Masonic Research Society
Free Massons" - A Rare Masonic Plate
Bro. Charles C. Hunt, Deputy Grand Secretary, Iowa
PLATE entitled "Les Free Massons,"
used as the frontispiece in this issue, is quite a rarity and has
curiosity and disputation. It is made from one of the original
is preserved in the Iowa Masonic Library at Cedar Rapids. The plate was
in 1733-35 in connection with a list of lodges of the Society "des
Libres," edited by Pine, himself a Freemason, and dedicated to
Grand Master of England, whose arms appear in the print.
portrait of Sir Richard Steele in the medallion
above the tavern signs, and beneath the Weymouth arms, would seem to
as a member of the Fraternity, yet this has been denied by later
Richard Steele, familiarly known as "Dick"
Steele, afterwards created Sir Richard Steele by Queen Anne, was noted
as a "man
about town" and a close observer of everything transpiring in London in
day. He was a contributor to the "Tatler" and mentions the subject of
Freemasonry incidentally by alluding to "certain coteries of idle
rail at woman-kind and have their signs and tokens like Free Masons."
was an author of some repute, publishing
a volume of dramatic works, 1723, containing plays written by him as
early as 1714;
"Theatre and Anti-Theatre," republished 1791; two volumes of
Correspondence," reprinted in 1787; "Account of the State of the Roman
Catholic Religion throughout the World," 1715. His connection with the
has been affirmed by some writers who mention him as a "Free Mason of
Rite, or Ancient Masons." It would seem somewhat evident that Sir
a Mason and a "good fellow," his portrait being so closely allied with
the "Tavern Signs," representing the places of meeting of the Craft.
same plate appears also in Picard's Ceremonies
[Lib 1783; Vol
of 1736-37, a very rare work published in seven large folio volumes, of
Grand Lodge of Iowa has a complete set.
Speth, in writing of this rare plate,
represents in the foreground the Worshipful
Master, his Wardens and Brethren, all in the costume of the early part
of the last
century; beyond them stretches a table in the shape of a square, and
table rises a high panelled wainscoting. The panel is divided into 129
on each of which appears a number, the copy of a tavern sign, and the
name of the
tavern in question. … The plate is valuable as showing us the Masonic
the period, and curious as suggesting that Sir Richard Steele must have
been a Freemason.
It is indeed our only evidence on that point as, although many
expressions in his
writings might be held to confirm such a view, we have no record in
or members' lists, that such was the case.
ceremonies was published in many
editions at various times and places, and in more than one language,
and I believe
all of them originally contained the plate in question, although the
book is oftener
met without it, some Masonic collector having evidently taken it out.
In many of
the later editions the plate is reversed, and the numbers of the lodges
right to left instead of from left to right."
Transactions of the Lodge Quatuor Coronati,
as well as several rare Masonic works have referred to this plate as
one of the
rare Masonic plates of the day and it has proved of much interest to
William Shakespeare A Freemason?
Bro. Robert I. Clegg, New York
few pertinent paragraphs from the great Bard,
bearing on words and phrases in common use among the Craft:
on two leather jerkins and aprons."
‒ 2 Henry IV., 2: 190.
will put on two of your jerkins and
aprons." ‒ 2 Henry IV., II, 4:18.
Robin, an I die, I give thee my
apron." ‒ 2 Henry VI., II, 3:75.
nobility think scorn to go in leather
aprons." ‒ 2 Henry VI., II, 2:14.
up, you sluts, your aprons mountant."
‒ Timothy of Athens, IV, 3:135.
carpenter--where is thy leather apron
and thy rule?" ‒ Julius Caesar I, 1:7.
slaves with greasy aprons, rules
and hammers." ‒ Antony and Cleopatra, V, 2:210.
will line your apron with gold."
‒ Pericles, IV, 6:64.
have made good work, you and your
apron." ‒ Coriolanus, IV, 6:96.
then appointed Master of this design."
‒ Tempest, I, 2:163.
singing Masons, building roofs of
gold." ‒ Henry V., I, 2:98.
is he that builds stronger than either
Mason?" ‒ Henry V., I, 47.
builds stronger than the Mason?"
‒ Henry V., I, 57.
my shoes on plain Masonry."
‒ All's Well That Ends Well, II, 1:31.
shall see him in the triple pillar
of the world." ‒ Antony and Cleopatra, I, 1:12.
set it down with gold on lasting pillars."al"
set it down with gold on lasting pillars."
‒ Tempest, V, 1 :208.
call them pillars that will stand
to us." ‒ 3 Henry VI., II, 3:87.
is not our Craft's Master." ‒
2 Henry IV., III, 2 :297.
poor craftsmen." ‒ Richard
II., I, 4:28.
ABOVE very interesting compilation appeared
in the March, 1918, issue of the Rob Morris Bulletin, the bright
Rob Morris Lodge, Denver, Colorado, and is of course the production of
editor, Henry F. Evans. One cannot but wish that our excellent brother
had had the
space and time to elaborate his article at such length and skill as his
knowledge and literary capacity fully warranted. Then indeed we should
more nearly arrived at a solution of the really knotty question behind
he has patiently assembled and which but whet our curiosity to a keener
is no present intention to offer a complete answer to the query. At the
can but carry forward the inquiry a short stage or two but we shall
feel quite content
if we attract attention to the problem.
are also denied the satisfaction of going
thoroughly and definitely into explanations. This cannot be done in
print. The reader
must read between the lines. He must make his own references. If his
of ritual is hazy and incomplete there is but one remedy, get the
some well-informed Mason, or better still, take the article over to the
read it to the brethren. Their reaction will help. There is wisdom in
shall we on the present occasion delve
into the peculiarities, political or otherwise, of the Elizabethan era.
pointed out on another opportunity the Craft relation of the gilds and
and we shall curb our temptation to go deeply into Shakespeare's
the trades and their customs. To take but the single instance, William
put on record so many allusions to the one trade, printing, that
from the testimony of his literary output be set down not unfairly as
of that calling.
much did he know of Freemasonry? We may
perhaps meet the inquiry by submitting such evidence as shows what he
knew of things
and of practices that especially concern Freemasons. Obviously these
can be but
fragmentary and merely suggestive.
tells us of King Edward's mysticism
in these terms:
prophecies and dreams;
And from the cross-row plucks the letter G."
Richard III, I, 1.
might infer that the allusion is to some
means of divination, forecasting the future, as the term "cross-row" is
to be found explained as meaning the alphabet. Sometimes the alphabet
with a cross in the old primers or was arranged in the form of a cross
as a token
of good luck. But the choice of the letter "G" is significant.
death gives in a word by Mistress
Quickly, "chrisom child," "Henry V.," II, 3, a striking comparison.
Knowing the fullness of the reference the Freemason can with
Shakespeare see the
larger vision. For the child when christened was given a white garment
with oil, the while was said the following prayer, "Receive this white,
and holy vestment, which thou shalt wear before the tribunal of our
Lord Jesus Christ,
that thou mayest inherit eternal life. Amen." After the member of the
has thought over the Apron lectures of Brothers Strobo and Shaver, and
over the color allusion by Stowe, "Chronicles of London," to the gifts
of the godfathers of "christening shirts with little bands and cuffs,
either with silk or blue thread," he will see no doubt what Shakespeare
the dying of an old man like unto an innocent child, as one wearing and
the purity badge of an Entered Apprentice, "went away an it had been
to excess is often spoken of as if it
were laid on with a trowel. So does Shakespeare speak of it with
reference to that
very working tool of the Craft, see "As You Like It," I, 2.
friend and brother, the great Pythagoras,
was by no means unknown to Shakespeare who mentions him by name and
to the theories associated with his school of philosophy. For example:
"To hold opinion
That souls of animals infuse themselves
Into the trunks of men."
Merchant of Venice, IV, 1.
instance is in "Twelfth Night,"
"What is the
opinion of Pythagoras concerning wild fowl?"
"That the soul of our grandam might haply
inhabit a bird."
souls is elsewhere mentioned by Shakespeare, as in the "Tempest," IV,
1, and in "Hamlet," IV, 5. That beautiful if fanciful ‒ certainly not
unscientific-idea, "the music of the spheres," was also Pythagorian and
well-known to Shakespeare. Thus it is said in the "Merchant of Venice,"
the smallest orb which thou beholdest,
But in his motion like an angel sings."
Shakespeare allude to the North? Yes, he
deems it the place of darkness and of evil. He mentions a devil
assigned to the
north. The spirits, "I Henry VI.," V, 3, are sought "Under the lordly
monarch of the north." See also "I Henry IV.," II, 4, and the "Merry
Wives of Windsor," II, 2.
is a noteworthy passage in "King
John," IV, 2:
"And when they
talk of him they shake their heads
And whisper one another in the ear;
And he that speaks doth gripe the hearer's
Whilst he that hears makes fearful action,
With wrinkled brows, with nods, with rolling
sight of the open hand, as in the outstretched
hand when extending it to clasp that of a presumed friendly
acquaintance or raising
the hand when taking an oath in a court of law or elsewhere or when
hand in giving a military salute or answering one, all these and
similar acts had
a wider meaning in the days of Shakespeare than is even now known to
many of the
profane. Then it was not uncommon to brand criminals or otherwise maim
them. The word "stigma" means such an effect as if burned deeply by
Just as the mutilated criminal showed that those in authority had
branded him noticeably
to the end that the beholders could never mistake him for one
unrestrained and unrestricted,
free of birth and will, so the person born deformed or accidently so
thus crippled or defaced by the will of God to designate his evil
in "Richard III.," I, 8, the hunchbacked Duke is called:
abortive, rooting hog!
Thou that was sealed in thy nativity,
The slave of nature, and the son of hell."
about the same period, and by the way
we will not here venture into a discussion of the true authorship of
the plays of
Shakespeare, but Bacon refers to the deformity of the body accompanying
of the mind. Thus, agrees Shakespeare,
"A fellow by
the hand of nature mark'd,
Quoted, and signed, to do a deed of shame."
John, n, 2.
"And the blots
of nature's hand
Shall not in their issue stand;
Never mole, hare-lip, nor scar,
Nor mark prodigious, such as are
Despised in infancy."
Midsummer Night's Dream, V, 1.
"But thou art
neither like thy sire nor dam;
But like a foul misshapen stigmatic
Mark'd by the destinies to be avoided
As venom toads, or lizards' dreadful stings."
‒ 3 Henry
VI., II, 2.
an allusion to the branding by a heated
crown is indicated by the words in "Richard III.," IV, 1. Assuredly
is some ground for the belief that some regicides, notably the Earl of
for the murder of James I. of Scotland, were tortured with a circlet of
around the head. Note the passage:
"O, would to
God that the inclusive verge
Of golden metal, that must round my brow,
Were red-hot steel, to sear me to the brain."
is a classic story of the tree that revealed
to Aeneas the murder of Polydorus in discovering the grave of the one
sought. The account is to be found in Virgil or Dryden's translation of
III, 22. Shakespeare seems quite familiar with it. Thus in "Macbeth,"
III, 4, referring to the fact that murder will out, we are told,
"It will have
blood; they say, blood will have blood;
Stones have been known to move, and trees to
Augurs and understood relations have
By magot-pies and choughs and rocks brought
The secret'st man of blood."
symbolism of the glove is all but lost among
Freemasons, not so in the days of Shakespeare. There was a time when
of a pair of gloves to the newly-made Mason was as significant as was
of anything else. Not infrequently a second pair of gloves was given
the new member
to be in turn transmitted to the one he loved best of the opposite sex.
Freemason is mainly accustomed to the white gloves as an appropriate
emblem of mourning
to be worn at a Masonic funeral or as adding a touch of Masonic uniform
at any other ceremonial of a public character. Shakespeare refers to
as a favor to be exchanged freely by friends but when once acquired and
could only be demanded as the act of an enemy. For instance,
"Give me any
gage of thine, and I will wear it in my bonnet; then if ever thou
it, I will make it my quarrel."
"Here's my glove;
give me another of thine."
"This will I
also wear in my cap; if ever thou come to me and say, after tomorrow,
'This is my
glove,' by this hand, I will take thee a box on the ear."
V., IV, 1.
enough from a Masonic point of
view where the glove has equal weight with the apron in symbolism,
it "honor's pawn," and a "token of honor," as may be seen by
an examination of "Richard II.," I, 1; "Richard II.," IV, 1;
"Timon of Athens," V, 4.
are taught as Masons that the form of a lodge
is oblong; its length from east to west, in breadth from north to
south, as high
as heaven, and as deep as from the surface to the center. Thus are we
universality of Freemasonry and that a Mason's charity should be
But the expressions must sound strange to the young Freemason, much
than they would would have been to the ears of Shakespeare. He uses
east to west
in the same limitless fashion thus:
"O heaven, that
such companions thou'ldst unfold,
And put in every honest hand a whip
To lash the rascals naked through the world
Even from the east to the west!"
as to the center, pray consider the following,
"As true as
steel, as plantage to the moon,
As sun to day, as turtle to her mate,
As iron to adamant, as earth to the center."
and Cressida, III, 2.
is also the claim of the self-confident
Polonius who says,
"I will find
Where truth is hid, though it were hid indeed
Within the center."
dealing to some extent with the points
of the compass we must not overlook the location of graves upon which
there is an
interesting note in Tylor's "Primitive Culture," vol. 2, page 423. He
"It is not to
late and isolated fancy, but to the carrying on of ancient and
ideas, that we trace the well known legend that the body of Christ was
the head toward the west, thus looking eastward, and the Christian
usage of digging
graves east and west, which prevailed through medieval times, and is
not yet forgotten."
also quotes an old work to the effect that
the laying of the head to the west was for the purpose that the dead
looking toward the east. Did Shakespeare know of this centuries-old
belief? He did,
as may be seen from the following, relative to the burial of the dead,
'Nay, Cadwal, we
must lay his head to the east;
My father has a reason for't."
many occasions we have called attention to
the punishment by drowning, the tying of the culprit to a stake at low
then leaving the body there for at least the period of a couple of
this old English treatment of criminals grew up certain expressions and
of the liveliest interest to we Freemasons. They are duly noted by
Thus of a rascal in the "Tempest," I, 1, it is said,
might'st lie drowning
The washing of ten tides."
in the "Midsummer Night's Dream,"
III, 2, we find,
That in cross-ways and floods have burial."
Falstaff's death is said to have been
"Even at the turning o' the tide."
V., II, 3.
in the passing of the king in "2 Henry
IV.," 4, is thus recorded by Shakespeare,
"The river hath
thrice flow'd, no ebb between;
And the old folk, times doting chronicles,
Say it did so a little time before
That our great grandsire, Edward sick'd and
symbolism we have a wealth of references,
too many for easy selection. In mere allusion to numbers there is too
large a choice
as the mention of significant numerals is extensive. Threes, sevens and
noted as of special importance by Shakespeare, as truly they are to all
In fact he has put into the mouth of Falstaff, "Merry Wives of
V, 1, an explanation with which we may conclude this compilation,
"They say there
is divinity in odd numbers,
Either in nativity, chance or death."
the symbolism of numbers much is taught in
Freemasonry. Three, five, seven, nine, and their multiples are
frequently met. All
have a pertinent significance for the persevering student of the
message shown and
conveyed by symbolism. Among the manifold references it is well to
reread in this
connection the information to be found in the Mackey-Hughan
Dictionary of the Bible (the article on "Number"), and Morals and Dogma
(pages 548 et seq).
Shakespeare aware of the peculiar associations
that these particular numbers have for many if indeed not all of us? It
likely that he was so informed. The obvious fact that these numbers are
not unnoticed by him. Nay, he goes further and speaks of odd numbers in
a way indicating
his acquaintance with the beliefs that had grown around them through
the ages of
mankind's infancy and mental growth. Thus,
"They say there
is a divinity in odd numbers, either in
nativity, chance, or death."
Wives of Windsor, V, 1.
magical was the impression of odd numbers
that Shakespeare to the better suggest the uncanny he puts into the
mouth of a witch
the two words "one" and "three" where four is meant.
once the hedge-pig whined."
this he had classic authority for his guide.
But there is another example of very considerable interest from our
point of view.
This is in the promise made by Cade to Dick, the butcher of Ashford.
the reign of Elizabeth were forbidden to sell during Lent unless by
Cade therefore makes a double promise, to lengthen Lent and also grant
a very unusual
permission to kill. The number in the promise could have obviously been
as another were it not for the deeper meaning associated with the odd
thus will I reward thee ‒ the Lent shall be as long again as it is; and
have a license to kill for a hundred lacking ane."
‒ 2 Henry
VI, IV, 3.
are instances where the uses of the expression
has indeed become so fixed a custom and habit in our conversation that
and strength of lore is no longer noted by us. Yet even here it is well
notice that Shakespeare prefers to employ an odd number where with
equal ease he
might have used something else. As,
and ten I can remember well:
Within the volume of which time I have seen
Hours dreadful and things strange: but this
Hath trifled former knowings."
has also reproduced an old charm
or spell that may have been employed as an agency against attacks of
Here it is as will be seen the mention of a number is in both cases to
an odd one.
footed thrice the old wold;
He met the night-mare, and her nine-fold;
Bid her alight
And troth her plight,
And, aroint thee, witch, aroint thee!"
Lear, III, 4.
in America Prior To 1750"
Bro. A.G. Pitts, Secretary Palestine Lodge, Michigan
in America prior to 1750" [Lib
Brother Melvin M. Johnson, Past Grand Master
of Massachusetts, is a book of the kind that used to characterize
Masonry. The author,
to maintain his thesis, relies especially upon the easy device of
ascribing to former
generations the ideas of the present. Such a device is not only easy
likely to be successful in Masonry. The average Mason is only too ready
that the laws and customs of Masonry were the same in 1730 as they are
especial duty of the National Masonic Research
Society is to study the changes in these laws and customs, to emphasize
that they have changed, and to prevent Masonic literature from falling
the condition it was when Hallam wrote:
subject of Freemasonry has unfortunately been treated of only by
caluminators, both equally mendacious."
was said in 1856. Soon after arose the
new school including the Quatuor Coronati group ‒ Hughan, Gould,
Speth and the rest, who adopted and steadfastly pursued the rigorous
modern historians. The most striking illustration of the effect of this
the profane world and of the new respect for the Craft which the latter
acquired is found in a comparison of the articles under the heading
in the ninth and in the eleventh (latest) edition of the Encyclopedia
The contemptuous tone of the ninth edition is well known and has been
to. The eleventh edition gives space to an article of extraordinary
merit and of
Grand Master Johnson's thesis is that Massachusetts
has every kind of priority in the history of "Freemasonry in America
to 1750." The first lodge in Boston was of 1733. But there was a lodge
as early as 1730 and even a Grand Lodge. How is he to secure priority
in respect to these matters?
does it by heaping injurious epithets upon
the Philadelphia brethren. Witness the following sample:
"1721 June 24.
On this day the Mother Grand Lodge of the Masonic world, that at
a regulation quoted under '1700' supra. This has ever since been the
the formation of a lodge without a Grand Master's Warrant.
Mother Grand Lodge then had jurisdiction
over the new world and every regular and duly constituted lodge which
America during the period with which we are dealing derived its
or indirectly therefrom. At least from the public promulgation of this
every lodge which met in the colonies without the required authority
were doubtless a number of them) was irregular and not entitled to
All such came under the second paragraph of said Regulation VIII.
irregularly made Masons were no more entitled to Masonic recognition in
century than they are now in the twentieth century. The so-called
lodges in the
colonies, therefore meeting without warrant in those early days are no
part of legitimate
Masonic history until they 'humbled themselves' as did the Masons of
when in 1734 they applied for and received recognition from Provincial
Price 1734-6. Until then, under the law quoted they were 'rebels.' And
any phase of the life of the world have rebels obtained the right of
unless the rebellion was successful. In dealing with questions of
is to be accorded to regularity, and obedience to law is to be
preferred to violation
VIII upon which so much is based, was
adopted by the first Grand Lodge not later than 1723 since it is found
in the constitutions
printed in that year. The statement is there made that the regulations
printed were adopted June 24, 1721. Maybe there were, but we have no
the claim but the statement of Rev. James Anderson and we have learned
not to accept
any statement of his unless verified.
is Section VIII:
"VIII. No set
or number of brethren shall withdraw or separate themselves from the
lodge in which
they were made brethren or were afterward admitted members, unless the
too numerous; nor even then, without a dispensation from the Grand
Master or his
deputy: and when they are thus separated, they must immediately join
to such other lodge as they shall like best, with the unanimous consent
other lodge to which they go (as above regulated) or else they must
obtain the Grand
Master's warrant to join in forming a new lodge.
"If any set
or number of Masons shall take upon themselves to form a lodge without
Master's warrant the regular lodges are not to countenance them nor own
fair brethren and duly formed, nor approve of their action and deeds;
but must treat
them as rebels, until they humble themselves as the Grand Master shall
in his prudence
direct, and until he approve of them by his warrant, which must be
the other lodges as the custom is when a new lodge is to be registered
in the list
the Grand Lodge which adopted Regulation
VIII had undertaken to legislate for Masonry everywhere we should have
to ask as to where they got the authority to do so. But we are spared
for these regulations are expressly entitled "for the use of the lodges
and about London and Westminster.
III, printed at the same time, requires
each lodge to keep a list of all the lodges "in town." Regulation XII
provides that the Grand Lodge consists of the Masters and Wardens of
all the regular
particular lodges upon record. If this be of world-wide application and
regular are irregular or clandestine then the Grand Lodge of London and
meant to so characterize the scores of lodges in Scotland, in Ireland
and in England
outside the capital. We shall see if that was its intention.
XIII provides that apprentices must
be admitted Masters and Fellow Craft only in Grand Lodge. Regulation XX
Grand Master shall visit all the lodges "about town" during his
Regulation XXII that the brethren of all the lodges "in and about
Westminster" shall meet at an annual communication and feast.
that no new regulation can be adopted except by vote of a majority of
all the brethren
present at the annual grand feast including "Even the youngest Entered
All this points irresistibly to the idea of a local Grand Lodge, not
one for all
follows a "postscript" giving
the manner of constituting a new lodge which is by the Grand Master
present in person.
After that an "approbation" certifying that the regulations were
with the "consent of the brethren and fellows in and about the cities
and Westminster" and ordering that they be received in every particular
"under our cognizance."
truth is that the first Grand Lodge was
formed to be a Grand Lodge for the four lodges which formed it and with
of territorial jurisdiction whatever. It is most curious to trace the
the idea of exclusive territorial jurisdiction until it reaches its
(as it has done in America alone) when it appears as the doctrine that
be one Grand Lodge for each political State and only one and that any
lodge in that
State which does not hold of the established Grand Lodge of that State
is ipso facto
clandestine. Nowhere in the world is there so perfect an illustration
of the dictum
of Past Grand Master Simons (in his "Masonic Jurisprudence") that it is
human nature to encroach. Brother Simons also laid down in emphatic
duty of Freemasons to resist the never-ending, successive encroachments
Lodge. Since his time the encroachments have gone on until now what he
as a duty has become a crime and even the repetition of his injunction
is a Masonic crime.
is the significance of the present inquiry.
The question of precedency between Massachusetts and Pennsylvania is of
What is of the utmost consequence is to put the theory of Grand Lodge
in its proper place. And a contribution can be made to this work by a
study of the
origin of Grand Lodges. The Grand Lodge of 1717 was successful beyond
Organized by and for four lodges it began almost at once to be joined
by the other
lodges of London and soon by those of Westminster. Already in 1723, as
we have seen,
it is powerful enough to enjoin upon its lodges a refusal to recognize
any new lodge
formed from among Masons under its authority without the authority of
officers. But up to that time the Masons under its authority were only
were members of its lodges.
1724 it takes the second step; it ordains
"that no new lodge in or near London without it be regularly
countenanced by the Grand Lodge, nor the Master or Wardens be admitted
at the Grand
Lodge." (Gould's History of Freemasonry, American Edition, Vol. III, p.
[Lib 1889; Vol
is the first appearance of territorial
is significant that in quoting this in the
second edition of the Constitutions published in 1738 Anderson omits
the words "in
or near London." This interested omission is the measure of the extent
between 1724 and 1738.
a later meeting in 1724, also, it was ordered
that "if any brethren shall meet irregularly and shall make Masons at
within ten miles of London the persons present at the making (the new
shall not be admitted even as visitors into any regular lodge
they come and make such submission to the Grand Master and (Grand Lodge
shall think fit to impose upon them." (Gould, Vol. III, p. 129.)
in the last preceding quotation the boldface
words indicate an omission made by Anderson in the Constitutions of
we are in position to understand what the
Grand Lodge of 1717 understood by its characterization of certain
brothers as "rebels"
in Regulation VIII. Philadelphia was not "in or near London" and it was
not "within ten miles of London." But, allowing the Grand Lodge all the
authority it claimed, it did not even claim to control Masonry outside
may be remarked in passing that there is
evidence that, at least as late as 1726, in the words of Brother Gould,
'beneficent despotism' which arose out of the unconditional surrender
of their inherent
privileges by four private lodges, was not submitted to without
resistance by the
Craft at large. (Gould, Vol. III, p. 133.)
other words, even as far as we have got in
1726, we find that the pretensions of the Grand Lodge are treated with
"in and near London" and it is again to be noted that this article
aside the very large question ‒ the enormous question ‒ how did it come
lodges could make new laws which should be binding upon Masons who
to any of the four? But having asked the question it will not delay us
much to give
the answer. By assumption and encroachment only.
up to 1734 and much later we can, for our
present purpose, admit the validity of every law that they passed
leaving this question
aside. It was many years before they ever claimed jurisdiction over all
even, and they never claimed any jurisdiction over Scotland or Ireland
never claimed exclusive jurisdiction over the colonies and other parts
of the world.
1725 the regulation allowing the making of
Fellowcrafts and Masters at Grand Lodge only was repealed. This marks
the fact that
the Grand Lodge had begun to secure the adherence of lodges more than
from London. In 1727 Provincial Grand Masters were first appointed. In
were constituted in Bengal and at Gibraltar and in 1729 a lodge at
Madrid was received.
In 1730 a Provincial Grand Master was appointed for New York, New
Jersey and Pennsylvania.
this Brother Johnson remarks:
issuance of this deputation, however,
establishes three facts, viz:
- The then
jurisdiction of the Grand
Lodge of England over these colonies.
regular and duly constituted
lodges could exist in the colonies only through the authority of a
Master appointed by the Grand Master of England.
no one else had authority to
establish lodges in Pennsylvania, New York or New Jersey until at least
24, 1732, the end of the term of the deputation.
establishment of lodges in Pennsylvania
during the term of Coxe's deputation and without his sanction was
and in direct contravention of his authority. (Gould, Vol. IV, p. 362.
reference to "Gould, Vol. IV"
is startling. If Gould said anything like that we have to revise the
have had of Gould for thirty years.
be reassured "Gould, Vol. IV,"
is a reference to that pirated edition of Gould which stands for all
time as a monument
to American Masonry and a new demonstration of the evil effect of
American Masonry, since it makes an excessive parade of brotherly love,
and the like, might be expected to steal the life work of Masonry's
scholar, allowing him to die in poverty leaving his aged wife
unprovided for. This
we did ‒ we Americans. Fifty cents a set on the copies of Gould's
History sold in
America would have made him comfortable and free from anxiety in his
old age. He
did not get a cent. Every American Mason that owns or uses the American
of Gould's History owes Mrs. Gould a dollar.
by the way. Perhaps an apology is due for
such a digression. All that it was necessary to say is this: Volume IV
History, after page 300, is the American addition to the History and
Vol. IV, p. 362," is one of the precious pages which P.G.M. Drummond
let us go back a little. In 1725 we find
a Grand Lodge at Dublin showing signs of having been in existence for
In 1726 a Grand Lodge was organized for Munster probably by a single
lodge. In 1728
this Grand Lodge adopted regulations, the tenth of which required each
provide itself with a copy of the Constitutions printed at London in
these regulations as a whole, Bro. Chetwode-Crawley remarks:
have the same restrictions on jurisdiction
as were current in the Grand Lodge of England. The provisions were only
lodges within easy reach. Caementaria Hibernica Fas. I." [Lib 1726]
find a Grand Lodge at Dublin in 1729 and
in 1730 it published a book of Constitutions which is a copy of
of 1723. Thus that famous Regulation VIII is almost precisely the same
quoted above. In XXII "Dublin" takes the place of "London and
the Grand Lodge of London by its Constitution
and regulations of 1723 was assuming jurisdiction over the whole Craft
Grand Lodge at Dublin was making the identical claim in publishing its
constitution and regulations of 1730 and these two Grand Lodges were
enemies. As a matter of fact Lord Kingston was Grand Master of both
in succession ‒ of the Grand Lodge at London in 1729, and of that at
that at Munster (at the same time) in 1731. As a matter of fact the
of Munster and of Dublin had not yet thought of being Grand Lodges for
or of being other than Grand Lodges for their own lodges wherever
located, and the
Grand Lodge of London was only just beginning to have such thoughts.
while Grand Master of both Munster and Dublin in 1731, constituted a
lodge at Mitchelstown
(near Cork in Munster) which held under the Grand Lodge of Dublin.
Ireland narrowly escaped coming under a
system like that of Germany today where there are six Grand Lodges no
one of which
has or claims any exclusive territorial jurisdiction whatsoever.
that extent the German usage represents the original form and idea of
It is amusing to reflect that some of our Western Grand Lodges have
made this adherence
to the original form of Masonry ground for denying recognition of
German Grand Lodges
next Grand Lodge to be noticed is that organized
at York in 1725, of course in imitation of the one at London. Again we
adopting the regulations published by the Grand Lodge of London in
1723. Under date
of July 6, 1726, we find the Grand Lodge of York expelling a Wm.
making Masons "without the consent of the Grand Master contrary to
VIII." The conclusion is irresistible that the Grand Lodge at York
the authority and force of the regulations of 1723, applying them to
its own locality
as the Grand Lodge of London applied them to London and Westminster and
as the Grand
Lodge at Philadelphia applied them to Philadelphia.
let this be repeated so that it will be
1730 there were four Grand Lodges with identical
regulations. Each Grand Lodge has its Regulation VIII. Each then was
the formation of lodges without its Grand Master's warrant. Was the
of York, then, forbidding the organization of new lodges at London or
or at Cork? Of course not. Was it assuming exclusive jurisdiction over
Craft? Of course not. How shallow then to claim that the Grand Lodge at
doing so. And how careless (?) to overlook the fact, which stares us in
that these regulations are entitled regulations for the lodges of
London and Westminster.
1736 the Grand Lodge of Scotland was organized.
Not fewer than 100 lodges were invited to take part and thirty-three
invitation. Melrose did not join until 1891, and Kilwinning in 1744
independency and also her status as a Grand Lodge and continued to
for seventy years thereafter.
in 1723 another Grand Lodge was organized
at London which proceeded to make itself "legitimate," according to the
test laid down by Past Grand Master Johnson, by becoming "successful."
As soon as it had made good its footing it was recognized by the Grand
Ireland and of Scotland and of York. Says Dr. Chetwode-Crawley:
close of the century the Grand Lodge of the Moderns (the one founded in
isolated among English-speaking Grand Lodges. Even in the Colonies,
where it had
been first to plant lodges, the more democratic organization of the
by the ubiquitous Military Lodges, in which Ireland had such a
and surely won its way to acceptance. It has been generally found more
to ignore this isolation, than to accept the conclusions that must be
it. Caementaria Hibernica Fas. II." [Lib 1726]
is notorious that the union of 1813 between
the Grand Lodge of 1717 and that of 1753 was a surrender on the part of
sister and to a large degree an admission that the younger had run her
out of the
is extraordinary but not at all inexplicable
that never in this country has justice been done to the Grand Lodge of
that never has its history been truthfully written. It is extraordinary
it is our real progenitor. The part of the Grand Lodge of Moderns in
of Masonry in this country is negligible. Where the latter did succeed
Masonry it was nearly always sooner or later supplanted by Masonry
with the Grand Lodge of Antients or with her affiliates, the Grand
Lodges of Scotland
and of Ireland.
is not inexplicable because the history of
this Grand Lodge is most annoying to certain Masonic Grand Lodge
Mason writing Masonic history, with no axe
to grind and no thesis to maintain, could write of the origin of the
of Antients very simply and naturally. It has been hushed up and
covered up and
made complicated because no one dared tell the truth and take the odium.
1751 the Grand Lodge of England had made
much progress toward establishing the doctrine that it owned the
which it had undertaken to establish exclusive jurisdiction. Its claim
at its greatest extent. It did not claim, as do American Grand Lodges,
exclusive jurisdiction was necessarily co-extensive with the
jurisdiction of the
political state. There was no Kingdom of England in 1751, nor in 1717.
state was the Kingdom of Great Britain. England was no more a separate
either date than is the upper peninsula of Michigan (which probably
ought to have
a separate Grand Lodge) today. No more a separate state than are those
which formerly comprised the two separate jurisdictions of Oklahoma and
each of which formerly had its separate Grand Lodge, which Grand Lodges
that when the political divisions were united they also must hasten to
the first Grand Lodge did want to own England.
Then arose a rival Grand Lodge which called itself the Grand Lodge of
claiming the right to occupy the same territory and by making its claim
forever destroyed the doctrine that any Grand Lodge can own any
territory and forever
established the opposite doctrine that a Grand Lodge, being the
creature of lodges,
cannot be given by those lodges what they themselves do not possess,
that is to
say, exclusive jurisdiction over any territory whatsoever. What they do
and what they can grant is jurisdiction over their own members only.
we can go to work, we Americans, those of
us that do not hold and would not accept office in any Grand Lodge, and
American Masonic history giving its proper place to the Grand Lodge of
in that history. We can take down James Anderson from his pedestal and
set up Lawrence
Dermott in his place. Especially we can put Masonic jurisprudence upon
basis. It is miles from having one now.
us have no more talk about the "Mother"
Grand Lodge. What P.G.M. Johnson means by that and what we have long
by it he expresses when he says (by implication) that every lodge in
the world derives
its authority directly or indirectly therefrom.
three Grand Lodges in Ireland none of them
derived in any way or in any sense from the Grand Lodge of 1717. All
organized by lodges composed wholly or for the most part of Masons who
owed or paid allegiance to the premier Grand Lodge. The same is true
emphatically of the Grand Lodges at York. True beyond any possible
question or limitation
of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. And when we come to the Grand Lodge of
there is no evidence that it is not true of it also. It has suited the
the authorities to represent it as founded by rebels and seceders. The
proof is on them. They cannot produce any.
is the Grand Lodge of Scotland, the Grand
Lodge of Ireland, and the Grand Lodge of Antients that spread
Freemasonry over the
earth and especially over this continent. They are our mothers. We are
to read a history of "Freemasonry Prior to 1800" written from this
Let someone write it. Not even the present writer knows how it would
may be the fault of my method but only now
I am ready to go back to my latest quotation from Brother Johnson and
my reply to it.
makes the statement, it will be remembered,
that no one had authority to establish lodges in Pennsylvania, etc.,
except by authority
of the Grand Lodge of London.
statement is so extraordinary that it is
even doubtful what he means by it. It has never been seriously
questioned but the
Grand Lodges of England, Ireland and Scotland had concurrent
jurisdiction over the
colonies and all over the world outside the British Isles. The whole
the early American Grand Lodges is a history of the English, Irish and
lodges uniting to organize a Grand Lodge. Massachusetts herself derives
as much as from England, and Scotland is, of course, not derived from
this day there is no question of the right of any Grand Lodge to
in any country which has no Grand Lodge and it is understood that
has chartered lodges for China.
be sure the Grand Lodge of Scotland did not
exist in 1730-32. But there were two Grand Lodges in Ireland and one of
very active in chartering lodges in foreign parts. Whether it chartered
to 1732 it is not worthwhile to inquire for it certainly had the right
to do so
as much then as at any later time. It is not likely that the
had any warrant or other express authority any more than did those that
the Grand Lodges at London, at Cork, at Dublin, at York and in
Scotland. Why they
needed any, any more than did those other lodges, it is impossible for
person to understand. They also had the same right to organize a Grand
the other lodges had. No one would have questioned it in those days.
The Grand Lodge
at London had got no farther than "ten miles from London." If the
of Ireland could organize a Grand Lodge in 1730, and those of Scotland
one in 1736 why, in the name of sense, could not the Masons of
one in 1732? As late as 1738 the Grand Lodge at London recognizes the
of the Grand Lodge at York, bracketing it with the Grand Lodges of
and Italy. See the "Constitutions" of that date.
is most probable that the Masonry of Philadelphia
was of Irish origin in some way. Dr. Chetwode Crawley has pointed out
that the Penns
were Irish Masons as early as the days of the Grand Lodge of Munster.
This is not
the evidence relied upon, however. What is relied upon is the language
of Dr. Benjamin
Franklin's letter to Henry Price at Boston, dated Nov. 28, 1734, in
which he asks
for a "charter."
at that time the only Grand Lodge that knew
anything about charters was the Grand Lodge of Ireland. From Ireland
they were adopted
by the Grand Lodge of Antients in 1753 and the oldest Grand Lodge began
to use them
Brother Price granted to Brother Franklin
we do not know and especially we do not know and have grave reason to
Franklin, if he received anything, accepted it and acted upon it. What
for was a charter for a Grand Lodge. Past Grand Master Johnson quotes
exultation a Philadelphia newspaper of March 20 to 27, 1735, which
states that at
a Grand Lodge held at Boston, Feb. 21, Grand Master Price appointed
Provincial Grand Master for the Province of Pennsylvania.
of course Brother Price was himself only
a Provincial Grand Master and had no power to appoint a Provincial
That, however, is only an attempt to write like Brother Johnson. What
may lawfully do and what they actually undertook to do in the early
days are two
very different questions. But Past Grand Master Drummond asserts that
record shows" that what Brother Price sent was a deputation to hold a
at Philadelphia under the Provincial Grand Lodge of Boston. Is he
wrong? As a matter
of fact there is no record. Referring to the newspaper item Brother
"We are now
for the first time, in possession of the date of Franklin's
the newspaper is his only authority it does
not prove much. We know that the Grand Lodge at Philadelphia continued
as a Grand
Lodge at least until 1741. Also that what Brother Franklin asked for
was a charter
"confirming the brethren of Pennsylvania in the privileges they at
enjoy of holding annually their Grand Lodge, choosing their Grand
and other officers who may manage all affairs relating to the brethren
full power and authority, according to the customs and usages of
Masons, the said
Grand Master of Pennsylvania only yielding his chair when the Grand
Master of all
America shall be in place." (Gould, Vol. IV, p. 236.)
is that "humbling themselves"
on the part of the Pennsylvania "rebels" to which Brother Johnson
in our first quotation from him. He is easily satisfied.
has been said the question of precedency
between Pennsylvania and Massachusetts is of little consequence. It is
to be hoped
that there will be found in the present inquiry license to examine the
whether the modern doctrine as to the absolute and unlimited power of
is a doctrine necessary or useful.
may be readily admitted that greater authority
should be given to Masonic government than it had yet acquired in 1734.
of the looseness of these days appears from Brother Franklin's famous
Brother Price. He fears the establishment of a rival (and cheap)
Masonry in Philadelphia
which will discredit the institution and he believes that the sanction
of some authority
from Great Britain will add weight to his Grand Lodge.
is proper, perhaps, that every Grand Lodge
should enforce exclusive control over the territory it occupies if it
does not alter the fact that the methods adopted in many cases in the
American Masonry have been most uncharitable, unfraternal and
disgraceful and such
as would not have been adopted if we had known the whole truth about
of Grand Lodge authority. Nor does it alter the fact that such
has not been found necessary in other countries. Nor the fact that we
are at liberty
to consider a different organization of the Freemasonry of the United
could be found which would add to instead of diminishing the power,
prestige of the Craft.
is another consideration which is important.
The glory of Freemasonry is her great men. Says Carlyle:
"I say great
men are still admirable! I say there is at bottom, nothing else
admirable! No nobler
feeling than this of admiration for one higher than himself dwells in
of man. It is to this hour, and at all hours, the vivifying influence
in man's life."
Franklin ought to be one of our Masonic
heroes ‒ second in this country to Washington alone. Nevertheless if it
that he was an irregular or clandestine Mason, if it were true that he
illegally for the sake of the petty vanity of writing himself Grand
Master, if he
was a "rebel" and a self-confessed rebel who made "humble submission"
as such, then let the truth be told. In writing history historical
truth is above
everything. But none of these things are true.
the seven or eight Grand Lodges first
organized none is more regular than Benjamin Franklin's. This is the
of Brothers Hughan and Gould. Everyone should read what they have to
say about it,
especially Brother Gould. See the American Edition of his great history
241 of Vol. IV. [Lib 1889]
all the founders of early Grand Lodges the
greatest name is Benjamin Franklin. Of all the early Grand Masters the
name is Benjamin Franklin. The glory of furnishing this name to
to us all. If Massachusetts cares nothing for this the rest of us ought
us protest against vilifying and blackening
him without cause.
Masonic Research Work In Iowa
of Grand Lodge Committee on Masonic Research
number of Grand Lodges employ Research Committees
to stimulate Masonic study among their members. It is believed that
in the work of these Committees, in Study Clubs, and Masonic research
will find something worthwhile in the report of the Masonic Research
the Grand Lodge of Iowa, submitted to and adopted by the Grand Lodge at
Communication at Ottumwa last June.
who may desire further information concerning
the work of this Committee are advised to write Brother C.C. Hunt,
Secretary, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
COMMITTEE on Masonic Research in coming
before you with a report for another year is impressed more than ever
with the greatness
of the work. We have often heard the adage "Eternal vigilance is the
of Liberty." Let us add a corollary to that truth "Unceasing diligence
is the price of progress." As a boatman rowing against the stream
go back the moment he stops rowing, so as Masons we are striving to
gain the heights
of truth where the horizon of our life is widened, our minds enlarged,
broadened, our souls uplifted and our affections deepened, must
against the current of indolence, indifference and procrastination, if
not allow ourselves to drift back to the lowlands of ignorance,
narrowness and selfishness.
Your Committee has had to contend against these currents during the
past year, but
we are glad to say that progress has been made and that we are on
than we were a year ago. The Clipping Bureau, the Traveling Libraries,
Study Clubs, distribution of papers and pamphlets, about which we
reported a year
ago, have continued to give good results.
instance, material for the Clipping Bureau
is more than double what it was then, and we hope to double it again
coming year. Thousands of short articles on different Masonic topics
have been clipped
from magazines and arranged according to subjects which will be loaned
requesting them. Many members who have been asked to give a short talk
on some Masonic subject on various occasions have been able to receive
assistance from this material. We hope during the coming year to issue
of articles on hand. We can here simply say briefly that the clippings
into about 60 subjects and placed in letter files with one or more
to each subject.
Libraries and Books Loaned
Committee has found these libraries very
valuable in assisting lodges in taking up courses of reading and study.
so often by your Grand Secretary, these libraries are furnished by the
Library and are put up in two size cases of respectively one and two
These libraries are loaned to any lodge requesting them for a period of
Where a lodge is making a study of some particular subject of Masonry
we have attempted
to supply them with library books on that particular subject.
addition to the Traveling Libraries, a large
number of individual books have been loaned for these purposes. Several
volumes of standard works have been procured. One or more copies of
each are always
out on their mission to make man better, wiser and consequently happier.
time ago our M. W. Grand Master, Brother
John W. Barry, prepared two lectures, one on the "Story of Old Glory,"
a history of our flag with special reference to Masonic activities in
and adoption, and one on "The Pillars," the latter being a piece of
research of unusual scholarly thoroughness. These two lectures proved
of such value
that sets of lantern slides were made to accompany them. These slides
with a copy
of the lecture, are now being loaned to such lodges or individuals as
may care to
demand for them has been continuous during
the year and has extended beyond the confines of our own state.
Requests for these
lectures have come from the Atlantic and the Pacific, Alaska and from
these lectures were not in use by our own members we have been glad to
demand in other states. We make no charge except the payment of
ways. It is gratifying to know that the lectures are doing a useful
work and that
the brethren are finding them interesting. The Obelisk lecture has been
several lodges in and around Washington; D.C., and is now at New York
to be given
in one of the large lodges of Brooklyn. Reports from the brother who
gave the lecture
in these lodges indicate that it was very well received and great
and from this interest several new members were added to the National
Society. "The Story of Old Glory" continues to be the popular lecture
and we wish that every lodge in the State could arrange to give it some
the coming year.
Grand Lodge Schools of Instruction, especially
the general schools, are continually growing in interest each year and
the attendance and interest shown has been greater than ever. The
efforts of the Board of Custodians and members to impart instruction in
work cannot be too highly commended and it is gratifying to know that
appreciates these efforts and are each year taking an increased
interest in such
instruction. In these days when so much is said about parrot Masons, we
to say that the experience at these schools proves that in this State
the term is not applicable to those who are striving to become masters
of the ritual
so that they can dot all the i's and cross all the t's to become not
only word perfect
but letter perfect. If the ritual has no meaning for them whence this
persevering labor to master its every word to its minutest detail. Men
do not spend
time and energy to acquire that which has no meaning to them and the
demonstrated that those who are most diligent in mastering the letter
of the ritual
are also most eager to understand its spirit.
general schools this year were held at Oelwein,
Sheldon, Shenandoah, Davenport and Grinnell. Each school lasted three
ritualistic instruction during the day and actual work in the evening
of two of
the days. The evening of the second day, however, each school was in
charge of the
Research Committee and devoted to the explanation of the symbolism and
application of the ritual which had been studied. Particular attention
this year to the work of the Third Degree and able, explanatory
lectures were given
by Brothers Naboth Osborne, of Burlington, and George Williams of
Osborne addressed the schools at Oelwein and Davenport and Brother
Williams at the
three other schools. The address at each place was over an hour in
it came at the end of a very strenuous day the attention paid
throughout the entire
lecture was very close and marked, nor did the brethren hasten to leave
when the lecture closed. A representative of the Research Committee was
at each school and at the close of the lecture invited questions from
present. The invitation was accepted and all kinds of questions asked,
question the deep interest that the brethren are taking in the
of the ritual to their everyday life.
was made both in the lectures and in
the questions and discussions that the principles of Masonry are at
stake in the
world war in which our country is now engaged. In being true to our
are fighting for the protection of the principles of brotherly love,
truth which are the very tenets of our professions as Masons. The
relations of Masonry
to the war, however, will be covered by the report of the Loyalty
need be given only this incidental mention here.
addition to the lectures given at the Schools
of Instruction the lodges themselves have arranged for others to be
given in their
own community on the same or kindred topics. We do not know how many
have been thus
given but information has been received of several given by Brothers
Robert D. Graham,
of Denver, Colo., Robert Tipton, of Williamsburg, Iowa, and Brothers
John A. Marquis
and Chas. W. Flint, presidents of Coe and Cornell Colleges respectively.
National Masonic Research Society
the fact that a large majority
of the members of the fraternity find their time largely taken up with
of various kinds, interest in the work of the National Masonic Research
continues to grow and the membership to gradually increase. Since our
Communication a number of our sister Grand Jurisdictions have appointed
on Masonic Research and Education and recommended the adoption of the
"Bulletin Course of Masonic Study" in the subordinate lodges of their
jurisdictions. Letters recently sent out to all Iowa Masters by Grand
and your Committee on Masonic Research urging that the lodges of this
take up the study plan as part of their monthly meetings for the
purpose of educating
their members in the meaning of our ceremonies and symbols, have
resulted in committees
for this purpose being appointed in some forty lodges, in addition to
those in which
the plan has already been put into effect during the past few months.
to the call from other states, Brother Haywood attended two meetings
and gave an
illustration of a Study Club meeting in each. On the evening of January
St. Paul, the Grand Lodge of Minnesota was turned into a Study Club and
as a result
the movement was endorsed by the Grand Lodge. In Chicago, April 12th,
auspices of the Masonic Employment Bureau, a meeting was held at which
from a large number of Chicago lodges were present. Brother Schoonover
the meeting and then it was turned into a Study Club which lasted for
and those present expressed themselves highly pleased with it. The
in these two States was the same as in Iowa and while the ritualistic
work of the
American lodges, on which the study outline of the Research Society is
differs in many respects from that of foreign countries, yet the
the same and the installments in THE BUILDER are being used as the
reading and discussion in the monthly meetings of lodges and Study
Clubs in far-off
New Zealand, in the West Indies, in the Philippine Islands, and even in
the home of many lodges of Masonic Research. Our Canadian brethren are
their American brothers in Masonic educational work, there having been
Canadian lodges that have become interested in the study movement
during the past
year whose members have affiliated with the National Masonic Research
Study Clubs have been formed by our soldier
brethren in the cantonments located in different parts of the country,
among the Masons now at the front in France. In these clubs the Study
questions thereon which are appearing in the monthly issues of THE
BUILDER are being
used as a basis for discussion. Even one of our large battleships has
its own Masonic
Study Club which meets regularly and is largely and enthusiastically
the officers and enlisted men who are members of the Craft.
Haywood has written a book on Masonic
Symbolism, which we hope will be soon published. Its purpose is to
present the subject
in simple language and at the same time adapt it to the Masonic
student. As it is
especially designed for lodges and Study Clubs, the Committee overruled
objection and published two selections from it for distribution to the
pamphlet form. The pamphlet has been widely distributed and favorably
as the present world war is drawing
the people of England, France and America closer together and the
Masons of this
country are asking themselves why they should not be brothers in
Masonry as well
as brothers in arms, and some of the Grand Lodges have deemed the
subject of sufficient
importance to convene in special session to consider it, we thought it
subject of Masonic Research for our lodges to consider. We have,
and distributed a paper on the subject of Masonic recognition, showing
the way in
which our brethren "over the seas" are beginning to consider the
Whether the views expressed in either of these papers are accepted or
not is of
minor importance. If we have awakened thought and aroused discussion
lead to a better understanding of the subject treated, the work will
not have been
the coming year we hope to furnish to
the lodges three lectures on the Symbolism of the Three Degrees, by
Oliver Day Street,
of Guntersville, Ala. These lectures have been delivered before the
of Birmingham, and before various lodges where they have aroused great
and established their value in throwing more light on our ritualistic
cannot close this report without calling
attention to THE BUILDER, which is the organ of the Committee. We
cannot begin to
tell you of the wealth of valuable material to be found in each number
of this publication.
Its Study Club talks and discussions ‒ its question box ‒ its
‒ its fraternal forum ‒ its book reviews ‒ its jurisprudence studies ‒
on symbolism, Masonic Law and Philosophy ‒ its poems, lectures and
every phase of Masonry give it a value far in excess of the small
fee in the National Masonic Research Society.
say you have no time to read; no time to
study; that your life is so full of work to be done, with duties to be
to that something must be neglected and therefore you cannot take time
to read Masonic
publications or spend any time in study. Know ye not that time spent in
machine and keeping it in proper condition is not lost time? Did you
ever hear of
the kingdom that was lost for want of a horseshoe nail? If you would
in Masonry, take a little time each day to read some of the good things
offered in our Masonic papers and magazines. As the time spent by the
youth in school
is not wasted time so it is true that the odd moments spent by the
mature man in
thoughtful reading is time well spent.
Let us so plant
"That seeds of truth and love may grow,
And flowers of generous virtue blow.
And sweet it is the growth to trace,
Of worth, of intellect, of grace,
And lead it on from hour to hour,
To ripen into perfect flower."
is the school of mankind, and they will
learn at no other.
Circle Bulletin ‒ No. 25
By Bro. H. L. Haywood
BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY
LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
FOUNDATION OF THE COURSE
Course of Study has for its foundation two
sources of Masonic information: THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
paragraph is explained how the references to former issues of THE
BUILDER and to
Mackey's Encyclopedia may be worked up as supplemental papers to
exactly fit into
each installment of the Course with the papers by Brother Haywood.
Course is divided into five principal divisions
which are in turn subdivided, as is shown below:
Division I. Ceremonial Masonry.
The Work of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
Division II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
Division III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
Division IV. Legislative Masonry.
The Grand Lodge.
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
The Constituent Lodge.
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
Division V. Historical Masonry.
The Mysteries ‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant
THE MONTHLY INSTALLMENTS
month we are presenting a paper written
by Brother Haywood, who is following the foregoing outline. We are now
Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will be twelve monthly papers under
particular subdivision. On page two, preceding each installment, will
be given a
list of questions to be used by the chairman of the Committee during
the study period
which will bring out every point touched upon in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence
Circle Bulletin articles from other sources which have a direct bearing
particular subject covered by Brother Haywood in his monthly paper.
should be used as supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by
from the monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would
possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus
monthly installments of the Course appearing
in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin should be used one month later
appearance. If this is done the Committee will have opportunity to
programs several weeks in advance of the meetings and the Brethren who
of the National Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to
enter into the
discussions after they have read over and studied the installment in
REFERENCES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's
monthly papers in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a
list of references
to THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are
pertinent to the
paper and will either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or
new points for reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the
to different Brethren who may compile papers of their own from the
to be found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts
may be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be
the members may not feel able to compile original papers, or when the
be deemed appropriate without any alterations or additions.
HOW TO ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY
Lodge should select a "Research Committee"
preferably of three "live" members. The study meetings should be held
once a month, either at a special meeting of the Lodge called for the
at a regular meeting at which no business (except the Lodge routine)
should be transacted
‒ all possible time to be given to the study period. After the Lodge
has been opened
and all routine business disposed of, the Master should turn the Lodge
over to the
Chairman of the Research Committee. This Committee should be fully
prepared in advance
on the subject for the evening. All members to whom references for
papers have been assigned should be prepared with their papers and
should also have
a comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's paper.
PROGRAM FOR STUDY MEETINGS
Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's
paper and the supplemental papers thereto.
While these papers are being read
the members of the Lodge should make notes of any points they may wish
or inquire into when the discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper
those used in elections should be distributed among the members for
at the opening of the study period.)
Discussion of the above.
The subsequent sections of Brother Haywood's
paper and the supplemental papers should then be taken up, one at a
time, and disposed
of in the same manner.
MAKE THE "QUESTION BOX" THE FEATURE
OF YOUR MEETINGS
questions from any and all Brethren present.
Let them understand that these meetings are for their particular
benefit and get
them into the habit of asking all the questions they may think of.
Every one of
the papers read will suggest questions as to facts and meanings which
may not perhaps
be actually covered at all in the paper. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US. All the reference material
we have will
be gone through in an endeavor to supply a satisfactory answer. In fact
we are prepared
to make special research when called upon, and will usually be able to
within a day or two. Please remember, too, that the great Library of
the Grand Lodge
of Iowa is only a few miles away, and, by order of the Trustees of the
the Grand Secretary places it at our disposal on any query raised by
of the Society.
foregoing information should enable local
Committees to conduct their Lodge study meetings with success. However,
welcome all inquiries and communications from interested Brethren
phase of the plan that is not entirely clear to them, and the services
of our Study
Club Department are at the command of our members, Lodge and Study Club
at all times.
on "A Review of First Steps"
means to take a view again;
it suggests that one may overlook something the first time he looks at
Masonry is so full of truths, as well as truth, that such reviews are
Do you keep "reviewing" your own experiences during initiation?
- What does "apprentice"
- What is the profane world,
according to Masonic speech?
- Can you think of any other
word than "Obedience" which would best sum up the First degree? If so,
- Tell how obedience is needed
in learning anything, in entering any sphere of life.
Obedience the same as blind credulity?
- Of what does the candidate
divest himself? Why?
- What does the divestment
- What is the real preparation
demanded by Masonry?
- Did you so prepare yourself
before seeking admission?
is the difference between a
"Mason" and a "member"?
- In what sense is initiation
a "new birth"?
- How do you enter into any
department of life? a business? a profession?
- Is the newcomer always like
a babe in his helplessness and ignorance?
- What do the pillars at the
door symbolize? Why?
would you define Masonry?
- How do we know that there
are Powers more than human?
- How can we come into relationship
with those Divine Powers?
- Do you really believe in
- What is prayer?
- Is it asking for things or
is it an attempt to get into a right relationship with God?
- Is prayer for the lodge room
only, or for the whole Masonic life?
- What does the altar symbolize?
- What is the meaning of circumambulation?
- Do we practice truth in our
everyday life? How? Why?
- Can you give illustrations?
- What obstructions did the
- What did they stand for?
- How do you get over obstructions
in your home life? your business or professional life?
does the Masonic manner of getting
over them teach you how always to get over them?
- What does the East mean?
- What is Masonic light?
- How is it found?
- How does a man "approach
the east" in getting an education?
- What is an obligation?
- What do the penalties signify?
- What are the actual penalties
for violating Masonic obligations?
- What does the cable tow stand
- Why is
- What are the Great Lights
- The Lesser Lights?
- Do you really try to live
in those Lights every day?
- How can we discover what
is God's Will?
- What are the laws of brotherhood?
- How do you make yourself
known to strange brethren?
are the uses of signs, etc?
- What does the apron stand
- Why is it nobler than any
- Do you really believe that
service and labor are the noblest of things?
- Why does the Northeast Corner
the uses of the Working
The, May 1918 C. C. B.
Approaching the East, April 1918 C. C. B.
Apron, The, November 1918 C. C. B.
Circumambulation, The Rite of, March 1918 C.
Entrance and Reception, January 1918 C. C. B.
Lights, The, September 1918 C. C. B.
Northeast Corner, The, December 1918 C. C. B.
Obligation, The, June 1918 C. C. B.
Prayer, February 1918 C. C. B.
Preparation, Physical and Mental, December
1917 C. C. B.
Signs, October 1918 C. C. B. Salutation, Rite
of, October 1918 C. C. B.
Tokens, October 1918 C. C. B.
Tools, Working, January 1919 C. C. B.
Words, October 1918 C. C. B.
Working Tools, January 1919 C. C. B.
Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
XII ‒ A Review Of First Steps
our previous studies we have traversed those
subjects which spring naturally from a study of a Mason's first steps;
has been a more or less detailed analysis of the structure and meaning
of each important
division of the ritual insofar as a candidate comes to know it at the
and there is now no more to be said about those matters until we have
the full circle and are ready to re-approach the study of the first
steps from a
new point of view. It will be well, however, before undertaking our
studies of second
steps to pause for a telescopic review of the ground hitherto covered
lest we forget
the fundamental principles of the first steps through too great
attention to details;
with a summary in our minds we shall be all the better equipped for
that which will
the First degree the candidate is always
the Apprentice, that is, the beginner, or learner, the untrained youth
at least) taking his first lessons in the sublime art of life as that
art is shadowed
forth through our ritual. He has come from the darkness, Masonically
the profane world; he has humbly requested the privilege of birth into
of Masonic light. Knowing nothing of that world he has been compelled
to trust himself
to the hands of trusted guides whom he has, for the most part, followed
obedience; the entire degree, from a certain high standpoint, is
nothing other than
a lesson to teach him the necessity of thus learning from others. The
of the degree may be described as Obedience.
coming into the life Masonic the candidate
was made to strip himself of that which indicated his adherence to the
life; he was brought into the lodge in a manner designed to teach him
one of his
first lessons the fundamental democracy of the Order. He was also asked
himself in mind and spirit, and certain questions were asked to make
sure that such
preparation had been made. Inasmuch as the Craft seeks to make Masons
members, great care was taken to see that he was coming with the
purpose to take
Masonry seriously; to undertake a greater matter with the right motive,
half the victory of achievement, and all possible means were utilized
to see that
the Learner came in the right spirit. There was a certain order in this
and in all that followed which it is not lawful to divulge but it is
recall certain salient features in his initiatory experiences; the
reader will reassemble
such things according to his memory of his own candidacy.
brethren met him at the portals in the persons
of their trusted representatives, and through those representatives,
that he had made application for admission into the Order in due form;
him to seek admission in this due form the lesson was impressed upon
him that no
man can enter any of the great worlds of life until he is outwardly and
prepared. He was told that Freemasonry is an art of moral and spiritual
through symbols and symbolical acts and he was given to understand that
he was about
to enter a new life and was cautioned to walk circumspectly.
all the emblems and furniture of the lodge
none are more majestic in appearance or more suggestive of truth than
the Two Pillars;
these were (or at least should have been) so placed as to symbolize to
that he was coming to a new birth. Certain instruments were used to
remind him that
the real penalties for the violation of Masonic obligations are felt in
and in the conscience.
candidate who ventures upon the path of
initiation soon learns that he needs for that Way a strength, a
guidance, and a
wisdom more than human; at the center of all worthy life stands prayer;
the altar is the symbol, as it is also the symbol of every one of man's
an ancient light symbolism he was taught
that every true Mason is one who evermore approaches the East where is
and life; but he was at the same time shown that no man can approach
that East except
he make the attempt in an orderly fashion and according to certain
fixed laws. The
kingdom of light is not to be entered violently or capriciously; order
first law. In the beginning of this, the real Masonic journey, he was
taken to the
altar where his spirit was linked to the hearts of his new brethren by
ties that cannot be broken except at the peril of all the heart holds
one of our former studies we paid much attention
to the Rite of Circumambulation; through a study of the evolution of
impressive bit of ritual we found that it teaches us the secrets of
life is harmony with one's self and with one's environment; no man can
or die alone; he who does not keep step with the powers of life will
fall upon disaster,
defeat and death. A man must keep in step with the sun and stars and
with all the
orderly processes of nature, and with the mighty will of God.
met in the candidate's pilgrimage, as they are met in every one of
journeys, but these, with the help of certain trusted friends, were
were more than once propounded which recalled to him that he was
entering the Masonic
life voluntarily, for Masonry is a mistress who seeks not lip service
but the spontaneous
love of the heart.
loves to register his new decisions in solemn
vow and binding oath; the outward act fixes and confirms the inward
his Masonic vows the candidate was made to feel, by an unforgettable
that he who sins against light and brotherhood is guilty of a wrong
that is hard
to forgive and difficult to atone. It was impressed upon him that
an elect race, a secret brotherhood, and that all Masonic secrets must
be kept inviolate,
lest the fraternity be disrupted and the Order profaned. These lessons
he was permitted to walk without leading strings; he was also permitted
to use his own eyes.
was revealed to him that which is the
light whereby Masons are guided; there was the Will of God, as
symbolized by the
Holy Bible; the laws of human fellowship, as symbolized by the square
and through the strange symbolism bodied forth by the three Lesser
Lights he was
taught the necessary lesson of Balance; Masonry is a great moral system
and he who
would live it must keep each his part in proper order and due
live in all parts of the world; there
is no telling where a man may go or when he may need to make himself
known to his
brethren; the candidate, in what manner we will all remember, was
certain means of recognition. So equipped he was entitled to be known
as a brother,
and in the ceremony he was introduced to certain officers of the lodge
The Masonic officer, like everything connected with the lodge, is not
only a fact
but a symbol; he stands for the laws which every Mason must observe;
of the Fraternity is not a Bolshevist anarchy but freedom it the bonds
profane world from which he came set great
store by its badges of distinction, most of which had stood for some
worthless distinction; he had abandoned all such badges but he was then
badge which is of far more worth than Star and Garter: profane badges
an aristocratic significance and lead a man to despise labor and the
the Masonic badge given him was one that reminded him that service is
the only nobility
and that only he who labors in behalf of all belongs to true knighthood.
was not sufficient that he learn these lessons
of democracy and service; he must be taught that it is always necessary
for a true
Mason to be willing to sacrifice himself, even to the uttermost;
was taken to that place in the lodge room which symbolizes the giving
of one's self;
such a man is the real cornerstone of the Order and he was made to know
he must be. ‒ At the same time. Lest he construe this as a degradation
of his manhood,
he was taught that unadorned human nature is the stuff whereof Masonry
this was preliminary; it prepared him in
mind and body to fulfill his functions as a Mason tried and true; after
such a preparation
his labors were to commence. In order to do this he was given his
of Working Tools, one of which was to be used for knocking off the
of his character, the other of which taught him the need of measure in
Being an ashlar, a building stone, he must make himself symmetrical in
the master builders might fit him into his place in the temple. Thus
taught he was ready for initiation into the Fellow Craft degree.
you ever, brethren, found anything more
true, wise, and beautiful than all this? Masonry is indeed the sublime
spiritual science, the way of life: he who would truly walk in its
paths and follow
its guidance would learn what life really is, to what divine issues
life may ascend.
But the First degree is, after all, only preparatory; for the
candidate, and for
us who study his experience, the best is yet to be!
The Mountain Altar – [A Poem]
By Bro Lewis A. McConnell,
Life's burden I with patience bear
While oft depressed with anxious care
Though skies are bright and blue,
Where mountains gleam with sunshine bright
And heavens are decked with stars at night,
The fleeting dreams of fancy's flight
My leisure hours creep through.
My spirit gropes in fervent quest
Of mystic sweets, so oft impressed
Upon my heart e'er coming west
Where they are sparsely spread.
Yet, in the desert oft abound
The rarest flowers with charms profound
To cheer environments around
And subtle fragrance spread.
Across the mountain's brow at morn
I view the growing lustre born
Where steepled crags, of verdure shorn,
Through centuries were reared;
And as the floods of sunlight gild
Each pinnacle, my heart is thrilled
With rapturous awe, by these instilled
And sentiment endeared.
The mystic wisdom of the past
Breaks in upon my soul at last
As glowing lights their beauties cast
Where melancholy reigned,
Revealing scenes of beauty rare
Whose miracles, God's truths declare
O'er all His footstool everywhere
In vividness explained.
Oft have I at the altar knelt
And every inspiration felt
While yet each moral impulse dealt
With mystic visions bright
And now once more, with outstretched hands
On mountain's brow the Master stands
And once again gives His commands,
"Let there be light!"
It beams my being penetrate
While influences concentrate
Within my soul, and thus create
Of mystic wisdom's lore
The fund of sweets for which I sought
In earnest plea with fancy fraught
Enriched with beauty every thought
From heaven’s richest store.
and Field Club, New York City
Bro. Wm. C. Prime, New York
RECONVENED 136th Annual Communication of
the Grand Lodge of New York is memorable, not only because of the fact
that it marked
the first definite step by Freemasonry in the United States of America
for war service and the inevitable consequences of war, so far as the
be concerned therewith, but also because though the general thought of
enacted at that session was for the future and the protection and
relief of consequences
of the war after it should be over, the enlightened Grand Master of New
the high desirability of ministering to Freemasons engaged in the
the war was on, both at home and abroad.
as the government plans for creating and
equipping an army and providing munitions, food, aircraft and other
warfare required study, formulation and development, as well as funds,
so the action
of Free Masons in connection with a practical service to soldiers and
in the great cause required thought in planning and providing, and time
winter of 1917-1918 found at Camp Merritt,
New Jersey, a Y.M.C.A. Secretary hailing from a Montana lodge, who had
Masonic identity and connection of great service in reaching the heart
of the down-cast,
lonely and homesick Masons among the troops gathered there at an
for speedy departure overseas, knowledge of which led New York to
to serve. It could not serve without its own territorial borders. Camp
only embarkation Camp provided within its borders, was not then in
Camps and Cantonments were amply provided, apparently, with every
agency for the
men's comfort that could reasonably be afforded within the limits of
rule regulating fraternal activities at such places.
the course of a comparatively short time,
however, it became apparent that there was need of an adequate and
rest place within the City of New York itself, at a central point,
where men could
gather at convenience, read and write, lounge, play cards and otherwise
the autumn of 1918, the War Relief Administration,
authorized by the Grand Lodge of New York at its Annual Communication
in May, 1918,
undertook to utilize for this purpose, three stores on the ground floor
of the Masonic
Hall, corner of West 23rd Street and 6th Avenue, in New York City, a
central as could be found. The stores are contiguous, being separated
only by partition
walls, and are approximately 75 feet deep by 20 feet wide, facing south
on the north
side of 23rd Street. These stores were thrown into one commodious
kept separate, the method being by cutting through each partition a
They were redecorated in a soft buff, the floors finished and covered
rugs. They were furnished with mission furniture, appropriately planned
tables for magazines and newspapers; writing desks, equipped with
a piano; a Victrola, and other appurtenances of a well-appointed
for a normal man.
the basement of the same building and reached
by a flight of stairs from the corridor, affording entrance to the
reading and lounging
rooms, is a large room 73 by 43 feet, with a high ceiling, which was
used as a banquet
room by the several lodges occupying the building. It seemed reasonable
this also for the present uses of the men in the service. It has also
and made cozy and attractive, amply provided with electric lights and
with billiard and pool tables, and a shuffle board. Adjoining it were
were available for baths and lockers. They have been plumbed with
plumbing, equipped with five enamel tubs and fine shower baths,
furnished with hot
and cold water, and dressing rooms adjoining. Towels and other
of such service are provided, and the whole denominated Sea and Field
to use of men in the Country's service, soldiers and sailors, Masons
alike, without money and without price. The name of the Club with an
emblem of crossed rifles over an anchor, is painted upon the windows of
rooms with the legend that it is maintained for the free use of
soldiers and sailors
by the Grand Lodge F. and A. M., of New York.
make the service more extensive and promote
the use of the quarters thus provided, the club has allied itself with
the War Camp
Community Service, whose emblem also decorates the windows in front of
and the literature of that organization advertises and approves its
In fact, it has been said by those who ought to know, that the
equipment and facilities
of Sea and Field Club are more extensive and perfect than of any other
for the men in the City of New York.
enterprise is maintained by the War Relief
Administration of the Grand Lodge of New York. Since it was opened, it
a very extensive patronage. The average use of the baths daily has been
100 and it is probably not without interest that the first man to bathe
the treat that he left the room as he found it, the tub rinsed clean
and dried and
the floor mopped and dried, the soiled towels carefully laid aside.
from the satisfaction which the projectors
and managers of the enterprise have derived from realizing the pleasure
of a good
work well done and unused quarters devoted to a useful purpose, their
opportunity to note the exclamations of pleasure and appreciation by
the men using
the bathing facilities, who had not, in some cases, had a chance at a
tub for weeks,
has been an extreme joy. Some of their talk would make real comedy,
utterances of the chaps waiting for the men ahead to clean up and clear
housing of men in uniform overnight has
been a perplexing problem for many months, and the War Camp Community
been very active in their behalf, providing much accommodation, but all
None of their services of this character is gratuitous.
the War Relief Administration, in addition
to the Sea and Field Club, has taken over the Shelter at 215 West 21st
operated by the local Board of Relief, a commodious building with sixty
for men in uniform on the same basis as the service of Sea and Field
Club and maintained
in connection therewith. This accommodation is also gratuitous.
average attendance at the Club room is over
250 daily. The rooms are open from eight o'clock in the morning to
enterprise has amply justified itself and the considerable expense
which was involved
in its establishment. It contributes in no small way to affording the
surroundings and defending them from the pitfalls of a great City.
Buried – [A Poem]
O. B. Slane. Illinois
in the rough sands of the sea,
Buried at the low water mark,
Where the tide ebbs and flows, you see
Far across the bar in the dark.
Buried is the secret ‒ mark you well,
A silent tongue that never will reveal
A mystery no human tongue can tell,
Is buried where the ocean waves conceal.
Bro. Harold A. Kingsbury, Massachusetts
the Triangle is seldom directly called
to the Mason's attention there are but few of the symbols used in
are so frequently placed before the Craftsman for him to recognize and
if he but will. The presentations of this symbol are, however,
and more or less veiled because that is the way of Masonry with respect
to its first-rate
symbols, i.e., the Cube, Point within the Circle, Square, Apron, etc.,
from its second-rate symbols, the Beehive, Ark and Anchor, etc. And
and partially concealed presentations are made with the design that the
have aroused in him a Spirit of Inquiry and, so, will turn his
attention to the
symbol and, by his Masonic Craftsmanship, bring himself to a knowledge
of its history
and to an understanding of its symbolic significance.
Triangle appears in Masonry in two forms,
the Right Triangle, i.e., that Triangle which has one of its angles a
ninety degrees, or the one-fourth part of a Circle, and the Equilateral
i.e., that Triangle which has all its sides equal, each to the other,
and, of course,
has each of its angles equal to sixty degrees. Although these two
symbolically and historically, certain features in common, for example,
used as symbols by the Egyptians and both present the significant
yet their symbolic suggestions are in many respects so different that
not improperly, be considered as distinct symbols.
all the references to this Symbol this is
obviously not the place to speak, but any Mason can profitably occupy
discovering them. A few examples of the exoteric presentations and
it are: the Forty-Seventh Problem of Euclid; the Square of the Square
which Square, when a third, and completing side is supplied, presents
Triangle; the stations of the Three Principal Officers of the Lodge,
the Altar, which define two Right Triangles; and the Altar together
with the Three
Lesser Lights, which, when those Lights are placed, as in some
the stations of the Three Principal Officers, rather than, as in other
about the Altar, mark out two Right Triangles. Various other examples
could be cited,
as there are many, but to do so would but defeat one of the principles
the Mason must learn of Masonry by his own effort.
Right Triangle is to the Mason, as it was
to the ancient Egyptians, the symbol of Universal Nature. The
Egyptians, long prior
to Pythagoras, the statement in the Monitor notwithstanding, knew of
and of those peculiar properties set forth in the statement of the
Problem, "In any right triangle the square (A in the figure) of the
opposite the right angle is equal to the sum of the square (B and C) of
(legs) making the right angle." And the Egyptians, making use of these
for purposes of symbolism, considered one leg as symbolizing Osiris,
the Male, considered
the other leg as symbolizing Isis, the Female, and considered the
symbolizing Horus, the Son and product of Isis and Osiris. Thus,
plainly, the Right
Triangle presents to the Mason, for his most earnest and devout
Great Handiwork Universal Nature.
this symbol, in calling attention
to Osiris and Isis, points out to the Mason the probable aura of an
and teaches him that that Legend is but another and, so far as the
of its incidents are concerned, relatively "up to date" version of a
legend told and retold to us, as to the ancient Egyptians, by the
and rerising Sun and by the Procession of the Seasons.
the Right Triangle, in calling attention
to the Forty ‒ Seventh Problem and, more particularly, to the graphical
of that Problem (as in the figure), brings up for contemplation one of
and most widespread symbols in the world the Swastika (heavy lines in
Here, then, is presented to the Mason a symbol in the study of whose
can profitably spend many hours, learning of its occurrence in Egypt,
Japan, India, Europe and America; of the Burial Mound at Baharahat,
from the third century B.C. and having its surrounding wall in the form
of an immense
swastika over one hundred feet in diameter; of the swastika's proud
"that ancient Aryan symbol which was probably the first to be made with
intention and a consecutive meaning" (Enc. Brit. 4 641a), etc., etc.
symbol, while perhaps more emphatically
presented to the Royal Arch Mason than to the Master Mason is,
nevertheless, a possession
of the Master Mason and one that, however unobtrusive the references to
it may be,
is by no means absent from the Master's Lodge. Exoterically the
is presented by the Compass of the Square and Compass as, when that
symbol is opened
to the extent of sixty degrees (as it should be) and a third, and
connecting the ends of the legs, is supplied, we have presented the
Triangle. Again, when the Three Lesser Lights are placed about the
Altar they define
the Equilateral Triangle.
time immemorial the Equilateral Triangle
has been preeminently the symbol for Deity. For the Triangle is the
from which all others are built up and the Equilateral Triangle, being
is the one perfect Triangle and thus clearly becomes the symbol for
Being in which all things find their beginning This Symbol is so
to the purpose of a symbol for Deity and Perfection that to here treat
of its various
other, and decidedly minor, symbolic significances would but obscure
conclusion, then, the Triangle, in the two
forms here discussed, teaches the Mason that far more lies in Masonic
and in Masonic instruction than appears upon the surface; causes him to
Universal Nature; points out the probable source of an important
draws his attention to what is probably, the world's oldest symbol, and
attention upon Deity and Perfection. Is not the study of Masonic
Craft in England in 1918
Bro. Dudley Wright, Assistant Editor "The Freemason."
IS with great interest, satisfaction, and
gratitude that a review can be taken of the progress made by the Craft
in the year 1918, conjointly with a summary of the progress made in the
years. The review serves to show how slight was the foundation for the
by some on the outbreak of the war in 1914 that all Masonic activity
and that expression should be given to that fear by closing down all
the period of the war and shutting the door against any who might
for admission into the Order. Freemasonry in England, as, indeed, in
was never so strong as it is to-day and its progress during the past
has been by leaps and bounds, and this notwithstanding the stringent
by the various constituent lodges, in accordance with the regulations
the United Grand Lodge of England, in admitting applicants for
for charters for new lodges have been most carefully scrutinized and
none has been
granted except for special and urgent reasons. Thus the number of new
which warrants were issued fell from sixty-eight in 1913 to thirty-two
in 1914 with
a further drop to twenty-one in 1915. In 1916 there was a slight
increase but only
twenty-four applications were granted. The year 1917 witnessed an
advance to forty,
but during the past year, notwithstanding the strict scrutiny of
fewer than seventy-four new lodges were founded and warranted, nearly
of which have
come actually into being. There have been various contributory causes
to this increase,
not the least of which has been the known interest in the well-being of
practically demonstrated on many occasions, by the M.W. Grand Master,
Duke of Connaught. The continued absence of the Pro Grand Master, Bro.
has been felt, but its effect has been reduced to a minimum by the
despite his great age, his numerous county official engagements, and
his sad domestic
bereavements of the beloved and revered Deputy Grand Master, Bro. the
T. F. Halsey. But above and beyond these reasons, in my opinion, lies
the fact that
men generally are beginning to realize that the Craft of Freemasonry
the highest and the noblest man can believe in and practice.
however, at any rate to the outsider,
the most striking illustration of Masonic activity has been in the
during the past year, in particular, of the three great Masonic
festivals of the
Institutions for Boys, Girls, and aged Freemasons and their widows. In
these three Festivals realized well over 200,000 pounds, the sum which
Grand Secretary, Bro. Sir Edward Letchworth, once estimated as the
contributed to Masonic Benevolence annually throughout the country, and
sum he included the contributions to the various Provincial Funds, of
which at least
one is attached to each of the forty-six Provinces ‒ in some instances
two or three Provincial Benevolent Funds. Now, that amount has to be
set down as
the sum contributed during the past year to the three Institutions
apart from the
donations to the Freemasons War Hospital, the Provincial Funds, and the
Fund. In this last instance, also, a record was achieved during the
year on the
occasion of the Jubilee Festival when the result was announced at
only in the direction of the formation of
new lodges has the strictest care been exercised but with respect to
of new candidates Grand Lodge has deemed it wise to formulate new and
rules, which have been welcomed on all sides by the members of the
Other proposals brought forward by the Board of General Purposes for
of the Craft, though meeting at first with local opposition have, after
been heartily agreed to as devised in its best interests. To the
President of that
Board, Bro. Sir Alfred Robbins, whose disinterested and arduous labors
of Freemasonry many deserved tributes have been paid, was also due the
suggestion for the formation of a League of Masons, of which,
doubtless, more of
a practical character will be heard during the coming year. The year
1919 will also
doubtless see the erection of the proposed Memorial to the late Grand
Bro. Sir Edward Letchworth.
if the gains have been great, the losses
have been many ‒ losses in personnel and not in stability, and sadness
over the perusal of the long list of active workers, who during the
past year have
gone to join the Grand Lodge Above. Three Provincial Grand Masters are
number, all of whom proved by their deeds that they had the interests
of the Craft
at heart ‒ Bros. Hamon le Strange (Norfolk); General Sir William
and now, as the sands of the year were running out, Lord Barnard
should also be included the name of Bro. the Duke of Northumberland,
Grand Master of Northumberland. Four District Grand Masters joined the
Bros. T. Sherlock Graham (Otago, New Zealand); Sir Henry A. Blake
Sir Hastings Markham (Past of Malta); and John Locke (Past of
Barbados). It is,
however, when we come to domestic Masonic life in England that the
losses are felt
more severely, and no reminder is needed to recall the loss which has
by the withdrawal on the call of the angel Azrael of several prominent
whose sole aim seemed to be the betterment of the Craft, men well known
and the Provinces, and whose names were also renowned in other circles.
losses are, and should be, regretted, the sense of loss is lessened by
and popularity of the appointments made in filling the official
have thus occurred, and no appointments could be more popular than
those of Bros.
Col. W. F. Wyley, to fill the principal Masonic vacancy in
Warwickshire; Sir William
P. Raynor to the like position in West Yorkshire; Lord St. Levan in
General Sir Francis Davies to a like position in Worcestershire, as
well as the
appointment of the Rev. Canon Barnard to the post of Grand
Superintendent of Royal
Arch Masons of Warwickshire. The same remark applies to the appointment
G.H. Redwood as Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Surrey in place of
the late Bro.
J. D. Langton and that of Bro. Richard Gill as Deputy Provincial Grand
West Yorkshire, who fills the Masonic vacancy caused by the promotion
of Bro. Sir
William Raynor. Last, but by no means least, the election of Bro. Percy
Past Assistant Grand Director of Ceremonies, as Secretary of the Royal
for Boys, was hailed with satisfaction by the members of the Craft
the supporters of the Institution in particular.
a complete Roll of Honor be compiled during
the coming year? It will be a record of which no organization need be
at present the lists published in the Masonic Year Book are detached
There is another point out of many on which the Craft in England can
itself. There have been many Masonic occupants of the Metropolitan
civic chair and
it is no disparagement to them to say that the present Lord Mayor of
Sir Horace Brooks Marshall, Past Grand Treasurer, is renowned
throughout the country
for his benefactions to charity generally, his personal efforts on
behalf of the
poor and distressed and the "Brethren of the Mystic Tie" for his
and persistent Masonic endeavor right from the day of his initiation
into the Craft,
and particularly for his arduous labors in connection with the
Freemasons War Hospital,
of which he is the Treasurer.
The Trestle Board Design – [A Poem]
By Bro. L. B. Mitchell,
the design, my brother, pray?
Upon the Trestle Board today?
Your Temple building has begun
And each day's work from sun to sun
Should show in its design the plan
That means the building of a man, ‒
The building that interprets fine
The ideal Trestle Board design.
The Temple building you essay
Should grow in beauty by the way
E'en though it be a rugged road
And your's to bear a heavy load.
But whereso'er the way may lead
Or whatso'er may be your need,
The heart must everything refine
That's in the Trestle Board design.
And while there's none can build for you
It compensatingly is true
That none can your soul work destroy
Or take from it its keener joy.
And if its plan be bold and clear
As in the light it may appear,
Yet others may the soul divine
That's in your Trestle Board design.
And in the Temple building plan
That Masonry unfolds to man
The Truth, as it is understood, ‒
Real Service and true Brotherhood, ‒
With Character is what supplies
The best that is beneath the skies.
And this will serve you to refine
The better Trestle Board design.
And there is in the mystic Art
So much that centers in the heart, ‒
So much that leads your loves away
To social cheer and rest and play
And yet, that traces in its plan
The larger way to build a man, ‒
That helps you so much to refine
Your special Trestle Board Design.
And now my brother, tell me, pray,
What is your thought of Masonry
As helping you to find the best
And leaving to your heart the rest
While ever pleading that you be
From every moral blemish free?
O, what can hold more that's sublime
Than this, your Trestle Board design?
is the life of conversation; and he
is as much out who assumes to himself any part above another, as he who
himself below the rest of the society.
THE traditional land of its origin and as
the scene of its oldest legends Masonry and its adherents must always
interest, real even if sentimental, in Palestine. More than most
Masons will watch with keen attention the developments in that historic
the brief time since it was freed from the blighting and ruinous rule
of the Turk.
the recovery of Jerusalem in December,
1917, the writer had occasion (1) to call attention to the significance
event from the standpoint of internationalism and interreligious
having thus entered upon the study of the subject he has naturally been
in following it and especially in observing how events have shaped
in various fields of activity.
Allenby may fairly claim
the title of the modern Joshua, if not that of the modern David, for he
"smote the Philistines, hip and thigh." It is highly fitting that the
Jewish community of Jerusalem should have presented him, at the hands
of Dr. Chaim
Weitzman, the foremost living Zionist, with a scroll of Torah the
Sacred Law and
that a Maccabean guard of honor should have attended the ceremony. In
of many battles General Allenby fought and won perhaps the most
remarkable of all.
Not only Palestine "from Dan to Beersheba" but all of Syria was freed
from the Turks let us hope forever and the way was thus opened to
Armenia as well as Mesopotamia and to end that disgraceful anachronism
the least interesting feature of the accounts
which have filtered in from the scene of those great victories is the
the despatches of September 24, of the Jewish legion. One regiment of
this was recruited
in London and another in New York, whence it sailed only last February,
and it is
gratifying to find this new force so soon giving a good account of its
Coupled with General Pershing's call for twenty-five more Jewish
Chaplains it becomes
evident that the new Zionist need not lack the nucleus of an army.
less interesting was the reference in
the same despatches to the service of the Druses that strange race and
cult affords so much of interest for Masons, especially those of the
(2) ‒ who fought with the army of the King of Hedjaz against the Turks
in 'the land
of Moab" east of Jordan.
The Jewish colonies which flourished
in Palestine before the war were among the chief sufferers from Turkish
and one of the principal tasks of the deliverers has been to repatriate
and help them to restore their too often devastated homes. The
extension of this
work so well begun has occupied the attention of various agencies.
British army has helped the colonists with
the loan of draft animals. Other animals and supplies have been brought
in by railway
from Egypt, which, though built originally as a military line, is
proving of permanent
and increasing value to the country.
Palestine Fund Restoration Commission of
America has been most effective and is giving special attention to
and the modernization of Jerusalem. Aaronsohn, the Jewish agricultural
a tempting offer from America in order to devote his whole time to the
of Palestinian agriculture.
in the summer, announcement was made from
Petrograd of Zionist industrial activity among Russian Jews the
expansion of the
Haboneh (Builder) Company, the organization of a Zionist emigration
society at Moscow
with a capital of rbls. 10,000,000; the formation of a steamship
company for service
between Odessa and Palestine with a capital of rbls. 5,000,000; a
Company and a modern hotel company for Palestine each with a capital of
and a Palestine agricultural bank at Petrograd with a capital of rbls.
These are some of the forces which are again to make the weary land,
productive soil has lain fallow for two milleniums, rejoice and blossom
as the rose.
Zionist program includes
the revival of ancient Hebrew culture including the language. And this
adapted to modern needs. A great Hebrew scholar has been at work for
some time on
a new Hebrew dictionary which is to contain not only the classical
the additional terms needed in modern life.
a new Hebrew-English and English-Hebrew
lexicon has been prepared and, in order to facilitate communication
Jews and the British army of occupation, is being printed in serial
form as a supplement
to the Palestine News whose editors are supervising the enterprise.
project is the "scheme of 'The
City of the Book,' adjacent to the site reserved for the university
The idea is to concentrate there gradually the Hebrew book printing
as to supply the whole of the Diaspora from Jerusalem with Jewish
and profane. Before the war the number of Talmudic, Rabbinic, and
in different countries amounted to millions yearly. Warsaw and Vilna
were the principal
centers of publication, but the war seems to have destroyed them and
gather and utilize what remains of the skilled labor. Adding the
especially educational Hebrew literature, of which the demand is
throughout the world, a flourishing industry could be created, giving
to many thousands of families, and strengthening the position of
Jerusalem as a
leading force in all branches of the Jewish revival all the world
elementary schools in Palestine had been brought to an advanced state
the war. A college had been established at Jaffa and the beginnings
made of a technical
school at Haifa, all of which prepared the way for the crowning event
of the year
in Palestine, the foundation of the New Hebrew University. A commanding
it, on the Mount of Olives, overlooking Jerusalem on the west and the
on the east, was chosen months ago. There on April 11, amid the
applause of an audience
of six thousand, Dr. Weitzman declared that a new moral force would go
that site for the uplift of the whole Jewish people. The foundation
stone was laid
on July 24, curiously enough the tenth anniversary of the Turkish
later came the announcement that Henri Bergson, the greatest of French,
of all living philosophers, had accepted a place in the faculty of the
Balfour's declaration of
Nov. 2, last, in favor of "a national home for the Jewish people in
was indorsed by the King of Greece on Feb. 7, 1918, by the French
Feb. 12, by the Italian on Feb. 25 and more recently by the governments
Serbia, Siam and the all-Russian government at Omsk, while President
added his great influence by expressing his unqualified approval.
after its declaration the British government
authorized the despatch to Palestine of a Jewish Administrative
Commission and this,
headed by Dr. Weitzman, arrived in Jerusalem on April 10 and was
welcomed by representatives
not only of all three of the great monotheistic religions but of
of each. Since then this commission has been at work in laying the
the new government. Dr. Weitzman returned to London on October 9,
at the results of his mission and speaking hopefully of the future of
recited in one of their publications, (4)
Zionists are resolved that the constitution
of the state they are building shall contain not only all that is best
in the fundamental
law of the most enlightened countries of the world, but something even
The aspiration of the Zionists is to establish a model state in which
of the classes, the eternal warfare between capital and labor, will
have no place.
There must be no room in Jewish Palestine, they are determined, for
for private gain, and the amassing plutocratic millions will be
high aim is a state that will exemplify the highest ideals of
is a mark of the practical sagacity of those
who are undertaking this interesting task that they have turned their
first to public health and sanitation. Disease has already been reduced
care is given to child welfare.
vital subject to receive attention is
the administration of justice. The old, corrupt, inefficient and
Courts have, of course, been superseded. But the administrators have
not made the
mistake of uprooting suddenly the Mohammedan law which has now
prevailed in Palestine
for so many centuries. This has been retained for the present and an
recently stationed in Cairo in the judicial service of the British
therefore familiar with Arabic and Muslim law, has been transferred to
and placed at the head of the new judicial system. In time we may
a parallel to the Philippine situation with the old law administered in
American judges and with a gradual introduction of reforms in the
then are the first steps in the Redemption
of Palestine. As for the future and as regards the larger aspects of
I only wish that all might read a stimulating book which has recently
the title of "The World Significance of a Jewish State." (5) For its
thesis is one which is bound to challenge our profound attention, viz.
possibilities for political good in an independent Jewish Palestine
an insistent East and a war tired Europe."
was most fitting for Zionists to observe
the anniversary of Britain's declaration. In the years to come that
seems destined to mean as much for the Jews throughout the world as the
of Independence has for the Americans. Both days are likely to be "writ
in the annals of human progress and as the Peace Conference proceeds to
with its gigantic program it will find no feature more interesting than
carrying out this promise to the Jewish people and thus insuring
Delivered," THE BUILDER, IV, 301.
(2) See The Far Eastern Freemason, III, 335-338.
(3) London "Times."
(4) Special Bulletin No. 141 of that Provisional Executive Committee
(5) By A. A. Berle; reviewed in The Nation, Vol. 107, p. 104.
The Builder True – [A Poem]
By Bro. Lawrence N.
Greenleaf, P.G.M., Colorado
true is he who seeks the universal good,
To whom life's purpose and its goal is human
The helping hand, the loving heart, the faith
'tis God doth plan,
These are the tools wherewith to build earth's
paradise for man.
So slow the work, 'tis scarce perceived, as
nations wax and wane,
While man still fights his brother man and
hate holds wide domain.
We oft lose heart and sadly say, these evils
needs must be,
What hope is there for brotherhood with frail
Forgetful, ah! forgetful we, amid our doubts
How in God's mighty universe even time as
Ten million years a ray of light is speeding
on its way,
A thousand years in His calm sight are but as
O thought sublime which soars beyond the
bounds of time or space,
Hushed are our dark forebodings of a
With hope refreshed, with mind elate, with
broader vision see
The long, long way which marks the course of
What broods of passion and of hate have met
What horrors have been left behind, what
centuries of woe,
What forces of stern nature curbed, subjective
to man's will,
What stores of wisdom have accrued, what
handicrafts, what skill
But grander than achievements all in learning,
science and art,
The glories of self-sacrifice, the promptings
of the heart.
'Tis these through all the ages past reflect
the light divine,
The conquests of the world forgot, love's
deeds still brighter shine.
and America: The Great Friendship
to the victory of right over might and
the overthrow of enthroned iniquity, we have nothing for which to be
than the reunion of our English-speaking race. Perhaps, in the future,
will reckon this new friendship of Britain and America as the
outstanding fact in
connection with the world-war. Certainly it is the most hopeful asset
left to our
humanity as it turns from the terrible business of destruction to the
of a devastated world. We stand at a grave and critical hour ‒ how
of us alive will ever realize. The words of John Galsworthy are none
the advance of civilization the solidarity
of the English-speaking races is vital. Without it there is no bottom
on which to
build. He who ever gives a thought to the life of man at large, to his
and disappointments, to the waste and cruelty of existence, will
remember that if
American or Briton fail himself, or fail the other, there can be but
for both, and
for all other peoples, a hideous slip, a swift and fearful fall into an
all shall have to be begun over again. We shall not fail ‒ neither
each other. Our comradeship will endure."
yes. Britain and America have got to
stand together, not in aggressive and jealous policies, but for the
of humanity. No petty matters, no differences of manner, no divergences
interest must mar a fellowship upon which the very existence of
If we who are kinsmen both in blood and ideal quarrel and become
civilization will split and go to ruin. By the same token, if we fail
to pool our
thought and hopes, and refuse to keep the welfare of mankind in view,
will be haunted by insecurity, as the past has been.
is an occasion not for boasting, but for
grave thought, that we are made the custodians of civilization; and our
must be not in formal bonds, but in our spiritual affinities and our
to the democratic ideal. There is no way out of the old welter of
and strife, except to make the world democratic, and then by education
the weakness and shams of democracy. Our history, our geographical
temperaments, and still more our ideals, make us the trustees of
mankind, and what
we do will decide whether the civilization built up since the fall of
Rome is to
break up and fall to pieces, or, unified, move forward to a new day.
there should be no League of Nations following
the war, what then? This, at least; upon the united shoulders of
Britain and America,
by the providence of God, henceforth and forever, so far as we can see,
of the world will rest. We did not seek this responsibility of
guardianship of the
main line of human development; nor can we evade it. Our genius of
and public order at home, of honor and fair-dealing and friendliness
ideal of a Commonwealth, of the service of man to his neighbor, near
and far, require
of us a leadership of service in the reorganization of the world. Our
great Freemasonry demands it.
may be, there surely should be, a League
of Nations following the war. Never again must we allow history to
drift to and
fro, as hitherto. It will not be enough to hold a Peace Conference,
sign a treaty,
and then each go his way to intrigue against the other. No; we must lay
history with a common purpose and shape it after a new pattern, adding
Providence a sagacious, disinterested and forward-looking Human
and only so, can we transform a temporary military association into a
League of Security, and insure those yet unborn against another such a
old nationalisms have broken down ‒ our
paths have led us slowly out of isolation into the larger life of the
the ideal of nationality as we know it is a modern idea, born of the
the Napoleonic era, fashioned to sanctify political greed and hallow
It must be transformed and made to yield to the spirit of service. In
fire it is being written before us that the hope of the world lies in
guide, which can take from nationality its exclusiveness and dedicate
it to higher
ends. Hitherto, no matter what the private life of men of state may
have been, selfishness
has been the first law of statesmanship. Surely the tragedy of the war
us for a new vision, a new consecration, and a new renunciation.
renunciation, in some degree there must
be, else it is idle to talk of a League of Nations. Nations must
renounce, as individuals
have been compelled to do. Otherwise the old anarchy will go on
war following another forever. Unless we are ready for some great
of world service, putting the welfare of the race above any interest of
we have not learned the lesson of the war. Let us pray that in this
America will lead the way, and that the Eternal Creative Goodwill will
find in our
reunited race an instrument He can use for the redemption of the world
is the great opportunity of Freemasonry,
by its spirit universal, by its genius brotherly and unsectarian. But a
requires a united Freemasonry. There are things that Masonry cannot do,
it cannot wield, voices it cannot utter, moral demands it cannot make,
it cannot render, because it is divided. Therefore, if we would really
the new world into which we are entering, we must draw together, lay
aside old technicalities,
and realize our true character as an international fellowship, at once
and free. Here, again, Britain and America must lead the way, holding
of good will to their brethren of the Craft everywhere.
By Bro. H. L. Haywood
The object of this Department is to acquaint
our readers with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the
literature now being published; and with such non-Masonic books as may
appeal to Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to render any
to studious individuals or to study clubs and lodges, either through
or by personal correspondence; if you wish to learn something
concerning any book
‒ what is its nature, what is its value, or how it may be obtained ‒ be
ask him. If you have read a book which you think is worth a review
write us about
it, if you desire to purchase a book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get
it with no
charge for the service. Make this your Department of Literary
Book for Today
and Religion," [Lib 1918]
by Shailer Mathews, Dean of the Divinity School
of the University of Chicago. Published by Macmillan's at $1.25.
MATHEWS is not always over vigorous in
his style but in this volume he writes with a vim conferred upon him by
of his theme, albeit he does not permit his subject to run away with
him, as is
the manner with many earnest writers. Patriotism and religion are both
today; like everything else they have been thrown into the furnace
and there is a flutter in many minds to think of the danger they seem
to be in.
Those who believe that wars spring from jingoistic passions, who hope
for a federation
of mankind, a parliament of man, a new internationalism, have come to
as the feeder of jingoism and the great obstacle in the way of the
state: those who believe that wars come from national and racial
rivalry, who tell
us that the church was utterly unable to prevent war and is now
impotent to lead
to peace, tell us that religion is now dead and that the sooner it is
all such people need is the gentle art
of discrimination. There is patriotism and patriotism, just as there
is, and always
has been, religion and religion. There is a selfish, parochial, Junker
type of it
which justifies Dr. Johnson's snort about patriotism being "the last
of a scoundrel," but there is also another type which is the friend,
than the foe, of international comity. There is a religion of an Old
for an eye" type which is the enemy of the more generous spirit which
aborning, but there is also another kind of religion which is the
friend and aider
of man in all his more forward-looking social efforts.
is the merit of Dean Mathews' excellent little
book that he points out very clearly what kind of patriotism and what
kind of religion
are worthy of survival and allegiance. Space does not here permit us to
his argument; all the more cheerfully do we refer our readers to the
It is one of those volumes which is worth owning because it is so
richly worth reading.
Development of the United States,"
Farrand, Professor of History in
Yale University. Published by Houghton. Mifflin & Company, at
have been many kinds of history. The old
chroniclers were content to narrate a tale in the spirit of the
teller, dwelling with love on each homely detail, but neither critical
The court historians were hired scribes employed to throw a glamour
about the exploits
of their employers, the kings and queens, or other members of nobility;
parte such histories have little value as fact, are little more,
indeed, than "historical
novels," which writings, we thank our stars, are now passing from
The literary historian, a Carlyle or a Gibbon, saw in the past a mine
whereof to fashion a thrilling narrative, a panorama of colorful
movement fit to
appeal to the imagination. The so-called scientific historian with his
"cold facts" has turned history into a mere store-house of data out of
which to fashion some hard dogma. Now comes the "new historian"; he
the past as a living organism full of life and movement and his task is
to us, actually at work, the genetic forces which carried human life
out of the
past into the present.
Farrand has written a history of the
United States according to the last named method, and a most
it is, for in consequence of it our own past becomes alive, almost
names, and battles, the stock in trade of old-fashioned chroniclers,
are used only
when necessary to depict the living movements, and the whole amazing
story is kept
so well in hand that it is told, with vivacious English, in something
hundred pages. He who reads this book will learn, as he has never
how garbled has been the account in many of our school histories, many
as we now know, have been edited by German propaganda.
Pilgrims and Their History,"
G. Usher, Professor of History,
Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri. Published by the Macmillan
three hundred years have passed since
the venturesome band of religious enthusiasts landed on the sand-bars
during this long period hundreds of historians and scholars have been
the scant records. Every nook and cranny of history or tradition has
with zealous care, so zealous that a mountain of material has been
A "mountain of material" makes the specialist very happy but the busy
modern man needs the mountain passed through a sieve; he is too much
to sift facts, weigh data, to wade through thousands of documents. Many
carefully read the story of the Pilgrims, therefore, because there has
much to read.
enters Professor Usher to bring relief to
the pressed modern man; he has gone through the mountain of material
and meticulous care to give us the net results in as interesting a book
as the present
writer has encountered in many a day. Through the power of his
scholarship and the
magic of words he has called the dour pioneers back from their sea-side
they are not the kind of men and women we have been led to picture them
are human and very likeable, and a reader is the better for his
them, their stern characters, their uncompromisingness, their
Pilgrims gave us no new religion; they took
their theology from the Puritans at second-hand; but they did
demonstrate the fact
that here on the new continent a group of hard-working people could
make a living
without help from European capital. This was their great contribution
history and to demonstrate this is the most original virtue of
Away and Long Ago."
Away and Long Ago," [Lib 1918]
by W.H. Hudson, published by E.P. Dutton &
Company, of New York, at $2.50.
his "The Purple Land," [Lib 1904]
"The Crystal Age," [Lib 1919]
"Green Mansions," [Lib 1916]
and other previous volumes Mr. Hudson gave his readers such tantalizing
of his early life in South America that many of us longed to have him
tell us at
length the strange tale of his own life: now, happily, that wish has
Nor will any of the author's admirers find any cause for disappointment
in the winning
pages of "Far Away and Long Ago"; herein is prose as limpid, as chaste,
as hauntingly beautiful as that which lent so irresistible a glamour to
books. It is autobiography with a difference; in reality an
autobiography of a human
spirit wherein the growth of the soul is portrayed through incidents
and through glimpses of outdoor life masterfully described. Not for a
will a reader forget the description of Buenos Ayres, with its night
wild youth and its grotesque out-doors washing scene; or the neighbors,
and wholly unique, to whom the boy often went avisiting; or the
reticent but truthful
account of the writer's gradual growth out of a traditional religion
into a Wordsworthian
nature mysticism. The readers of this wise and genial volume will be
agree with John Galsworthy in appraising Hudson as our greatest master
"now that Tolstoy has gone.”
Muse in Arms," [Lib 1917]
an anthology of war verse compiled by E. B. Osborn.
Published by Frederick A. Stokes, New York, at $2.00.
was one of the favorite doctrines of Wordsworth
that poetry must be composed of experiences viewed retrospectively
in the midst of an experience we confuse its incidentals with its
essence, we cannot
see it steadily or whole; therefore we must draw away from it a space
if we are
to see it justly and grasp its larger meaning for life. As a general
rule this canon
holds good but there are exceptions to all rules and the book now under
a witness to such an exception to the Wordsworthian rule.
poets represented in "The Muse in Arms"
are, or were, all men of action: their visions came where
The thundering line
of battle stands,
And in the air Death moans and sings:
they actually composed their stanzas
while waiting to go over the top; and in many cases they made the last
before their songs found their way to print. Nevertheless, most of the
this collection belong to genuine and lasting art. Taken as a whole
they give us
an authentic autobiography of the British soldiers' soul and a divine
soul it is:
absolute confidence in the justice of their cause; a willingness to pay
that England may be kept stainless; a fearlessness in the face of death
and of even
worse disasters; an unquestioning confidence in the reality of a life
West"; an unfaltering sense of the nearness and reality of God; all
with a magnanimity of spirit, a loftiness of soul above hating even
such is the inner heart of the poet-fighters whose memorials are here
fittingly in a volume which it is a tender joy to read and a reverent
pride to own.
Work without hope
draws nectar in a sieve,
And hope without an object cannot live.
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and
fraternal discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own
name, and is
responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is
a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not
champion any one
school of Masonic thought as over against another; but offers to all
alike a medium
for fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its
The Question Box and Correspondence Column
are open to all members of the Society at all times. Questions of any
Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from our members, particularly
with lodges or study Clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of
Study" When requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail
in this department.
History of Freemasonry
you kindly give me your opinion of "The
History of Freemasonry," [Lib 1906; 7 Volumes] by Brother Albert G.
published by the Masonic History Company, New York? I have not read
this work myself.
Is it as good a work of this kind as is available?
The Masonic historians of the early half
of the past century (and previous to that time) were really not
historians at all,
but panegyrists who accepted any and all traditions and fables that
seemed to shed
lustre upon a Fraternity that is singularly able to do without such
came the new school, the scholars who cared more for fact and truth
than for "glory,"
and great is the work they have done. Accepting nothing on faith they
all our traditions through the fine sieve of exact research to the end
that a valid
and trustworthy Masonic history is at last emerging. It is the great
virtue of Albert
Mackey that he was the first American writer on Masonic history to go
over to the
side of the new school and his significance, apart from the great work
lies in this fact. His "History of Freemasonry" will ever have a unique
interest for the Masonic student precisely because it marks an entirely
in our scholarship.
But a deal of water has gone under the mill
since Mackey wrote his great volume; new manuscripts have been
of them, new facts have been unearthed, new interpretations have been
therefore is it that the student will not rest content with Mackey,
he is. The historical essays of Speth, Crawley, Baxter, Vibert, Waite,
many others of the same school, are modern and valuable; and there are
chapters in Newton's "The Builders," and in MacBride's "Speculative
Masonry" [Lib 1914]
which you cannot afford to miss; but the monumental work on the subject
is, of course,
Gould's; that will not be surpassed in many a day. Mackey and Gould
would give you
about everything you need.
Concerning King Solomon's Temple
some time past I have been searching for
literature (books, pamphlets, etc.,) dealing with the structure of King
Temple, and the thought has come to me that perhaps you could direct me
in in this
should be obliged for any information on the
subject. The information I want is, of course, such as would assist one
in the interpretation
of the ritual of the various degrees.
One of the best works on this voluminous
subject is Osgood's "The Temple of Solomon," [Lib 1910]
published by the Open
Court Company, of Chicago. See also articles in the following:
Hasting's Bible Dictionary
Encyclopaedia Biblica [Lib
1899-1903; 4 Volumes], and Jewish Encyclopaedia [Lib 1912, 13 Volumes].
has published a book called "The Temple of the Jews" [Lib*] which is
valuable. Trumbull, in his "Threshold Covenant" [Lib 1896],
includes much material as does also
Stanley, in his "Old Testament History" [Lib*]. See Transactions of the
Quatuor Coronati as follows: vol. VI, page 8 [Lib 1893]; vol. X, page 60 [Lib 1897]; vol. XII, page 136 [Lib*]; vol.
172 [Lib 1901]; vol. XIX, page 112 [Lib 1906], and vol. XXI, page 264 [Lib 1908]. Bishop
Lightfoot published a long time ago "A Prospect of the Temple"
[Lib*], which may possibly still be available. Pierson, in his
of Freemasonry" [Lib 1870],
devotes several pages to the subject, beginning with page 189. Waite,
in his "Studies
in Mysticism" [Lib*], (last part), has much to say about the matter and
has Mackey in his "Symbolism of Freemasonry" [Lib 1921]
If you wish to get at the matter through
modern biblical scholarship, look up the commentary on Kings in the
Critical Commentary." In reading the above you will encounter
other books too numerous to mention.
H. L. H.
for Masonic Addresses
you know of any book on Masonry that would
assist one when called upon for short talks on visiting a lodge or
There is no one book known to us which would fill your needs as
described. However, there
are certain Masonic themes always appropriate, and on these there is an
of material. If you deal with any point in the history of Masonry you
useful Mackey's History [Lib 1906; 7 Volumes], Gould's History [Lib
1884-89; 4 Volumes],
Vibert's "Freemasonry Before the Existence of Grand Lodges" [Lib 2010],
etc. For matters of interpretation
we suggest Newton's "The Builders" [Lib 1914],
and MacBride's "Speculative Masonry" [Lib 1914].
If you care to deal with the higher
grades there is nothing better than Waite's "Secret Tradition in
[Lib 1911; Vol
Mackey's Encyclopaedia [Lib 1914]
is a compendium on almost every imaginable
Masonic topic. Pound's "Philosophy of Masonry" [Lib 1915]
deals with the larger issues and meanings
of the Craft. The various books published by Brother Lawrence, of
England, are of
great assistance in preparing speeches, as also is Albert Pike's
Dogma" [Lib 1871].
Also, we shall
not permit you to forget, there is THE BUILDER; a search through the
volumes and the current issues will furnish you with worthwhile
articles on well-nigh
every imaginable Masonic theme. If you can furnish us with a list of
to you, we can be more specific in our recommendations.
Most of the above volumes may be obtained
through the Society, or may be borrowed from almost any Masonic library.
is Who in Masonry"
there ever been published or compiled a
list, at all comprehensive, of prominent men who have been Masons,
either in the
present century or in earlier times?
The only such compilation of which we have
knowledge is the list of Presidents of the United States that have been
you will find such a list, not complete, in the Question Box for
An English concern has published a book called
"Who's Who in Masonry"; inasmuch as it confines itself to Englishmen,
and they prominent in the lodge rather than in the world, the volume
may do you
but very little good.
If some studious brother, with plenty of
time and money, were to devote himself to the preparation of a "Who's
Masonry," giving only the greatest, and telling us when and where each
made a Mason, he would place the whole Craft under obligation to him
is one of the few virgin fields left to Masonic authorship.
Reasons for Masonic Study
(Brother H. L. Haywood, our Correspondence
Circle Bulletin and Library Department Editor, conducts the meetings of
Club in his home town of Waterloo, Iowa. We are informed that the Study
over one hundred members. On the occasion of a recent visit to Anamosa
Haywood he told us of a paper read at one of the Fall meetings of the
The description sounded so good to us that we wrote to the President of
Brother George C. Welker, who is also the author of the paper, for a
copy of it
to give to the rest of our members. A reading of it will prove that
cannot claim that he himself is the only "live one" in the Waterloo
Brother Haywood is soon to take up his residence in Davenport, but
while the Davenport
Study will gain a new member thereby, we do not think that the Waterloo
will deteriorate in any way while it has Brother Welker to guide it.
the vacation season the Study Club has
been a subject of my thoughts many times.
of an apparent lack of interest displayed
by many of our members was not lacking, and when I say this, I do, not
in any way
mean to exclude myself from the number.
can shut my eyes and see a crowd of men (sometimes
a very small crowd) sitting in a semi-circle, like certain animals in
the far North
that sit on their haunches and await the bits of meat thrown to them by
of the team. Sometimes I wonder if we could be still further true to
and fall upon and rend our master if when we meet some evening the bits
were not forthcoming.
is but a homely comparison. It is not true
to the situation altogether, for unlike those teams of the frozen
we gather in our circle after a period of other activities, we are not
hungry enough to rend anything or anybody if the bits of meat should
fail to come
again, our director is not a driver, but
rather a leader, and I fear the most of us are not broken to lead.
afternoon I took my dictionary from
its place in the bookcase and finding the division of S’s I came to the
I found this is the definition:
of the mind for acquiring
knowledge. To apply the mind with earnest and reasoned effort."
I turned to the C's and came to the word
'club." In the definition I found this:
association of persons to promote a
common object. Especially one meeting periodically or at stated times."
said, "That should mean us." Only
some of us are periodic with variations in the length of the periods.
From the foregoing
we conclude that a Masonic Study Club is, or ought to be, an
association of Masons
meeting at stated times to promote the application of the mind by
in acquiring Masonic knowledge. This is such a big definition that I
wonder if all
of us comprehend it.
question may arise, "Why should we
study at all?"
is a picture of human life. It is as
extensive as the universe and will admit of all the study we can give
have chosen five words, the meanings of which
form five reasons as to why we should study Masonry. Not because they
are the only
reasons or the best reasons, but because they are the ones that come to
Reasons are without number; in fact I do not believe there is one
reason why we
should not pursue Masonic study. It will be noted that the initial
letters of the
words chosen spell the word "study."
should stabilize ourselves. To stabilize
means to acquire steadiness, or firmness of purpose. We cannot flit
like butterflies and develop steadiness or firmness of character. If we
and not merely exist we must have a fixed purpose in life.
should study that we may tally. This may
seem very homely. The general environments of one are the environments
of all. To
tally we must bring ourselves to correspond with our environments ‒ to
them, as it were. Surely we need steadiness and firmness of character
in order that
we may correspond with our environments.
should also study that we may acquire utility.
Utility means quality or state of being useful. Utilitarianism means
good to the greatest number. To attain this is surely a laudable
must have firmness of character or purpose
before we can correspond with our environments, and both conditions
before we can be useful.
purpose of study should be domination.
Not in the sense of kaiserism ‒ no king ever had, or ever can have, a
over which to rule than "self." Domination is the act of having
sovereignty, supremacy or control. The greatest ruler is the ruler of
must have steadiness of purpose before we
can correspond with our environments. We must have correspondence with
before we can be useful, and we must possess stability, correspondence
environments, and utility, before we can dominate self.
fifth reason for Masonic study is that we
may be yoked.
a yoke was a bar or frame of wood
by which oxen were joined at the heads or necks for working together.
To be yoked
is to be connected or bound together.
we have stability we may be able to tally
or correspond with our environments and develop utility. At this stage
we may be
able to dominate or control self, and then we can make proper
connection with the
Great Architect of the Universe.
this little preachment is the means of giving
any of us a slight reason for better study, then I do not regret having
upon the time of our director to read it.
great world war has brought forth an expression
which should be a constant admonition to us. Let us repeat it over and
until it becomes a part of us, then do it.
expression is, "Carry on!"
C. Welker, Iowa.
Interesting Letter from the Masonic Club. Saint Nazaire,
Grand Secretary A. F. and A. M.,
Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
have before me your letter dated October 4th,
1918. I do not know whether it has been answered, but fearing that it
has not I
will endeavor to answer it.
Preliminary Organization Work
in March, l918, a notice was posted in
all the Y.M.C.A. huts and in the Farmers Loan and Trust Bank here,
calling for a
meeting of all Master Masons in this Base Section. This Base Section is
division and covers a territory approximately 200 miles long and 100
in which is located this port of Saint Nazaire.
met at one of the Y.M.C.A. huts and had a
very enthusiastic gathering of several hundred Master Masons, most of
a few Y.M.C.A. and Red Cross workers. Officers were elected and
appointed after which the meeting adjourned, all of us filled to the
brim with enthusiasm.
it came time for these different committees
to meet and talk over the things necessary to be done, it was found
that some of
the members had been sent away on some duty or other, so others had to
in their places. Many of these were, in turn, sent away and finding it
to get together to do much, our activities ceased for a time. But along
in May a
few pioneers again started the ball to rolling and this time it
resulted in the
formation of our present Club.
military situation in Europe last Spring
was very acute, as you probably know as well as we can tell you.
and supplies were badly needed by the Allies and just as soon as the
in the least degree passable the Americans began to move. Troops that
one day might be ordered away within twenty-four hours. This was a
which we had to deal. All of us had our military duties to look after,
and it was
vitally necessary that these be attended to first. Saint Nazaire is one
of the base
ports where fleets of troop ships arrived, landed their troops in
record time and
immediately set sail for America to take on more men.
troops which were landed here went to a
Rest Camp located a mile from the docks where they went through the
of disinfection, received their fighting equipment, etc. Some of them
for months, while others would be moved immediately.
was bustle and motion, and the grim
purpose of our Government to do its part in the world war was
Consequently other things came second.
the arriving troop ships when they docked
were many sick soldiers. Numbers of others became sick after landing
and many were
accidentally injured in handling supplies in the process of unloading
Among these sick and injured were some Masons, I am both sorry and glad
Sorry, because they were in distress, and glad, because it showed that
in the game and already giving their hearts' blood for their country
and its cause.
became attached to the Base Hospital No. 101,
in Saint Nazaire, in January, 1918. In passing through the wards one
after my assignment I came upon a Mason and did all that was in my
power to make
him comfortable and contented.
grieved me very much to see soldier Masons
die and be buried without their White Aprons. I thought enough of my
to bring it with me, but up to this time I have met but one other
brother who had
his with him. I know that it was practically impossible for the
enlisted men who
were Masons to carry their Aprons with them.
also grieved me to think that the Masonic
Fraternity was not here in the person of representatives who could do
for us. With those of us in the service it was simply a question of
time; the time
we had to spare from our duties was not adequate to the demands that
were made upon
it for the proper attention of our sick and wounded brethren.
Club Finally Organized
the organization of our Club it soon became
apparent that the burden would have to be carried by a limited number
of us, and
those interested (among whom I wish to mention Brother Edmond Dupras,
Secretary) entered into the work with all our hearts and souls. We have
as much as we have desired, but we feel that we have done the best we
summarize the results of our endeavors we
the Masonic Club, Base Section No.
1, A. E. F.
officers and appointed committees, (executive,
advisory, sick and wounded, entertainment, etc.)
business meetings every Tuesday night and
social meetings every Thursday night.
rooms over a French cafe for our Club
for two daily papers; begged an old
piano and some books from the Y.M.C.A., and Masonic journals from any
that we could, in the States ‒ for we were indeed poor at the beginning.
Initiation Fees and Dues
initiation fee for officers was made ten
francs, and for enlisted men five francs. The monthly dues are 2 1/2
of the number of enlisted men here whose princely salaries are $33.00
(and some months either the paymaster does not show up, or they are on
so that they cannot get paid) we made the dues as low as possible.
Gave Two Smokers under Difficulties
the summer months we held two smokers.
At these smokers a charge of five francs was made, and we served a
of salads, bread and butter sandwiches, hot roast beef sandwiches,
coffee. We had talks by several brothers present and music from
We had a good time, and the proceeds went into our sick and wounded
fund. But we
were not without our difficulties in arranging for these smokers. This
part of France
is almost wholly Roman Catholic and many were the obstacles that were
our way. Also in the French stores food was very scarce and very
the food which we used had to be purchased from the U. S. Commissary,
one of the Camp kitchens and carried to the Club rooms.
Work Among Sick and Wounded
tried to organize sick and wounded committees
in the different hospitals in this Base Section, but met with only
for the reasons before stated, everyone’s time was taken up by military
my trips through the wards in this hospital
I have found many Masons. Most of these I recognized by the rings they
I have visited with, and I have been authorized by the Club to advance
ones sums us to twenty francs. I would go to the Red Cross and Y.M.C.A.
and ask them to see that these men received anything they had for
as candy, papers, books, toothbrushes, etc. In making such requests I
met with hearty responses, for there are many "square" men among these
lodge to which a brother Mason belonged
mattered not to us. We gave him what we could of our little store and
sometimes to get better food, to obtain passes when they were
we would try to get them down to our meetings. These "blesses" were
cordially and enthusiastically received at our Club rooms.
Financial Assistance Received
response to the appeal which we sent to lodges
in the States for money and papers we have received the following
donations in money:
Grand Master Schoonover of the Grand Lodge
of Iowa $500.00
From Ashlar Lodge of Detroit, Michigan $100.00
From Morgan Park Lodge No. 999, Chicago. Fr. 135.00
other Bodies and lodges have written
us that they were sending, or had sent money to us, but so far we have
it. The Scottish Rite Bodies of the Southern Jurisdiction in the Valley
of San Antonio,
Texas, sent us a check for $100.00, but it was not certified properly
and we have
not been able to cash it.
Reading Matter and Writing Material
have received the bound volumes of THE BUILDER
and the loose copies, new and old, that have been sent to us. Several
have sent us copies of THE BUILDER and the New Age. I feel that many
be coming right along now. These are certainly very much appreciated.
Our hall is
open every day from about 10 a. m. to 9:30 p. m. and any brother who is
district may drop in and read them. We have our stationery on which the
may write home without having to use that furnished by the Y.M.C.A.,
the Red Cross,
or, what is worse, the K. of C. Some of the brethren have at times been
use the K. of C. stationery because there was none other available at
they were located. In this country you cannot run into a store every
time you wish
and buy what you want. Even the simplest things are hard to get, for
has been war ridden so long that comforts and luxuries are not to be
Thanksgiving Day Banquet
Club gave a Thanksgiving dinner this year
and everyone seemed to have a good time. At least those present said
that they did.
I was so busy waiting on the table that all I had time to do was to
and smoke while on the run.
want to tell you about this dinner, not from
the point of self-praise, but simply to show you how hard it is to do
here while we are tied up with our other duties.
was appointed, with several others, to serve
as the Entertainment Committee to make arrangements for this
Thanksgiving Day banquet.
On such days most of the officers have invitations to various places of
but we felt that it was our duty to give the enlisted men a good time.
We went along
on very short notice, had the menus printed, and then started rustling
for the turkeys.
We soon discovered there were no turkeys to be had. We tried through
and French markets, and through the Commissary, but there was "nothing
We then decided that chicken would serve as well, and bought 270 pounds
of the American beef boats ‒ but if it had not been for a Mason on the
boat we should
not have obtained them. About two o'clock in the afternoon of the
the French woman who runs the Cafe under our Club rooms threw up her
hands and said
"Impossebeel"; she could not get any help, and simply could not take
of our affair. When I heard this I was in despair. Here we were, with a
of about 250, and the game was off, as far as this woman was concerned.
a restless night, but arose in the morning with a scheme which I
proceeded to carry
borrowed a Ford and sent it out to the hotel
for the food. I persuaded the cooks in the officers' mess here at the
to make the pumpkin pies; the cooks in the enlisted mens’ mess to cook
and glace the sweet potatoes, while the cooks in the nurses' mess
cooked the dressing.
Another brother took three geese to a Frenchman's house where he was
and had them cooked there. All of our cooks here worked with a will all
after their own dinners were over. The banquet was scheduled for 6 p. m.
was just about 5:30 when, after borrowing
a Ford from our Quartermaster and another from the American Red Cross,
up to the kitchens and started to pile on the food, right from the
ovens. We took
with us two of the French maids who wait on the table at the nurses'
mess, and it
was well that we did, for we needed them. When we drove up to the hotel
food it was 6:10 p. m., and the tables were already filled with a
of "just and upright men," soldiers all, except for a few Y.M.C.A. and
Red Cross workers.
went in and talked to them for a few minutes,
asking for a little more forbearance while the girls were carving the
answered with a roar of approval. Almost before I had finished talking
was being served. I called for some volunteer waiters among the
enlisted men and
many of them responded. I elected myself head waiter and the game
started. I am
enclosing a menu which will show you that we had a good meal.
called upon a brother Chaplain to open the
affair with prayer, which he did, and then followed short talks from
many of the
brethren as the meal progressed. With music from half-a-dozen soldier
between times, everything was as merry as a marriage feast. When it was
we asked, "Are you hungry?" A roar answered, "Not" "Have
you any kicks?" Again a roar, "No!" "Are we down-hearted?"
"Not" So we all felt repaid for the efforts which we had put forth.
the course of the meal twelve new-comers
arrived, saying they had lost their way, otherwise they would have been
I asked a like number of those who had finished eating if they would
give up their
seats to these brethren, which they did, and we fed them. Then another
twenty-two arrived and again we requested places for them, which were
then came more stragglers, until we had served about fifty more than
the hall would
hold. All together we fed about 300. We charged five francs a plate and
balance out of the Club treasury. It cost us about ten francs a plate,
as we got
the food at cost. We paid 100 francs for the use of the hall.
New Year's Party
we are trying to prepare for a New Year's
party. We hope to hire a small French theatre that is run by a French
have a doughnut party, distributing doughnuts and coffee between the
acts. We have
written to Brother George F. Moore, a National Mason who, we are
informed, is now
in Paris, to come and talk to us. Our whole idea is to do something for
Masons in the American Expeditionary forces and exemplify the
Masonic Club Rooms Only Place in Army Where
Officers and Men Meet On a Level
Club rooms are the only places in the Army
where all men can meet on a level. Here the distinction between officer
man is not drawn, and since it is the enlisted man who is carrying the
officers are glad to do whatever is possible to show them a good time.
At a Masonic
gathering, all of us, officers and men, feel at home ‒ we feel that it
is our own
affair and it serves to draw the bonds of friendship closer.
Urgent Necessity for Masonic Welfare Work
among Soldiers of the A.E.F.
closing, allow me to thank you in the name
of the Masonic Club, Base Section No. 1, for the help that you have
given us. The
armistice has been signed, but there are many of us who will have to
here” for many months to come, and there are many Masons here that
having a civilian Masonic secretary to look after us. We are willing to
and willing to work and help, but it is very hard for us to do all the
that we might be able to do if there were someone here who could devote
time to the work.
and fraternally yours.
Captain Robert C. Murphy, M.C.,
Club, Base Section No. 1,
Saint Nazaire, France, December 20,1918.
The Other Fellow’s Job – [A Poem]
were the Thrice Potent Master,
The Sovereign Prince, or Most Wise,
Or e'en the Illustrious Commander,
There are many plans I could devise
To correct the defects I have noticed.
The solutions seem plain as can be.
I would soon have things snug and in order
If the brethren would listen to me.
The attendance is not what it should be,
The work could be greatly improved.
Those working the ritual are "has beens,"
And for this reason should be removed.
The food and cigars at the banquets
Are not the right kinds, as you see;
And I would revise and improve things
If the brethren would listen to me
There are many who feel just as I do;
They tell all their troubles to me;
But seem not inclined to take action ‒
They do not the remedy see.
Or else they would soon move in concert
And change things the way they should be;
But some day a change will be noticed
When they learn to listen to me.
Hud19 / auth. Hudson William H. - London : Duckworth & Co,
1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 327. - 5.0 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
AQC Transactions Vol 006 - 1893
Ars93 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 311. - 20.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 010 - 1897
Ars97 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 306. - 63.8 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 014 - 1901
Ars01 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1901. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 22.3 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 019 - 1906
Ars06 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - Margate : H.
Keble, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 429. - 37.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 021 - 1908
Ars08 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 437. - 34.8 MB.
Cra26 / auth. Crawley Chetwode. - 1726. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 20. - 2.0 MB.
Ceremonies et Coutumes Vol 1
Pic83CC1 / auth. Picard Bernard. - Paris : Laporte Editeurs, 1783. -
Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 252. - French - Illustrated - 22.7 MB.
Ceremonies et Coutumes Vol 2
Pic83CC2 / auth. Picard Bernard. - Paris : Laporte Librairie, 1783. -
Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 265. - Illustrated - French - 24.3 MB.
Ceremonies et Coutumes Vol 3
Pic83CC3 / auth. Picard Bernard. - Paris : Laporte Librairie, 1783. -
Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 288. - Illustrated - French - 24.3 MB.
Dictionary of the Bible
Has09 / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1033. - 60.6 MB.
Encyclodaedia Biblica Vol 1 - A
Che99EB1 / auth. Cheyne Thomas K. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 605. - 42.2 MB.
Encyclodaedia Biblica Vol 2 - E
Che03EB2 / auth. Cheyne Thomas K. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1903. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 801. - 57.8 MB.
Encyclodaedia Biblica Vol 3 - L
Che02EB3 / auth. Cheyne Thomas K. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1902. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 674. - 47.6 MB.
Encyclodaedia Biblica Vol 4 - Q
Che03EB4 / auth. Cheyne Thomas K. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1903. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 765. - 53.8 MB.
Far Away and Long Ago
Hud18 / auth. Hudson William H. - New York : E P Dutton & Co,
Inc, 1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 352. - 21.9 MB.
Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
Freemasonry In America Prior To
Joh16 / auth. Johnson Melvin M. - Cambridge : Caustic-Claflin Co.,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 242. - 4.7 MB.
Hud16 / auth. Hudson William H. - New York : Alfred Knopf, 1916. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 364. - 9.3 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 1
Mac06 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 316. - 13.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 2
Mac061 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 341. - 10.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 328. - 12.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 4
Mac063 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 324. - 13.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 6
Mac065 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 328. - 13.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 7
Mac066 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 398. - 18.7 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 00 Guide
Sin06JE00 / auth. Singer Isidore / ed. Jacobs Joseph. - New York : Funk
and Wagnalls Company, 1906. - Vol. 0 : 12 : p. 182. - 7.7 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 01
Sin12JE01 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 12 : p. 730. - 164.6 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 02
Sin12JE02 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 2 : 12 : p. 718. - 142.5 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 03
Sin12JE03 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 3 : 12 : p. 726. - 174.5 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 04
Sin12JE04 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 4 : 12 : p. 719. - 164.4 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 05
Sin12JE05 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 12 : p. 711. - 148.9 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 06
Sin12JE06 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 6 : 12 : p. 710. - 149.8 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 07
Sin12JE07 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 7 : 12 : p. 706. - 153.0 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 08
Sin12JE08 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 8 : 12 : p. 707. - 164.1 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 09
Sin12JE09 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 9 : 12 : p. 712. - 183.2 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 10
Sin12JE10 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 10 : 12 : p. 707. - 84.4 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 11
Sin12JE11 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 11 : 12 : p. 708. - 183.6 MB.
Jewish Encyclopedia Vol 12
Sin12JE12 / auth. Singer Isidore. - New York : Funk and Wagnalls
Company, 1912. - Vol. 12 : 12 : p. 786. - 206.0 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Patriotism and Religion
Mat18 / auth. Mathews Shailer. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 174. - 3.1 MB.
Hud04 / auth. Hudson William H. - London : Duckworth & Co,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 364. - 10.2 MB.
Mac141 / auth. Macbride A S. - Glasgow : D. Gilfillan & Co.,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 283. - 18.6 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Development of the United
States from Colonies to a World Power
Far18 / auth. Farrand Max. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin & Co.,
1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 368. - 9.1 MB.
The Muse in Arms
Osb17 / auth. Osborn Edward B. - London : John Murray, 1917. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 313. - 7.6 MB.
The Philosophy of Masonry
Pou15 / auth. Pound Roscoe. - [s.l.] : The Builder Magazine, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 53. - 0.3 MB.
The Pilgrims and their History
Ush18 / auth. Usher Roland G. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1918.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 335. - 13.0 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 1
Wai11 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
1 : 2 : p. 474. - 19.1 MB.
The Secret Traditions in
Freemasonry Vol 2
Wai111 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : Rebman Limited, 1911. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 478. - 19.6 MB.
The Symbolism of Freemasonry
Mac21 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Chicaco Ill. : The Masonic History
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - Revised by Robert I. Clegg.
The Temple of Solomon
Osg10 / auth. Osgood Phillips E. - Chicago : The Open Court Publishing
Company, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 79. - Illustrated - 5.6 MB.
The Threshold Covenant
Tru96 / auth. Trumbull Henry C.. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1896. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 340. - 13.6 MB.
Traditions of Freemasonry
Pie70 / auth. Pierson Arthur P. - New York : Masonic Publishing
Company, 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 383. - 36.6 MB.