Masonic Research Society
Mysteries and Rites
By Bro. Dudley Wright, Assistant
Editor "The Freemason," London
and especially those of the Craft, have called attention to the
the rites of the Ancient Mysteries and those of Freemasonry. Indeed,
have given rise to much speculation, and it has been suggested by more
writer that such resemblances are more than accidental Some of us have
convinced that Freemasonry, if we may not say that it was historically
from the instituted Mysteries of antiquity, it at least perpetuates
Mysteries ‒ those rites of ancient Greece and afterwards of Rome, of
is historical evidence dating back to the seventh century before the
bear very striking resemblance, in many points, to the rituals of both
and Speculative Freemasonry- As to their origin, beyond the legendary
forth, there is no reliable trace. Like most great human institutions
out of a real human need, to which they ministered, else they could not
sway for so many ages.
opinion of not a few writers an Egyptian source is attributed to them,
but of this
there is no positive proof though we may infer as much, remembering the
of Egypt upon Greece. There is a legend that St. John the Evangelist a
honored and revered by Freemasons was an initiate of these mysteries.
more than one of the early Fathers of the Christian Church boasted of
into these Rites. Even St. Paul was influenced by them, to the extent,
of using some of their imagery, and even some of their technical terms,
in his Epistles.
of articles, to which I have the honor thus to call attention, is one
of the first
attempts so far made to give a detailed exposition of the ceremonial of
of Greece in English. As such they have an interest to Masons, but also
of antiquity in general, and if the field were familiar, as it is not,
would be worthy of special interest for the new materials brought
forward ‒ Brother
Wright, I need hardly say, is a careful, painstaking, and thorough
student, as readers
of THE BUILDER can testify, and among his many services to the Craft
will not be reckoned the least.
writer needs no introduction, but I have much pleasure in emphasizing
of these researches in ancient lore, because they make a real
contribution to our
Joseph Fort Newton.
The Eleusinian Legend
which formed the basis of the Mysteries of Eleusis, presence at and
in which, demanded an elaborate form or ceremony of initiation, was as
(sometimes described as Proserpine and as Cora or Kore) when gathering
abducted by Pluto, the god of Hades, and carried off by him to his
Zeus, the brother of Pluto and the father of Persephone, giving his
(or Ceres), her mother, arrived too late to assist her child or even to
glimpse of her seducer, and neither god nor man was able, or willing,
her as to the whereabouts of Persephone or who had carried her away.
For nine nights
and days she wandered, torch in hand, in quest of her child.
she heard from Helios (the sun) the name of the seducer and his
at Zeus she left Olympus and the gods and came down to scour the earth
as an old woman.
In the course
of her wanderings she arrived at Eleusis where she was honourably
Keleos, the ruler of the country, with whom and his wife, Metanira, she
to remain in order to watch over the education of Demophon, who had
just been born
to the aged king, and whom she undertook to make immortal.
Long was thy anxious search
For lovely Proserpine, nor didst thou break
Thy mournful fast, till the far-fam'd
Eleusis Received thee wandering.
the parents Demeter used to anoint Demophon by day with ambrosia and
hide him by
night in the fire like a firebrand. Detected one night by Metanira she
to reveal herself as Demeter, the goddess. Whereupon she directed the
to erect a temple as a peace offering and, this being done, she
promised to initiate
them into the form of worship which would obtain for them her goodwill
"It is I, Demeter, full of glory, who lightens and gladdens the hearts
and men. Hasten ye, my people, to raise hard by the citadel, below the
a fane, and on the eminence of the hill, an altar, above the wall of
I will instruct you in the rites which shall be observed and which are
was erected but Demeter was still vowing vengeance against gods and men
of the continued loss of her daughter she rendered the earth sterile
during a whole
What ails her that she comes
Demeter seeks her far and wide;
And gloomy-browed doth ceaseless roam
From many a morn till eventide.
life, immortal though it be, Is naught!" she cries, "for want of thee,
Persephone Persephone!" The oxen drew the plough but in vain was the
in the prepared ground. Mankind was threatened with utter annihilation
and all the
gods were deprived of sacrifices and offerings. Zeus endeavored to
appease the anger
of the gods but in vain. Finally he summoned Hermes to go to Pluto to
to restore Persephone to her mother. Pluto yielded but before
Persephone left she
took from the hand of Pluto four pomegranate pips which he offered her
on her journey. Persephone, returning from the land of shadows, found
in the temple at Eleusis which had recently been erected. Her first
whether her daughter had eaten anything in the land of her
her unconditional return to earth and Olympus depended upon that.
her mother that all she had eaten was the pomegranate pips in
consequence of which
Pluto demanded that Persephone should sojourn with him for four months
year, or one month for each pip taken. Demeter had no option but to
consent to this
arrangement, which meant that she would enjoy the company of Persephone
months in every year and that the remaining four would be spent by
Pluto. Demeter caused to awaken anew "the fruits of the fertile plains"
and the whole earth was reclothed with leaves and flowers. Demeter
the princes of Eleusis Triptolemus, Diocles, Eumolpus, Polyxenos, and
initiated them "into the sacred rites most venerable into which no one
to make enquiries or to divulge; a solemn warning from the gods seals
secrecy on the subject of the nature of the stately Mysteries is
the writer of the Homeric Hymn to Demeter makes no secret of the
comes to all who become initiates: "Happy is he who has been received,
he who has never received the initiation nor taken part in the sacred
and who cannot, alas! be destined to the same lot reserved for the
faithful in the
darkling abode." The version of the legend given by Minucius Felix is
the daughter of Ceres by Jupiter, as she was gathering tender flowers
in the new
spring, was ravished from her delightful abodes by Pluto; and, being
thence through thick woods and over a length of sea, was brought by
Pluto into a
cavern, the residence of departed spirits, over whom she afterwards
ruled with absolute
sway. But Ceres, upon discovering the loss of her daughter, with
and begirt with a serpent, wandered over the whole earth for the
purpose of finding
her till she came to Eleusis; there she found her daughter and
discovered to the
Eleusinians the plantation of corn."
In the Homeric
Hymn to Demeter, Persephone gives her own version of the incident as
"We were all playing in the
Leucippe, and Phaino, and Electra, and Ianthe, and Melite, and Iache,
and Callinhoe, and Melobosis, and Ianeira, and Acaste, and Admete, and
and Plouto, and winsome Calypso, and Styx, and Urania, and beautiful
were playing there and plucking beautiful blossoms with our hands;
and iris, and hyacinth, and roses, and lilies, a marvel to behold, and
that the wide earth bare, a wile for my undoing. Gladly was I gathering
the earth gaped beneath and therefrom leaped the mighty prince, the
host of many
guests, and he bare me against my will, despite my grief, beneath the
his golden chariot; and shrilly did I cry."
On the submission
of Eleusis to Athens, the Mysteries became an integral part of the
so that the Eleusinian Mysteries became a PanHellenic institution, and
the Romans, a universal worship, but the secret rites of initiation
were well kept
throughout their history.
mention of the Temple of Demeter at Eleusis occurs in the Homeric Hymn
which has already been mentioned. This was not written by Homer but by
versed in Homeric lore and its probable date is about 600 B. C. It was
a little over a hundred years ago in an old monastery library at
Moscow, and now
reposes in a museum at Leyden.
one of the twelve originally independent cities of Attica, which
Theseus is said
to have united into a single state. Leusina now occupies the site and
has thus preserved
the name of the ancient city. Theseus is portrayed by Virgil as
punishment in Hades but Proclus writes concerning him as follows:
Pirithous are fabled to have ravished Helen and to have descended to
regions: i.e., they were lovers of intelligible and visible beauty.
was liberated by Pericles from Hades, but Pirithous remained there
because he could
not sustain the arduous attitude of divine contemplation.
in his Divine Legation of Moses [Lib 1846; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3], gives, as his opinion, that
was a living character who once forced his way into the Eleusinian
which crime he was imprisoned on earth and afterwards damned in the
Mysteries seem to have constituted the most vital portion of the Attic
and always to have retained something of awe and solemnity. They were
outside Attica until the time of the Median wars, when they spread to
colonies in Asia as part of the constitution of the daughter states,
where the cult
seems to have exercised a considerable influence both on the populace
and on the
philosophers. Outside Eleusis the Mysteries were not celebrated so
on so magnificent a scale. At Celeas, where they were celebrated every
a hierophant, who was not bound by the law of celibacy, as at Eleusis,
by the people for each celebration. Pausanias is the authority for a
the Phliasians that they imitated the Eleusinian Mysteries. They,
that their rendering was instituted by Dysaules, brother of Celeus, who
their country after he had been expelled from Eleusis by Ion, son of
the time when Ion was chosen commander-in-chief of the Athenians in the
Eleusis. Pausanias disputed that any Eleusinian was defeated in battle
into exile, maintaining that peace was concluded between the Athenians
and the Eleusinians
before the war was fought out, even Eumolpus himself being permitted to
Eleusis. Pausanias, also, while admitting that Dysaules might have gone
for some cause other than that admitted by the Phliasians, questioned
was related to Celeus, or, indeed, to any illustrious Eleusinian
family. The name
of Dysaules does not occur in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, where are
all who were taught the ritual of the Mysteries by the goddess, though
that of Celeus
to Triptolemus and Dioeles, smiter of horses, And mighty Eumolpus and
of people, The way of performing the sacred rites and explained to all
of them the
according to the Phliasians, it was Dysaules who instituted the
also had a sanctuary dedicated to Demeter, which they called Eleusinian
and in which
they celebrated the Mysteries in honour of the goddess. They had a
legend that Demeter
went thither in her wanderings and that out of gratitude to the
the hospitality they showed her, she gave them all the different kinds
except beans. Two Pheneatians Trisaules and Damithales built a temple
Thesuria, the goddess of laws, under Mount Cyllene, where were
instituted the Mysteries
in her honour, which were celebrated until a late period and which were
be introduced there by Naus, a grandson of Eumolpus.
that is excellent and divine," wrote Cicero, "does Athens seem to me to
have produced and added to our life, but nothing better than those
which we are formed and moulded from a rude and savage state of
humanity; and, indeed,
in the Mysteries we perceive the real principles of life, and learn not
live happily, but to die with a fairer hope." Every manner of writer
poet, worldly poet, skeptical philosopher, orator all are of one mind
far the greatest of all the religious festivals of Greece.
(To be continued)
Immortality -- [A Poem]
caterpillars crawling on a leaf,
By some strange accident in contact came;
Their conversation, passing all belief,
Was that same argument, the very same,
That has been "proed and conned" from man to man,
Yea, ever since this wondrous world began.
The ugly creatures,
Deaf and dumb and blind,
Devoid of features
That adorn mankind.
Were vain enough, in dull and wordy strife,
To speculate upon a future life.
The first optimistic, full of hope,
The second, quite dyspeptic, seemed to mope.
Said number one, "I'm sure of our salvation."
Said number two, "I'm sure of our damnation;
Our ugly forms alone would seal our fates
And bar our entrance through the golden gates.
Suppose that death should take us unawares,
How could we climb the golden stairs?
If maidens shun us as they pass us by,
Would angels bid us welcome in the sky?
I wonder what great crime we have committed
That leaves us so forlorn and so unpitied.
Perhaps we've been ungrateful, unforgiving;
'Tis plain to me that life's not worth the
"Come, come, cheer up," the jovial worm
"Let's take a look upon the other side;
Suppose we cannot fly like moths or millers,
Are we to blame for being caterpillars?
Will that same God that doomed us crawl the
A prey to every bird that's given birth,
Forgive our captor as he eats and sings,
And damn poor us because we have no wings?
If we can't skim the air like owl or bat,
A worm will turn 'for a' that."'
They argued through the summer; autumn nigh
The ugly things composed themselves to die,
And so, to make their funeral quite complete,
Each wrapped him in his little winding sheet.
The entangled web encompassed them full soon;
Each for his coffin made him a cocoon.
All through the winter's chilling blast, they
Dead to the world, aye, dead as human clay.
Lo! Spring comes forth with all her warmth and
She brings sweet justice from the realms above;
She breaks the chrysalis, she resurrects the
Two butterflies ascend encircling her head,
And so this emblem shall forever be
A sign of humility.
English out of Russian type with medical tweezers the Red Cross editor
of the "American
Sentinel" manages to furnish the American soldiers in the Archangel
with a four-page weekly paper of U. S. news.
The Fraternal Forum
Edited By Bro. Geo. E. Frazer,
President, Board of Stewards
Joseph C. Greenfield, Georgia.
Dr. John Lewin McLeish, Ohio.
Geo. W. Baird, District of Columbia.
Frederick W. Hamilton, Massachusetts.
Joseph W. Norwood, Kentucky
Joseph Barnett, California.
H. L. Haywood, Iowa.
Frank E. Noyes, Wisconsin
H. P. Burke, Colorado.
T. W. Hugo, Minnesota.
John Pickard, Missouri.
Joe L. Carson, Virginia.
M. M. Johnson, Massachusetts.
C. M. Sehenek, Colorado
R. M. C. Condon, Michigan.
P. E. Kellett, Manitoba.
Francis W. Shepardson, Illinois.
John A. Davilla, Louisiana.
John G. Keplinger, Illinois.
Silas H. Shepherd, Wisconsin.
Jos. W. Eggleston, Virginia.
Harold A. Kingsbury, Connecticut.
Oliver D. Street, Alabama
Henry R. Evans, District of Columbia.
Dr. Wm. F. Kuhn, Missouri.
Denman S. Wagstaff, California.
H. D. Funk, Minnesota.
Dr. G. Alfred Lawrence, New York.
S. W. Williams, Tennessee.
Asahel W. Gage, Florida.
Julius H. McCollum. Connecticut.
Contributions to this Monthly
Department of Personal Opinion are invited
from each writer who has contributed one or more articles to THE
for discussion are selected as being alive in the administration of
Discussions of polities, religious creeds or personal prejudices are
purpose of the Department being to afford a vehicle for comparing the
of leading Masonic students ‒ The contributing editors assume
for what each writes over his own signature ‒ Comment from our Members
on the Subjects
discussed here will be welcomed in the Question Box Department.
A resolution was last year
introduced at the
Annual Communication of one of our American Grand Lodges to limit the
lodges of that Jurisdiction to a maximum of 400 members. The resolution
is to be
disposed of at the Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge in question
The committee to whom the
matter was referred
inquired of the Society to ascertain whether or not the subject had
been acted upon
in any of the other American Grand Jurisdictions and we, in turn,
question to the several Grand Secretaries from whom it is learned that
no such legislation
has ever been enacted in any American Grand Lodge.
Believing that the opinions of
Editors would be of value to the above committee in framing their
to their Grand Lodge and that our members would also be interested in
discussion of the subject, we submitted to the Editors the following
"Should The Several
Grand Lodges Enact Legislation Limiting The Size Of Subordinate Lodges?
what should be the maximum number of members?
you are against such restrictions, and favor large lodges, what are
Doubts Advisability of Grand
Results to be Derived from Small Lodges.
of opinion in the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts favors smaller lodges. I
the advisability, however, of legislation limiting the membership of
have no such legislation in this jurisdiction and I am reasonably sure
that it would
not pass if proposed.
In the Grand
Lodge Proceedings of Massachusetts for 1916 Grand Master Melvin M.
a most excellent discussion of the matter, which follows:
I have long
been of the opinion that many of our lodges are altogether too large,
and that better
Masonic and equally good financial results would be obtained if there
lodges, with smaller membership. You may be interested to learn that
membership of lodges in Massachusetts is higher than in any other
America with the single exception of the District of Columbia, which
and having no country lodges is really not comparable. The only lodges
in that District
having less than two hundred members are the seven last chartered
the average membership in the District is high, viz. 339. This is more
with metropolitan Boston. The average membership of our Districts No. 1
to No. 7
inclusive is 355. Because of peculiar conditions we must lay these
and compare ourselves with other jurisdictions having both city and
Of them all, our average membership is the highest, or 260. There are
other jurisdictions having an average membership of over two hundred,
Island, 247; Pennsylvania, 244; Connecticut, 236; New York, 229; and
209. Twenty other jurisdictions in the United States average between
one and two
hundred, and twenty-two others less than one hundred. The average lodge
for the whole United States is 124. Our average, therefore, is more
than twice the
average membership of all lodges in this country. This is unhealthy
does not mean that a lodge of two hundred and sixty members is by any
too large. One hundred and forty-three of our lodges, or more than
half, have less
than that number. Only fifty-seven of our lodges have as small a
membership as the
average of the whole United States.
It is hard
to say that there is any fixed number of members which should not be
vary in different places. It is, however, always true that where the
is so large that each member present cannot know all the others, and
a very small percentage of the members can ever have the opportunity of
the lodge in official capacities, the interest of the members lessens
and each individual
member feels less responsibility for the welfare of the lodge and for
of the duties and responsibilities of Masonry as well. It is a
rule that the smaller the membership the larger percentage of members
is a disease equally injurious to an animal, a human, or a lodge. Many
are afflicted with it. Let us see the result. One lodge initiated 66
and another 64. Another, with a membership of nearly 500, raised 46.
a membership of over 500, admitted 40. Another, with a membership of
over 700, admitted
56. Another, with a membership of over 450, admitted 40. In one of our
a population of nearly 38,000 where there is a single lodge having a
of over 600 (which admitted 40 last year) the sentiment against the
of a second lodge is so strong as to be preventive. In another city
with a population
of nearly 17,000 where there is a single wealthy lodge with a
membership of about
550 (38 being admitted last year) there is a similar sentiment
preventing the establishment
of another lodge.
another city in the Commonwealth having a population of over 25,000
is no lodge at all, and the establishment of a new lodge there has been
by the adverse action of two lodges in an adjoining city, each one of
a membership of over 400. If but one of these neighboring lodges had
objection could be overruled by the Grand Master, but the Grand
his issuing a dispensation for the formation of a new lodge in this
city of over
25,000 inhabitants, without a lodge, because of two objections in an
In this particular case ten lodges have joint jurisdiction over this
yet the objection of two of them absolutely vetoes the petition for a
and neither the Grand Master nor even this Grand Lodge, as the
stand, can consider the wisdom of the objection. I have not examined
into the present
instance nor do I attempt to pass upon its merits. But the power
granted to two
lodges out of ten to retard the proper development of our institution,
as an abstract
proposition, is wrong. I believe it is time that the rule should be
the good of the whole Fraternity. What is even much more necessary is
of a sentiment in favor of more and smaller lodges where the brethren
may be more
united, may be thrown into closer fraternal intercourse, may have more
to serve, and where the tenets of our institution can better be
If it be
argued that for financial consideration large lodges must be built up,
answer is that no other jurisdiction in the whole Masonic world (save
only the District
of Columbia) averages such large lodges as does Massachusetts, and
jurisdictions are prosperous and successful. We have no conditions in
which are peculiar to this Commonwealth. Even Michigan, which shows us
of one single lodge of 2,184 members and five others of over 1,000
throughout the state only 182. The tendency of great lodges is to
than to enhance the Masonic development of each individual member. The
of Masonry have never been gauged by financial considerations. When
the criteria, then it is time to halt and to recast our activities, for
grand aims and purposes of our Fraternity are sure to be obscured.
Frederick W. Hamilton, Grand Secretary, Massachusetts.
* * *
Grand Lodge Legislation
your question as to whether or not the several Grand Lodges should
limiting the size of subordinate lodges, I must say that I do not feel
to give an authoritative opinion upon this subject or go into any
of it. My impression, however, is that they should not.
Our law provides
(as I understand is the fact in most of the jurisdictions) that where a
is proposed its organization must be assented to by certain of the
lodges next nearest.
In case of a division of a lodge this rule would oblige the new
have the consent of the old. This seems to me all that is necessary.
There is a
very general sentiment among the craft in opposition to large and
a sentiment which to me seems to be growing. There is sufficient
difficulty in some
localities in holding the brethren of a lodge together and keeping up
of harmony and fraternity without which a lodge organization is
valueless. Any such
dissension ought not to be encouraged by educating the brethren to look
continually to a time when the lodge may be split. In some instances it
in undue solicitude on their part to increase their membership to a
under an iron-clad law, they will be compelled to divide. In addition
to this, I
think the question of when a lodge is large enough and when another
ought to be
organized can well be left to the good judgment of the constituent
lodges. No hard
and fast rule ought to be made. There are times and places when a lodge
a very large membership to advantage and without inconvenience, and
half the membership ought to be divided. It is a subject over which
ought not to assume the authority.
H. P. Burke, Colorado.
* * *
Average Attendance Better
In Small Lodges.
is in favor of small lodges and by this I mean not exceeding 200 in
My reasons are:
1. A better camaraderie will
thereby be obtained and preserved. In such a lodge
it is possible for every brother to know not only the face but the
disposition of every other and even something of the personal
difficulties and troubles
with which he may have to contend. He can also rejoice with him in the
that may befall him. A situation like this begets real brotherhood.
2. Now that organized relief of
the distressed is done chiefly through the instrumentality
of Grand Lodges, it is no longer necessary for this purpose that lodges
3. Where initiations are so
numerous as they must be in large lodges, little
or no time is left for the development of the social or study side of
4. In every large lodge the proper
caution in admitting members cannot be observed.
This must necessarily be left almost wholly to the investigating
5. Finally, I believe the average
of attendance in small lodges is better than
in large ones.
Oliver D. Street, Alabama.
* * *
A Matter To Be Determined
By The District Deputies And Concerned Members.
I am only
qualified to express an opinion with regard to conditions in England
which are somewhat different to those in the United States. As far as I
to ascertain, however, the average strength of lodges in England,
Canada and the
United States is about the same; in each of these three countries the
is about 120, so that, as far as numerical conditions are concerned,
are on practically the same footing.
that excessively large lodges are undesirable for the reason that many
of the members
have little or no opportunity for ever having a hand in either the work
or the administration.
Further, in large lodges, all the available time at the regular
meetings is taken
up by the routine work and the conferring of degrees, and none is
lectures, addresses and discussions, and so great a part of what I
consider as the
most valuable teachings of the Order will be neglected.
to legislation on the subject, I do not consider that the size of
should be limited by the Grand Lodges, for the reason that such a law
would be in
the nature of an innovation, and I believe that the fewer changes of
this sort made
in the Constitutions, the better. Laws such as this tend to hold apart
jurisdictions rather than to unite them by the bonds of fraternal
that each case should be considered on its own merits by the District
the brethren concerned. If necessary steps could then be taken for the
of a new lodge from the membership of that already in existence.
C. C. Adams, Ontario.
* * *
Give To Each Member An Equal
Chance To Become Master Of His Lodge.
I have had
this subject under consideration for some time and have discussed it
with a number
of brethren and it is my firm conviction that subordinate lodges should
to a membership not to exceed 400.
Let us extend
to every well-informed and zealous Mason a reasonable chance to become
Master of his lodge.
of my conversations on this subject lead me to believe that a vote of
would be almost unanimous in favor of restriction.
‒ R. M. C. Condon, Michigan.
* * *
Too Much Grand Lodge
I am firmly
convinced that the size of lodges, save as to a minimum, is a matter
Grand Lodges should not interfere. We legislate far too much and leave
to our lodges along several lines. I do not especially favor large
lodges but see
no harm in size.
has several lodges of more than five hundred members and they are all
One of the three to which I belong, and in which my membership is most
nearly four hundred members and is noted for its harmony and good
feeling. In it
there are no quarrels and there is never a contest, even of the most
for office. We talk privately among ourselves until we ascertain which
approved by the largest number of the active members, exclude all to
develops any antagonism, and elect unanimously. Our law requires an
for each office and our Tyler fills that position.
Jos. W. Eggleston, P. G. M., Virginia.
* * *
A Virginia Brother Who Favors
I am not in favor of large lodges, nor are the majority of the brethren
of the Grand
Jurisdictions under which I have been affiliated, those of England,
be any Masonic comfort in a lodge of say four hundred to five hundred
there be any real sociability? Can there be a close brotherly love
a number? Can a member of such a lodge know all the others as he
should? I think
not. Lodges of from 50 to 100 members fulfill the best traditions of
the Craft in
promoting good fellowship and if lodges were of this size, and sat down
after the labors of the evening, even if the repast consisted only of a
"pop," some bread and cheese, and a smoke to follow, it would give the
opportunity, lacking during lodge hours, of becoming acquainted one
the result would be that each lodge would become a family of itself and
be less troubled with the unaffiliated Mason.
joins a lodge of over 100 members; he probably knows less than a dozen,
them he can only look at in lodge because, of course, silence must be
He is conscious that he stands little or no chance of ever being
elected to any
office, and after listening to the same ceremonies for a couple of
himself a stranger in the lodge, and of little importance save when the
being collected, he begins to stop away, and send his dues, followed in
of time by his resignation. What is there to induce him to remain?
let him feel, as he assuredly will in a small lodge, that he is an
of the lodge, give him the opportunity of spending a social hour with
and making new acquaintances, and I am a poor prophet if we do not keep
This is certainly
a more reasonable course to pursue than the habit of reviling him,
him, and trying to coerce his attendance in a lodge which he does not
or its members congenial. The popularity of the Shrine is a tacit
that we feel the want of a social side to our ceremonies, and this
can only permeate every member when the lodge is kept within numerical
in small lodges soon become assimilated and a part of the whole, look
promotion to office, and take a lively interest in the work of the
I have been
a member of large and small lodges and have found more of the real
spirit of Freemasonry
in a little country lodge in Ireland, where seldom more than twenty or
gathered together, than in any lodge of which I have ever had the
the pain) of visiting.
Joe L. Carson, Virginia.
* * *
Individual Acquaintances a Factor. This Grand Jurisdiction has only
whose membership rolls number over four hundred. The matter of
restricting the lodges
to the number of members they might admit has never been considered.
I would be opposed to such action because I feel that the Grand Lodge
interfere in the internal government of a lodge to that extent, as I
find that many
applicants, by the question of individual acquaintance, are largely
biased in their
selection and are prone to seek connection with lodges in which their
John A. Davilla, Grand Secretary, Louisiana.
* * *
Enforce Existing Laws Rather
Than Enact New Ones.
In my opinion
Grand Lodges should not interfere in the matter of lodge membership.
inherited an inalienable right to make their own membership. It follows
may, rightfully, "unmake" their membership, or place their own limit on
the number of members.
Lodge may arrest a charter, or oblige a lodge to bring to trial an
which, I think, is going far enough.
like creeds, Nations and segregations of all kinds, is more in need of
existing laws than of making additional ones. It is the failure to
execute a law
that leads too often to the enactment of another. We have an example in
Constitutional Amendment providing prohibition, substituting it for
There have ever been laws in every State to punish drunkenness, but
they have not
may arise in some instances from a large membership, a limitation by
the Grand Lodge
might result in mischief in other cases it is easy to see that it might
in many cases.
A lodge may
now limit its own membership by a provision in its by-laws, but it is
to change that by-law, which it could not do if prohibited by the Grand
there are ambitious members in every lodge who would like to get into
and these are the members who are apt to find reasons for the
organization of another
lodge, and they usually have a following this is the ever-present cause
of membership in a large lodge.
limiting the membership by Grand Lodge action would, in my opinion, be
in the body of Masonry, which we all, at our installation as Master,
George W. Baird, P. G. M., District of Columbia.
* * *
Make the Limits of Lodge
Membership Bear Some Ratio to the Total Membership of the Grand
of an upper limit of membership in lodges is a question that mainly
communities. In small communities there is sometimes the opposite
tendency a tendency
to form two small lodges instead of one strong lodge. Grand Lodges have
concerned with this latter phase than with the former. And any
the former should be associated with a similar attention to the latter.
acquaintances of members with one another is the very basis of a lodge.
communities, where some membership is drawn from considerable
distances, it is difficult
for all to know one another, when the membership approximates 100; when
200 the upper limit is usually reached. When, in large communities, the
reaches several hundred, the individual is apt to be lost in the crowd
it is impossible for most of such members ever to hold office, a
as well as a desirable ambition.
On the other
hand small lodges are at a disadvantage in such matters as Masonic
In any such
proposed legislation it would be more appropriate, instead of choosing
number, to make the limits of lodge membership bear some ratio to the
membership, that is, to the whole body of Masonry in a Jurisdiction.
And the average
lodge membership in that Grand Jurisdiction might form a mean between
the two extremes.
For instance, a Grand Jurisdiction of 400 lodges and 60,000 members
average membership of 150 to the lodge, and such an average might form
basis as between unwieldiness and weakness.
Joseph Barnett, California.
* * *
Large Lodges, Properly Managed,
Can Do More Than Small Lodges.
that the question of limiting the size of subordinate lodges is
something that it
would be advisable to go slow with.
all, it has to be noted that this is a Grand Lodge legislation that is
Would it not seem more reasonable and proper for legislation of this
kind to come
from the subordinate lodge itself rather than from the Grand Lodge? A
are of the opinion that we have too much of this restricting
legislation, from above,
on questions which should be decided altogether by the subordinate
naturally a great deal to be said in favor of a small lodge, and just
as much to
be said in favor of a large lodge. There is considerable danger in a
if care is not taken the danger of the membership losing that close,
feeling, which is appreciated in all lodges and which it is hard for
them to lose
in a small lodge where each individual member knows each other member.
When an organization
gets beyond a certain size, it is better to have the membership limited
have that cold, stranger ‒ like attitude to develop through the members
one another well enough and not coming in closer touch with one
another. From my
own observation, however, I believe that it is possible to avoid this
state of affairs.
In fact, I believe that a large lodge can be organized for carrying out
work in a broader field and a bigger way than is possible in a small
lodge. A large
organization of that kind can start out to do things that a small
not think of attempting. By means of proper organization the members
can be kept
together and a spirit of "esprit de corps" and good fellowship can be
developed in the large organization to probably as great (if not
than in the small organization.
lodge figures on planning to carry out something more than just a mere
degrees and meeting together in the lodge room in a perfunctory and
of way, it had better not be ambitious for a large membership. But with
conditions it seems to me from my observations that the larger the
more effective can the organization become. Let me repeat again though,
that I do
not think it is a matter that Grand Lodge should legislate on at all.
P. E. Kellett, P. G. M., Manitoba.
* * *
A Lesson from the Bee Hive.
comply with your request for my opinion as to the advisability of the
limiting the size of constituent lodges. But I would suggest that the
by the Masonic symbols or emblems are more worthwhile.
instance the Bee Hive. Many truths may be learned from it. It is an
symbol of a Masonic lodge. The hive of bees has to solve the same
question as to
the proper size of a working unit. There is no fixed law, arbitrary and
of circumstance, limiting the number of bees in a hive. When there
becomes too many,
under all the existing conditions, there is a swarm formed which starts
a new unit.
If outside hands interfere with this local method of reducing the
number, or if
they too greatly divide the hive and arbitrarily reduce the working
unit, the work
is interfered with and impeded.
In the same
way, it seems to me, the members of the lodges are the best judges of
welfare. If they want smaller lodges they can dimit into them; if they
lodges they can consolidate.
You ask if
I am "against such restrictions and favor larger lodges, what are my
therefore I am against such restrictions, but I do not favor larger
lodges. I believe
that such restriction is an outside interference. I believe in local
This is a question that pertains to the members of the constituent
lodges and with
which others should not meddle.
We read in
the Book of the Law about a land of milk and honey; these foods are
good to the
taste, but does not the beauty of that country come rather from the
fact that they
are both produced without interfering with, preying upon or living off
else? The bee in taking his honey from the grove does not interfere
with the fruit,
but actually increases the yield. Would it not be well for our Grand
Lodges to ever
work with our lodges, encourage them and help them, and scrupulously
with or raising an outside ruling hand in purely local matters.
Is not the
experience of freedom worth more than a life well-governed by another?
Is not the
school of local self-government and freedom one of the constituent
valuable functions? In asking your question you use the term
Would it not be better to not only call them but keep them "constituent
Asahel W. Gage, Florida.
* * *
Not Favorable to Grand Lodge
Legislation but Prefers the Small Lodge.
this question I find my personal preferences for a small lodge brought
with my objection to Grand Lodges enacting any legislation that divests
of the right to decide upon their own numbers. Or perhaps this is not a
Lodge that values the respect of its members, I should think, would
legislate upon the size of subordinate bodies, upon which it must
depend for its
existence, any more than it should undertake to legislate what the
eat for breakfast or what kind of shoes they should wear. The locality
with which the lodge is surrounded, as well as ability to bear its
can be taken into consideration and acted upon more intelligently by
themselves than by the Grand Lodge. Large lodges unquestionably lose
men of the
spirit of fraternity in the bigness. But the biggest lodge of all is
lodge we call the world and we believe in that so we say!
questions to be considered in this inquiry are (1) the material side
and (2) the
1. In large cities, financial
conditions alone, under our system of building
great temples and making outward display that attracts membership,
it imperative in the interests of economy to have the number of lodges
to a few large ones. Of course there need not be any loss of interest
in the individual
in all this, if devoted officers are chosen who are still at heart
I have seen very large lodges in which clubs and committees performed
all the social
good-fellowship of the small ones; in which a visitor was welcomed and
or a candidate as thoroughly instructed as in the small ones.
2. I prefer the small lodge
because it is nearer to that individual ideal
which makes the true freemason and upon which our whole structure
rests. One history
of my own lodge, of which I had the honor to be the 112th Master,
convinced me of
the supreme spiritual value of a small membership. In its pioneer days
came from hunting trips hundreds of miles to attend what was then a
of such virile stripe that they wrote into our first constitution and
laws the Masonic
principles upon which the nation is founded; selected a seal that no
Mason in the
world could fail to recognize; founded works of brotherhood that in
these days would
be called sociological affairs.
As time progressed
and our membership became larger we took to building and owning
property in keeping
with our dignity, diverting much of our energy to business details
We followed the old church lottery idea to raise money. The "Masonic
became a stench to the Craft. Members who were devoted to the same
ideal of national
solidarity we have in the Masonic Service Association of the United
denounced as mere politicians and withdrew broken-hearted.
two-thirds of our membership never come to lodge, while the other third
striving to hold onto Masonic ideals and at the same time wrestle with
of Lodge Temple Debt. The smaller the membership, the easier it is to
meet and do
active Masonic work.
I do favor
Grand Lodges making it easier for new lodges to obtain charters. It
would then be
possible for half a dozen Masons, with a determination to do something
more to serve
their communities than grind out candidates, to get together in tyled
lay their plans for individual work and service.
Joseph W. Norwood, Kentucky.
* * *
Advocates Large Lodges.
there is strength and the larger the unit the stronger and more stable
it is. From
the four London lodges forming the Grand Lodge of England in hilt, what
power for good are its innumerable ramifications, extending to the
of the world, and yet constituent elements of our harmonious whole the
the lodge membership made up of suitable material (and none other
should be selected)
the greater its potentiality for a wider field of Masonic activity of a
A lodge with a large membership has also a wider field for the
selection of officers
of greater ability who can thus accomplish more and better work; its
sphere of social
and benevolent activities is widened; it has greater financial
stability; can be
maintained more economically and is enabled to exert a greater
the community or civic and patriotic righteousness.
Dr. G. Alfred Lawrence, New York.
* * *
Large Lodges A Matter Of
I am decidedly
opposed to the Grand Lodge of any jurisdiction legislating to limit the
members that any subordinate lodge may have. While I do not question
the legal right
of the Grand Lodge to pass such legislation I do not think it has the
Such legislation would seem meddling with the rights of the subordinate
to the Implication carried in the second section of the question I hold
for the large lodge but consider it a matter of evolution which cannot
not by legislation at any rate. Even were I in favor or such a law L
can see that
local conditions would have much bearing on the matter and it would be
to state a maximum which would be suitable to all lodges in the
on the other hand were a deferent maximum established tor different
would be trouble brewing right away. No doubt conditions which would
apply in Nebraska
would not apply in Connecticut. Let me illustrate what I mean by
My own lodge, Adelphi No. 63, was the second one formed in New Haven,
in 1823. The reason for asking for a charter is set forth as "there
lodge of one hundred and fifty members on which your petitioners
it impossible to attend in consequence of their numbers" and "that your
petitioners believe that many of our valued citizens are deterred by
situation of said lodge from requesting membership," etc. This shows on
face of it that in 1823 Hiram No. 1's one hundred and fifty Masons were
a very large percentage, attending lodge regularly while today there
are in New
Haven seven lodges with a membership of more than 4,200 or an average
of six hundred
apiece and except when the K. and F. degree is worked we are not
troubled with overcrowding.
This is easily explained as in 1823 lodge meeting and church were about
attraction to be had, while now movies, theatres, all sorts of
activities keep one
occupied so that lodge is not the main attraction. We can thus draw a
the comparison of 1823 and modern times by a comparison of the remote
and those in the populous cities.
objection to the large lodges as I take it is the fact that the members
do not know each other as well as those of the smaller lodges and the
spirit does not permeate the lodge so thoroughly. This is probably so
in the main
but as nearly if not all the large lodges are city lodges would they
know each other
any better even though split into smaller lodges always remembering
that they would
be city lodges? It is one of the penalties of living in a city that we
acquainted with those with whom we meet day in and day out in business,
lodges in as intimate a way as do our country brethren.
when the lodges reach the maximum, what then? Is it to be that when
some fine character
desires to become a member of a particular lodge because all his
friends and associates
are there the lodge says "nothing doing, you'll have to apply
or will it have a waiting list? When our past masters' sons become of
age are they
to be sent to some other lodge?
We are told
that in life's journey we must either progress or slide back; there is
no such thing
as standing still. A certain amount of work if good for a lodge, it
candidate and also refreshes the memory of those on the side lines and
legislation declaring that when a lodge reaches a certain limit it must
until someone dies is bad.
Julius H. McCollum, Connecticut.
* * *
Suggestions Invited From
Lodge Officers And Members Of The Society.
raised is important to the development of American Masonry. The Blue
Lodge is the
foundation of all Masonic enterprises. It would seem to be of the
that the Blue Lodge should operate as a social unit; not as a Chamber
for a community, nor as a charitable machine, still less as a degree
mill for the
preparation of candidates for the so called "higher degrees." It is by
no means clear that a large lodge may not develop the social qualities
of its members
just because the size of the lodge enables the brethren to maintain
quarters, and to operate through a variety of committees and projects
each individual member a chance to select work to his own liking.
like very much to have the officers of several of the larger lodges of
send in to the offices of the National Masonic Research Society such a
of their individual lodges as will enable us to prepare an article on
Particularly I should like to have each member of the Society who has
with forms of lodge organization add his own contribution to the
discussion of this
question by sending in a short letter which can be published in the
George E. Frazer, President. Board of Stewards.
indebted to the Masonic Life Association of Buffalo New York, for a
copy of the
Masonic Directory for Buffalo, which they publish annually. What
interests us most
is the list of large lodges. This list shows the most remarkable
year to year. It is not many years since for the first time an American
a membership of 1,000. Now there are 55 with a membership exceeding
1,000 and the
55 have a total membership of about 85,000.
is as follows:
| Grand Jurisdiction
of S. O.
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 29
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood.
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the subject for
All members to whom references for supplemental papers have been
be prepared with their papers and should also have a comprehensive
grasp of Brother
FOR STUDY MEETINGS
1. Reading of the first section of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of
Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
4. Question Box.
* * *
On "Working Tools Of A Fellow Craft"
- What are the working tools of a
- How have you explained them to
- What is their meaning in your
- Why do you always think of
goodness, holiness, heaven, God, as being above
- What is the difference, in your
judgment, between morality and righteousness?
- Do you think of your ideal of
your own life as being above and beyond you?
- If so, what efforts are you
making to attain to that ideal?
this not be one of the suggestions in this working tool of the plumb?
- What do you mean by "a hero"?
- How can a man erect himself
- What influence has the memory
of Washington, Pike, Jefferson and Lincoln
had for you?
what way may a true Mason be a hero to his friends? His family? His
- What do you understand yourself
when you use the word "level"?
- Do you really believe that you
are equal in all ways to every other individual?
- Is every other individual equal
to you in all ways?
- If there are fundamental
differences between you and other individuals, just
what is the nature of these differences?
- What do you understand by
- In what way are all Masons on a
level with each other?
becomes of your pride when you sincerely stand in a lodge room on a
level with your brother countryman?
- How would you explain the
meaning of the square when that symbol is used
as one of the working tools of a Fellow Craft?
- How can the sense of manly
pride and the feeling of equality be joined together
in your own experience?
- Do you really use your gifts to
help your brethren, and to help others in
- How can a healthy man use his
own strength to help those that are ill?
- How can a learned man use his
learning to help those that are ignorant?
- How can a man who has money
really help those that have little or no money?
- Should we not try to help
others in such a way that they do not even know
that we are helping them?
- How should parents help their
- How should teachers help their
- How may the Master and officers
of a lodge help the members of that lodge
without their knowing it?
is meant by not letting your right hand know what your left hand is
- What is your understanding of
the ashlar symbolism?
- What is meant by saying that a
profane man, using the word in a Masonic sense,
is but like a rough block of stone?
- Is not an ignorant, unclean,
profane, dishonest, unbrotherly man like an
unshaped piece of rough rock from the quarry?
- If you know of such a man how
can you help him to become a man more square,
cultured and brotherly?
- What is the Masonic Fraternity
as a whole now doing, in your own honest estimation,
to help this whole world to cease be a wreck of a world?
- Is not this present world but a
great crude piece of rock in your eyes?
- What can our Fraternity do to
help make this living human race more square
with the everlasting laws of life, righteousness, health, happiness and
- Which are you, in your own
lodge: a rough ashlar or a perfect ashlar?
- What do you do with the members
of your lodge who make trouble?
- Do you grow impatient with
them, or do you help them?
see that all these questions are designed to lead Masonic students to
understand that Freemasonry tries to help us in our daily lives.
* * *
Encyclopedia [Lib 1914]:
Level, p. 442; Plumb,
570; Square, p. 708.
Vol. IV The
Working Tools, p. 264. 1919
* * *
Part IV - Working Tools
of a Fellow Craft
is handed three symbolical tools at a certain place in the Second
degree each of
which is intended to teach him some truth concerning the art of right
is no need that any man be mystified by these simple emblems for their
upon the surface, clear and plain to the plainest man in the fraternity.
is just a tool, such as carpenters and masons now use, a kind of hint
visualized before one's eyes, which says to us, "there is such a thing
up and down in human experience." Because of the way our minds are it
us to remember that there are always those who stand above us in
character or achievement
and that there is always One who stands above us, not in lonely pride,
but in goodness
say that such and such a man is "righteous"; what do we mean by that
We mean that he has, as it were, a picture before him of what God
him to be; when he tries his best to be that he mounts, as we express
it, to a higher
level, and that is ever a noble and manly thing to do. The word
suggests, in itself, a picture of the plumb-line for it is a word that
up." Every Mason is called to live a life of rectitude; for that reason
hold before him the picture of Hiram who, in his sublime faithfulness
to duty, proved
himself one who lived on high levels indeed.
It is fortunate
for us Americans that in our history we have many men who "stand high"
in our estimation; and they should, for they are a constant inspiration
to us to
climb to a loftier plane of living, for,
"Unless above himself he can
How poor a thing is man!"
one of those men, also Washington, Pike, Jefferson, and many others;
merely to look
at the picture of Lincoln recalls to us the fact that in each of us
there are the
possibilities of living a similar life. And what a life it was of
of honesty, democracy, and a great reverent trust in God! To use the
line partly means, then, to keep before us the memory of these kingly
men in order
that their example may help us to take our own measure.
teaches a similar lesson for it pictures to us the duty of democracy.
upon the level is not enough; we must remain there. He who looks with
one fellow Mason must do either of two things ‒ he must prove that
of the fraternity or he must himself get out; for superciliousness is
one of the
ultimate crimes against fraternity. God Himself must hate a man who
raises his eye-brows
when he sees someone who has little talent or no money.
such a thing as equality when the word is used in one sense; there is
no such thing
when it is used in another sense. We must endeavor to understand the
words if we
would understand the teachings of the level. No two men are or ever can
equal in their talents; one man can sing and another can't; one man is
in business and another can never be; after a man has grown and
developed his faculties
he finds that many of his faculties, long out of use, will not revive.
And it is
certain that some men, even in the eyes of God, are better in morality
else moral distinctions would mean nothing. But all men are equal in
they belong to the same race, have the same blood in their veins,
breathe the same
air, live on the same earth, and have the same mighty Father who loves
in His own way according to that particular individual's needs. It is
equality which men more and more need to have kept before them for many
forget it. A "high-brow" Mason is a contradiction in terms. We are all
on a level in the lodge room because individual peculiarities are there
we remember only that we are fellows, that is, fellow men.
As for the
square that is one of the symbols which is so filled with mysteries and
suggestions that a student may well despair of surprising its meanings
out of it.
But let us link this emblem up to the preceding and think of the square
as a combination
of the plumb and the level, for the very figure suggests that; one arm
and one is level. What, then, may it mean to us in this way of looking
at it! It
may mean that there is a duty upon each man to climb into strength,
wisdom as far as he can, though his fellows remain far beneath him in
and then that he can turn about and use those gifts in behalf of his
brethren. Let him that has knowledge share it with other Masons, too
busy to study;
let him that can speak, speak to them that can't talk on their feet.
This is a high
level of brotherhood indeed but it is not above our reach as Masons, if
can ever take Masonry seriously. Looked at from without it is nothing
play, furbelows, gee-gaws, and feathers; lived from within, it is one
of the noble
types of life, always blessed of God, who is Himself a Father that
delights to find
His sons living together as brothers.
Ashlar, a symbol which may be studied in this same connection, is, in
a crude chunk of stone wrested from the mother rock in the quarry. Such
the promise of a stone fit for the builder's use. A Perfect (or
is that same stone dressed and squared and ready to be fitted into the
The interpretation is perfectly obvious. There are some men who, in the
God, are mere masses of human material unfit for any immediate use;
such are the
men who use profanity, who tell smutty tales, who gossip about their
who teach blasphemous religious doctrines, and who hate other persons;
can he make of such men? Think that out.
Ashlar of a man is merely a human being who has found himself, who is
his own life work, who is clean in body and spirit, who loves rather
and who has a great reverence for Him who loves straight clean men.
To keep one's
eyes fixed on those men of the past who were heroes indeed, heroes in
remember that we are all frail and that we are each one an essential
part of the
human race; to dedicate one's own victories and talents to others, to
them one's possessions, every kind of possession; and lastly to
remember that a
man isn't fit for life, even in God's sight, until he becomes fit to
live a truly
human life, all this, in brief, seems to be, the sermon preached to us
by the Ashlar
and by the Working Tools of the Fellowcraft.
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
Discontinued Until September
with our usual custom the Correspondence Circle Bulletin section of THE
will be discontinued during the months of July and August, and resumed
all of the lodges and study clubs that are following our "Bulletin
Masonic Study" close down during these months and in order that they
their studies with the current instalment in the September issue of THE
we have adopted the custom of discontinuing the Bulletin for the two
like to hear from all lodges and study clubs who have adopted the study
they are following THE BUILDER'S course of study, or some other, and
also from members
of the Society in communities where the study plan is not in effect but
might be a prospect of some activity along this line when the regular
are resumed in the Fall.
member of the Society who is interested, either individually or
otherwise, in the
systematic study of Masonry as now being conducted in THE BUILDER will
with the Secretary's Office they will receive information that will be
them in their studies.
My Books Before Me In A Row -- [A Poem]
Douglas Mallock, In American
books before me in a row, straight-trunked
and lofty, rise,
As do the forest friends I know unite the
earth and skies.
The book, the maple and the pine ‒
How like are all these friends of mine!
They stand upon the common soil, among the common things,
Amid the dust, amid the toil, the city's
And yet their mounting branches look
Upon the heavens, tree and book.
Who pauses by a giant tree and sees its giant length
And never feels its majesty, made stronger by
its strength? ‒
So does the volume lift the man
The universe to scan.
Who reads a rime of Tennyson, a bit of Bobby Burns,
Nor looks where stars their courses run, some
simple lesson learns?
The magic of the three-foot shelf
Shall lift the man above himself.
With Stevenson who walks the way and reads his limpid lines
But hears the melodies that play forever in
the pines ‒
But long like Stevenson to reach
The sweetness of our English speech?
The lesser poets (not in art but in a world's renown)
So may they also lift the heart above the
earth of brown ‒
The minor poets, if you will,
Who sing the major measure still.
Here stands a little London guide, a shilling guide in red;
Where Dickens dwelt and Goldsmith died a
pilgrimage it led.
So has it power, too, to raise
Our vision from the common ways.
And here are simple tools of trade utilitarian;
We labor in their grateful shade, these
adjuvants of man.
Here stands the sturdy old Roget,
Familiar servant, good and gray.
And, near at hand, the Book of Books, the counsellor and priest,
To which the mind forever looks in famine or
The one philosophy to test
The truth and purpose of the rest.
And here are children of mine own, not fitted to inspire;
Yet who the pangs of birth has known, the
But loves their lisping words to hear
And holds his children very dear?
The glad companions of the day, the solaces of night,
They stand beside me all the way, by sun or
And it is good to have them so ‒
By books before me in a row.
Godness -- [A Poem]
is Godness in the flower,
In the tempest, in the breeze,
In the sweet refreshing shower,
In the lightning, in the seas.
There is Godness in all matter,
Worlds by it their courses go,
'Tis the life, the force of nature
That its product cannot know.
knitters of America have made more than 10,000,000 garments for the
troops in France.
well said to be the speech of angels.
Grand Lodges and French Masonry
By Bro. Samuel H. Goodwin,
P. G. M., Utah
There's nothing constant in the
All ebb and flow, and every shape
That's born bears in its womb the seed of change."
of Grand Lodges with reference to French Masonry, and the change of
front on the
part of many Masons toward the same subject, are in line with the
assertion of Ovid,
quoted above. If there is one thing on this earth of ours intimately
humanity that is above the reach of change, we for one, know not in
of the globe to search for it.
This is especially
true of everything which exhibits life. The fundamental law of growth
involves change. Deterioration and death follow where this law ceases
saw clearly and truly who wrote:
"Weep not that the world
changes ‒ did it
A stable, changeless state, 'twere cause indeed to weep.
student of Masonic history can pursue his subject very far, without
fact despite the insistent claims of perfervid banqueters and some
others to the
contrary that Masonry has responded, and still answers to the same law.
To one who
holds that there must be no "variation, neither shadow cast by turning"
from the line laid down by our Masonic fathers, it is only necessary to
the Code of his own Jurisdiction, and to customs and usages which
prevail in his
own lodge and which are of quite recent origin to find both the
prophesy and the
warrant of further changes. And when we are solemnly warned against
making any "innovations
in the body of Masonry," we may well regard such admonition as being
only, for what part of this "body" is untouched by Change!
customs and jurisprudence were quite satisfactory yesterday, or a
a hundred years ago, affords no reason for assuming that the ultimate
at that time, or that yesterday's readjustments will meet all future
a living thing. It has to do with living beings who pass their lives in
which change over-night. If it is to rise to its opportunities under
it cannot remain insensible to, or be untouched by, the currents which
ever onward in the line of their destiny. Masonry, we should not
forget, is a means
to an end, not an end of itself. It is an institution calculated to
help man toward
the goal: it is not itself the goal. If these things be true; if
Masonry is to be
a real help to man and not be as so much impedimentia to be added to
his other burdens,
it must have flexibility and adaptability. Otherwise, it may as well be
in a glass case, with other mummies, where the dust of the ages may
hide it from
sight, for its day and generation are of the past.
It may safely
be said, we think, that no period in the world's history has witnessed
or such radical changes as the period between August 1st, 1914, and
1918. Again and again men declared that a world war was simply out of
inconceivable; impossible. When it came, the same false prophets
no less confidence that it could not go beyond three months six months,
at the outside,
because the nations would be bankrupt and exhausted in that length of
the war ran into the fifth year, thereby giving added emphasis to their
And the war upset about every standard, and rendered untenable nearly
hitherto accepted and occupied by men. With such a general and radical
and shifting of about everything that man had considered established,
it could hardly
be expected that Masonry should remain untouched by this world ‒
did it by any means escape. One, and not the least important, of the
the war upon Masonry, is seen in a hitherto unknown willingness on the
part of many
Grand Lodges and Masons to consider the status of French Masonry in the
facts revealed by the world's greatest holocaust.
In what follows
an attempt is made to exhibit, under a rather crude classification, the
present position of the several American Grand Lodges, so far as these
by the Proceedings at hand. In some cases no record of action had since
of the request for recognition from the Grand Lodge of France, July,
1917 has been
available. In such instances, the Grand Bodies have been placed under
the head of
"No Action Taken." Information concerning the action of two Grand
Rhode Island and Wyoming was derived from Masonic publications, other
than the Proceedings,
as these have not yet reached us. Aside from these matters, the scheme
1. Grand Lodges which have
both the Grand Lodge and the Grand Orient of France. These number five.
In the order
of date of action, they are:
Louisiana, February 5th, 1918.
New Jersey, April 17th, 1918.
Iowa, June 11th, 1918.
California, October 9th, 1918.
Minnesota, January 21-22, 1919.
be noted here, that while formal recognition was extended to the Grand
France, only on the date named by the Grand Lodge of New Jersey, the
the Grand Orient was rescinded, and this, if we understand correctly
position, places the Orient on practically the same footing as the
Grand Lodge of
2. Grand Lodges which recognized
the Grand Lodge of France, only, and either
took no action at all with reference to the Grand Orient, or refused
to that Grand Body. Our records show that there were six of these, viz:
Texas, December 4th, 1917.
District of Columbia, December 17th, 1917.
South Dakota, June 11th, 1918.
Nevada, June 12th, 1918.
Oregon, June 14th, 1918.
Rhode Island .?
with the last named Grand Lodge, we have only the statement of a
that "Rhode Island recognized France." Oregon removed "the inhibition
resulting in the prevention of our brethren now in France from visiting
This would place that jurisdiction under the next head, as well. And
did not formally recognize the Grand Orient, she certainly did so
for the Grand Secretary reports that the "Masonic Bureau for the Allied
which is neither more nor less than a committee appointed by the Grand
its headquarters in the Temple of the Grand Orient "has served us by
a Fellow Craft of our Ely Lodge No. 29, to the Degree of a Master Mason
in a duly
recognized lodge in France." This would place Nevada, practically, in
No. 1, above.
3. Grand Lodges which did not
formally recognize either of the Grand Bodies
of France, but which did give permission to their members to visit
These number eleven and fall under two heads:
(a) Those which restrict this
of visitation to lodges under the obedience of the Grand Lodge of
are four of these:
Florida, January 15th, 1918.
Philippine Islands, January 22nd, 1918.
Georgia, May 1st, 1918.
Indiana, May 28th, 1918.
(b) The other seven Grand Lodges
their members to visit lodges of both of the French Grand Bodies. these
New York, September 10th, 1917.
Kentucky, October 16th, 1917.
Alabama, December 5th, 1917.
*Utah, January 15th, 1918.
Colorado, May 1st, 1918.
North Dakota, June 18th, 1918.
Wyoming, September 11th, 1918.
It is barely
possible that Indiana belongs under "b" rather than under "a."
The wording of the resolution granting such permission is not clear to
us, on this
point. Were it is: "Resolved: That any member in good standing of a
the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Indiana is hereby permitted to
hold Masonic intercourse with any lodge or member of a lodge operating
Grand Lodge of the country in which said lodge is located." The matter
depend upon the measure of exactness with which the words "Grand Lodge
country," are used. If intended to be exact, then visitation would be
to lodges of the Grand Lodge of France. In as much as the Grand Orient
was not mentioned in the list of Grand Lodges and Orients presented at
for consideration, we think that Indiana is properly placed.
4. Grand Lodges which took a more
or less decided stand against any measure
of recognition being accorded either of the two Bodies under
are four of these, to date. They are:
Missouri, September 20th, 1917;
Sept. 20th, 1918.
Connecticut, February 6th, 1918.
Virginia, February 12th, 1918.
Wisconsin, June 11th, 1918.
5. Grand Lodges which considered
the matter, but postponed action without, apparently,
being committed definitely to one view or the other, on the merits of
There were eleven of these:
Massachusetts, June 13th, 1917.
Arkansas, November 20th, 1917.
North Carolina, January 15th, 1918.
Tennessee, January 30th, 1918.
Oklahoma, February 28th, 1918.
Maine, May 9th, 1918.
Nebraska, June 5th, 1918.
Washington, June 11th, 1918.
Vermont, June 12th, 1918.
Idaho, September 10th, 1918.
Illinois, October 8th, 1918.
It is rather
difficult to word a heading which will do justice to the position of
all the Grand
Lodges listed under this division. In some cases, the discussions
evoked were shot
through and through with dogmatism and bitterness. If definite action
had been taken,
there can be little doubt where such Grand Lodges would stand. In other
as for example, Massachusetts and Maine, and some others, there was
more of the
kindly, and what we should characterize as the Masonic spirit
perhaps on a test vote, these would stand with the others. However, as
our tabulation is approximate, only.
6. Grand Lodges in which the
subject appears not to have been mentioned, or
only incidentally so, at the Communications indicated by the dates.
Here we have
thirteen Bodies, as follows:
Delaware, October 4th, 1916 Not
Mississippi, February 13th, 1917 Not mentioned.
Ohio, October 17th, 1917 Not mentioned.
West Virginia, November 14th, 1917 Not mentioned.
Maryland, November 20th, 1917 Not mentioned.
South Carolina, December 12th, 1917 Not mentioned.
Pennsylvania, December 27th, 1917 Not mentioned.
Arizona, February 12th, 1918 See statement following this list.
Kansas, February 20th, 1918 Not mentioned.
New Hampshire, May 15th, 1918 Not mentioned.
Michigan, May 28th, 1918 See statement following.
New Mexico, October 18th, 1917 ‒ See statement following.
Montana, 1916 Not mentioned.
Of this list,
the Grand Lodge of Arizona "recognized" the "Masonic Bureau for the
Allied Armies," which, as noted above, is only a committee, and a
composed of members of the Grand Orient of France, and appointed by
that Grand Body.
We are somewhat at a loss to understand just how much our Arizona
by this action. It would seem to be a tacit recognition of the Grand
Orient of France,
but perhaps our Brothers did not mean it to be such.
Lodge of Michigan appropriated $200.00 to be used by the same Bureau in
work for the soldiers. This, of course, does not commit the Grand Lodge
or show a leaning toward the Grand Orient, any more than a similar
to the general fund that was recently gathered, a part of which was to
by the K. C., would indicate Roman Catholic predilections.
The foregoing list shows that of the 50 Grand Lodges named, 22 gave
of recognition to French Masonry. Of the remaining 28, four were
to any form of recognition though two of the four have recognized that
in France, a part of whose strange story is told below 11 considered
but postponed action; in 12, the matter was not mentioned, and two
only so far as concerns the "Masonic Bureau for the Allied Armies."
The National Independent
and Regular Grand Lodge of France and the French Colonies
the following statement of facts, the writer has assumed that others,
have been not a little puzzled by the dearth of definite information
the initial steps leading to the organization of the National Grand
Lodge of France,
the number and character of the lodges composing it, and the reasons
which led to
the hasty action of the Grand Lodge of England in recognizing it. To
we propose to devote a little space.
1. The Formation of this Grand
Lodge. It appears that this Grand Lodge originated
in the action, not of three lodges, or of two, or, really, of even one
of a small company of Masons who had but lately (viz., two days
previous to the
organization) seceded from the Grand Orient of France.
in this movement was one, Dr. Ribaucourt, who, for some three or four
had been endeavoring to "found" something, of which he should be the
while still retaining his membership in the Grand Orient of France. But
a different though not an entirely separate story. On the 3rd day of
Dr. Ribaucourt resigned his membership in the lodge, "Les Amis du
and two days later November 5th, "… he constituted himself and other
members of a Grand Orient lodge 'Le Centre des Amis,"' into a Grand
of which he became Grand Master.
be noted here, that this action was taken by these Brethren, not as
members of lodges
for they had withdrawn from the lodges in which they formerly held
as a body of Masons. Of course this was not without precedent. This
had not been brought to the attention of the Pro Grand Master of the
of England, for in his announcement of his recognition of this new
Grand Lodge to
the Grand Lodge of England December 3rd, 1913 he said: "A body of
in France … have united several lodges as the Independent and Regular
Lodge of France and of the French Colonies." As we shall presently
the moment of this announcement a month after the organization of the
Body there was, at the very most, but one lodge under its obedience.
Just here it
may be well to mark the dates, in the procession of events, for they
are most illuminating.
On the 3rd of November, 1913, Dr. Ribaucourt resigned his membership;
he constituted the new Grand Lodge, as indicated above; at once
made to the Grand Lodge of England for recognition; on November 20th,
the Pro Grand
Master of England (in the absence of the Grand Master), issued his
the National Grand Lodge of France; December 3rd, 1913, the Grand
made the action of the Pro Grand Master his own, and, in a "message
throne" announced to Grand Lodge what had been done. (Recognition of
Lodges under the English Constitution lies with the Grand Master, and
is brought before Grand Lodges.)
pursued by these seceding members of the Grand Orient of France is
similar to that
of those Brethren who, in 1910, withdrew from what is now the York
Grand Lodge of
Mexico, and soon after, erected a Grand Body of their own. In this
should be borne in mind that a lodge, once created by a higher power,
that obedience, till, by constitutional action of the Body which
created it, it
has been released, or erased from the roll. The members of a
constituent lodge may
all withdraw, the lodge still exists, legally, and is still under the
of the body which chartered it (unless Constitutional enactment
and its effects are the property of the Grand Lodge which gave it
being. This is
illustrated by the action of the Grand Lodge of England through its
Lodge with reference to those lodges whose membership all withdrew to
form the present
Grand Lodge of Queensland. The name, number, property, lodge all
belonged to, and
were taken possession of by the Grand Lodge of England.
Dr. Ribaucourt formed himself and his seceding colleagues into what
they were pleased
to call a Grand Lodge, no one of them represented any lodge, for there
was no lodge
in existence, nor were they members of any lodge. It appears that as
soon as this
inchoate assemblage of Masons had declared themselves duly constituted
into a Grand
Lodge, they proceeded at once to issue their first charter creating a
lodge, and named it, we believe, "Le Centre des Amis" thus using the
of the lodge of which the larger part were formerly members. In this
action we have
an interesting and rather unusual situation. These seceding Masons from
Orient first constituted themselves into a Grand Lodge, and then a
charter was granted
by themselves, to themselves, thus creating their first constituent
lodge! And it
was this lodge of Topsy-like antecedents that the Pro Grand Master of
noted above, characterized as "several lodges." We can hardly wonder
the kaleidoscopic changes indicated above should have a distressing and
effect upon the vision, or that one should appear to be three or more!
2. Some Facts Concerning the
Lodges of this Grand Body. Under ordinary circumstances
in this country, great care is usually exercised by our Grand Lodges in
themselves of the "regularity" of the constituent bodies which unite to
form any new Grand Lodge. This is especially true of several American
which have recognized the Grand Body under consideration. It is not our
to comment on the origin or history of the several constituent lodges
obedience of the National Grand Lodge of France. Information is not at
hand to enable
us adequately to do this. Our purpose is the simple one of noting a few
facts in connection with two or three of these lodges, because this
help us the better to appreciate the character of the National Grand
been said, perhaps, concerning number 1, of these lodges. But the
generally named in connection with the organization of this Grand Lodge
being given that it was one of the "several lodges," which united to
the Body we are considering was the "Loge Anglaise No. 204," of
has had a most interesting history, which does not particularly concern
us in this
connection. It may be noted here, however, that "Loge Anglaise No. 204"
was organized at Bordeaux, on Sunday, April 27th, 1732, by several
English sea captains.
In those early days, charters were not necessary, and three Masons duly
for the purpose, could constitute a lodge. Of this lodge it is said
that it "…
was founded under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of England." Its
somewhat tempestuous, and its independent spirit not infrequently
brought it into
conflict with superior authority. But, for 110 years it appears to have
with a fair degree of unanimity and success under the jurisdiction of
Orient of France. In view of the fact that this lodge has been loosely
one of the lodges which united with others to form the National Grand
Lodge of France,
it may be well to note certain circumstances which finally led Loge
204 into the fold of the new Grand Body.
of Ritual, in use in the lodge "Le Centre des Amis," came before the
of the Grand Orient, and later, in June, 1913, before the Annual
Convention of the
Grand Orient. The governing body used its authority, to the extent even
so the aggrieved
parties declare of cutting off debate, and not permitting the lodge to
In such discussion as was had, and in its general attitude, the only
came to Le Centre des Amis, was that given by Loge Anglaise No. 204.
From this time
and incident there developed something of an understanding between the
and a desire and purpose to co-operate in securing certain results.
the events noted under "1" above, recognition of the new organization,
by the Grand Lodge of England, coming on November 20th, of that year.
Six days later,
November 26th, Loge Anglaise "resolved that all correspondence with the
Orient should be broken off." At its next meeting, December 3rd, 1913,
the lodge officially severed its connection with the Grand Orient, and
to co-operate with the 'Loge Centre des Amis.' " This, be it noted, was
days after the National Grand Lodge of France had been recognized by
by the Pro Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England. Formal official
the action of the lodge was not given, however, until January 1st,
1914, on which
date Loge Anglaise announced its decision to the Masons of France in a
foregoing brief statement it will be seen that not till more than 40
the National Grand Lodge had been recognized by the Grand Lodge of
there a second lodge under its obedience, and this lodge was the one at
Loge Anglaise No. 204.
Grand Warden (Bro. Edmund Heisch) of the new Grand Lodge tells us that,
in 1914, certain English Freemasons resident in Paris, members of
made application for permission to form a lodge under the obedience of
Lodge." This permission was granted, together with a charter, and on
1914, "St. George's Lodge" was duly consecrated, the Junior Grand
becoming its first Master. Thus, the third lodge under the obedience of
Grand Lodge came into existence, more than seven months after
recognition had been
accorded by the Grand Lodge of England. "Liberation Lodge No. 8" of
obedience, has an interesting story, and one that is significant of the
character of the body under consideration. Briefly, it appears that
soldiers while on shipboard, on their way to France, discussed the
matter of forming
some sort of a Masonic organization upon their arrival in that country.
the question had been considered while they were still at American
Lake. Upon reaching
France the discussion was renewed, and a Washington Mason called a
meeting at which
further consideration was given the subject. At the second meeting of
they learned that already "steps were being taken to form a lodge for
soldiers." On October 20th, 1917, the Washington Brother and others
a meeting called to further this movement, which was presided over by
one J. Hennessy
Cooke, one of Lloyd's agents, and a member of an English lodge, who
that already a petition for a charter had been sent to the National
At a later meeting, the charter was presented and read, and by a
it was decided to go forward and establish the lodge. This accordingly
and on December 8th, 1917, the Junior Grand Warden of the National
Grand Lodge consecrated
"Liberation Lodge No. 8" with the aforesaid J. Hennessy Cooke as Master.
1918, "Britannica-Lodge" was created by the National Grand Lodge, this
being number 9 of the lodges on its roster.
nine lodges, seven are English-speaking, and use the "Emulation
The other two, probably, use the "Rectified Scottish Rite," as it was
insistence upon the use of this Ritual that led to the difficulty
Le Centre des Amis and the Grand Orient. But the matter of Ritual,
of less importance in France, than it is in America, for Brother Heisch
that "The Constitutions of the new Grand Lodge have been so framed as
the lodges under its obedience to practice the rituals of any Grand
Lodge with which
the National Grand Lodge is related an essential condition being that
are practiced without alteration."
To us the
very large predominance of the Anglo-Saxon element in these lodges is
It occurs to us this moment that if that principle, of which we hear
the press of the self determination of the peoples, in matters of
boundaries, along lines of linguistic and racial cleavage should be
applied to the
Masonry of France, the Grand Body under consideration would cease to be
Independent and Regular Grand Lodge of France and the French Colonies,"
would take its proper place as a District Grand Lodge, under the
And this suggestion receives some color of support from the Pro Grand
the Grand Lodge of England. In his announcement Grand Lodge (Quarterly
3rd, 1913) of the recognition of the National Grand Lodge the Pro Grand
"The obligations which will be imposed on all lodges under this new
under six heads. The sixth and last reads: "Only those Brethren who are
as true Brethren by the Grand Lodge of England will be received in
We may be at fault, but that statement seems not to consort well with
of a "National," and an "Independent," and "Regular"
Grand Lodge, supreme and untrammeled in the exercise of its sovereign
the limits of its own jurisdiction!
3. The Recognition of the National
Grand Lodge by the Grand Lodge of England.
The expedition with which negotiations were carried forward to a
in this matter, has often been remarked. In fact, we alluded to it
above. But there are some interesting incidents connected with those
which we do not remember to have seen brought together.
noted, Dr. Ribaucourt organized himself and his seceding colleagues
into a Grand
Lodge on November 5th, 1913. On November 20th the Pro Grand Master
newly created Body, as a just and legally constituted Grand Lodge. But
the necessary preliminaries be attended to in so short a time' of
course, the distance
between London and Paris is not great, but traveling and discussions
We do not propose a solution to this problem, but simply note certain
the "message from the throne" already referred to which dealt with this
subject, the Pro Grand Master, of the Grand Lodge of England added "a
of explanation." He told Grand Lodge that "The agreement with this
constituted body of French Freemasons is the result of prolonged and
(emphasis ours) in which two well-known brethren have been devoted and
"Prolonged!" We have seen that but 15 days elapsed between the
of this body and its recognition. Is it to be understood that these
negotiating with the members of Le Centre des Amis, while they, and the
which they were members, were still under the obedience of the Grand
that possibly, by suggesting the certainty of securing immediate
were intensified till bonds were snapped asunder by secession? We do
not say that
such was the case, but less than 15 days seems to us to be a very short
which to carry on "prolonged" negotiations.
two English Brethren: these successful "intermediaries," who held "no
official positions," and who did this work, "not as a matter of duty"
(the Pro Grand Master is again our informant) "but from disinterested
to the Craft" did they understand that they were going forward with the
approval of Grand Lodge? The fruits of their "prolonged" efforts were
accepted and acknowledged, at all events. And could their labors have
unless their beginning antedated the rupture between some of its
members and the
Grand Orient of France?
In his "message
from the throne," the Grand Master of England referred to the brethren
had organized the National Grand Lodge as being "resolved to uphold the
principles and tenets of the Craft," and further, that they were
to adhere to those principles of Freemasonry which we regard as
essential," and that in consequence of these facts, "I have joyfully
to the establishment of fraternal relations and the exchange of
We know what
is required by the Grand Lodge of England when a new Grand Lodge is to
in one of the Colonies of the Empire, where Masonry is already
we do not know what it regards as essential principle of regularity
when the applicant
for recognition is outside of the territory of the Empire. To be sure,
Article XII, of the "Old Regulations," of 1721, approved by Grand
in that year, which states what is the composition of Grand Lodge, and
of the same "Regulations" which brands as "Rebels," any "…
Set or number of brethren" who "shall withdraw or separate themselves
from the lodge in which they were made Brethren … without a
Dispensation from the
Grand Master or his Deputy." Of course, the fact that recognition was
granted the brethren who seceded from the Grand Orient of trance, is
that these regulations are not now operative, or at all events, do not
where the Bodies considered are outside of the Jurisdiction or the
Grand Lodge of
England. And it would seem that it is not necessary that there should
be a fixed
number of lodges uniting to form a new Grand Lodge, or any lodges at
all ‒ as in
the case of the National Grand Lodge ‒ as a prerequisite to
Grand Lodges are usually very careful on these scores. It is generally
held by them
that there must be at least three lodges, which have been regularly
by a recognized authority, and that the applicant for favors must be
the Jurisdiction over which it proposes to hold sway. We say, these are
held to be necessary. Of course, there are many departures from this
by some of our most conservative Grand Bodies. As for example, the
Grand Lodge of
Missouri, and the Grand Lodge of Virginia, and some others which have
the National Grand Lodge of France, which, as we have seen, was
composed of members
who had their Masonic birth in the Grand Orient of France an
tabooed by these Grand Lodges and, as we have also seen, had not so
much as one
lodge to bless itself with at its inception, and only one, when it was
by the Grand Lodge of England. It would appear from this, that the
Grand Lodge of
England (and a few American Grand Lodges) does not take into account
any of these
matters when weighing the claims of an applicant for recognition.
by the Pro Grand Master when feliciting Grand Lodge on the auspicious
the National Grand Lodge is of interest in view of later developments,
of which we have tried to indicate under ‘2,’ above. He said: You will
I am sure, to express my own deep satisfaction that the privation of
with Frenchmen in France, which has for so long caused us so much
sadness, is now
at an end. Now that there is a body of Frenchmen, a body which I do not
grow very largely," &c. Of course, the Pro Grand Master could
that the Body which came into existence in consequence of the
carried forward by the two "intermediaries," already referred to, would
become as we have seen ‒ an English Body, in practically everything but
most of its lodges bearing English names, and at this time, seven of
its nine lodges,
English-speaking, using English Work. Apparently, the "body of
referred to by the Pro Grand Master, is still confined, mainly, to
Lodges 1 and
2, on the roster of the National Grand Lodge, viz., Lodge "Le Centre
of Paris, and "Loge Anglaise No. 204," of Bordeaux.
some of the facts concerning the organization of the National Grand
Lodge of France,
the constitution and character of some of its constituent lodges, and
of this Body by the United Grand Lodge of England.
the benefit of any who may desire to "check up" the foregoing
the following list of authorities is given, as being the chief sources
1. An article entitled, "National
Independent and Regular Grand Lodge of
France and the French Colonies," by Edmund Heisch, J. G. W. of that
"Transactions, ' Authors' Lodge No. 3456, volume I, (1915), pages
This article has an added value, in that it embodies a quite full
statement by the
Grand Secretary of the National Grand Lodge, G. L. Jollois.
2. An interesting bit of the
history of the Lodge of Bordeaux, under the caption:
"The loge Anglaise No. 204' of Bordeaux," by the same author as the
article. "Transactions," Authors' Lodge No. 3456, volume II, (1917),
3. An article, "Freemasonry in
France," in pamphlet form, by Wm. Preston
Campbell-Everden (1918). This brochure, of some 26 pages, is by a P. M.
Lodge No. 343," under the Jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of France.
has written works on several Masonic subjects, and he here gives us
facts in concise form.
4. A letter from Brother D. H.
Johnston, of the Grand Jurisdiction of Washington,
written from "Somewhere in France,' in December, 1917, and enclosing a
from one, J. Hennessy Cooke. Proceedings of Washington, 1918, pages
reading of Brother Johnston's letter will leave no doubt on the score
of that brother's
zeal, and even less concerning the restricted area of his Masonic
have touched upon the contents of both of these letters in our review
5. Proceedings of the United Grand
Lodge of England, Quarterly Communication,
December 3, 1913.
48th Annual Communication of the Grand Lodge of Utah, January 21-22
1919 the Grand
Lodge of France was recognized, and the interdict against the Grand
Orient was rescinded.
This places Utah in Class "1," above, its action being similar to that
of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey.)
Getting By -- [A Poem]
Bro. L.B. Mitchell, Michigan
a great big, willing Brother with a heart
like to the ox,
He would put big things “across” but here comes the paradox
For he finds himself “at ease,” something holds him on the sly,
There’s a “landmark” in the way that he can’t-get-by.
And the Craft at large is bound, there’s an unseen cable tow
That is binding to the past, though the urge would prompt to go;
There’s too oft a ling’ring round, ‒ when they would in progress vie ‒
Some old weird, landmarky thing that they can’t-get-by.
But to make this old world over, “bariers” must “be burned away,”
Masonry must melted be fo the all-wold Bother day;
It is coming, almost here, and its spirit must defy
Every old opposing thing that it can’t-get-by(?)
Red Cross has provided 250,000 articles of clothing for returning
and Symbolism of Old Glory
By Bro. Charles S. Lobingier,
which is today presented and raised is not a mere piece of bunting
designed to attract
the eye or adorn the landscape. It is a great national emblem,
expressing the traditions
and ideals of earth's mightiest democracy and appealing to the deepest
of every patriotic American. More than that our flag has a history and
significance, of which far too little is generally known. But, thanks
to the encouragement
offered by our patriotic societies, groups of our people here and there
taken up "flag study." Now "flag study" is a branch of heraldry
and heraldry of sphragistics. And so the study of our flag in the light
of its history
leads us into several interesting fields where the horizon is broadened
the elements of our flag, or of any flag for that matter? Are they not
(1) its colors
and (2) its figures?
Drake, the first poetic panegyrist of old glory, sang in rhapsodic
the first lines of "Rule Britannia,"
"When Freedom, from her
Unfurled her standard to the air,
She tore the azure robe of night,
And set the stars of glory there:
She mingled with its gorgeous dyes
The milky baldric of the skies,
And striped its pure, celestial white
With streakings of the morning light.
"Flag of the free heart's hope and home
By angel hands to valor given;
Thy stars have lit the welkin dome
And all thy hues were born in heaven.'
A later bard, (2) in language equally ornate, sings
"From the dyes of battle gory,
Foam and wave of ocean's glory
And the stars that tell thy story
Freemen fashioned thee."
hues the red, white and blue which the one poet said "were born in
and the other takes from nature, are in fact found in many other flags
French, the Dutch, the Russian and even the Chinese. And have you not
in the Union Jack? If not do so, for thereby hangs an interesting
The Red Cross
In this fateful
time when the Red Cross emblem is omnipresent, one is much interested
to find that
it may rightfully claim a kinship to our own. While the Cross itself is
symbol the red cross appears always to have been a Christian emblem.
The story of
Constantine's vision of that flaming cross in the sky may have been
but modern scholars "are agreed that the sacred monogram was in fact
by Constantine on the shields of his soldiers as a sort of magic to
secure the help
of the mighty God of the Christians.” (3)
figure a red cross in a white field flourished in the days "when
was in flower." Spenser, describing in his "Faery Queene" the
of his knightly hero, says
"Upon his breast a bloodie
crosse he wore,
The dear remembrance of his dying Lord."
was the standard of the crusaders, particularly the Knights Templar,
in 1118 to protect pilgrims to the Holy Land. It was such a banner,
as the "Cross of St. George," that Richard Coeur de Lion, England's
king, received from George Bishop of Cappadocia, later made patron
saint of the
kingdom. Such was the beginning of what Thomas Campbell calls
"The Meteor Flag of
By the time
of Edward II (1327) it had become the recognized English standard and
for nearly three centuries. As the ensign of Henry VII, it was planted
on the shores
of what is now Canada by Sebastian Cabot in 1497 the first European
flag to float
over the soil of North America. And is it not fitting that this ensign
should reappear in modern times as the emblem of humanity? As early as
Baraga, a Roman Catholic missionary, carried a red cross flag in his
the Indians of western America. Florence Nightingale, nursing the
victims of the
Crimean war in 1854, was a source of inspiration to Henri Dunant, the
physician, who some years later, after his experiences on the
battlefield of Solferino
in 1859, conceived the idea of an international organization devoted to
purpose of mitigating the horrors of war. The outcome of his efforts
was the Geneva
Conference of 1864, participated in by the representatives of fourteen
which adopted as its watch-words "Humanity" and "Neutrality"
and as its emblem that which also supplied its name the Red Cross in a
It was Clara
Barton who introduced the Red Cross into America. She had unconsciously
throughout our own Civil War but it was not until after its close, when
to Europe for rest that she heard of the organization. Observing its
in the Franco-German war of 1870 she resolved to devote her efforts to
her country's adhesion to the Geneva Convention. It was not until 1882
succeeded but, like certain other organizations-the Masonic Order and
originated in Europe, the Red Cross had its greatest growth after
to America. Incorporated by Act of Congress in 1900 and reincorporated
in 1905 the
American Red Cross became the mightiest non-governmental factor in the
war while in time of peace its emblem is the omnipresent herald of
on a colossal scale. (4) Truly when the League of Nations is formed its
be the Red Cross in a white field.
The "Bonnie Blue Flag"
another crusader standard borne by a brave and hardy people who have
much to the making of our own nation. This was the "bonnie blue flag"
of Scotland, consisting of the white cross of St. Andrew in a blue
which seldom met defeat and never conquest. Under it Robert Bruce,
assembled Scots at the break of that fateful day of Bannockburn,
uttered those fiery
words which the genius of Robert Burns transformed into a Scotch
"Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled,
Scots wham Bruce has often led,
Welcome to your gory bed,
Or to victory!"
after James VI of Scotland had become James I of England, these two
were combined in token of the union of the kingdoms. To the red and
white of St.
George's banner was added the blue of St. Andrew's; and the red, white
thus for the first time appearing in a single flag, became known as the
Colors." (5) This was the flag under which our country was chiefly
It was the flag which the Mayflower flew and which our colonial
in all their wars including King William's, Queen Anne's, George It's
and the French
and Indian. As a young lieutenant, George Washington rendered his first
service under that flag with General Braddock's ill-fated expedition
Du Quesne. In all their history the colonists had followed no other
flag than the
"King's Colors." What was more natural than that they should embody the
same colors in their new banner of independence?
of the stars and stripes? How came they to find a place in our flag?
will remember, tells us that
"Thy stars have lit the welkin
But no flag
with which our Revolutionary fathers had been familiar ever contained
stripes. The only figures in the older flags were the crosses and these
in the earliest revolutionary flags even so late as January, 1776,
scarcely a half
year before the Declaration of Independence, when a flag was hoisted
Washington's headquarters at Cambridge, Massachusetts, with thirteen
for each of the revolting colonies, but still with the united crosses
of St. George
and St. Andrew in a blue field.
A flag containing
thirteen red and white stripes and a red cross appears (6) to have been
the East India Company as early as 1704 and some have thought that it
the suggestion of the stripes in our flag. If so it affords one more
In the colonial
banner of Rhode Island there were thirteen stars in a blue field and
trace to that source the stars of our flag another honor for the
But one fact
seems clear: The stars and stripes were never combined in any single
they appeared in one designed and used by General Washington. Just when
accomplished, remains a disputed question.
In the New
York Metropolitan Museum of Art is a famous painting by Emanuel Leutze
"Washington Crossing the Delaware," and in the prow of the boat which
bears the great leader, floats "the star spangled banner." Of course
picture was painted long after the event, for the artist belongs to a
(1816-1868); but there are reasons for believing that in this respect
those who were contemporaries of the event. Charles Wilson Peale, (7)
painter, commanded one of the companies which recrossed the Delaware on
day, 1776, and participated in the battle of Trenton of the day
he painted a picture of "Washington at Trenton" in the background of
is a flag of thirteen white stars in a blue field.
Trumbull was one of the most famous of early American painters. He was
aide during the operations around Boston and later was with him again
long after his success at Trenton." (8) The battle of Princeton was
week after, and Colonel Trumbull painted a picture of that battle
showing the stars
and stripes in action. Thus the present figures of our flag appear in
leading engagements, as represented by contemporaries, directly under
the eye of
to have been quite as closely identified also with the circumstances
about a half year later, in the official adoption of those figures by
In the spring of 1776 Washington visited Philadelphia and we are told
in company with Robert Morris, the financier of the Revolution, George
Ross, a member
of the Continental Congress, and Betsey Ross, widow of the latter's
nephew, he worked
out the details of the new nation's flag. Only in September, 1917, it
was my privilege
to linger for a time in the little two story building on Arch Street,
in the city
of brotherly love, where Betsey Ross kept her upholstery shop and her
visitors gathered to discuss with her the designs for a new national
is interesting to note in passing that the means for purchasing and
historic premises came largely from ten cent contributions, mostly by
children, and that a fund is now being raised to purchase the
and convert the whole into a memorial park. I am glad to be able to
opportunity for the names of members of the present graduating class of
American School to appear on the roll of honor of this patriotic
On June 14,
1777, the Continental Congress
"Resolved, That the Flag of the
be 13 stripes alternate red and white" with "13 stars white in a blue
As no other
details are prescribed it is evident that the author of this resolution
that the arrangement and location of these figures would be understood
implies a flag already in existence doubtless that designed by
Washington with the
aid of Betsey Ross. It seems clear, therefore, that the "father of his
had a very direct part in the making of its flag and particularly in
the union of
the figures the stars and stripes which afford its most distinguishing
Now it happens
that those are also the figures of the Washington family coat of arms.
In the church
of St. Mary the Virgin, hamlet of Great Brington, Northamptonshire, are
of several Washingtons, among them Lawrence, who died in 1616 and was a
of another of that name who, in 1539, received a grant of Sulgrave
Manor in the
same shire, having migrated there from Lancashire. (10) These tombs are
an inscription bearing this Washington coat of arms; argent two bars,
and in chief
three mullets (stars). They are also carved on a sun dial found near
home in the adjoining hamlet of Little Brington and were naturally
carried by two
grandsons of Lawrence Washington who emigrated to Virginia in 1657, one
(John) was the great-grandfather of George Washington. And it was in
heirloom that, so far as heraldic records have disclosed, the stars and
were first combined in the same shield.
(11) that General Washington himself never referred to this device as a
our national flag seems to me without force. The man whose innate
him to remain (12) in the hall of the Continental Congress, though a
his name had been so much as mentioned for the post of
Commander-in-Chief; and who
shrank later from the mere suggestion that the national capital be
his Virginia home, would have been the last to draw public attention to
that the figures of our flag are those of his ancestral coat of arms.
But that the
one suggested the other seems to me too obvious for argument.
and the stripes thus united originally symbolized at first the same
fact the union
of thirteen states. And this connection lasted for a considerable time
first new states were admitted. For each one a new stripe, as well as a
was added to the flag. But it soon became apparent that these
if continued, would widen the flag unduly and spoil its symmetry. A
finally reached by which the number of stripes was restored to thirteen
star was added for each new state. Thus the stripes permanently
symbolize the original
states while the stars represent the ever expanding union.
a wealth of symbolism and historic allusion lies back of this chivalry,
heraldry, the exploration and colonization of the new world, the union
nations, the struggle to make and keep North America Anglo-Saxon, the
of Anglo-Saxon ideals of liberty and law, the defense of the rights of
these are the ideas perpetuated and preserved in the evolution of our
the mighty conflict now closing has opened a new chapter in its
history. For within
recent months the stars and stripes have been raised for the first time
Paul's Cathedral, flown from the mastheads of British vessels, carried
armies through the streets of the world's metropolis amid thundering
a grateful populace and borne with resistless courage over the bloody
Chateau Thierry and the Argonne.
knightly standards, cousin of Red Cross emblem, symbol of triumphant
prophecy of a worldwide ensign, Old Glory floats today over the soil of
Germany, but it floats even there in mercy. A German newspaper recently
our army of occupation,
"The generosity of the
Americans is spoiling
For as President McKinley declared, in speaking of the Philippines,
"Our flag has never waved over any people save blessing."
And in the words of Clinton Scollard,
"Nor stripe nor clustered star has ever shone
Save but for freedom, for the broader birth
Of liberty the dearer, clearer dawn
Of brotherhood on earth.
Wave then, O banner! May thy mission be
To heal the grievous wounds, the woeful sears,
Triumphant over wrong and tyranny,
Beloved Stripes and Stars!"
occasion of this address was the raising of a flag presented by the
American University Club of China to the American School at Shanghai.
(2) George Sterling.
(3) Warvelle, Constantine the Great (1915) 7. [Lib 1915]
(4) Judge Lobingier is Field Representative of the American Red Cross
in China and
was recently decorated with the Service Button and presented with
of the Red Cross, "in recognition," wrote Manager Cutler of the Insular
and Foreign Division, "of the loyal service you have rendered to the
Red Cross and to the nation during the war." Editor.
(5) Journal of American History, 11.
(6) Preble, The United States Flag, 220,221. [Lib 1917; Vol 1, Vol 2]
(7) THE BUILDER, II, 200.
(8) Goodrich, History of the United States, 244. Cf. [Lib 1823]; THE BUILDER,
II, 199. The statement in a recent number
of the Geographic Magazine (XXXII, 297) that Trumbull "left the
Washington was before Boston and was abroad for seven years," appears
(9) Canby & Balderston, Evolution of the American Flag. [Lib 1909]
(10) Lodge's "Washington," I, 30-32 note [Lib 1890-1895; Vol 1, Vol 2]. The family
seems to have been of Swedish origin.
See Review of Reviews (Feb., 1919), 202.
(11) Journal of American History, 13; THE BUILDER, II, 227.
(12) Goodrich, History of the United States, 198. [Lib 1823]
The Problem of the Large
of the large lodge is one with which many Grand Masters have had to
the past year and more because of the hundreds of young men knocking at
who were eager to receive their degrees before leaving for overseas to
Hun his lesson. Many of the larger lodges found it necessary to hold
work nearly every day in the week in order to keep their trestle boards
for other work in prospect. The larger the lodge the more numerous grew
at each regular communication, and in addition to having to take care
of their own
candidates many were called upon to do work for other lodges within and
their several Grand Jurisdictions. Even in normal times nearly every
finds it necessary to devote at least three or four meetings each month
to the conferring
of degrees, and at their regular communications the entire evenings are
taken up by the reception of and balloting on petitions and the
examination of candidates
for advancement, until but little opportunity is offered for
sociability and the
getting-together of the members, or enlightenment upon Masonic subjects.
of many of the various phases of the subject with which Brother
Schoonover has had
to meet during his term as Grand Master the editor has prevailed upon
him to give
to the readers of THE BUILDER the following editorial.
discussion of the subject will be found in the Fraternal Forum
department of this
issue of THE BUILDER.
accumulated from many sources, during the year goes to prove the
of the large lodge. In many ways the large lodge fails, as a Masonic
It tends to become a highly centralized business institution. Its
after many years, become acquainted with but a fraction of the total
funeral occasions the attendance is a handful, except in cases where
brother was prominent in financial or political circles. Of sociability
it has little
except that which is purely formal. The reception of petitions becomes
Witness the reception of 68 petitions in one evening by one of our
lodges this year.
The conferring of degrees obsesses the officers like a night-mare.
Observe the announcement
of one lodge that it would start to work on a certain day at 12:01 a.
m. and close
at 11:59 p.m. ‒ with a temptation to set the clock back to conform to
the law, so
that the lectures might be given.
file will prove every allegation I have made. It will reveal a lodge
under the practical
domination of a Secretary whose acts at least laid him under suspicion
principal Masonic ideal was to perpetuate himself as Secretary at a
salary of $1200.00
per year (another $1200.00 of salary being received from other
bodies), and who, perhaps unthinkingly, was willing to besmirch the
this Grand Lodge for fair dealing by insisting upon lodges in sister
paying over their full fee for courtesy work. Why? Our sister
in their hearts that it was so that he might make a good financial
showing and perpetuate
permission to ballot upon petitions in groups have come to me. The
sixteen degrees in the twenty-four hour session above referred to is,
to my mind,
an absolute travesty upon Masonry. No matter if the lodge was crowded
and trying to satisfy the ambition of brethren in khaki to receive
before "going across" ‒ I am not questioning the good faith of the
or its officers, for they were trying to meet a strenuous problem and
do so in a wholesale way.
procedure should be necessary is but a symptom of the same disease
our Fraternity too much. Elephantiasis ‒ overgrowth ‒ top-heaviness ‒
the definitions attributed by some of my eminent friends over the
Brother Pitts, of Palestine Lodge in Detroit, with 3,000 members,
insists that the
large lodge offers more to its membership than the small lodge, and
under his energetic
and unselfish leadership they have pretty nearly made good their
opinion by their
conduct of affairs. Contrast this situation with the average of 500 to
in Iowa and it is not to our credit, to say the least. And when it came
to a discussion
upon the floor, Palestine Lodge discussed, and if I remember correctly,
Grand Lodge of Michigan to permit, breaking it up into several groups,
to be designated
as "Palestine No. 1, No. 2, etc." They needed more degree teams.
This is only
one of many remedies that have been proposed. I told the Master of the
the 68 petitions to ballot upon in one evening that I could not and
would not relieve
him or his lodge of the responsibility of passing upon the petitions
one by one.
To practically repeal the ballot law, by permitting joint balloting
would not cure
the evils, I am sure.
of the large lodge, and there are many such, base their opinion largely
affirmative propositions: (a) the opportunity to build a Masonic
structure in the
lives of our cities which, conforming to the city club idea, can
a real Masonic service even in the highly congested life of the city
which is worthy
of the dignity of the Fraternity and wield an influence which will
support the better
side of civic institutions; (b) that in the large lodge there is an
for a wider selection of officers, thereby attracting the men of larger
(c) the greater per capita economy of doing things by means of which
the large lodge
can afford commodious and even luxuriant quarters at high rentals and
meet the other
necessary "overhead" expenses. They also advance at least two negative
propositions: (a) that if a Grand Lodge attempts to legislate upon the
a restrictive way it is an "innovation" upon the body of Masonry; (b)
that if restriction should be accomplished it should be done by the
of the lodge, by a "swarming off" process which will result in the
of new lodges out of the parent lodge.
As I am,
frankly, opposed to the large lodge, several answers to the above
to me. Even if the reasoning under (a) is true, it does not convince me
activities of that particular kind are either necessary or in
conformity with the
real purposes of Masonry. Friendship and Brotherly Love are two of the
characteristics of a Masonic lodge pictured in the ideal, and I have
that the club life of a great city was anything more than a poor
the real thing as defined Masonically. In (b) it is true that the
the large lodge necessarily includes men of affairs and men of high
But it is the remote case where men of such exceptional attainments as
to occupy the chairs. Why? Because the "line" system prevails, and a
who is by education and executive ability preeminently equipped to lead
will not ordinarily accept the seven years of apprenticeship imposed
who would preside. When we bring the discussion down to the level of
economy we must also assume responsibility for the decreased efficiency
of the lodge
from the true Masonic standpoint. To clinch the argument, it is as it
seems to me
only necessary to point out that with anything like Masonic harmony
a group of small lodges, perhaps the groups which were once integral
parts of the
large lodge, could by cooperation and union of their resources perform
or club function which a large lodge could.
propositions advanced by those who believe in the large lodge are to be
unsound. The answer to the innovation argument is that the large lodge
an innovation; such cumbersome groups of brethren unacquainted with
each other were
never contemplated as Masonic. And the "swarming off" process, even
voluntarily attempted, as a rule, removes from the original
organization only the
fifteen or twenty brethren constitutionally necessary for the formation
of a new
lodge. A real division of the large lodge has never been accomplished
together the principal objections to the large lodge that form the real
let us mention (a) the tendency to lay stress upon the business
activities and the
ritualistic work to the exclusion of all others; (b) the absence of
and acquaintance among the members ‒ the extent of this lack exhibiting
the indifference to a brother's welfare and a failure to love him
enough to wish
to follow him to his last resting place; (c) the wastage of all the
the officers in the degree mill, so that they have no opportunity or
vim to perform
other functions equally or even more important for the advancement of
for which our Fraternity should stand; (d) the large lodge gives the
no opportunity to participate in its activities, all the time being
taken up by
routine work to the exclusion of addresses or lectures even if talent
for this source of inspiration; (e) the Masonic development of each
member is necessarily
restricted; (f) even the opportunity to participate in the ritualistic
work of the
lodge is confined to a very small proportion of the total membership;
and the pathway
to the stations is too narrow for the progress of more than the few;
(g) the individual
member therefore feels a very small sense of responsibility for either
or Masonry in general. As opposed to these things, the small lodge
uses a larger proportion of its membership in the various activities,
the desire to know and the desire to serve in the hearts of all,
promotes good fellowship,
gives a more nearly equal chance for each member to become Worshipful
ambition to preside over a lodge is a just and honorable one), and
percentage of attendance in the small lodge is far higher than in the
brethren who criticize our Grand Lodges for too much legislation I am
agree, and the practical side of this question has been a matter of
Various suggestions have been received. Some have felt that if we
introduce a system
of District Deputies these brethren could by persuasion and help bring
about a voluntary
readjustment of membership which would prove beneficial, and there is
to the argument. Others have proposed that it be made easier to form a
but I fail to see wherein our system in this respect could be
The abolition of the system of line officers in the local lodges as has
in this Grand Lodge might prove a help, and perhaps a law making an
Warden ineligible for election would accomplish this result.
It has seemed
to me, however, that the outright division of the large lodge into as
as would make each lodge no larger than 200 members would be the only
way in which
to accomplish a uniform result. Perhaps to aspire to uniformity is
wrong. But if
each large lodge were to arrange its Past Masters in an alphabetical
list, its Wardens
likewise, and divide each list into the number of groups necessary for
with the general rule, and then alphabetically arrange and divide the
the lodge in like manner, securing to all past officers their rights
and making provision for an equitable division and use of the lodge
should be no insuperable difficulties involved. Automatically, when any
one of the
groups of 200, now of course independent lodges, would reach a
membership of 400
it would again divide. No lodge would be obliged to cease working and
would be done; in my opinion.
still another phase to this whole problem, and I find that another
its advocates. If, instead of dividing up large lodges, we should make
‒ i.e. the conferring of degrees upon more than one candidate at one
limiting the number to seven ‒ legitimate, we might remove the
objections to the
large lodge, insofar, and only insofar, as congestion in the degree
mill is concerned.
Advocates of this plan advance the argument that the conferring of
classes has proven eminently successful in the Scottish Rite, and point
to the higher
efficiency of the individuals in the degree teams as more than
offsetting the disadvantage
which immediately occurs to some of us, insofar as the impression upon
Have I made
this review of the subject sufficiently explicit to justify the
statement that we
have here a problem which is vital, and worthy of our most careful
concerning the immediate settlement of the problem I shall not attempt.
Put I do
most earnestly recommend that a Commission of three or five members,
some of our smaller lodges, join hands with three or five other
brethren who are
members of large city lodges to study this question in all its aspects,
report at our next Annual Communication. The Commission should study
of the Special Deputy Grand Masters for this year, revealing as they do
conditions in Iowa Masonry as they actually exist. They should advise
with the brethren
of other Jurisdictions who have given thought to this problem. They
with the Nebraska Commission appointed to review this subject, and who,
will have a report at their June third Annual which will be available.
should be conducted in a brotherly spirit. If it cannot arrive at a
which will be acceptable to this Grand Lodge, then they should by all
some practicable method of dividing responsibility in the large lodge,
so that the
necessary lodge functions may be carried out to the glory of Masonry.
If the large
lodge refuses to admit that it has any disease, then the
representatives of the
smaller lodges will have to diagnose the case for themselves, and apply
of a remedy to bring the larger lodges in harmony with the ideals which
are at present
largely the possession of the country lodge.
* * *
Masonry Is Thinking
to be congratulated upon the attempt of the Grand Masters and
attendance at the Cedar Rapids Conference last November to awaken the
and earnest members of our Fraternity to the absolute necessity for
action if the
Institution of which we are all so proud, though temporarily
humiliated, is to hold
the place it should occupy among the great forces for good in America.
In this great
world in which all movement is directed, wisely or unwisely in its
we cannot stand still, clinging to outworn theories and dead conditions
hope to live on indefinitely. Conservatism is a good thing when it
leads to holding
fast that which has proved itself founded on enduring principles.
is not a good thing, for it clings to that which time has made a dead
a useless burden upon human progress.
Let me say
seriously that the Cedar Rapids Conference was the most important event
engaged the attention of thinking Masons in America within a century ‒
in that importance along with the union of 1813. Its results are not
yet; Masonry has been set to thinking; it has broken the chains of the
of Masonic superstition, so to speak, that has for so long bound her
the rock of disunity ‒ of division of effort. Men will feel freer to
action. They will not be afraid of having their loyalty to Masonry
they may advocate the advancement of its columns in conformity with the
the times. The results to follow will not all develop at a bound, but
Let us be
conservative still, but with reason in our conservatism ‒ not blind
a past that can only bear us down whereas we must rise or eventually
pass into decadence,
the beginning of an inglorious end as a great Institution.
D. Frank Peffley.
* * *
Baiting and Bantering Candidates
too many candidates present themselves at our doors expecting to be
made sport of
‒ that the ceremonies are to be characterized by fun and frolic, if not
and buffoonery. Part of this is gathered from the comic papers, part
from idle jest,
and part, I regret to say, from the insinuations and pretended
intimations of brethren.
Part of this cannot be helped, but certainly that part which comes from
remarks of our brethren themselves can, and ought to be, prevented.
the average candidate dream that he is about to receive serious and
that he is, by symbolism, to be taught a moral philosophy based upon
the belief in one God, the Creator, Preserver and Benefactor of the
world and all
therein contained, and developed to the climax of teaching that
greatest and most
expansive concept which God has permitted the mind of man partially to
‒ the immortality of the soul. With no admixture of sadness, but with
all the joys
of righteous and happy living do we embellish the symbolisms by which
and unfold this moral philosophy to the candidate. How unlikely indeed
are we to
succeed in our service to him if, even though the surroundings savor
only of dignity,
the candidate momentarily expects sudden mirth at his expense. How much
teachings will sing into his heart and mind if he has no thought except
is to be received as a gentleman into the company of gentlemen; nay
more, as a neophyte
into the company of those who are about to take him by the right hand
and call him
their brother. Bantering and baiting of candidates is all wrong. It
reputation of Masonry; it decreases our opportunity of service to the
it reacts upon the thoughtless brother who utters the ill-timed jest;
the moral tone of all concerned.
P.G.M. Melvin M. Johnson, Massachusetts.
dollars of relief will be distributed in Poland by the Red Cross during
essence itself is love and wisdom.
is an open forum for free and fraternal discussion. Each of its
under his own name, and is responsible for his own opinions. Believing
that a unity
of spirit is better than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society,
does not champion any one school of Masonic thought as over against
offers to all alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving
each to stand
or fall by its own merits. The Question Box and Correspondence Column
are open to
all members of the Society at all times. Questions of any nature on
are earnestly invited from our members, particularly those connected
or study clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic
When requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail before
Wants To Borrow Masonic
brother writes to ask if we can put him in touch with some brother
Masons near his
home who will be willing to lend him some Masonic books.
very sure that if any California brother who has books to lend reads
he will be glad to write us. We shall at once communicate with the
this request and get them together through correspondence.
suggested to this brother that he make his appeal for the loan of books
to his Grand
Secretary. A Masonic Research Committee has been in existence in
several years and possibly some preliminary steps have already been
taken to inaugurate
traveling Masonic libraries in that Jurisdiction such as we now have in
several other Jurisdictions.
made a further suggestion that a few of the earnest brethren of the
lodge get together
and introduce a motion at the next regular meeting to appropriate
$25.00 or so toward
the purchase of a few volumes as a foundation for a lodge library. The
instrumental in introducing several such resolutions in the lodge in
which he was
raised and never met with the least opposition in the matter even when
for an appropriation to be used in having bound thirty-two years'
his Grand Lodge, and another appropriation for the purchase of a set of
* * *
Probable Existence of Secret
Societies in Early Christian Times
What is the
origin of the words "cowan" and "Pleyel"? Were Jesus Christ
and any of his disciples Freemasons? Were any of the early Christians,
or any great
Romans or Greeks, Freemasons? Please name rulers and prime and other
Europe who are Freemasons.
J. B. N., Texas.
was originally one who, in some unlawful fashion, learned the trade
secrets of Operative
Masons without himself being a member of a lodge. In present-day use a
a man who thinks he knows the secrets of the Fraternity without being a
was the author of a tune to which the dirge used in the Third degree is
Jesus Christ nor any of his disciples were Freemasons in any sense of
Early Christians, many of them, probably belonged to secret societies,
of these societies was a Masonic society in our modern sense of the
word; they were
probably secret fraternities wherein men banded together to protect
utterly impossible to name the rulers and prime ministers of modern
Europe who are
Freemasons ‒ if any brother can send in a partial list which is
authentic, we shall
be very grateful. H. L. H.
* * *
Ravenscroft's Theory of
the Comacine Masters
What is your
opinion of Brother Ravenscroft's theory of the Comacine Masters and the
as described in THE BUILDER several months ago?
Collegia were trades-unions, the members of which protected themselves
these organizations had many of the features which we now have in
this reason we may very justly think of the Roman Collegia as holding
place in the evolution of these secret fraternities out of which modern
great many years Masonic scholars found a gap in the story of this
after the break-up of the Roman Empire: they were obliged to take a
leap over two
or three centuries to the medieval craft gild. Brother Ravenscroft and
have devoted much time to bridging over this gulf, and it is the
opinion of the
editors of THE BUILDER that Brother Ravenscroft has given the most
of the development of builder's trades and gilds during the two or
immediately preceding the dissolution of the Roman Empire.
President Lincoln and Welfare
Missions in the Civil War
in the March number of THE BUILDER of the obstacles thrown in the way
of the committee
appointed by the Grand Lodge of New York to organize war relief for our
men in the
Army and Navy serving in Europe, it occurred to me that I had seen an
a similar experience encountered by the Sanitary Commission during the
This account is in Mr. L. E. Chittenden's Recollections of Mr. Lincoln,
and is as
If seventy-five thousand
volunteers were suddenly
called into active service in the swamps and marshes of the South,
subject to the
diseases incidental to constant exposure in a new climate, together
with the casualties
of battle, it was obvious to everybody except the Surgeon General of
the Army that
the ordinary resources at his command would be wholly inadequate to
health or secure their comfort. The recent experiences of European
nations in war,
which had availed themselves to the fullest extent of the assistance of
organizations, to supplement the deficiencies of a better service than
had demonstrated the great value of such organizations, if any proof be
As if by a common impulse, the charitable and benevolent of all the
contributed large sums of money, and organized that magnificent
charity, now well-known
in history by its excellent work in saving lives, the Sanitary
Commission. Dr. Bellows,
of New York, accompanied by equally eminent citizens from other large
to Washington and tendered their organization, with its abundant
resources and supplies
already accumulated, to the War Department for the use of the Army. In
course of such human events their offer was referred to the bureau of
General of the Army. To their surprise and confusion their offer was
undisguised contempt. They were told, in substance, that they were
matters which did not concern them, about which they knew nothing; that
was able to perform its own duties, and wanted none of their
assistance. In short,
they were figuratively turned out of the office and told to go home and
their own affairs, for their volunteered assistance was an annoyance,
of which would not be tolerated.
The indignant mortification of
citizens may be imagined. They had previously supposed themselves
engaged in an
honorable public service ‒ they were told now that they were
with matters beyond their sphere. Upon one conclusion they were agreed:
shake the dust of the War Office from their feet, go home, and supply
directly to the soldiers, without the endorsement or intervention of
of that department.
They were about to depart from
the Capitol when
some happy thought or fortunate suggestion turned their minds to
They called upon him and related their experience. He "sent for" the
General. A request for his immediate attendance at the Executive
Mansion was one
which even that exalted official did not think it prudent to decline.
gentlemen tell me," said the President, "that they have raised a large
amount of money and organized a parent and many subordinate societies
the loyal states to provide the soldier with comforts, with materials
his health, to shelter him, to cure his wounds and diseases, which the
of the War Department do not permit your office to supply ‒ that they
offer to do
all this without cost to the government or any interference with the
action of your
department or the good order and discipline of the army, and that you
this offer. With my limited information I should suppose that this
wish to avail itself of every such offer that was made. I wish to have
me why you have rejected the proposals of these gentlemen."
Had the President
realized the cruelty of confronting an old bureau officer of the War
encrusted with all the traditions of "how-not-to-do-it," suddenly and
without previous opportunity to frame an excuse, with the hard,
of such a question, he would have been more merciful. The officer was
He could only mumble some indefinite objections to outside interference
management of the War Office, and claim that the Department could take
care of its
own sick and wounded, in short, his attempts at excuse were failures.
is all you can say," remarked the President, "I think you will have to
accept the offer, and co-operate to the extent of your ability with
in securing its benefits to the Army." Bureaucracy struggled against
sense no longer. The Sanitary Commission was the greatest, the most
of the War. Tens of thousands of saved lives, of naked men clothed, of
sheltered and made comfortable, had good reason to bless the name of
whose common-sense secured for them the benefits of such an invaluable
a fuller report of this interesting incident may be found in some
history of the
Sanitary Commission, though I doubt if it will be more authoritative
than this by
Mr. Chittenden, who was auditor of the Treasury during the War and
are among the most readable and reliable of all reminiscences of our
C. A. Snowden, Washington.
* * *
Some Helpful Suggestions
to High Priests
the troubles of Companion C.B.G., of Indiana, in the January issue of
I can sympathize with him and offer to him and other High Priests who
called upon to preside over listless Chapters the result of my own
When I was
elected to the High Priesthood of our Chapter; I followed three
of whom had been able to confer the degrees and who had to depend upon
to do this work for them. Our Chapter had lapsed into about the same
state as described
by our Indiana Companion. We often failed of a quorum, and there was
interest manifested by the members.
I made myself
proficient in the entire work of the degrees and qualified to take any
that I could prompt or correct any errors of the subordinate officers
of my appointees promises to learn their parts and to attend all
meetings. We made
it a point to open on time, get through our business and work as early
and avoid late hours.
there was no degree work I endeavored to create a discussion on Masonic
and to get as many interested in the discussions as possible. I also
made it a point
whenever I met a Companion on the street or elsewhere to remind him of
and urge him to be present.
soon began to increase, our work to improve and the members took a new
in the affairs of the Chapter. We materially increased our membership
that good degree work, promptness in opening, dispatch in the
transaction of business
and the avoidance of late sessions are most essential in all Masonic
bodies if a
good attendance is to be desired and an interest maintained.
H. C. Butler, North Carolina.
* * *
Masonic Affiliations of
Presidents Jefferson and Adams Doubtful
In the April
issue of THE BUILDER it is stated that Presidents Jefferson and Adams
Masons, Jefferson being raised in Lodge Neuf
Paris. I have some printed matter of that lodge,
with rosters, but Jefferson's name is not mentioned. Sereno Nickerson
that Jefferson was not a Mason.
of John Adams is on three lodge lists, either of which would fit the
but while a candidate for President, Adams denied being a Mason. I do
either of the Adams were Masons.
Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M., District of Columbia.
* * *
PROMINENCE OF MASONRY IN
THE 17th CENTURY
the same subject discussed in your answer to the query of R.H.A.,
Nebraska, in the
Question Box Department for November, I ran across the following in
Reprints and Revelations" [Lib*]:
of Trinity College, Dublin, possesses a copy of the Tripos of
Midsummer, 1688, which
was discovered and published by Dr. Barrett in 1908 … in his "Essay on
Earlier Part of the Life of (Dean) Swift" … and this Tripos contains
evidence of Freemasonry in Dublin in 1688.
begins thus, "It was lately ordered that for the honour and dignity of
University there should be introduced a Society of Freemasons,
consisting of Gentlemen,
mechanics, porters, parsons, ragmen, hucksters, divines, tinkers,
cobblers, poets, justices, drawers, beggars, aldermen, paviours,
bachelors, scavengers, masters, sow-gelders, doctors, ditchers, lords,
and tailors, who shall bind themselves by an oath never to discover
no-secret, and to relieve whatsoever strolling distressed brethren they
after the manner of the Fraternity of Freemasons in and about Trinity
In the epilogue,
the orator makes rueful reference to the results of his afternoon's
"I have left myself no friend… If I betake myself to the Library,
ghost will haunt me for scandalizing him with the name of Freemason …
will banish me their Lodge … I take my leave."
remarkable quotations demonstrate that the Fraternity of Freemasons was
known in Dublin in 1688 that a popular orator could count on his
up allusions to the prominent characteristics of the Craft. The speaker
a mixed assemblage of University men and well-to-do citizens,
ladies and men of fashion, who had come together to witness the chief
function of the year. His use of the theme proves that the Freemasonry
him and his audience was conspicuous for its secrecy and benevolence.
We can fairly
deduce, too, that membership in the Craft was not confined to
Operatives, or to
any one class. Otherwise the catalogue of incongruous callings would be
of such public notice of Freemasonry in 1688 can hardly be overrated.
of what may be called public mention of our Brotherhood before 1700 can
on the fingers of one hand. They are practically confined to the
entries in Elias
Ashmole's diary [Lib 1927], 1646 and 1682; Dr. Robert
in the "History of Staffordshire" [Lib 1686] 1686; Randle Holme's
in the "Academie of Armory" [Lib*], 1688; and Aubrey's memoranda of the
preparations for Sir Christopher Wren's Acceptance in 1691 [Lib*]. The
that the upper classes of society in Ireland were well acquainted with
and its tenets before William of Orange landed there will come as a
the proof is beyond cavil and, coming from an unsympathetic outsider,
is akin to
that of Dr. Plot and quite comparable to it in historical value.
N. W. J. Haydon, Ontario.
* * *
A Letter from the Heather
Hill Masonic Club
E. Atchison, Ass't. Sec'y.,
National Masonic Research Society,
of Oct. 19th, 1918, to hand just a few days ago. I can explain the
delay in receiving
it by telling you that you addressed me wrong as I am in the 13th
Engr's. Ry. U.
S. Army, and you addressed me in the 15th. It must have been a misprint
as The Heather
Hill Masonic Club is strictly a 13th organization as it was born in our
Borden, England, and has ever been under the watchful eyes of this
since. I just received the third copy of THE BUILDER about four days
ago and have
never received any of the copies that you said we had been put on the
I have delayed
answering your letter until I had seen the most of the boys that belong
to the Club
and as we are scattered around quite a bit it took some time, but I
wanted to get
the expression from the majority of the members before I answered,
although it was
hardly necessary as every one of them had almost the same thing to say.
23rd we had what we consider one of the grandest meetings of its kind
that was ever
held anywhere in all the world. It was the anniversary of the
eighteenth month since
the original members of the Regiment left the U.S.A. That made it the
day that we
put on our third service stripe and we held an open meeting for all
Masons in the
A.E.F. and we had them from all over this part of France, some of the
from a distance of ninety miles in autos and as it was a very chilly
night you can
guess that we had to do our very best to make them feel well paid for
and some of them that came the farthest were the loudest in their
praise of the
treatment they received. We had Colonels, Lieut. Colonels, Majors,
Lieutenants, until when one looked over the room one almost thought
that it was
a gathering of Sam Browne Belts exclusively, but as we were meeting on
very little attention was paid to rank.
In all we
had members from thirty-eight States and the District of Columbia
totaling 236 Masons
who registered and there was a good many that did not register, very
it in the excitement and the pleasure at hand. Just to tell you that we
very pleasant evening is not saying very much and so I will have to
leave the rest
to your imagination. But as a great many of the brothers spoke about it
at the time
the historical significance of the meeting, which is the only one of
its kind that
has ever been or ever will be held, I expect, in the lifetime of any of
attended this one, viz: a Masonic Club meeting held just outside of the
the city of Verdun, even though the city is only a mass of ruins at the
For the records
of the Research Society I will enclose you a copy of the Register by
the number of members present from each one and also a copy of the
we had printed in Paris for the evening's entertainment.
We as a club
have no way of thanking Grand Master Schoonover for the generous
$500.00 that he sent to us. At first there was a moment of breathless
all the boys and then a feeling as if one wanted to shout for joy in
that we had been so substantially remembered by men of such nationwide
in the Masonic world. It came just at a time when we were debating as
to how best
to raise funds for the grave stones for our other two departed
brothers, and a part
of this fund was very quickly put to that good cause.
We were originally
a small bunch of twenty-seven lonely brothers in a strange land, who
together by the spirit of Freemasonry to hold a meeting for the purpose
some kind of a club where we could get together on a social basis and
help one another.
Consequently we met on the top of a hill adjoining our camp and as it
covered with both English and Scottish Heather we very quickly decided
on a name,
and by a unanimous vote we adopted the beautiful Scottish Heather as
Since that time we have grown to a membership of about 350 members and
one French orphan, have our by-laws and officers, and when we are where
we can do
so, we hold regular weekly meetings.
of the commissioned officers of the regiment are members of the
Fraternity and of
the Club and enjoy meeting with us whenever it is possible for them to
We are greatly
in hopes that the Regiment will be allowed to return to Chicago intact
and to be
mustered out there and we hope to have a big meeting and banquet in
some lodge room
and confer what we call the 34th and 35th degrees on some past master
or other worthy
brother, and at the same time perfect a plan by which we can keep our
and hold yearly meetings somewhere and not die with our discharge from
membership represented at the open meeting of the Heather Hill Masonic
at Verdun-sur-Meuse, France, January 23. 1919
G. Wyant, Secretary,
Co. B. 13th Engrs. Ry. A. E. F.
* * *
A Cosmopolitan Lodge Meeting
lodge notice has been sent to us by a Philippine member of the Society.
calls our attention to the various nationalities represented, stating
them are Americans, Filipinos, Spaniards, Englishmen, Scotchmen and "a
We wonder if the representatives of the twelve Grand Jurisdictions each
upon using the "work" of their respective Jurisdictions. If they did so
and were afterward treated in the same manner by the members of the
as is a certain brother we have in mind who occasionally tells the Iowa
"how he used to do it in Colorado," we are certain that the "fourth
degree" was a very interesting one.
issuing the notice is "Mactan Lodge No. 30, F. & A M.," Located
Cebu, Cebu, P.I.; the date March 5th, 1919, and the occasion "Stated
and Third Degree." The line-up is as follows:
A. Smith, Past Master,
No. 8, Manila, P. I.
R. Giberson, Past Master,
No. 1106, Cebu, P. I.
No. 1, B. C.
No. 30, Cebu, P. I.
No. 546, Missouri.
No. 254, Kansas.
Cross No. 6, Manila, P. I.
No. 30, Cebu, P. I.
No. 525, E. C., Hongkong.
No. 30, Cebu, P. I.
M. P. Alger, Remsen No. 677, New York.
L. S. Boggess, Anderson No. 90, Kentucky.
Dr. W. R. Martin, Khuram No. 112, Minnesota.
Carter Johnston, Corregidor No. 3, Manila, P. I.
William E. Crowe, Salsbury No. 411, Indiana.
H. P. Strickler, Lents No. 156, Oregon.
S. Frazer, Manila No. 1, Manila, P. I.
A. R. Furrer, Perla del Oriente No. 1034, Manila,
L. J. Francisco, Corregidor No. 3, Manila, P. I.
E. A. Kingcome, Wellington No. 301, England.
Santiago Franco, Makabugwas No. 48, Tacloban,
Leyte, P. I.
Dr. N. T. Deen, Mactan No. 30, Cebu, P. I.
J. Clayton Nichols, Past Master, Mesa No. 55,
Joseph Parrot, St. Johns No. 9, Manila, P. I.
J. J. J. Addenbrooke, Laflin No. 247, Wisconsin.
* * *
A Masonic Meeting Worthy
In that part
of the Grand Jurisdiction known as the Big Horn Basin the Masons have
the custom of holding joint communications in which all the lodges
located in the
basin are invited to participate. At these joint communications
candidates are initiated
in each of the three degrees and the work exemplified in full. At the
close of the
work a program is carried out which includes the discussion of subjects
management of the meetings is under the direction of a Masters' Club
the program and assigns to each lodge its particular part. The officers
Club also pass on the quality and efficiency of the work as done by the
lodges. The program of our meeting held on March twentieth is appended.
Big Horn Basin Lodges
A. F. & A. M.
March 20th, 1919
Session, 4 P.M.
Greybull Lodge No. 34
Music by Quartette
Lodge No. 30
Catechetical Lecture Absarokee
Music by Quartette
Long Lectures Greybull
Lodge No. 34
Lodge No. 34
P. M. at Antlers Hotel.
7 P. M.
F. C. Degree
Cloud Peak Lodge No. 27
Lodge No. 17
W. S. Lecture Cloud
Peak Lodge No. 27
Catechetical Lecture Malta
Lodge No. 17
Peak Lodge No. 27
M. M. Degree
Shoshone Lodge No. 21
Lodge No. 20
Catechetical Lecture Temple
Lodge No. 20
Long Lectures Shoshone
Lodge No. 21
Lodge No. 21
be served at the lodge hall immediately after closing.
E. J. Sullivan,
Skovgard Temple Lodge No. 20
Guy Gay Malta Lodge No. 17
A. K. Lee, Dep. G. M.
the Reconstruction Era Paul
Lodge No. 34
Ancient and Modern M.
H. Smith Shoshone
Lodge No. 21
of Rapid Growth C.
G. Caldwell Absarokee
Lodge No. 30
of Masonry Rev.
Wm. Gorst Cloud Peak Lodge
S. Skovgard, Wyoming.
* * *
Getting Away From the Degree
is a clipping from a little magazine published by the Hollenbeck Lodge
of Los Angeles,
Calif. We are very glad to print this because it shows that one more
lodge is awakening
to the urgent necessity of Masonic study. Masonic study has not much to
solving problems of Ancient History but it has much indeed to do with
of our Fraternity to its present day mission and obligation.
A great many
of our members have at different times asked to have different things
explained. Why do we do so and so? What is the meaning of this or that?
Masonic traditions, and how are they handed down? Most of us are too
too lazy to look them up for ourselves, but we have several Masonic
Los Angeles who have studied on the subjects, and are able to talk on
them in a
very interesting manner. Now, my suggestion is that we get up a series
or talks by as many as we can of these men for the benefit of the
members of Hollenbeck
Lodge, and any other Masons in good standing, who desire to attend. I
suggest that it might be well to have a dinner at six o'clock on our
nights, and charge those who attend thirty cents each to cover the
at 6:30 have the talk for thirty to forty-five minutes, preceding the
I would like to get an expression from the different ones what they
think of it.
We might, if it seems to meet with the approval of enough to make it
have our first dinner and talk on the stated meeting night of May. Let
us hear from
our membership, and if they want these dinners and talks, I feel sure
we can arrange
to have them.
‒ M.A. Bresee. Los Angeles, Calif.
A History of the United States
Goo23 / auth. Goodrich Charles A. - Hartford : Barber &
Robinson, 1823. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 415. - 24.5 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
Constantine the Great
War15 / auth. Warvelle George W. - 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 13. - 0.5 MB.
George Washington Vol 1
Lod90GW1 / auth. Lodge Henry C. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1890. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 350. - 9.0 MB.
George Washington Vol 2
Lod90GW2 / auth. Lodge Henry C. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin and
Company, 1890. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 404. - 10.0 MB.
History of the American Flag
Pre17 / auth. Preble George H. - Philadelphia : Nicholas L. Brown,
1917. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 419. - 30.7 MB.
History of the American Flag
Pre171 / auth. Preble George H. - Philadelphia : Nicholas L. Brown,
1917. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 410. - 28.2 MB.
The Diary and Will of Elias
Ash27 / auth. Ashmole Elias / ed. Gunther R. T.. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1927. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 98. - 23.6 MB.
The Divine Legation of Moses
War46LM1 / auth. Warburton William. - London : Thomas Tegg, 1846. -
Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 531. - 43.7 MB.
The Divine Legation of Moses
War46LM2 / auth. Warburton William. - London : Thomas Tegg, 1846. -
Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 530. - 42.4 MB.
The Divine Legation of Moses
War46LM3 / auth. Warburton William. - London : Thomas Tegg, 1846. -
Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 514. - 41.9.
The Evolution of the American
Bal09 / auth. Balderston Lloyd and Canby George. - Philadelphia :
Ferris & Leach, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 161. - 7.8 MB.
The Natural History of Staffordshire
Plo86 / auth. Plot Robert. - Oxford : At the Theater, 1686. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 532. - 56.6 MB.