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of Solomon: Building of the Temple at Jerusalem, B.C. 1017
By Henry Hart Millman
weary years of travail and fighting in the wilderness and the land of
Jews had at last founded their kingdom, with Jerusalem as the capital.
proclaimed the first king; afterward followed David, the "Lion of the
of Judah." During the many wars in which the Israelites had been
Ark of the Covenant was the one thing in which their faith was bound.
could fail while they retained possession of it.
wanderings the tabernacle enclosing the precious ark was first erected
dwellings for the people. It had been captured by the Philistines, then
to the Hebrews, and became of greater veneration than before. It will
that, among other things, it contained the rod of Aaron which budded
and was the
cause of his selection as high-priest. It also contained the tables of
bore the Ten Commandments.
to build a fitting shrine, a temple, in which to place the Ark of the
it should be a place wherein the people could worship; a center of
religion in which
the ark should have paid it the distinction due it as the seat of
had been a man of war; this temple was a place of peace. Blood must not
walls; no shedder of gore could be its architect. Yet David collected
and precious metals for its erection; and, not being allowed to erect
himself, was permitted to depute that office to his son and successor,
At this time
all the enemies of Israel had been conquered, the country was at peace;
of the Hebrews was greater than at any other time, before or afterward.
It was the
fitting time for the erection of a great shrine to enclose the sacred
was this done, and no human work of ancient or modern times has so
as the building of Solomon's Temple. SOLOMON succeeded to the Hebrew
the age of twenty. He was environed by designing, bold, and dangerous
pretensions of Adonijah still commanded a powerful party: Abiathar
swayed the priesthood;
Joab the army. The singular connection in public opinion between the
title to the
crown and the possession of the deceased monarch's harem is well
Adonijah, in making request for Abishag, a youthful concubine taken by
his old age, was considered as insidiously renewing his claims to the
Solomon saw at once the wisdom of his father's dying admonition: he
seized the opportunity
of crushing all future opposition and all danger of a civil war. He
to be put to death; suspended Abiathar from his office, and banished
him from Jerusalem;
and though Joab fled to the altar, he commanded him to be slain for the
of which he had been guilty, those of Abner and Amasa. Shimei, another
man, was commanded to reside in Jerusalem, on pain of death if he
should quit the
city. Three years afterward he was detected in a suspicious journey to
the Philistine border; and having violated the compact, he suffered the
by the policy of his father from internal enemies, by the terror of his
from foreign invasion, Solomon commenced his peaceful reign, during
and Israel dwelt safely, every man under his vine and under his
figtree, from Dan
to Beersheba. This peace was broken only by a revolt of the Edomites.
the royal race, after the exterminating war waged by David and by Joab,
to Egypt, where he married the sister of the king's wife. No sooner had
of the death of David and of Joab than he returned, and seems to have
kept up a
kind of predatory warfare during the reign of Solomon. Another
a subject of Hadadezer, king of Zobah, seized on Damascus, and
maintained a great
part of Syria in hostility to Solomon.
conquest of Hamath Zobah in a later part of his reign, after which he
in the wilderness and raised a line of fortresses along his frontier to
is probably connected with these hostilities. (2) The justice of
Solomon was proverbial.
Among his first acts after his accession, it is related that when he
a costly sacrifice at Gibeon, the place where the Tabernacle remained,
God had appeared
to him in a dream, and offered him whatever gift he chose: the wise
an understanding heart to judge the people. God not merely assented to
but added the gift of honor and riches. His judicial wisdom was
displayed in the
memorable history of the two women who contested the right to a child.
in the wild spirit of Oriental justice, commanded the infant to be
their faces: the heart of the real mother was struck with terror and
while the false one consented to the horrible partition, and by this
appeal to nature
the cause was instantaneously decided.
government of his extensive dominions next demanded the attention of
the local and municipal governors, he divided the kingdom into twelve
over each of these he appointed a purveyor for the collection of the
which was received in kind; and thus the growing capital and the
of Solomon were abundantly furnished with provisions. Each purveyor
court for a month. The daily consumption of his household was three
of finer flour, six hundred of a coarser sort; ten fatted, twenty other
hundred sheep; besides poultry, and various kinds of venison. Provender
for forty thousand horses, and a great number of dromedaries. Yet the
of the country did not, at first at least, feel these burdens: Judah
were many, as the sand which is by the sea in multitude, eating and
treaties of Solomon were as wisely directed to secure the profound
peace of his
dominions. He entered into a matrimonial alliance with the royal family
whose daughter he received with great magnificence; and he renewed the
alliance with the king of Tyre. (3) The friendship of this monarch was
of the highest
value in contributing to the great royal and national work, the
building of the
Temple. The cedar timber could only be obtained from the forests of
Sidonian artisans, celebrated in the Homeric poems, were the most
in every kind of manufacture, particularly in the precious metals.
into a regular treaty, by which he bound himself to supply the Tyrians
quantities of corn; receiving in return their timber, which was floated
Joppa, and a large body of artificers. The timber was cut by his own
whom he raised a body of thirty thousand; ten thousand employed at a
time, and relieving
each other every month; so that to one month of labor they had two of
rest. He raised
two other corps, one of seventy thousand porters of burdens, the other
thousand hewers of stone, who were employed in the quarries among the
All these labors were thrown, not on the Israelites, but on the
strangers who, chiefly
of Canaanitish descent, had been permitted to inhabit the country.
in addition to those of King David, being completed, the work began.
of Moriah, the Mount of Vision, i.e., the height seen afar from the
which tradition pointed out as the spot where Abraham had offered his
recently the plague had been stayed, by the altar built in the
Ornan or Araunah, the Jebusite), rose on the east side of the city. Its
was levelled with immense labor; its sides, which to the east and south
were traced with a wall of stone, built up perpendicular from the
bottom of the
valley, so as to appear to those who looked down of most terrific
height; a work
of prodigious skill and labor, as the immense stones were strongly
and wedged into the rock. Around the whole area or esplanade, an
was a solid wall of considerable height and strength: within this was
an open court,
into which the Gentiles were either from the first, or subsequently,
second wall encompassed another quadrangle, called the court of the
Along this wall, on the inside, ran a portico or cloister, over which
for different sacred purposes. Within this again another, probably a
separated the court of the priests from that of the Israelites. To each
ascent was by steps, so that the platform of the inner court was on a
than that of the outer.
itself was rather a monument of the wealth than the architectural skill
of the people. It was a wonder of the world from the splendor of its
more than the grace, boldness, or majesty of its height and dimensions.
It had neither
the colossal magnitude of the Egyptian, the simple dignity and perfect
harmony of the Grecian, nor perhaps the fantastic grace and lightness
of later Oriental
architecture. Some writers, calling to their assistance the visionary
Ezekiel, have erected a most superb edifice; to which there is this
that if the dimensions of the prophet are taken as then stand in the
text, the area
of the Temple and its courts would not only have covered the whole of
but almost all Jerusalem. In fact our accounts of the Temple of Solomon
unsatisfactory. The details, as they now stand in the books of Kings
the only safe authorities, are unscientific, and, what is worse,
has evidently blended together the three temples, and attributed to the
all the subsequent additions and alterations. The Temple, on the whole,
was an enlargement
of the tabernacle, built of more costly and durable materials. Like its
retained the ground-plan and disposition of the Egyptian, or rather of
the sacred edifices of antiquity: even its measurements are singularly
with some of the most ancient temples in Upper Egypt. It consisted of a
a temple, and a sanctuary; called respectively the Porch, the holy
Place, and the
Holy of Holies. Yet in some respects, if the measurements are correct,
must rather have resembled the form of a simple Gothic church.
In the front
to the east stood the porch, a tall tower, rising to the height of 210
within, or, like the Egyptian obelisks, before the porch, stood two
pillars of brass;
by one account 27, by another above 60 feet high, the latter statement
including their-capitals and bases. These were called Jachin and Boaz
and Strength). (4) The capitals of these were of the richest
workmanship, with net-work,
chain-work, and pomegranates. The porch was the same width with the
Temple, 35 feet;
its depth 17 1/2. The length of the main building, including the Holy
feet, and the Holy of Holies, 35, was in the whole 105 feet; the height
52 1/2 feet.
carries the whole building up to the height of the porch; but this is
out of all
creditable proportion, making the height twice the length and six times
Along each side, and perhaps at the back of the main building, ran an
into three stories of small chambers: the wall of the Temple being
thicker at the
bottom, left a rest to support the beams of these chambers, which were
not let into
the wall. These aisles, the chambers of which were appropriated as
and for other sacred purposes, seem to have reached about half way up
the main wall
of what we may call the nave choir: the windows into the latter were
them; these were narrow, but widened inward.
If the dimensions
of the Temple appear by no means imposing, it must be remembered that
but a small
part of the religious ceremonies took place within the walls. The Holy
was entered only once a year, and that by the High-priest alone. It was
and unapproachable shrine of the Divinity. The Holy Place, the body of
admitted only the officiating priests. The courts, called in popular
Temple, or rather the inner quadrangle, were in fact the great place of
Here, under the open air, were celebrated the great public and national
processions, the offerings, the sacrifices; here stood the great tank
and the high altar for burnt-offerings.
But the costliness
of the materials, the richness and variety of the details, amply
the moderate dimensions of the building. It was such a sacred edifice
as a traveler
might have expected to find in El Dorado. The walls were of hewn stone,
with cedar which was richly carved with knosps and flowers; the ceiling
was of fir-tree.
But in every part gold was lavished with the utmost profusion; within
the floor, the walls, the ceiling, in short, the whole house is
described as overlaid
with gold. The finest and purest that of parvaim, by some supposed to
was reserved for the sanctuary. Here the cherubim, which stood upon the
of the Ark, with their wings touching each wall, were entirely covered
veil, of the richest materials and brightest colors, which divided the
Holy of Holies
from the Holy Place was suspended on chains of gold. Cherubim,
palm-trees, and flowers,
the favorite ornaments, everywhere covered with gilding, were wrought
all parts. The altar within the Temple and the table of shewbread were
covered with the same precious metal. All the vessels, the ten
hundred basins, and all the rest of the sacrificial and other utensils,
solid gold. Yet the Hebrew writers seem to dwell with the greatest
and admiration on the works which were founded in brass by Huram, a man
extraction, who had learned his art at Tyre.
lofty pillars above mentioned, there was a great tank, called a sea, of
supported on twelve oxen, three turned each way; this was seventeen and
feet in diameter. There was also a great altar, and ten large vessels
for the purpose
of ablution, called Wavers, standing on bases or pedestals, the rims of
richly ornamented with a border, on which were wrought figures of
lions, oxen, and
cherubim. The bases below were formed of four wheels, like those of a
the works in brass were cast in a place near the Jordan, where the soil
was of a
stiff clay suited to the purpose.
years and a half the fabric arose in silence. All the timbers, the
of the most enormous size, measuring seventeen and eighteen feet, were
fitted, so as to be put together without the sound of any tool
whatever; as it has
been expressed, with great poetical beauty:
some tall palm the noiseless fabric grew."
At the end
of this period, the Temple and its courts being completed, the solemn
took place, with the greatest magnificence which the king and the
nation could display.
All the chieftains of the different tribes, and all of every order who
brought together, assembled.
already organized the priesthood and the Levites; and assigned to the
thousand of the latter tribe each his particular office; twenty-four
appointed for the common duties, six thousand as officers, four
thousand as guards
and porters, four thousand as singers and musicians. On this great
Dedication of the Temple, all the tribe of Levi, without regard to
the whole priestly order of every class, attended. Around the great
which rose in the court of the priests before the door of the Temple,
stood in front
the sacrificers, all around the whole choir, arrayed in white linen.
and twenty of these were trumpeters, the rest had cymbals, harps, and
Solomon himself took his place on an elevated scaffold, or raised
throne of brass.
The whole assembled nation crowded the spacious courts beyond. The
with the preparation of burnt-offerings, so numerous that they could
not be counted.
At an appointed
signal commenced the more important part of the scene, the removal of
the Ark, the
installation of the God of Israel in his new and appropriate dwelling,
to the sound
of all the voices and all the instruments, chanting some of those
the 47th, 97th, 98th, and 107th psalms. The Ark advanced, borne by the
to the open portals of the Temple. It can scarcely be doubted that the
even if composed before, was adopted and used on this occasion. The
it drew near the gate, broke out in these words: Lift up your headset O
and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors, and the King of Glory shall
It was answered from the other part of the choir, Who is the King of
whole choir responded, The Lord of Hosts, he is the King of Glory.
procession arrived at the Holy Place, the gates flew open; when it
reached the Holy
of Holies, the veil was drawn back. The Ark took its place under the
of the cherubim, which might seem to fold over, and receive it under
At that instant all the trumpeters and singers were at once to make one
be heard in praising and thanksgivings to the Lord; and when they
lifted up their
voice, with the trumpets, and cymbals, and instruments of music, 2nd
Lord, saying: For he is good, for his mercy endureth forever, the house
with a cloud, even the house of the Lord, so that the priests could not
minister by reason of the cloud; for the glory of the Lord had filled
of God. Thus the Divinity took possession of his sacred edifice.
then rose upon the brazen scaffold, knelt down, and spreading his hands
uttered the prayer of consecration. The prayer was of unexampled
it implored the perpetual presence of the Almighty, as the tutelary
Deity and Sovereign
of the Israelites, it recognized his spiritual and illimitable nature.
God in very deed dwell with men on the earth? behold heaven and the
heaven of heavens
cannot contain thee, how much less this house which I have built? It
the principles of the Hebrew theocracy, the dependence of the national
and happiness on the national conformity to the civil and religious
law. As the
king concluded in these emphatic terms: Now, therefore, arise, O Lord
thy resting-place, thou and the ark of thy strength: let thy priests, O
be clothed with salvation, and thy saints rejoice in goodness. O Lord
not away the face of Thine anointed: remember the mercies of David thy
The cloud which had rested over the Holy of Holies grew brighter and
fire broke out and consumed all the sacrifices; the priests stood
by the insupportable splendor; the whole people fell on their faces,
and praised the Lord, for he is good, for his mercy is forever.
the greater, the external magnificence, or the moral sublimity of this
it the Temple, situated on its commanding eminence, with all its
courts, the dazzling
splendor of its materials, the innumerable multitudes, the priesthood
in their gorgeous
attire, the king, with all the insignia of royalty, on his throne of
the music, the radiant cloud filling the Temple, the sudden fire
flashing upon the
altar, the whole nation upon their knees? Was it not rather the
of the hymns and of the prayer: the exalted and rational views of the
the union of a whole people in the adoration of the one Great,
Almighty, Everlasting Creator?
festival, which took place at the time of that of Tabernacles, lasted
for two weeks,
twice the usual time: during this period twenty-two thousand oxen and
and twenty thousand sheep were sacrificed (6) every individual probably
to this great propitiatory rite; and the whole people feasting on those
the sacrifices which were not set apart for holy uses.
chief magnificence of Solomon was lavished on the Temple of God, yet
palaces which he erected for his own residence display an opulence and
which may vie with the older monarchs of Egypt or Assyria. The great
in Jerusalem; it occupied thirteen years in building. A causeway
bridged the deep
ravine, and leading directly to the Temple, united the part either of
Acra or Sion,
on which the palace stood, with Mount Moriah. In this palace was a vast
public business, from its cedar pillars called the House of the Forest
It was 175 feet long, half that measurement in width, above 50 feet
high; four rows
of cedar columns supported a roof made of beams of the same wood; there
rows of windows on each side facing each other. Besides this great
hall, there were
two others, called porches, of smaller dimensions, in one of which the
justice was placed. The harem, or women's apartments, adjoined to these
with other piles of vast extent for different purposes, particularly,
if we may
credit Josephus, a great banqueting hall.
author informs us that the whole was surrounded with spacious and
and adds a less credible fact, ornamented with sculptures and
palace was built in a romantic part of the country in the valleys at
the foot of
Lebanon for his wife, the daughter of the king of Egypt; in the
of which we may lay the scene of that poetical epithalamium, (7) or
Idyls, the Song of Solomon. (8) The splendid works of Solomon were not
to royal magnificence and display; they condescended to usefulness. To
traced at least the first channels and courses of the natural and
supply which has always enabled Jerusalem to maintain its thousands of
at different periods, and to endure long and obstinate sieges. (9)
in the Greek writers of the Persian courts in Susa and Ecbatana; the
tales of the
early travelers in the East about the kings of Samarkand or Cathay; and
imagination of the Oriental romancers and poets, have scarcely
conceived a more
splendid pageant than Solomon, seated on his throne of ivory, receiving
of distant princes who came to admire his magnificence, and put to the
noted wisdom. (10) This throne was of pure ivory, covered with gold;
six steps led
up to the seat, and on each side of the steps stood twelve lions.
All the vessels
of his palace were of pure gold, silver was thought too mean: his
armory was furnished
with gold; two hundred targets and three hundred shields of beaten gold
in the house of Lebanon. Josephus mentions a body of archers who
escorted him from
the city to his country palace, clad in dresses of Tyrian purple, and
powdered with gold dust. But enormous as this wealth appears, the
statement of his
expenditure on the Temple, and of his annual revenue, so passes all
that any attempt at forming a calculation on the uncertain data we
possess may at
once be abandoned as a hopeless task. No better proof can be given of
of our authorities, of our imperfect knowledge of the Hebrew weights of
above all, of our total ignorance of the relative value which the
bore to the commodities of life, than the estimate, made by Dr.
1833; Vol 1, Vol 2], of the treasures left by
amounting to eight hundred millions, nearly the capital of our national
into the sources of the vast wealth which Solomon undoubtedly possessed
to more satisfactory, though still imperfect, results. The treasures of
accumulated rather by conquest than by traffic. Some of the nations he
particularly the Edomites, were wealthy. All the tribes seem to have
worn a great
deal of gold and silver in their ornaments and their armor; their idols
of gold, and the treasuries of their temples perhaps contained
But during the reign of Solomon almost the whole commerce of the world
his territories. The treaty with Tyre was of the utmost importance: nor
any instance in which two neighboring nations so clearly saw, and so
without jealousy or mistrust, their mutual and inseparable interests.
On one occasion
only, when Solomon presented to Hiram twenty inland cities which he had
Hiram expressed great dissatisfaction, and called the territory by the
name of Cabul. The Tyrian had perhaps cast a wistful eye on the noble
bay and harbor
of Acco, or Ptolemais, which the prudent Hebrew either would not, or
could not since
it was part of the promised land dissever from his dominions. So strict
confederacy, that Tyre may be considered the port of Palestine,
Palestine the granary
of Tyre. Tyre furnished the shipbuilders and mariners; the fruitful
plains of Palestine
victualled the fleets, and supplied the manufacturers and merchants of
league with all the necessaries of life. (12)
(1) I Kings, i
(2) I Kings, xi, 23; I Chron;, viii, 3.
(3) After inserting the correspondence between King Solomon and King
Hiram of Tyre,
according to I Kings, v, Josephus asserts that copies of these letters
only preserved by his countrymen, but also in the archives of Tyre. I
Josephus adverts to the statement of Tyrian historians, not to an
of the archives, which he seems to assert as existing and accessible.
(4) Ewald, following, he says, the Septuagint, makes these pillars not
alone like obelisks before the porch, but as forming the front of the
the capitals connected together, and supporting a kind of balcony, with
work above it. The pillars measured 12 cubits (22 feet) round.
(5) Mr. Fergusson, estimating the cubit rather lower than in the text,
porch 30 by 15; the pronaos, or Holy Place, 60 by 30; the Holy of
Holies, 30; the
height 45 feet. Mr. Fergusson, following Josephus, supposes that the
had an upper story of wood, a talar, as appears in other Eastern
edifices. I doubt
the authority of Josephus as to the older Temple, though, as Mr.
the discrepancies between the measurements in Kings and in Chronicles
may be partially
reconciled on this supposition. Mr. Fergusson makes the height of the
only 90 feet. The text followed 2 Chron., iii, 4, reckoning the cubit
at 1 foot
(6) Gibbon, in one of his malicious notes, observes, "As the blood and
of so many hecatombs might be inconvenient, Lightfoot, the Christian
them by a miracle. Le Clere (ad loe.) is bold enough to suspect the
the numbers." To this I ventured to subjoin the following illustration:
to the historian Kotobeddyn, quoted by Burekhardt, Travels in Arabia,
p. 276, the
Khalif Moktader sacrificed during his pilgrimage to Mecca, in the year
of the Hegira
350, forty thousand camels and cows, and fifty thousand sheep. Barthema
thirty thousand oxen slain, and their carcasses given to the poor.
of one hundred thousand victims offered by the king of Tonquin."
xxiii, iv, p. 96, edit. Milman.
(7) I here assume that the Song of Solomon was an epithalamium. I enter
the interminable controversy as to the literal or allegorical or
of this poem, nor into that of its age. A very particular though
of all these theories, ancient and modern, may be found in a work by
I confess that Dr. Ginsberg's theory, which is rather tinged with the
of the modern novel, seems to me singularly out of harmony with the
ancient character of the poem. It is adopted, however, though modified,
by M. Renan.
(8) According to Ewald, the ivory tower in this poem was raised in one
beautiful "pleasances," in the Anti-Libanus, looking toward Hamath.
(9) Ewald: Geschichte, iii, pp. 62-68; a very remarkable and valuable
(10) Compare the great Mogul's throne, in Tavernier; that of the King
(11) The very learned work of Movers, Die Phönizier (Bonn, 1841,
Berlin, 1849) contains
everything which true German industry and comprehensiveness can
this people. Movers, though in such an inquiry conjecture is
inevitable, is neither
so bold, so arbitrary, nor so dogmatic in his conjectures as many of
See on Hiram, ii, 326 et seq. Movers is disposed to appreciate as of
the fragments preserved in Josephus of the Phoenician histories of
Dios. Mr. Kenriek's Phoenicia may also be consulted with advantage.
(12) To a late period Tyre and Sidon were mostly dependent on Palestine
supply of grain. The inhabitants of these cities desired peace with
because their country was nourished bar the king's country (Acts xii,
Mysteries Initiatory Rites
By Bro. Dudley Wright, Assistant
Editor "The Freemason," London
facts must be set down with regard to the Mysteries: first, the general
all Athenian citizens, and afterwards of all Greeks generally and many
to seek admission in the only possible manner, viz., by initiation;
the scrupulous care exercised by the Eumolpides to ensure that only
qualified, of irreproachable, or at any rate, of circumspect character
portals. In the earlier days of the Mysteries it was a necessary
the candidates for initiation should be free-born Athenians, but, in
course of time,
this rule was relaxed, until eventually strangers and foreigners,
slaves and even
courtesans were admitted, on condition that they were introduced by a
who was, of course, an Athenian. An interesting inscription was
discovered a few
years ago demonstrating the fact that the public slaves of the city
at the public expense. Lysias was able without any difficulty to secure
of his mistress Metanira, who was then in the service of the courtesan
There always prevailed, however, the strict rule that no one could be
had been guilty of murder or homicide, willful or accidental, or who
had been convicted
of witchcraft, and all who had incurred the capital penalty for
conspiracy or treason
were also excluded. Nero sought admission into the Eleusinian
Mysteries! but was
rejected because of the many slaughters connected with his name
Apollonius of Tyana
was desirous of being admitted into the Eleusinian Mysteries, but the
refused to admit him on the ground that he was a magician and had
divinities other than those of the Mysteries, declaring that he would
a wizard or throw open the Mysteries to a man addicted to impure rites.
retorted: "You have not yet mentioned the chief of my offenses, which
knowing as I do, more about the initiatory rites than you do yourself,
I have nevertheless
come to you as if you were wiser than I am." The hierophant when he saw
the exclusion of Apollonius was not by any means popular with the
his tone and said: "Be thou initiated, for thou seemest to be some wise
that has come here." But Apollonius replied: "I will be initiated at
time and it is (mentioning a name) who will initiate me." Herein, says
he showed his gift of precision, for he glanced at the one who
succeeded the hierophant
he addressed and presided over the temple four years later when
Apollonius was initiated.
both sexes and of all ages were initiated and neglect of the ceremony
almost in the light of a crime. Socrates was reproached for being
almost the only
Athenian who had not applied for initiation. Persians were pointedly
the ceremony. Athenians of both sexes were granted the privilege of
childhood on the presentation of their father, but only the first
degree of initiation
was permitted. For the second and third degrees it was necessary to
at full age. So great was the rush of candidates for initiation when
were relaxed that Cicero was able to write that the inhabitants of the
regions flocked to Eleusis in order to be initiated. Thus it became the
all Romans who journeyed to Athens to take advantage of the opportunity
initiates. Even the Emperors of Rome, the official heads of the Roman
the masters of the world, came to the Eumolpides to proffer the request
might receive the honor of initiation and become participants in the
revealed by the goddess.
who was initiated in the year B. C. 21, did not hesitate to show his
the religion of the Egyptians, towards Judaism and Druidism, he was
in observing the pledge of secrecy demanded of initiates into the
and on one occasion, when it became necessary for some of the priests
of the Eleusinian
temple to proceed to Rome to plead before his tribunal on the question
and, in the course of the evidence to speak of certain ceremonial in
with the Mysteries of which it was not lawful to speak in the presence
of the uninitiated,
he ordered everyone to leave the tribunal so that he and the witnesses
The Eleusinian Mysteries were not deemed inimical to the welfare of the
as were the religions of the Egyptians, Jews, and ancient Britons.
imperial initiate, conceived the idea of transferring the scene of the
to Rome and, according to Suetonius, was about to put the project into
when it was ruled that it was obligatory that the principal scenic
of the Mysteries must be celebrated on the ground trodden by the feet
and where the goddess herself had ordered her temple to be erected.
of the emperor Hadrian took place in A. D. 125, when he was present at
Mysteries in the spring and at the Greater Mysteries in the following
September A. D. 129, he was again at Athens when he presented himself
for the third
degree, as is known from Dion Cassius, confirmed by a letter written by
himself, in which he mentions a journey from Eleusis to Ephesus made at
Hadrian is the only imperial initiate who persevered and passed through
degrees. Since he remained at Eleusis as long as it was possible for
him to do after
the completion of his initiation it is not rash to assume that he was
something more than curiosity or even a desire to show respect.
It is uncertain
whether Antonin was initiated, although from an inscription it seems
he was and that he should be included in the list of royal initiates.
Aurelius and Commodus, father and son, were initiated at the same time,
at the Lesser
Mysteries in March, A. D. 176, and at the Greater Mysteries in the
Septimus Severus was initiated before he ascended the throne.
as stated, three degrees, and the ordinary procedure with regard to
In the flower
month of spring, Anthesterion, corresponding to February-March, an
if approved, become an initiate into the first degree and participate
in the Lesser
Mysteries at the Eleusinion at Agra, near Athens. The ceremony of
the Lesser Mysteries was much less elaborate than the ceremony of
the Greater Mysteries. The candidates had to keep chaste and unpolluted
days prior to the ceremony, to which they came offering sacrifices and
wearing crowns and garlands of flowers. Immediately prior to the
the Lesser Mysteries those about to be initiated were prepared by
teachers selected from the families of the Eumolpides and the Keryces,
in the story of Demeter and Persephone, the character of the
and the preparatory rites, the fast days, with particulars of what food
must not be eaten, and the numerous sacrifices to be offered up under
of the mystagogues. Without this preparation no one could be admitted
to the Mysteries.
There was, however, neither secret doctrine nor dogmatic teaching in
given. Revelation came through contemplation of the sacred objects
the hierophant, and by the communication of mystic formulae; but the
demanded of the initiates, the secrecy imposed, the ceremonies at which
in the dead silence of the night created a strong impression and lively
regard to the future life. No other cult in Greece, still less the cold
had anything of the kind to offer. In fasting from food and drink
before and after
initiation the candidates attached to this voluntary privation no idea
or expiation of faults: it was simply the reproduction of an event in
the life of
the goddess Demeter. Purity was an indispensable condition for all who
the temples. Bowls or vases of consecrated or holy water were placed at
for the purposes of aspersion. In cases of special impurity a delay of
one or more
days in the preparation became necessary and unctions of oil or
in water were administered. In the preparation of candidates for
assumed an exceptional importance. Hence several writers have
maintained that the
primary aim of initiation was the acquirement of moral purity. The
purity, the result of immersion prior to initiation, was but the symbol
of the inward
purity which should result from initiation. The duty of the mystagogues
was to see
that the candidates were in a state of physical cleanliness and to see
condition was maintained throughout the ceremony. According to the
there appear to have been temples or buildings set apart for the
cleansing of candidates
from special impurities. After initiation into the Lesser Mysteries the
was permitted to go as far as the outer vestibule of the temple. In the
autumn, if of full age, he could be initiated into the Greater
Mysteries, into the
second degree, that of mysta. This, however, did not entitle the
recipients of that
honour to join in all the acts of worship or to witness the whole of
at Eleusis. A further year had to elapse before the third degree could
before they could become epoptae, and see with their own eyes and hear
own ears the whole of the Greater Mysteries. The Lesser Mysteries were
at Athens on the hill of Agra, to the right of the Stadium in a temple
to Demeter and Persephone. Occasionally when the number of candidates
was very large
the Lesser Mysteries were celebrated twice in the year in order to give
late for the ceremony in Anthesterion another opportunity before the
At the next
celebration of the Greater Mysteries, after having sacrificed to
Demeter, the initiate
received the second degree and became numbered among the mystae. The
to this degree was bathing in the river Ilissus, after which the
each candidate to place the left foot on the skin of an animal which
had been sacrificed
to Zeus, in which position the oath of secrecy was taken. Jevons, in
to the Study of Religion, says that no oath was demanded of the
initiated but that
silence was observed generally as an act of reverence rather than as an
act of purposed
concealment. There seems, however, to be conclusive evidence that an
oath of secrecy
was demanded and taken, at any rate, in the second and third degrees,
if not in
the first. Moreover, there are on record several prosecutions of
citizens for having
broken the pledge of secrecy they had given. Aeschylus was indicted for
in the theatre certain details of the Mysteries, and he only escaped
by proving that he had never been initiated and could not therefore
any obligation of secrecy. A Greek scholiast says that in five of his
Aeschylus spoke of Demeter and therefore may be supposed in these cases
touched upon subjects connected with the Mysteries; and Heraclides of
that on this account he was in danger of being killed by the populace
if he had
not fled for refuge to the altar of Dionysos and then begged off by the
and acquitted on the ground of his exploits at Marathon. An accusation
against Aristotle of having performed a funeral sacrifice in honor of
his wife in
imitation of the Eleusinian ceremonies. Alcibiades was charged with
sacred Mysteries in one of his drunken revels, when he represented the
Theodorus, one of his friends, represented the herald; and another,
of the torch-bearer; the other companions attending as initiates and
as Mystae. The information against him ran:
the son of Cimon, of the ward of Laeais, accuseth Aleibiades, the son
of the ward of Seambonis, of sacrilegiously offending the goddess Ceres
daughter Persephone by counterfeiting their Mysteries and shewing them
to his companions
in his own house, wearing such a robe as the high priest does when he
holy things; he called himself high priest, as did Polytion,
torch-bearer; and Theodorus,
of the ward of Phygea, herald; and the rest of his companions he called
initiated and Brethren of the Secret; therein acting contrary to the
rules and ceremonies
established by the Eumolpides, the heralds and priests at Eleusis.
did not appear in answer to the charge, was condemned in his absence
and his goods
were confiscated. There was quite a panic about this time B. C. 415.
citizens, Andocides included, were prosecuted. He was included in the
against Alcibiades. "This man," said his accuser, "vested in the
same costume as a hierophant, has shown the sacred objects to men who
were not initiated
and has uttered words it is not permissible to repeat." Andocides
the charge, turned king's evidence, and named himself and certain
others as the
culprits. He was rewarded with a free pardon under a decree which
issued but those whom he named were put to death or outlawed and their
Andocides afterwards entered the temple and was charged with breaking
the law in
so doing. He defended himself before a court of heliasts, all of whom
had been initiated
into the Mysteries, the president of the Court being the Archon
Basileus. The indictment
was lodged by Cephisius, the chief prosecutor, with the Archon Basileus
celebration of the Greater Mysteries, when Andocides was at Eleusis. He
and it is asserted that Cephisius failed to obtain one-fifth of the
votes of the
Court, the consequence being that he had to pay a fine of 1,000
drachmae and to
suffer permanent exclusion from the Eleusinian shrine.
was accused of railing at the sanctity of the Mysteries of Eleusis in
such a manner
as to deter persons from seeking initiation and a reward of one talent
to anyone who should kill him or two talents to anyone who should bring
theme of oratorical composition and one set even in the sixth century
of the Christian
The law punishes with death
whoever has disclosed
the Mysteries: someone to whom the initiation has been revealed in a
one of the initiated if what he has seen is in conformity with reality:
acquiesces by a movement of the head: and for that he is accused of
therefore, was taken to prevent the secrecy of the Mysteries from
to all save initiates. They have, however, come to light in a great
the ancient writings and inscriptions. Step by step and piece by piece
researcher has been rewarded by the discovery of disconnected and
which, by themselves, supply no precise information, but, taken in the
form a perfect mosaic. Though it was strictly forbidden to reveal what
within the sacred enclosure and in the Hall of Initiation it was
state clearly the object of initiation and the advantages to be derived
act. Not only was the breaking of the pledge of secrecy given by an
with severe, sometimes even capital, punishment, but the forcing of the
by the uninitiated, as happened sometimes, was an offence of equally
By virtue of the unwritten laws and customs dating back to the most
the penalty of death was frequently pronounced for faults not grave in
but solely because they concerned religion. It was probably by virtue
of those unwritten
laws that the priests ordered the death of two young Arcanians who had
through ignorance, into the sacred precincts. This was in B. C. 200 and
war upon Philip V of Macedonia on the complaint of the government of
that king who wished to punish them for having rigorously applied the
to those two offenders, who were found guilty of entering the sanctuary
they not having been initiated. No judicial penalty, however, was meted
out to the
fanatical Epicurean eunuch, who, with the object of proving that the
gods had no
existence forced himself blaspheming into that part of the sanctuary
the hierophant and hierophantide alone had the right of entry. Aelianus
a divine punishment in the form of a disease alone overtook him. Horace
that he would not risk his life by going on the water with a companion
who had revealed
the secret of the Mysteries.
One of the
essential preliminaries to initiation into each degree was fasting. Two
to initiation into the second and third degrees were spent by the
candidate in solitary
retirement when a strict fast was observed. It was a "retreat" in the
strictest sense of the word. Fasting was practiced, not only in
imitation of the
sufferings of Demeter when searching for Persephone, but because of the
the contact of holy things with unholy, the clean with the unclean.
Thus it was
held that even to speak of the Mysteries to the uninitiated would be as
as to allow such unclean persons to take part in the ceremonies. Hence
meted out by the State was in lieu of, or to avert, the divine wrath
pollution might bring on the community at large. At the entrance to the
were placed containing a list of forbidden foods. The list included
of fish, including the whistle-fish, gurnet, crab and mullet. The
crab were held to be impure, the first because it laid its eggs through
and the second because it ate filth which other fish rejected. The
gurnet was rejected
because of its fecundity as witnessed in its annual triple laying of
according to some writers, it was rejected because it ate a fish which
to mankind. It is believed that other fish were forbidden but Prophyry
exaggerating when he says that all fish were interdicted. Birds bred at
as chickens and pigeons, were also on the banned list as were beans and
vegetables which were forbidden for a mystic reason which Pausanias
said he dared
not reveal save to the initiated. The probable reason was that they
in some way with the wanderings of Demeter. Pomegranates were, of
from the incident of the eating of the pomegranate seeds by Persephone.
were carefully instructed in these rules beforehand. Originally the
of the candidates was in the hands of the hierophant, who, following
of his ancestor, Eumolpus, claimed the privilege of preparing the
well as that of communicating to them the divine Mysteries. But the
number of applicants made it necessary to employ auxiliary instructors,
work was given over to the charge of the mystagogues, who prepared
either one individual
or a group of candidates, the hierophant reserving to himself the
of the instruction. In the course of the initiation ceremony certain
words had to
be spoken by the candidates and these were made known to them in
of course, apart from their context.
to the second degree took place during the night between the sixth and
of the celebration of the Mysteries, when they were led into the temple
and the second Archon opened the ceremony with prayers and sacrifices.
were crowned with myrtle and on entering the building, an edifice so
vast and capacious
as to exceed in area the largest theatre of the period, they purified
by immersing their hands in the consecrated water. The priests, vested
sacerdotal garments, then came forward. During the first part of the
candidates were assembled in the outer hall of the temple, the temple
closed. Then a herald came forth and proclaimed: "Away from here all ye
are not purified, and whose souls have not been freed from sin." If any
were not votaries had by chance entered the precincts they now left for
afterwards the punishment was death. In order to make certain that no
remained behind all who were present had to answer certain specified
Then all again immersed their hands in the consecrated water and
renewed the pledge
of secrecy. Next they took off their ordinary garments, and girded
the skins of young does, whereupon the priests wished them joy of all
their initiation would bring them and then went away. Within a few
minutes the building
was plunged in total darkness. Suddenly terrific peals of thunder
the very foundations of the temple; vivid flashes of lightning lit up
and displayed fearful forms, while dreadful sighs, groans, and cries of
on all sides, like the shrieks of the condemned in Tartarus. The
novices were taken
hold of by invisible hands, their hair was torn, and they were beaten
to the ground. At last a faint light became visible in the distance and
scene appeared before their eyes. The gates of Tartarus were opened and
of the condemned lay before them. They could hear the cries of anguish
and the vain
regrets of those to whom Paradise was lost forever and could, moreover,
their hopeless remorse. They saw, as well as heard, all the tortures of
The Furies, armed with relentless scourges and flaming torches, drove
victims incessantly to and fro, never letting them rest for a moment.
the loud voices of the hierophant, who represented the judge of the
world, was heard
expounding the meaning of what was passing before them and warning and
the initiates. It may well be imagined that all these fearful scenes
were so terrifying
that very frequently beads of anguish appeared on the brows of the
novices. At length
the gates of Tartarus closed and the innermost sanctuary of the temple
before the initiates in dazzling light. In the midst stood the statue
of the goddess
Demeter brilliantly decked and gleaming with precious stones; heavenly
their souls; a cloudless sky overshadowed them; fragrant perfumes
arose; and in
the distance the privileged spectators beheld flowering meads, where
danced and amused themselves with innocent games and pastimes. Among
the scene is described by Aristophanes in The Frogs:
Heracles: The voyage is a long
one. For you will
come directly to a very big lake of abysmal depth.
Dionysos: Then how shall I get
taken across it?
Heracles: In a little boat just
so big; an old
man who plies the boat will take you across for a fee of two oboles.
Dionysos: Oh dear! How very
powerful those two
oboles are all over the world. How did they manage to get here?
Heracles: Theseus brought them.
After this you
will see serpents and wild beasts in countless numbers and very
terrible. Then a
great slough and over-flowing dung; and in this you'll see lying anyone
yet at any place wronged his guest or beat his mother, or smote his
or swore an oath and foreswore himself.... And next a breathing of
be wafted around you, and you shall see a very beautiful light, even as
world, and myrtle groves, and happy choirs of men and women, and a loud
Dionysos: And who are these
Heracles: The initiated. It was
regarded as permissible
to describe the scenes of the initiation, and this has been done by
but a complete silence was demanded as to the means employed to realize
the rites and ceremonies in which the initiate took part, the emblems
displayed, and the actual words uttered and the slightest divergence
offender liable to the strongest possible condemnation and chastisement.
In the course
of the ceremony the hierophant asked a series of questions to which
had been prepared and committed to memory by the candidates. Holy
revealed to the initiates from a book called Petroma, a word derived
a stone, and so called because the writings were kept enclosed between
stones. The garments worn by the candidates during the initiation
accounted sacred, and equal with incantations and consecrated charms in
to avert evils. Consequently, they were never cast off until torn and
Nor was it usual, even then, to throw them away but it was customary to
into swaddling clothes for children or to consecrate them to Demeter
to the third degree took place during the night between the seventh and
of the celebration of the Mysteries. This, the final degree with the
those called to be hierophants, was known as the degree of epoptie.
Exactly in what
the ceremonial consisted, save in one particular presently to be
is known. Hippolytus is practically the only authority for the main
the degree. Certain words and signs were communicated to the initiated
pronounced after death, were held to ensure the eternal happiness of
solemn part of the ceremony was that which has been described by some
the hierogamy or sacred marriage of Zeus and Demeter, although some
referred to it as the marriage of Pluto and Proserpine. During the
the Mysteries the hierophant and the hierophantide descended into a
cave or deep
recess and, after remaining there for a time, returned to the assembly,
seemingly by flames, the hierophant displaying to the gaze of the
initiated an ear
of corn and exclaiming in a loud voice: "The divine Brimo has given
the holy child Brimos: the strong has brought forth strength."
Athenians," says Hippolytus, "in the initiation of Eleusis show to the
epoptes the great, admirable, and most perfect mystery of the epoptie:
an ear of
corn gathered in silence." The statement is so clear as to leave no
on the subject; indeed, it has never been called into question. The
of the ear of corn was part of the Mysteries of Eleusis and it was
been made of this incident by many who can see no beauty in
pre-Christian or non-Christian
forms of religion, their comments being based mainly on a statement of
Nazianus, who stands alone in discerning lewdness in the Eleusinian
It is not in our religion that
you will find
a seduced Cora, a wandering Demeter, a Keleos, and a Triptolemos
serpents; that Demeter is capable of certain acts and that she permits
am really ashamed to throw light on the nocturnal orgies of the
knows as well as the witnesses the secret of this spectacle, which is
kept so profound.
this isolated statement the Eleusinian Mysteries have not been charged
as many ancient
rites were with promoting immorality. In his account of the doings of
prophet Alexander of Abountichos, Lucian describes how the impostor
which were a close parody of those at Eleusis and he narrates the
details of the
travesty. Among the mimetic performances were not only the Epiphany and
a god but the enactment of a sacred marriage. All preliminaries were
and Lucian says that but for the abundance of lighted torches the
actually have been consummated. The part of the hierophant was taken-by
prophet himself. From the travesty it is evident that in the genuine
silence, in darkness, and in perfect chastity the sacred marriage was
that immediately afterwards the hierophant came forth and standing in a
torchlight made the announcement to the initiates. 'When came the words
I have tasted, I have drunk
I have taken from the cystus and after having tasted of it I placed it
in the calathos.
I again took it from the calathos and put it back in the cistus.
notwithstanding its length, became the "pass word" of the perfect
maintains that this ear of corn was the totem of Eleusis and this view
adopted by M. Reinach who says:
We find in the texts a certain
trace not only
of the cult but of the adoration and the exaltation (in the Christian
the word) of the ear of corn.
But he has
omitted to quote the texts on which he relies for this assertion. It
would be interesting
to know why among all the plants which die and revive in the course of
a year, wheat
was chosen for preference, why the ear more than the grain, why it
should be emphasized
that it was gathered, for what reason the spectacle was reserved for
and in what manner it secures or ensures for the individual a blissful
after death. The demonstration presupposes that the preceding rites and
were leading up to this supreme display. This practically ended the
save that then the epoptae were placed upon exalted seats around which
circled in mystic dances. The day succeeding admission into the final
regarded as a rigorous fast at the conclusion of which the epoptae also
the mystic kukeon and ate of the sacred cakes.
laid great stress upon the advantages to be derived from initiation.
Not only were
the initiates under the protection of the State but the very act of
said to assist in the spreading of good will among men, keep the soul
sin and crime, place men under the special protection of the gods, and
with the means of attaining perfect virtue, the power of living a
and assure them of a peaceful death and everlasting bliss hereafter.
assured all who participated in the Mysteries that they would have a
in Elysium, a clearer understanding, and a more intimate intercourse
with the gods,
whereas the uninitiated would always remain in outer darkness. Indeed,
in the final
degree the epoptae were said to be admitted to the presence of and
the goddesses Demeter and Persephone. Initiates were placed under the
care and protection of the goddess Demeter. Initiation was referred to
as a guarantee of salvation conferred by outward and visible signs and
formulae. According to Theo of Smyrna the full or complete initiation
of five steps or degrees:
Again, philosophy may be called
into true sacred ceremonies, and the tradition of genuine mysteries;
for there are
five parts of initiation; the first of which is previous purgation; for
are the Mysteries communicated to all who are willing to receive them,
are certain characters who are prevented by the voice of the crier,
such as those
who possess impure hands and an articulate voice, since it is necessary
as are not expelled from the Mysteries should first be refined by
but after purgation the tradition of the sacred rite succeeds. The
third part is
denominated inspection. And the fourth which is the end and design of
is the binding of the head and fixing the crown: so that the initiated
may, by this
means, he enabled to communicate to others the sacred rites in which he
instructed; whether after this he becomes a torchbearer, or an
interpreter of the
Mysteries, or sustains some other part of the sacerdotal office. But
the fifth which
is produced from all these, is friendship with divinity, and the
enjoyment of that
felicity which arises from intimate converse with the gods. According
to Plato purification
is to be derived from the five mathematical disciplines, viz.,
steretometry, music, and astronomy.
The fee for
initiation was a minimum sum of fifteen drachmas, in addition to which
the usual honoraria to be bestowed towards the various officiating
which reference has already been made. Presumably, also, gifts in kind
annually to the principal clergy for an inscription of the fifth
century B. C. found
at Eleusis reads:
Let the hierophant and the
that at the mysteries the Hellenes shall offer first-fruits of their
crops in accordance
with ancestral usage … To those who do these things there shall be many
both good and abundant crops, whoever of them do not injure the
Athenians, nor the
city of Athens, nor the two goddesses.
or Hall of Initiation, sometimes called "The Mystic Temple," was a
covered building, about 170 feet square. It was surrounded on all sides
which presumably served as seats for the initiated while the sacred
dramas and processions
took place on the floor of the hall. These steps were partly built up
cut in the solid rock: in latter times they appear to have been covered
There were two doors on each side of the hall with the exception of the
where the entrance was cut out of the solid rock, a rock terrace at a
adjoining it. This was probably the station of those not yet admitted
to full initiation.
The roof of the hall was carried by rows of columns which were more
than once renewed.
The Hall itself did not accommodate more than 4,000 people. The
building was, perhaps,
more accurately designed by Aristophanes as "The house that welcomed
Strabo's phrase for it was "The holy enclosure of the mystae" and he
distinguishes it from the temple of Demeter. It was not the dwelling
place of any
god and, therefore, contained no holy image. It was built for the
a definite ritual and the Eleusinian Hall of Initiation was therefore
the only known
church of antiquity if by that term we understand the meeting place of
Closing -- [A Poem]
O. B. Slane, Illinois.
the west at set of sun,
When the craftsmen's work is done
In the lodge;
To the westward, one by one,
Unworthy there are none
In the lodge;
And the warden pays the sum
That is due to ev'ry one,
In the lodge.
By the level, plumb and square,
And the aprons that we wear
When we meet,
On the level each will share
In the ancient lodgeroom there
As we act
By the plumb, you are aware
We are all upon the square,
When we part.
May heaven's blessings rest
On the hearts that are opprest,
Here and there;
May brotherly love prevail,
May our efforts never fail,
Is our prayer.
And in that lodge above,
Where joy and peace and love
We shall see,
The world's Redeemer there ‒
Our Master in the chair ‒
So mote it be.
would be changed into a paradise if, instead of hating, human beings
instead of speaking evil of one another, they spoke only good; if,
instead of grasping
and holding, they gave away.
to Great Men who were Masons
By Bro. George W. Baird,
P.G.M., District of Columbia
Major General George B.
of Willamette Lodge No. 2, of Portland, Oregon, of the date of December
show that Captain George B. McClellan, U.S.A., Second Lieutenant Henry
U.S.A., and Mr. J. F. Winter, a Civil Engineer in government employ,
passed and raised in that lodge under a dispensation issued by the
was a Captain of Engineers and prepared plans for most of the
that region. His work was so deeply appreciated that he was detailed to
and report on the fortification of important parts of Europe, which
work he amplified
and which appeared in two volumes entitled "The Art of War in Europe,"
published by the government about 1860. As an engineer McClelland was
at that time
almost without a peer.
memorial of the General, and its pedestal, are in bronze. It is
situated at the
intersection of Connecticut and California Avenues in Washington, D. C.
was modeled by Fred Monnies and is a most beautiful and splendid piece
It was built by authority of Congress at a cost of $50,000. The
memorial was unveiled
in 1906 without any ceremony whatever.
commanded the Second Army Corps (the Army of the Potomac) which he
disciplined and which was the largest Army ever assembled up to that
time. Its numbers
were greatly increased, however, after General Grant had relieved
of the command.
was popular not only in the Army but amongst the general public until
he was nominated
for the Presidency, when, as might be expected, political opponents
of the privilege of abuse. But, after nearly half a century had passed,
had been revised and time had softened the invectives of his former
in its wisdom, authorized the erection of this beautiful memorial to
soldier-brother, Major General McClellan.
Life's Strangeness -- [A Poem]
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
fall the evening shadows round about the
And filter like a mist upon the solemn stream;
The solid rocks are touched with eerie mysteries;
The ground beneath my feet begin to sigh and dream;
The ground beneath my feet is fluttering like wings
For some unearthly touch is on these common things;
Is on the shrubs and grasses and on the rippled sands,
Is in the air about me and on the faded hill;
Ah, whence can be the coming of all those ghostly hands,
Which evening's twilight shadows with subtle magic fill?
Ah, whose can be those fountains behind the shadow's screen
From which is poured the glamour upon this common scene?
'Tis vain to ask the "whither," 'tis vain to ask the "why";
No mortal ever guessed it, no mortal ever can;
Our lives are sunk in wonder and always will there ply
This subtle sense of magic about the soul of man.
For man hath never yet discovered once the key
Which opens to himself his own self's mystery.
We are compound of marbles and angels never knew
The reason for our being, the secret of our ways;
No angel ever guessed it nor ever mortal drew
From out the depths of being the reason for our days;
We are compound of shadow, of half lights, and of change,
And life is half a dreaming and wholly is it strange.
work me damage, except myself. The harm that I sustain I carry about
me, and never
am a real sufferer but by my own fault.
Masonry in General -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
in general, is qualified in size,
It builds its Temples round the world where glow the kindly skies;
Where governments set boundaries, therein the Craftsman go
And rear the mystic canopies that shelter those who "know."
Masonry, in general, is qualified in kind
As something that is leading to and helping men to find
The Brother way that "carries on" to others yet the cheer
Who, by free will may in due form within its courts appear.
Masonry, in general, is qualified in soul,
Its spirit, all the world around pleads for a common goal, ‒
The time when nothing can divide save that which stains the heart
When men can find each one his way, but all, within its Art.
Masonry, in general, is qualified in grace,
'Twould give to those who would be true their ever rightful place;
It would be tolerant to all upon the moral plane
That looks beyond and on and on to greater heights attain.
Masonry, in general, is qualified in heart,
It holds within its throb the key that opens to its Art,
'Tis qualified in every way, and that is saying trite
What otherwise somehow is hard to put in "black and white."
humor is the oil and wine of a merry meeting and there is no jovial
equal to that where the jokes are rather small and the laughter
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 30
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
of the above.
3. The subsequent
sections of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers should
then be taken
up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same manner.
* * *
on "The Middle Chamber in Speculative Masonry"
- In what light have you
heretofore interpreted the existence of the "Middle
Chamber" of Solomon's Temple as a literal fact or simply as a symbol?
- What is Sir Charles Warren's
- What is Mackey's opinion
you agree with them? If not, what reasons have you for disagreeing with
- What is the modern biblical
interpretation of the term "chamber"
as used in the present connection?
- How many such chambers were
there in the Temple, and what were their uses?
- Were they used as "paymaster's
offices," or as chambers of instruction?
- What is a "myth"?
- Were our ceremonies contrived
as vehicles for the conveyance of historical
facts to candidates?
thought should we continually bear in mind while pursuing our Masonic
- Of what is the Middle Chamber a
- What does it represent in the
Second degree ritualism?
- How are we benefited by
"learning" or education?
- What part does the Second
degree occupy in Ancient Craft Masonry?
- Would the system have been
complete without it?
you gained a new conception of the Second degree from this section of
Brother Haywood's present study paper from that which you formerly held
- How were builders organized in
medieval times, and for what purpose?
- Why were they intrusted with
signs, words and grips?
- Why were they called
- Why were persons who had no
connection with the building trades admitted
into the Order prior to 1717?
- What attracted them to it?
was the result of their admittance?
- How does Brother MacBride
describe the transition from operative to speculative
- What influence had the
speculative element on the operative organization?
- What did the non-operative
element undertake to do after their acceptance
into the organization, according to Brother Waite?
were Kabalistic and Rosicrucian ideas and symbolisms introduced into
- What did Speculative Masonry
inherit from the operatives?
- Was all of our philosophy and
mysticism handed down from the operatives?
- What was the work of the
operative Mason, and what were his wages?
- What is the work of the
speculative Mason, and what are his wages?
- Do you believe with those who
claim that the race cannot be improved; that
because evils of one kind and another have always existed, that they
to remain with us?
is the mission of Masonry?
* * *
Encyclopedia [Lib 1914]:
Middle Chamber, p. 483.
Vol. IV. What a Fellow Craft Ought to Know, p. 178;
Symbolism of the Three Degrees, p. 267.
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood
Part V - The Middle Chamber
in Speculative Masonry
Middle Chamber is a symbol, and not a bit of history, there is every
show. Sir Charles Warren, while Master of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of
gave expression to the opinion of the best modern scholars in saying
was never a Middle Chamber in the Temple… As the Fellow Crafts were
during the building of the Temple, they could not have used this
chamber for the
service mentioned (you will recall, reader, what this service is
supposed to have
been) even if it had existed… Even if this chamber had existed they
would not have
been allowed to desecrate it by use as a pay office."
who was one of the most conservative of men, and who wrote his
Freemasonry" some twenty years before Brother Warren delivered his
took the same position. As we may read in that work, "The whole legend
in fact, an historical myth, in which the mystical number of the steps,
of passing to the chamber, and the wages there received, are inventions
or ingrafted on the fundamental history contained in the sixth chapter
to inculcate important symbolic instruction relative to the principle
of the Order."
in the book of Kings to which Mackey here refers, is in the authorized
the bible as follows: "They went up with winding stairs into the Middle
Modern biblical scholarship has shown that the term here translated
really means a "story" and that there were three such stories on one
of the Temple composed of small rooms in which the priests kept their
utensils, etc. That workmen were paid their wages in this middle story,
Fellow Crafts were there prepared for a higher grade, there is not a
hint in the
record to show. This account of the matter, as Mackey has said, is "an
of it? A myth has been defined as "philosophy in the making." It is an
allegorical piece of fiction designed to convey some abstract teaching.
of our ceremonies is not to furnish history but truth, and that truth
affected by the accuracy or inaccuracy of the narrative behind which it
To remember this in all connections will save one from those pitfalls
into which so many earlier Masonic students fell.
simply as a symbol, the Middle Chamber stands for that place in life in
receive the rewards of our endeavors. This is the broadest sense of it;
sense, as found in the Second degree lecture, is that it represents the
education, of mental culture, for learning is described as the peculiar
the Fellow Craft. Learning stores the mind with facts, preserves one
and superstition, offers to one the fellowships of great minds,
strengthens the faculties, gives one, in short, a masterful intellect.
It is into
the possession of such riches as these that the Winding Stairs of the
and Sciences brings a man at last.
We may rejoice
that William Preston gave this teaching so large a place in our
lectures, for without
it Masonry would have been wholly inadequate as a complete system of
is a sin, in most cases at least, and the sooner we thus regard it the
will be for all of us, Masons and profane. In olden days when men had
so few opportunities
for learning it was inevitable that the common man should be ignorant;
but in these
days with public schools, correspondence schools, cheap books and
free libraries, a man who remains content with not possessing the best
been thought and said in the world is wholly without excuse. Always and
men should have in the house of life a winding stair of art and science
to climb into a middle chamber wherein to hold converse with the good
of all ages!
times the builders were organized into a secret fraternity composed of
lodges for the purpose of self ‒ protection and for preserving the
secrets of the
trade, and men were given words, grips and tokens on their admittance
to a lodge.
This fraternity had an ancient traditional history and it used its
tools and trade
processes as emblems and symbols whereby to teach a code of morality
far above the
average ethical standards of the time. This was called operative
its followers were engaged in the work of actual building.
At the time
of the Reformation ecclesiastical building, in which the Freemasons
engaged, fell into a decline and during the sixteenth and seventeenth
the operative lodges began to receive a large number of members who had
of engaging in practical building, but were attracted by the history
of the Order. In course of time this speculative element outnumbered
so that, at the Revival of 1717, Masonry became a wholly speculative
of this picture may be filled out by a remarkable paragraph in Brother
"Speculative Masonry" [Lib 1914] (page 124):
"The view we wish to consider
is, that down
through the Roman Collegia and the medieval craft gilds, along with
there was probably transmitted some of the symbolism of the Ancient
that the great quickening of intellectual life in the sixteenth
from the social and political upheaval of the Reformation, gave new
life and a more
developed form to the symbolic speculative element within the old craft
The mental activities of men had so long been dribbed, cabined and
ecclesiastical rule that, having burst its bonds, it fairly reveled and
all sorts of ways. Hence we find Cabalism, Theosophy, Alchemy and
attention and support from the learned scholars of the age … The spirit
was rampant, and ill-directed as it was in many respects, it had on the
wonderfully stimulating effect… Science, in all its branches, expanded
literature, art, and social and political life acquired fresh vigor. It
this period we can mark the presence of the speculative element in the
lodges. Our view is, that the seed of our present speculative system,
in these old lodges, was quickened into life through the influence of
period and, later on, in 1717, developed into the present organized
page of the same work Brother MacBride gives a more specific
description of the
moral and symbolic germ in the craft gilds which later expanded into
"Taking the Old Charges and
over one cannot fail to be impressed with the moral precepts they
contain, and how
the speculative bulks over the purely operative parts. In every ease
the Mason is
charged first of all to be true to God, the king and to his fellows.
vice are explicitly named to be avoided. Falsehood and deceit are
the general impression left after reading these ancient documents is
that they are
not those of a mere trades union or operative gild. There is an element
apart from and above the operative work, that refers to conduct and
it is in this, more than anything else, that their relationship with
shows itself. After all, what is the purpose of our speculative system
but to shape
life and conduct to noble ends."
In the foregoing
passages Brother MacBride takes the position that speculative Masonry
is the expansion
of a germ that lay in operative Masonry. Other writers, while holding
to this, also
believe that the non-operatives, accepted during the sixteenth and
brought with them an entirely new element. Brother Arthur Edward Waite
these writers in his little booklet "Deeper Aspects of Masonic
"The interest in operative
Masonry and its
records, though historically it is of course important, has preceded
from the beginning
on a misconception as to the aims and Symbolism of speculative Masonry.
It was and
it remains natural, and it has not been without its results. But it is
of the chief issues. It should be recognized henceforth that the sole
between the two arts and crafts rests on the fact that the one has
uplift the other from the material plane to that of morals on the
surface, and of
spirituality in the real intention … My position is that the traces of
which may in a sense be inherent in operative Masonry did not produce;
by a natural
development, the speculative art and craft, though they helped
undoubtedly to make
a possible and partially prepared field for the great adventure and
page of the same book Brother Waite contends that among the men who
into the operative lodges were many "Latin-writing" scholars who
with them ideas and symbolisms from Kabalism and Rosicrucianism. With
Albert Pike and many other authorities are agreed.
argument, it seems to me, does not contradict, but rather supplements
position. If this be the case we may say that from operative Masonry
system has received an organization, a moral element, and certain
emblems and symbols
derived from the building art; but there is an element of philosophy
in our ritual, in the Third degree more especially, derived from other
future articles a discussion of the mystical and philosophical element,
we may examine
here only the elements inherited from the operative gilds. The
operative Mason used
actual tools to erect structures of wood and stone; for this he
wages. The speculative Mason uses moral, mental and spiritual forces to
into a nobler manhood and society into a nobler Brotherhood; his wages
the enrichment of his own and his race's life.
are familiar enough to every Mason, indeed, they have become almost
threadbare, but familiarity must not be permitted to blind us to the
had almost said the revolutionary) character of this teaching. For it
human nature may be modified, reformed, regenerated; and the world,
The cry of
the reactionary, the obstructionist, the ultra ‒ conservative, has ever
the world is, so it has always been, so it will ever be. Poverty, vice,
these are fated things, built into the nature of the race, and can in
no wise be
improved." Against this position Masonry throws itself with all its
and contends that out of the stuff of the Present a nobler Future can
be made; that
a man's nature is plastic material out of which a better man can be
the world of today is a rough quarry out of which may be hewn the
stones for a Temple
of Tomorrow, in which a God may be found to dwell. If this philosophy
be true; as we Masons are most profoundly convinced that it is, it
gives us the
one Great Hope of Man, the one certain pledge of Progress.
Treatise on Masonry
From The Catholic Encyclopedia
Part III ‒ Outer Work of
Freemasonry: Its Achievements, Purposes and Methods (Continued)
THE chief organization which in France secured the
success of Freemasonry was the famous "League
of instruction" founded in 1867 by Bro. F. Mace, later a member of the
This league affiliated and imbued with its spirit many other
Masonry and above all the Grand Orient of France has displayed the most
activity as the dominating political element in the French
since 1877 (see also Chr.,1889, I, 81 sq.). From the official documents
Masonry contained principally in the official "Bulletin" and
of the Grand Orient it has been proved that all the anticlerical
in the French Parliament were decreed beforehand in the Masonic lodges
under the direction of the Grand Orient, whose avowed aim is to control
and everybody in France ("que personne ne bougera plus en France en
de nous," "Bull. Gr. Or.," 1890, 500 sq.). "I said in the assembly
of 1898," states the deputy Masse, the official orator of the Assembly
"that it is the supreme duty of Freemasonry to interfere each day more
more in political and profane struggles." "Success (in the
combat) is in a large measure due to Freemasonry; for it is its spirit,
its methods, that have triumphed." "If the Bloc has been established,
this is owing to Freemasonry and to the discipline learned in the
lodges. The measures
we have now to urge are the separation of Church and State and a law
instruction. Let us put our trust in the word of our Bro. Combes." "For
a long time Freemasonry has been simply the republic in disguise," i.
secret parliament and government of Freemasonry in reality rule France;
State, Parliament, and Government merely execute its decrees. "We are
of the country"; "we are each year the funeral bell announcing the
of a cabinet that has not done its duty but has betrayed the Republic;
or we are
its support, encouraging it by saying in a solemn hour: I present you
the word of
the country … its satisfecit which is wanted by you, or its reproach
will be sealed by your fall." "We need vigilance and above all mutual
confidence, if we are to accomplish our work, as yet unfinished. This
know … the anti ‒ clerical combat, is going on. The Republic must rid
the religious congregations, sweeping them off by a vigorous stroke.
of half measures is everywhere dangerous; the adversary must be crushed
with a single
blow" (Compte-rendu Gr. Or., 1903, Nourrisson, "Les Jacobins,"
"It is beyond doubt," declared the President of the Assembly of 1902,
Bro. Blatin, with respect to the French elections of 1902, "that we
been defeated by our well-organized opponents, if Freemasonry had not
the whole country" (Compte-rendu, 1902, 153).
this political activity Freemasonry employed against its adversaries,
or supposed, a system of spying and false accusation, the exposure of
about the downfall of the Masonic cabinet of Combes. In truth all the
Masonic reforms carried out in France since 1877, such as the
education, measures against private Christian schools and charitable
the suppression of the religious orders and the spoliation of the
culminate in an antichristian and irreligious reorganization of human
only in France but throughout the world. Thus French Freemasonry, as
of all Freemasonry, pretends to inaugurate the golden era of the
republic, comprising in Masonic brotherhood all men and all nations.
of the Galilean," said the president of the Grand Orient, Senator
on 20 September, 1902, "has lasted twenty centuries. But now he dies in
turn. The mysterious voice, announcing (to Julian the Apostate) the
death of Pan,
today announces the death of the impostor God who promised an era of
peace to those who believe in him. The illusion has lasted a long time.
God is now disappearing in his turn; he passes away to join in the dust
the other divinities of India, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, who saw so many
creatures prostrate before their altars. Bro. Masons, we rejoice to
state that we
are not without our share in this overthrow of the false prophets. The
founded on the Galilean myth, began to decay rapidly from the very day
the Masonic Association was established" (Compte-rendu Gr. Or. de
of the French Masons: "We are the conscience of the country," was not
true. By the official statistics it was ascertained, that in all
1906 the majority of the votes were against the Masonic Bloc, and even
in 1906 does not prove that the Bloc, or Masonry, in its anti-clerical
and purposes represents the will of the nation, since the contrary is
many other facts. Much less does it represent the "conscience" of the
nation. The fact is, that the Bloc in 1906 secured a majority only
because the greater
part of this majority voted against their "conscience." No doubt the
of Freemasonry in France are highly exaggerated, and such success as
they have had
is due chiefly to the lowering of the moral tone in private and public
by the disunion existing among Catholics and by the serious political
they committed. Quite similar is the outer work of the Grand Orient of
likewise pretends to be the standard-bearer of Freemasonry in the
of Masonic light and freedom against the powers of "spiritual darkness
bondage," alluding of course to the papacy, and dreams of the
of a new and universal republican empire with a Masonic Rome,
supplanting the papal
and Caesarean as metropolis. The Grand Orient of Italy has often
declared that it
is enthusiastically followed in this struggle by the Freemasonry of the
and especially by the Masonic centers at Paris, Berlin, London, Madrid,
Washington ("Riv.," 1892, 219; Gruber, "Mazzini," 215 sqq. and
passim [Lib*]). It has not been contradicted by a single Grand Lodge in
country, nor did the German and other Grand Lodges break off their
it on account of its shameful political and anti-religious activity.
the aims of Italian Masons are perhaps more radical and their methods
than those of the French, their political influence, owing to the
the surrounding social conditions, is less powerful. The same is to be
said of the
Belgian and the Hungarian Grand Lodges, which also consider the Grand
France as their political model.
the date of the international Masonic congress, assembled at Paris, 16
and 17 July,
1889, by the Grand Orient of France, systematic and incessant efforts
made to bring about a closer union of universal Freemasonry in order to
efficaciously and rapidly the Masonic ideals. The special allies of the
in this undertaking are: the Supreme Council and the Symbolical Grand
Lodge of France
and the Masonic Grand Lodges of Switzerland, Belgium, Italy, Spain,
Greece; the Grand Lodges of Massachusetts and of Brazil were also
the congress. The program pursued by the Grand Orient of France, in its
runs thus: "Masonry, which prepared the Revolution of 1789, has the
continue its work" (circular of the G. O. of France, 2 April, 1889).
is to be accomplished by the thoroughly and rigidly consistent
application of the
principles of the Revolution to all the departments of the religious,
legal, political, and social order. The necessary political reforms
in most of their essential points, henceforth the consistent
application of the
revolutionary principles to the social conditions of mankind is the
main task of
Masonry. The universal social republic, in which, after the overthrow
of every kind
of spiritual and political tyranny," of "theocratical" and dynastical
powers and class privileges, reigns the greatest possible individual
social and economic equality conformably to French Masonic ideals, is
the real ultimate
aim of this social work.
are deemed the principal means: (1) To destroy radically by open
the Church or by a hypocritical fraudulent system of separation between
Church, all social influence of the Church and of religion, insidiously
and, as far as possible, to destroy the Church and all true, i.e.,
which is more than a vague cult of fatherland and of humanity; (2) To
secularize, by a likewise hypocritical fraudulent system of
all public and private life and, above all, popular instruction and
as understood by the Grand Orient party is anti-Catholic and even
atheistic, positivistic, or agnostic sectarianism in the garb of
Freedom of thought and conscience of the children has to be developed
in the child at school and protected, as far as possible, against all
influences, not only of the Church and priests, but also of the
children's own parents,
if necessary, even by means of moral and physical compulsion. The Grand
considers it indispensable and an infallibly sure way to the final
of the universal social republic and of the pretended world peace, as
them, and of the glorious era of human solidarity and of unsurpassable
in the reign of liberty and justice (see "Chaine d'Union," 1889, 134,
212 sqq., 248 sqq., 291 sqq.; the official comptes rendus of the
Congress of Paris, 16-17 July, 1889, and 31 August, 1 and 2 September,
by the Grand Orient of France, and the regular official "Comptes rendus
travaux" of this Grand Orient, 1896-1910, and the "Rivista massonica,"
1880 ‒ 1910).
to bring about a closer union with Anglo-American and German
Freemasonry were made
principally by the Symbolical Grand Lodge of France and the
Masonic Agency" at Neuchatel (directed by the Swiss Past Grand Master
La Tente), attached to the little Grand Lodge "Alpina" of Switzerland.
These two Grand Lodges, as disguised agents of the Grand Orient of
France, act as
mediators between this and the Masonic bodies of English-speaking and
With English and American Grand Lodges their efforts till now have had
success (see Internat. Bulletin, 1908, 119, 127, 133, 149, 156; 1909,
the Grand Lodge of Iowa seems to have recognized the Grand Lodge of
1905, II, 58, 108, 235). The English Grand Lodge not only declined the
on 23 September, 1907, through its registrar even declared: "We feel,
we in England are better apart from such people. Indeed, Freemasonry is
bad odour on the Continent of Europe, by reason of its being exploited
and Anarchists, that we may have to break off relations with more of
the Grand Bodies
who have forsaken our Landmarks" (from a letter of the Registrator J.
in London, to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts: see "The New Age," New
York, 1909, I, 177). The American Grand Lodges (Massachusetts,
in general, seem to be resolved to follow the example of the English
Grand Lodges, on the contrary, at least most of them, yielded to the
on them by a great many German brothers. Captivated by the Grand Orient
3, June, 1906, the Federation of the eight German Grand Lodges, by 6
votes to 2,
decreed to establish official friendly relations with the Grand Lodge,
and on 27
May, 1909, by 5 votes to 3, to restore the same relations with the
of France. This latter decree excited the greatest manifestations of
and jubilation in the Grand Orient party, which considered it as an
event of great
historic import. But in the meantime a public press discussion was
by some incisive articles of the "Germania" (Berlin, 10 May, 1908; 9
12 November, 1909; 5, 19 February, 1910) with the result, that the
three old Prussian
Grand Lodges, comprising 37,198 brothers controlled by the
their ambiguous attitude and energetically condemned the decree of 27
and the attitude of the 5 other so-called "humanitarian" German Grand
Lodges, which comprise but 16,448 brothers. It was hoped, that the
British and American
Grand Lodges, enticed by the example of the German Grand Lodges, would,
in the face
of the common secular enemy in the Vatican, join the Grand Orient party
great universal Masonic congress, to be held in Rome in 1911. But
instead of this
closer union of universal Freemasonry dreamt of by the Grand Orient
party, the only
result was a split between the German Grand Lodges by which their
was momentarily shaken to its foundation.
But in spite
of the failure of the official transactions, there are a great many
German and not
a few American Masons, who evidently favor at least the chief
of the Grand Orient party. Startling evidence thereof was the recent
agitation, which, on occasion of the execution of the anarchist, Bro.
an active member of the Grand Orient of France (Barcelona, 13 October,
set at work by the Grand Orient of France (Circular of 14 October,
dem." 1906, 230 sqq.; 1907, 42, 176; 1909, 310, 337 sqq.; 1910, an
Masonic Bulletin," Berne, 1909, 204 sq.), and of Italy (Rivista
1909, 337 sqq., 423), in order to provoke the organization of an
after the French pattern. In nearly all countries of Europe the
State and Church and the laicization or neutralization of the popular
and education, were and are still demanded by all parties of the Left
that there are also American Masons, who evidently advocate the
Kulturkampf in America
and stir up the international Kulturkampf, is attested by the example
of Bros. J.
D. Buck, 33, and A. Pike, 33. Buck published a book, "The Genius of
in which he advocates most energetically a Kulturkampf for the United
book, which in 1907, was in its 3rd edition, is recommended ardently to
Masons by Masonic journals. A. Pike, as the Grand Commander of the
Council of the World (Charleston, South Carolina) lost no opportunity
in his letters
to excite the anti-clerical spirit of his colleagues. In a long letter
of 28 December,
1886, for instance, he conjures the Italian Grand Commander, Timoteo
the intimate friend of Garibaldi, to do all in his power, in order to
Masonry against the Vatican. He writes: "The Papacy … has been for a
years the torturer and curse of Humanity, the most shameless imposture,
in its pretense
to spiritual power of all ages. With its robes wet and reeking with the
half a million of human beings, with the grateful odor of roasted human
in its nostrils, it is exulting over the prospect of renewed dominion.
It has sent
all over the world its anathemas against Constitutional government and
of men to freedom of thought and conscience." Again, "In presence of
spiritual 'Cobra di capello,' this deadly, treacherous, murderous
enemy, the most
formidable power in the world, the unity of Italian Masonry is of
absolute and supreme
necessity; and to this paramount and omnipotent necessity all minor
ought to yield; dissensions and disunion, in presence of this enemy of
race are criminal." "There must be no unyielding, uncompromising
upon particular opinions, theories, prejudices, professions: but, on
mutual concessions and harmonious co-operation." "The Freemasonry of
world will rejoice to see accomplished and consummated the Unity of the
Freemasonry" (Official Bulletin, September, 1887, 173 sqq.). Important
journals, for instance, "The American Tyler-Keystone" (Ann Arbor),
patronize the efforts of the French Grand Orient Party. "The absolute
of the Craft," says the Past Grand Master Clifford P. MacCalla
"is a glorious thought." "Neither boundaries of States nor vast oceans
separate the Masonic Fraternity. Everywhere it is one." "There is no
church, no universal body of politic; but there is a universal
Freemasonry; and every Brother who is a worthy member, may feel proud
(Chr., 1906, II, 132). Owing to the solidarity existing between all
and individual Masons, they are all jointly responsible for the evil
doings of their
Masons, however, extol the pretended salutary influence of their order
culture and progress. "Masonry," says Frater, Grand Orator, Washington,
"is the shrine of grand thoughts of beautiful sentiments, the seminary
the improvement of the moral and the mental standard of its members. As
of morality it rains benign influence on the mind and heart" (Chr.,
148). "Modern Freemasonry," according to other Masons, "is a social
and moral reformer" (Chr., 1888, II, 99). "No one," says the "Keystone"
of Chicago, "has estimated or can estimate the far reaching character
influence of Masonry in the world. It by no means is limited to the
bodies of the
Craft. Every initiate is a light bearer. a center of light" (Chr.,
146). "In Germany ‒ as in the United States and Great Britain those who
been leaders of men in intellectual, moral and social life, have been
Eminent examples in the past are the Brothers Fichte, Herder, Wieland,
Goethe. Greatest of them all was J. W. von Goethe. Well may we be proud
a man" ("Keystone," quoted in Chr., 18 , 1I, 355), etc. German Masons
(see Boos, 304-63) claim for Freemasonry a considerable part in the
or German literature in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. These
when critically examined, prove to be either groundless or exaggerated.
freemasonry, being then at a low intellectual and moral level and
orthodoxy, was not quantified to be the originator or a leading factor
in the freethinking
"Culture or Enlightenment." German Masonry, then dominated by the
system and the Strict observance and intellectually and morally
Masonic historians themselves avow, was in no better plight. In truth
literary men of the epoch, Lessing, Goethe, Herder, etc., were cruelly
and disappointed by what they saw and experienced in their lodge life
141-236). Lessing spoke with contempt of the lodge life; Goethe
Masonic associations and doings as "fools and rogues"; Herder wrote, 9
January 1786, to the celebrated philologist Bro. Heyne: "I beat a
to all secret societies and, as a result of my experience, both within
circles and outside, I wish them all to the devil. For persistent
and the spirit of cabal creep beneath the cover" (Boos, 326).
far from contributing to the literary greatness of these or other
leading men, profited
by the external splendor which their membership reflected on it. But
was by no means deserved, for even at the height of their literary
fame, not they,
but common swindlers, like Johnson, Cagliostro, etc., were the centers
the Masonic world gravitated. All the superior men belonging to
Fessler, Krause, Schroder, Mossdorf, Schiffman, Findel, etc., so far as
to purge lodge life from humbug, were treated ignominiously by the bulk
of the average
Masons and even by lodge authorities. Men of similar turn of mind are
by English and American Masonic devotees as "materialists" and
(Chr., 1885, I, 85;1900, II, 71). But true it is that the lodges work
effectually for the propagation and application of "unsectarian"
principles in human society and life. The Masonic magazines abound in
this effect. Thus Bro. Richardson of Tennessee avers: "Freemasonry does
work silently, but it is the work of a deep river, that silently pushes
the ocean, etc." (Chr., 1889, I, 308). "The abandonment of old themes
and the formation of new ones," explained Grand High Priest, J. W.
"do not always arise from the immediately perceptible cause which the
assigns, but are the culmination of principles which have been working
in the minds
of men for many years, until at last the proper time and propitious
kindle the latent truth into life, and, as the light of reason flows
from mind to
mind and the unity of purpose from heart to heart, enthusing all with a
cause and moving nations as one man to the accomplishment of great
ends. On this
principle does the institution of Freemasonry diffuse its influence to
of mankind. It works quietly and secretly, but penetrates through all
of society in its many relations, and the recipients of its many favors
by its grand achievements, but cannot tell whence it came" (Chr., 1897,
303). The "Voice" (Chicago) writes: "Never before in the history
of ages has Freemasonry occupied so important a position, as at the
Never was its influence so marked, its membership so extensive, its
revered." "There are more Masons outside the great Brotherhood than
it." Through its "pure morality" with which pure Freemasonry is
it "influences society, and, unperceived, sows the seed that brings
in wholesome laws and righteous enactments. It upholds the right,
relieves the distressed,
defends the weak and raises the fallen (of course, all understood in
sense above explained). So, silently but surely and continually, it
the great fabric of human society" (Chr., 1889, II, 257 sq.).
force of Freemasonry in its outer work is indeed, that there are more
oftentimes better qualified for the performance of Masonic work,
outside the brotherhood
than within it. Freemasonry itself in Europe and in America founds
institutions of similar form and scope for all classes of society and
them its spirit. Thus according to Gould (Concise History, 2)
about 1750 "has exercised a remarkable influence over all other
societies." The same is stated by Bro. L. Blanc, Deschamps, etc., for
and other countries. In the United States, according to the "Cyclopedia
Fraternities," there exist more than 600 secret societies, working more
less under the veil of forms patterned on Masonic symbolism and for the
notably influenced by Freemasonry, so that every third male adult in
States is a member of one or more of such secret societies.
says the "Cyclopedia," p. v, "of course, is shown to be the mother
‒ Fraternity in fact as well as in name." "Few who are well informed on
the subject, will deny that the Masonic Fraternity is directly or
parent organization of all modern secret societies, good, bad and
(ibid., p. xv).
Freemasons are wont to protest strongly against all charges accusing
of interfering with political or religious affairs or of hostility to
or disloyalty to the public authorities. They even praise Freemasonry
of the strongest bulwarks of religion" (Chr., 1887, II, 340), "the
of the church" (Chr., -1885, II, 355) "the handmaid of religion"
(Chr., 1887, I, 119). "There is nothing in the nature of the Society,"
says the "Royal Craftsman," New York, "that necessitates the
of a single sentence of any creed, the discontinuance of any religious
the obliteration of a dogma of belief. No one is asked to deny the
Bible, to change
his Church relations or to be less attentive to the teaching of his
and counsellors" (Chr., 1887, II, 49). "Masonry indeed contains the
of Christianity" (Chr., 1875, I, 113). "It is a great mistake to
it an enemy of the Church." "It does not offer itself as a substitute
of that divinely ordained institution." "It offers itself as an
as an ally, as a helper in the great work of the regeneration of the
race, of the
uplifting of man" (Chr., 1890, II, 101). Hence, "we deny the right of
the Romish Church to exclude from its communion those of its flock who
the responsibility of the Order of Freemasonry" (Chr., 1875, I, 113).
such protestations seem to be sincere and to reveal even a praiseworthy
their authors not to conflict with religion and the Church, they are
by notorious facts. Certainly Freemasonry and "Christian" or "Catholic"
religion are not opposed to each other, when Masons, some erroneously
hypocritically understand "Christian" or "Catholic" in the above
described Masonic sense, or when Masonry itself is mistakenly conceived
as an orthodox
Christian institution. But between "Masonry" and "Christian"
or "Catholic" religion, conceived as they really are: between
Freemasonry and "dogmatic, orthodox" Christianity or Catholicism, there
is a radical opposition. It is vain to say: though Masonry is
it does not prevent individual Masons from being "sectarian" in their
non-Masonic relations; for in its official "unsectarianism" Freemasonry
necessarily combats all that Christianity contains beyond the
in which all men agree," consequently all that is characteristic of the
and Catholic religion. These characteristic features Freemasonry
combats not only
as superfluous and merely subjective, but also as spurious additions
the objective universal truth, which it professes. To ignore Christ and
is practically to reject them as unessential framework.
goes farther and attacks Catholicism openly. The "Voice" (Chicago), for
instance, in an article which begins: "There is nothing in the Catholic
which is adverse to Masonry," continues, "for the truth is, that
embodies that religion in which all men agree." This is as true as that
veritable religion, wherever found, is in substance the same. Neither
is it in the
power of any man or body of men to make it otherwise. Doctrines and
forms of observance
conformable to piety, imposed by spiritual overseers, may be as various
as the courses
of wind; and like the latter may war with each other upon the face of
earth, but they are not religion. Bigotry and zeal, the assumptions of
with all its countless inventions to magnify and impress the world …
are ever the
mainsprings of strife, hatred and revenge, which defame and banish
its inseparable virtues, and work unspeakable mischief, wherever
mankind are found
upon the earth. Popery and priestcraft are so allied, that they may be
same; the truth being, that the former is nothing more nor less than a
of the latter, being a particular form of a vicious principle, which
itself is but
the offspring of a conceit of self-sufficiency and the lust of
which can be named, is more repugnant to the spirit of Masonry, nothing
to be more
carefully guarded against, and this has been always well understood by
masters, and it must in truth be said, that such is the wisdom of the
of Masonic instruction in Lodges, etc." (Chr., 1887, I, 35). In similar
containing in almost every word a hidden or open attack on
Christianity, the truly
Masonic magazines and books of all countries abound. Past Grand Deacon
J. C. Parkinson,
an illustrious English Mason, frankly avows: "The two systems of
Freemasonry are not only incompatible, but they are radically opposed
to each other"
(Chr., 1884, II, 17): and American Masons say: "We won't make a man a
until we know that he isn't a Catholic." (Chr., 1890, II, 347: see also
to loyalty towards "lawful government" American Masons pretend that
Freemasons, individually and collectively, are loyal and active
supporters of republican
or constitutional governments" ("Voice" quoted in Chr., 1890, I,
98). "Our principles are all republican" ("Voice" in Chr., 1893,
I, 130). "Fidelity and Loyalty, and peace and order, and subordination
authorities are household gods of Freemasonry" ("Voice" in Chr.,
1890, I, 98); and English Freemasons declare, that, "the loyalty of
Masons is proverbial" (Chr., 1899, I, 301). These protestations of
and American Freemasons in general may be deemed sincere, as far as
their own countries
and actual governments are concerned. Not even the revolutionary Grand
France thinks of overthrowing the actual political order in France,
which is in
entire conformity with its wishes. The question is, whether Freemasons
lawful Government in their own and other countries, when it is not
inspired by Masonic
principles. In this respect both English and American Freemasons, by
and conduct provoke the condemnatory verdict of enlightened and
opinion. We have already above hinted at the whimsical Article II of
Charges," calculated to encourage rebellion against governments which
according to the wishes of Freemasonry. The "Freemason's Chronicle" but
faithfully expresses the sentiments of Anglo American Freemasonry, when
"If we were to assert that under no circumstances had a Mason been
to take arms against a bad government, we should only be declaring
that, in trying
moments, when duty, in the Masonic sense, to state means antagonism to
they had failed in the highest and most sacred duty of a citizen.
Rebellion in some
cases is a sacred duty, and none, but a bigot or a fool, will say, that
were in the wrong, when they took arms against King James II. Loyalty
in a case of this kind overrides all other considerations, and when to
to be free or to perish, it would be idle to urge that a man must
which were never intended to rob him of his status of a human being and
(Chr., 1875, I, 81).
would equally suit every anarchistic movement. The utterances quoted
were made in
defense of plotting Spanish Masons. Only a page further the same
magazine writes: "Assuredly Italian Masonry, which has rendered such
service in the regeneration of that magnificent country," "is worthy of
the highest praise" (Chr., 1875, I, 82). "A Freemason, moved by lofty
principles," says the "Voice" (Chicago), "may rightly strike
a blow at tyranny and may consort with others to bring about needed
relief, in ways
that are not ordinarily justifiable. History affords numerous instances
which have been justified by subsequent events, and none of us, whether
not, are inclined to condemn the plots hatched between Paul Revere, Dr.
and others, in the old Green Dragon Tavern, the headquarters of
in New England, because these plots were inspired by lofty purposes and
not only justified them, but crowned these heroes with glory" (Chr.,
I, 178). "No Freemason," said Right Rev. H. C. Potter on the centenary
of the Grand Chapter of Royal Arch, New York, "may honorably bend the
to any foreign potentate (not even to King Edward VII of England, civil
(the Pope), or yield allegiance to any alien sovereignty, temporal or
(Chr., 1889, II, 94). From this utterance it is evident that according
no Catholic can be a Mason. In conformity with these principles
American and English
Freemasons supported the leaders of the revolutionary movement on the
Kossuth, who "had been leader in the rebellion against Austrian
was enthusiastically received by American Masons, solemnly initiated
at Cincinnati, 21 April, 1852, and presented with a generous gift as a
on the altar of St. John's Lodge the fire of love burnt so brightly, as
its light even into the deep recesses and mountain fastnesses of
of Philadelphia quoted by Chr., 1881, I, 414; the "Voice" of Chicago,
ibid., 277). Garibaldi, "the greatest Freemason of Italy" ("Intern.
Bull.," Berne, 1907, 98) and Mazzini were also encouraged by
Freemasons in their revolutionary enterprises (Chr., 1882, I, 410;
1893, I, 185;
1899, II, 34). "The consistent Mason," says the "Voice" (Chicago),
"will never be found engaged in conspiracies or plots for the purpose
and subverting a government based upon the Masonic principles of
liberty and equal
rights" (Chr., 1892, I, 259). "But," declares Pike, "with tongue
and pen, with all our open and secret influences, with the purse, and
if need be,
with the sword, we will advance the cause of human progress and labour
human thought, to give freedom to the human conscience (above all from
and equal rights to the people everywhere. Wherever a nation struggles
to gain or
regain its freedom, wherever the human mind asserts its independence
and the people
demand their inalienable rights, there shall go our warmest sympathies"
, IV, 547).
(To be concluded)
Schenectady's Oldest Masonic
Lodge Plans Higher Education for Boys in Utica Home
the report rendered by its representative to the recent meeting of the
of the State of New York and the visit paid by several members of the
lodge to Utica
early this week, a resolution was adopted by St. George's Lodge, No. 6,
F. and A.
M., at its stated communication last night, providing for a scholarship
College, to be known as the "St. George's Lodge, No. 6, F. and A. M.
is for a full four years' course leading to any of the degrees
conferred in course
at Union College and is available during any of the years, 1919, 1920,
or 1923, for any boy of the Masonic Home at Utica, having the necessary
for matriculation at the college during any one of the years specified.
of the scholarship is dependent upon the academic standing maintained
by the student
to whom the scholarship is awarded, as follows: For an average minimum
in all subjects for any one year, $200 annually; for an average grade
of 85 per
cent in all subjects, $250 annually; for an average grade of 90 per
cent, $300 annually.
This scholarship may be renewed from time to time as occasion may
at present at the Home in Utica about 200 boys, all of whom attend the
at Utica, as well as a similar number of girls. The standing maintained
children in the public schools is above that of the average student.
and Union College are among the two oldest and historic institutions of
in the nation, the birth of both dating back to Colonial times. The
lodge was established
in 1774, getting its charter from the Grand Lodge of England and the
founded but a few years later, in 1795, so that the personnel of the
have played a large part in the life of the community. President
Charles A. Richmond
of the college has expressed his delight at this manifestation of
this education work.
Schenectady (N.Y.) Union Star.
Sweet Masonry -- [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell. Michigan
Masonry, earth's precious best to your
own heart and mine,
The trysting place of happy cheer, the sacred mystic shrine
Where we may on the Level meet and close the door to care
And just forget for one sweet while all else save heart repair.
Sweet Masonry, a world its own where flowers ever bloom,
Perennials through storm and shine for every day of gloom.
Its orbit swings around the Light in such peculiar way
That there is naught but fragrance in the dawning of its day.
Sweet Masonry, built into form by altruistic Art
It is a Temple gracious to the pleadings of the heart;
The Middle Chamber of its soul clean-swept and garnished glows
And in its light no hurtful thing may dare to seek repose.
Sweet Masonry, just Masonry, the undiluted kind,
Unknown as ventures of the world, is what we love to find,
And pray that ne'er to it may come, though spacious be the plea
That which at last may break the heart of true Fraternity.
A Practical Masonry for
a Practical World
advent of the Masonic Service Association of the United States it may
be said that
Masonry of America is launching out on a new venture. What is in store
upon the co-operative spirit among the Craft manifesting itself in such
as will warrant that whatsoever it undertakes to do will be done
as no other agency, brought home the Institution's limitations in doing
work in a time of national emergency. We are now assured that in the
benevolent and fraternal enterprises of the Craft will not be of a
United in body as well as in spirit, the coordinated effort of
is to save us from the embarrassment of helplessness when we are
conscious of national
duties to be performed, and never again are we to find ourselves
or prepared to face them.
the future therefore will be avowedly more closely identified with
there is to be done that will be of national scope and character. The
the growth of the Fraternity is making demand that the mission and
purpose of Freemasonry
be restated in no uncertain terms. This has become provokingly
owing to the fact that in the making of many Masons Masonic principle,
and effort has too frequently been obscured by aesthetic enjoyment of
As an illustration of this we may simply say that in passing through a
fail to observe the strength and beauty of the various trees of which
is composed. Doubtless many varieties of impressions have been left
upon the new
Mason, and on his part there has likely been a reasonable appreciation
of the lectures
in which the great fundamentals of right living have been dwelt upon.
is need of more than the assent of the intellect to certain stated
must be such apprehension of their necessity for life in all its phases
initiate will feel the compunction of translating them into his own
life and conduct.
Hence the demand for stating clearly the Masonic principles and testing
for meeting the new problems of life with which the world revolution
us face to face.
Masonic Service Association of the United States is a move in the right
we confidently believe. For the first time in the history of American
witness an attempt to abolish the provincialisms hitherto known among
us as the
chief promoters of jurisdictional jealousies, and the militant deniers
of the necessity
of practicing on a large scale that which is declared among us
being a world necessity.
on a solidarity of interests will be championed by a solidarity of
effort. Our immediate
program then demands that we enlighten ourselves and instruct carefully
come within our gates on the social and individual determinative power
We must demonstrate the reasonableness of its philosophy, the claim of
principles upon the conscience and the practicability of obedience to
in the common affairs that minister to the good of mankind. Such a task
which confronts us is, no doubt, much beyond the conceptions of many
are in our midst, and whose measure of the significance of Masonry is
in the joy of seeing yet another Mason made.
Let us repudiate
the lethargy that too often characterizes us in the realm of the
intellect and the
spirit. Let us know and realize for ourselves the nature and purpose of
Institution of which we are a part. We are not prophets, but we say
that unless once more the Spirit of the Craft grips us and proves
itself to be indispensable
to our happiness and welfare Masonry, as an institution, is doomed. Its
depart, and over our portals we may well write "Ichabod." We are in the
throes of the revaluation of things and Masonry with everything else
will be subjected
to the analysis and judgment of those who are to be the re-makers of
this old broken
world. That they will find much in Masonry of the necessary material
for the erection
of the Temple of Humanity, who of those that have delved into Masonic
history and achievement, will deny? If the potency of the Craft for the
period is to be discovered through us, what serious and weighty
indeed ours! A practical Masonry for a practical world is the urgent
need. We must
relegate to where he belongs the dogmatic speculator and consign to
keep him company
those whose chief joy seems to consist in quarreling about the
millinery and the
genesis of the Craft. If to be a Mason is indeed to be a Builder, no
time like our
own has challenged his skill, zeal and ingenuity. Surely the vision is
all the brethren as to warrant our day being the greatest ever known in
* * *
need of the Masonic Fraternity today is co-ordination or unity of
effort and purpose.
The war is over, and we are rapidly returning to a pre-war basis. As
and turmoil subsides we are being given to sober consideration, and are
with the fact that much of the effort of Masonry that would have been
of real service
during the war, failed because of lack of co-ordination. Instead of
becoming a factor in war activity, we had in the United States,
groups, each posing as Freemasonry and endeavoring to gain recognition
in war service.
Much criticism has been directed against the War Department and the
in Washington, because of the fact that Freemasonry was not permitted
buildings in cantonments, and to become otherwise recognized among the
which sought to render service to our soldiers. It has been contended
that the refusal
to permit Freemasonry to participate in these enterprises was due to
in Washington. The state authorities, however, declare that Freemasonry
presented itself in organized form, and that instead, forty-nine groups
each posing as representatives of Freemasonry, sought to engage in war
and that it was quite impossible for the Government to recognize one of
without recognizing all. The truth about the matter is that Freemasonry
a way, because it lacked central organization. Each group devised plans
all of its
own and sought to carry them out without regard to other Masonic
interests. A fair
example of this is shown in a friendly controversy which arose between
Council of the Southern jurisdiction and the Grand Lodge of New York.
sought to go overseas in the interest of our soldiers, and each set up
of recognizing the Masons of the country. It was only when these two
joined their interests, that they were enabled to accomplish their
has arrived in our Masonic evolution, when Freemasonry can no longer be
as bound by state rights, or limited to groups of individuals. To
recognition of the institution as a vital factor in human activity,
there must be
organization and co-ordination of effort.
In the period
of reconstruction and readjustment which is taking place, Freemasonry
itself from the old idea of state rights and commence to plan for a
unity of purpose.
This can only be accomplished through some sort of central
organization; call it
whatever you may. Before Freemasonry is going to gain recognition as a
it must break down the barriers of jurisdiction which envelope each
and must subscribe to a general platform of basic principles. This does
the formation of any National Grand Lodge, but it does mean that there
a National Council of Administration which shall formulate a plan to
which all the
Grand Lodges of the United States may subscribe, and along which they
may work for
the best interests of Freemasonry.
groups of Masons each raised monies for war purposes, and each group
which were, no doubt, beneficial and helpful to those reached, but how
would have been the benefit had all these diversified efforts been
merged into one
direct purpose? Not only would there have been material saving but the
would have been enabled to secure that recognition which was denied it
its disorganized condition.
H. Wheeler, of Chicago, had this idea in mind when he organized the
Council of Defense, and suggested at that time the necessity of a
along similar lines. He had no more than made the suggestion, until a
lot of Masons
commenced to get out their sledge hammers and vigorously knock the
that it was merely a scheme of the promoter to exploit himself into a
‒ a charge which bears close kin to much of the argument against a
Schoonover, Grand Master of Iowa, is another man who has lifted himself
out of the
Masonic rut, and last fall called a meeting of Grand Masters in his
State to consider
ways and means of establishing a National Council of Administration.
has seen the necessity of unified Masonic effort.
today a tremendous effort among the Christian churches of the world to
one great Church of Christ with a central organization and a singleness
Peter Ainslee, one of the leaders of this movement, said in this city
that within five years this great movement will have born fruition, and
will be in this country but one Church devoid of denominationalism and
This enterprise, when presented to the Pope of Rome, was flatly turned
the Catholic Church has today one of the most thoroughly organized
systems of coordinated
effort which the world knows anything about.
It is now
time for the Freemasonry of the United States to lay aside its
prejudice, to forget
narrow traditions of the past, and commence to lay a foundation for a
effort which will make the fraternity a potent factor in the affairs of
Delmar D. Darrah, in The Illinois Freemason.
The Younger Brother -- [A Poem]
By Bro. Gerald A. Nancarrow,
we have a younger brother
Who is learning his new part,
Let us, as we prompt and question,
Teach him also from the heart;
As he learns his new-found science
Let us teach him, too, the art.
Let us aid him in the shaping
And the smoothing of his block;
Let us spread a binding mortar
And thus add a firmer rock
To our structure: Make him granite
By the knowledge we unlock.
Show him more than words and phrases,
More than empty form and shell,
Let him see the wealth of beauty
In the lessons which we tell;
Help him move toward strength and service
And to meet his trials well.
hope draws nectar in a sieve,
And hope without an object cannot live.
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
of this Department is to acquaint our readers with time-tried Masonic
always familiar; with the best Masonic literature now being published;
such non-Masonic books as may especially appeal to Masons. The Library
be very glad to render any possible assistance to studious individuals
or to study
clubs and lodges, either through this Department or by personal
if you wish to learn something concerning any book ‒ what is its
nature, what is
its value, or how it may be obtained ‒ be free to ask him. If you have
read a book
which you think is worth a review write us about it; if you desire to
book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get it, with no charge for the
this YOUR Department of Literary Consultation.
A Vanishing Race
Indians" [Lib 1917] by William Harvey Miner can
be obtained from
the author, 3518 Franklin Ave., St. Louis. Published by Cambridge
writer knows nothing about Indians. Few men do. Two or three of
a calendar, a movie picture now and then, some traditions, and a parade
day, such are the sources of information available to most persons.
say, the popular idea of the red man is nothing but a travesty. The
before the white man came with his new devices, his strange customs,
order so different, was a real man, as much a man in his own way as any
He had his own peculiar civilization and he was seemingly happy.
is today being preyed upon by every imaginable variety of human harpy;
he is child-like,
easily deceived by a white man's wiles and all that; he needs friends.
He does not
need charity. Least of all should he be treated like an inferior being.
He has a
right to a country of his own, to a social order in which he can be
happy, and to
an industrial system which accords with his own nature.
Such of our
readers as are interested in these strange brethren of ours will read
the little treatise, beautifully written and tastefully printed, which
written by Mr. Miner. If the writer knew Indians as well as he knows
of this book he himself could write such a treatise; it would not,
however, be so
scholarly, so comprehensive. How my friend managed to compress so much
into 150 pages is still a mystery to me. It is there: that I know:
chapters on Indian
sociology, tribes, mythology, and all that. There is a list of books on
so complete that Methuselah himself would be kept reading all his days.
is a complete index, a thing to delight a student. The chapter on
most interest a Mason. As to Indian Masonry there never was, of course,
* * *
The War in the Heart
Crises" [Lib 1918] by James William Robinson.
Published by The
Gorham Press, 194-200 Boylston St., Boston, Mass., at $1.25.
of this volume is a Mason and a preacher, which means that he is doubly
concerning the great matters which alone count. He understands, as does
of morals or religion, that the war is not over and will not be over
to come. The military crisis is past; the political crisis is now being
soul crisis will be with us for many years to come.
What is a
"soul crisis"? The term is awkward but it means something. It means
a man may call into question his own ideals, that he may find his most
convictions crumbling, that he may pass through some cataclysmic
physical or spiritual
change, or is conscious of the possibility of such an experience.
Needless to say,
the war has precipitated such a critical experience in many a soul, as
well as in
the world as a whole. This war is nothing to boast about; it is nothing
over; it is nothing to be proud of; it was the most terrible
catastrophe that ever
befell the earth; the mere magnitude of it does not redeem it. It was
ten million young men are dead who might and should now be alive. A
group of mad
imperialists, leading a weak world to the brink, shoved it over; the
world may hate
those men but it must now face the fact that it is a far from perfect
To be alive
in such a world; to find the ancient laws and the old order going to
into question many former convictions in an honest mind. The author of
has tried to face this predicament and to answer the agonized questions
by such a situation. He has not answered all the questions, nor even
some of the
more pressing ones, but he has made a manly attempt, and the book is
* * *
Atheism and the War
and the War," [Lib 1918] edited by E. Hershey Sneath,
and written by
members of the Faculty of the School of Religion, Yale University.
the Yale University Press, 120 College Street, New Haven, Conn. Price
the war is over, organized religion is on the defensive. Why didn't
stop the war? Why was a war necessary in a Christian world? Such
questions as these
are being bruited about, much to the discomfiture of many persons.
Those who believe
in Christianity are trying to show that it has never broken down; those
in atheism are trying to show that Christianity has gone to pieces
The members of the Faculty of the School of Religion of Yale University
in such matters. They have said something worth reading.
described at the head of this little review, contains ten essays
written by ten
different men, among them being Charles Reynolds Brown, B. W. Bacon,
Harlan P. Beach,
and Williston Walker. These men, none of them, have any very flaming
thing to say;
they are all a bit confused; they offer no one single profound truth as
for the mind-ache of those countless thinkers who have been so
perturbed by the
world catastrophe: but they offer many suggestions and hints which men
useful, interesting and helpful.
be said about religion and the war that is of much permanent value?
Little can be
said just now while our minds are so upset; a little later we shall all
again to our own self-possession of thought and life, and then we may
begin to read
rightly the lessons of the war. Religion could not prevent the war as
that goes without saying: it means that we have never yet found a
is strong or true enough to govern the hearts of men, which is only
of saying, the world. But such a religion is coming; God is; truth is;
power is; when we become clean and courageous enough we shall live a
is true. There will be no wars then.
* * *
The Social Implications
Social Implications of Universalism," [Lib 1915] by Clarence R. Skinner.
by the Murray Press, Boylston Street, Boston, Mass.
book, written by a friend of the present writer, is worth many times
more than its
modest price of fifty cents, for it presents in simple language an
ideal of religion
which is actually workable. It is high time that religion were becoming
to give an account of itself in dollars and cents. By that, one may
mean in a broad
way, it should be known by its present results more than by its hopes
Professor Skinner is a theological teacher of a new order, one who
religion is life, a life seeking freedom from poverty, disease, and
The lover of a fixed Deed will quarrel with the author but the sooner
such a quarrel
is started, the better for the world, because there is literally not
one hard and
fast creed in existence that does not shut out some light from the
Moreover creeds are often unnecessary. To know God as a Friend, to know
as a brother, to have a great self-respect for yourself, this is
religion, and this
religion, simple as it is, is the everlasting religion. This little
volume is one
syllable in a new bible which is being written now by all sincere and
teachers. Mr. Skinner does not use "Universalism" in any sectarian
but merely as a symbol of the largest possible hopes for our whole
here and hereafter.
* * *
September Book List
It is becoming
more and more difficult each year to procure standard and authentic
books on Masonic
subjects for the reason that many of the earlier works are out of print
copies are in many instances unobtainable. Many individual Masons, as
well as lodges
and study groups, are constantly asking us to recommend suitable
the foundation of Masonic libraries or additions to those already
started. To accommodate
these brethren and other members of the Society who are in search of
we shall publish in this department each month a list of such books as
we have in
stock. The prices quoted include postage.
| 1915 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1916 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1917 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| 1918 bound volume of THE BUILDER
| Mackey's Encyclopaedia, 1918 edition, two
volumes, black Fabrikoid binding
| The Builders, a story and study of Masonry, by
Brother Joseph Fort Newton.
| Philosophy of Masonry, by Bro. Roscoe Pound,
Dean of the Harvard Law School
| Symbolism of Freemasonry, Mackey
| True Principles of Freemasonry, Grant
| Speculative Masonry, MacBride
| Early History and Antiquities of Masonry, Fort
| Concise History of Freemasonry, Robert Freke
Gould, English Edition
| 1722 Constitutions (reproduced by photographic
plates from an original copy in the archives of the Iowa Masonic
Library, Cedar Rapids.) Edition limited to 1,000 copies
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag," by
P.G.M. Barry, Iowa, red buffing binding, gilt lettering, illustrated
| "The Story of Old Glory, The Oldest Flag,"
| Further Notes on the Comacine Masters,
| Symbolism of the Three Degrees, Street,
| Symbolism of the First Degree, Gage, (pamphlet)
| Symbolism of the Third Degree, Ball, (pamphlet)
| Deeper Aspects of Masonic Symbolism, Waite,
Trite and Sly -- [A Poem]
is Masonry to us if 'tis not abounding cheer
All the blessed year around in the precious now and here?
It should be to consciousness Love's sweet rippling undertone
Ringing right into our lives nature's best, her very own.
It will be all this and more if we truly qualify,
For the Art just waits on us, faithful, gentle, true and sly.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his or name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits.
Box and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at
Questions of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from
particularly those connected with lodges or study clubs which are
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be
answered promptly by mail before publication in this department.
of Masonry into Arizona, Idaho New Mexico, Oklahoma and Washington
I am making
a study of Masonic history and would like the following information:
From what jurisdictions
was Masonry introduced into the States or Territories of Washington,
Idaho New Mexico,
Arizona and Oklahoma?
lodge in Arizona was "Aztlan Lodge" located at Prescott, chartered by
the Grand Lodge of California, October 11, 1866. The Grand Lodge of
chartered "Arizona Lodge No. 257" at Phoenix, October 16, 1879, and
Lodge No. 263" at Tucson, on October 15, 1881. The Grand Lodge of New
chartered "White Mountain Lodge No. 5” at Globe, on January 18, 1881.
lodges in Idaho were constituted under warrants issued by the Grand
Lodges of Oregon
Lodge of Missouri chartered the first three lodges organized in New
lodges in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) were chartered by the Grand
Arkansas and Kansas.
lodges in Washington were chartered by the Grant Lodges of Missouri and
* * *
Interested in the Catholic
Article on Masonry
I have been
reading with much interest and profit (as I always do each issue) the
of THE BUILDER, just received. The idea to print in full the article on
from the Catholic Encyclopedia is a splendid one; it bristles with
points of interest
for a Masonic student to investigate and probably report upon.
please give in the next instalment the exact reference of this
Encyclopedia ‒ title,
date of publication, edition etc.? This would help in determining if
this is an
up-to-date Catholic opinion or not. It probably is recent, as they
refer to literature
of 1906 and 1907, etc.
account by Brother Bingham of his visit to the Canongate Kilwinning
Lodge No. 2,
Edinburgh, brings back to me the memories of a visit to this same lodge
when I had the privilege of seeing the work in the First degree.
of the work referred to is "The Catholic Encyclopedia, Special Edition
the auspices of the Knights of Columbus Catholic Truth Committee,''
"The Encyclopedia Press, Inc.," Nest York City. Copyrighted in 1912 and
1913. This is probably the latest edition as our set was purchased
about two years
ago. The work comprises fifteen volumes. [Lib 1907; 16 Volumes in
* * *
The Growth of the Obligations
any information to be obtained which accounts for the growth of the
on the Third degree to their present forms, and describing their
‒ N.W.J.H., Ontario.
so, but we have never seen anything written on the subject. A very
for such growth has been advanced by Brother Haywood in his article on
Obligation" in the June, 1918, issue of THE BUILDER wherein he states
"as the Institution grew in numbers new duties would arise, new
would have to he met, and the candidate would be required to obligate
There is one section in the obligation which the writer took in another
is not in the Iowa obligation but which might very well be inserted, in
It is easy to see how the obligations might have been added to as new
were organized from time to time, and new rituals adopted. Where a
number of men
from different States were assigned the task of compiling a new ritual
for a new
Grand Lodge each would undoubtedly have his own ideas as to the
composition of the
obligations and a discussion of the various sections would lead to the
in the new work of the best features of the old work to which they had
accustomed and at the same time one or more of the committee might have
one or two
new ideas which they believed should be adopted and thus the new
contain something that the old ones lacked.
* * *
The Question of Issuing
the "Correspondence Circle Bulletin" Separate From "The Builder"
I am deeply
interested in the articles by Brother Haywood and such other matter as
each issue of the "Correspondence Circle Bulletin” section of THE
and would like to know when the "Bulletins" will be issued in book form
for Masonic libraries. While I have every one of them so far issued in
yet it is difficult at times to readily find a particular article on a
had in contemplation for a long time the question of issuing the
Circle Bulletin separate from the regular issues of THE BUILDER but the
rising costs of printing material and labor have interfered with our
plans in this
connection. Brother Burleson has also boosted our postage rates again
July first. For these reasons our plans must of necessity be deferred
for the present.
The subjects of the articles appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be easily found by a reference to the yearly bound volume indexes.
The Oblong Square
and various statements appearing in THE BUILDER from time to time on
of the "Oblong Square," as well as the variety of the opinions
lead me to think that the subject is one of general interest and that a
words may not be out of place. I must take issue with the statement of
H. Fisk of Kentucky in the July issue of THE BUILDER. He says the
geometrically and scientifically correct, is "the angle of an oblong."
This expression is more objectionable than the one it seeks to replace.
that an oblong has only one angle and it does not have the sanction of
does the term which he criticizes. Then too the great English
says the word "oblong" is not now used in Geometry, and that the word
"rectangle" has taken its place. Therefore if we must bring our
down to present day usage and change with every breath that blows, to
and scientifically correct" we should say "an angle of a rectangle."
A rectangle has four right angles, and the step of the Apprentice and
that of the
Fellow Craft each form one of these angles.
says, "A square is a square, an oblong is an oblong; each has angles
of them right angles, but there never has been known an oblong square
or a square
oblong." If there were no other definition of oblong but the restricted
of a right-angled figure, longer in one direction than the other, and
of a square but that of a figure with four sides all equal and all its
angles, no one would take issue with this statement, but this is not
the case, and
if Brother Fisk holds that, Masonically or otherwise, the term "oblong
never had a legitimate meaning, he is certainly far from the right
track. We find
the expression in the earliest rituals of Masonry and continued down to
day. We also find it in well recognized literature of the seventeenth
centuries. An expression so commonly used must have had a well
to those who so used it and we have no right to assume that they were
the proper use of the words they used. The very fact that they so used
it is evidence
that such use was proper, and it should be our purpose to ascertain the
of the term as so used.
To the man
who says that a horse is a four-footed animal and a saw is an
instrument for cutting
and who refuses to recognize any other definition, it is useless to try
the meaning of the word "saw-horse." He will probably say that "a
saw is a saw and a horse is a horse, but there has never been known a
or a horse-saw."
the facts? We find the term "oblong square" actually used by recognized
Masonic authorities and in literature, and this fact demands an
justifies an attempt to ascertain what was meant by the term. It is
found more than
once in the literature of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. One
easily accessible to the general reader is found in Sir Walter Scott's
second or third pages of chapter seven (according to the edition
describes the court enclosed for the tournament as "forming a space of
of a mile in length and about half as broad. The form of the enclosure
was an oblong
square." Sir Walter Scott used the term here to describe a field whose
was twice the breadth. Unless the expression had a definite, well
at that time it is not likely that he would have so used it.
it is frequently found in the old rituals and the early Masonic writers
it as a term well understood in the same sense that it is used by Sir
following quotations from rituals of the eighteenth century. Here is
one dated 1730:
"The form of a lodge is a long square." This would imply that the word
"square" at that time did not necessarily mean "having equal sides."
Slight differences in the wording of the ritual caused some sharp
the Ancients and Moderns of this period, but they both agree in giving
of a lodge as an "oblong square." (Rituals of 1740, 1760 and 1767 have
been consulted on this point.) The old rituals also describe the
drawing of "the
lodge" on the floor of the room where the communication was held. This
was done with chalk, charcoal or clay, and after the degree was
conferred the newly
admitted brother was required to wash it out and mop it up. The drawing
described as an "oblong square." It had three steps at the west end,
first called the Entered Apprentice step, the second the Fellow Craft
step and the
third the Master's step. Each was called the step of an oblong square.
was taught to approach the East on the first, second or third step of
square" according to the degree which he was receiving.
In the April
BUILDER for 1916, I advanced the opinion that at one time the word
meant "right-angled" and the term "a square" referred to a four-sided
figure having four right angles, without regard to the proportionate
length of adjacent
sides. This being so it would be necessary to distinguish between a
equal sides and one whose sides were greater than its breadth; hence
of the prefixes "oblong" and "perfect." This is merely an opinion
and I give it for what it is worth. In support of it I again call
attention to the
references given above. It is also supported by Jonson's Dictionary,
1765, in which the leading definition of a square is "having right
and he gives a quotation in which a rectangle is referred to as a
Take the following quotation from the King James Version of the Bible:
the doors and posts were square with the windows" (I Kings, 7:5). The
"square" here evidently means rectangular. (I use the word
in the modern sense of having four right angles and longer in one
the other. The original meaning of rectangle was "having one or more
angles.")Perhaps the derivation of the words we are considering will
to arrive at their meaning. The word "oblong" is from "ob" meaning
"before" or "facing," and "longus," meaning "long,"
and the original meaning of the word "oblong" was "longer than broad"
and had no reference to right angles. This is still the principle
in the dictionary. Another definition still found in the modern
dictionary is "elliptical."
Neither of these definitions imply a right angle. The term "oblong,"
now used to define what is commonly called a rectangle, is also
to define a symmetrical figure having one principal axis longer than
as the leaf of a tree.
"square" is from the Latin "ex" meaning "from" or
"out of," and "quadrus," meaning "one fourth part."
The original meaning of "square" was "the fourth part of a circle,"
as it is even now used in Masonry, or, as it is sometimes stated, "an
of ninety degrees." Thus the word "square" would mean as Jonson defines
it, "having right angles." That the word is still used in that sense,
note the following definitions found in a modern unabridged dictionary:
1. A quadrilateral space marked
out on a board, paper or the like.
2. A pane of glass.
3. The part of a book cover that
projects beyond the edges.
4. A quadrilateral area bounded by
5. An open place or area formed by
the meeting of streets.
6. A park.
None of these
definitions necessarily imply a figure having equal sides. In fact most
so-called squares do not have equal sides. A pane of glass called a
square is usually
oblong, though occasionally it is a perfect square in shape. Thus it
would be perfectly
proper to say of one square of glass that it is an oblong square, and
that it is a perfect square. The squares of our cities are usually
they are longer in one direction than another. Still they are called
it is perfectly proper to say "Madison is an oblong square, but
a perfect square." The intersection of streets are called squares, but
one of the streets so intersecting is narrower than the other, thus
making the square
formed by the intersection an oblong one.
foregoing definitions and from the derivation of both words it would
seem that these
two words originally had other meanings than the ones now commonly
given to them;
but even if the principle meanings were unchanged, it is a fact that
been and still are other meanings which justify the term "oblong
It is usage that determines the meaning of words, and Masons, as part
of their vocabulary,
have used and still use the term "oblong square." Trades and other
frequently make use of a term in a sense peculiar to that trade or
and different from the commonly accepted definition of the term.
if the term "oblong square" had no other Sanction than Masonic usage,
it would be perfectly proper for Masons to use it in their own way as a
term. We have many terms used in a sense peculiar to Masonry, such as
"cable-tow," Cowan." To my mind the retention of these old terms
in our ritual is a proof of the antiquity of the order and illustrates
is preserved from generation in our ceremonies.
C. C. Hunt, Iowa
* * *
A Study Club in New Zealand
As a fellow
worker in the same quarries you will be pleased to learn that I have
in getting the Lodge of Instruction, attached to Dunedin Lodge No. 931,
E. C., established
on a sounder basis. Instead of being a mere rehearsal of ceremonial it
is now a
study club as well, and from the enthusiasm already displayed by the
promises to be a successful one. I have been elected Preceptor and
shall do my best
to inculcate the study of Freemasonry, which has to some extent been
to the lectures given in the Lodge of Instruction it will, I think, be
to have lectures in the lodge itself and a Question Box is already
possibly more adapted to American Masonry, I find THE BUILDER a real
help in my
studies of Freemasonry, and I congratulate the Society on producing a
such excellence and trust that nothing may interfere with the good work
appreciated not only at home but abroad.
A. W. Oxley, New Zealand
* * *
Reveal Masonry to Masons
in THE BUILDER for July must awaken a train of thought that has been
in the minds of many Masons for a considerable period of time. The
confronting the younger Masons of today is whether Masonry consists of
a ritual by rote or living a life guided by Masonic light. If our work
is no greater
than initiating candidates who shall memorize the ritual that they in
turn may assist
in initiations, passings and raisings, then Masonry has become a husk.
If, on the
other hand, our work and first thought is to make Masonic principles
Masonry becomes the golden grain. But to the greater number of Masons
whom I know
the work of the lodge leaves a ritualistic impression rather than an
that stimulates moral impulses.
My own conception
of Masonry is that the ritualistic teachings provide the individual
Mason with a
key that he is to use in opening the door of a Masonic life and
practice. Yet most
Masons seem to spend their lives in doing two things; first in letting
corrode, second in polishing their key. One is the rusty Mason, the
other the bright
Mason. Only a few Masons ever think of using the key; yet what a
is opened and how vast the vaults of wisdom, truth and beauty that are
Mason discovers these things by the use of the Masonic key, but how few
who sit in the lodge and recite the ritual who realize what the use of
the key has
revealed to the perhaps unknown "exceptional" brother who sits with
seem to me that Masonry lost its greatest opportunity to serve humanity
in the fighting
period of the World War, not because any person or hostile element
because Masonry for so many years had been gilding its scabbard that,
when the world's
greatest need for militant Masonry came, Masonry found its blade rusted
in its burnished
still great and still capable of serving the world but until Masons
know more about
what Masonry really is the greatest strength will not come. The duty of
Masters and of all Masters of lodges is to reveal Masonry to Masons.
do so means that Masonry will lose vitality. You, sir, and other noble
warned Masonry and challenged Masonic leadership. There are thousands
who will look for the quickening of the Craft, because you and others
the silence and spoken for them. With You and all who would have
Masonry live as
a vitalizing, impulse-directing element in the lives of men, I have a
to see Masonry rise to an institution greater than its mechanism.
I thank you
for your editorial and for the vigor with which you penned it.
Arthur C. Parker, New York.
* * *
Revival of a Dormant Lodge
account of the revival of a lodge in China which has been dormant for a
forty-five years should be of interest to THE BUILDER readers:
OF LODGE "ST. ANDREW IN THE FAR EAST"
restoration of peace and the return to normal conditions, Freemasonry
in the Far
East, and especially in Shanghai, is likely to witness considerable
There has been a movement in one or two directions for the creation of
and one of these came to fruition last night in the resuscitation of
Lodge St. Andrew
in the Far East, No. 493 S.C. A rule in the constitution of the Grand
Lodge of Scotland
provides that a dormant lodge can be resuscitated, in the discretion of
Lodge, on the application of one member.
Lodge St. Andrew in the Far East has been dormant for forty-five years,
member, and a P.M., is still fortunately left in Shanghai in the person
Bro Brodie A. Clarke. About a year ago an application, backed by a
petition of some
twenty other brethren, for the reopening of Lodge St. Andrew in the Far
made by Bro. Clark, and after due consideration this request was
granted by the
Grand Lodge and in November last a duplicate of the original charter
was given into
the care of Wor. Bro. J.E. Inch, who was then in Edinburgh and had had
with the heads of the Grand Lodge, for conveyance to Shanghai.
At a meeting
of the signatories to the petition yesterday afternoon Bro. Inch handed
charter to Bro. Clarke, who then formed a lodge, which immediately
the election of officers and the arrangement of other necessary
details. With the
installation of the newly-elected R.W.M. and the investiture of
took place in the Masonic Hall in the evening in the presence of about
brethren representing all the constitutions working in Shanghai, the
came to life again. The Master-elect was Wor. Bro. J.E. Inch, and the
ceremony was most impressively performed by Wor. Bro. S.C. Young, P. M.
Saltoun, assisted by the Past Masters of Lodges Cosmopolitan and
Saltoun, the other
Scottish lodges in Shanghai, the R.W.M. of Lodge Cosmopolitan, Wor.
afterwards investing the junior officers.
speeches were delivered after the ceremony, in the course of which it
that Lodge St. Andrew in the Far East had been founded in 1869, that
members included several of the most honored names in the history of
now deceased except Wor. Bro. Brodie Clarke, and that the resuscitation
of the lodge
would probably soon be followed by a further development of Scottish
in North China.
now three lodges working under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of
Shanghai ‒ Lodges Cosmopolitan, St. Andrew in the Far East, and
Saltoun, with one
in Chefoo, St. Andrew.
Charles S. Lobingier, China.
* * *
The Real Secret of Masonry
Must be Learned by Initiation
that the real secret of the Fraternity is to be found in the vital
elements of the
lessons of each degree, and the relations which the lessons of the
bear to one another.
It must be
obvious to every brother, that there is one part of each ceremony which
secret, and no good can come from any discussion round this point; I
mean, the methods
of recognition. In every secret society there are means by which one
know another of the same degree or grade, and these secrets are held by
This, however, is far from the real secret of Freemasonry.
this, there are three really good reasons for keeping the rituals and
any arcane society as secret possessions. These reasons are as follows:
1. The knowledge might be
dangerous to an uninitiated public.
2. Secrecy has been the custom and
tradition from former times.
3. By having some previous
knowledge of the ceremony, the effect of initiation
on the candidate might be reduced.
Let us consider
each of these in turn. The first manifestly does not apply to any
In the case of a society, possessing powerful magical formulae, which
would be dangerous
to those who had not been taught how to use them, we can see an
for secrecy, but in Masonry, there is, happily, no ceremonial magic
the declamations of certain anti ‒ Masonic publications). Our secrets
are of a mystical
nature, and although it may be possible to trace hermetic references in
our ceremonies, Masonry and Magic are as poles apart.
reason carries, however, a great deal of weight. We are proud that our
come dozen to us as a secret organization from the most remote
there may be parts and points which we are not debarred from exposing
to the profane,
sentimental reasons cause the proud member of a society older than the
or the Roman Eagle or the Order of the Garter, or, in fact any other
Order in existence,
to keep secret every jot and tittle by which a hint of our teachings
may reach uninitiated
ears. This will appeal to some, more than to others; the majority will
hold that, as Masonry has ever been a secret science, it is our duty,
as the present
custodians, to hand it on as we have received it. To my mind, this is
one of the
strongest arguments in favor of absolute secrecy. I believe that I am
right in saying
that the Grand Lodge of Ireland allows none of its rituals to be
printed, in cypher
or otherwise, and I can only deplore the fact that the same state of
not exist elsewhere. This does not, however, show us where the true
secret of Freemasonry
is to be found.
In my opinion,
the key to the real secret of the Order is the third reason given
above; that is
to say, the effect on the candidate. The work of the Order is to make
We do this by giving them a graduated system of learning, and here I
think we find
the real secret. It is not the tokens or signs; it is not the positions
of the officers
of the lodge; it is not the thousand and one points which may arise in
of the ritual; but it is the lessons of the degrees in relation to each
the method by which those lessons are conveyed to the mind of the
It is of
the utmost importance that the candidate for initiation should have no
knowledge of the lessons of the degrees; otherwise, when his time
comes, he will
fail to learn aright those of the Apprentice. The Entered Apprentice
time and opportunity to learn the lessons of that degree before
similarly in the case of the candidate for higher degrees. The
necessity for a period
for study is realized by the Grand Lodge of Italy, under whose
jurisdiction an Entered
Apprentice must wait for three years before passing to the Second
degree, when there
is a further wait of at least two years before he can be raised to the
of a Master Mason.
secret of Masonry cannot be disclosed; it is incommunicable and can
only be learned
by actual initiation. I think that there is no harm in outlining some
of the tenets
of the Craft to the profane, neither do I consider the interpretation
symbols in the press as harmful, provided that both are done with due
C. C. Adams. England.
* * *
Masonic Teachings in the
Works of Great Authors
W.L.F., Ohio, in the July issue of THE BUILDER, asks if certain
writers, among them
Carlyle, were Freemasons. The following poem by Goethe is translated by
and is to be found in "Past and Present," [Lib 1843] book iii, chapter 15. From it
should judge that it is probable, very probable, that our author, as
well as Goethe,
was a brother. The original author calls it:
Mason Lodge -- [A Poem]
E.W. Pickford, Ontario.
Mason's ways are
A type of existence,
And his persistance
Is as the days are
Of men in this world.
The future hides in it
Gladness and sorrow;
We press still thorowe,
Naught that abides is
Daunting us, ‒ onward.
And solemn before us,
Veiled, the dark Portal,
Goal of all Mortal:
Stars silent rest o'er
Graves under us silent!
While earnest thou gazest,
Comes boding of terror,
Comes Phantasm and error,
Perplexes the bravest
With doubt and misgiving.
But heard are the Voices, ‒
Heard are the sages,
The world and the ages:
Choose well: your choice is
Brief and yet endless.
Here eyes do regard you
In Eternity's stillness;
Here is all fulness,
Ye brave to reward you;
Work and despair not."
* * *
522,773 Royal Arch Masons
in the United States
of Royal Arch Masonry as given on page 198 of the July number of THE
incorrect as the number of Royal Arch Masons in Texas, Virginia and
are not included; besides the statistics given are nearly two years old.
of Royal Arch Masons in the United States, according to the compilation
K. Wilson, Grand Secretary of the Grand Chapter of Kansas, for the year
31, 1918, is 522,773.
Wm. F. Kuhn, Missouri.
Our Self-Made World -- [A Poem]
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
heart is gray with dust and rue
Sees everywhere his own mildew;
That one whom selfishness hath bound
Is by that self hedged all around;
And he whom pride has overthrown
Will find his pride o'er all is grown;
While he whom sin hath claimed within,
Will see his earth rot down with sin.
By equal token, virtues eyes
Sees its own self in earth and skies.
Unto the pure all things are pure,
And to the joyful joy is sure;
Where'er we look ourselves we see,
Such is the fixed fatality;
No truth beneath this saying delves;
Our world is molded by ourselves.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 01
HerCE01 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 16 : p. 2163. - 12.6 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 02
HerCE02 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 2 : 16 : p. 2096. - 12.3 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 03
HerCE03 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 3 : 16 : p. 2048. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 04
HerCE04 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 4 : 16 : p. 2115. - 12.6 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 05
Diocese-Fathers of Mercy
HerCE05 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 5 : 16 : p. 2051. - 12.6 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 06
Fathers of the Church-Gregory XI
HerCE06 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 6 : 16 : p. 2046. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 07
HerCE07 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 7 : 16 : p. 2052. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 08
HerCE08 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 8 : 16 : p. 2065. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 09
HerCE09 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 9 : 16 : p. 2067. - 12.3 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 10
HerCE10 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 10 : 16 : p. 2061. - 12.3 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 11
HerCE11 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 11 : 16 : p. 2099. - 12.5 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 12
HerCE12 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 12 : 16 : p. 2060. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 13
HerCE13 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 13 : 16 : p. 2064. - 12.1 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 14
HerCE14 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 14 : 16 : p. 2071. - 12.1 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 15
HerCE15 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 15 : 16 : p. 2020. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 16
HerCE16 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 16 : of 16 : p. 235. - 1.7 MB.
Sco04 / auth. Scott Sir Walter. - New York : American Book Company,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 493. - 13.8 MB.
Old and New Testaments
Connected Vol 1
Pri33TC1 / auth. Prideaux Humphrey. - Baltimore : William and Joseph
Neal, 1833. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 435. - 33.4 MB.
Old and New Testaments
Connected Vol 2
Pri33TC2 / auth. Prideaux Humphrey. - Baltimore : William and Joseph
Neal, 1833. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 464. - 35.0 MB.
Past and Present
Car43 / auth. Carlyle Thomas. - Boston : Charles C Little and James
Brown, 1843. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 302. - 15.3 MB.
Religion and the War
Sne18 / auth. Sneath E Hershey. - London : Humphrey Milford, 1918. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 178. - 4.4 MB.
Rob18 / auth. Robinson James W. - Boston : Gorham Press, 1918. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 290. - 9.7 MB.
Mac141 / auth. Macbride A S. - Glasgow : D. Gilfillan & Co.,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 283. - 18.6 MB.
The American Indians
Min17 / auth. Miner William H. - Cambridge : Cambridge University
Press, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 184. - 5.7 MB.
The Social Implications of Universalism
Ski15 / auth. Skinner Clarence R. - Boston : Universal Publishing
House, 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 100. - 1.3 MB.