; they openly and ostensibly strive to damage the Church,
with the purpose
to deprive thoroughly if possible Christian people of the benefits
brought by the
Saviour Jesus Christ.
evils, we are compelled by charity in our soul to say often to God:
Thy enemies have made noise; and they that hate Thee have lifted up the
have taken malicious counsel against Thy people, and have consulted
saints. They have said: Come and let us destroy them, so that they be
not a nation."
(Ps. lxxxii., 24.)
In such an
impending crisis, in such a great and obstinate warfare upon
Christianity, it is
our duty to point out the danger, exhibit the adversaries, resist as
much as we
can their schemes and tricks, lest those whose salvation is in our
perish eternally: and that the kingdom of Jesus Christ, which we have
trust, not only may stay and remain intact, but may continue to
increase all over
the world by new additions.
Pontiffs, our predecessors, watching constantly over the safety of the
people, early recognized this capital enemy rushing forth out of the
hidden conspiracy, and, anticipating the future in their mind, gave the
princes and people, that they should not be caught by deceptions and
first signalized the danger in 1738, and Benedict XIV. renewed and
Constitution. Pius VII. followed them both; and Leo XII., by the
quo graviora recapitulating the acts and decrees of the above Pontiffs
manner, validated and confirmed them forever. In the same way spoke
Gregory XVI., and very often Pius IX.
and aim of the Masonic sect having been discovered from plain evidence,
cognition of causes, its laws, Rites and commentaries having come to
light and been
made known by the additional depositions of the associated members,
See denounced and openly declared that the sect of Masons is
law and honesty, and is equally a danger to Christianity as well as to
and, threatening those heavy punishments which the Church uses against
ones, she forbade the society, and ordered that none should give his
name to it.
Therefore the angry Masons, thinking that they would escape the
sentence or partially
destroy it by despising or calumniating, accused the Pope who made
of not having made a right decree or of having overstepped moderation.
tried to evade the authority and the importance of the Apostolic
Clement XII., Benedict XIV., Pius VII., and Pius IX. But in the same
were some who, even against their own will, acknowledged that the Roman
had acted wisely and lawfully, according to the Catholic discipline. In
princes and rulers of States agreed with the Popes, and either
to the Apostolic See or by appropriate laws condemned it as a bad thing
Austria, Switzerland, Spain, Bavaria, Savoy, and other parts of Italy.
But the event
justified the prudence of our predecessors, and this is the most
their paternal care did not always and everywhere succeed, either
because of the
simulation and shrewdness of the Masons themselves, or through the
levity of others whose duty required of them strict attention. Hence,
in a century
and a half the sect of Masons grew beyond expectation; and, creeping
and deceitfully among the various classes of the people, it grew to be
that now it seems the only dominating power in the States. From this
rapid and dangerous
growth have come into the Church and into the State those evils which
had already foreseen. It has indeed come to this, that we have serious
for the Church, which has a foundation too firm for men to upset it,
but for those
States in which this society is so powerful or other societies of a
like kind, and
which show themselves to be servants and companions of Masonry.
reasons, when we first succeeded in the government of the Church, we
saw and felt
very clearly the necessity of opposing so great an evil with the full
our authority. On all favorable occasions we have attacked the
in which the Masonic perversity appeared. By our Encyclical Letter,
muneris, we attacked the errors of Socialists and Communists; by the
we tried to explain and defend the genuine notion of domestic society,
and origin is in marriage; finally, by the letter which begins
Diuturnum, we proposed
a form of civil power consonant with the principles of Christian
to the very nature and to the welfare of people and Princes. Now, after
of our predecessors, we intend to turn our attention to the Masonic
its whole doctrine, to its intentions, acts, and feelings, in order to
more and more this wicked force and stop the spread of this contagious
several sects of men which, though different in name, customs, forms,
are identical in aim and sentiment with Masonry. It is the universal
which they all spring, and to which they all return. Although in our
seem to no longer care to hide in darkness, but hold their meetings in
light and under the eyes of their fellow-men and publish their journals
yet they deliberate and preserve the habits and customs of secret
there are in them many secrets which are by law carefully concealed not
the profane, but also from many associated, viz., the last and intimate
the hidden and unknown chiefs, the hidden and secret meetings, the
methods and means by which they will be carried into execution. Hence
of rights and of duties among the members; hence the distinction of
orders and grades
and the severe discipline by which they are ruled. The initiated must
take an oath, that they will never, at any way or at any time, disclose
and the emblems by which they are known, or expose their doctrines. So,
appearance, but with the same kind of simulation, the Masons chiefly
once did the Manicheans, to hide and to admit no witnesses but their
own. They seek
skilfully hiding places, assuming the appearance of literary men or
associated for the purpose of erudition; they have always ready on
the speech of cultivated urbanity, and proclaim their charity toward
the poor; they
look for the improvement of the masses, to extend the benefits of
to as many of mankind as possible. Those purposes, though they may be
are not the only ones. Besides, those who are chosen to join the
society must promise
and swear to obey the leaders and teachers with great respect and
trust; to be ready
to do whatever is told them, and accept death and the most horrible
they disobey. In fact, some who have betrayed the secrets or disobeyed
are punished with death so skilfully and so audaciously that the murder
the investigations of the police. Therefore, reason and truth show that
of which we speak is contrary to honesty and natural justice.
other and clear arguments to show this society is not in agreement with
No matter how great the skill with which men conceal, it is impossible
cause should not appear in its effects. "A good tree cannot yield bad
nor a bad tree good ones." (Matt. vii., 18.) Masonry generates bad
with great bitterness. From the evidence above mentioned we find its
is the desire of overthrowing all the religious and social orders
Christianity, and building a new one according to its taste, based on
and laws of naturalism.
What we have
said or will say must be understood of Masonry in general and of all
not of the individual members of the same. In their number there may be
not a few
who, though they are wrong in giving their names to these societies,
yet are neither
guilty of their crimes nor aware of the final goal which they strive to
the associations also, perhaps, some do not approve the extreme
as emanating from common principles, it would be necessary to embrace
if their deformity
and vileness would not be too repulsive. Some of them are equally
forced by the
places and times not to go so far as they would go or others go; and
yet they are
not to be considered less Masonic for that, because the Masonic
alliance has to
be considered not only from actions and deeds, but from general
Now, it is
the principle of naturalists, as the name itself indicates, that human
human reason in everything must be our teacher and guide. Having once
they are careless of duties toward God, or they pervert them with false
and errors. They deny that anything has been revealed by God; they do
any religious dogma and truth but what human intelligence can
comprehend; they do
not allow any teacher to be believed on his official authority. Now, it
special duty of the Catholic Church, and her duty only, to keep the
from God and the authority of teaching with all the heavenly means
salvation and preserve them integrally incorrupt, hence the attacks and
the enemies are turned against her.
Now, if one
watches the proceedings of the Masons, in respect of religion
they are more free to do what they like, it will appear that they carry
into execution the tenets of the naturalists. They work, indeed,
the end that neither the teaching nor the authority of the Church may
have any influence;
and therefore they preach and maintain the full separation of the
Church from the
State. So law and government are wrested from the wholesome and divine
the Catholic Church, and they want, therefore, by all means to rule
of the institutions and doctrines of the Church.
off the Church as a sure guide is not enough; they add persecutions and
Full license is given to attack with impunity, both by words and print
the very foundations of the Catholic religion; the rights of the Church
her divine privileges are not respected. Her action is restricted as
much as possible;
and that by virtue of laws apparently not too violent, but
substantially made on
purpose to check her freedom. Laws odiously partial against the clergy
so as to reduce its number and its means. The ecclesiastical revenue is
in a thousand
ways tied up, and religious associations abolished and dispersed.
But the war
wages more ardently against the Apostolic See and the Roman Pontiff. He
a false pretext, deprived of the temporal power, the stronghold of his
of his freedom; he was next reduced to an iniquitous condition,
unbearable for its
numberless burdens until it has come to this, that the Sectarians say
they had already in secret devised for a long time, viz., that the very
power of the Pope ought to be taken away, and the divine institution of
Pontificate ought to disappear from the world. If other arguments were
this, it would be sufficiently demonstrated by the testimony of many
in times bygone and even lately, declared it to be the real supreme aim
of the Free-Masons
to persecute, with untamed hatred, Christianity, and that they will
never rest until
they see cast to the ground all religious institutions established by
If the sect
does not openly require its members to throw away of Catholic faith,
far from injuring the Masonic schemes, is useful to them. Because this
an easy way to deceive the simple and unwise ones and it is
contributing to proselytize.
By opening their gates to persons of every creed they promote, in fact,
modern error of religious indifference and of the parity of all
worships, the best
way to annihilate every religion, especially the Catholic, which, being
true one, cannot be joined with others without enormous injustice.
go further. Having entered, in things of greatest importance, on a way
false, through the weakness of human nature or by the judgment of God,
pride, they run to extreme errors. Thus the very truths which are known
by the natural
light of reason, as the existence of God, the spirituality and
immortality of the
soul, have no more consistence and certitude for them.
on the same rocks by no different way. It is true, Free-Masons
generally admit the
existence of God; but they admit themselves that this persuasion for
them is not
firm, sure. They do not dissimulate that in the Masonic family the
question of God
is a principle of great discord; it is even known how they lately had
on this point
serious disputes. It is a fact that the sect leaves to the members full
of thinking about God whatever they like, affirming or denying His
who boldly deny His existence are admitted as well as those, like the
admit God but ruin the idea of Him, retaining an absurd caricature of
nature, destroying its reality. Now, as soon as this supreme foundation
down and upset, many natural truths must need go down, too, as the free
of this world, the universal government of Providence, immortality of
and eternal life.
dissipated these natural principles, important practically and
is easy to see what will become of public and private morality. We will
of supernatural virtues, which, without a special favor and gift of
God, no one
can practice nor obtain, and of which it is impossible to find a
vestige in those
who proudly ignore the redemption of mankind, heavenly grace, the
eternal happiness. We speak of duties which proceed from natural
the principles and sources of justice and morality are these, a God,
provident ruler of the world, the eternal law which commands respect
the violation of natural order; the supreme end of man settled a great
created things outside of this world. These principles once taken away
by the Free-Masons
as by the naturalists, immediately natural ethics has no more where to
to rest. The only morality which Free-Masons admit, and by which they
to bring up youth, is that which they call civil and independent, or
the one which
ignores every religious idea. But how poor, uncertain, and variable at
of passion is this morality, is demonstrated by the sorrowful fruits
already appear. Nay, where it has been freely dominating, having
education, probity and integrity of manners go down, horrible and
raise their head, and crimes grow with fearful audacity. This is
deplored by everybody,
and by those who are compelled by evidence and yet would not like to
as human nature is infected by original sin and more inclined to vice
than to virtue,
it is not possible to lead an honest life without mortifying the
passions and submitting
the appetites to reason. In this fight it is often necessary to despise
good, and undergo the greatest pains and sacrifices in order to
preserve to conquering
reason its own empire. But naturalists and Masons, rejecting divine
deny original sin, and do not acknowledge that our free will is
weakened and bent
to evil. To the contrary, exaggerating the strength and excellency of
settling in her the principles and unique rule of justice, they cannot
how, in order to counteract its motions and moderate its appetites,
are needed and the greatest constancy. This is the reason why we see so
offered to the passions, journals, and reviews without any shame,
thoroughly dishonest; the liberal arts cultivated according to the
an impudent realism, effeminate and delicate living promoted by the
inventions; in a word, all the enticements apt to seduce or weaken
practiced things highly to blame, yet becoming the theories of those
who take away
from man heavenly goods, and put all happiness in transitory things and
What we have
said may be confirmed by things of which it is not easy to think or to
these shrewd and malicious men do not find more servility and docility
than in souls
already broken and subdued by the tyranny of the passions, there have
been in the
Masonic sect some who openly said and proposed that the multitudes
should be urged
by all means and artifice into license, so that they should afterward
easy instrument for the most daring enterprise.
society the doctrine of almost all naturalists is that marriage is only
contract, and may be lawfully broken by the will of the contracting
State has power over the matrimonial bond. In the education of the
children no religion
must be applied, and when grown up every one will select that which he
accept these principles without restriction; and not only do they
accept them, but
they endeavor to act so as to bring them into moral and practical life.
countries which are professedly Catholic, marriages not celebrated in
form are considered null; elsewhere laws allow divorce. In other places
is done in order to have it permitted. So the nature of marriage will
be soon changed
and reduced to a temporary union, which can be done and undone at
of the Masons aims unanimously and steadily also at the possession of
of children. They understand that a tender age is easily bent, and that
no more useful way of preparing for the State such citizens as they
in the instruction and education of children, they do not leave to the
of the Church any part either in directing or watching them. In many
have gone so far that children's education is all in the hands of
laymen: and from
moral teaching every idea is banished of those holy and great duties
together man and God.
of social science follow. Here naturalists teach that men have all the
and are perfectly equal in condition; that every man is naturally
no one has a right to command others; that it is tyranny to keep men
any other authority than that which emanates from themselves. Hence the
sovereign; those who rule have no authority but by the commission and
of the people; so that they can be deposed, willing or unwilling,
according to the
wishes of the people. The origin of all rights and civil duties is in
or in the State, which is ruled according to the new principles of
State must be godless; no reason why one religion ought to be preferred
all to be held in the same esteem.
Now it is
well known that Free-Masons approve these maxims, and that they wish to
shaped on this pattern and model needs no demonstration. It is a long
that they have worked with all their strength and power openly for
thus an easy way for those, not a few, more audacious and bold in evil,
the communion and equality of all goods after having swept away from
the world every
distinction of social goods and conditions.
few hints it is easy to understand what the Masonic sect is and what it
tenets contradict so evidently human reason that nothing can be more
The desire of destroying the religion and Church established by God,
with the promise
of immortal life, to try to revive, after eighteen centuries, the
manners and institutions
of paganism, is great foolishness and bold impiety. No less horrible or
is it to repudiate the gifts granted through His adversaries. In this
ferocious attempt, one recognizes that untamed hatred and rage of
against Jesus Christ in the heart of Satan.
attempt in which the Masons work so much, viz., to pull down the
morality, and become co-operators of those who, like brutes, would see
lawful which they like, is nothing but to urge mankind into the most
is aggravated by the dangers which threaten domestic and civil society.
As we have
at other times explained, there is in marriage, through the unanimous
nations and of ages, a sacred and religious character; and by divine
law the conjugal
union is indissoluble. Now, if this union is dissolved, if divorce is
permitted, confusion and discord must inevitably enter the domestic
woman will lose her dignity and the children every security of their
State ought to profess religious indifference and neglect God in ruling
as if God did not exist, is a foolishness unknown to the very heathen,
who had so
deeply rooted in their mind and in their heart, not only the idea of
God, but the
necessity also of public worship, that they supposed it to be easier to
find a city
without any foundation than without any God. And really human society,
nature has made us, was instituted by God, the author of the same
nature, and from
Him emanates, as from its source and principle, all this everlasting
numberless goods. As, then, the voice of nature tells us to worship God
piety, because we have received from Him life and the goods which
so, for the same reasons, people and States must do the same. Therefore
want to free society from any religious duty are not only unjust but
that men through God's will are born for civil society, and that
is so strictly necessary to society that when this fails society
it follows that the right of command emanates from the same principle
society itself emanates; hence the reason why the minister of God is
such authority. Therefore, so far as it is required from the end and
nature of human
society, one must obey lawful authority as we would obey the authority
of God, supreme
ruler of the universe; and it is a capital error to grant to the people
of shaking off at their own will the yoke of obedience.
their common origin and nature, the supreme end proposed to everyone,
and the right
and duties emanating from it, men no doubt are all equal. But as it is
to find in them equal capacity, and as through bodily or intellectual
differs from others, and the variety of customs, inclinations, and
are so great, it is absurd to pretend to mix and unify all this and
bring in the
order of civil life a rigorous and absolute equality. As the perfect
of the human body results from the union and harmony of different
parts, which differ
in form and uses, but united and each in his own place form an organism
strong, useful, and necessary to life, so in the State there is an
of individuals who compose it. If these all equalized were to live each
to his own whim, it would result in a city monstrous and ugly; whereas
in harmony, in degrees of offices, or inclinations, of arts, they
to the common good, they will offer the image of a city well harmonized
errors which we have mentioned must inspire governments with fear; in
the fear of God in life and respect for divine laws to be despised, the
of the rulers allowed and authorized would be destroyed, rebellion
would be left
free to popular passions, and universal revolution and subversion must
come. This subversive revolution is the deliberate aim and open purpose
of the numerous
communistic and socialistic associations. The Masonic sect has no
reason to call
itself foreign to their purpose, because Masons promote their designs
and have with
them common capital principles. If the extreme consequences are not
in fact, it is not the merit of the sect nor owing to the will of the
of that divine religion which cannot be extinguished, and of the most
of society, which, refusing to obey secret societies, resists
grant that universally from the fruits we may judge the root, and from
evil and threatening dangers we may know the bad seed! We have to fight
enemy, who, cajoling Peoples and Kings, deceives them all with false
insinuating themselves under pretense of friendship into the hearts of
aim to have them powerful aids and accomplices to overcome
Christianity, and in
order to excite them more actively they calumniate the Church as the
enemy of royal
privileges and power. Having thus become confident and sure, they get
in the government of States, resolve yet to shake the foundations of
and persecute, calumniate, or banish those sovereigns who refuse to
rule as they
arts flattering the people, they deceive them. Proclaiming all the time
and liberty; making multitudes believe that the Church is the cause of
servitude and misery in which they are suffering, they deceive people
and urge on
the masses craving for new things against both powers. It is, however,
the expectation of hoped-for advantages is greater than the reality;
and poor people,
more and more oppressed, see in their misery those comforts vanish
which they might
easily and abundantly found in organized Christian society. But the
the proud, who rebel against the order established by the providence of
that they find oppression and misery exactly where they expected
to their desire.
Now, if the
Church commands us to obey before all God, the Lord of everything, it
would be an
injurious calumny to believe her the enemy of the power of Princes and
of their rights. She wishes, on the contrary, that what is due to civil
be given to it conscientiously. To recognize, as she does, the divine
right of command,
concedes great dignity to civil power, and contributes to conciliate
and love of subjects. A friend of peace and the mother of concord, she
all with motherly love, intending only to do good to men. She teaches
must be united with clemency, equality with command, law with
moderation, and to
respect every tight, maintain order and public tranquility, relieve as
much as possible
public and private miseries. "But," to use the words of St. Augustine,
"they believe, or want to make believe, that the doctrine of Gospel is
useful to society, because they wish that the State shall rest not on
foundation of virtue, but on impunity of vice."
therefore, be more according to civil wisdom and more necessary to
that Princes and Peoples, instead of joining the Free-Masons against
should unite with the Church to resist the Free-Masons' attacks.
At all events,
in the presence of such a great evil, already too much spread, it is
our duty, venerable
brethren, to find a remedy. And as we know that in the virtue of divine
the more hated by Masons is as it is the more feared, chiefly consists
and most solid of efficient remedy, we think that against the common
enemy one must
have recourse to this in wholesome strength. We, by our authority,
ratify and confirm
all things which the Roman Pontiffs, our predecessors, have ordered to
purposes and stop the efforts of the Masonic sect, and all these which
to keep off or withdraw the faithful from such societies. And here,
to the good will of the faithful, we pray and entreat each of them, as
of their own salvation, to make it a duty of conscience not to depart
has been on this point prescribed by the Apostolic See.
and pray you, venerable brethren, who co-operate with us, to root out
which spreads widely among the Nations. It is your duty to defend the
glory of God
and the salvation of souls. Keeping before your eyes those two ends,
you shall lack
neither in courage nor in fortitude. To judge which may be the more
means to overcome difficulties and obstacles belongs to your prudence.
Yet as we
find it agreeable to our ministry to point out some of the most useful
first thing to do is to strip from the Masonic sect its mask and show
it as it is,
teaching orally and by pastoral letters the people about the frauds
used by these
societies to flatter and entice, the perversity of its doctrines, and
of its works. As our predecessors have many times declared, those who
love the Catholic
faith and their salvation must be sure that they cannot give their
names for any
reason to the Masonic sect without sin. Let no one believe a simulated
It may seem to some that Masons never impose anything openly contrary
to faith or
to morals, but as the scope and nature is essentially bad in these
sects, it is
not allowed to give one's name to them or to help them in any way.
It is also
necessary with assiduous sermons and exhortations to arouse in the
people love and
zeal for religious instruction. We recommend, therefore, that by
orally and in writing, the fundamental principles of those truths may
in which Christian wisdom is entertained. It is only thus that minds
can be cured
by instruction, and warned against the various forms of error and vice,
various enticements especially in this great freedom of writing and
It is a laborious
work, indeed, in which you will have associated and companioned your
properly trained and taught by your zeal. But such a beautiful and
requires the co- operating industry of those laymen who unite doctrine
with the love of religion and of their country. With the united
strength of these
two orders endeavor, dear brethren, that men may know and love the
the more their love and knowledge of the Church grows the more they
will abhor and
fly from secret societies.
availing ourselves of this present occasion, we remind you of the
necessity of promoting
and protecting the Third Order of St. Francis, whose rules, with
we lately mitigated. According to the spirit of its institution it
to draw men to imitate Jesus Christ, to love the Church, and to
practice all Christian
virtues, and therefore it will prove useful to extinguish the contagion
May it grow
more and more, this holy congregation, from which, among others, can be
also this precious fruit of bringing minds back to liberty, fraternity,
not those which are the dream of the Masonic sect, but which Jesus
into this world and Francis revived. The liberty, we say, of the
children of God
which frees from the servitude of Satan and from the passions, the
the fraternity which emanates from God, the Father and Creator of all;
established on justice and charity, which does not destroy among men
but which, from variety of life, offices, and inclinations, makes that
harmony which is exacted by nature for the utility and dignity of civil
there is an institution wisely created by our forefathers, and by lapse
abandoned, which in our days can be used as a model and form for
it. We mean the colleges or corporations of arts and trades associated
guidance of religion to defend interests and manners, which colleges,
in long use
and experience, were of great advantage to our fathers, and will be
more and more
useful to our age, because they are suited to break the power of the
workingmen, for besides their condition, deserving charity and relief,
particularly exposed to the seductions of the fraudulent and deceives.
therefore, be helped with the greatest generosity and invited to good
that they may not be dragged into bad ones. For this reason we would
like very much
to see everywhere arise, fit for the new times, under the auspices and
of the Bishops, these associations, for the benefit of the people. It
gives us a
great pleasure to see them already established in many places, together
Catholic patronages; two institutions which aim to help the honest
class of workingmen,
and to help and protect their families, their children, and keep in
them, with the
integrity of manners, love of piety and knowledge of religion.
Here we cannot
keep silence concerning the society of St. Vincent de Paul, celebrated
for the spectacle
and example offered and so well deserving of the poor. The works and
of that society are well known. It is all for the succor and help of
and poor, encouraging them with wonderful tact and that modesty which
the less showy
the more is fit for the exercise of Christian charity and the relief of
in order more easily to reach the end, we recommend to your faith and
the youth, the hope of civil society. In the good education of the same
great part of your care. Never believe you have watched or done enough
youth from those masters from whom the contagious breath of the sect is
to be feared.
Insist that parents and spiritual directors in teaching the catechism
cease to admonish appropriately children and pupils of the wicked
nature of these
sects, that they may also learn in time the various fraudulent arts
propagators use to entice people. Those who prepare children for first
will do well if they will persuade them to promise not to give their
names to any
society without asking their parents' or their pastor's or their
But we understand
how our common labor would not be sufficient to outroot this dangerous
the field of the Lord, if the Heavenly Master of the vineyard is not to
granting to us His generous help. We must, then, implore His powerful
aid with anxious
fervor equal to the gravity of the danger and to the greatness of the
by its prosperous success, Masonry is insolent, and seems to have no
to its pertinacity. Its sectaries bound by an iniquitous alliance and
of purpose, they go on hand in hand and encourage each other to dare
more and more
for evil. Such a strong assault requires a strong defense. We mean that
good must unite in a great society of action and prayers. We ask,
them two things: On one hand, that, unanimously and in thick ranks,
immovably the growing impetus of the sects; on the other, that, raising
with many sighs to God, they implore that Christianity may grow
vigorous; that the
Church may recover her necessary liberty; that wanderers may come again
that errors give place to truth and vice to virtue.
Let us invoke
for this purpose the mediation of Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, that
impious sects in which one sees clearly revived the contumacious pride,
perfidy, the simulating shrewdness of Satan, she may show her power,
she who triumphed
over him since the first conception.
Let us pray
also St. Michael, the prince of the angelic army, conqueror of the
St. Joseph, spouse of the most Saintly Virgin, heavenly and wholesome
the Catholic Church; the great Apostles Peter and Paul, propagators and
of the Christian faith. Through their patronage and the perseverance of
let us hope that God will condescend to piously help human society
so many dangers.
As a pledge
of heavenly graces and of our benevolence, we impart with great
affection to you,
venerable brethren, to the clergy and people trusted to your care, the
Rome, near St. Peter, the 20th of April, 1884, the seventh year of our
The Younger Brother -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald Nancarrow,
we have some younger Brother
Who is learning his new part,
Let us, as we prompt and question,
Teach him also from the heart;
As he learns his new found science
Let us teach to him the art.
Let us aid him in the shaping
And the smoothing of his block;
Let us spread the binder mortar
And thus add a firmer mortar
To our structure; Make him granite
By the knowledge we unlock.
Show him more than words and phrases,
More than empty form and shell,
Let him see the wealth of beauty
In the lessons which we tell;
Help him move toward strength and service
And to meet his trials well.
An Old Masonic Headstone
By Bro. Clarence E. Churchill,
symbolic gravestone of Brother Calvin Austin is located in the old
the banks of the Mahoning River, within the city of Warren, Trumbull
a part of the old land grant known as Western Reserve, a Connecticut
Many of the pioneers came from that State.
Austin came to this section is not definitely known, but he was one of
petitioners to the Grand Lodge of Connecticut, in the early part of the
for a charter which was granted October 19, 1803.
another petitioner, was sent to Connecticut after the charter. He was
Deputy Grand Master and directed to dedicate the lodge and install the
These ceremonies took place March 15th, 1804, the following officers
Senior Warden - John Leavitt.
Junior Warden - William Rayen.
Treasurer - Calvin Austin.
Senior Deacon - Aaron Wheeler.
Junior Deacon - John Walworth.
Stewards - Charles Dutton and Arod Way.
Tyler - Ezekiel Hover.
was chartered as Erie Lodge No. 47, A. F. & A. M., and worked
under that charter
until 1814 when it was chartered as Erie Lodge No. 3, Marietta, Ohio,
Ohio, antedating it. This lodge is still working and known as Old Erie
is remarkably well preserved, being quite smooth and of fine grain. The
are finely cut, though shallow. The inscription on the stone reads:
Formerly of Suffield
Conn. Died Oct. 2, 1819
in the 57th year of his
By Bro. Joseph Barnett,
of the intelligence, the development of the ability to think and
reason, is Education.
This factor, whether evolved in the schools or in the active pursuits
life, produced and sustains civilization; and Freemasonry teaches that
is not only toward progress, but is also Godward.
times, Science was considered of Divine origin, and Art was held in
Both were taught by the priesthood; for the Temple included the School.
In the most
ancient civilization with which we are familiar, men who had made some
in the arts and sciences were deemed worthy to be initiated into an
order of the
priesthood of Egypt. In Greece, with which we are still more familiar,
Mysteries included both science and religion; and Divinity was
symbolized by one
of the sciences, Geometry. From the beginning, knowledge dependent on
powers was associated with Omniscience.
asserts "the importance of the study of the liberal arts and sciences."
It impresses on men the duty of applying them; the teaching is that
and intelligent beings should ever be industrious ones." From their
understanding, and from their application is developed skill. Reason is
for its guidance, and labor for its productiveness; in both we
recognize the intelligence
that tends toward progress. Freemasonry admits no illiterates. Every
be able to read and write. Lack of this ability offers evidence that
is lacking in those basic qualities that go to the making of Masons.
all such unfit, because Masons are men who have a "desire for
and he who in this land has not learned to read and write has evinced
no such desire.
It teaches that education, the development of the reasoning powers, is
duty of every man; and it could offer no objection if our government
illiteracy a bar to citizenship.
earliest priesthoods were the first teachers, it might have been
expected that modern
priesthoods would have been their natural heirs in all that tends
and that they, too, would have been the intellectual leaders and
mankind, especially since they have borrowed and adapted so much from
But for two thousand years, ecclesiastics have affected to despise the
powers that developed civilization, and have urged in place of them
faith and obedience.
Modern priestcraft has notoriously opposed every advance in the natural
its attitude recently toward the theory of evolution is its attitude
years ago toward the theory of the rotation of the earth. Ancient
culminating in the Mysteries, sought after knowledge of the natural
world, and expressed
the forces of nature in terms of Divine beings. Astronomy, Geometry,
and other sciences,
grew out of their "survey of nature." And with the book of nature as
only revelation they found God. The forces of nature were His symbols,
and in them
was seen the manifestation of His purposes toward man. Freemasonry has
spirit that finds God in nature as in the written word, the spirit that
the mystery of leaf and bud and blossom and fruitage, and the return of
and harvest, and encourages men to contemplate and understand "the
works of the creation." Our Fraternity has never taught that all
is equally important; but it does teach that the useful application of
is equally to be admired and encouraged.
Dark Ages, when priestcraft was cunningly building up a sinister power
the negation of human reason, there was some learning and a little art
in the monasteries,
and here and there individuals were groping after the light of science.
had some teaching peculiar to itself; and recognizing in the monks a
knowledge and an aspiration to usefulness similar to their own, Masons
centuries held their meetings in the monasteries. When the monkish
orders were robbed
and dissolved, Masons suffered with them, and were held in suspicion by
and priest as possible sources of plots and heresies. Statecraft for
the most part
abandoned this attitude long since, but priestcraft has maintained it.
never willingly tolerate anything that cannot be made subservient to
Pope have both claimed absolute power. They agreed, as autocrats have
that much thinking was not good for the masses, and should be confined
to the classes;
otherwise there would be constant discontent. They failed, or pretended
to realize that progress can only be attained when people begin to
think for themselves,
and that progress can never he achieved by that contentment that lets
our thinking for us. Freemasonry states explicitly that in youth "we
industrially to occupy our minds in the attainment of useful
that in manhood "we should apply our knowledge to the discharge of our
duties." Both royalty and hierarchy have claimed Divine Right; they
their superiority to other men. Freemasonry teaches that all men alike
of God, and that as such all have equal claims. It allows no
distinction among men
on account of the accidents of birth or fortune, or because of any
boast of special
commission or mediumship between God and man; the teaching is not that
all men are
equal in usefulness, but that all men have equal rights both human and
teaches that the Divine Right of all men is associated with the
immortal soul of
man, and that the manifestation of the living soul is the intelligence
by education, whether the education is of the schools or of the trades.
offers no lure to the faithful, presents no cunning inducement, makes
but in their place asks service intended to develop "those talents
God has blessed us," and points out that these qualities are in origin
In particular, Freemasonry teaches that no man should be content with
It states emphatically that "he who will not be endeavoring to add to
stock of knowledge and understanding … is a useless member of society."
As the church
has its ecclesiastical classics, so the Greek and Latin literatures are
of the schools. Up to a couple of generations ago, it was the
of college students to be able to read the classics in the original
a great deal of their effort was to that end. Translating the classics
is now being
given over more and more to specialists, and training the student
intellect is accomplished
more and more by the sciences. This is the method that Masonry has
not that erudition is slighted, but that science is more useful.
Learning by observation
and experience is important. Learning by instruction and information is
But both of these sources of knowledge are limited by opportunity. The
we gain by reasoning out the problems of life is not limited by
more we think for ourselves, the more we are able to think for
knowledge increases be arithmetical progression, by addition. This
by geometrical progression, by multiplication. It depends neither on
nor the emotions, but on the intelligence. Its processes are called
it is what Masonry has always esteemed and encouraged.
of education, the foundation of useful citizenship, is the Public
School. It is
the outcome of the same influences that developed Freemasonry the
desire for knowledge
that can be made useful. And the same agencies that with puerile
Freemasonry, also, by slyer methods, attack the Public School. So
priestcraft, even when exercising autocratic power, never attempted to
a general educational system, that in countries where the priesthood
direct political influence, the people are the most ignorant and
civilized nations. And in every country where the people have
established the Public
School, priestcraft has constantly endeavored to obtain autocratic
the schools, so as to exploit them for its own purposes. In this
country, the mischievous,
foreign-born thing is called "The Parochial School"; its intent is to
train children to become sectarian partisans, instead of intelligent
teaches religious tolerance, and opposes priestly meddling. It is an
pledged to uphold the State; and it is particularly interested in the
the State has established for the development of intelligence in the
makes for better citizenship.
tends to specialization. It is the particular province of the church to
the relationship of man to God, of the schools to prepare youth for
of the arts to secure more material productiveness. Freemasonry in its
associates all these interests together. It asserts that a combination
of all these
factors makes the complete man; that every man should be religious,
and industrious. The priest, the pedagogue, the laborer, are all too
apt to magnify
their own particular interests, too prone to see life only from narrow
Freemasonry's survey of life has ever been broader; it asserts that,
occupation, it is the development of all his faculties that makes man
reaching, and shows that he is worthy of reaching, hat high destiny
which has been
the hope and aspiration of mankind through all the ages.
Within The Sanctuary -- [A Poem]
By Bro. N. W. J. Haydon, Ontario
shadows deepen round thy quiet shrines,
The candles' golden plumes grow tall and still,
The censer's fragrant echoes fill thine aisles,
And clouds of prayer contrast life's noisy mill.
Hither I turn my weary steps at eve,
One seat, familiar, holds a welcoming arm,
Here I can kneel and, to our heavenly Friend,
With silent words and daily plea return.
The silent twilight grows more eloquent,
The sanctuary lamp swings gently overhead,
Without, the hurrying steps of man and beast
Make dearer still this peace wherein I'm led.
Unwilling, I must leave this hallowed place,
Far up there clangs a loud resounding bell,
Calm and austere beside me Duty stands,
"Resume thy life, my son, with thee shall all be well."
Thanks be to God for thee, oh goodly fane
Whose tinted windows veil the garish day;
From Him the thoughts embodied in thy walls,
By Him thy pillars stand, thy scourges lay.
His, too, the stones that rear thee heavenward,
His skill that planned thy winding tracery;
Praise be to Him who doeth all things well,
Who maketh us His craftsmen fit to be.
In The Beginning Was the Word -- [A Poem]
By Bro C. A. Snodgrass Tennessee
the beginning was the Word and the Word was
with God, and the Word was God. ‒ John 1:1.
sought to learn the Builder's Art,
And in life's cornerstone I placed
Those treasured archives of the heart,
In Faith and Hope and Love embraced.
I chose the solid rock of Truth
To build upon, lest I should slip,
And on the trestleboard of youth
I traced a man's apprenticeship.
this rock I saw, upraised,
The shafts of Wisdom and of Strength,
To guide me o'er life's devious ways;
And guided thus, I stood, at length
Where man may view in retrospect
The rude unfinished stones that lie
Where he has striven to erect
A model of life's Masonry.
And though the broken ashlars there
Betrayed a youthful, unskilled hand,
Unused to gavel, plumb or square,
Or knowledge of the Art’s demand,
I, to the paths of knowledge turned,
To learn anew life's handicraft,
And meekly felt that I had earned
The wages of a Fellow Craft.
sought the Master’s Trestleboard,
And there discerned a Master-plan,
And vowed, henceforth, that I would build
In firmer faith with God and man;
And from the quarry-beds of Truth
I fashioned each imposing shaft,
That I had pictured in my Youth
Or modeled as a Fellow Craft.
But though I wrought with Master hand
And Master's knowledge of the Art,
'Twas but the handiwork of man
And of the man the counterpart.
My choicest plans were set at naught,
I saw my columns turned to clay,
And found that ere the last were wrought
The first had fallen in decay.
But lo! within the rubbish there,
Where the Omnific Word was lost,
I found at last the Jewel rare,
The missing stone I needed most;
That glorious Gift of God to man, ‒
The Keystone of immortal fame,
Whose loss had blighted every plan
And left me Master but in name.
O mortal man! if thou wouldst be
A Master of the Builder's Art,
First bow thyself at Calvary's Tree
And welcome Christ within thy heart.
His wisdom molds each Master thought,
His love inspires the Master mind,
And only by His grace is wrought
The Masonry of humankind.
His cross should be thy trestleboard,
His life indeed for thine was spent, ‒
Thy life in His should be restored
By God's own plan, most excellent.
He is the one "Great Light" divine,
Whose wisdom, grace and love imparts
Immortal strength to thee and thine
And crowns the Holy Royal Arch.
Origin of Freemasonry
By Bro. Dudley Wright, Assistant
Editor "The Freemason," London, England
assert that the Craft is as old as, if not, indeed, older than Adam,
even that he was the first Grand Master of the Craft. The Rev. Dr.
Dodd, in his
famous Oration on Freemasonry, refers to the origin of the Craft in the
"Though it might owe to the
wise and glorious
King of Israel some of its many mystic forms and hieroglyphic
ceremonies, yet certainly
the Art itself is coeval with Creation, when the Sovereign Architect
raised on Masonic
principles this beauteous globe; and commanded that master science
Geometry to lay
the rule to the planetary world, and to regulate by its laws the whole
system in just, unerring proportion, rolling round the ventral sun."
tradition states that on the occasion of the transgression of our first
a certain sign or token was used, which has been perpetuated in Royal
This sign was used by Moses when he came down from the mount. It was
into requisition at the building of the second Temple; and when
Alexander the Great,
with his victorious legions approached the city of Jerusalem in order
it. He was met by the High Priest in his pontifical robes, accompanied
by the priests
and Levites in solemn procession, who saluted him with this significant
is an historical fact that Alexander was so much struck with the sight
of this procession
that he did homage to God's vice-regent; and it is said, on more
that his reverence proceeded from the mutual recognition of the Masonic
tradition asserts that it was the Sacred Word which expelled our erring
from Paradise, which was uttered again at the universal deluge, and on
manifested itself to the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and also
at the burning bush; after which it assumed a material and permanent
form and dwelt
in the cloudy pillar as the image of the glory of God. This appearance,
it is asserted,
was no other than the Tetragrammaton, which is commemorated in many of
degrees of Freemasonry. This is the word which conversed with Adam in
and is referred to in Genesis iii, 8: "And they heard the voice of the
God walking in the garden in the cool of the day."
that the Word is to be found in no language that ever was used. "It
he says, "not a word, but merely a jumble of letters, forming a sound
meaning." The time and circumstances attending the loss of the Word are
stated in one of the degrees:
"The moment when the veil of
was rent: when darkness and consternation covered the earth; when the
and the lamp of day was darkened; when the implements of Masonry were
lost and the
cubical stone sweated blood and water: that was the moment when the
Word was lost."
contains a legend of a cubical stone which was inscribed with a
that represented the Sacred Name and was possessed of many virtues. It
that this stone was in the possession of Adam in Paradise, that he held
it in the
highest estimation, because it bore the sacred characters, and reminded
him of that
sublime and holy Being, who had been his friend, his companion, and his
that delightful place. On this stone he made his offerings to God, when
promise of a mediator who should bruise the head of the reptile which
his defection from innocence, was formally revealed to him that he
might not entirely
sink under the oppression and misery in which a sense of deserving
had involved him. On the same holy altar he offered a sacrifice of
praise of thanksgiving
at the birth of his children.
incident is embodied in a degree known as the Noachites, or Prussian
of which the following is the legend:
"The descendants of Noah,
that God had appointed the rainbow as a token of the covenant that He
again destroy the earth by a universal deluge, resolved to erect an
by its height, should place them beyond the reach of divine vengeance.
purpose they assembled together in the extended plane of Shinar. They
laid the foundation
and carried on the building for ten years; at which time, God seeing
determined to interfere. He confounded their language, and by that
put an end to their design. Hence the tower was called Babel, which
Sometime after this, Nimrod began to establish degrees of rank amongst
which had not existed before. He built the city of Babylon and
arrogated to himself
the honors of divine worship. It was on the night of the full moon, in
of March, that God confounded their language. And, therefore, the
their great meeting on that particular night; and their common monthly
were only held when the moon was at full, and they used no other light
lodges. After the language was confounded, and the people obliged to
tribe pursued its own course. Peleg, who suggested the plan of this
tower, and had
been the Great Architect during its construction, being struck with the
conscience, condemned himself to a most rigorous penance. He migrated
with his followers
to the north of Germany, after having suffered great miseries and
dangers in passing the mountains and plains on his way thither. In that
the country which is now called Prussia he took up his residence. Here
a triangular temple, where he enclosed himself, that he might be at
leisure to worship
God and implore Him to pardon his transgression. In the course of
the salt mines of Prussia, A.D. 553, there was discovered, at the depth
cubits, the foundations of a triangular edifice, in the center of which
was a small
pillar of marble, on which the above history was inscribed in Hebrew
A tomb was also found in which an agate stone was encrusted, containing
'Here were deposited the ashes of the Great Architect of the Tower of
showed him mercy because he humbled himself.' " These relics are said
still in the royal archives at Berlin.
a Masonic tradition descending from time immemorial involving certain
to the world, that the sacred ark, together with the Book of the Law,
from the most holy place, under Masonic direction, and so deposited as
that overwhelming destruction which swept away the whole land of
Judaea. From this
tradition we learn where, and under what circumstances the Book of the
Law was found.
claims that the pure science of Masonry was practiced by Daniel and his
in opposition to the spurious system, which was celebrated in the old
tower of Belus,
the lower apartments of which were used for the purpose of initiation.
adherence to the practice of primitive Freemasonry drew down upon them
of the priests and princes of Babylon, and brought upon the three
the punishment of fire, and upon Daniel that of being sentenced to be
torn in pieces
by wild beasts.
knowledge of Geometry, Euclid is supposed to have been enabled to
restore to Masonry
its ancient systematic usages and customs, as well as to regulate the
Egyptian agriculture, and he became a general benefactor, "giving,"
an old record of the Craft, "to his system the name of Geometry, which
called Masonry." According to Masonic legend, Euclid was Senior Grand
to Grand Master Ptolemy Soter, who founded at Alexandria a museum or
learned men, for the improving of philosophy and all other knowledge.
Charter of Colne says:
"Our Brotherhood had its origin
times when a few of the initiated, filled with a desire of true
knowledge and a
correct interpretation of the Mysteries of Christianity separated
the various sects who professed the Christian religion; for in those
times a few
wise and enlightened men perceiving that certain heathenish ceremonies
introduced into Christianity, which would destroy the principle of
united themselves with an oath, to preserve and maintain, in its
the Christian religion, with its benign influence on the hearts and
of mankind; to bring the true light out of darkness, and to labor
together in combatting
ignorance, intolerance, and superstition, and to establish peace and
mankind, by teaching and enforcing every human virtue. Thus the Masters
of our Order
took the names of Initiated Brethren of St. John, following the
footsteps and imitating
the conduct of St. John the Baptist, the forerunner of the Light and
the first martyr
of the enlightened. The teachers and writers, according to the customs
of the times,
were called Masters, and chosen from the experienced and learned of
or fellow laborers, from whence we derive the name of Fellow-Craft;
while the remainder
of the Brotherhood, according to the custom of the Hebrews, Greeks, and
were called Apprentices."
Transportation in Palestine
the Dead Sea proved no easy task in a land where commerce is at a
transportation facilities are virtually nil. A Red Corps engineer who
from Palestine tells how it was done.
was necessary to carry a boat from Jaffa, on the seacoast, to Jerusalem
to cross the Dead Sea to Jericho to get grain to take back to Jaffa.
of something more than one hundred and twenty miles was over an almost
terrain, some of it lowland, hundreds of feet below sea level, and much
of it rugged,
mountainous country. The Dead Sea itself is one thousand feet below sea
is typical of transport difficulties all over Palestine."
The Stepping Stone -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
was built for man a home and to it a stepping
By the nature forces true in the work, below, above;
For in coming he would know every human joy and woe,
So the stepping stone was made of the pearl of human love.
'Twas the granite tried and proved as the mighty forces moved
To the time and fire test that in ages was to come, ‒
It was nature in her plan ending in a world for man
That should mean, as such to him, all that makes a home a home.
For this consciousness the world was with beauty rare impearled,
For its every real need there was rich provision made;
But with all its golden store it were mockery the more,
Worthless as such if not on love's redeeming altar laid.
And the anchorage that holds all that consciousness extols,
Is the power that moves the world in its sway by human love;
Without it the race would be without e'en a mystery;
Not a flower would bloom to it and no star glint from above.
And because this stepping stone to all that makes earth a home
Is the royal way to all that with it to man is given,
There could be no other plan, for the attributes of man
Would be worthless save as love qualifies for home and heaven.
Omnipresence -- [A Poem]
By Finley Paul Curtis, Jr.
soft blanket of snow, vast and crystal white
Under the cold limpid radiance of pale Luna
O'er the earth sprawls like a gigantic ghost-shadow.
It is the absence of all color: perfect white.
I look forth from the window, and my tongue,
Manned by a Power invisible, unconsciously and irresistably
Utters: "It is the Supreme. It is God!"
Wonderment and thoughts unutterable absorb me.
A lump of coal in the grate bursts into a thousand fragments,
Hissing and crackling as if in the agony of death.
Then from the window, aroused from my abstraction, I turn.
Fire-flames lept upward from the white-hot ashbed
Like long, blood-red, avid reptile tongues.
Again my lips fashioned these unbidden words:
"Why! The Unseen is here, too. God is everywhere
Then I understood the ineffable peace which enveloped my soul:
I was not afraid.
Before my soul was a cork bouncing on the sea of life:
But now it was an immovable Gibralter!
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 32
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
of the above.
3. The subsequent
sections of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers should
then be taken
up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same manner.
* * *
on "The Winding Stairs"
- To what extent is the origin of
the symbolism of the Winding Stairs generally
- Is it essential that we
discover the exact facts in order to intelligently
pursue our present study?
- Have there ever been advanced
Satisfactory answers concerning the Source
of the symbolism?
- To what extent should
discussion of the origin be considered of value?
- Do you agree with the
contention of early scholars that there was actually
a winding stair of three, five and seven steps in Solomon's Temple?
- What can you offer in support
of such contention?
- Could the semi-circular
stairway at the Gate Nieanor where the Levites chanted
the "Psalms of Degrees" have been taken as the prototype of our winding
- What is your opinion concerning
- What does Sir Charles Warren
say concerning the Staircase?
- What is the "Theological
- When and by whom was it
introduced into the ritual?
- What was the symbolism of the
- Have we anything similar to it
in our ritual of the present day?
does Brother Haywood say about this interpretation?
- What is the theory of the
Operative origin of the symbolism?
- Can this theory be depended
upon? If not, why not?
the origin of the Winding Stair symbolism cannot be accurately traced,
how should we view the use of the stairs in our work?
- What does the use of the
mystical numbers suggest to you?
- Of what is the Winding Stair as
a whole a symbol?
- What is Pike's theory
concerning the number "15"?
- What would happen should our
present Symbolic arrangement of the Winding
Stairs be changed?
- Would a change be of any
- Is the use of numbers in
symbolism of modern origin?
- Can you give a reason for even
numbers being used to denote earthly or human
things and odd numbers to suggest divine or heavenly truths?
- Has this always been the case?
- What was "the number of the
beast" and its interpretation?
- How were ancient temples
- Why should we feel gratified
that the symbolism of odd numbers is retained
- What is the "triad" or
"ternary"? How was it considered
- How does Brother Haywood
explain the number "5"?
- Of what is the number "7" the
- How was knowledge divided in
does Gould say about the seven sciences?
- How can our ritual be made to
be of assistance to us in our everyday life?
- What is our most familiar
explanation of the "three steps"?
- How does Masonry help the
- Should a Mason feel that he is
being left apart and alone in his endeavors
to improve his physical and spiritual condition?
- What great lesson is revealed
to us in the five steps?
- How is the group of seven steps
- Is this teaching a necessity?
- Does Masonry approve ignorance?
- Is the expression "I have no
time to read or study" one of yours?
- How did Burritt, Franklin,
Livingstone and others secure their education?
grows out of ignorance?
- Do you believe that the human
race is still progressing?
- What must we avoid in measuring
- In what manner alone can the
human race progress?
are your answers to Brother Haywood's closing questions?
* * *
Vol. II. The Winding Stairway, p. 239.
Vol. IV. Symbolism of the Three Degrees, p. 266.
Legend of the Winding Stairs, p. 850;
Middle Chamber, p. 483; Winding Stairs, p. 850.
Mackey's Symbolism of Freemasonry:
Legend of the Winding Stairs, pp 210, 217, 218, 219, 225.
Vol. I, pp. 42, 57;
vol. IV, p. 88;
vol. XXIX, pp. 262, 299.
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Part VII – The Winding Stairs
Five and Seven Steps have long been a puzzle to the candidate and a
problem to the
Masonic scholar; in the present connection there is no need that we go
erudite debates that have circled about the matter, for our main
concern is with
that living and practical truth of which the stairs are a symbol.
this symbolism? To that question many answers have been offered, some
but none very convincing. Any discussion of origin is valuable only as
light on the symbol itself.
have contended, though not in recent years, that there was a winding
stair of three,
five and seven steps in Solomon's temple itself. It is thought that at
Nicanor there was a semicircular stairway leading from one court to
that it was on the successive steps of this stair that the Levites
chanted the fifteen
"Psalms of Degrees," specimens of which remain in the Book of Psalms.
But the archaeologists who have learned most about the Temple as it
are generally agreed that this stairway could not have been the
prototype of the
three, five and seven steps as we find them in our Second degree. Sir
as eminent in archeology as he was in Masonry, writes that "there was a
staircase, certainly, but this led to little cells or chambers a few
in the thickness of the Temple walls, in which the functionaries
kept their stores for the votive offerings." (A. Q. C. vol. 1, p. 42
have opined that the steps were originally the same as the Theological
had the same historical origin. This Theological Ladder, which appears
on our Tracing
Board, and represents by its seven rungs the three theological virtues
Hope and Charity, and the four cardinal virtues of Temperance,
and Justice, was introduced into the ritual, it is thought, by Martin
1732. This ladder was made to stand for the progress of the soul from
to the heavenly and it was looked upon as a Masonic type of a similar
in several of the Ancient Mysteries, (especially in Mithraism) in
and it was generally held to be, in its strictly Masonic form, a
suggestion of that
ladder which Jacob saw in his vision, up and down which the angels came
Inasmuch as this Theological Ladder symbolized progress, just as does
Stair, some argued that the latter symbol must have come from the same
the former. This interpretation of the matter may be plausible enough,
and it may
help toward an interpretation of both symbols, but it suffers from an
lack of tangible evidence.
of more modern views believe that the symbol may have been devised by
Masons during the Saxon period in England. It seems that the numbers
and seven were in the air, so to speak, at that time, as is proved by
gives examples to show that these numbers were grouped together in
doctrines, superstitions, etc., "with startling frequency," especially
during the years 449-1066. But this latter date, it will be seen, is
some two centuries
earlier than our oldest Masonic record, consequently there can be no
hope of tracing
the Winding Stair symbol to that time with any degree of accuracy.
Thus it is
that we are thrown back upon conjecture; accepting that alternative we
that the stairway was first used simply because it was a necessary part
of the symbolic
temple of the Second degree. Here were the pillars standing at the
entrance on the
porch; yonder was the Middle Chamber, on a higher level; some means of
obviously needed to wet the candidate from one to another.
But the difficulties
in the way of accounting for the origin of the symbol need not perplex
us in searching
for an interpretation, for that is plain; the mystical use of numbers
in the ascent
suggests to us that the climb itself is a divine task, worthy of the
man; the stair is as a whole a symbol of the progress of a man from the
of natural ignorance toward that high level of spiritual power and
by the Middle Chamber.
fifteen itself cannot have much mystical significance because it is
of those dreaded "American innovations" which have given so much
to certain interpreters. In some eighteenth century tracing boards the
composed of only five steps, in others of seven. Preston divided them
into 1, 3,
5, 7, 9 and 11, making 36 in all. The Hemming lectures, which replaced
at the time of the Union, struck out the group of 11 steps, thus
reducing the number
to 25. The American ritual, in turn, further reduced the number to 15
out the 1 and the 9. Albert Pike was of the opinion that the 9 should
retained because he believed that the series 3, 5, 7 and 9 had a very
very precious meaning. "As long ago as the time of Zarathustra," he
"the Irano-Aryan Soldier and King of Bactria, 5,000 years or more
era, (this date is most certainly wrong. H. L. H.) the Barecura, or
bundle of twigs
used in the sacrifices, were bound by 3, 5, 7 and 9 twigs, and even
then the number
7 had a peculiar significance." I consider it a fine thing that the
of the House of The Temple at Washington, which is a monument to Albert
as much as it is the headquarters of the Scottish Rite of the Southern
have divided the steps that lead from the street to the entrance of
that noble building
into groups of 3, 5, 7 and 9. But while it may possibly be true that
symbolism should have contained the group of 9, the Winding Stair as it
in the Second degree can never be changed; to do so would dislocate the
of the ritualism of the Second degree and it is doubtful if the
would give us any additional meanings.
times numbers have been much employed in symbolism as is proved by the
all the ancient nations, philosophies, and religions. For one reason or
too complicated to explain here, the even numbers were usually made to
or human things while the odd numbers were revered as expressions or
of divine or heavenly truths. This was not always the case for the
used 888 as the number of Jesus; but even they made 666 to stand for
the human or
demonic and 777 to mean absolute perfection. It is now believed that
of the beast" spoken of in the Book of Revelation, and given as 666 in
Authorized version was really 616, which was the numerical value of the
Theos," or "God Caesar," and referred to the worship of the emperor.
At any rate, with few exceptions, number symbolism has always made the
to suggest that which is divine or very noble and as such we may
use of the odd numbers, 3, 5 and 7. An old Roman historian of
that ancient temples were nearly always approached by an odd number of
they led to the divine precincts; we may rejoice that the builders of
temple have also retained this symbolism because it is certain that
there is nothing
more divine accessible to human feet than that which is pictured for us
in the Middle
or triad, or ternery, is found scores of times throughout the ritual,
and it is
bodied forth in the triangle, the symbol of Deity. It would be
impossible in the
present space even to hint at the wealth of instances in which the
in the various symbolic systems of the past; we must satisfy ourselves
following paragraph from Pierson's "Traditions of Freemasonry":
ternary is the first of unequal numbers. The triad, mysterious number,
so great a part in the traditions of Asia, the philosophy of Plato, the
of all ages, an image of the Supreme Being, includes in itself the
the two first numbers. (that is, 1 plus 2, equals 3. H. L. H.) It was
the most excellent and favorite number, a mysterious type, revered by
and consecrated in the mysteries; wherefore there are but three
among Masons, rho venerate in the triangle the most august mystery that
of the Sacred
Triad, object of their homage and study."
Of the number
5 it is more difficult to speak. If we combine the first even number,
2, and the
first odd, 3, we have 5; if 2 represents the human, and 3 the divine, 5
suggest a union of the two. It may also be that 5 won an early
being the number of the senses, even as our Monitor suggests.
7 usually stands for perfection, and it may not be without meaning that
in the V.
S. L. it occurs, as one writer has said, "an incredible number of
During the medieval periods knowledge was usually divided among seven
learning; first was a group of three, called the trivium, and composed
rhetoric, and logic; secondly was the quadrivium, which comprised
music and astronomy. It is interesting to observe how our Monitorial
of the third group of steps preserves this old idea. Gould says that
same period these seven "sciences" were thought of as "a number of
steps leading to virtue, and finally to heaven."
By this time
you are probably beginning to ask yourself, what has all this to do
What is there in this that I can use in my everyday life? I hope you
been asking this question; if more Masons would always seek for the
between Masonry and the practical affairs and problems of existence,
would cease being the academic plaything which it too often is; and I
in every symbol of the work, even as in the present case, there is that
be put into immediate use, with the greatest benefit to the user; and
I believe that one need not stretch his imagination or twist the ritual
to do this.
Let us glance
first at the group of three steps. The most familiar explanation of
this is that
these represent the three degrees or the three principal officers of
In either case the first three steps suggest to the candidate that he
is being helped
on his way by an organized-fraternity, represented by the degrees or
whichever it may be. Does not that have much to tell us? Is not this
one of the
prime functions of Masonry? Instead of leaving the individual to climb
it surrounds him with its inspiration and its help just as the
stands back of the child that begins the ascent to an education. No
need fail in his attempt to lead the divine, the kingly, life; a
with its almost inexhaustible resources, is at hand to help him. Have
you ever kept
that in mind during dark days? No Mason climbs alone, even from the
start; the entire
Order, sensitive to his needs, and responsive to his call, is ever
ready to help
him on and up.
If we glance
at the next group of five steps we find another teaching, equally
valuable and quite
as practicable, a teaching that takes my breath away by its very
I think of it. Let us agree with the Monitor, that this group of steps
to us (whatever it may have originally meant) the five senses; in other
physical body with its organs, functions and faculties. What does this
it not this, that the very body itself, when kept in control by
and when trained by education, may be a stepping stone toward the
This was an exceedingly bold teaching when first promulgated, for it
was at a time
when religious teachers and moralists were telling people that the body
in itself and must be put under foot. Masonry does not despise the
urges us to prepare it so as to serve as a stair-way toward the noblest
group of seven steps is interpreted as referring to the liberal arts
in other words, we are told that right learning and culture of the mind
us up and on. This is a teaching as badly needed now as ever because so
tend to make light of knowledge, or to excuse themselves for not having
Masonry condemns this attitude, teaching us as it does in this
connection that ignorance
is a sin. If we lay our prejudices aside here and are brave enough to
face the facts,
I believe that we must agree with Masonry. We may say that we have no
time to read,
or to learn; the fallacy of this is proved by the number of men about
us who are
as busy as we, yet manage to get an education in odd moments. We may
say that we
have not the opportunities for securing an education, that we cannot go
or that we cannot buy books. We do not need to go to school; we can
turn our bedroom
into a school and be our own teacher, like Elihu Burritt, or Benjamin
or David Livingstone. Nor do we need to buy books; they can always be
public libraries or from our friends. When we remember how
fanaticism, disease, poverty and kindred evils grow out of ignorance,
we can well
afford to study again the lessons of the Winding Stairs.
Stairs, as a whole, is a symbol of progress. When is a man progressing?
answer: "He alone is advancing in life whose heart is getting softer,
blood warmer, whose brain quicker, whose spirit is entering into living
In spite of the Great War, which recently dragged its bloody coils
across the world,
we may still believe that the race progresses, that
"Step by step since time began
We see the steady gain of man."
But we must
not fall into the error of measuring progress by merely mechanical
as the custom is; the race as a race goes forward only as mankind as a
possessed of those qualities described by Ruskin. Do you not believe
has a leading role to play in this real progress of mans Can you think
of a better
recipe for advancement than Masonry's to unite with others for
control the passions and discipline the faculties, to enlighten the
mind, and to
keep ever before one a great ideal, as is suggested by the Holy of
Holies? Are you
giving your private share to Masonry's contribution to world Progress?
of Hiram, King of Tyre
By Bro. Charles B. Sinden,
or Tyre has bequeathed to the world many interesting relics of a
buried beneath the dust of the ages, many of which are of special
interest to our
Masonic Fraternity. Tyre and Joppa; two of her ancient cities, are
names well known,
while her tombs, architecture, metal castings and pillars hold for us
a passing interest. The purpose of this writing is to call attention to
in the vicinity of Tyre, which the natives call "Kabir-Hiram" or the
of Tyre, is a character familiar to all Masons. His identity is clearly
in Sacred History as also by the corroborative evidence of Josephus the
Unlike some stories of the other Hiram, knowledge of him is placed
The son of Abibal, he was contemporary with, and a friend of, both
David and Solomon,
Israelitish kings; the latter a very important figure in Masonic lore.
David's reign he supplied "cedar trees and carpenters and masons and
David a house." 2 Sam. 5:11. Forty years later Solomon applied to his
old friend and received an equally courteous response for "Hiram sent
saying, I have considered the things which thou sentest to me for: and
I will do
all thy desire concerning timber of cedar and concerning timber of fir
… and they
two made a league together." 1 Kings 5. Josephus tells us that the
regarding these matters was in his day, preserved in the archives of
Phoenicians seem to have been contented with tombs of a quiet character
constructed beneath the surface in a series of vaults without
did, however, during some periods probably remote, erect monuments to
stand as permanent
memorials and at the same time to be attractive to the eye. Well
Egypt they would be aware of her obelisks, pyramids and lofty tombs; of
of Mausolus at Halicarnassus the famous Greek city of Asia Minor with
columns and pyramid, then one of the seven wonders of the world; and of
of the Maccabees in Modin where "Simon also built a monument upon the
of his father and his brethren and raised it aloft to the sight, with
behind and before. Moreover he set up seven pyramids, one against
another, for his
father and his mother and his four brethren. And in these he made
about the which he set great pillars." 1 Macc. 13. It is not strange
that we find such a tomb as Renan describes in his "Mission de
viz., the Burdj-el-Bezzak, which was evidently constructed to resemble
It is situated near to Amrith the ancient Marathus, and is an edifice
built of large
blocks of stone and rising to a height of thirty-two feet above the
plain. Wit is
thought that originally the cubic mass was surmounted by a pyramidical
stones from which were found scattered around. The height of the
thus be increased to about sixty-five feet.
The tomb, however, of most interest to Masons is
that already mentioned and which Robinson
in "Researches in Palestine" names as the "Tomb of Hiram." Renan
says that the name is modern and no great importance can be attached to
Prof. Rawlinson in his "History of Phoenicia" [Lib 1914] declares the monument to be
ancient, perhaps as ancient as any in Phoenicia, whilst Perrot and
Chipiez in "Histoire
de l'Art" [Lib 1885 (pp 170)] (For other Art
History books by the same authors
that "if the tomb does not actually belong to the time of Solomon's
and ally, at any rate it is anterior to the Greco-Roman period." The
according to Renan, is composed of eight courses or layers of huge
one upon another, some being twelve feet long and seven broad and three
four lower courses are almost regularly one on top of the other while
projects considerably beyond the fourth, and the three remaining
retreat as they rise after the style of a pyramid. The effect is that
of a stele
or pillar, more than the usual type of pyramid, the width at the top
a trifle smaller than at the base. The monument is a solid mass and a
oblong or "oblong square" fourteen feet long by eight and a half feet
wide. A flight of steps cut in the rock which forms part of the base in
lowest courses leads down to a sepulchral niche where possibly once
body of our Grand Master. This monument has no inscription or figure of
engraved upon it which is of course no evidence that it is not the tomb
of the one
to whom tradition assigns it.
not be any especial advantage in seeking to prove this tomb to be the
last resting place of Hiram but at the same time there is considerable
and for a number of reasons tradition may be correct. First, because
usually, possibly correct. Eastern people preserved a great deal of
history in this
way which cannot be ignored because not written or printed as our
Then its situation near to Tyre suggests unmistakably that it was
erected to an
important personage of that city. Taking that together with its
undoubted age we
have a substantial link in the chain of evidence. The lack of figures
of gods or
goddesses on its surface supplied us with another point. Hiram coming
with Solomon and learning of the True God for whose Temple his workman
were furnished, would probably have become a worshipper of Jehovah and
thus no figures
of heathen deities would appear on his tomb as have been found on some
"oblong square" may or may not be admitted as evidence but it is of
Masonic interest. The rugged grandeur of the tomb seems fitting to the
of this early king. Taking these things together they form a piece of
circumstantial evidence in favor of assuming that the monument
described is in reality
that of Hiram, King of Tyre.
Masonry Do For Democracy?
By Bro Gary C. Burke, J.G.W.,
stands for the idea of rule by the many, by the people. Autocracy, the
idea, stands for rule by one man. These two ideas are as opposite as
as opposite as light and darkness; as opposite as black and white. They
can no more
be reconciled than darkness can exist beneath the mid-day sun; and when
idea of democracy was implanted in the heart of man it could no more be
than could an universe of darkness extinguish a candle light. Hear what
Lincoln has said of this: "Two principles have stood face to face from
beginning of time and will ever continue to struggle. The one is the
of humanity and the other the divine right of kings."
of the problems, great and small, confronting our government could be
so much better
settled, and how many misunderstandings in doing so could be avoided,
if we would
endeavor to exercise temperance in our attitude toward the other man's
if we would endeavor to give him credit for the same honesty of purpose
think we possess. How many more good men and true could be enlisted in
of those who manage the affairs of our government if we would have the
to endure the annoyance and even the financial loss incident to a more
in the affairs of government. What nobler work can Masonry do than to
members that they should not pussyfoot when men are needed to lead some
which wilt make our country a better place to live in?
It has become
the fashion to sneer at the "politician." I will not enlarge upon this.
you all know that it is true, and you all know why. But let us have the
to recognize the fact that the man who aspires to office and who is
elected to it,
is just as good or just as bad as the man who elects him. The American
the American officeholder, is the reflection of the American people.
This may not
be a pleasant thing to think about sometimes, but let us be just and
it and set ourselves to remedy it. In doing so we will be good Masons.
I would have Masonry seek, in a practical way, to apply its teachings
He who prophesies
in this day is foolhardy. But I will say this: Great changes are coming
as a result
of the war. Changes in the map of the world, changes in men's views
sin places where no one dreamed a few years ago that any was possible.
men's views as to personal responsibility in government. Many things
that men have
come to look upon as established forever will stand in a different
light in the
future. I firmly believe that all things must hereafter stand in the
rays of the
great searchlight of Truth to determine their utility for aiding in
And those things which do not bear well its scrutiny will be discarded
them, if it does not measure up. Men in future will be too much
occupied with real,
big things, to bother with mere talk and theories. Keep this in mind
have men on fall. Masonry can make them, and it must, or fail.
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
Robert Treat Paine
PAINE, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Boston
and died there in 1814. He was a member of a Massachusetts Lodge,
record of which
is in the Proceedings of the Grand Lodge, Volume I, page 64. He entered
University at the age of 14 years, and supported himself by teaching;
the study of law, and in 1755 was a Chaplain of Provincial troops. He
was a member
of the Convention which met upon the dissolution of the General Court
by the Governor
for refusing to rescind the circular letter to the other colonies,
calling for certain
action against the infringement of their chartered rights.
employed by the Bostonians for the prosecution of the perpetrators of
Massacre." He was a member of the General Assembly, and assisted in the
of the Chief Justice of the Province. He was a delegate to the First
Congress. He was active in promoting the manufacture of saltpeter, as
well as of
and Rutlege he reported rules for procedure and debate in Congress, and
4, 1776, he signed the Declaration of Independence. At one time Paine
of the House of Representatives in Massachusetts; at another time he
General of the State, and he served on a committee to regulate the
price of labor,
provisions and manufactures.
friend of the Constitution, he gave Washington hearty support. He was a
of the American Academy in 1780 and received the Honorary Degree of LL.
D. at Cambridge.
As a Puritan
and a patriot, he was devoted to civil and religious liberty.
on the 11th of May, 1814, and was buried in the Granary Burying Ground,
His grave is in a tomb, shown in the engraving ‒ a modest memorial for
and good a man. Whether his countrymen should erect a memorial fitting
to this great
man, or suffer the present primitive memorial to stand, is debatable.
almost rude structure is an emblem of the simple, modest life of the
a great monument could not amplify.
But on the
day set apart for the decoration of the graves of soldiers, May 30th,
Mason might drop a rose on the tomb of Brother Robert Treat Paine.
Masonic Customs in Great
In case the
Grand Master is a Prince of royal blood, he appoints a "Pro" Grand
only seldom presiding in person.
Lodge of England meets in March, July, September, and December, the
taking place on the last Wednesday in April. The Grand Lodge of Ireland
Dublin in March, June, October and December, and the annual festival
at noon on St. John's Day, December 27th. The Grand Lodge of Scotland
meets in Edinburgh
in February, May, August and November, and the Grand Festival is held
30th, St. Andrew's Day.
To the American
Mason the United Grand Lodge seems to be a complicated organization, as
and Past Grand Officers, all Past Masters of lodges, and all Wardens,
terms of office, have the right of admission. The Grand Honors of Nine
in England only to the three present officers. The Grand Treasurer, the
of the Board of General Purposes, the Grand Chaplain, and the Grand
seven, while all others receive only five. The office of Grand
Treasurer is the
only elective office other than that of Grand Master, and it is an
that the Grand Master shall be of royal blood whenever possible. He
officers excepting the Grand Treasurer, and the only chance for a
to wear the royal purple of the lodge is to be elected Grand Treasurer,
and by an
unwritten rule no person of "title" has been elected to that office for
Silas B. Wright, Florida.
Coronati, Or the Four Patron Saints of the Order of Masons
By Bro. C. Purdon Clarke,
indebted to Brother D. D. Berolzheimer, a member of Johnkeer Lodge No.
N. Y., for the manuscript of the following address delivered before
that lodge by
Brother Clarke, a Past Master of Quatuor Coronati Lodge, while he was
the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
be superfluous to enter into the details of the evidence in favor of
of the four sculptors who, with their recently received apprentice or
suffered for their faith a year before the commencement of the last
of the Christians under the Emperor Diocletian.
magnificent research in his History of Freemasonry establishes the
of the story at a period within a few years of their martyrdom and,
that in an age when the Christian Church was becoming a dominant power
to honor openly those who had fallen in her cause, very marked
for some peculiar reason, bestowed upon the memory of those four humble
although their trials and sufferings do not appear to justify their
many of their comrades in the noble army of martyrs, who had equally
unto death during the many persecutions of the preceding two hundred
and forty years.
of this problem which formed itself in my mind was that the popularity
of the craftsmen
martyrs was due, in some measure, to a democratic undercurrent which
had from its
commencement been furthering the cause of the Christian religion.
Anyone who glances,
however slightly, at the records of the social and political condition
of Rome after
the death of Julius Caesar and the break-up of the Commonwealth cannot
how welcome the new faith was to the great industrial classes, who
found in it a
creed representing everything that the better part of their natures
felt was good,
and a priesthood free from the obviously corrupt practices of the
temporal upholders of their time-serving and decayed religion.
period under martial kings lasted two hundred and fifty years; then a
was established which, however, was but an oligarchy and involved a
between the military patricians and the commercial plebeians which
latter only succeeded
after one hundred and twenty years agitation and several civil wars in
a representative from their own ranks. During this second period Rome
became a colonizing
power and wars for defense became wars of aggression, and, although
these are generally
attributed to the ambition of popular leaders or the national desire
for glory and
plunder, it is more probable that they were but the inevitable results
commanders returning from time to time in triumph brought back to the
wealth of the then known world, and became in the eyes of the masses
were more to be trusted than the politicians of whose wrangling they
tired. Rome was, therefore, ripe for a change when the Imperial purple
to Julius Caesar and afterwards secured by Augustus, but the succeeding
years of military despotism caused a reaction, which paved the way for
of the new cult.
It is to
be regretted that Roman history does not record sufficiently the
succession of events
from the point of view of the burgher or craftsman. The historians
to the patrician casts and did not care to chronicle other events than
which their class played an important part, or, when the writers were
"the histories of their times were falsified through fear," or written
to please the powers who could regard flattering services.
scanty materials to help us we can only assume that as Christianity had
none but the artisan classes to any great extent, their ecclesiastics
glorify the martyrs belonging to the industrial plebeian class, who
bound to them by co-fellowship of the Collegium Fabrorum.
sculptors must of necessity have been members of the trade society
the city in which they worked. How far this Collegium was in connection
affiliated to, similar Collegia in other towns I cannot say, but of one
am sure, and that is, that at the period to which they belonged, where
was a dead
uniformity of style and ornamentation in building work executed by the
places so remote from each other that the only explanation which could
is that of a central controlling body, or even more, a central school
in which a
single style was taught complete in all its parts, whether technical or
As an illustration
I offer mosaic floors, one from Sussex, the second from Carthage, on
the north coast
of Africa, the other from Balkeish on the Tigris above Baghdad. All
might have been
designed and executed by the same hand. Wherever the Romans colonized
in their enduring method, the remains of their walls present the same
show how little local styles interfered with their established system.
it may be assumed that our four craftsmen belonged to an important
which at that time extended from Persia to Great Britain, in which
alone there were fifty-three important cities each with its Collegium
This connection with a powerful society probably accounts for the
and patience with which these sculptors were treated by Diocletian, who
their destruction after their commission of "lèse-majesté"
by refusing to make the statue of the Assculapius
when ordered by their Emperor.
execution of four members of a corporate body, which was connected, at
the bond of common interests, with the other trade societies, must have
peculiar period made a deep impression on the minds of their fellows,
and, as it
was but eighteen years later that the Emperor Constantine openly
favored the Christian
religion, the memory of the martyrs was then still preserved by men who
them and they became the favorite saints of the solid industrial
classes whose wholesale
conversion to Christianity had alone made it possible for the Emperor
the old religion and, within another ten years, order the destruction
of all the
between these Roman Collegia which we know to have existed in all the
between England, Spain and Persia and the trade gilds of medieval
Europe, may never
be satisfactorily proved. Similarities in organization would naturally
the requirements of similar circumstances, but it is certain that in
of the great Roman Empire, however completely the tidal wave of
the traces of that marvelous, complex civilization, the impress of
and Roman laws remained deeply and securely rooted in many centers, to
into life, little by little, through the dark ages, until culminating
in the great
period of the Renaissance, which commenced the history of modern
throw more light on the connection between the Roman Collegia and the
so far as England is concerned, than the discovery of some earlier
history of the
Church of the Four Crowned Martyrs at Canterbury, and the mention by
Bede of its
existence in A. D. 619, at the time of the great fire which nearly
city and only stopped when this church was reached.
pass over the inference that this church withstood the fire better than
buildings and churches owing to its having been built in Roman times in
or stone, whereas the rest more probably belonged to the period of
of churches and monasteries which followed the conversion of the Saxons
in A. D.
597, and were principally constructed in wood.
If this supposition
be correct, the Church of the Quatuor Coronati at Canterbury had
survived the destruction
of everything Roman-British, after the defeat of Vortimer by Hengist at
in Kent, in 457. Such an escape is possible and can well be accounted
for when we
consider that after the Saxons landed in Thanet in A. D. 449 they dwelt
terms with the Britons for five or six years, during which time they
avail themselves of the services of craftsmen, and probably prefer to
for their usefulness at the time of the general massacre of the Britons
a few years
later. Such an incident is not uncommon in the histories of barbarous
It must also
be conceded to the Saxons that they possessed a sufficient amount of
to appreciate the value of the workers in iron, brass and wood, the
and others who inhabited these polytechnic cities. In their own
countries they had
already become acquainted with the productions of the Roman craftsmen,
attached to the military colonies and actually formed part of each
legion. The cruel
devastation of the country after their first great success against the
in their eyes, justified by necessity, as they, the great founders of
race, had not as yet acquired the patience which is so necessary in
It is also
beyond doubt that members of the Collegia Fabrorum in the British towns
a hundred years before the Saxon invasion, become Christians and that,
the Church of the Quatuor Coronati, the popular Saints of several
trades, was more
likely to have been built at the time when Canterbury possessed a large
of Christian craftsmen than to have been founded by St. Augustine
his arrival, in 597, although the church may have been desecrated
during the one
hundred and forty years which had elapsed since the destruction of the
date of Bede's record of the existence of this church in Canterbury in
A. D. 619
until the foundation of a fraternity of sculptors and masons in Rome in
find, at various intervals of time, references to the history of the
founded in memory of the Quatuor Coronati by Pope Melchiades within
of the date of their martyrdom. About the same time as the fire at
Roman Basilica was rebuilt by Honorius I (in A. D. 622) and in A. D.
847 the Cardinal
titular of the Basilica, who had become Pope, rebuilt it with greater
In the year 1116 it was again rebuilt by Paschal II, who added a
to it, and when the Lateran Palace was destroyed in A. D. 1308, the
Popes for some
time made it their residence. Then in the 15th century we find that in
very ancient Oratory of St. Sylvester, in the portico of the Basilica,
was the Chapel
of the Confraternity of Sculptors and Masons founded in the time of
1506 A. D. 'under the invocation of the Holy Quatuor Coronati and the
Holy Martyrs who had followed the profession of sculptors:' The members
of the Confraternity
wore a dress of red with blue sashes."
Here we arrive
at the foundation of a medieval gild with the nine martyrs as their
and, moreover, a mention of their livery or distinctive clothing.
A few years
later, the Gild of Smiths, Carpenters and Masons (l'Arti dei Fabbri e
in Florence instructed Nanni di Banco, an amateur sculptor, to execute
niche for San Michele, the Church of the Trade Gilds of that city. This
had been constructed in the previous century as the Gildhall, and, in
years after the laying of its foundation stone, the Gild of Silk
allowed to undertake the decoration of one of the niches with the
statues of their
patron saint, St. John the Evangelist.
followed, and the fourteen niches which were evenly spaced around its
were allotted to the Companies representing the Professions, Merchants
became so wealthy after the plague of 1338, owing to legacies and rich
they resolved to convert the Loggia, or Gildhall, into a Church, which
in 1359, but the filling of the niches was not completed for two
That of the Smiths, Carpenters and Masons, was finished about the
middle of the
fifteenth century. This niche does not occupy a symbolical position,
but is the
second of four, counting from the west on the north front. Two
by Alinari Brothers, of Florence, show the whole niche with the statues
of the Four
Martyrs in a group in ancient Roman costume, with an under panel
of them working as medieval sculptors, whilst a fourth is constructing
a wall; in
the background, conspicuously placed, are the plumb rule, level,
compass and square.
A cast from this panel is in the South Kensington Museum in London.
the fashion for adopting the Quatuor Coronati as patron saints spread
and France, but in the latter country a single individual of the four
became a popular
saint in a manner to the exclusion of the others.
of Du Saussay [Lib*] stated that the bodies of the five Martyrs
Simphorianus, Castorius and Simplicius "were afterwards brought from
Toulouse and placed in a chapel which was erected in their honor in the
St. Sernin. Subsequently the greater part of the relics of St. Claudius
from Toulouse to the FranceComte. In 1049 these relics were honored in
of Maynal, one of the oldest in the Jura. When Pope Leo IX came to the
Rheims in 1049, he confirmed the Archbishop of Besancon, Hugh the
First, in possession
of this domain. Also in his Bull, dated 14th of November, he mentions
of Maynal 'where reposes the body of St. Claudius…' The most ancient
of Maynal attest that St. Claudius was always honored there as a
martyr. He is represented
on the parochial banner in the attitude of a man invoking heaven, with
brightened with a ray of light; he holds a chisel in one hand and in
the other a
hammer, and by his side is shown a bust of which the white color
It is evident that the painter intended thus to represent one of the
who, according to the old legend, worked with great perfection,
invoking the name
of Jesus Christ." "This martyr Saint was generally named St. Clod, or
Cloud which is the name under which he is generally designated in
relating to the Parish of Maynal."
further states that "a chapel was also built in honor of St. Claudius
monks of Ilay upon the summit of a rock near the village of Denezieres
portion of his relics was placed, having been taken from the Church of
surrounding territory from this time was named 'Terre. de St. Cloud'
and it is under
this title that it is designated in several charters of the 12th
The Palace of St. Cloud, near Paris, does not owe its name to St.
Claudius the Martyr,
but to St. Cloud the grandson of Clovis.
be noted that in DuSaussay's account no mention whatever is made of any
between St. Claudius and the other martyrs with any Craft Gilds, nor
does he mention
that they were in any way patron saints of the Crafts. This strengthens
statement that there is no authority for any connection between the
and the European Trade Gilds until the 15th Century.
I have nothing
to add to the list of German Cathedrals, Churches and Breviaries which
by Bro. Gould in connection with shrines and other memorials of the
during a visit to Brussels I found a very interesting representation of
sculptors in a large picture belonging to the Municipal Museum, in
which they are
depicted as masons rather than sculptors. This picture is of great
interest to those
studying the manner of operative work amongst medieval craftsmen; and I
a peculiarity of dress which distinguished the sculptors from the
others shown in the picture. They are dressed in very short tunics and
whereas the other people are in long gowns.
I must give
a few details of the Societies of Builders which exist in some parts of
and probably throw some light upon the inner working of the Roman
Collegia and the
craft gilds of medieval Europe.
forms craft gilds are to be found in all the principal cities of Asia,
is evidence that the various trades have been accustomed to form
societies for mutual protection and for the proper regulation of their
These gilds vary considerably in their organization and powers and,
not openly take any part in municipal government for the very good
reason that in
the East countries are ruled by officials, created by the Sultans or
who again appoint subordinate officers, generally men who have been
able to buy
from them the position and right to get as much as they possibly can
out of the
people, in the same manner that they, the upper officials, pay the
Sultan for the
privilege of retaining their posts. There is, therefore, little
the trade gilds of the East and the free Roman Collegia, and less so
with the medieval
gilds of Europe of the period when municipalities obtained great
condition of the builders' gild in Persia has been enquired into by
General A. H.
Schindler, who has spent nearly thirty years in the country and is the
authority in all matters concerning it. He informs us that a trade gild
"Senf," and possesses a Chief, or "Syndic" named the Ra'is,
who represents the gild in matters concerning municipal regulations,
taxes, etc. It is not necessary that the Ra'is should be a master of
the craft of
his gild. The ordinary term for a master craftsman is "Ustad"; for an
apprentice, or pupil, "Shagird." In the building trades the names
and "Bana" stand indiscriminately for architect, builder and mason, but
a superior Bana a master builder is called a Ma'mar, and a superior
the title of "Ma'mar-Bashi," the latter being a Turkish title
a Chief or Head. The title "Ustad" has not the same value as master in
Europe, but is applied to the master-builder in charge of the building
of a palace,
as well as to a man who cannot correctly put half a dozen bricks in a
line. As far
as can be ascertained at present, no ceremonies are used in accepting a
into a craft. Any boy may become a "Shagird," but good builders will
accept him upon the condition of his agreeing to remain a certain
number of years.
Other "Shagirds" do not bind themselves, but receive daily wages from
the beginning. When the Ustad starts on his own account he becomes a
or builder, but as there is nothing to prevent anyone calling himself a
you may meet with men who are known as Ustad, Bana, who cannot do more
a mud hut. These, however, are not recognized as members of the gild,
and are seldom
seen in towns. Sometimes masters of the craft are restricted to certain
of a town and are not allowed to work outside of the quarter in which
In the winter
of 1894 I showed General Schindler a large collection of Persian
which I had purchased from the State Architect in Teheran; on his
return to Persia
in 1895 he made many efforts to obtain some but without success. When
some technical terms and their explanation, he found the men
respecting them and he concluded that they regarded these matters as
they were obliged to keep to themselves.
In a recent
paper read by Yoshitaro Yamashita, Chancellor to the Imperial Japanese
in London, before the Japan Society, he mentions the "Hiden" (secret
the "Hijutsu" (secret art), and the "Okugi" (inner mysteries)
as terms in common use and applied to nearly every undertaking, and he
goes on to
explain that there is nothing absolutely mysterious or supernatural
and that these terms are used with respect to valuable secrets which
guarded by Professors on account of the peculiar benefit they receive
them to their pupils.
Here we have
arrived at the key note of the bond of fellowship in operative gilds in
Their secrets have always been valuable possessions requiring every
prevent them becoming common property. Then, to prevent undue
competition, the interest
of the community of a gild was placed before that of its individuals,
in its relations with the Government, the gild was better able,
supported by the gilds of other crafts, to secure an equitable
adjustment of taxation
as a strong united body.
It is on
these grounds that I form the conclusion respecting the origin of the
of the Quatuor Coronati as the patron Saints of the Masons and
Sculptors. The early
Christian Church consisted principally of members of the industrial
of whom were of necessity "magistri" or "operarii" of their
respective trade Collegia. The four sculptors and their associate were
martyrs to the new faith, which by that time was professed either
openly or in secret
by the bulk of their fellow-craftsmen, but were regarded as victims of
interference with the privileges of the Collegia which most probably
to deal with all matters relating to the due execution of the work of
jealousy or fear, several of the Roman Emperors had already attempted
the Collegia both in Rome and in her colonies. Even the just and
objected to the trade gilds and charitable benefit societies upon the
they became turbulent and factious. Christianity was first brought to
as still another of these societies forming in a distant colony, and
was duly reported
upon by Pliny in the same manner as when he was requesting direction
from the Emperor
in dealing with a volunteer fire brigade and a society for old age
of medieval Europe were similarly disliked by arbitrary rulers of all
Popes, Emperors, Kings or Republican Governments, and in our own times
gilds in the world, those of the City of London, have not been free
from the would-be tyrants of the hour.
attempts to destroy Institutions which form the backbone of civic
the war waged on Freemasonry by the Roman Church, could but end in the
of the attacking powers. These societies are the outcome of the
practical side of
human nature, in its hard-headed and sober desire to do its best to
to work for due reward, to live in peace and harmony with its neighbors
and to combine
for mutual protection when the necessity arises.
Man Shall Prevail -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald A. Nancarrow,
the jewel studded form
Of God's Celestial Sphere,
His greatest handiwork, a Man,
Doth small indeed appear.
But Man, the tiny being, filled
With part of God's great soul,
Ever grasping parent power
Shall compass yet the whole.
We do not
count a man's years, until he has nothing else to count.
The Education of the Craft
of Freemasons in the principles of Freemasonry imposes upon leaders in
serious and weighty obligations. The very necessity of urging this duty
a serious indictment against leaders in the Craft for gross negligence
in the matter
of instructing the new initiates. The instruction of the lodge room in
of wise morality and the interpretation of the drama of human life
having the pre-eminent
place has caused to be relegated to a very insignificant place the sort
that reveals the genius of Freemasonry in history and the all-important
has played in securing for free peoples that to which they are
Let us readily
confess, it will be a sorry day for us when we fail in those functions
in wise morality and displaying the significance of human life through
of the Third degree. But let us take note also that the greater
function of Masonry
becomes a negligible quantity and Masonry will cease to exist if Masons
do not receive
the historical light that reveals what Masonry has stood for in the
past and what
it must stand for in the present and the future. Hence the necessity
all leaders in the Craft today to state the purpose and methods
employed by Masonry
in the establishment in the world of that wider brotherhood that has
for its foundation
stones Justice, Equality and Freedom.
apology permissible today for the existence of an institution of the
the Masonic Fraternity is, first, it must exist because of its being an
factor in the preservation of a humane civilization and form of
government, or it
must exist because of the invaluable service it can render in the
of an erstwhile chaotic social condition, so that civilization will be
its government desirable from the points of justice and equity. And to
end we must in no wise in the future admit into our ranks those who
have not an
appreciable understanding of this purpose as it is written in our
history and is
discovered to be fundamental in our present program.
the Fraternity who have but a limited conception of the world mission
we must at once intelligently convince what Masonry can do in this
great land of
ours, at this moment of chaotic national condition, toward setting
again on the bedrock of democracy, as we have hitherto understood it
and have endeavored
to practice it.
let it be understood by every Freemason in these United States, is an
that is vital in its relationship to American destiny. A just and
of this in all its phases will involve only such study as will enable
to intelligibly state the analogy between Masonry and Americanism. His
example should evince the fact that to be a good Mason is to be a good
For Americanism, we are emboldened to say, is the latter day effort to
our age old Masonic idealism in law for the governing of an entire
such teaching might become part and parcel of every future American we
to declare ourselves as favoring the acquiring at no distant date a
number of institutions
of learning throughout the country to work under strict Masonic
patronage with sufficient
endowment that will give instruction to Masons so desiring that
from sectarian or ecclesiastical bias, which will afford a future
the Craft and nation that can be depended upon always to state in
understood the identity of principles of Americanism and Freemasonry.
conceived upon a lofty basis is the laudable effort to practice the
the Hebrew prophets and of the sages and saints of every clime in which
justice and mercy were the shining virtues, and for the social
which in the world Jesus of Nazareth and every other God-conscious,
martyr laid down his life.
We are compelled
to state further that we are of the firm opinion that the American
can be solved only in an American way. If we will carry into the larger
our social activities that which we practice among ourselves we can
meet as man
to man, and, stating our differences in the atmosphere of reasonable
we can arrive at the middle ground where justice for the contending
parties is invariably
alone possible. Prolonged study of the great problems confronting us at
moment, however, is impossible the times are too critical and
commissions are proving quite costly, and such procrastination of their
as thorough analysis would demand might find us soon in the throes of
Something must be done immediately to avert the possible disaster. Let
us then throw
the flashlight on the main issues that, as Masons, we may choose
that platform on which to act in order that what we have hitherto
Americanism might in no wise be compromised or set aside.
We are convinced
on both historical and economic grounds fully and fairly that whatever
there were for the Russian revolution that has since culminated in a
mass of one hundred millions of people experimenting with industrial
such conditions as they experienced in Russia have existed here that
for one moment
warrant the present national indiscriminate Bolshevik tendencies in our
No one will
deny but that we must insist that whatever problems exist shall be
solved on the
basis of American political democracy before we take up such a panacea
as is spelling
mad ruin for all peoples who are undertaking it. Let us firmly and
foreign interpretation and imputation of our economic evolution and
We have different valuations, standards and basis of life. We breathe
in a different
atmosphere. What further proof do we need of this than is furnished by
foreign born protesting against enforced naturalization, or other
declaiming upon their right to speak and cultivate in their children
the habit of
speaking the language of their parents' nativity. Truly they are with
us, but not
a gentleman traveling in this country, and incidentally, through the
State of Iowa, referred to its inhabitants as people of "the State of
and corn." That would probably suit us were it not that he added, "They
have no ideals." This man of the supercilious air, mind you, never
to talk with the farmers of the State of Iowa to discover whether or
not they had
ideals, and his stupidity prevented him from discerning the ideals
our homes and barns and well-tilled fields. We fear that the conferring
of a title
upon him, about which he unremittingly reminded his audiences, had
Verily our offer of liberty to those who sought our shores for various
has come to spell license.
than a hundred years we have been at work in making practical a league
in these United States. Here we believe God Almighty intended should be
that creature born of many nations; a creature that should be free from
to caste, clan, prejudice, monarchial or ecclesiastical tyranny, or the
fanaticism of mob rule. And that this might yet be every Mason is
pledged by the
traditions, example and sacrifices of all the good men ‒ including the
his Country, who had the same hope and the same vision.
As a people
we have attained a character that is distinct from Russian, British or
body politic, our aspirations nationally, our social sympathies are not
Neither king-rule nor mob-rule will find a place in our economy. The
of common perspective generally is on the plane of certain national and
relationships where commensurate courtesies and obligations are
involved. But labor
and social problems in America must be solved in America and not by
or out of America, or Germans who still harbor a conviction that
free peoples are an impossibility.
doctrine must be extended so as to protect our soul as well as our
body. We must
therefore resist all invasion of our America whether it be garbed in
raiment or in the blood-red form of anarchy. We can do so if we will
but draw the
line that will speedily reveal the thing that is American and the thing
un-American without laying ourselves open to the charge of opposing the
Nations. We are all concerned here, let us state frankly, with the
that confront the American people which are daily threatening in more
our national disintegration.
We are not
concerned in bolstering up what might be sneered at as petty
nationalism. We are
concerned rather with the preservation of the sort of nationalist that
always stood for ‒ the nationalism of a free people working out their
a democratic form of government that assures to rich and poor, high and
or ignorant, absolute equality before the law and equality of
opportunity for each
As a nation
we have shown the stuff of which we are made. We stood by England and
the mad onslaught on the liberties of the world by a power-obsessed
whether there be aught realized in the near future that will bind us
or legally, let the liberties of free peoples be ever endangered and
would again stand willing to bleed for sake of Freedom. But America's
predominant is the preservation of American institutions and to that
end must Masonry
with her tremendous power respond.
* * *
busy days, when we wonder how long our nervous energy can last, and
the closing of our war work, we can meet the drains of the strenuous
days to come,
how many of us appreciate what "Lodge Night" can be made to mean to us?
We have given so much of ourselves to the great cause, during the war ‒
may almost be said to apply to us in inverse ratio to the demands upon
‒ that there is an unrest in our souls, which not even a prolonged
overcome. Perhaps it is the strain which is pervading those who call
our "working classes" and makes them oversensitive to the so-called
of bolshevism and other "isms." Who knows? Is the whole atmosphere of
unrest which pervades the world nothing but this? Has our sense of
so internationalized that we cannot reduce its horizon? Has the
reawakening of the
instinct of brute force done for us that which we intended it to do for
enemy? Has the determination to win focused our mental eyes on selfish
things of yourself, my brother. Then consider what "lodge night" meant
to your father. To him it was a time of relaxation, characterized by an
of confidences, a haven of rest. He mixed up with the ritualistic
of higher things a few hours of that close, intimate, warmly-personal
which in these modern days we sometimes call gossip. Those things which
the welfare of his brother were of moment to him. At least half of the
of the meeting was the ante-room talk and the almost hilarious
the session ‒ sandwiches and coffee. Nowadays the lodge meeting begins
or just after the dinner hour ‒ or as often in the afternoon, so that
mill can complete its work. And by the time the lodge closes, everyone
is so tired
that there is a rush home for bed, unless there is to be a banquet,
with long, barren,
boresome talks. Of real fellowship there is little. We say there is not
is there not time?
take your lodge's temperature? Is there not evidence that in Masonry,
as in nearly
all things else, we are feverish? Do we ever sit around a steam
radiator, as our
fathers sat around the red hot stove, and talk and talk and talk,
settling all the
great problems of the universe? We don't! We think of such discussions,
occasional story that would not pass muster in a drawing room, as "a
of time." Was it that? Or did it serve a purpose?
who traveled by an overland route called one day on an Arkansas farmer.
of "howdydos" was followed by an elaborate presentation to the farmer
of the merits of some stock-food. The farmer was not interested. More
the part of the salesman. Still no evidence of interest. "This food,
with the regular grain diet which you now feed, will increase your
"Yaas." "Don't you see, if you will buy five hundred pounds of this
food, and mix it with the corn and oats you now feed, you will save
"Mebby so, yes." "Won't you try it?" "Nope." "Now,
you don't seem to understand what I'm saying. If you will mix this
food, about one
bushel to five of your regular grain rations, the hog will fatten in
as much as he would fatten without this food in three months. Don't you
much time will be saved?" "Yaas, but what's time to a hog?" Ye Scribe
would cast no aspersions at ritualism ‒ he is a ritualist himself ‒ but
if we remain
ritual worshippers only we are no more progressive than the farmer. Our
may well spend time in serious consideration of an exchange of much of
for a sane and up-to-date interpretation of it.
descent be from gilds, companies or colleges of artificers means little
apply the principle of education which was the foundation of them all.
Fellow Craft, Master" ‒ even the words denote progress. The lodge was a
in practical things. He who presided was a skilled artisan, all the
more so if he
were in fact an architect. The teaching was an application of a great
principles to the work in hand, the labor of the day or year.
is obvious, and absurdly simple.
need of our Fraternity today is for a leadership which will grasp the
these fundamental truths. What possible excuse can we offer to
posterity for an
arrested development? We can boast of our numbers, our wealth and the
of our membership. Each of these elements is potentially virile and
Why are 2,000,000 of us, individually so strong, so impotent as a
‒ the World ‒ craves most, without knowing it, that which is our
True brotherhood, put into action, will heal the misunderstandings,
direct the latent
energies and palsy the hand of hate. It is written in our fundamental
both as a nation and as a Fraternity. Time was when our Masonic
forbears were writing
those documents, and upholding our Government ‒ challenging all who
it down. The Government and the Fraternity were both weak in numbers,
in those days.
Today there is an increasing number of those who point to that
Government as a monument
of failure. In essence they claim that the brotherhood has all oozed
out of it.
every Mason to be a missionary in behalf of this great governmental
if, in fact, it remains an experiment any longer? Missionaries have to
if they would be efficient exponents of their doctrine.
Who is going
to teach them?
Is not the
task a worthy one? Will it not make "Lodge Night" worthwhile?
Masonry's Objective -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
to be its best in the "better by
When the "safety first" of men is the peace that's to endure,
Must have its one real objective to a point beneath the sky
It must all its millions use for a purpose, noble, pure;
It must wield its splendid strength for the highest concept known,
It must keep its heart of hearts on the altar all its own.
But we find the wide world o'er that for common needs of men
Institutions ever rise as the servants of the race
And that more and more is dreamed of the time a coming when
Each may have his right in right, each his wage in every place.
But all these should have their care, they are mainly things that lie
Where the practical begins in the world's economy.
So the mystic Art of ours seems to stand out quite alone
Clear of every interest where mere policies are met
On a plane where those of heart are distinctively its own
Where the limit for the race in its upper trend is set.
So whate'er may come to this ever troubled world again
Masonry's objective still must be that of making men.
This has been its one objective with relief, which goes with heart
And its lessons to the Craft prompt to Love and Sacrifice, ‒
Fundamental things that go to make it the gracious Art
Reaching to the things supreme by which man may win the prize.
Then let Masonry make men for the callings of the earth,
'Tis the highest world objective, giving to all others, worth.
A man may
be outwardly successful all his life long, and die hollow and worthless
as a puff-ball;
and he may be externally defeated all his life long, and die in the
royalty of a
kingdom established within him. A man's true estate of power and
riches, is to be
himself; not in his dwelling; or position, or external relations, but
in his own
essential character. That is the realm in which he is to live if he is
to live as
a Christian man.
no meanest object is insignificant. All objects are as windows through
philosophic eye looks into Infinitude itself.
* * *
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
if you wish to learn something concerning any book ‒ what is its
nature, what is
its value, or how it may be obtained ‒ be free to ask him. If you have
read a book
which you think is worth a review write us about it; if you desire to
book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get it, with no charge for the
this YOUR Department of Literary Consultation.
For The Young Master Mason
‒ And Others
of Masonic History," [Lib*] by Bro. Henry Falls Evans. Published by
and Compass, 4412 Beach Court, Denver, Colorado. Price 25 cents
came to our desk a small paper-covered book to which we desire to draw
of all lodges. We feel that it fills a long felt need among the Craft.
the title of "A Primer of Masonic History" it gives ample satisfaction
through reading and proves to fulfill its mission. Its notation of
points out the breadth of the author's Masonic reading. His topical
leaves little wanting and gives the new initiate the things that he
well indeed afford to possess themselves of this little work, which
sells for 25
cents, and present it to their newly made Master Masons. We feel it
that interest which invariably is shown by the newly made Mason and
which is so
frequently left to go unministered to.
* * *
Capable Discussions on Vital
Questions of the Hour
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science," [Lib*]
published by the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
Station B. Philadelphia,
Pa. Single copies of monthly issues, $1.00.
In the July
issue of the above-named publication, International Reconstruction in
Asia is ably dealt with by a score or more capable specialists. The
Russian situations are dispassionately viewed and discussed by such men
T. Elkus, Morris Jastrow, Raymond Robbins and Baron Rosen, while the
is aptly handled by such men as Vice President Marshall, John Hays
Hitchcock and former Governor McCall of Massachusetts.
scientific inquiry of eminent men upon topics of international import
minister toward an intelligible appreciation of the world problem and
lend the invaluable aid to those who by their leadership and position
with the equitable adjustment of affairs after the war. We could wish
that the Annals
were in the hands of every influential man in every community. It would
temper the demagogue spirit and would assure a reasonable discussion of
issues of the hour that would be void of senseless passion, distrust
* * *
An Interpretation of Anatole
France," [Lib 1919] by Lewis Paget Shanks. The
Open Court Publishing
Company, 122 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, Ill. $1.50.
an epitome of the life and works of Anatole France will find their
in this volume by Lewis Paget Shanks. This appreciative interpretation
of the great
Frenchman ought to arouse wider interest for the perusal of his works.
vivid pictures of the transformation of the French dean of letters
the evolution of the healthy human who is ever awake to the new
movements and things
that are happening in the world. In France is displayed that
commingling of pessimism
and idealism which has so often characterized those who ultimately were
as great benefactors of human kind.
* * *
An Interesting Biography
of an English Man of Affairs
Story of My Life," [Lib 1918] by Sir Edward Clarke, K. C.
by E. P. Dutton and Company, 681 Fifth Avenue. New York. N Y
In this biographical
volume a distinguished Englishman and Freemason has given us a splendid
of the English man of affairs. The charming candor with which the book
written leaves no doubt as to its worth. From beginning to end a real
life is presented.
Sorrow tinges it here and there, touching for one moment a folly of
next concerned with the irreparable loss of loved ones.
of impressions perhaps is left after perusing Sir Edward's political
From this angle the book would have inspirational value for many of our
statesmen in the Craft. In tenor it is strictly English in its
as Sir Edward's interests are strictly English. He is of the noble type
Englishman who takes it for granted that England, and London in
particular, is the
hub of the universe. He builds a church, addresses workingmen's clubs,
is of unquestionable
loyalty toward his party leaders, thanks God for his wealth, health and
and is a lover and worthy representative of our brethren of the tight
* * *
An Interesting Little Book
on New Thought Written in an Unusual Vein
Law of Mind in Action," [Lib 1919] by Fenwicke L. Holmes.
by Robert M. McBride, 31 Union Square, N., New York City. Price $1.25.
volume of interest written on a metaphysical basis. It is unusual in
that it does
not follow the well-worn paths of the average New Thought book. Its
a psychological warrant and its atmosphere is redolent with devotional
interested in New Thought we recommend the addition of this volume to
November Book List
issued by the Society
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
of Masonry, by Bro. Roscoe Pound, Dean of the Harvard Law School
Constitutions (reproduced by photographic plates from an original copy
in the archives of the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids.) Edition
limited to 1,000 copies
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," by P.G.M. Barry, Iowa, red
buffing binding, gilt lettering, illustrated
of the First Degree, Gage, (pamphlet)
of the Third Degree, Ball, (pamphlet)
of the Three Degrees, Street, paper covers
Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite, (pamphlet)
from other sources, kept in stock at Anamosa
Builders, a story and study of Masonry, by Brother Joseph Fort Newton.
formlerly Editor-in-Chief of THE BUILDER
Encyclopaedia, 1918 edition, two volumes, black Fabrikoid binding
of Freemasonry, Mackey
Principles of Freemasonry, Grant
Comacines, Their Predecessors and Their Successors," last remaining
copies of the original English edition, cloth covers, sold only in
combination with the Society reprint of "Further Notes on the Comacine
Masters.” Both by W. Ravenscroft, England. Combination price
History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould, English Edition
prices include postage and insurance or registration fee on all items
The latter will be sent by regular mail, not insured or registered.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
Demit or Dimit
We have been
asked which form of this word is correct and why. Some Masons use one
form and some
another, while still others use either form without distinction. The
of the English language are not in all respects uniform in their
these words, nor are they necessarily in conflict except as to some
details. These dictionaries are the Oxford in England, and the Standard
New International in this country. To these we might also add the
Century and Worcester,
though the last named is now considered out of date. In order to avoid
view of the subject we will consider what all these dictionaries have
to say about
these words and their derivatives, insofar as they have an application
Therefore, consulting these dictionaries we find that the verb "digit"
is given by the Century and Standard with the meaning, to dismiss, to
go, to send away. It is given as obsolete but with the same definition
by the Oxford
and Worcester, and it is not given at all by Webster. The verb "demit"
is given as obsolete by Worcester, but all the others give it as a
living word with
the meaning to resign, to give up, to lay down, (as an office, etc.).
"dimit" is given by the Century as meaning a dimissory letter, written
permission to leave a lodge. The Standard gives it with the same
meaning, but marks
it obsolete. None of the others give it at all. The noun "demit" is
by the Standard and Webster as meaning a letter of recommendation given
removing from one Masonic lodge to another; a letter, certificate, or
certifying that a person has (honorably) demitted, as from a Masonic
other dictionaries do not give it at all.
"dimission" is given as obsolete by all the dictionaries here quoted,
but they all give the noun "demission" with the meaning, a
a resignation, etc.
these definitions and assuming for the present that we should recognize
a definition given as such by any one of these dictionaries, we find
"dimit" means to dismiss, to permit to go, etc.
"demit" means to resign, to relinquish, etc.
Thus it would
be incorrect to say "a brother dimits from a lodge" since he does not
dismiss or grant permission to go. The correct word is "demit" in this
case, since he resigns or relinquishes membership. If the lodge had the
accept or reject his resignation, to grant or refuse him permission to
go it might
be correct to say the lodge dimitted the brother. If, however, the
lodge has no
option, but must grant the request of the brother, if he is in good
cannot be said that they permit him to go. They cannot permit what they
The power to permit implies also the power to refuse. A man cannot
prevent the sun
from rising or setting and therefore cannot permit it. The sun does not
reason of any such permission nor is a brother's right to demit
dependent on a permission
granted by his lodge. In most jurisdictions the only eases in which the
an option in the dismissal of a member is when he has been found guilty
conduct, and such dismissal is called expulsion.
"dimit" is a written permission to leave a lodge and if valid at all
apply only in cases where the lodge has the right to grant or refuse
at its option. The noun "demit" is "a letter, certificate or the
like certifying that a person has (honorably) demitted, as from a
This correctly describes the fact and should therefore be the proper
word to use.
The definition given by the Standard also includes the definition given
by the Century
for the word "dimit" and implies that under either definition the word
should be spelled "demit."
that the word "dimission" is given as obsolete by all these
and the word "demission" is given as valid by all is further evidence
that the best and most consistent usage is to use the correlative verb
"demit" rather than "dimit."
When we consult
Masonic authorities we find more diversity of opinion and practice, but
the weight of authority is in favor of "demit" rather than "dimit."
In England the word "dimit" has never been used at all. Anderson's
where the word is used at all, gives it "demit." Dr. Oliver uses
in his Dictionary. The Proceedings of the Ars Quatuor Coronati Lodge
gives it "demit."
The same thing is true of other English Masonic writers. I have never
seen the word
"dimit" used by English writers and even "demit" is now obsolete
among English Masons. They use the word "resign" and "resignation"
instead. In this country the word "demit" has been constantly used
not universally as in England. In the English editions of Dermott's
as published in 1756 and subsequently, the word is given "demit." The
same is true of the American editions, though in some the word '
takes its place. According to Mackey the word "dimit" was not used in
America prior to 1860, and he calls its use "a modern, American, and
indefensible corruption of the technical word 'demit."' He also says "A
Mason demits from his lodge: he resigns. He takes out his demit; he
asks for and
receives an acceptance of his resignation."
authorities usually cited to establish the validity of word "dimit" are
Lockwood's "Masonic Law and Practice," Chase's "Digest of Masonic
Law [Lib 1867]," Drummond's "Maine Masonic
Book" and Macoy's "Cyclopedia [Lib 1870]." On investigating the
to these works, I find that Lockwood defines a "dimit" as the effect of
a majority vote granting the "dimission." This is certainly something
entirely different from the present idea of a demit and would not apply
to a case
where the lodge had no vote. It also loses sight of the fact that all
now give "dimission" as obsolete. Drummond also makes the demit depend
upon a vote of the lodge granting it. Chase uses "demit" instead of
and I cannot understand why he should have been cited as giving
Macoy defines "dimit" as a withdrawal from membership, which is
to the universally accepted definition of this form of the word. He
also says that
the word "dimit" is from the Latin "dimitto" meaning "I
permit to go." This is true, and the word "dimit" derived from it,
if valid at all is "a permission to go" not "a withdrawal."
has been caused by a misconception of the derivation of these words. It
generally stated by Masonic writers that "dimit" comes from the Latin
word "dimitto" and "demit" from the word "demitto."
The latter word means I let down, I lower, I sink, I stoop, etc., and
English words derived from it which have the same or similar meanings.
is not the word used in Masonry. The prefix "di" in Latin means away
and so does the prefix "de," but "di" means on the same level,
while "de" carries the idea of downward and a lower position. Many
in passing from the Classical Latin into English changed their forms,
and so words
in "di" frequently change to "de." That is the ease with this
word. The Century, the Standard, Webster's New International, and the
are agreed that the word "dimitto" in passing into English took both
form "dimission" and "demission" and that the form "dimission"
is now obsolete. When we turn to the Latin dictionary we find that the
has two meanings, (1) "I send away," "I dismiss," etc. (2) "I
voluntarily let go, give up, abandon."
the English by way of the late Latin or French, words in "di"
change to "de" and thus it happens that both "dimitto" and "demitto"
came into English as "demission" instead of "dimission." The
dictionaries give the following:
from dimitto, obsolete. A lowering; degradation; depression.
from demitto, living. A relinquishment; resignation; transference.
from dimitto, obsolete. Leave to depart.
Demit, verb, from demitto, obsolete. To lower; depress; submit;
from dimitto, living. To lay down formally, as an office; resign,
(Not given by Worcester.) Dimit, verb, from dimitto, living according
and Standard; obsolete according to Oxford, Worcester and Webster. To
from demitto. Living according to Standard. Not given by Webster,
or Worcester. A letter of dismissal; specifically, a recommendation
given to a person
removing from one Masonic lodge to another.
from dimitto. Not given by Standard, Century, Oxford or Worcester.
to Webster. Act of demitting; also, a letter, certificate or the like,
that a person has (honorably) demitted, as from a Masonic lodge.
from dimitto. Not given by Oxford, Standard, Webster or Worcester.
to Century. A dimissory letter; written permission to leave a lodge,
standing in the lodge left, and thus no disability to affiliate with
does not recognize either "demit" or "dimit" in the form of
either a verb or a noun, we shall confine our summary to the other four
Of the living
verbs, all four give "demit," and two, the Century and Standard, also
give "dimit," but with a different meaning from "demit."
Of the living
nouns the Oxford gives neither "demit" nor "dimit"; the Century
gives only "dimit," and two, the Standard and Webster, give "demit"
with similar meanings though they derive it from different Latin words.
C. C. Hunt, Iowa.
of the forty-nine Codes of the Grand Lodges of the United States
reveals the fact
that forty-one use the word "dimit" while but eight use "demit."
* * *
Shrine History and Magazine
Can you inform
me if there are any books or histories published on the A.A.O.N.M.S.
so, how and where may I obtain them!
three years ago there was announced the prospective publication of a
of the Mystic Shrine" written by William Ross, [Lib*] historian of Lulu
Temple, Philadelphia, Pa. As to the scope and value of this work we
there being no copy of it in the Society's library. Neither have we the
of Brother Ross but this can doubtless be obtained by writing Brother
Masonic Temple, Philadelphia.
one in search of a newsy little Shrine magazine we would recommend "The
published by The Crescent Publishing Company, St. Paul, Minn., as the
best of its
kind coming to our exchange table.
and Brother Secretary, do you send out lodge notices week after week on
postal card form, with substantially the same wording every time: "A
Communication of Blank Lodge No. Blank will be held on Wednesday,
at 8 p. m. Work in the Blank degree. Come"? And then after acquiring a
about 8:30 or 8:45 p. m. are you compelled to press into service
several Past Masters
(if any such happen to be present) or others who may only have a
of the part they are asked to take, to enable you to initiate, pass or
young brother who is expecting a great deal more than he sometimes
gets? And, after
the work is over, are you compelled to apologize to the visitor from
who has dropped in, and sometimes to the candidate, for the poor degree
small attendance? And do you then sit around a while in the anteroom
home and ask each other "why Brother So-and-So never comes out to the
any more" and wonder "if the attendance will ever pick up"?
Dig up a
publicity man out of your membership. Get him to write "copy" for your
lodge notices, insert a few chatty personals, take a few ideas from
some of the
articles you have read in a recent issue of THE BUILDER and write a few
on them, tell how many were present at your last meeting and about the
you had. After you have had a little experience with the first two or
you will find it easier to get up the next ones. New items will
themselves and you will soon be piled up with stuff that you will have
to hold over
for the next bulletin.
is a small lodge with a resident membership of around one hundred, more
you can get your bulletin out on a typewriter, using thin paper and
copies. Or you cart get some business man who is a member of the lodge
to run them
off on his duplicating machine for you. The expense would be almost
if a duplicating machine were used you could mail the notices in
for one-cent postage. But it would be better to spend another cent and
out in sealed envelopes.
personally knows of a lodge that started this scheme several years ago
and the average
attendance has since been over seventy-five per cent. of the resident
and at many meetings it is practically one hundred per cent. Continual
or monthly bulletins each containing a few interesting items on Masonic
and stressing the gains in attendance at each meeting will wake up the
of the neglectful ones and bring them out to the meetings. Get a bunch
to form the habit of speaking to those of irregular attendance every
time they meet
them on the street and get them to promise to come out to the next
meeting. If the
bulletins are sent out to these brethren regularly they cannot offer
that they are not informed as to what is going on at the lodge.
If you want
to try out this scheme here is a specimen of a bulletin issued by
No. 869. at Rome. N. Y.:
Vol. 1, No.
3 Friday, Sept. 19,1919.
Friday. On your toes now and make it a whale of a meeting. Give your
They will give you a snappy degree. By the way we worked the Third in
last Friday and closed at 10:30. That's moving some! The Hatheway gavel
the stroke of eight.
Buck, our R.W.D.D. in the enclosed circular. Don't forget it's this
the 20th. Meet at OUR Temple not later than 12:30. We will try to get
at 1:00. Bring your auto. If you haven't one we will find you a seat.
The six Utica
lodges have re-adjusted their initiation fees on a uniform basis of
$75. Utica Masons
are vigorously pushing a movement to erect a new Temple.
of the Grand Master's Edict, requiring all lodges in this jurisdiction
to work in
the English language has been postponed to January 1st, next.
Masons in the U.S., 200,000 in N. Y. State, 660 in Rome. 500,000 R. A.
K.T. Masons in the U.S.
conclusion drawn by your mission (our overseas mission ‒ Ed.)
is that the
Masonic fraternity's efforts to engage independently in overseas vicar
were secretly opposed and thwarted by influences hostile to us."
Then phone. We have a number of copies of this amazing report for
recently sent a check in the sum of $5,000 for the use of our overseas
Hats off to Mass.
ways of virtue are beautiful. Knowledge is gained by degrees. Wisdom
contemplation; there we must seek her." First and third Fridays each
First degree this week.
now on this side of the pond, was recently Raised in Household Brigade
great-uncle, the Duke of Connaught, is Grand Master of England.
essence itself is love and wisdom.
night. Grab your boot-straps and pull.
Kenneth M. Bow, Sec'y-Pub.
Jas. F. Maclaughlin, Printer.
* * *
A Record-Breaking Communication
event in Masonic history occurred at Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, when the
ever held by any Masonic lodge in the world was held by Oklahoma City
36, A. F. & A. M., beginning at High Twelve, Wednesday, August
27th, and remaining
in continuous session until Low Twelve, Saturday, August 30th, 1919.
was held for the purpose of conferring the Master Mason degree upon a
class of sixty-nine
was done under the direction of C. M. March, Worshipful Master, A. G.
Warden, E. C. Stentz, Junior Warden, G. W. Spencer, Secretary. The
degree work was
done by four teams, working shifts of six hours each. The degrees were
put on in
full form, with but one candidate and one team working at a time. The
were not railroaded through, but given the work, one hour being taken
for each candidate.
It was concluded with the twelve Fellow Craft movement and full
were served continually to a large number of workers and visitors, the
being concluded with a banquet and ball.
William Noble, Oklahoma.
Sha19 / auth. Shanks Lewis P. - Chicago : The Open Court Publishing
Company, 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 234. - 3.7 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 001 - 1895
Ars95 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1895. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 29.8 MB.
Art in Ancient Egypt Vol 1
Per83AE1 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles / trans. Armstrong
Walter. - London : Chapman and Hall Limited, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p.
495. - Illustrated - 33.1 MB.
Art in Ancient Egypt Vol 2
Per83AE2 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles / trans. Armstrong
Walter. - London : Chapman and Hall Limited, 1883. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p.
438. - Illustrated - 28.9 MB.
Art in Chaldea and Assyria Vol 1
Per84AC1 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles / trans. Armstrong
Walter. - London : Chapman and Hall Limited, 1884. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p.
395. - Illustrated - 17.5 MB.
Art in Chaldea and Assyria Vol 2
Per84AC2 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles / trans. Armstrong
Walter. - London : Chapman and Hall Limited, 1884. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p.
414. - Illustrated - 37.2 MB.
Art in Persia
Per92 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles. - London : Chapman
and Hall Limited, 1892. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 508. - Illustrated - 40.7 MB.
Art in Phoenicia and its
Dependencies Vol 1
Per85AP1 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles / trans. Armstrong
Walter. - London : Chapman and Hall Limited, 1885. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p.
403. - Illustrated - 16.0 MB.
Art in Phoenicia and its
Dependencies Vol 2
Per85AP2 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles / trans. Armstrong
Walter. - London : Chapman and Hall Limited, 1885. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p.
469. - Illustrated - 17.0 MB.
Art in Phyrgia, Lydia, Caria,
Per921 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles. - London : Chapman
and Hall Limited, 1892. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 410. - Illustrated - 22.0 MB.
Art in Primitive Greece Vol 1
Per94PG1 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles. - London : Chapman
and Hall Limited, 1894. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 536. - Illustrated - 20.2 MB.
Art in Primitive Greece Vol 2
Per94PG2 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles. - London : Chapman
and Hall Limited, 1894. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 509. - Illustrated - 22.7 MB.
Art in Sardinia and Judea Vol 1
Geo90SJ1 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles / trans. Gonino I.
- London : Chapman and Hall Limited, 1890. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 373. -
Illustrated - 17.9 MB.
Art in Sardinia and Judea Vol 2
Per90SJ2 / auth. Perrot Georges and Chipiez Charles / trans. Gonino I.
- London : Chapman and Hall Limited, 1890. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 282. -
Illustrated - 21.5 MB.
Bull - Humanum Genus
Pop84 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1884. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 24. - 0.5 MB.
General History, Cyclopedia
& Dictionary of Freemasonry
Mac701 / auth. Macoy Robert. - New York : Masonic Publishing Co., 1870.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 683. - 24.8 MB.
History of Phoenicia
Raw14 / auth. Rawlinson George. - London : Longman, Green, and Co,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 641. - Illustrated - 33.6 MB.
Humanum Genus Reply
Pik84 / auth. Pike Albert. - [s.l.] : AASR, 1884. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 40.
- 37.1 MB.
Cha67 / auth. Chase G Wingate. - New York : Clark & Maynard,
1867. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 467. - 25.0 MB.
The Law of Mind in Action
Hol19 / auth. Holmes
Fenwicke L. - 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 112. - 0.8 MB.
The Story of My Life
Cla18 / auth. Clarke Sir Edward. - London : OHN Murray, 1918. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 451. - 22.1 MB.