Masonic Research Society
Celebration of the Grand Lodge of England
By Bro. Geo L Schoonover,
P. G M, Iowa
Spring, when the development of the armistice proved that peace was
shortly to be
concluded between the Allied and the Central Powers, and that the peace
was to be
a dictated peace, the Grand Lodge of England invited the Grand Masters
Secretaries of the Grand Lodges in all English-speaking countries to
in a celebration of the happy event, during the week of June 23-29,
1919. It was
not presumed at the time the invitations were issued, that the final
the Peace Treaty would be delayed as late as the above date. It was
indeed striking, in a way, that the signatures of the various
were actually affixed to the Treaty during the week selected.
who represented our American Grand Lodges in London in response to the
were as follows: Arizona, A. A. Johns, P.G.M., Morris Goldwater,
William Rhodes Hervey, P.G.M., John Whicher G.S.; Colorado, C.M.
Charles H. Jacobson, G.S.; District of Columbia, Joseph H. Milans,
G.M., A.W. Johnston,
G.S.; Florida, T. Picton Warlow, G.M.; Georgia, Robert G. Travis, G.M.,
Daniel, A.G.S.; Iowa, George L. Schoonover, P.G.M.; Kentucky, John H.
Louisiana Rudolph Krause, G.M., John A. Davilla, G. S., Massachusetts,
W. Hamilton, P.G.M., G.S.; Michigan, Hugh A. McPherson, G.M., Lou B.
S.; Montana Major Dr. R. E. Hathaway, S.G.W.; Nebraska, John Ehrhardt,
E. White, G. S.; New Jersey, Austin McGregor, G. M.; New York, W.S.
Robert J. Kenworthy, G.S., Townsend Scudder, P.G.M.; West Virginia
George S. Laidley,
G.M., John M. Collins, P.G.M., G.S.-a total of twenty seven.
also present representatives of the Grand Lodges of Scotland and
Guiana, Burma, Ceylon, Eastern Archipelago, Gibraltar, Hong Kong and
Jamaica, Madras, Newfoundland, New Zealand, Nigeria, Queensland, South
Victoria (Australia), of Britain's Overseas Dominions.
In the number
present, and in representation from all parts of the globe, it was
most representative and notable gathering in the history of Anglo-Saxon
and as such deserves careful consideration, because of its Significance
future weal of Masonry, as well as of all civilization.
as represented in the English-speaking Countries of the world, make a
in the reconstruction period now begun in behalf of those age-old
are its heritage, and endeavor to convince the world of the necessity
recognition as a method of saving the future? Is the kind of Democracy
Masonry believes and of which it is in truth a pattern, to be preserved
generations, to the end that the prophecies of the brotherhood of man
continue to be a mirage?
in effect, the questions which it was intended that the Peace Jubilee
of the Grand
Lodge of England should answer. No agenda of the meeting was published,
and no one
ever spoke these questions publicly. But it was taken for granted that
representing all the English-speaking countries of the earth, and
closely in touch
with the world-problems pushed to the front as a result of the war,
could by no
chance gather together in a joint conference, without answering them.
Nor was it
intended that what visiting delegations should utter would be direct
any such question. Yet it was as certain as anything human is certain,
this group of brethren assembled, loyalty to the mother- tongue and
a joint heritage of principles would compel that unity of spirit which
settle these questions, and bring true brotherhood to a world thrown
out of joint.
It must have
been something like this which inspired the call for this meeting. It
been a comprehension, perhaps more or less dim, that some such
attach to the proposed meeting, which caused representatives
twenty-seven in number,
hailing from sixteen States of the American Union to leave their homes
business to attend, at a time when every American feels that his
demand his individual attention. Some good omen must have appeared in
the sky. The
attendance from the States was much larger than those of us in touch
with the probabilities
of things expected, only a few weeks previously. To those who attended,
and to those
others who will hear from their lips the story of Masonic
begun, the prophecies will seem well fulfilled.
at the program of the week will reveal little of the significance which
thus expressed. A reception dinner by Grand Lodge, luncheons and
dinners with nine
or ten other London lodges, visits to The Royal Masonic Institution for
another to that conducted for Girls, visits to various places of
interest in and
near the city of London, a dinner with the Lord Mayor, at the Mansion
House, a three
hour session of the Grand Lodge itself, (this being the formal Peace
proper,) and various other courtesies these, with no mention whatever
of any conference,
do not convey a real conception of what this week of Jubilee meant, or
For be it
known that when your Englishman wants to talk seriously with you, and
has a real
desire to get acquainted with you and measure you, he does not tell you
is his purpose. Instead, he invites you to dinner. After dinner, you
and to the point. If he gives you his confidence, you are ready to deny
stories you ever heard about him being an "imperturbable person," for
you find him, at least in Masonic circles, with his guards down, and a
heart palpitating underneath. This, at least, was the experience of the
from the United States. They met the heads of English Masonry at these
under conditions most ideal, not wishing to understand one whit more
than the English
Masons wanted to be understood, and to understand us.
if such may be called the exchanges of opinion and of good will which
all these festivities, took the form of after-dinner toasts. An English
after the formal toasts had been responded to, would propose the health
Visitors," and couple with it the names of those American brethren who
designated to make the responses. In every case the proposal of this
toast was accompanied by expressions of esteem, friendliness and a wish
us which must needs be accepted at par. There could be no thought but
that the proposer
voiced the genuine desire of the English brethren, or that the motive
his remarks was a good motive. Frankly and openly were we greeted, not
but as brothers enlisted in the cause of humanity. The hand of
fellowship was extended,
palm opened upwards. The English Masonic leaders, understanding the
needs of the
world as they saw them, wanted us to know and appreciate the spirit in
faced those problems, and did not hesitate to hope for an equally frank
of American opinion upon the same subjects.
in such a spirit, the American representative could do no less than
grasp the hand
of fellowship so graciously tendered, particularly when what had been
said of welcome
and of hopefulness for the future was so exactly in accord with the
we, too, have come to see are the great needs of our Craft. And as the
on, friendships ripened in a never to be forgotten manner. We began to
and appreciate both the men who preside over the destiny of England's
their opinions. Everything which a host could do to insure the
happiness and tranquility
of his guest was done. Every word which would tend toward the
elimination of reserve
was spoken. Consciously was this done at first the passage of the days
to become unconscious. The Anglo-Saxon was coming into his own. He was
himself, and his brethren.
of the meetings held with the various London lodges would be complete
not take account of the admirable personality of H. R. H. Lord
Ampthill, Pro Grand
Master, who performed the function of Worshipful Master in one lodge
Officer of another with no less of grace and dignity than characterized
over Grand Lodge itself. Withal he was so human that for most of us at
ceased to be a part of Royalty to us, we forgot all else save his
breadth of understanding
and his gracious fellowship. We had no opportunity, unhappily, to meet
Master, the Duke of Connaught, for the reason that he was so indisposed
as to be unable to be present at any of the functions. A message from
his own pen
expressed his regret for his illness, which was a source of great
to us all. His warm fraternal greeting to us was deeply appreciated,
none the less,
and one of the prized souvenirs presented to us was a beautiful
the Duke himself.
Of the reception
accorded us in the various London lodges, one could not speak in
distinctions between them, and there were none such. Warm and
sympathetic and fraternal
they all were, memorable to all. If the joint meeting with "Antiquity
and "Royal Somerset House and Inverness No. 4" had any characteristic
more notable than the others, it was only in the fact that neither is
by the Grand Lodge of England, nor has a Warrant, because each is older
Grand Lodge itself! To sit in these lodges is to realize something of
We had opportunity
to Witness the installation of a Worshipful Master, and took an extra
he calmly announced his appointees, beginning with the Wardens and
a list longer than most of ours. The Master is the only elective
officer in the
English lodge, all the others being appointive. We saw all of the three
conferred in full, and were struck with the simplicity and brevity of
The approximate time of conferring each of the degrees was, E. A.,
F. C. about the same, and the Raising occupied about thirty-five
minutes. Let it
be set down that there was no emasculation of a single vital point or
was there a mere rush of lip service. The work was done with dignity
without verbiage or redundancy, or slurring of syllables. Leisurely and
it was done, and, while probably less than one-third as many words were
essentials were in no wise neglected. Where as a rule our American
rituals are extended,
theirs were condensed; where we dramatize, they explained. They can
teach us much
in the matter of ritual.
It is not,
however, the purpose of this article to argue from the impressions
gained. A chronicle
of the events is asked, and a chronicle it shall be, reserving perhaps
for a further
discussion, the tremendous themes which were suggested by attendance
is to an American visitor an apparent lack in the intercommunication
lodges of the various classes, a loss of something which we in America
it cannot be said that within the lodges themselves there is anything
but the closest,
most intimate brotherhood. Their numbers are few, but their tastes are
their understanding is complete, and their meetings, formal though they
are satisfying in the extreme. Again there is the temptation to speak
in more detail,
for it is in matters of ritual and internal efficiency and fellowship
one exception, we can learn most from our English brethren.
exception, however, overtops all the others. It is in the matter of
Whatever of social unity may be lacking between the lodges which
compose the Grand
Lodge of England, certainly they are one in their humanitarian
financial support of their Boys' and Girls' Schools makes our American
this direction, even the most pretentious, loom small in comparison.
annual expenditures mount to something like five dollars per capita on
membership - this sum taking no account whatever of endowments - and
you begin to
realize what the joint efforts of the lodges of England are
sums too, come from individual pocketbooks, not from lodge treasuries.
these Schools. They are not carried on in a way to "institutionalize"
the children. They are educated in civic duty, and account is taken of
which they are hereafter to play as men and women of the Empire. The
Arts and Sciences
receive attention, along with practical tradesmanship. Their teachers
are as a rule
products of the schools themselves, this being particularly true of the
The result is a family relationship, and a family tradition, too, which
a splendid morale.
of the entire week was the three hour session of the Grand Lodge at
Hall. The introduction of the twenty-five visiting deputations, each
of two Grand Stewards, was itself productive of a deep impression upon
and no doubt also upon the nine thousand members of the Grand Lodge of
assembled. As one of the visitors, I confess my inability to describe
which surged through me when, after being for many presented to the Pro
I was directed to the seat assigned to me and faced the throng. The
appeal to the
eye was in itself inspiring. Nine thousand brethren, dressed in the
light blue regalia
designating the officers of the lodges represented, gathered together
in that enormous
oval building, filling its main floor and the six surrounding
galleries; the Grand
Stewards with their red collars, seated in two rows on the main floor
a cross against the back ground in light blue symbolized in a very real
Masonry of England. The knowledge that thousands could not be assigned
bespoke the intense interest felt in the event. The deep blue of the
in rows upon the rostrum formed a harmonious contrast indeed.
an appeal to ear. The voluminous melody from the enormous organ had no
the great audience chamber than one realized the awesome import of the
gathering. Then those English brethren sang. Their National Anthem our
own in everything
but the words employed "Now thank we all our God" and "O God, our
help in ages past." It was a unique commentary upon the universal
the righteousness of the Allied Cause that this latter song, long
unfraternal and unchristian, was revived, and sung with the fervor of
returned from the overthrow of the antichrist. The business of the
the Peace Jubilee, expressed in the formalism of moving an address of
the King, unanimously carried, of course, the unanimous passage of a
expressing the sentiments of the Craft toward His Majesty's Forces, and
tendering the floor to M.W. Bro. W. S. Farmer, Grand Master of New
York, M. W. Frederick
W. Hamilton, P. G. M. of Massachusetts, and M. W. Bro. W. H. Wardrope,
of the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario. The addresses
of the Pro
Grand Master, Lord Ampthill, and Brother Right Hon. T. F. Halsey, P.
C., the Deputy
Grand Master, were upon a high plane, scholarly, refined and warmly
their tone, and were ably responded to by the American and Overseas
Brief, one and all, modest, Anglo-Saxon to the core.
It is a peculiarity
of the English that the one way in which they give free expression to
is through some formal, prescribed method a ritual, or a song. The
pleading or exaltation
of the orator they seem to disdain. But given a ritual, or a song, they
or sing it, as the case may be, with a dignity, expressiveness and
which puts to shame the studied oration so common to our Western
system. It carries
conviction to man; one must needs believe that the Most High is attuned
expression as well, for reverence colored the tone of the voices of the
in a definite though indescribable manner.
as we had become in the methods of expression of these people we could
the music of English Masonry thus presented to us. If it was
awe-inspiring, it was
heartrending, too, for the hosannas were tinged with a great sorrow,
though no suggestion
of loved one lying in Flanders fields was worn. The commemorative jewel
of the occasion
was at one with the spirit of the day, and we who had come thousands of
join in that day left the stupendous Albert Hall hushed and reverent
We had truly seen the great soul of English Masonry, and were to carry
to the end of time.
By Bro. Edward B. Paul.
P.G.M. British Columbia
article, written by the author of "The Column of Beauty" published
takes a broad and philosophical view of Freemasonry as a whole. One may
from the circumference to the center, from the details to the general,
is always worthwhile; he may also study it from the center to the
from the whole to the parts, and this also is richly worthwhile, as the
essay will show.
if not all, of us, the recollection of our Initiation, Passing, and
Raising is fresh
and vivid, and stands out from among our subsequent Masonic experiences
with a clearness
to be explained by the novelty of the situations in which we found
by the solemnity of the ceremonies in which we took part for the first
perceived, then, that Freemasonry had a message for us, if we could
it, and we relied on the knowledge of our more experienced brethren to
us the many mysteries hidden beneath the ceremonies and symbols of the
we continued carefully to imbibe the lessons emanating from the East,
to us had seemed dark became brighter; but we felt there was still much
It is true that each symbol and symbolic act in the lodge was
and its moral and Masonic uses elucidated; but the detached parts of
were never, in our opinion, satisfactorily united into one
a knowledge of which is necessary in order that the "Noble Science" may
have the influence on our lives and conduct, which is its chief end. My
therefore, is to endeavor to demonstrate that the allegories and
symbols of the
lodge have a correspondence with each other, and are in the nature of
which can be pieced together and made to reveal, when deciphered, the
were intended to convey. But as symbols are, from their nature,
susceptible of various
meanings, and as all investigators, no matter how honest their
intensions may be,
are liable to assign forced interpretations to some of them, in order
may fit into a pre-conceived plan, it is necessary that their
submitted to the most rigorous tests, lest Error and not Truth be the
of my theme and the necessarily limited space allotted to me for this
caused me to make condensations which detract from the leanness of my
which would require treatment beyond the scope of a short address.
However, I lay
the results of my investigations before you, begging your indulgence
in mere outline, a subject of such immense importance.
explanatory foreword, I shall now proceed to the subject matter of my
three aspects of Freemasonry to which I invite your attention:
1. Freemasonry as Philosophy.
2. Freemasonry as Education.
3. Freemasonry as the Handmaid of
aspects are sufficiently wide in their scope to deserve much more time
individual development than is at present at my disposal. A word or
may help to explain my reason for placing them Philosophy, Education,
the order here presented.
may be conceived as the science which lays down the principles
that which states the Moral Ideal; Education, as the means by which
that ideal is
attained, or, at least, approached; and Religion as the outcome of the
two the experience
of the individual while realizing, or partially realizing, the Ideal.
conceptions, no doubt, suggest my divisions of the subject of my
lecture, and the
order in which they are placed, I fear that, in my treatment of them, I
lose sight of any method which is intended in my design. Indeed, I
that this lecture is worthy of being regarded otherwise than as the
random thoughts arising out of the careful contemplation of our
ceremonies and symbols,
and serious speculation as to their meanings.
To the philosophical
student it will be obvious, in the course of my remarks, that I use the
in a very loose way. In the first division of my subject I shall touch
ideal of life, the nature of the self and the nature of knowledge. In
the nature of God and the Immortality of the Soul will be among the
problems which lie as much in the province of Philosophy as the three
the first head. Perhaps it would have been better to have made a
and substituted "Ethics" or "Moral Philosophy" for the word
"Philosophy" employed here; but, if you will bear in mind this
it seems to me convenient to allow the term to stand.
is the pursuit of Truth." This is the first and simplest conception and
of Philosophy we can form. Can we, with truth, substitute the word
Philosophy in that definition? Such a question propounded in a
can be answered only in the affirmative. The pursuit of Truth, called
by us the
search for the Lost Word, is indeed the sole aim and the chief end of
all the teachings
But I do
not forget that we are distinctly informed that the "Chief Point of
is the promotion of the happiness of the individual, and, consequently,
That is insisted on in the Charge to the Brethren in the Installation
The ancient Greek moralists also considered that happiness is "the
of man, that this is the highest good, the end for which all beings
live, the object
which they all pursue." In this respect, also, Freemasonry agrees with
philosophies in its definition of the chief end of man.
It may be
asked, then: What is the aim of Freemasonry? Is it Truth or Happiness?
to be no doubt that Happiness is the natural concomitant of Truth, and
is the explanation of the apparent contradiction in the statement of
the aims of
Freemasonry. Truth and Happiness would thus have the same relationship
points out as existing between duty and glory:
"He that walks the path of duty
For the right, and learns to deaden
Love of self, before his journey closes
He shall find the stubborn thistle bursting
Into glossy purples, which outredden
All voluptuous garden roses."
aim of Philosophy and of Freemasonry being the same, you will see my
in dealing with Freemasonry as a philosophy.
of that philosophy cannot be clearly explained without a short allusion
to the Allegory
of Freemasonry. In that allegory the candidate is made to represent a
in his progress from birth to death, or, as the mental and moral
a man from childhood to old age closely corresponds to the mental and
of the race, he may be said to represent human knowledge as it ascends
is made by three steps. And may I be permitted to digress a moment to
that in nature many physical entities or qualities occur in threes or
we have Space and its three dimensions, Length, Breadth, Thickness;
Matter and its
three states, Solid, Liquid, Gaseous. Physical Magnitudes, Length,
Mass, Time. Color,
Red, Green, Blue or Violet. Sound, Loudness, Pitch, Quality. Electric
Electro-motive Force, Resistance, etc., etc.
division is also manifested in man's nature, which is generally
recognized as being
made up of three distinct parts, namely, Body, Mind, Spirit. Browning
the mouth of one of the patrons of Freemasonry, St. John, the Divine,
words, which beautifully set forth this distinction:
This is the doctrine he was
wont to teach,
How divers persons witness in each man,
Three souls which make up one soul; first, to wit,
A soul of each and all the bodily parts,
Seated therein, which works, and is what Does,
And has the use of earth, and ends the man
Downward: but, tending upward for advice,
Grows into, and again is grown into
By the next soul, which, seated in the brain,
Useth the first with its collected use,
And feeleth, thinketh, willeth-is what Knows:
Which, duly tending upward in its turn,
Grows into, and again is grown into
By the last soul, that uses both the first,
Subsisting whether they assist or no,
And, constituting man's self, is what Is ‒
And leans upon the former, makes it play,
As that played off the first; and, tending up,
Holds, is upheld by, God, and ends the man
Upward in that dread point of intercourse,
Nor needs a place, for it returns to Him.
What Does, what Knows, what Is; three souls, one man.
As may be
expected, therefore, these three parts of man's nature are fully
recognized in Freemasonry,
each of the three degrees representing one the First degree, the Body
world or world of sense); the Second, the Mind; and the Third, the
Spirit, the Ego,
of which the other two are ministers. Abundant proof of this is to be
found in the
symbolism of Freemasonry, and it is supported by the opinion of the
writers. This distinction may be alluded to in each of the three
divisions of my
As has been
mentioned above, the Pursuit of Happiness is the "chief point" of
as well as the aim of life as presented by Philosophy, according to the
Greek moralists. All mankind, in every age, from the darkest period of
to the most civilized epoch the world has ever seen, have been striving
They may differ in their definition of the term, as well as the means
by which they
can attain their object; but we may take it for granted that ultimately
happiness in view in all their schemes for the conduct of their lives.
the gratification of their passions and desires, without regard to
seems to them the "highest good." This is also true, to a certain
in the case of children. Philosophy, generally, and Freemasonry have
do with that stage of human existence, except in so far as it might be
preparation period; for the whole life of man may be said to be
something higher the period of darkness for the E. A., the E. A. for
the F. C. and
so on. It is, therefore, necessary that, before proceeding further and
human being should be "duly and truly prepared."
It is not
to be expected that a child or a savage can be prepared at once to
receive all the
instruction necessary to the complete development of his three-fold
nature. He must
advance by steps, from the simplest to the most complex, from the
concrete to the
abstract. There is no doubt that the idea of Mind, still more of
Spirit, comes later
than the knowledge of the Body and other objects that can be perceived
by the Senses.
Preparation, therefore, for education along the lines of such knowledge
as can be
derived only from natural objects must be incomplete. Hence our
is in the First degree confined to the left side. The symbolism of the
is well known. That side has always been regarded as the side of less
the right, and, consequently, is appropriately used to represent the
part of man's nature, while the right side connotes the Rational side.
is not difficult to conceive that Freemasonry, if it is concerned at
all with Philosophy,
should make the First degree to exemplify the Sensational, and the
Second, the Rational
School of Philosophy-the two great schools of thought which have split
into two opposing camps, from the earliest times to the present day.
agree that happiness, in one form or another, is the great aim of man,
the life according to nature is virtue, because it leads us right to
the end for
which we were destined by nature, viz., happiness. But they differ in
respecting happiness and nature and virtue. Both agree that within
the appetites, passions and desires may be gratified, but the
maintained that the limit was necessary for prudential reasons only,
that happiness springs from the limitation and subjugation of the
between the First degree and the Sensational School will be apparent if
that "refreshment" in the old days was not a mere banquet to be held or
not held, after the ceremonies of the evening were over, in a different
that it was an integral part of those ceremonies, solemnized by the
placing on the
refreshment table of the Lights of Masonry, by the prayers of the
Master and the
other ceremonies of "opening," but "mingled with social mirth, and
the mutual interchange of fraternal feeling." It may be regarded,
as a rite emblematical of the liberty of man to gratify his appetites,
passions subject to the check of Temperance and Prudence, the two
of the South and North, which we may personify as standing unseen and
each side of the table, one behind and one facing the Junior Warden.
is represented also by the Common Gavel, the symbol of Temperance,
which must be
used on the rough ashlar before the Square of Morality can be made to
fit its angles
I will not
tax your patience by dwelling on the similarity between the Second
degree and the
Rational School of Philosophy. But I may remind you that happiness
the latter consists in the limitation and subjugation of the passions,
emphasis laid by the former on Morality and Virtue and the subjugation
of the Passions
seems to establish the parallel. The Second degree also lays special
stress on the
study of Geometry representing Mathematics which subject was regarded
by the old
Greek philosophers particularly Pythagoras as the symbol of Pure
Reason. In Architecture
Geometry is the science which determines the form of a structure, and
which is more
concerned about that than about the substance or matter of which it is
The form symbolizes the limit, and the materials, the appetites and
matter, in the Second degree, being completely subordinated to the
former, as has
been shown to be the case in the tenets of the Rational School.
does not, like some of the old Philosophies, maintain the
of mind or soul and matter. The oblong squares of the Entered
Apprentice and the
Fellow Craft show that each degree taken by itself is incomplete. It is
each is blended with the other that perfection is reached, as is shown
in the "perfect
square" of a Master Mason, which is formed by the union of the other
This is one of many proofs in our symbolism that the Third degree is
of the other two with the addition of further lessons on the Nature of
God and Immortality.
table of Freemasonry is symbolical not only of our liberty, within the
Temperance and Prudence to partake of the material blessings lavished
on us by God,
but it is also an emblem of a figurative table provided with materials
for the satisfaction
of our mental and moral appetites. The viands are the thoughts of great
men either presented to us in books or by word of mouth, and the
derive from moral and virtuous actions.
has set limits to prevent our abuse of these blessings; but in placing
material as well as mental and spiritual food, it effectually rebukes
look on physical gratification, even within lawful limits, as sinful,
and who seek
to obtain God's favor by neglect and contempt of His temple, the human
"Let us not always say,
'Spite of this flesh today
I strove, made head, gained ground upon the whole!'
As the bird wings and sings,
Let us cry, 'All good things
Are ours, nor soul helps flesh more, now, than flesh helps soul!'"
Freemasonry as Education
that "the aim of Education is to develop in the body and in the soul
beauty and all the perfection of which they are capable."
before us now is, Does Freemasonry interest itself in the subject of
and, if so, does the aim of the Education suggested by Freemasonry
aim of Education as defined by Plato? I think there can be no doubt
that the question
must be answered in the affirmative. Freemasonry expressly deals with
of Body and Soul and leaves nothing in the matter of the education of
that can be improved upon; for it works in conformity to Nature, and in
of Nature in the matter of Education as in all other things in which it
to comprehend, then, its system, let me remind you that the First
degree is the
degree of the material universe. The first step, therefore, in Masonic
is education through the senses. In the earlier stages of a man's life,
cognizance only of such knowledge as can be acquired through the
is real to him unless he can touch, taste, smell, hear or see it. The
and, therefore, the most scientific method of teaching the young is
senses. The concrete must precede the abstract. Such an education would
especially to the enlargement and refinement of the receptive powers;
of those powers,
above all which are directly relative to fleeting phenomena the powers
What is called
"practical education" the training of the hand and eye to obey the
of the mind; aesthetic education occupied very largely with those
aspects of things
which affect us pleasurably through the senses, including art and the
of literature; education of the heart dealing with the love of Nature,
inanimate, above all, love and charity towards our fellow men, which
latter is the
special lesson of an E. A., and love to God, from Whom flows every good
gift: all these, without stretching the meanings of the symbolism, are
in the first degree of Freemasonry.
in the Second degree has made a further advance. Abstract studies are
him, having for their object the development of all his intellectual
the moral and spiritual elevation of his character, and the further
of truth and knowledge. Cut I must remind you, here, that no degree
stands by itself.
Each "grows into and is again grown into" by the other two. You must
understand, therefore, that mind and intellect are not trained in the
but that they are further greatly developed in the Second.
symbolism of the Winding Stairs represents a synopsis of the Masonic
system of education.
three steps I take to mean a mere reminder, such as occurs, again and
all the ceremonies of the lodge, that three parts, Body, Soul and
the nature of Man; and they are intended simply as an introduction or
key to the
Educational scale which commences with the flight of five steps.
flight, then, refers to the five senses, and alludes to the Education
Senses, suggested in a former part of this discussion.
flight of seven steps, referring to seven purely abstract studies, is
of Pure Reason, and shows an upward advance in the candidate's
is the third member of the triad in this ascent, which the first three
to the interpretation given above, has led us to look for? To answer
this we must
ask another question, "What has been the goal or aim of the candidate
his long and arduous pilgrimage?" To which question there is only one
"The Truth." He does not yet find it; but high up and suspended in the
distance he discovers the letter "G." a mere initial, a glimmering hope
that his labor has not been in vain, and that he has at last seen,
and indistinctly, an indication of the object of his search. He has
still far to
go, he still has a rough and rugged road to travel; but his Faith is
up by Hope, and he knows that he will reach the goal if he continues
true to his
another aspect of the Winding Stairs which has struck me as beautiful
of your consideration. If we imagine a spiral line drawn round a
conical hill, it
will appear to be like a number of circles narrowing in diameter, or
to the center the higher they rise, till, at the top, the circumference
in the center. So man, by labor, virtue, and faith in God, may ascend,
step by step,
in his progress through life, drawing nearer and ever nearer to Him,
his earthly pilgrimage over, his liberated spirit comes before His Holy
and is lost in the Light and Warmth of His infinite Intelligence and
Freemasonry the "Handmaid
probably no society in this world more imbued with the religious sense
Fraternity of Freemasons. Questions of Morality and Religion are freely
discussed by them in their lodges, and lectures on subjects bearing on
of human life are listened to by them with an interest and patience
that they are animated not so much by fraternal courtesy as by sincere
self-improvement. Nor is that to be wondered at when one considers the
which every member of the Craft pays to the ceremonies of the lodge and
to the excellent
principles which are always inculcated therein. An examination,
the principles of Freemasonry which bring about this religious
Masons, which my experience assures me exists, is my purpose at this
stage of my
In the first
place, a belief in God and Immortality is required of every applicant
into a lodge. That is necessary for- two reasons. First, as the name of
God is so
frequently invoked in our assemblies, and as all our ceremonies and
to impress on our mind His wonderful government of the world and our
on Him, the presence in our midst of an atheist who would certainly not
with, if he did not actually scoff at our proceedings, would prove a
source of discord
in a society so dependent on harmony as its "strength and support."
for requiring of an applicant a belief in God, is that without such
belief he would
lack the very foundation on which the lessons of Freemasonry are based,
consequently, finding himself out of sympathy with our beliefs, either
associate himself with the Fraternity, or, keeping up a nominal
it, lose no opportunity of belittling the importance of our work, and
our symbolical teaching as puerile and unworthy of the serious
attention of any
thoughtful man. Thus he would not only derive no benefit himself, but
would be likely
to create prejudice against us in the eyes of the profane. This he
might be able
to do without violating the letter of his obligation.
for and symbolism of each of the three degrees has, of course, the same
when Freemasonry is discussed from the point of view of its being
ancillary to Religion,
as it had when we were dealing with its Philosophical and Educational
will, therefore, not require further explanation if, as I proceed, I
refer to the
Degree of Nature, the Degree of Mind and the degree in which both the
united into one Degree of Perfection.
proceeding to discuss this part of my subject I propose to deal briefly
which might be classified under each of those three heads, but which it
convenient to take by themselves, as they throw light on what is to
the first of these that I shall speak about is the three knocks of the
seeking admission to a lodge open on any degree. The first knock refers
to the fundamental
necessity of prayer. The subject of prayer is the first lesson given
the E. A. on
his entrance into the lodge; prayer is taught by example, in each of
and prayer was the last act of H. A. B. before his tragic death. "Ask
shall receive" is the interpretation of the first knock, and that
with its gracious promise, is, further, beautifully symbolized on the
of the E. A. The story of Jacob's dream is familiar to you all and need
not be told
here. But I shall give you what seems to be the Masonic significance of
ascending angels bear to heaven the prayers and petitions of men, and
angels bring back the answers from God in the form of bounties and
knock, we are told, means "Seek, and ye shall find." Here is a direct
injunction to search for Truth. That search is the paramount duty of
in fact it is the sole object of all the teachings of Freemasonry.
"Knock and it shall be opened
If with all
your hearts you prayerfully and truly seek Him, your admittance into
the Grand Lodge
Above will not be denied. Your search will then be rewarded; you will
find the Lost
Word; in God's holy presence you will discover the Truth.
of which the altar is a symbol, is also one of the requisites of
that a Mason has property, even life ‒ must be given up for the
of innocence and virtue, and for the defense of Truth."
of the Sun is perhaps the most important vehicle for the conveyance to
of Divine Truth. The Sun is the pattern for the imitation of the
because it is symbolical of certain attributes of the Deity Love and
Order and Harmony. The warmth of the Sun is emblematical of Love, and
of Intelligence or Mind. The three Lesser Lights are said to represent
Moon and Worshipful Master. The Sun symbolizes the attributes of God,
Love and Intelligence.
The Moon, which reflects the light, but not the warmth, of the Sun
The Worshipful Master, Man, the most perfect of His works.
The Sun also
represents the Immanence of God. Its warmth pervades the Earth and is
not only for the comfort, but also for the life, of all organic
creatures. In like
manner God is everywhere. In the beautiful words of Mrs. Browning:
"Earth is crammed with Heaven
And every bush and tree
Afire with God. But only he
Who sees takes off his shoes."
is unfailing even to the lowest organism He has made; and His
intelligence is manifested
in all the works of His hands, and acts in the formation of a frost
crystal as certainly
and as beautifully as in the growth of a blade of grass. "This deity,"
quotes Tagore from the Upanishad, "who is manifesting himself in the
of the universe, always dwells in the heart of man as the supreme soul.
realize Him through the immediate perception of the heart attain
more about Sun symbolism. The point within the circle is the
of the Sun. The Sun is represented by the central point, the
his rays. The compasses is the instrument used for describing circles,
point representing the central Sun, and the other point Light. Thus, in
Craft degree, when one point has been elevated above the square, the
to be that a certain measure of intellectual and moral light has been
to the candidate. But when the pivotal point is also placed above the
has received the pure light and warmth of Masonry all the knowledge of
that "it is possible for him to obtain in a lodge of Master Masons."
But the most
important assistance which Freemasonry lends to Religion is when it
Craftsman that the existence of God can be deduced from His works.
Freemasonry shows that God is manifested in Nature, which is His
Heavens declare the Glory of God and the Earth showeth forth His
The works of our greatest poets are full of this theme. Nay, even
savages, in their
own rude way, see a god in every manifestation of nature. It is not
that Freemasonry should say that "contemplating these objects" (of
"we are led to view with reverence and admiration the wonderful works
and adore their Divine Creator." All religions and most philosophies
in the necessity of a First Cause, or God. Freemasonry teaches us to
to admire its beauties, to comprehend its wonderful harmony, to
appreciate the marvelous
adaptation of every created thing to its environment and the purpose
for which it
was created, and reverently to worship the Maker and Creator of all
far too briefly, I have laid before you the argument which deduces the
the Effect in the material world. By our objective consciousness we try
the Divine in Nature. But there is a higher consciousness-the
with the Mind, and which traces the Divine in Man. This part of my
also be presented to you under the heading: "God as comprehended by the
the intelligence of God and the intelligence of man of the same
itself seems to constrain us to answer this question in the
affirmative. To suppose
that the supreme intelligence has nothing whatever in common with the
is to suppose that one of them is an intelligence, and that the other
is no intelligence
at all. It is to dissolve the very ground on which we conceive both of
them as intelligences.
This truth, then, in regard to the constitution of the human mind, and
of all minds,
seems to be a necessary axiom of reason. In all intelligence there is
unity of kind, however small the point of unity may be. … This unity
the very bond, and the only bond, between the Creator and the creature.
connection between the divine and human reason, and you destroy the
of religion." The preceding sentences, taken from the philosophical
Professor Ferrier, are, in short, the summary of his argument for the
between all finite minds and the infinite mind of the Creator. The mind
who, compared with the rest of Creation, is physically insignificant,
is the most
wonderful phenomenon that exists in the Universe. It traces the paths
and planets, and predicts their appearance at any position in the sky
to a fraction
of a second; it calculates the distances from the Earth and from each
other of the
most remote fixed stars; it even can tell their weights, specific
gravity, and the
constitution of the solid and gaseous matters of which they are
composed. It harnesses
the lightning and the cataract and forces them into the peaceful
service of humanity.
No object is too minute or too immense for its comprehension. And its
daring progress in the past from one pinnacle of knowledge to another
forecast of its further and greater triumphs logical and certain.
of the human mind are not confined, however, to the discoveries of
Too great homage cannot be paid to the mighty minds of the men to whom
are due. But the unveiling of the workings of the soul by poets,
other men of letters is further and even greater testimony to the
majesty of the
human intellect. Well might the great world-poet exclaim:
"What a piece of work is a man!
in reason, how infinite in faculty! in form and moving how express and
in action how like an angel! in apprehension how like a god!"
with mental faculties which enable him to comprehend the laws by which
is governed and the harmony of Creation, cannot fail, by comparison
with the processes
of his mind, to believe that the natural objects whose secrets it has
to discover, are governed and regulated by a mind similar in nature to
and only differing in degree. He perceives that other human minds are
like his own,
and that mind is an indissoluble bond of union between man and God.
in "Tintern Abbey," [Lib 1858] not only brings out the
of union between God and Man, but also emphasizes the bond of union
and God, which I have already discussed. Man, he says, has:
"A sense sublime
Of something far more deeply interfused
Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns,
And the round ocean, and the living air,
And the blue sky, and the mind of man, ‒
A motion and a spirit that impels
All thinking things, all objects of all thought,
And rolls through all things."
God is thus
revealed in Nature, and God is thus revealed in Man. But there is
recognized by Freemasonry in every degree namely, the V. O. T. S. L.
gift of God to Man as a guide to his daily faith and practice." The
of a Freemason is left to his own conscience, but the sacred writings
open in his lodge, a silent, but eloquent, witness that Freemasonry is
not indifferent to religion, but that she expects every craftsman to be
man. In fact, she mentions the "irreligious libertine" as a man who has
no right to the privileges of the Craft.
some, only, of the many arguments which prove Freemasonry to be the
Religion. Could any mistress be better served?
We have given
much time to the contemplation of the lessons of the South and West.
Have we no
message from the North? Yes, indeed! The place of darkness is a region
not to be
afraid of, but rather to be regarded with affection and gratitude. For
it is the
place of "sleep and his brother, death."
blessings light on him who first invented sleep!" says Sancho Panza in
Quixote, " [Lib 1900] It covers a man all over,
thoughts and all,
like a cloak; it is meat for the hungry, heat for the cold, and cold
for the hot.
It is the current coin that purchases all the pleasures of the world
the balance that sets the king and the shepherd, the fool and the wise
eulogy could be written on Sleep than that? It is rightly associated
in the first division of the twenty-four-inch Gauge.
may say, "Sleep is a blessing, I grant you, but how about Death? After
comes waking; but Death means the leaving all that is near and dear to
the severing of every tie which binds them to earth. Death is the end."
it? If it is, then is the teaching of Freemasonry vain; vain is the
Religion. But we Freemasons are taught that Death is not the end.
Though all things
are dark, and the knell of low-twelve is sounding in our ears, though
mangled body is lying covered only by the rubbish of the temple; though
hands remove him from the grave where he was "indecently interred," and
the evidence of our nostrils gives unmistakable evidence of physical
we know that all is well with him, for the G.A.O.T.U. has taken him by
and raised him to take his place in another lodge a real lodge of
he is surrounded by the dear ones who have preceded him there, and
where he awaits
the arrival of those whom he dearly loved and by whom he was dearly
perfect confidence, for he knows the Truth. He has found the Master
Treatise on Masonry
From The Catholic Encyclopedia
Part IV – Action of State
and Church Authorities against Freemasonry
[Lib 1907; see Vol 9, pp 1976]
enough, the first sovereign to join and protect Freemasonry was the
Emperor Frances I, the founder of the actually reigning line of
Austria, while the
first measures against Freemasonry were taken by Protestant
1735; Sweden and Geneva, 1738; Zurich, 1740; Berne, 1745. In Spain,
Italy, measures against Masonry were taken after 1738. In Bavaria
prohibited 1784 and 1785; in Austria, 1795; in Baden, 1813; in Russia,
1847 it has been tolerated in Baden, since 1850 in Bavaria, since 1868
and Spain. In Austria Freemasonry is still prohibited because as the
of Administration 23 January, 1905, rightly declared, a Masonic
though established in accordance with law, "would be a member of a
organization (in reality ruled by the 'Old Charges,' etc., according to
Masonic principles and aims), the true regulations of which would be
from the civil authorities, so that the activity of the members could
not be controlled"
(Bauhütte, 1905, 60). It is indeed to be presumed that Austro-Hungarian
whatever statutes they might present to the Austrian Government in
order to secure
their authorization, would in fact continue to regard the French Grand
their true pattern, and the Brothers Kossuth, Garibaldi, and Mazzini as
whom they would strive to imitate. The Prussian edict of 1798
in general, excepting the three old Prussian Grand Lodges which the
subjected to severe control by the Government. this edict, though
by the edict of 6 April, 1848, practically, according to a decision of
Court of Administration of 22 April, 1893, by an erroneous
interpretation of the
organs of administration, remained in force till 1893. Similarly, in
Act of Parliament was passed on 12 July, 798, for the "more effectual
of societies established for seditions and treasonable purposes and or
treasonable and seditious practices." By this Act Masonic associations
meetings in general were interdicted, and only the lodges existing on 2
and ruled according to the old regulations of the Masonry of the
kingdom were tolerated,
on condition that two representatives of the lodge should make oath
before the magistrates,
that the lodge existed and was ruled as the Act enjoined (Preston,
of Masonry," 251 sqq. [Lib 1867]). During the period 1827-34,
were taken against Freemasonry in some of the United States of America.
As to European
countries it may be stated, that all those Governments, which had not
in the revolutionary movement, strove to protect themselves against
of the Church is summed up in the papal pronouncements against
1738, the most important of which are:
- Clement XII,
Const. "In Eminenti," 28 April, 1738 [Lib 1738];
- Benedict XIV, "Providas," 18 May, 1751 [Lib 1751];
- Pius VII, "Ecclesiam," 13 September, 1821 [Lib 1821];
- Leo XII, "Quo graviora," 13 March, 1825 [Lib 1826];
- Pius VIII, Encycl. "Traditi," 21 May, 1829 [Lib
- Gregory XVI, "Mirari," 15 August, 1832 [Lib 1832];
- Pius IX, Encycl. "Qui pluribus," 9 November, 1846 [Lib 1846];
- Alloc. "Quibus quantisque malis,"
20 April, 1849 [Lib*];
quantisque malis was a Papal prounouncement of Pius IX in 1846. It is
referred to by Catholic sources as anti-Masonic, although there is no
English translation available. (rhm - from Wikipedia)
8 December, 1864 [Lib 1864];
- Alloc. "Multiplices inter,"
25 September, 1865 [Lib*];
is an address made by Pope Pius IX condemning Freemasonry and other
secret societies. In it, he accuses Masonic associations of conspiracy
against the church, God and civil society. He further attributes
revolutions and uprisings to Masonic activities, and denounces secret
oaths, clandestine meetings and Masonic penalties.
utterances from first to last are in complete accord, the latter
earlier with such developments as were called for by the growth of
other secret societies.
- Const. "Apostolicae Sedis," 12
October, 1869 [Lib*];
"Etsi multa," 21
November, 1873 [Lib 1873];
- Leo XIII, Encycl. "Humanum
genus," 20 April, 1884 [Lib 1884];
20 June, 1894 [Lib 1894];
ingressi," 18 March,
1902 (against Italian Freemasonry) [Lib*];
"Etsi nos." 15
February, 1882 [Lib 1882];
Apostolici," 15 October,
1890 [Lib 1890].
accurately indicates the principal reasons why Masonic associations
from the Catholic,
Christian, moral, political, and social points of view, should be
reasons are: (1) The peculiar, "unsectarian" (in truth, anti-Catholic
and anti-Christian) naturalistic character of Freemasonry, by which
and practically it undermines the Catholic and Christian faith, first
in its members
and through them in the rest of society, creating religious
indifferentism and contempt
for orthodoxy and ecclesiastical authority. (2) The inscrutable secrecy
ever-changing disguise of the Masonic association and of its "work," by
which "men of this sort break as thieves into the house and like foxes
to root up the vineyard," "perverting the hearts of the simple,"
ruining their spiritual and temporal welfare. (3) The oaths of secrecy
and of fidelity
to Masonry and Masonic work, which cannot be justified in their scope,
or their form, and cannot, therefore, induce any obligation. The oaths
because the scope and object of Masonry are "wicked" and condemnable,
and the candidate in most cases is ignorant of the import or extent of
which he takes upon himself. Moreover the ritualistic and doctrinal
which are the principal object of the obligation, according to the
authorities, are either trifles or no longer exist (Handbuch, 3rd ed.,
In either case the oath is a condemnable abuse. Even the Masonic modes
which are represented as the principal and only essential "secret" of
Masonry, are published in many printed books. Hence the real "secrets"
of Masonry, if such there be, could only be political or antireligious
like the plots of the Grand Lodges in Latin countries. But such
at least theoretically, by Anglo-American Masons themselves, would
render the oath
or obligation only the more immoral and therefore null and void. Thus
in every respect
the Masonic oaths are not only sacrilegious but also an abuse contrary
order which requires that solemn oaths and obligations as the principal
maintain veracity and faithfulness in the State and in human society,
be vilified or caricatured. In Masonry the oath is further degraded by
which includes the most atrocious penalties, for the "violation of
which do not even exist; a "violation" which, in truth may be and in
cases is an imperative duty. (4) The danger which such societies
involve for the
security and "tranquility of the State" and for "the spiritual health
of souls," and consequently their incompatibility with civil and
law. For even admitting that some Masonic associations pursued for
purposes contrary to religion and to public order, they would be
to public order, because by their very existence as secret societies
based on the
Masonic principles, they encourage and promote the foundation of other
secret societies and render difficult, if not impossible, efficacious
the civil and ecclesiastical authorities against them.
Of the other
papal edicts only some characteristic utterances need be mentioned.
appeals more urgently to Catholic princes and civil powers to obtain
in the struggle against Freemasonry. Pius VII condemns the secret
society of the
Carbonari which, if not an off-shoot, is "certainly an imitation of the
society" and, as such, already comprised in the condemnation issued
it. Leo XII deplores the fact, that the civil powers had not heeded the
papal decrees, and in consequence out of the old Masonic societies even
sects had sprung. Among them the "Universitarian" is mentioned as most
pernicious. "It is to be deemed certain," says the pope, "that these
secret societies are linked together by the bond of the same criminal
Gregory XVI similarly declares that the calamities of the age were due
to the conspiracy of secret societies, and like Leo XII, deplores the
indifferentism and the false ideas of tolerance propagated by secret
Pius IX (Allocution, 1865) characterizes Freemasonry as an insidious,
and perverse organization injurious both to religion and to society;
anew "this Masonic and other similar societies, which differing only in
coalesce constantly and openly or secretly plot against the Church or
Leo XIII (1884) says: "There are various sects, which although
name, rite, form, and origin, are nevertheless so united by community
and by similarity of their main principles as to be really one with the
sect, which is a kind of center, whence they all proceed and whither
they all return."
The ultimate purpose of Freemasonry is "the overthrow of the whole
political, and social order based on Christian institutions and the
of a new state of things according to their own ideas and based in its
and laws on pure Naturalism."
In view of
these several reasons Catholics since 1738 are, under penalty of
incurred ipso facto, and reserved to the pope, strictly forbidden to
enter or promote
in any way Masonic societies. The law now in force (Const. "Apostolicae
1869 Cap. ii, n.24) pronounces excommunication upon "those who enter
or Carbonarian or other sects of the same kind, which, openly or
against the Church or lawful authority and those who in any way favor
or do not denounce their leaders and principal members." Under this
must also be made of the "Practical Instruction of the Congreg. of the
7 May, 1884, 'de Secta Massonum' " (Acta Sanctae Sedis, XVIII, 43-47)
the decrees of the Provincial Councils of Baltimore, 1840: New Orleans,
1851, 1868; of the first Councils of the English Colonies, 1854; and
of the Plenary Councils of Baltimore, 1866 and 1884 (see "Collect.
III, 1875 and "Acta et decr. Concil. plen. Balt. III," 1884). These
refer mainly to the application of the papal decrees according to the
of the respective ecclesiastical provinces. The Third Council of
Baltimore, n. 254
sq., states the method of ascertaining whether or not a society is to
as comprised in the papal condemnation of Freemasonry. It reserves the
thereon to a commission consisting of all the archbishops of the
provinces represented in the council, and if they cannot reach a
refers to the Holy See.
edicts and censures against Freemasonry have often been the occasion of
and unjust charges. The excommunication was interpreted as an
that cursed all Freemasons and doomed them to perdition. In truth an
is simply an ecclesiastical penalty, by which members of the Church
should be deterred
from acts that are criminal according to ecclesiastical law. The pope
and the bishops,
therefore, as faithful pastors of Christ's flock, cannot but condemn
They would betray, as Clement XII stated, their most sacred duties, if
not oppose with all their power the insidious propagation and activity
of such societies
in Catholic countries or with respect to Catholics in mixed and
Freemasonry systematically promotes religious indifferentism and
i.e., orthodox Christian and Catholic Faith and life. Freemasonry is
Naturalism and hence opposed to all supernaturalism. As to some
of Leo XIII (1884) challenged by Freemasons, e.g., the atheistical
Freemasonry, it must be remarked, that the pope considers the activity
and similar societies as a whole, applying to it the term which
designates the most
of these societies and among the Masonic groups those, which push the
"anti-clerical," in reality irreligious and revolutionary, principles
of Freemasonry logically to their ultimate consequences and thus, in
as it were, the advanced outposts and standard-bearers of the whole
and anti-papal army in the world-wide spiritual warfare of our age. In
also the pope, in accordance with a fundamental biblical and
evangelical view developed
by St. Augustine in his "De civitate Dei," [Lib 1909/1913; Vol 1, Vol 2] like the Masonic poet
Carducci in his "Hymn
to Satan," [Lib 1893] considers Satan as the
supreme spiritual chief
of this hostile army. Thus Leo XIII (1884) expressly states: "What we
must be understood of the Masonic sect in the universal acceptation of
as it comprises all kindred and associated societies, but not of their
There may be persons amongst these, and not a few, who, although not
free from the
guilt of having entangled themselves in such associations, yet are
partners in their criminal acts nor aware of the ultimate object which
are endeavoring to attain. Similarly some of the several bodies of the
may perhaps by no means approve of certain extreme conclusions, which
consistently accept as necessarily following from the general
to all, were they not deterred by the vicious character of the
"The Masonic federation is to be judged not so much by the acts and
it has accomplished, as by the whole of its principles and purposes."
a means, not an end; and the reception of a degree, whether it be the
first or last
of a Rite, does not in itself make the recipient any better than he was
It simply is the medium for broadening his knowledge of his duties, and
of those duties in his daily walk and conduct.
To put it
in another way, the degrees in Masonry are but working tools whereby
the man who
receives them may shape his course in life, and he is to be judged by
in which he has made those tools Serviceable and profitable in his own
and in assisting those around him to he better and more useful.
The Junior Warden.
the School of mankind, and they will learn at no other.
Jerry Jackson Jason "Only a
Master Mason” --
Lawrence N. Greenleaf, P.G.M.,
ne'er was truer Mason than Jerry Jackson
He delighted in its mystery, antiquity, and history;
But he ne'er could be persuaded that he should be higher graded
And of more degrees possessor than the fundamental three.
It was argued he'd be apter with the knowledge of the Chapter
That he'd prove a bright exemplar in the character of Templar,
While the Thirty-Second brothers told of roadway 'round the others.
But he left no doubt or question as to higher grade suggestion,
Or, to being "arched" or "knighted," or to any others plighted,
For a Master Mason simply he was satisfied to be.
They declared that he was foolish, even obstinate and mulish
To thus decline advancement which for them had such entrancement
But to him the title "brother" was the acme of all other,
And the Lodges uppermost honor as he understood its plan.
Its symbols with their teaching they were to him far-reaching,
Beyond their surface seeming what hidden truths were gleaming
The wisdom-store of sages transmitted through the ages,
Every angle with its story, every line a ray of glory
In the marvelous design linking human to divine,
And man to man in brotherhood whate'er his race or clan.
The mystery of the scroll was the temple of the soul;
Integrity must build it, virtue ornament and gild it;
Truth's shining presence light its hope sustain and love unite it,
Wisdom raise the dome above it faith uplift the turret tall.
Such was Masonry's ideal, and he strove to make it real ‒
Sanctified by loving deeds prompted by a brother's needs.
To his course the plumb applying, by the square his actions trying,
As the master hand of duty shaped his ashlar into beauty,
More and more its surface glowed through the good which he bestowed,
Freer grew from earthly blemish, fitter for the Living Wall.
Was there sick or suffering Mason thither sped good Brother Jason,
And the sunshine of his face brightened many a cheerless place,
While his words were so assuring, they did more than drugs toward
And disease full oft was baffled and the threatening crisis passed.
But if all was unavailing and the stricken one fast failing,
Then he took the wasted hand, voiced the thought of better land,
Which the worthy would set eye on through the strength of Judah's Lion,
In the Father's house on high when life's burden was laid by ‒
On the listener's fading sight there had dawned celestial light,
And on face with rapture beaming death had set his seal at last.
To the dead as to the living willing service ever giving
Ever 'mong the faithful found who a brother’s grave surround,
And the last sad tribute pay to the lifeless form of clay
With acacia-sprigs proclaiming that his spirit liveth still.
To the widow, orphan, friendless, his good deeds 'twould seem were
And affairs of self as naught when their wants were in his thought.
His, the words fresh courage woke when there fell misfortune's stroke
His, the hand that help extended and despairing ones befriended:
His, the work beyond compare, tested by the plumb and square
His, the wage of fadeless glory over which the angels thrill.
Yet they'd say of Brother Jason, "He is only Master Mason!"
And implying, by the stress, that his rank was thereby less!
Less than theirs, degree-entangled and befeathered and bespangled,
And befogged beyond perception of the true Masonic light.
Vain and thoughtless brethren these, valueless are mere degrees;
'Tis the lessons they impart and their lodgment in the heart,
Which, if rightly understood, prove the measure of their good.
Though a thousand such there be, they can ne'er eclipse the three;
And the faithful, zealous Mason, such as Jerry Jackson Jason,
Stands supreme 'mid glare and glitter, peerless in his apron white.
always. There is no path but will be easier traveled, no load but will
no shadow on heart and brain but will lift sooner for a person of
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 31
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
on "The Two Pillars"
- Where do you keep the pillars
in your lodge room during the time they are
not in actual use?
- Has such position any
- In some jurisdictions we find
them at either side of the entrance from the
preparation room; in others they stand in front of the Senior Warden's
Can you give a reason for either or both of these locations other than
- How did the pillars impress you
when you first saw them?
do they mean to you now?
- Why did early peoples set up
pillars before their places of abode, about
their villages and over the graves of their dead?
- What did they believe such
pillars to symbolize?
- did pillars portray to the
Mayas and Incas?
- How were they looked upon in
- By whom were monoliths most
widely used? In what manner, and for what purposes?
- the course of religious
development what did they come to symbolize?
did the obelisk symbolize?
- Whence did the custom of
placing pillars before temple entrances proceed
- What did Hiram probably use as
his models for the pillars placed before Solomon's
- What do the pillars used in the
lodge room represent?
- What is the height of the
pillars as given in the Book of Kings?
- In the Book of Chronicles?
- What is Brother Haywood's
theory concerning these variations?
- How does Mackey describe the
- What was the shape and
composition of the pillars?
- What was their combined weight?
- What were they respectively
called and what were their positions?
- How are these names interpreted
- What part did they occupy
- Where were the pillars
- What should be the height of
the pillars used in our lodge rooms?
- What are the heights as adopted
by American Grand Lodges?
- What was the height of the
pillars as now accepted by present-day authorities?
- Is it imperative that we know
the actual height of the pillars to pursue
our Masonic studies?
- In what light should we
- What did the pillars symbolize
- To Caldecott?
- To Covey?
- To Crump?
- To Mackey?
- To the old Jewish Rabbis?
is brother Haywood's interpretation?
- What two theories have been
offered by Masonic Scholars concerning the origin
of the globes?
- How was the first theory
- What is the symbol of the
- What did its oval shape suggest
you accept this Egyptian theory? If so. why? If not, why not?
- Why does it appear that Preston
modified the chapiters of the pillars into
- How is Preston's theory
you agree with Brother Haywood that we of today have the same right to
interpret the symbols in our own way as did the ancients? If not, why
* * *
Globe, p. 298; Pillar, p. 565;
Pillars of Cloud and Fire, p. 566;
Pillars of the Porch, p. 566.
Vol. I. Globes
on the Pillars, p. 10; Pillars, Height of, pp. 192, 310.
Vol. II. Pillars, The Two, pp. 176, 222.
Vol. III. Pillars of the Porch, pp. 177, 200, 236.
Vol. IV. Jachin and Boaz, pp. 21, 264;
The Globes, p. 265;
The Lily-Work, p. 265;
The Net-Work, p. 265;
The Pomegranate, p. 266.
Vol. V. The Origin of the Pillars to King Solomon's Temple, (this
issue) C. C. B.
The Position of the Pillars, (this issue) C. C. B. p. 6;
The Two Pillars Standing in the Porch of the Temple, (this issue) C. C.
B. p. 5.
* * *
Part VI – The Two Pillars
OF ALL objects
which greet the eyes of the candidate as he stands before the stairs
the Middle Chamber none are so conspicuous as the two great pillars nor
more deserving of careful study. They stand there before him as if to
sanctum from the profane world while they invite him into newer
mysteries; so noble
in proportion are they, so intricate in design, so beautiful to see,
they keep solemn
watch above the scene and throw a hush of awe about the soul that would
the Upper Room of the spirit. What they mean, it is difficult, although
impossible, to say. If our Masonic students and savants have surrounded
a host of theories more intricate than the network and more
multitudinous than the
pomegranates it is because so many hints of ancient wisdom and
symbolism have been
carved into their capitals, their chapiters, and their bases. Our own
lead to apparently contradictory results; this need not disturb us; no
walk on all fours; a symbol which says hut one thing is hardly a symbol
It was the
custom of many of the early peoples, as Frazer describes so abundantly
in his "Golden
Bough," [Lib 1922] (six volumes on primitive
religion, etc.) to
set up stone pillars before their huts, about their villages, and over
of their dead. In some cases these stones were believed to be gods or
the abodes of gods or demons; in others they were believed to be the
homes of the
ghosts of departed human beings; in many cases they were looked upon as
of sex. Of the last named usage one competent historian speaks as
of stone, when associated with worship, have been from time immemorial
as the symbols of the active and passive, the generating and
In India at the present time one may see almost anywhere the sacred
a stone pillar, emblem of the organs of sex, and consequently the
symbol of life
forever renewing itself. Also, pillars have often been used as emblems
Dr. Newton, in his "The Builders," speaks as follows:
India, and among the Mayas and Incas there were three great pillars at
of the earthey and skyey temple, Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty. When man
set up a
pillar, he became a fellow worker with Him whom the old sages of China
used to call
'the first Builder.' Also, pillars were set up to mark the holy places
and divine deliverance, as when Jacob erected a pillar at Bethel,
Joshua at Gilgal,
and Samuel at Mizpeh and Shen. Always they were symbols of stability,
of what the
Egyptians described as 'the place of establishing forever' emblem of
the faith 'that
the pillars of the earth are the lord's and He hath set the world upon
all countries," remarks another writer, "as the earliest of man's works
we recognize the sublime, mysteriously-speaking, ever ‒ recurring
By no peoples were these monoliths (the word literally means "one
so venerated, or so widely used, as among the Egyptians: originally, it
they were used as astronomical instruments to mark the time and to
denote the stages
of the movements of the heavenly bodies; also they were employed to
that is, as markers through which the ray of a star might pass at a
Connected with places of worship they were at last connected with the
gods and became
in after time symbols of deity, as we may learn from Professor
of the Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt," [Lib 1912] in which interesting and
book he tells us that the obelisk, as the solitary pillar came to be
pre ‒ eminently for the great Sun God.
scholars believe, the custom of placing pillars at the entrance to a
to Phoenicia: be that as it may we know that a king of Tyre erected two
before his magnificent temple at Melkarth, where Herodotus saw them
afterwards. It was these, perhaps, which served Hiram as models for the
pillars which he erected before the Temple of Solomon.
It is these
last named pillars, of course, of which copies stand in our Masonic
Two descriptions of the originals are given in the Old Testament, -one
in the Book
of Kings, another in the Book of Chronicles. In the former record the
given as 18 cubits, or (if a cubit is believed to have equalled 18
inches) 27 feet;
in Chronicles, the height is given as 35 cubits, or 52 1/2 feet. This
has occasioned much controversy but it is thought that the Book of
Kings gives the
height of but one pillar while Chronicles combines the two, making
the sockets of the chapiters, or head pieces. These last items are the
features of the pillars and first challenge attention: Mackey has given
a good description
of the originals, as good as our scant knowledge makes possible:
the pillar, and covering its upper part to the depth of nine inches,
was an oval
body or chapiter seven feet and a half in height. Springing out from
at the junction of the chapiter with it, was a row of lotus petals,
spreading around the chapiter, afterwards gently curved downward
towards the pillar,
something like the Acanthus leaves on the capital of a Corinthian
two-fifths of the distance from the bottom of the chapiter, or just
below its most
bulging part, a tissue of network was carved, which extended over its
surface. To the bottom of this network was suspended a series of
fringes, and on
these again were carved two rows of pomegranates, one hundred being in
were cylindrical in shape and were cast of brass; their combined weight
to have been no less than fifty-three tons. one of them was called
Boaz, the other
Jachin: the former stood in the northeast corner of the porch, the
latter in the
southeast. To one who stood inside the temple looking out. Jachin stood
at the right,
Boaz at the left. What these names signified nobody knows, but some
think the High
Priest was wont to stand at one, the King at the other, on such
occasions as when
all the people held high celebrations at the Temple. According to
pillars were cast in foundries situated between Succoth and Zeredatha,
miles northeast of Jerusalem; jewelers of the holy city still use clay
pillars employed in our lodges should be of a size that best comports
surroundings albeit there is a certain fitness in making them of one
Some believe that a cubit was only four inches in length; acting on
some American Grand Lodges claim the pillars to have been just six feet
one that they were 30 cubits, and twenty ‒ five insist that they were
cubits. The best authorities are now very sure that a cubit equaled
according to our measurements; inasmuch as the Temple itself was only
long and thirty feet wide, thirty-five cubits would have been
altogether out of
proportion! But such discrepancies as these need not trouble us for to
us the pillars
are symbols only and quite as worthy of study when six feet high as
What do these
pillars symbolize? To Preston they stood for the pillar of cloud and of
guided the Israelites through the day and the night; to Caldecott they
principles of authority in religion and in politics whereby all social
is guided: to Covey-Crump they have become the pictures of Space and
two mighty monoliths through which the mind passes into all truth; and
our own encyclopedist, makes them to stand for strength and stability.
meanings we have no quarrel but there is, we believe, a far truer
one that goes right back to the Jewish Rabbis themselves who should
have known the
meaning of the symbols if they ever had any meaning. One of them wrote
of them as
names of the pillars signified potency and perpetuity; the pomegranates
capitals or chapiters were symbols of generation."
This, I myself
believe, is the true interpretation. The pillars stand at the entrance
to the Middle
Chamber even as birth is the entrance to life. To pass between them
into the lodge
room means that a man is being born into the world of Masonry; to pass
and on up the Winding Stairs means that a man is being born into one of
and more spiritual realms of the life Masonic, a thing high and noble
for him that
has a mind to think.
Many of our
ills come from a bad heredity; a man who poisons his blood makes war on
he is anti-Masonic, whatever be the watch-charm on his breast; he has
pillars before the house of life, and causes his children to pass
as heathen Israelites made their babes to pass through the fire to
is true of birth into life is true also of birth into any of the realms
life. If the pillars at the entrance to the home be strong and straight
will live a clean, happy life; if wise men guard the doorway of the
school our children
can pass into the Middle Chamber of a real education, untainted by
unpoisoned by bigotry. He who would become a wise master of life must
secret of the beginnings; a little deflection at the start means a long
the path later on; he who begins aright and who perseveres until the
end will himself
become strong, a pillar strengthened and strengthening, against which
priests may lean, and past which others may safely go, seeking life.
Woe be it to
humanity if ever it neglects to give, in any of its spheres, right
birth to its
children, its seekers, its learners!
On top of
each of the two pillars thus described stand two globes, one the
the heavens; the other the terrestrial, representing the earth. Whence
and what do they signify?
to the first of these questions our scholars have offered two
that they are of Egyptian origin; second, that they are a modified form
of the chapiters
or headpieces of the pillars. The first of these theories was evidently
by the ancient Egyptian symbol of the winged globe, often found on the
above a temple, surrounded by a snake holding its tail in its mouth,
by two wide outstretched wings. So common was this device that it
became at last
one of the national emblems, so that Isaiah speaks of Egypt as "the
the winged globe." This globe was in all probability oval in shape, to
the egg, symbol of life; the serpent was the symbol of Infinity, the
wings of power;
combined, the figure stood for the infinite life ‒ giving power of
Deity. If it
be supposed that the globe was a true circle then it may have
represented the Sun,
the first great God of Egypt, but the meaning remains practically the
If our two
globes could be made to serve as a modern form of the Egyptian winged
might be enriched in meaning and interest, but there is no evidence
the older symbol ever transmigrated into Masonry. The probability is
it, for we have two globes instead of one, and we do not have the
serpent or the
wings; besides, as actually exhibited, our globes manifestly refer to
and the heavens as modernly understood.
on the two pillars were spherical in shape and always so represented.
It would evidently
seem, therefore, that the men who framed our ritual, among whom Preston
simply modified the chapiters into globes. By why did they do this?
and his school undertook to transform the lodge into a school, and
required symbols for geography and astronomy, two very important
branches of the
curriculum they outlined. This theory is verified, it seems to me, by
to the Prestonian lectures, in which we find the following paragraphs,
modified by Webb:
"The sphere, with the parts of
delineated on its surface, is called the terrestrial globe; and that
with the constellations
and other heavenly bodies, the celestial globe."
"The principal use of the
serving as maps to distinguish the outward parts of the earth and the
of the fixed stars, is to illustrate and explain the phenomena arising
annual revolution and the diurnal rotation of, the earth around its own
are the noblest instruments for improving the mind (this was
‒ H.L.H.) and giving it the most distinct idea of any problem
as well as enabling it to solve the same."
our writers have ridiculed all this, arguing that it is trite and
that the placing of two such globes on top of two ancient pillars is a
Granting as much, however, it may be that Preston builded better than
he knew, for
the two globes do symbolize a truth profound and fruitful of
application; and if
it be objected that this symbolism is modern, we may reply, What of it?
moderns have as much right to fashion symbolism as the ancients!
explain the globes as indicating the universality of Masonry, a subject
we have already adverted; and, as inculcating reverence. This last is
really a noble
insight and not so banal as it sounds, because it is the central idea
in no less
a work of genius than the Book of Job, in which, as you will recall,
patriarch learned to trust and revere the Creator by a contemplation of
and majesty of the Creation. Beyond these monitorial interpretations my
discovers in the two globes a symbol of the truth that we humans are
two worlds, the earthly and the heavenly, the temporal and the eternal,
and the physical. If it be charged that this is merely a private
I am willing to let the charge stand; for why were we released from the
if it were not to encourage us to follow our own Light?
The Two Pillars Standing
in the Porch of the Temple
view, come the two famous Pillars which stood in the Porch of the
Temple; and were
for Matter, Brass; for Form, Cylinders; for Height, 18 Cubits a piece;
twelve Cubits; for Diameter, about four Cubits, which is conceived to
be the meaning
of that expression, That they were four Cubits in the Porch, that is,
were four Cubits Diameter, and so the Brass Cylinder under them, taking
up so much
ground-room in the Porch. But some there be, who would have the meaning
to be this,
that the Lilly-Work, which hung over the Pillars, was four Cubits deep
the Chapiters. Indeed, the Chapiters seem to be of an Oval Form; for,
in their middle, was four Cubits, and their Height five, if we compare
the I King,
7:16 with the 19 ver. For having declared the measures of the Pillars,
he proceeds to describe the Measures and Ornaments of the Chapiters,
and tells us,
v. 16, that the height of each was five Cubits; and then mentioning
some of their
Ornaments, goes on to tell us, that the top of the Pillars (where they
was of Lilly-Work, and that the Chapiters thus situated on the top of
which had a compass of Lilly-work at their upper edge, were four
Cubits, that is,
in their middle Dimetient Line, and so were about twelve Cubits round,
the Pillar beneath. So that we may read and point the 19th verse thus
(And the Chapiters
which were on the head of the Pillars of Lilly-Work, were in the Porch
that is, did comprehend in the Line measuring their Belly, as much as
up four Cubits on the Floor of the Porch. So that Opus Lilii, is by
be construed with Caput Columnarum; and the two other words (Four
Cubits in the
Porch) are to delineate the quantity of these Chapiters that stood on
head of the Pillars. The Accounts for this Construction may be two-fold.
this Verse aims not at the mention of the Lilly-work on the Pillars:
for if it did,
then were it superfluous to mention it again, as a particular work by
22. Wherefore it seems, that this verse aims rather at the Description
of the Chapiters
set upon that Lilly-work, which are the principal things, and so more
the Lilly-work being but an Ornament. But,
if the hole of the Chapiter resting on the Pillar with this Lilly-work
it, were as large as the Pillar itself, as is affirmed by some, to let
in the top
of the Pillar; and that this Lilly-work on the top of the Pillar, in a
Border, stood out four Cubits in the Porch, at the bottom of the
to the top of the Pillar: then will there arise twelve Cubits Diameter,
four of the Pillar, and four on each side of this Lilly-work and so the
will be shut out of the Porch, which was but ten Cubits abroad, I King,
On the top
of the Pillars then were two Chapiters, of five Cubits higher than the
Nets of Checker-work; and each Pillar had seven Wreaths of Chain-work,
Rows of Pomegranates; in each Row, one hundred; but ninety six only
could be seen
by those that stood upon the Pavement of the Porch. So that there were
on both Chapiters
four hundred goodly Pomegranates in all which were put upon Chains in
Both Pillars joined together in their measure, were but thirty five
that is twice eighteen, bating one Cubit, because each Chapiter did
sink half a
Cubit within the Socket of the Cylinder for their fastening. So that
with its Chapiter, was twenty two Cubits, and, 1/2 high. The Pillars
and 1/2, and the Chapiter five: Whereas 'tis said each Chapiter was but
high, it's to be understood of the stately embroidery, and Ornaments of
Chains, and Pomegranates, which were at the beginning of the third
Cubit. Thus being
fitted and prepared, they were placed within the Porch; the Pillar on
side that is, the South was called Jachin, (being the future Hiphil
He shall establish: noting the fixedness of this pillar upon its
that on the left hand, or on the North side, was called Boaz, denoting
and firmitude of that stately piece of Brass. These famous Pillars,
so strong, were broken in pieces, and conveyed to the City of Babylon;
that are Spiritual Pillars in the House of God, shall go no more out of
From Lee's "Orbis Miraeulum," 1669.
I need do
nothing contrary to my mind and divinity, since no one can force me to
or force me to act against my own judgment.
‒ Marcus Aurelius.
of the Pillars
By Bro. John T. Thorp, P.M.
Quatuor Coronati Lodge, England
of this interesting paper is one of the veteran Masonic scholars of
England to whom
THE BUILDER has been often indebted; he is almost the last of the band
who composed the Quatuor Coronati group of savants. Accepting the Old
record as he finds it, he has endeavored to ascertain therefrom the
the two great pillars with what results the following essay will show ‒
that Brother Thorp will be yet spared to the Craft for many years.
to fix the respective positions of the two brazen pillars at the
of King Solomon's Temple, I must first give a brief historical account,
as describe the form and situation, both of the original Tabernacle and
the Temple itself, as a proper understanding of these will materially
estimating the evidence that I have to bring forward.
was erected in the wilderness by Moses, Aholiab and Bezaleel [Lib 1904], by the special command of
A. O. T. U., according to instructions given by Him to Moses on Mount
form, situation, ornaments, and furniture being minutely given, and as
and faithfully carried out by His faithful servants, as we find
recorded in the
Book of Exodus, chapters 25, 26, 27. The word "Tabernacle" means 'tent
of meeting," the place where the Holy One meets with the congregation,
Whey with Him, and it was the center and seat of the Hebrew Theocracy.
was a kingdom, of which God was King, and the Tabernacle was His palace
the kingdom was visible, so was the palace, so was at least the
Presence of the
King; there the people had audience of the Monarch, and thence He
in a way cognizable by the senses for their guidance.
It will be
best to proceed with the account of the Tabernacle, (1) beginning from
and going inwards, as one would naturally do who inspected it for the
The first object that would present itself is the Court; this, although
part of the whole edifice, was, strictly speaking, no part of the
merely a large enclosure in the shape of a parallelogram, with the
narrow ends situated
east and west; the only entrance to this Court was in the east. As
of this, take the following passage from Exodus, chapter 38:
he made the court: on the south side southward the hangings of the
court were …
an hundred cubits their pillars twenty; and for the north side an
their pillars twenty. And for the west side fifty cubits, their pillars
for the east side eastward fifty cubits; the hangings of the one side
of the gate
were fifteen cubits, their pillars three; and for the other side of the
fifteen cubits, their pillars three; and for the gate of the court
their pillars four."
the outer court by the entrance at the east, and proceeding westward,
we come first
to the Altar of Burnt Offering; passing this, to the Laver, at which
washed their hands before entering the Tabernacle, then immediately we
entrance of the Tabernacle itself.
like the outer Court, was of rectangular form, having its entrance in
and at a point two-thirds of its length from the entrance, was divided
portions by a hanging veil; the larger portion was called the Holy
Place, the smaller
portion, or westmost part, was called the Sanctum Sanctorum, or Holy of
The Holy Place contained the Altar of Incense, symbol of prayer and
the entrance, together with the Table of Shewbread, symbol of holy
deeds and works
of faith, on the north side; and the Golden Candlestick, symbol of
on the south side. The Holy of Holies contained only one object, viz.:
a small gilt
rectangular chest, with a lid of solid gold, and on each end, attached
to the lid,
a small winged human figure of solid gold. The chest was called the Ark
of the Covenant,
and within it were deposited the two tables of the Law; the golden lid
the Mercy Seat, and the two figures Cherubim, and from between them, on
Seat, the G.A.O.T.U. spoke to the High Priest. The whole of the people
into the Court, but Priests only into the Tabernacle, whilst into the
the High Priest alone entered once a year, after many washings and
to make atonement for the sins of the people.
was completed and erected on the first day of the first month of the
of the Exodus, and it was carried about by the Israelites during all
in the wilderness. After their entrance into Canaan, it was first set
up in Gilgal,
afterwards at Shiloh, still later at Gibeon and Jerusalem, and for a
period of 447
years it was esteemed the center of the religious life and worship of
and it was not until the Temple was erected by King Solomon that it
ceased to be
such, and until, as we read in II. Chronicles, chap. 5, "that Solomon
up the Ark and all the holy vessels from the Tabernacle on Zion Hill,
them in the Temple that he had made."
of a settled people having only a tent for the celebration of their
service, first occurred to the mind of David. It appeared unseemly to
him that the
Ark of God should still dwell "between curtains," while he abode in a
"house of cedar." He therefore proposed to build a Temple, in which the
worship of God might be more becomingly conducted. The prophet Nathan
commissioned to inform him that having been engaged in constant
warfare, and shed
much human blood, he could not be allowed to execute the design he had
was to be reserved for the peaceful reign of his son Solomon. This
however, the principal subject of David's thought and care during the
of his reign, and to it he appropriated a large proportion of the
which his many victories produced. He may be said to have provided all,
all, the materials before his death, secured the services of skilful
artificers for every branch of the work, and furnished the design,
plan, and site
of the building, so that more of the credit of this work seems due to
of the Temple was laid B. C. 1012, being the fourth year of Solomon's
in seven years and a half it was completed, during which time no less
persons were employed in the work.
(2) in its general idea, did not materially differ from the Tabernacle;
it was situated
also due east and west, but had three entrances, viz.: at the north,
east (referred to in the Masonic Traditional History). The general form
of the Tabernacle
was retained in the Temple, and like the Tabernacle, the Temple looked
east, having the Most Holy Place at the extreme west. The principal
at the east, where there was a porch, adorned by two large brazen
pillars. We have
in the volume of the S. L. two accounts of these pillars; one will ho
found in I.
Kings. chap. 7. and is as follows:
King Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre … And he came to King
wrought all his work. For he cast two pillars of brass of eighteen
cubits high apiece.
(3) … And he made two chapiters of molten brass to set upon the top of
the height of the one chapiter was five cubits, and the height of the
was five cubits: and nets of checker work, and wreaths of chain work,
for the chapiters
which were upon the top of the pillars … And he set up the pillars in
of the Temple: and he set up the right pillar, and called the name
and he set up the left pillar, and called the name thereof Boaz … And
he made a
Molten Sea … And he made ten bases of brass Then made he ten lavers of
and upon every one of the ten bases (placed he) one laver. And he put
on the right side of the house, and five on the left side of the house;
and he set
the sea on the right side of the house eastward over against the south.
II. Chronicles, chapter 4:
"Also he made a Molten Sea of
… He made also ten lavers, and put five on the right hand, and five on
to wash in them: such things as they offered for the burnt offering
in them; but the sea was for the priests to wash in. And he made ten
of gold, according to their form, and set them in the Temple, five on
hand, and five on the left. He also made ten tables, and placed them in
five on the right hand, and five on the left … And he set the sea on
the right side
of the east end, over against the south."
the Temple was dedicated with great solemnity by King Solomon; but its
day of glory
was not of long continuance. The revolt of the ten tribes in the next
from it a large proportion of the worshippers, and scarcely forty years
when the Egyptian Shishak spoiled it of many of its treasures.
followed rapidly, till, by reason of the great wickedness of the
people, the Holy
City and Temple were laid in ruins by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon,
sacred building had stood about 416 years.
Temple was built by Zerubbabel [Lib 1908], after the return of the Jews
their Babylonian captivity; this Temple was as near as possible a
the first, although greatly inferior to it in beauty and splendor, and
about B. C. 516.
stood for about five hundred years, when Herod the Great sought to
rival, if not
to exceed, the greatness of Solomon, by the erection of the third
He took the old one down piecemeal, and put up the other in its place,
so as to
preserve the continuity of the edifice; and it was said to be, except
of its magnificence and splendour, an exact copy of the original Temple
Solomon. Indeed the porchway entrance was still called "Solomon's
and is thus spoken of in the New Testaments
time there lived and flourished the great Jewish historian, Flavius
a man of noble family, being descended on his mother's side from the
and on his father's side from the highest of the priestly families,
also a priest. this Josephus wrote a history of the Jews, under the
the Roman Emperors, Vespasian and Titus, and in this history he gives a
of Solomon's Temple.
was well acquainted with Herod's Temple, which it must be remembered
was an exact
copy of Solomon's; he was accustomed to officiate therein, and was an
of its destruction by the Romans under Titus, A.D. 70.
of Josephus was written in Greek, and the following description of the
from a translation made by William Whiston, professor in the University
It is as follows:
"Moreover, this Hiram made two
whose outsides were of brass, … there was cast with each of their
that stood upon the pillars, and it was elevated five cubits, round
there was net-work interwoven with small palms, made of brass, and
covered the lily-work.
To this also were hung two hundred pomegranates, in two rows. The one
of these pillars
he set at the entrance of the porch, on the right hand, and called it
the other on the left hand, and called it Boaz. … He also made ten
large round brass
vessels, which were the Lavers … and he set five of the lavers on the
of the temple, which was on that side towards the north wind, and as
many on the
right side, towards the south."
he adds the following explanation:
"By the right hand is meant
what is against
our left, when we suppose ourselves going up from the east gates of the
towards the Tabernacle: whence it follows that the pillar Jachin, on
the right hand
of the Temple, was on the south, against our left hand; and Boaz on the
our right hand."
we have the evidence of a man, who was personally acquainted with
which was a copy of Solomon's, and who was familiar with the opinions
of men of
his time, as to the various parts of the sacred edifice. His veracity
as a historian are seldom questioned, and his statements therefore we
accept as facts.
I think that
the three extracts I have given two from the Vol. of the S. L. and one
historian Josephus, settle the respective positions of the two pillars,
(1) See cut
(2) See cut "Plan B."
(3) In II. Chronicles, chap. 3, the height of the pillars is given as
which included the pedestals on which the pillars stood, and also the
(4) John x., 23; Acts iii., 11: Acts v., 12.
The Origin of the Pillars
to King Solomon's Temple
is perfectly clear about the design of the Temple, and that is that the
it was not an original one, for it was designed to be only a copy on a
of the Tabernacle. This want of originality in design was also
reflected in its
ornamentation, for the King of Tyre being appealed to for assistance,
evidently lacking in Jerusalem at the time, an artificer was sent from
to supply those ideas which were needed at the headquarters of the
can imagine Hiram the Architect gazing at the plans which merely
attempted to translate
into the more lasting form of stone the temporary woodwork of the
wondering in what way it could be improved. His thoughts would
naturally turn to
the Temple which stood in Tyre itself, and which is thus described by
the Greek Historian (B. ii., c. 44), "And being desirous of obtaining
information from whatever source I could, I sailed to Tyre in
heard that there was there a Temple dedicated to Hercules; and I saw it
with a great variety of offerings, and in it were two pillars, one of
the other of emerald stone, both shining exceedingly at night." ache
was probably open to the air, and the historian is picturing the
of the pillars as they appeared by bright moonlight.
summoned to Jerusalem, might naturally have bethought himself of these
pillars of the Tyrian temple, and designed two others of different
shape and different
materials, but yet intended by him to be as noteworthy as those of his
It will probably
be remarked that Herodotus [Lib 1862; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4 (see Vol 2, Chapter 44,
viewed the Temple at Tyre in 443
B. C., or about 550 years after the temple at Jerusalem had been built,
but on this
question he expressly tells us that the priests at Tyre assured him
that their temple
had stood for 2,300 years, and consequently it must have been in
to King Solomon's time.
two pillars in King Hiram's temple had any special religious
significance, or were
merely architectural necessities, remains to be seen, but it is worthy
that amongst the Egyptians, who were the earliest builders of the
world, and from
whom other peoples, and probably also the Tyrians, derived their ideas,
were held in great honor, and that the Egyptian great god Osiris was
known as the
"Lord of the Pillars." One of the familiar scenes in Egyptian
was the great festival of "setting up the pillars," in which the Kings
took a prominent part.
‒ F. Armitage, A. Q. C., Vol. 1.
sea never made a skillful mariner, neither do uninterrupted prosperity
qualify for usefulness and happiness. The storms of adversity, like
those of the
ocean, rouse the faculties, and excite the invention, prudence, skill,
of the voyager. The martyrs of ancient times, in bracing their minds to
calamities, acquired a loftiness of purpose and a moral heroism worth a
of softness and security.
Temple and a League of Nations
By Bro. Charles B. Sindent,
League of Nations there would have been no King Solomon's Temple. This
is no idle
Masonic boast, nor is it founded on tradition, but a fact of history
by Holy Writ and the Jewish historian Josephus. There can be no doubt
of the former
and the latter has long been accepted as reliable. About the year 1050
B. C. we
hear for the first time in Phoenician history of a king on the throne
of Tyre, Abibalus
or Abi-Baal by name, and he began to reign about the same time that
David was acclaimed
king by the tribe of Judah at Hebron in Palestine. While David was
still in the
prime of his career Abibalus was succeeded by his son Hiram, a prince
of great energy
and keen statesmanship. In viewing the political conditions of his day
to have realized that his neighbor was one worthy of friendship and one
political and commercial relations would be beneficial. Acting on this
we find him sending messengers to David at Jerusalem with a present of
of cedar, with masons and carpenters to build him an house." 1 Chron.
Later when David was assembling materials for the Temple "the Zidonians
they of Tyre" i.e. subjects of Hiram "brought much cedar wood to
1 Chron. 22:14. This friendship continued until the close of David's
Hiram was ever a lover of David," 1 Kings 5:1. Immediately Hiram heard
Solomon had succeeded to his father's throne, he sent an embassy to
congratulations, and this gave the opportunity sought by the new king
to enter into
negotiations for the materials needed to realize the purpose of his
and erect the Temple to Jehovah. Correspondence ensued between these
which resulted in the formation of a League or Covenant of Nations on
terms of very
great intimacy. The letters which passed between the two rulers were
their respective capitals, and the Tyrian versions are said to have
been still extant
in the public record office of the city in the first century of the
Josephus Ant. Jud. VIII, 2, .6. "And they two made a League" (1 Kings
5:12) is the terse summing up of the sacred writer but like so many
passages, much is contained therein no less than an early "League of
which made possible peace and harmony between two great nations and
left to the
world a glorious witness to this Covenant in that magnificent structure
of the League are familiar to all Masons. The wheat, barley, oil and
wine so abundant
in Palestine was given in exchange for the timber of Lebanon and the
labor of artificers,
workers in metal, carpenters and masons. The casting of the pillars
known as "Jachin
and Boaz" in the mud of the valley of the Jordan, the "molten sea"
standing on twelve oxen, and "the lavers standing on wheels" are among
the outstanding works of the Tyrian workmen led by that other Hiram
whom the king
sent because of his skill. At the close of the Temple building the
closer "entente cordiale" was arranged. The Tyrians possessed abundant
ships and their sailors "had full knowledge of the sea" and held
the whole of the trade in the Mediterranean Sea. King Solomon on his
the Red Sea and the land routes leading to it, and had access to the
with Arabia and possibly India. A close commercial union was thus
both nations and was duly arranged. Hiram admitted Solomon to a
his western traffic and the two kings maintained a joint "navy of
which "once in three years came bringing gold and silver, ivory, and
peacocks." 1 Kings 10:22. In return Solomon opened to Hiram the route
East by way of the Red Sea, "and King Solomon made a navy of ships in
which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red Sea, in the land of
Edom. And Hiram
sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge of the sea,
of Solomon. And they came to Ophir, and fetched from thence gold, four
twenty talents, and brought it to King Solomon." 1 Kings 9:26. This
of Nations continued happily during the life-time of the two kings and
disruptions which followed the death of Solomon and the domestic
troubles of Tyre
caused it to pass into insignificance. After several generations a
Hiram, Ithobal by name, made an alliance with Israel by giving in
marriage his daughter
Jezebel to King Ahab. But that is another story.
facts prove that only by the union of these two powers in a League or
the materials or workmen have been gathered together for the
construction of the
temple. King Solomon had the wealth and ambition and much labor but
the skilled workmen and the metals, and only by harmonious agreement
necessary men and materials have been gathered together and the work
This League of Nations, while not the first recorded in history, is
worthy of note
as so much of it centers on the Temple. All Leagues and Covenants of
if they are to be abiding, must center on the Temple. Not necessarily
of Solomon or any other king or nation but rather that spiritual
house not made with hands, eternal in the Heavens."
held, and though for many years hidden, "that which was lost" is the
secret of national harmony and individual greatness. All true and
believe this, and are seeking the establishment of right principles in
all of which have their origin in Him to whom the Temple was erected
and in whom
all these reconstructive principles can alone be realized. A "League of
is appearing and must undoubtedly come into being. The spirit of the
age and the
trend of world affairs demand it. And what shall be its contribution to
narrow, exclusive, secret benefit only? Far be such a purpose from
order exists for the betterment of mankind and its tenets so
in symbolism are those very principles which will make possible an
of Nations not only for the abolition of war, but for the
reconstructing of Society
on an equitable basis of justice and true brotherhood. Freedom of
and political thought are the very essence of the right of
much talked of today between nations, and Masons well know what place
hold among our Fraternity. Masonry has a glorious part to contribute in
period, and as her sons fought for Freedom and Truth in the more
of war may her sons be equally aggressive, but in a more peaceful
manner, for the
rebuilding of our social scheme and of putting a new soul into this old
holds to those principles of right represented to the world by the
Presence in the
Temple, and as it was true that without a League of Nations there could
no Temple, so it is equally true that without the Temple and its
Presence, there can be no League of Nations.
himself might reasonably expect that his imposing tomb would long
survive the destruction
of the less enduring structures in which his nobles were laid, and that
too, might be made to outlast those of his less powerful
contemporaries. The pyramid
as a stable form in architecture has impressed itself upon all time.
vast mountain of stone, as a result of its mere mass and
the Pharaoh looked forward to the permanent survival of his body, and
of the personality
with which it was so indissolubly involved. Moreover, the origin of the
hitherto overlooked, made it a symbol of the highest sacredness, rising
mortal remains of the king, to greet the Sun, whose offspring the
form may be explained by an examination of the familiar obelisk form.
as is commonly known, is a symbol sacred to the Sun-god. So far as I am
little significance has heretofore been attached to the fact that the
sacred portion of the obelisk is the pyramidal apex with which it is
An obelisk is simply a pyramid upon a lofty base which has indeed
become the shaft.
In the Old Kingdom Sun-temples at Abusir, this is quite clear, the
diameter of the
shaft being at the bottom quite one-third of its height. Thus the shaft
as a high base, upon which the surmounting pyramid is supported. This
top is the essential part of the monument and the significant symbol
which it bore.
The Egyptians called it a benben (or benbenet), which we translate
and the shaft or high base would be without significance without it.
Sesostris 1 proclaims to posterity the survival of his name in his
"My beauty shall be remembered
in his house,
My name is the pyramidion and my name is the lake."
is that his name shall survive on his great obelisks, and in the sacred
he excavated. The king significantly designates the obelisk, however,
by the name
of its pyramidal summit. Now the long recognized fact that the obelisk
to the sun, carries with it the demonstration that it is the pyramid
the obelisk which is sacred to the Sun-god. Furthermore, the Sanctuary
was early designated the "Benbenhouse," that is the "pyramidion house."
The symbol, then, by which the sanctuary of the Suntemple at Heliopolis
was a pyramid. Moreover, there was in this same Sun-temple a pyramidal
a "ben," presumably of stone standing in the "Phoenix-louse '; and
upon this pyramidal object the Sun-god in the form of a Phoenix had in
first appeared. This object was already sacred as far back as the
middle of the
third millennium B. C., and will doubtless have been vastly older. We
that it was one of those sacred stones, which gained their sanctity in
back of all recollection or tradition, like the Ka'aba at Mecca. In
the Phoenix is represented as sitting upon this object, the form of
which was a
universally sacred symbol of the Sun-god. Hence it is that in the
the king's pyramid tomb is placed under the protection of the Sun-god
in two very
clear chapters, the second of which opens with a reference to the fact
Sun-god when he created the other gods was sitting aloft on the ben as
and hence it is that the king's pyramid is placed under his protection.
From Breasted's "Development of Religion
and Thought in Ancient Egypt." [Lib 1912]
Introspection -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald Nancarrow,
dreamt that I went to the Temple
And came to the Tyler's door,
I was clothed and waiting to enter
And sit with my brothers once more,
When there came to my mind a summons
From a questioner in my soul:
"Let us pause outside for a reason
While the craft responds to the roll."
So I sat there with him who summoned
And he asked me to answer him
And say if full service I'd rendered,
Or whether my zeal had grown dim.
Can you, O my brother, and truly,
Say now that you've wrought as you could
On the block the Master has given?
Will He say your work has been good?
"Have you kept your tools in your bosom
All polished and sharpened and bright,
Or used them in Brotherhood's service,
So they must be whetted tonight?
"The tools that the Master has given
Were placed in your hands to be used;
The talents He gave to His servant
To grow in the hearts He has fused."
And I to the questioner answered:
"O thou who my secrets can read
But let me go back to my hewing
To serve Him in truth and in deed.
"I will fill my years with His service,
I will use my tools ev'ry day,
Then be ready to serve on the morrow
By edging them all as I pray."
It is better
to admonish than to reproach; for the one is mild and friendly, the
and offensive; the one corrects the faulty, the other only convicts
growing to our full spiritual stature, under God's sky.
America Needs Us Now
times through which we are passing ‒ the aftermath of war ‒ is of
to every Mason in these United States. No one dare minimize the danger
of what we
might term national disintegration that is confronting us. The
of discontentment looms up everywhere. Strikes, riots and revolutions
face us in
small or great degree in every corner of the land. Social equilibrium
are wanting almost everywhere. Cupidity, fear and hatred are enthroned
dark night of sorrow for the whole world.
War, we were
told, was made to prevent war. And yet there are wars today that
threaten the bulwarks
of civilization as persistently as they were threatened prior to the
Idealism abroad has clad itself in the habiliments of terror and its
left its votaries stranded on the sands of impotence. Class
consciousness, as a
guide to those who strive for more humane conditions for labor and
life, has intoxicated
its millions the wide world over with the wine of selfishness that
urges them to
an inconsiderate action that cannot but breed misery and sorrow for all
be carried out. Indeed if there is to be a continuation of this orgy of
it is a grave question whether some of us will not live to see the
ushering in of
a new barbarism or worse savagery.
these. But who of thought upon the seriousness of national affairs is
disturbed, when he reasons upon these questions. Yet from those who
think must we
look for the expression of hope. The student of history may well assure
God is not dead and that ultimately all will be well. A power not
ourselves ‒ but
always using the human channel ‒ has ever hitherto prevailed for
Let us, then, as Masons who pride ourselves upon having in our midst
those who have
learned to control their passions, reveal our sanity.
walk in life we have men who have been admitted, passed and made
masters of life
by the sublimity of Masonic teaching. Let us in these trying moments
things that are large with importance for every Mason who loves his
let us not forget the noble part that Masonry, through her wisest and
has played in the past in the molding of the character of this nation.
of us are grappling with the realization for the world of a league of
us not overlook our urgent need of realizing in our own midst a league
May we not, indeed, declare that we are engaged in this great land in
the task of
working out and demonstrating as practicable that which many are asking
for as a
government for the whole world?
are engaged in the greatest experiment that any people have engaged in
world began ‒ demonstrating the validity of democratic institutions for
comfort and uplift of man. We know no aristocracy save that which is a
of our Institution ‒ the aristocracy of character. From all lands did
and many among us today come. From heath the heel of a Lord who lived
on a hill
they came, each with a hope and a promise that within these borders
find a hill for himself. Antecedents were lost sight of in the face of
for independence that brightened the horizon. Americanism, a thing ever
of the spirit,
was born with the vision of new possibilities, and no danger was tap
great to be
faced, no sacrifice too exacting for the realization of a land where
nor castles were to deny the honest effort for the attainment of the
days that are threatening, clouding our sky, engendered largely by a
sort of national
paranoia, greed for wealth, have obscured the significance of the
of the people of these United States. We have loosely aped the habits
and civilization of others instead of diligently working out the ideal
of an enlightened
democracy that is commensurate of our abilities. We have imported art
literature and religious faddism, and finally Bolshevism. The house
again is divided
and cannot stand unless there is a determined concentration of effort
for the realization
of a league of Americans.
sacrifice from every citizen during the great struggle as the
foundation of success
for the common cause. Now we must impose upon ourselves in this, the
moment of our national history, that which we deemed to be right and
just when we
contested for right on the field of battle.
high ideals were the guarantors of this Republic at its inception, and
every lodge large and small must go Masons consecrated to keep this
nation off the
rocks of disaster. Corporations and trades-unions have Masons among
Masonry can only be interpreted today in terms of patriotism. Wise
be exercised everywhere. Passion must give way to reasoning, hate to
inquiry. The heart of the American people is sound, and woe betide
Masonry if its
two millions, representing probably ten millions of souls, are not
Americanism of Washington, Lincoln and Roosevelt.
As at the
birth of this nation Masons left lodge rooms imbued with the holiest
known to men, so these days out of our lodges must we go, missionaries
of true freedom,
worthy of our traditions and of those of our sires who kept faith with
God and man,
and by their labors and sorrows gave us this goodly land of freemen.
Away with class
hatred and Bolshevism, away with our cupidity and incompetent
makers of law whether of high or low station! On with a new America
that will be
a reflection of the dream of its founders and a type of the City of God!
* * *
been disrupted by differences in languages. Differences in languages
more wars than differences in religion; more unhappiness than all other
For the sake
of the Republic, we should plead for American Unity. Unity cannot
obtain or be preserved
with foreign colonies fenced in and neighborhoods closed to callers and
and teaching in foreign languages.
I would break up all cliques in our Government. It is a big undertaking
this people. Even now the forces of dissension and anarchy are beating
shores and it will take the steadfast patriotism of all our people to
back and to assure the life and perpetuity of this nation.
at this time, we should all possess the American spirit. Indulge in
American Art; American Literature; American Customs; American Ideals;
and above all, we ought not to flatter everything which is brought here
countries, and whether that be humans or merchandise does not matter.
attain its highest standing among nations, half foreign and half
printed in this country should be in English. All public speeches on
should be on English. All telephonic and telegraphic communications in
should be in English.
man should be required to transact his business at the bank, the
at the grocer, the tailor and all public places in the English
language, not by
reason of spite or to annoy or harass but to adopt simply a wise
language gives the alien viewpoint and if this country is to endure, we
nothing but the American viewpoint.
If we all
set to and earnestly and faithfully follow these things, ere long we
shall be cemented
into one complete and undivided people possessing one country, one
flag, one language,
one contentment, one God.
William S. Farmers Grand Master, New York.
* * *
Masonry in Dark Countries
of San Francisco have recently had brought home to them certain
which strongly illustrate the character of the opposition Masonry has
to meet in
some countries where it is striving to raise the torch of
enlightenment, in propagating
intelligent thought and liberty of action.
When a few
months ago, the Grand Master of Philippine Masonry and a number of his
passed through San Francisco on their way to Washington to appeal for
independence of the Philippine Islands, they stopped long enough in
this city by
the Golden Gate to give an insight to our brethren of the obstacles set
path before American occupation. Under Spanish regime, to be a Mason
meant to be
a traitor to his country; to be the possessor of a lambskin apron,
deemed in all
ages an emblem of innocence, meant persecution and in the words of one
of our distant
brethren, punishment perhaps worse than death ‒ deportation to far-off
of the islands where radically different climatic conditions were sure
health and where barbarism was given full sway.
those nearest and dearest to him, such was his punishment for daring to
see the light; ‒ to perform the duties he owed to God, his country, his
and himself, in accordance with the dictates of his own conscience!
To be caught
at a meeting clandestinely held, meant term of imprisonment, physical
torture, in endeavors to extort from him, by force or otherwise, the
manner of teaching
the most excellent tenets of Freemasonry ‒ brotherly love, relief and
occupation changed all that, just as it changed the standard of living
all the inhabitants of the more than six hundred Philippine Islands.
physical and financial exploitation and compulsion in religious belief,
of "Farthest America" extending into thy wilderness was the bamboo
house! Here was the original center of civilization, at first looked
upon with extreme
suspicion, but when discovered to be harmless and helpful, flocked to
by the population,
young and old.
education and enlightenment, the Filipino mind was gradually brought to
of responsibility which, in generations to come will enable him to
of thought and liberty of action, individually and collectively, in
as the white race in highly civilized countries has stricken off its
developed its spirit upward and onward.
countries of the white race are still in the dark; teeming millions yet
first slender beam of light penetrating to them, to give them hope!
are yet ill-prepared to assume control of their national burdens;
relieved of the
iron shackles of autocracy, they yet are willing prey to the mental
bondage of religious
hierarchy. There is yet hope for these peoples, but before they can be
into a family of free nations, they must be first duly and truly
prepared. In this
the task of Masonry is yet before it. Will she be equal to the task?
will be equal to this task must never for a moment be held in doubt,
for far greater
have been the emergencies through which her course from her dim,
has passed. But she must work conscientiously, breaking down barrier
of ignorance and persecution, until the true light reaches to the
of the most distant countries. Her path will not be easy, for her most
opponents work under cover in the dark and never sleep; therefore
unexpected sources must be met at times both opportune and inopportune.
be rehabilitation, first of all of Masonry itself in the war-stricken
Assured of its own sound future, it will help to promulgate peace and
principles to what were recently enemy countries, but from west to east
must continue, this time not to seek, but to spread further light in
propaganda will become effective in countries experiencing their first
the wings of freedom and a new generation, like the Filipino during the
will bear aloft the same glorious golden tiara which has made our own
foremost leader of nationals and the unchallenged protector of mankind.
The Junior Warden.
A fool with
a good memory is full of ideas and facts, but he can't draw sound
them; everything turns upon that.
Edited By Bro. Robert Tipton
The object of this Department
is to acquaint
our readers with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the
literature now being published; and with such non-Masonic books as may
appeal to Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to render any
to studious individuals or to study clubs and lodges, either through
or by personal correspondence; if you wish to learn something
concerning any book,
what is its nature, what is its value, or how it may be obtained ‒ be
free to ask
him. If you have read a book which you think is worth a review write us
if you desire to purchase a book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get it,
with no charge
for the service. Make this YOUR Department of Literary Consultation.
AS THE winter
approaches studious Masons turn their thoughts to the great indoors.
The nook with
a book, the fireside and lamp, the long hours of evening afford moments
courtship of the wisest and best that ever have walked the earth among
studiousness, thoughtfulness should be the virtues gracing the life of
claimed by the mighty passion of building the spiritual Temple, and he
the hour when the sanctum is open to his will and pleasure.
Were we to
file an indictment against the American Mason it would be that he had
be a thinker ‒ a Masonic thinker. Verily we believe that even as we
many ministers of religion are impoverished of books that would
minister to their
power as leaders of men in religious activity, even so we believe that
the too frequent
failure on the part of Masons to give intelligible interpretation to
practice and idealism, is due to the lack of such valuable information
as is to
be obtained through the channels of literature.
observe that we say "literature," without any particular specification
as to what kind of literature. Let us accept as axiomatic that all
is constructive in character building is of fundamental import. A
has been made, we believe, in assigning to but certain classes of books
"Masonic." We often say at the making of a Mason whose character is
as to commend him to our fellowship, that "he was already a Mason" and
all that was needed was the initiation into the fraternal ranks to
investiture. May we not say the same things of the books which do not
bear the legalized
Masonic stamp, but are ever constructively helpful in the building of
the City of
policy of this department will be the continuation of the purpose of
the notice of THE BUILDER readers those books that are constant in
of things for the good of the Order. The searcher after truth can in no
to ignore the humble offering of the scholar to the enlightenment of
and as those whose lives are consecrated by a solemn charge to the
the world it behooves us to consider deeply the theoretical
contributions of economists
and sociologists whose work purports the amelioration of those evils
revolutionary world conditions. To be a scholar is imperatively
enjoined upon every
Mason, and a scholar has said "The sage of concord is man thinking.”
Life in order
to be progressive persists in demanding of us moments of retrospection.
ought to afford us the desirable view of our limitations and thus
us to take the forward step that will warrant better things. As Masons
it is our
purpose to view honestly what we believe to be our limitations as
evangels of a
gospel for the common good. In older lands than ours Masons are made,
as a rule,
when they are nearing the middle age period of life. The time has then
when they are capable of giving the maturer consideration to the
problems and subjects
that are dear to the Masonic heart. Let us abolish the tendency of
lodge as a social center established for club purposes. Let us insist
young and old read widely, think deeply, and act as Masons ever should.
it is the desire of the editor of the Library department to lend such
aid to the
brethren through the columns of THE BUILDER that will direct their
the consideration of those books that are written with devout and
of ushering the wider fellowship where the brotherhood of man will be
* * *
"The Ifs of History"
Ifs of History," by Joseph E. Chamberlain [Lib 1907], published by Henry Altemus
1326 Vine Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
little volume on our desk is "The Ifs of History." To those interested
in whether this old world is advanced and governed by contingency, or
by the benevolent
arbitrary ruling of Deity, the pages of this book will afford a great
deal of interest.
The publishers announce its having had a great amount of attention from
editors. And we may well believe that it challenged many astute
thinkers who may
have chanced to read it.
many questions asked are: What if Abraham Lincoln's father had gone
of coming North? What if Washington had gone into the British Navy?
What if Jackson
had not been helped by a pirate in the War of 1812? Enough is here
believe, to indicate the character of this pertinent little book which
a choice set of "Ifs" antedating Christ to the present moment.
* * *
"The Rival Philosophies
of Jesus and Paul"
Rival Philosophies of Jesus and Paul," by Ignatius Singer [Lib 1919]. Open Court Publishing
122 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Ill.
Of a different
character entirely from the foregoing is "The Rival Philosophies of
Paul." The iconoclast is at work in this book. The scholar, however, is
evidence throughout the volume, but we cannot but feel that his Pauline
tend to reveal the author out of his province. Orthodoxy is subjected
to a caustic treatment. No doubt much of it is deserved, but the word
of the author
will not yet suffice to demolish the Apostle Paul or his (Paul's)
Christianity. While the author is eminently fair and certainly
enlightening in his
gospel analysis and translations of sayings purported to Jesus, one
that his pen has too much acidity in its temper toward Paul.
of the book will be well worth while, especially to those Masons
interested in the
relationship of the Essenes to the Master. No finer picture, stripped
millinery, has come from recent hands revealing that wondrous humanity
of Him who
reveals the divine. While it will no doubt be a disturber of the
beliefs of many,
yet we cannot but welcome its challenging observations.
* * *
Religion and War
War and Preaching," by John Kelman, D. D. [Lib 1919], published by The Yale
Press, 209 Elm Street, New Haven, Conn. Price $1.25 net.
Sword of the Spirit," by Joseph Fort Newton [Lib 1918], published at $1.25 net by
H. Doran Co., 38 West 32nd St., New York.
commend these two volumes to the readers of THE BUILDER. Both are
timely. John Kelman served at the Front and his interpretation of the
the soldier is remarkably worthwhile. Critics of the Church will find
him a stout
defender, one conscious of her limitations but one, too, who speaks
on her future purposes. Preacher Masons would do well to grace their
this little volume.
Our own beloved
Newton speaks in his usual admirable strain and the sermons of this
volume of his
go a long way in confirming his ambassadorship from this land to the
the seas. True interpreter of the American spirit that he is, we feel
sermons that his labor of love will be abundantly blessed.
* * *
An Interesting Work on Spiritualism
Its History, Phenomena and Doctrine," by J. Arthur Hill [Lib 1915], published by Geo. H. Doran
38 West 32nd Street, New York, N. Y. Price $2.00.
The War has
without question quickened our interest in the immortality of the soul.
the gleaning of this volume we doubt not but that many souls were
comforted in their
bereavement through the channels of Spiritualism. The author of
Its History, Phenomena and Doctrine," is a remarkable Englishman, a
of the Psychical Research Society of Great Britain and consequently has
that institution been associated with some of the most prominent
scientists of our
day who like himself are careful and studious investigators of
The world, as this book amply reveals, can no longer slight the
convictions of men
like Professor James of Harvard, Professor Hyslop of Columbia and Sir
of England, in this particular field. Their investigations are the work
of men committee
dispassionately to the weighing of evidences in the research for truth.
is written in a lucid style, free from any sort of dogmatic assertion,
presents the question in as reasonable a light as any book on the
subject. We confess
to having felt quite spooky as we read some parts of it.
* * *
The Evolution of the Bible
the Bible Grew," by Frank Grant Lewis [Lib 1919]. Published by the University
Chicago Press, 58th St. and Ellis Ave., Chicago. Price $1.50.
Here we have
a logical account of the natural development of the Holy Book of our
altar. It is
admirable from the point the Bible is revealed to be
self-interpretative in the
matter of its growth.
It is entirely
free from the academic strain that makes books of this character hard
this little volume will lend invaluable assistance to the student of
the Great Light
who desires to give an intelligible answer for the faith that is in him.
* * *
Letters from "A Departed
Letters from a Living Dead Man," by Elsa Barker [Lib 1919]. Published by Mitchell
15 East 40th St., New York, N. Y. $1.50.
A well written
series of letters, but try as we might we could not feel any pressure
the border in the perusal of the book. Once we were about persuaded
that God must
be a Democrat judging from the warm praise that the departed California
sender of the messages, accords Mr. Wilson.
the volume, however, there is a note of confident optimism for America
and we would
commend it for its sane patriotic utterances.
* * *
Cave Dwellers and Primitive
by George William Gilmore [Lib 1919]. Published at $1.75 by The
Jones Co., 212 Summer St., Boston, Mass.
the Craft who are interested in cave dwellers and all sorts and
conditions of primitive
worshippers will find a fund of interesting information in a hank
by George William Gilmore. The ample quotations and footnotes indicate
of the writer's researches.
the book of gripping interest from beginning to end. The lucid fashion
the author reveals the growing consciousness of man and his tendency to
his own experience into things inanimate which he comes to regard as
gods to be
appeased or praised is alone commendation sufficient for the book.
Those of anthropological
or ethnilogical bent will find it a very handy book for their study.
* * *
by Lewis Paget Shanks. [Lib 1919]
The Open Court Publishing Co., 122 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago.
in Ancient Israel, by Fletcher Harper Swift. [Lib 1919]
The Open Court Publishing Co., 122 South Michigan Ave.,
of Old Glory, by Guthrie. [Lib 1919]
Geo. H. Doran Co., 38 West 32nd Street, New York. $2.50.
(Allen) Treatment of Diabetes, [Lib 1917] Hill Eckman. W. M. Leonard,
Tremont St., Boston.
of Freemasonry from Ancient Hebrew Records, by Bro. Rabbi J. H. M.
Bloch Pub. Co., 40 East 14th St., New York. 25 cents.
and Masonry in the United States before 1810, by Samuel Oppenheim. [Lib
Bloch Pub. Co., 40 East 14th St., New York. 25 cents.
for the Blue Lodge. [Lib*]
A splendid compilation of chants and odes.
Hinds Hayden, Eldridge, New York.
Stories, [Lib 1918]
Wagner Pub. Co., 239 Geary St., San Francisco, Calif.
* * *
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
bound volume of THE BUILDER
Encyclopaedia, 1918 edition, two volumes, black Fabrikoid binding
Builders, a story and study of Masonry, by Brother Joseph Fort Newton.
of Masonry, by Bro. Roscoe Pound, Dean of the Harvard Law School
of Freemasonry, Mackey
Principles of Freemasonry, Grant
History and Antiquities of Masonry, Fort
History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke Gould, English Edition
Constitutions (reproduced by photographic plates from an original copy
in the archives of the Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids.) Edition
limited to 1,000 copies
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag, by P.G.M. Barry, Iowa, red buffing
binding, gilt lettering, illustrated
Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," paper covers
Notes on the Comacine Masters, Ravenscroft, illustrated
of the Three Degrees, Street, (pamphlet)
of the First Degree, Gage, (pamphlet)
of the Third Degree, Ball, (pamphlet)
Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite, (pamphlet)
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
General Pershing's Masonic
Pershing a Mason?
Pershing (now General) petitioned Lincoln Lodge No. 19, A.F. &
Nebr., for the degrees on Nov. 6th, 1888. He received the Entered
on Dec. 4th, 1888, was passed to the degree of a Fellow Craft on Dec.
and raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason on Dec. 22nd, 1888.
a member of Lincoln Lodge until March 16th, 1900, when he was suspended
of dues. On Dec. 4th of the same year (1900) he was reinstated and
granted a dimit
at the same meeting. It is presumed that he took his dimit from Lincoln
the purpose of affiliating with a lodge in the Philippines where he was
after leaving Lincoln, but Brother Newton C. Comfort, Grand Secretary
of the Grand
Lodge of the Philippine Islands, advises us that Brother Pershing did
with any lodge in the Philippines, although he was active among the
Masons of that
country in the early days and was at one time President of "Bamboo
a Shriner's association. During the larger part of his stay in the
Islands he was
in portions where there were no lodges. In a recent conversation with
one of the
members of the Masonic Overseas Mission in France he stated that he
* * *
A History of the Cryptic
Are the degrees
of Cryptic Masonry (the Royal, Select and Super Excellent Masters'
degrees) of Scottish
Rite origin? Where can a history of them be obtained?
B. H. J., California.
a committee of Maryland Companions, of which Companion Gustav A. Eitel
prepared a report for their Grand Council setting forth the claims of
both the Scottish
Rite and those dissenting from the Scottish Rite theory of the origin,
and dissemination of the Cryptic degrees which we expect to publish in
forthcoming issue of THE BUILDER.
Wm. F. Kuhn, of Missouri, has been assigned the task of preparing an
history of these degrees for presentation to the General Grand Council
coming Triennial Assembly and has promised us a copy of his findings as
they are prepared. We are also hopeful of an article from Brother
Warvelle, of Illinois,
in the near future giving us the results of his latest studies of the
* * *
Grand Lodges in Canada and
Dates of their Organization
Grand Lodges are there in Canada, and when were they respectively
British Columbia, 1871;
Ontario (Grand Lodge of Canada, having jurisdiction only in Ontario),
New Brunswick, 1867;
Nova Scotia, 1866;
Prince Edward Island, 1874;
* * *
Clarence M. Boutelle, Author
of “The Man of Mount Moriah”
to learn something of the history of the author of “The Man of Mount
prompts me to put this question up to you: “Does Clarence Miles
Boutelle still live
and can his biography be secured?”
Boutelle died at Marshall, Minn., September 16, 1903. A sketch of his
be found in Volume I of THE BUILDER, page 94.
* * *
The Super Excellent Master’s
Degree in Kentucky
Do the Councils
of Cryptic Masonry of the State of Kentucky confer the Super Excellent
following the conference of the Royal and Select Master’s degrees?
can be conferred by any Council in the State of Kentucky. Many of the
do not work the degree on account of the difficulty in securing a
team, but the members generally obtain the degree from the larger
Councils. A degree
team from one Council will go to another Council and confer the degree
upon a large
class of candidates from the local and surrounding Councils. The work
done by the Councils located in Lexington, Louisville, Newport and
to the elaborateness of the degree the same custom is followed, we
believe, in the
majority of other Jurisdictions.
* * *
Masonic Clubs in the A.E.F.
Can you publish
a list of the Masonic Clubs that have been organized in France since
our boys went
over there, and where such Clubs are located?
not have a complete list of these organizations but give the following
from a Directory
published by the Trowel and Triangle Club, Paris:
Masonic Club; President, Senator Benson of California.
(Cote-d’Or), American Masonic Club of Beaune; meets Friday; Secretary,
Y.M.C.A., A.P.O. 909.
(Germany) Middle West Masonic Club of the Third Army; Secretary, C.C.
(Loir-et-Cher) Masonic Club; President, Captain E. Q. Jackson, A.P.O.
(Gironde) Masonic Club; Vice-President, Captain James D. Hatch, A.P.O.
(Finistere) Acacia Club; First Battalion, 110th Engineers, A.P.O. 911.
(Finistere) Masonic Club; Secretary, Corporal Henning H. Wallman, Motor
Corps, Service Park Units, A.P.O. 71R
(Cote-d’Or) Stonewall Masonic Club; meets Tuesdays and Thursdays;
Young, A.P.O. 791.
(Morbihan) Knights of the Forest 102 Masonic Club; Secretary, Sergeant
F. W. Foss,
102d Field Artillery, A.P.O. 709.
Souge (Gironde) Masonic Club; meets Wednesdays; President, Sergeant
Valdahon (Doubs) 140 Field Artillery Masonic Club; Secretary, Clarence
Masonic Club; Secretary, Sergeant James H. Hay, 6th Company, 14th Grand
(Indre) Masonic Club of Base Hospital 63; Secretary, Second Lieutenant
Pool, Sanitary Corps A.P.O. 738.
(Seine) Social Ten Brothers; Secretary, R. S. Karesh, 20th Company, 4th
Regiment Air Service, A.P.O. 730.
(Haute-Marne) Good Fellowship Masonic Club; meets first and third
Captain A. C. Howard Post Quartermaster, A.P.O. 706.
(Nievre) Masonic Society; Secretary, H. C. Bishop, Army Field Clerk,
(Germany) Third Army Masonic Club; President, Major W. S. Solomon;
Aldrich, A.P.O. 927
(Gironde) Fellowcraft Club of the 58th Artillery; Secretary, F. A. H.
(Loir-et-Cher) Trowel Club; President, W. R. Bristow, A.P.O. 713.
( Meuse ) Masonic Club; Secretary, Ray M. Dille
(lsere) Acacia Club of the Union; A.P.O. 923
Hill Masonic Club; Secretary, Sergeant First Ciass A. G. Wyant, Company
Engineers, A.P.O. 907.
(Indre) Masonic Club; President, Captain Clayton
(Cote-d’Or) Washington-Lafayette Masonic Club; Secretary, Sergeant
Leonard A. Wilcox,
Supply Company, Quartermaster Corps 307, A.P.O. 712.
(Sarthe) Masonic Club; meets Wednesdays; President, F. W. Butler, 103d
(Haute-Marne) Masonic Club, A.P.O. 714.
(Sarthe) American Masonic Club, President, H. B. Mook, Y.M.C.A.
(Gironde) Craftsmen Club; A.P.O. 911.
(Bouches-du-Rhone) American Expeditionary Forces Masonic Club;
Lieutenant F. D. Redwine, A.P.O. 752.
(Nievre) Masonic Society; A.P.O. 780.
(Germany) Masonic Club; Secretary, Private George P. Eberle,
30th Infantry, A.P.O. 740.
Masonic Club; Secretary, Private R. L. Marsh, Section 2, Ordnance
Company, U. S.
Troops, A.P.O. 741.
Square and Compass Club.
(Indre) Fellowcraft Club; President, T. J. Phillips, A.P.O. 738.
(Herault) Peyru Masonic Club; meets first and third Mondays; A.P.O. 949.
(Loire-Inferieure) Masonic Club; Evacuation Hospital 1; Secretary,
Joseph E. Hickman.
(Germany) Forty-Second Masonic Club (Rainbow Division) .
(Nievre) American Masonic Club; Secretary, Captain Frank A. Starr,
Riveria Masonic Club; President, James C. Gipe, Y.M.C.A.
Masonic Club; meets Mondays; Governor, Lt. Colonel Whitney; Recording
Merwin W. Lay; Corresponding Secretary, Cass Connaway; Treasurer, M. E.
Avenue Victor Emmanuel III, Paris.
(Landes) Masonic Club of 503d Engineers, Service Battalion; Secretary,
W. Bowes, Company B. Base Section 1.
(Loir-et-Cher) Square and Compass Masonic Club; President, Captain
1006, A.P.O. 713a.
Masonic Club of Camp Hospital 26; Secretary, Sergeant Bernard Ettinger,
(fonne) Masonic Club of 66th Engineers; Secretary, Sergeant G. A.
73, 66th Regiment Transportation Corps, A.P.O. 702.
(Loire-Inferieure) Masonic Club; Secretary, Hall G. Van Vlack, Base
Section 1, A.P.O.
(Meuse) Masonic Club; Secretary, Wm. Clark Seab, 114th Field Signal
(Meuse) Twenty-Third Engineers Masonic Club; Chairman, A. W. Provost,
(Haute-Garonne) University of Toulouse Masonic Club; Secretary, Louis
(Indre-st-Loire) Acacia Club; Colonel George M. Newell, Quartermaster
(Nievre) Masonic Club; President, Captain Van Hise, 303d Motor
(Italy) Square and Circle Masonic Club; Secretary, Derval Jones,
(Allier) Masonic Club; meets Sundays; Base Hospital Centpr 5
An Australian Grand Master
Approves the Efforts of the Overseas Masonic Mission
I have read
with intense interest the compiled facts and narrative of the
made by the American Craft to be permitted to discharge its duty
without any expense
to the American Nation, or to the Allies outside of the War Area in
deeply deplore that any Government, on its own initiative or as the
result of influence,
should have curbed in any way the natural benevolent and humane desires
of the most
loyal non-sectarian, non-political and most beneficient non-secret
known to the world, and I think THE BUILDER has added another service
to the Craft
in publishing the irrefutable facts.
I see in
at least two places in the correspondence that Masonry is stated as
being a secret
Society. Surely this is a mistake. Our lodges do not meet in secret: it
known where they respectively meet, and though we have secrets not
the outsider, we in no way, I think, come under the category of a
Corrie, District Grand Master,
District Grand Lodge of Freemasons of England,
* * *
Every Mason in the United
States Should Read the Report of the Masonic Overseas Mission
in the August number of THE BUILDER which relates the progress of the
Mission is one which cannot fail to interest all members of the Craft.
conditions, no single subject of greater importance could be discussed
in your columns
than that of the part which the Masonic Order endeavored to play in the
glance it seems pitifully small for brethren bound together by a tie
such as ours
‒ for a fraternity based on a foundation of the noblest principles. One
feel that there was dereliction of duty somewhere, that an apathetic
those who should have been first to aid in dispelling the gloom of dark
a call to labor worthwhile, our brothers-in-arms were confident that it
How few Masons
know of the stumbling blocks set in the path, so adroitly placed as to
invisible, and of the untiring efforts of the Mission to remove them.
then set aside, later an attempt to antagonize the authorities of Grand
Supreme Council, the wearying delays ‒ all should be published for the
of those 200,000 Masons who went "over there" and the almost 2,000,000
brethren "over here" who were eager to aid and assist.
Curtis G. Culin Jr., New Jersey
* * *
The Quest for Gold for Solomon's
to the query of M. I. M. in the August Question Box as to a book on the
of the gold used for Solomon’s Temple, I am thinking that he may have
in mind "The
Voyage of Ithobal," [Lib 1901] by Sir Edwin Arnold.
is based on the statement of Herodotus that Neco, Pharaoh of Egypt,
when he had
finished his canal from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf, called for a
among the great sea captains of his time who would lead an expedition
into the southern
waters and the great unknown. He was to return by the Pillars of
Hercules and the
was undertaken by Ithobal, a Phoenician, who returned after three years
treasure and wondrous experiences, the most incredible being that he
had found a
land where the sun was on the right hand as he had voyaged westward,
and made the
first journey around the African continent.
to suggest this book, because Masonry plays queer tricks at times,
associating ideas of similar type. Then, too, the Phoenicians were the
seafaring nation of the age in which Solomon is supposed to have lived,
yet in much
reading of the legends which preserve the tradition of an Atlantian
do not remember any traceable to the enterprise in trade and discovery
of that nation.
And it seems probable that they would attempt such a voyage, for Solon
the statement made to him by priests of Egypt of the great land far to
of the Pillars of Hercules, which had been destroyed by the wrath of
the gods, and
from which their own land in its earliest history appears to have been
N.W.J. Haydon, Ontario.
* * *
An English Masonic Custom
Worthy of Emulation
months' service at the U. S. Naval Base, Plymouth, Devon, England, I
had the great
pleasure of frequent visits to a number of the thirty-five lodges in
that city of
210,000 population. Many of the customs of our English brethren struck
me as worthy
charities are largely supported by contributions of individual members
and are not
dependent upon large bequests or gifts, or lodge fund contributions.
funds of the lodges are largely kept up by the penny collections taken
at each meeting,
including those of the School, and to which all contribute whether
members or visitors.
Masonic funds, such as the Devon Widows’ Fund, Devon Educational Fund,
Fund, etc., are all supported by the monies collected by the Charity
the lodges. For example, the Steward will ask for and collect from each
each communication the contribution of, say, not less than a shilling.
guinea, i.e., twenty-one shillings, so raised there is a vote at the
of the Fund as to the beneficiary, and often the members draw lots for
of voting. The well-to-do members will contribute a guinea or so each
thus be entitled to a vote. On special anniversaries, such as the
or the 10th of the Provincial Grand Master, the lodge will celebrate by
a guinea to each of the Provincial Charity Funds.
each member of a lodge, physically able, is expected to attend every
or send an excuse by letter or by another member, so the attendance is
The membership of Devon lodges runs from as few as thirty-five in
to one hundred and fifty in several Plymouth lodges, and a local lodge
two hundred members was forming a new lodge from its membership. Dual
is permitted and is not uncommon.
no uniform ritual prescribed by the Grand Lodge of England. The
install always in the same month as their first installation, so that
installations every month of the year.
the Tyler examines visitors and prepares the candidates.
As I was
leaving Plymouth aboard the U.S.S. Zeppelin on April 7th, my Christmas
and I had just enough time to open it and send ashore in the mail,
The Devon and Cornwall Freemasons' Club, Princess Square, Plymouth, a
of our Philadelphia Temple, some picture postals and booklets of the
at Elizabethtown, Penna. On my return this trip to the U. S. A. I found
of thanks from the Secretary of the Club, from which I take the
which may be of interest to you:
certainly have a magnificent structure, worthy of the best traditions
and which every Freemason must be proud to own. The brethren of every
must share equally with yourselves the beautiful surroundings in which
is practiced, as we are taught the first place we are made a Mason is
heart," consequently we are a universal brotherhood and should share in
joys and sorrows of each and every Mason.
has given the brethren in the whole of England greater pleasure than
that of entertaining
and holding out the hand of good fellowship to our American confreres
time you have been sojourning among us, and I am sure the hospitality
of the lodges
in the western part of England has not only been a duty, but we have
meeting such splendid specimens of the New World Freemasons.
is one great thing which this World War has been instrumental in
and that is the application of Freemasonry universal, as we have had
yourselves from nearly every nation in the world, and we have been
at meeting each other. I am becoming more and more convinced that the
our Order, if carried out in their entirety, would bring about the
of our highest hopes, that of a true and lasting Peace agreeable to
the article in THE BUILDER last September, on the arrangement of the
in Devon they are placed on the pedestals of the officers, and the
Treasurer use a long joint desk situated in the north near the east.
I have noticed
in several autobiographies of Englishmen that they do not neglect to
they were Masons, and in one autobiography nearly half a chapter is
given to accounts
of various Masonic functions which they attended. On the other hand
to avoid mention of their Masonic connections in their biographies.
A. H. Vail, Pennsylvania.
* * *
Blue Lodge Membership in
the United States
has been so much uncertainty in the minds of many of the members of the
as to the actual number of members in the United States that I have
taken the matter
up with the Grand Secretaries of the Grand Lodges in an endeavor to
compile a correct
statistical table, and the following is the result:
Frank B. Ladd, California.
* * *
The Secrets of Masonry
To my mind
the matter of the secrets of Masonry presents a great field for the
of different temperaments to draw upon. Perhaps no two get the same
moral results out of the Order. What these two differentiations may be
the margin of secrets as between them and whatever they both fail to
draw from its
almost immeasurable supply comprises the margin of what is on beyond
them, but for
them, the secrets of Masonry to them till their vision is so addressed.
much in the Masonic inner soul that is quite undefinable. It has its
upon the mind according to the receptiveness of the receiver.
perhaps, attain to the vision of what Masonry, by its Builders, was
comprehend. It is in this field, this unlimited, this "unexplored
wherein to most of us may be said to exist the real and the countless
be said in a broader way that the secrets of Masonry are those things
that the initiate
has to learn and may learn in becoming a member of the Craft. This is
than all else, comprises Masonry's pull upon the imagination of those
degrees and, in its way which is undefinable, holds its influence upon
It is truly
of no use to spin theories as to what the secrets of Masonry really
the practicability of the system few have any concern. But he who may
set to his
vision the glass that may have been ground by some Masonic wizard may
there is much beyond the common view, and this margin may constitute
what may be
as countless as the stars, the secrets of Masonry to most of the rest
of us who
are merely mortal men.
L. B. Mitchell, Michigan.
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Last Letters from the Lving
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War and Preaching
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