Masonic Research Society
Dedicated to the Cedar Rapids Conference – [A Poem]
By Bro. Henry A. Grady
D.G.M. of North Carolina
Cedar Rapids, Iowa,
Nov. 28, 1918.
is but a little
In this silly flight of years,
'Twixt the path that leads to laughter,
And the road that leads to tears.
'Tis the shortest, sweetest pathway,
Through this silly flight of time;
It is but a tear- and laugh-way,
Filled with music and with rhyme.
There's a feast of joy tomorrow,
There's a funeral dirge today;
And the somber shades of sorrow
Cast their shadows where we play.
And the smile that's born in gladness,
Pure and limpid ere it start,
With a wail of pain and sadness,
May come sobbing from the heart.
So, the song that lifts the curtain
From the backward flight of years,
Brings a smile but too uncertain ‒
Half of pleasure, half of tears.
Then let us laugh in sorrow,
Let us bathe our smiles in tears;
For we cannot count the morrow
In this silly flight of years.
Let us laugh with one another,
While we strive for human weal;
Let us weep, my friend and brother,
For the wounds we cannot heal.
In the great unknown Hereafter,
In the better, brighter day,
Surely sobs shall yield to laughter,
For it is our Father's was.
But here 'tis but a handbreadth
In this silly flight of years,
'Twixt the path that leads to laughter
And the road that leads to tears.
But whether in tears or laughter,
Let us build the best we can;
For the Here and the Hereafter,
And the Brotherhood of Man.
The Cedar Rapids Masonic
MASONIC SERVICE ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES
By Bro. Geo. L. Schoonover.
Grand Master, Iowa
HE WOULD be a seer, who would have attempted to
what the result of the Cedar Rapids Conference would be. And he who
that result now that the Conference is a matter of history, must have
have felt the mellowing influence of the voices clad in khaki, have
this Fraternity of ours, far from forgetting its glorious
accomplishments of the
past is taking them to heart and applying its age-old principles to the
of the present. More than this, he must also appreciate and not
element of conservatism which has come to us of today from the days of
close adherence to first principles to which we are obligated and
which, from one
viewpoint, is the very genius of our Masonic system.
Withal, he who would understand the Cedar
must focus his mental vision, not upon the three days of this meeting,
but the century
and a half of Masonry in America, and the century and a half of
development of a
national consciousness within that America itself. As we stand in the
the great awakening which these years of war have brought to America we
the days and years which went before. Our whole civilization has been
it were, and our newly-opened eyes are still blinded by this wonderful
of accomplishment ‒ a national accomplishment of which we did not know
we were capable.
It would be surprising indeed if these
irresistible forces could have accomplished their wonders in Masonry
On the surface there was little indication of their working. But he who
with care the tendencies of late could not be blind to them. Here was a
grown so rapidly that its functions of life-maintenance overshadowed
all else. Its
men of action were bound down by detail ‒ the never-ending grind of
degrees to be
conferred upon the thousands who flocked to our gates. What wonder that
only a dulled and half-efficient transmission of the deeper impulses of
member to those who have been the leaders of recent years ‒ and those
sapping their energy to accomplish the extraordinary duties which both
and Masonic instinct told them they owed to their assaulted Country.
Reproach is not the proper word to use in
the lack of prompt appreciation by Masons of what Masonry could do in a
that of these two years. "My Country comes first!" is but a natural
for a Mason, and we all know why. And not until the new and arduous
duties of patriotism
had in a measure become a part of the day's work did any of us really
begin to ask
ourselves what Masonry as an institution ought to be doing. We had been
to do as we had been taught to do, guided by the ancient charges of
we did to ask ourselves what Masonry as an institution ought to be
doing. We had
been content to do as we had been taught to do, guided by the ancient
loyalty, and we did not stop to ask ourselves whether these turbulent
to our Institution a duty. Those who first felt the burden of this new
raised their voices with caution, lest they might have misread the
of Fate. Presently they began to make solemn inquiry. Then came a
great, an awful
conviction, that a new day had brought new ties and responsibilities,
and that they
must be met. Brought together at the Government's call, a few of the
the Craft tried to study the problem, at Washington, last December.
did not visualize the problem, yet. But down in New York, with a
of our young men in khaki passing before their eyes, on their way to
Europe to fight
the battles of Democracy, and a presently returning stream of physical
mute appeal for brotherhood, there awoke at last to realization, full
the Masonic leaders of that great Jurisdiction. The genius of doing
to the appeal, and those leaders began to visualize what Masonry's
was, and went to work to see how they might act in the premises.
They applied to the Government for permission
as their consciences told them they ought to act, and as a knowledge of
Brotherhood of ours was worth to a man in his hour of trouble dictated
a practical method of acting. "For whom do you speak?" was the query of
the officials. "For Masonry" was the response. "For the Masonry of
New York?' "Yes." "But we cannot recognize State organizations."
Then came the New York Conference, called to
immediate need, and meeting it, in part. The paths leading from that
have been troublous. That part of the story must come in a later
chapter. But the
need was finally visualized, and the Grand Jurisdictions of America
behind New York in their plan of solving it. The weak link in the chain
they did not make that plan their own. Co-operation was promised, on
the other side
of the water. It might have worked, had the plans then proposed been
begun in France. Why they were not so begun is still another story,
which THE BUILDER
will tell, in due time.
And so May turned into June, and September
August and July, with no tangible results. Diplomacy was trying to
solve the difficulties
in the way, so that harmony might prevail. It is to the interest of
that the whole story shall be told, and told it shall be. Those who
our Fraternity for its apparent indifference must reckon with that
The writer was elected Grand Master of Iowa in
1918. As the months went by, smatterings of the truth, hints of the
reason why things
were going as they were crept into his official correspondence. A brief
brought knowledge of a part of it. Perhaps impatience is my middle
name. Be that
as it may, the information coming from overseas the latter part of
the insistent challenge to me, as the official head of Iowa Masonry to
definite, caused my outburst of October third last, the letter to my
Masters which appeared in the November issue of THE BUILDER.
In a very brief time my correspondence showed
had received the same challenge, and were as deeply moved by the
apparent need for
action as I was. Wherefore, on November 1, I called a Conference of
and Representatives of the several Jurisdictions to meet in Cedar
Rapids on November
26th to 28th, hopeful that opinion would there crystallize into action.
of action which seemed to me necessary was that the New York plan
should be made
actually national, by its specific adoption, and that the Masonic
definitely make it impossible for us to be placed again in the
we have occupied for more than a year. The challenge to us, and the
opinion of us
which I feared did not come from the public. It came from our own ‒ our
khaki, who knowing our doctrine and our teachings, but not knowing our
and our trials, would be prone to ask us why those teachings had not
been put into
practice in their behalf. It seemed to me it was time to put on
the defense which was ours, and at the same time to insure our
future indictments of like character, by organizing ourselves so that,
of emergency, we might have a National Voice.
And so we met together on that eventful morning
26th, 1918. Thirty-six Jurisdictions we represented definitely.
there in person, represented by about fifty leaders of the Craft.
regretted their inability to come, but expressed themselves as
favorable to action.
Influenza kept many away. But they sent us their good will ‒ sometimes
their infinite trust in us. Mindful of this trust and of our
tried to do God's work for Masonry. He had promised that "where two or
are gathered together in My name, I will be in their midst and bless
We believe now that He kept His promise.
| The following is a list of Grand Masters and
Representatives who were present:
|| A. Victor Hughes
|| Grand Master
|| T. Picton Warlow
|| Past Grand Master
|| George Lawler
|| PGM of Washington (Rep. Grand Master)
|| Austin H. Scrogin
|| Grand Master
|| Arthur M. Millard
|| President Masonic Employ. Bureau
|| Geo. L. Schoonover
Newton R. Parvin
Frank S. Moses
Fred W. Craig
Charles C. Clark
W. A. Westfall
Ernest R. Moore
| Grand Master
Past Grand Master
P.G.M and General Grand High Priest
|| George A. Treadwell
John A. Davilla
| Grand Master
Past Grand Master
|| Chas. C. Homer Jr.
|| Grand Master
|| Hugh A. McPherson
Lou B. Winsor
George L. Lusk
Charles A. Conover
| Grand Master
Grand Secretary General Grand Chapter
|| Wm. N. Kendrick
Geo. N. Stowe
| Grand Master
Dep. Grand Master
|| E. M. Hutchinson
|| Grand Master
|| Ambrose C. Epperson
John A. Ehrhardt
Robert E. Evans
| Grand Master
Past Grand Master
Past Grand Master
| New York
|| Wm. S. Farmer
Robert Judson Kenworthy
Robert H. Robinson
Wm. C. Prime
| Grand Master
Dep. Grand Master
Past Grand Master
Rep. G.L. England
| North Carolina
|| Henry A. Grady
|| Dep. Grand Master
| North Dakota
|| Henry G. Vick
Walter L. Stockwell
Capt. Chas. I. Cook
| Grand Master
United States Army
|| Joseph W. Morris
Wm. M. Anderson
| Grand Master
|| Louis A. Watres
|| Past Grand Master
| Rhode Island
|| E. Tudor Gross
Frederick I. Dana
| Grand Master
Treas. Masonic War
| South Carolina
|| J. L. Michie
|| Past Grand Master
| South Dakota
|| Geo. A. Pettigrew
C. L. Brockway
| Grand Master
|| Samuel W. Williams
|| Past G.H.P.
|| Arthur C. Wherry
|| Senior Grand Warden
|| George Lawler
|| Past Grand Master
The first day was spent in surveying the
One after another the brethren who by fortune of circumstance had been
intimate touch with one or another feature of the problem spoke to us.
It was a
day of chastening of spirit. Fact after fact came out,
conclusively that General Apathy, Selfishness and Disunity were the
of Masonic accomplishment. To each was charged a portion of the guilt.
within the Craft was offset to a degree by selfishness within and
without the ranks
of our Fraternity, it soon became apparent that the heavier portion of
lay with Disunity.
Ere the evening session closed, all were
the way of future accomplishment led to the broad highway of
co-operation. To reach
it meant the removal of Disunity. With a sweetness of spirit eminently
of brethren desiring to dwell together, this third and most treacherous
done away with. An organization was declared by unanimous resolution to
be the prime
necessity to avoid like complications for all time to come, and a
charged with the responsibility of finding the type of organization
at once accomplish the vital needs of the present and provide a way for
for the future, without interference with the established usages and
the Fraternity, as exemplified by and in our present Grand Lodge
There was no dissenting voice when it was
that the only way to meet both of these conditions lay through
Service. Masonic service it should be and must be. And so it came about
the afternoon session of the second day there was presented for
committee of the whole, a proposed Constitution for the Masonic Service
of the United States. The tentative Constitution follows:
The Cedar Rapids Masonic
Whereas, The several Masonic Jurisdictions in
States of America have been invited to attend a Conference of Grand
Masters at Cedar
Rapids, Iowa, on the 26th, 27th and 28th of November, 1918, for the
purpose of considering
and taking action in respect of the present war emergency and the
Masonic service in connection therewith; and
Whereas, Twenty-two Jurisdictions have
said call, and fourteen Jurisdictions have expressed-their approval, in
terms, of the purposes of said Conference, and have given assurance in
of their support through their respective Grand Masters; and
Whereas, It has been made clear to said
the Masonic Fraternity will be enabled to render more efficient service
and to fulfill its mission among men by bringing about a more perfect
among the several Masonic Grand Jurisdictions of the United States; and
Whereas, It is apparent that there is a
of Masonic service among the men with the United States forces overseas
period following the signing of the armistice and peace and
reconstruction, at home
and abroad, the duration of which is wholly problematical; and
Whereas, The assembled representatives of Grand
have by their unanimous expression agreed that the need for service is
the opportunity is present and compelling and that they unanimously
desire to participate
in and render a more satisfying service, and that to fail to take some
action in this matter at this time will lead to irretrievable injury
of the Fraternity's future usefulness; and
Whereas, It is the sense of this Conference
be now tentatively formulated for effective service wherever and
whenever the opportunity
and need to render the same shall be present, said plans to be
submitted to the
several Grand Jurisdictions for consideration and action thereon; now,
Resolved, That there be organized the MASONIC
ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED STATES, a voluntary association of Masonic
of the United States of America, for Service to Mankind.
All Masonic Jurisdictions of the United States
shall be entitled to membership therein on equal footing on expressing
of this constitution and acceptance of the responsibility and
therein. Any member shall be entitled to withdraw at any time on ninety
provided it shall have complied with all of its assumed obligations.
shall be delivered by registered mail to the Secretary at his post
The object of the Association shall be the
Mankind through education, enlightenment, financial relief and Masonic
particularly in times of disaster and distress, whether caused by war,
famine, fire, flood, earthquake or other calamity; and presently and
ministering to, cherishing, comforting and relieving the members of the
their dependents and others engaged in the United States forces, in the
great war, wherever they may be stationed and upon whatever duties
engaged in the
For the purpose of administration the United
is divided into departments as follows:
NEW ENGLAND DIVISION
NORTH ATLANTIC DIVISION: CORN BELT DIVISION
SOUTH ATLANTIC DIVISION
District of Columbia
GREAT LAKES DIVISION:
NORTH PACIFIC DIVISION:
SOUTH PACIFIC DIVISION:
Upon the occurrence of a disaster of greater
than a local calamity, the Grand Masters of the several Grand
the department, in which the said disaster shall occur, shall appoint a
to survey the need, appraise it and report forthwith its findings to
The department shall thereupon take action on the report of the
committee to the
end that the fund necessary shall be provided and properly disbursed.
The Association may enter into correspondence
with similar agencies in other lands or under other governments, the
better to teach
the Fatherhood of God, and to promote the Brotherhood of Man.
The powers and duties of the Association may be
or curtailed from time to time; but no member shall be bound thereby
Each department shall meet annually on a date
a place to be fixed by it; or oftener if it shall so determine. A
meeting may he
called at any time on the request of three Grand Jurisdictions. A
of all departments shall be held triennially on the eleventh day of
oftener on the call of ten Grand Jurisdictions. Notices of the time,
place and object
of the meetings shall be issued by the Secretaries.
At each meeting, departmental or general, a
officer shall be elected by ballot, for the purposes of the meeting.
shall select a Secretary whose duties shall be to keep the records and
the correspondence of the department.
The sole officer of the Association shall be
who shall be selected at the general meeting, or during the pleasure of
and his functions shall be purely clerical.
Realizing also that there must be some
of knitting together the immediate efforts to vitalize the New York
Plan, as well
as of getting the principles embodied in the above Constitution before
Grand Lodges of the United States, and having them interpreted in the
which they were adopted, an Executive Commission was authorized to
important duties, in the following resolution:
Resolved, That in order to carry out and
the objects specified in the Constitution this day adopted, and for the
of meeting the instant need of service to the soldiers and sailors
overseas, a Commission
of fifteen be appointed with Grand Master Schoonover of Iowa as
said Commission to be selected as far as possible according to their
situation; which Commission shall have in charge the entire work
said Constitution, in respect to the men engaged in overseas duty.
Resolved Further, That the said Commission be
to enter into immediate correspondence with the several Grand
represented, and with those who shall hereafter adopt said
Constitution; and, in
a general way, exercise the functions of an administrative body, until
as a set of by-laws may be adopted by said Association.
Resolved Further, That this Commission be known
designated as "The Executive Commission of the Masonic Service
of the United States." Of the fifteen members of the Commission, ten
been appointed, the naming of the rest being dependent upon future
Besides the chairman, Past Grand Master Townsend Scudder of New York is
the Overseas Commissioner, in charge of all activities deemed advisable
on the other
side, and the following brethren:
George L. Schoonover, Grand Master, Iowa,
Robert Judson Kenworthy, Grand Secretary, New York;
Hugh A. McPherson, Grand Master, Michigan;
A.C. Wherry, Senior Grand Warden, Utah;
Charles C. Homer, Jr., Grand Master, Maryland;
E. Tudor Gross, Grand Master, Rhode Island;
Walter L. Stockwell, Grand Secretary, North Dakota;
George A. Treadwell, Grand Master, Louisiana;
T. Picton Warlow, Grand Master, Florida;
George Lawler, Past Grand Master, Washington.
Of the spirit of exaltation which pervaded the
from its beginning to its end, little can be told in cold type. Iowa
delegates in the spirit of "The Rose of Sharon," which was sung by the
Consistory Quartette. It became the official song of the Conference,
and was sung
over and over again. When the first informal vote was taken upon a
denoted action, and was in fact the first indication of the sentiments
of the men
there gathered, every hand was raised in the affirmative. Applause grew
while strong men wept, their quivering lips restraining tongues that
could not cheer.
The vote taken upon the tentative Constitution to be presented to the
for their action was likewise unanimous, the roll call being by States.
to that effect was greeted by the entire Conference, without
to sing America. And again the tears mingled with the cheers. It may be
said that not a single hour of any session but was characterized by
cheers and tears.
The spirit of exaltation never left the conference room. Not a word was
rancor. The Spirit of Brotherhood was never more present at any
one weighed his words, conscious of the responsibility resting upon
him. Only one
story was told during the entire sessions, and that dealt with George
position in the constitutional convention. Always the atmosphere was
with a gentleness and consideration given to every speaker; his humor
his broad-mindedness conceded, his earnestness and sincerity taken for
In a word, to have been privileged to sit in this gathering was to be
glimpse into Utopia.
The action of the Conference was wholly
upon no buttress of law, and everyone knew it. No pretense was made
that the action
taken was binding upon any Grand Jurisdiction until that Jurisdiction
chose to make
it so. The individuals simply gave expression to a unanimous opinion
ought to consider the line of action indicated, and if deemed
reasonable and wise,
it ought to act upon it. There the matter was left, each Brother
himself to go forth and interpret the action to his own Grand Lodge in
of the Conference.
It is interesting to note that the Grand Lodge
which was holding its annual communication at the same time as the
having no delegates present, but which had been apprised of the
subjects to be discussed,
sent the following telegram:
"Grand Lodge closed today. Endorsed your
unreservedly. Authorized Grand Master to appropriate funds needed."
The Grand Lodge of Texas, meeting the week
the Conference, took action substantially after the same manner,
for the official attendance of its delegates at the meeting to be held
1919, providing a sufficient number of Jurisdictions approve the action
the Conference so that a working organization is assured.
Likewise the Grand Lodges of Alabama and South
have endorsed the project.
The first triennial meeting of the Masonic
if said organization is approved by 15 or more Jurisdictions after all
opportunity, will be held on Liberty Day, November 11, 1919, as
proposed in the
Thus is formally presented to the Craft an
to ally itself for any mission of mercy that may occur. Education and
as provided for in the objects listed, should go a long way toward
unity of thought
and action in the directions which are the basic and fundamental
purposes of the
Institution. I do not personally believe that an alliance of our Grand
this manner, permitting the voice of brotherhood to be raised in time
of need and
the hand of mercy to be extended when men suffer, can be considered
any Grand Jurisdiction. I do not believe that, if our action is
and interpreted, there is any Mason in America who will not be willing
that he may help to support it. Control by law is not intended or
expected- ‒ the
Conference unanimously passed a resolution that "nothing in the
this organization shall be construed as a move toward the organization
of a National
Grand Lodge." Opportunity is afforded, however, for fraternal
the warmest and most intimate kind, and in time of emergency, the Voice
may speak, and action may be had in an organized way, for the
amelioration of distress.
That the Craft will accept the opportunity
to them in the spirit which governed the Conference itself, is all that
can be expected,
for that spirit was ideal. Those who participated do not believe that
of Masonry, raised in behalf of a humanitarian service will be a harsh,
voice. They believe that it will be expressive of all the gentleness
embodied in the spirits of its votaries, and they are not afraid of the
To summarize the spirit and the attitude of the
and to make its action fit into the history of American Masonry in what
to be its proper niche, one needs but to quote the words of Brother
"He drew a circle that shut me out,
Heretic, Rebel, a Thing to flout;
But love and I had the wit to win;
We drew a circle that took him in!"
I Need Not Fear – [A Poem]
I live a life that
is clean and square
And love my fellow man,
And lend him a hand to help him bear
His burden whenever I can,
I need not fear what the future holds,
Nor what the reward shall be,
For the mighty love that all enfolds
Will most surely care for me.
If I speak a word of good cheer to one
Whose sorrows have borne him down,
And I give him new hope to journey on
And change to a smile his frown,
I shall not dread when the shadows fall
And the end of life draws near,
For that wondrous love that shelters all
Will drive away my fear.
For my life is measured by what I mete,
And I earn my own reward,
So the love I give makes my heart complete,
And through it I gain the reward.
For whether I dwell in a house by the road
Or far from the haunts of men,
If only my love makes bright the abode
No fear shall enter it then.
The Red Cross Comes – [A Poem]
By Jeanne Judson
we forget the
The kindly thoughts, the human tears,
The harmless laughter and the song,
We knew in other happier years,
Lest we grow hard, and cruel and cold,
And being young, our hearts are old,
Held in the grasp of death undied,
The Red Cross comes to fill again,
The cup of mercy long since spilled;
Bids in our hearts the birds to sing,
Reviving joy that anger killed.
Field Lodge No. 1
By Brother William C. Prime,
Brother William C. Prime was born at Yonkers,
October 21, 1870, was graduated from Princeton in 1890, admitted to the
Bar in the
State of New York in the Spring of 1893, after studying at New York
He was initiated, passed and raised in 1899,
never had time to interest himself in other Masonic activities than
to which he has devoted a large part of his time and resources. It may
be that he
is devoid of curiosity.
Brother Prime has been active in the affairs of
Grand Lodge of New York for many years, being at different times
Grand Master, member of various Committees, Judge Advocate, and now
of the Grand Lodge of England near the Grand Lodge of New York, as well
as a member
of the War Relief Administration and of the Grand Master's Committee on
Scope of Masonic Service during the War.
He is an active practicing lawyer, and very
the things which interest him, of direct speech and rather quick
States of America entered the Great War on the side of the Allies on
April 6, 1917.
On the first Tuesday of May following, the Grand Lodge of New York held
Communication, which was marked by enthusiasm, deep interest in, and
the war and of the cause of the Allies, but fortuitously, and yet,
so new was the war and our participation therein- ‒ so inchoate our
plans and appreciation
of the duties and responsibilities that would be involved that
practically no consideration
‒ certainly no adequate consideration ‒ was given to the duties and
that would rest upon Freemasonry in connection therewith, and with the
in the war of thousands of Freemasons from the State of New York.
Grand Master Penney, early in the month of July
appointed a "Committee on Plan and Scope of Masonic Service during the
to advise with him and suggest the course to be pursued, and
legislation to be enacted
to meet the emergency. The plans of the Government for the construction
of a great
army had been formulated and were in process of development. Camps and
were established at Syracuse, Fort Niagara, Madison Barracks,
and Pelham Bay, within the borders of the State, and men were also
located at Fort
Totten, Fort Slocum, Fort Jay, Fort Hamilton and Fort Wadsworth, in the
of training. Enlistments were being made rapidly. The draft had been
and was about to be carried into effect. The army was mobilizing.
Numbers of men,
candidates for Masonry, elected, and upon whom none, or only some, of
degrees had been conferred by lodges outside our borders, were being
sent into the
State for training. Appeals from sister Jurisdictions for assistance in
of conferring degrees upon their candidates in this situation were
no machinery was provided by our Constitution for assistance of
candidates who had
received no degrees. This Jurisdiction is one of the few in the United
does not, and never has authorized one lodge to confer the first degree
in or out of the State. What to do for ourselves, for the sons of
Masons who were
entering the service and were soon to be dispatched overseas; for men,
sons of Masons
or otherwise, who were desirous of allying themselves with the
Fraternity and who
had little or no time to attend upon lodges in ordinary course, sorely
What should be done to protect, stabilize and upbuild the moral fiber
in the men thus turned from home, business, and ordinary pursuits and
a new life under strange conditions, without safeguard, as it seemed,
Committee and required its most careful consideration. Nothing could be
legislation, and the Constitution of the Grand Lodge provided that
be enacted only at an Annual Communication. Another Annual
Communication would not
occur until May, 1918. How to solve the problem was a sore trial.
Frequent sessions of the Committee with the
were held during the summer of 1917, and resulted in the formulation of
bearing date the 10th day of September, 1917, recommending, among other
three salient points:
of War Regulations, looking to the abbreviation of formalities, in
the conferring of the degrees on candidates in the Service and making
conferring of the three degrees in one session by special dispensation
of the Grand
Master, previously obtained;
- The organization
in cantonments, training camps, on vessels, in regiments or other
of Sea and Field Lodges, if the Grand Master should see fit, at home or
with authority to make Masons, and under such regulations as to dual
or multiple membership, inspection, and control, as should seem proper,
extension by all appropriate means through Deputies, representatives,
to and among members of the Fraternity engaged in the Country's
service, of the
influence of Freemasonry, and the rendering to all sick and distressed,
comfort and relief as should seem best and proper; and,
accumulation of a Masonic War and Relief Fund, of at least one million
to prepare for the burden of dependent parents, widows and fatherless,
was anticipated, would soon become apparent.
To the end that these suggestions should be
into effect and made legal, the Grand Master reconvened the 136th
of the Grand Lodge in session September 10th, 1917; the report of the
on Plan and Scope was read, accepted, and its recommendations adopted.
Thus machinery was devised, and preparation
our own immediate needs, but the legislation did not extend so far as
a method of solving the problems of sister jurisdictions in respect of
within our territorial borders.
Lodges promptly and busily became engaged in
service of all kinds under the war regulations, and could perform full
service for candidates from other Jurisdictions within our borders who
been initiated. But there were large numbers of men within the State,
more were coming, who had been elected, but not initiated and others
who had not
even been elected, and who were most zealous in their quest of light.
Master early decided, owing, in part, to the experience which he
been had with Military Lodges in the Civil War, against the
establishment of Sea
and Field Lodges with regiments or on ships. His inclination was
strongly in favor
of the fostering of Masonic Clubs or conferences among the men in the
but those, valuable as it might be, would not serve as an
instrumentality for conferring
Masonic degrees, nor would they afford, within the State of New York, a
complying with and satisfying the prayers of sister Jurisdictions for
By and with the advice of his Committee on Plan
Scope, he determined, by virtue of the power in him vested, and in
the spirit of the resolution of the Grand Lodge in reconvention
respecting Sea and
Field Lodges, to organize Sea and Field Lodge No. 1, by his special
his own creature with an extraordinary authority to meet the
through the war, and, on October 6, 1917, signed the warrant, creating
and nominating its seven officers sufficient to establish and equip an
Fellow Craft, or Master Mason Lodge, as might be necessary, from the
Master to and
including the Junior Deacons, with authority to hold Communications in
of New York and elsewhere, as might be necessary, to adopt such by-laws
for the governance of its proceedings and labor, subject to his
approval, as it
might see fit to confer upon candidates who had been elected members of
chartered lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of New York
and who had
actually enlisted or been drafted or commissioned officers in the
Forces in the present great war, the three degrees of Ancient Craft
the usual interval and without the usual proof of suitable proficiency
degrees; to elect, initiate, pass and raise, without the usual
formalities and requirements
of chartered lodges, candidates, resident of the State of New York who
enlisted or been drafted or commissioned officers in the United States
the present great war, who applied therefor in writing and who
satisfied the Master
and Wardens of said lodge that they were qualified, and who were about
to be sent
out of this Jurisdiction on duty; and to initiate, pass or raise
had actually enlisted or been drafted or commissioned officers in the
forces in the present great war, residents of other States who had been
or passed or, who, having been elected members of regular lodges in
States, had not been initiated, upon request of the Grand Master.
officership in said lodge was expressly permitted, without affecting
or officership in a regular chartered lodge.
The original warrant did not authorize this
initiate for another lodge in the State of New York, but only to pass
candidates of such lodges, but early in November, 1917, in compliance
necessity therefor, a supplemental warrant covering authority to
initiate for another
lodge in the State of New York was issued, making the scope of the
substantially as set forth in the above summary. The warrant designated
a Past Grand Master most active in the affairs of the Craft in the
State, and all
the other officers designated were most actively concerned in the
affairs of the
Grand Lodge, and most, if not all, officers thereof.
The lodge being authorized to transact its
and conduct itself without the usual formalities and requirements of
devised its own ritual, patterned essentially after the standard ritual
of the State
of New York, with certain radical modifications suited to its
necessities and purposes.
It will be noted that its authority in respect of the election of
the ordinary methods of investigation and balloting, and substitutes
of the Master and Wardens as to the qualifications of the candidates.
All of its
personnel are persons busily engaged in the affairs of life. It is
to investigate or to instruct. Its method, without going into extensive
has been to satisfy itself of the desirability from a high Masonic
point of view,
of material, and the approval in writing, by the Master and Wardens, of
is followed by a formal ballot by show of hands, the lodge but formally
for the sake of the record, the primary act of approval by the Master
who are the sole arbiters.
It would be difficult for any Masonic genius,
of geniuses, to contrive in a brief space of time by mere concentration
without experience, a method of conduct and ritual and scheme of
would be satisfactory or adequate. Much thought was, of course, given
to this subject
before the lodge sat, but naturally its method of performance has been
of development, and a composite of the judgment of those among its
interested and qualified to advise. It sat first in the Scottish Rite
the Temple in New York on October 10, 1917, and conferred the three
degrees in one
session on five candidates, including a son of the then Grand Master.
date it has sat thirty-five times, always in the City of New York, and
the degrees on seven hundred and forty-three candidates, of whom four
thirty-nine have been its own material, one hundred and eighty-five
lodges within the State of New York, and one hundred and nineteen
lodges without the State. Fifty-seven of its candidates have been under
of twenty-one years, all blood sons of Master Masons, for each of whom
and separate dispensation was first granted by the Grand Master.
It has allied with itself as Associate Members
the Grand Master's Committee on Plan and Scope and certain additional
zeal and devoted service naturally identified them with the lodge.
its personnel are members of the War Relief Administration, lately
the Grand Lodge to administer the War Relief Fund.
It was prophesied before the lodge first sat,
service would be more holy, serious, and beneficial than that of any
lodge then known. The prophecy has been more than realized. The
propriety and symbolism of its performance is conspicuously unique.
its functions is by invitation only. The performance of its service
three and one-half hours. None come to scoff, but all stay to pray.
As is natural the musical feature of its
of a strikingly high order. Appropriate selections are used in the
which have been chosen with regard also to their symbolism and fitness
to the lodge
The opening ceremonies include the carrying of
and the singing of two verses of "My Country 'Tis of Thee," the second
verse composed in Canada since the commencement of the war, with
to the men in the Service, commencing, "God save our splendid men." In
the First degree, at the reception, is sung, "Guide Me, Oh Thou Great
to the tune "Autumn" suggesting to thoughtful men, "Fortitude,"
it being the air played by the band to stimulate brave men when the
sunk. The second section of the Third degree opens with a verse of "I
Not Live Alway," and the lodge is closed with the hymn, "Oh, God, Our
Help in Ages Past." To each candidate for the First degree, is
apron, and to each candidate who is raised is presented a Bible in
which is printed
a pledge to which each candidate is required to subscribe at the end of
but which is read to him and assented to immediately after his
reception in the
First degree, which is as follows:
"We undertake to maintain our part of the war
from hatred, brutality, or graft, true to the American purpose, and
of the temptations incidental to camp life and the moral and social
we covenant together to live the clean life and to seek to establish
Uniform as a symbol and guaranty of real manhood.
"We pledge our example and our influence to
these ideals dominant in the American Army and Navy."
All the lodge's surplus funds, over expenses,
to the Grand Master's War Relief Fund, and it takes up at each session
a Dole for
this purpose. From both sources the fund has been enriched to date by
The legislation referred to at the opening of
was the primary step taken by Freemasonry in the United States of
America to meet
the duties and opportunities resting upon it in this war (and while no
so far as the writer is aware, have met the situation as broadly and
fully as has
New York, a number have been inspired to take action along similar
lines in certain
respects.) Three jurisdictions have organized Military Lodges attached
Several are engaged in raising funds and making plans for the
Most have modified, for men in the service, the rigidity of the
the interval between degrees and the requirement of proficiency, and
have not done this for themselves, have legislated to recognize and
approve as valid
for them, Masonic service performed by Sea and Field Lodge No. 1 in
its methods, which is valid in the State of New York.
It may safely be observed that men like
it is better, by far, that this Ancient Love should be modified and
suit the pressing needs of the time, than that its beneficent influence
denied men in dire need of its kindly office because of inflexible
tradition and ancient practice.
The good which this war service of Freemasonry
is accomplishing and will accomplish, is beyond anyone's capacity to
harm of any kind has been, or can be suffered by Freemasonry as a
On the contrary, it has proven an ideal union between ministry, the
those ministered to, to the glory of God and the eternal betterment of
Janus was invoked at the commencement of most
even in the worship of the other gods the votary began by offering wine
to Janus. The first month in the year was named from him; and under the
Matutinus he was regarded as the opener of the day. Hence he had charge
of the gates
of heaven, and hence, too, all gates, Januae, were called after him,
to be under his care. Hence, perhaps it was, that he was represented
with a staff
and a key, and that he was named the Opener (Patulcius), and the
‒ M. A. Dwight.
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 24
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
THE BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR
MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
FOUNDATION OF THE COURSE
THE Course of Study has for its foundation two
of Masonic information: THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In
is explained how the references to former issues of THE BUILDER and to
Encyclopedia may be worked up as supplemental papers to exactly fit
into each installment
of the Course with the papers by Brother Haywood.
The Course is divided into five principal
which are in turn subdivided, as is shown below:
Division I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
Division II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
Division III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
Division IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand Lodge.
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent Lodge.
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
Division V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries ‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
THE MONTHLY INSTALLMENTS
Each month we are presenting a paper written by
Haywood, who is following the foregoing outline. We are now in "First
of Ceremonial Masonry. There will be twelve monthly papers under this
subdivision. On page two, preceding each installment, will be given a
list of questions
to be used by the chairman of the Committee during the study period
which will bring
out every point touched upon in the paper.
Whenever possible we shall reprint in the
Circle Bulletin articles from other sources which have a direct bearing
particular subject covered by Brother Haywood in his monthly paper.
should be used as supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by
from the monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would
possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus
The monthly installments of the Course
the Correspondence Circle Bulletin should be used one month later than
If this is done the Committee will have opportunity to arrange their
weeks in advance of the meetings and the Brethren who are members of
Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to enter into the
they have read over and studied the installment in THE BUILDER.
REFERENCES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
Immediately preceding each of Brother Haywood's
papers in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a list of
to THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are
pertinent to the
paper and will either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or
new points for reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the
to different Brethren who may compile papers of their own from the
to be found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts
may be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be
the members may not feel able to compile original papers, or when the
be deemed appropriate without any alterations or additions.
HOW TO ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY
The Lodge should select a "Research Committee"
preferably of three "live" members. The study meetings should be held
once a month, either at a special meeting of the Lodge called for the
at a regular meeting at which no business (except the Lodge routine)
should be transacted
‒ all possible time to be given to the study period. After the Lodge
has been opened
and all routine business disposed of, the Master should turn the Lodge
over to the
Chairman of the Research Committee. This Committee should be fully
prepared in advance
on the subject for the evening. All members to whom references for
papers have been assigned should be prepared with their papers and
should also have
a comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's paper.
PROGRAM FOR STUDY MEETINGS
1. Reading of the first section of Brother
paper and the supplemental papers thereto.
(Suggestion: While these papers are being read
of the Lodge should make notes of any points they may wish to discuss
into when the discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper similar to
in elections should be distributed among the members for this purpose
at the opening
of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of Brother Haywood's
and the supplemental papers should then be taken up, one at a time, and
of in the same manner.
4. Question Box.
MAKE THE "QUESTION BOX" THE FEATURE OF YOUR
Invite questions from any and all Brethren
Let them understand that these meetings are for their particular
benefit and get
them into the habit of asking all the questions they may think of.
Every one of
the papers read will suggest questions as to facts and meanings which
may not perhaps
be actually covered at all in the paper. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US. All the reference material
we have will
be gone through in an endeavor to supply a satisfactory answer. In fact
we are prepared
to make special research when called upon, and will usually be able to
within a day or two. Please remember, too, that the great Library of
the Grand Lodge
of Iowa is only a few miles away, and, by order of the Trustees of the
the Grand Secretary places it at our disposal on any query raised by
of the Society.
The foregoing information should enable local
to conduct their Lodge study meetings with success. However, we shall
inquiries and communications from interested Brethren concerning any
phase of the
plan that is not entirely clear to them, and the services of our Study
are at the command of our members, Lodge and Study Club Committees at
* * *
Questions on "The Working
Tools of an Entered Apprentice."
- What can
you add to the quotation from Carlyle?
- What particular
accomplishment of man is cited by Bergson to distinguish man from brute?
- In what
manner do the tools of the brute differ from those of man?
- How has
man's superiority over the brute developed?
- Where does
man's superiority lie?
- What is
the key to Masonry's use of the "working tools"?
- What is
- How are
- What is
the ultimate design to be accomplished by the use of the working tools
- Can a Mason
shape his own destiny or be instrumental in shaping the destiny of
the aid of his Masonic working tools?
- Why is not
the newly initiated candidate at once intrusted with all the working
tools or implements
tools is he intrusted and instructed in the Masonic application of, in
Apprentice degree? in the Fellow Craft degree? in the Master Mason
- What is
a "twenty-four inch gauge"?
- Of what
is it the symbol, in our Monitors?
- Give the
Monitorial exposition of the twenty-four inch gauge in the language of
"work" of your Grand Jurisdiction.
- What reference
to it was made by the old writers in connection with Saints Ambrose and
and King Alfred?
- Do you agree
with what Brother Haywood says regarding the right use and division of
not, why not?
- What is
your definition of "Time"?
- What definition
of it does Brother Haywood give?
- Does Time
symbolize to you opportunities to be grasped and improved upon?
- Who wastes
time, the laggard or the successful man?
- Do you consider
it a waste of time to attend the Study Club meetings of your lodge or
- Are you
wasting time by not attending these meetings?
- Are you
applying the twenty-four inch gauge to your time as did Abraham Lincoln
Pike and other busy men?
- What is
the fundamental reason for so many men devolving into "human failures"?
- How may
we protect ourselves against becoming failures in life?
- How has
man heretofore divided his actions?
- What test
should we apply to our actions?
- What foundation
are Masons laying for the morality of the future?
secret have we to learn from the twenty four inch gauge?
- What was
the symbolism of the gavel in the Middle Ages?
- Whence was
this symbolism derived?
- Of what
was the gavel a symbol in Scandinavian mythology?
- What other
peoples attribute to it the same symbolism?
- What is
the Masonic derivation of the gavel?
- Give the
Monitorial reference to the gavel as used in the standard "work" of
- Is the common
gavel a symbol of authority?
- How is it
distinguished from the implement of authority wielded by the Master of
- What functions
are combined in the common gavel?
- What is
Mackey's explanation of its probable derivation?
- What use
did the operative masons make of the common gavel?
- What is
a "knob" on a stone? an "excrescence"?
- What do
these suggest to Brother Haywood?
with him in his deductions? If not, why not?
- Does Masonry
demand more from its members in the foregoing respect than do other
of their members or employees?
- What is
the first lesson to be learned by a soldier, or an employee of a
- Why must
they learn this lesson?
- Is "team
work" and "cooperation" necessary to the success of a lodge? of a
Grand Lodge? of Masonry as a whole?
- Could Masonry
successfully cope with the questions which are arising each day in
the great work of reconstruction which the world is now facing, without
united organization as the recently-launched "Masonic Service
the United States"?
necessity of "team work" and "cooperation" demand the organization
of such a Body?
* * *
Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914]: Gavel, p. 290; Twenty-Four
Inch Gauge, p. 811.
THE BUILDER: Vol. I ‒ The Twenty-Four Inch
Vol. III. ‒ Gavel, p. 79;
Twenty-Four Inch Gauge, p. 79.
Vol. IV. ‒ Gavel, p. 156.
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
‒ The Working Tools Of An Entered Apprentice
"Man is a tool-using animal, weak in himself,
of small stature, he stands on a basis, at most for the flattest-soled,
half-square foot, insecurely enough; has to straddle out his legs, lest
wind supplant him. Feeblest of bipeds! Three quintals are a crushing
load to him;
the steer of the meadow tosses him aloft, like a waste rag.
Nevertheless he can
use tools, can devise tools; with these the granite mountain melts into
before him; he kneads glowing iron, as if it were soft paste; seas are
highway, winds and fire his unwearying steeds. Nowhere do you find him
without tools he is nothing, with tools he is all."
THUS writes Thomas Carlyle, who was not always
as he is here. It would be difficult to state in language more forceful
philosophy underlying the Working Tools of Masonry, albeit reference
be made to Henry Bergson, who wrote his "Creative Revolution"
1911 (Creative Evolution)] many years
after Carlyle had penned his "Sartor Resartus," [Lib 1897] and when new light
had come, and men had grown wiser in science. In his book, which is the
discussion of Evolution since Darwin's "Origin of Species,"
[Lib 1909] Bergson shows that
nothing more distinguishes the man from the brute than his use of
tools. The brute
has his tools built into his own body and consequently can neither
modify nor change
them; the beaver's teeth, the spider's spinnet, the eagle's talons, the
in every case the brute's tool is a part of the brute's anatomy, with
that its operations are confined within very narrow limits. But man
makes his own
tools, can modify or change them at will, and is always free to adapt
his work to ever-changing need; from this has arisen man's superiority
to the brute
creation for he can use his tools upon himself and thus change his own
well as the external world. Accordingly, Bergson defines a man as "The
that makes things," and he is careful to show that man's superiority
his power to work upon himself as well as upon things.
Here, in this last clause, is the key to
of Working Tools. In no case are they instruments to be used on
though they are symbolized by the tools of the operative builders; in
case they are mental or moral forces with which a man may reshape
himself into a
mystic temple, and help reshape society into a great Brotherhood. With
thus understood, no man or Mason can ever hope to build except he be
his kit of tools.
But some tools are simpler in use than others,
adapted to simpler work; therefore the Craft has wisely distributed the
among the degrees, in recognition of the candidate's increase of skill
in the First degree the Apprentice is given the Twenty-four Inch Gauge
Gavel; in the Second degree the candidate is allowed the Plumb, Square
while the Master Mason, in token of his task in completing the building
given the Trowel. Necessarily the tools of the Second and Third degrees
treated in their corresponding places; in this connection we are
in the working tools of an Entered Apprentice.
The Twenty-Four Inch Gauge. This is nothing
an ordinary two-foot rule such as may be found in use among
stone-masons of today;
as such we need not go far to seek its origin or dive deep to find its
Our Monitors make it the symbol of time well systematized, and our
have often referred to Saints Ambrose and Augustine and to King Alfred
of the wisdom of devoting eight hours to the-service of God, and
brethren, eight hours to their usual vocations and eight to rest and
This reading of the symbolism may be accepted without reserve, but is
not this right
use and dividing of time itself suggestive of that wider use of law and
necessary in the life of the individual and the world?
What time is in itself we do not know, perhaps
never know. But in every life it is nothing other than our opportunity
to live and
work. We have our allotted span of existence; we have our allotted
task; our wisdom
consists in making one fit the other. Time flows over some men as water
a stone; to others a single hour may bring a new depth of experience
and open out
new vistas of vision. It is not the least among the secrets of genius
that the great
mind understands the value of the odd moment or the spare hour. Many
between 1840 and 1860 found their days eaten up by their practice;
was as busy as the others but he managed in his spare time to learn
by heart, to study the technique of politics, and to master every phase
of the Slavery question. There were only twenty-four hours in one of
days, even as in ours; he made of himself, in spite of a thousand
of the profoundest scholars of his day ‒ antiquarian, linguist, jurist,
what not; he "found the Scottish Rite a log-cabin and left it a
he plowed his influence into America, and all because he knew how to
apply the gauge
to his time.
Much of the waste and confusion of human
from men's failure to measure their work by some standard or rule; they
the stream like chips, take things as they come and go, and suffer
be blown this way and that like a derelict at sea. Their days are as
of stone to which no quarryman has ever brought his tools. He who has
to transform time into life, deals with circumstances as an artist uses
he has ever before him a plan laid out on his mind's tracing board; he
materials and appoints each to its appropriate function, fitting and
according to his design.
What is the standard by which we may test our
What is the measure of rightness? For many centuries we have been
dividing our actions
into two opposing tables, one made up of good actions, and one of bad.
When we have
desired to learn whether or not some proposed action was good or bad we
for it in the two lists. But this morality by code is rapidly breaking
we find that a deed will be guilty under some circumstances, innocent
If I shoot a man for assaulting my family I do right; if I shoot a
friend in a quarrel
I do evil. The one test which we can apply to any and every action is,
What is its
effect on life~ If it enlarges, exalts, ennobles, if it makes life more
more worthful, more rich, it is good; if it cramps, corrupts, debases,
it is evil. This is life morality and every evidence indicates that it
is to be
the morality of the future.
And it is also, I believe, the morality of
as symbolized by that Working Tool which would teach us how to
transform time into
life. He who learns this use of it need ever regret the passing of
for every year will but add honor to his head and riches to his heart
end comes when time will lead him to eternity.
"Old time will
end our stay,
But no time, if we end well, will end our glory."
The Common Gavel. In the Middle Ages
the gavel was a symbol often made use of by religious bodies to signify
a meaning derived, perhaps, from the ancient custom of throwing a gavel
across a field to claim ownership. In the Scandinavian mythology it was
and stood for power, often seen in the thunderings and lightnings by
dread god split the rocks and destroyed the trees. It is similarly
used, we learn
from Murray-Aynsley (A.Q.C. Vol. 6, p. 51 [Lib 1893]) by New Zealanders, the
Maoris, and Channel Island
savages. In Masonry it has other meanings, being derived from the tool
used by the
workmen in dressing a stone to the desired shape.
As a Working Tool it must not be confused with
hammer which, because it stands for his authority, is often called the
in commemoration of the authority wielded by the First Grand Master. It
is a tool
with one sharp edge and combines the functions of the hammer and the
looked at from the end, with the cutting edge turned up, it has the
the gable of a house, and this suggested to Mackey that it may have
from the German "Giebel," or gable. However that may be it is a tool
shaping and not for breaking and is therefore not an emblem of force,
as some have
fancied, though it is obvious that force must be employed to use it.
According to the Monitorial explanation, "The
Gavel is an instrument made use of by operative masons, to break off
of rough stones, the better to fit them for the builder's use; but we,
as free and
accepted Masons, are taught to make use of it for the more noble and
of divesting our minds and consciences of all the vices and
superfluities of life,
thereby fitting our bodies as living stones, for that spiritual
building, that house
not made by hands, eternal in the heavens." In other connections we are
that the gavel was used by operative masons to break off the knobs and
of stones in order to shape the rough ashlar into the perfect ashlar,
A "knob" is an inequality in the stone itself;
an "excrescence" is some foreign substance clinging to it. It may
fanciful but this has suggested to me those vices and inequalities in
us men which
spring on the one hand from heredity and on the other from environment.
By the first
we are influenced by our ancestors or parents; by the latter we are
shaped, in some
degree at least, by our surroundings. In either case, and however
of us finds in his nature some trait of temper or temperament, some
bias of mind,
some trick of action, or other irregularity, that brings us into
conflict with our
fellows. In so far as these are not essential to right character
that we trim them off in order that we may "fit in" with the Fraternity.
In this our Institution asks no more than does
at large or other organizations, for all the cry today is for team-work
The member of a regiment, the employee of a corporation, must learn to
himself to the whole lest the perversity of the individual destroy the
may cherish their differences in behalf of self-distinction, but the
wise man will
learn to adjust himself to, and control his idiosyncrasies in behalf of
of order. This is in no sense the debasing of every man to the dead
level of mediocrity
for it is in and not apart from, social life that real individuality is
Finding Ourselves – [A Poem]
L. B. M.
is an offering,
that is all
And the ultimate glory of its call
Is that 'tis hardly worth a tear
Save as 'tis given, freely, here ‒
Save as from it we pour and pour
As the alchemist provides the more ‒
Save as on the "waters cast"
The "bread" that will return at last ‒
Save as we give it all away
To find ourselves, some day ‒ some day.
of French Masonry
Report of the Grand Lodge
AT the annual
communication of the Grand Lodge in 1917 the following resolutions were
adopted: Whereas, It is pre-eminently desirable that the "Universality
no less than the "Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man" shall
be something more than an empty phrase; and
Whereas, The readjustment of the world's
will result from the conflict now raging will justify, if it shall not
a reconsideration of the judgments rendered in the past concerning what
to be fundamental differences between Anglo-Saxon and Latin Masonry;
Resolved, That a Special Committee of five
this Grand Lodge be appointed by the Grand Master to report at the next
some plan whereby, if possible, the breach between French and
may be healed without the sacrifice on either side of any essential
matter of conscience; and, be it further
Resolved, That any inhibition upon the right of
heretofore imposed by this Grand Lodge be, and the same hereby is,
as it may be necessary to allow and permit our brethren to hold Masonic
with the Masons in France, Belgium and Italy, and to visit any of their
The Grand Master appointed William Rhodes
Webster, Charles Albert Adams, George F. Rodden and George W. Hunter a
to make the report provided for in the resolutions.
Immediately after entering upon its task the
was confronted with grave difficulties arising out of the disturbances
from our present state of war, lack of authentic and detailed
to the subject matter, and the widely variant attitudes assumed by
respecting French Masonic powers. Because of these difficulties your
itself unable at this time, notwithstanding its serious and diligent
comply with the requirements of your resolution. However, it may be
present a discussion of the subject and respectfully to recommend a
of action for the Grand Lodge of California without presuming in any
degree to indicate
the attitude which should be assumed by any other Body, or remotely to
propriety of similar action by any other Grand Lodge of the great
family of Anglo-Saxon
The work entrusted to your committee is one of
importance at this time. More than 5,300 members of California Lodges
in the military or naval service of our great government, and thousands
all probability, will soon join the colors. Many of these Masons are
in France, and our brethren will be sent in increasing numbers to that
California Masons are companions in arms with French Masons who owe
Bodies with which this Grand Lodge has no fraternal relationship. These
engaged in the same high enterprise in behalf of honor and
civilization, their brave
hearts beat in unison, they confront the same foe and equal dangers,
and the ashes
of many of them will commingle in the sacred soil of France, which is
by their blood. They are entitled to exchange and enjoy all the
royalties and generosities
and amenities of Masonic fellowship and social intercourse unless some
barrier of conscience lifts between them.
We are face to face with new and unusual
in the Masonic world. Our soldier brethren in France are unfamiliar
with the points
of difference which separate the Anglo-Saxon Masons from their French
and they are entitled to have this vexed and difficult question settled
or to be
advised of the reasons for a continued separation. The French Bodies
have made overtures
for recognition. It seems our plain duty to leave nothing undone that
be done to cement more firmly the bonds of universal brotherhood. We
this report, to lay before you the facts pertinent to this inquiry and
out the obstacles which must be overcome if French Masonry is to be
this Grand Lodge. We regret that this report will be found lacking in
but authentic information is not always available and many aspects of
under consideration are veiled in obscurity. We believe the statements
gathered from many sources, to be facts in the case, although we
cannot, in every
instance, prove their authenticity.
French Masonic Powers
There are three Grand Bodies in France
over the degrees of symbolic and Ancient Craft Masonry, to-wit: the
of France, the Grand Lodge of France, and the Independent and Regular
Lodge of France and the French Colonies. These three Bodies are
independent of each
other and exhibit differences in method and principle. It appears that
is known about French Masonry by the members of the Craft, and the
in the Masonic and secular press on this subject have not always dealt
our French brethren, and oftentimes have echoed the complaints and
of the enemies of Latin Masonry. The history of these powers may be
(a) The Grand Orient. It is claimed that a
Masons was organized at Dunkirk in the early years of the eighteenth
we have been unable to verify such facts. It appears that the first
known in France was that established in Paris in 1732 by Lord
Derwentwater. In 1735
certain lodges at Paris applied to the Grand Lodge of England for the
of a Provincial Grand Lodge, but the petition was refused for political
The Grand Lodge of England reconsidered its action and in 1743 granted
for the organization of a Provincial Grand Lodge under the name of the
Anglaise de France. We have been advised that the constitution of this
was modeled on that of the Anderson Constitutions of 1723. Soon after
of this Grand Body differences arose between the Parisian and
and there ensued years of turbulence. In 1775 the Grand Lodge declared
of the Grand Lodge of England and changed its name to Grande Loge de
excluded all the Provincial lodges from its membership. It seems that
recognized only the first three degrees of Masonry. The difficulties
Parisian Grand Lodge and the Provincial lodges seem to have been
and all the factions of French Craft Masonry were united in 1771, in
a new constitution was adopted and the Grande Loge de France was merged
Grand Orient of France. It appears, however, that soon a faction arose
the merger or change and perpetuated the existence of the Grand Lodge,
in a struggle against the new Grand Orient until 1779, when the Grand
finally and completely united with the Grand Orient. In 1804 a second
was organized, but by treaty was soon after merged into the Grand
Orient. Even a
cursory inquiry into the history of the Grand Orient is sufficient to
student with the belligerent and controversial nature of the body, and
reason to believe that the internal conflicts in the Grand Orient are
for the existence, at this time, of more than one ruling Body of Craft
France. Yet it must be borne in mind that even in England schisms in
the outstanding feature of its early history, and that in 1753 there
was a division
into two Grand Lodges ‒ the Ancients and the Moderns ‒ which were not
It seems that the Grand Orient, at an early
control over the "higher" degrees of Masonry, and we read that in 1804
it entered into a controversy with the Supreme Council of France, an
of Scottish Rite Masons which seems to have originated in France in
1760 under the
name of the Rite of Perfection, and in 1805 agreed upon a treaty by
which the sovereignty
and independence of the Supreme Council was recognized over all degrees
eighteenth, while the Grand Orient was agreed to have full power over
all the degrees
up to and including the eighteenth. This treaty was not sufficient to
desired harmony, and soon after its ratification renewed disturbances
of the violations thereof by the Grand Orient. However, the Grand
Orient has continued
for more than a century the strongest and most influential Masonic
power in France,
and, according to recent reports, today rules over 465 subordinate
lodges with 35,000
(b) The Grand Lodge of France. It appears that
Council of the Thirty-Third Degree for France organized the Grand Lodge
in 1804 to administer and control the lodges working the first three
Masonry, although some authorities contended that this Grand Lodge was
of a faction of the Body that was united to the Grand Orient in 1779.
respecting the history of this Grand Lodge, from the time it claims to
organized until recent years, is so obscure that we cannot give any
details of its
career. It appears, however, that the Grand Lodge was reorganized in
1894, but remained
a subsidiary or an instrumentality of the Supreme Council of France
when it became a sovereign and independent Body. Its independence from
Orient seems to date from 1895. From the fact that the Grand Orient
over all degrees under the eighteenth, and that the Supreme Council
over the degrees above the eighteenth, it is difficult to understand
how the Supreme
Council gained jurisdiction over the Craft degrees so that it might
same to the Grand Lodge, except upon the theory that strife continued
two great Masonic powers in France, and that, notwithstanding the
treaty they had
made, each continued to confer and rule the first, second and third
being able to trace the history of the relations between these powers,
that the independence gained by the Grand Lodge of the Grand Orient in
of the Supreme Council in 1904, terminated what must have been a long
believe that, by reasons of violations of the treaty of 1805, from 1841
Grand Orient and the Supreme Council conferred and ruled Craft degrees,
the Supreme Council relinquished control over the degrees of Ancient
to the Grand Lodge in 1904. The Grand Lodge is said to have 136 lodges,
with a membership
in excess of 8,500. It is interesting to note that one of these lodges,
No. 343," works in the English language, and that its members are
and Americans, and we are happy to state that fraternal good will has
between these Grand Bodies since 1904. The Grand Lodge claims
only over the first, second and third degrees of Masonry.
(c) The Independent and Regular National Grand
of France and the French Colonies. This Body was founded in December,
has been recognized by the Grand Lodges of England, Scotland and other
It was organized by three lodges which withdrew from the Grand Orient,
and it appears
that at the present time the jurisdiction of the new Grand Body extends
or four lodges, with a membership of less than 200 Masons. This Body
claims to be
the only regular Grand Lodge in France, and we are informed, has
upon the laws and principles of the Grand Lodge of England. It has been
once intimated in high places that this is hardly a new Grand Lodge,
a sort of colonization in France of new lodges under English patronage.
to us that this. Body may be considered a negligible quantity until a
and greater growth may justify the attention of the Masonic world.
Relations with Grand Orient
Very early after its organization, the Grand
California seems to have recognized or considered itself in fraternal
with the Grand Orient of France, and under date of May 1, 1852, Prince
Grand Master of the Grand Orient of France, addressed the Grand Master
of the Grand
Lodge of California, announcing his election and extending fraternal
and stating the desire for co-operation and future existence of firm
relationships, which letter was answered in a corresponding fraternal
Grand Master Charles M. Radcliff. In 1858 Grand Master N. Greene Curtis
an invitation from the Grand Orient of France to send three members to
Body in order that more intimate relations might be established. The
of California approved of the plan to establish permanent interchange
In 1859 the learned Grand Secretary, Alex G. Abell, reported the
receipt of the
bulletins of the Grand Orient of France and its calendars, and also
Grand Lodge with a translation of a letter from the Master of Lodge La
Amitie in Paris. Our report for 1861 shows a continued friendly
the Grand Orient of France and the Grand Lodge of California.
In 1856 the Foulhouze-Cerneau Supreme Council
Scottish Rite was organized in Louisiana. Two of the subordinates of
the Grand Lodge
of Louisiana withdrew and joined the illegal and spurious Supreme
Council. The Grand
Orient of France refused recognition to the Foulhouze-Cerneau Council
the same as irregular and clandestine, but ten years later in 1868, the
of France, undoubtedly ignorant of the true conditions existing in
misled by its zeal in behalf of a wide tolerance and liberty of
recognition to the spurious Council, whereupon the Grand Lodge of
fraternal relations with the Grand Orient, after protesting its action.
to give emphasis to its objection to the invasion of its jurisdiction,
Lodge of Louisiana presented its grievance to the other Grand Lodges of
States, and in a short time thirty Grand Lodges severed fraternal
the Grand Orient of France. In 1869 the Grand Lodge of California,
because of this
hostile and unlawful action of the Grand Orient of France, suspended
intercourse therewith. In 1872 the Grand Orient of France, while still
in its unwarranted invasion of the rights of the Grand Lodge of
the Grand Lodge of California, expressing a desire to renew fraternal
and to submit a report concerning the difficulty with the Grand Lodge
declaring that the Grand Orient could not change its conclusions, but
the American Grand Lodges might reconsider their decrees of
interdiction. The spurious
and irregular Supreme Council, which was the original cause of the
fraternal relations between the American Grand Lodges and the Grand
Orient of France,
had long since ceased to exist, and upon its demise the violation of
the Grand Orient
of the territorial jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana ended.
Grand Lodge of Louisiana at this time has no grievance against the
of France is emphatically demonstrated by the fact that on February 5,
Grand Lodge of Louisiana, by a unanimous vote, repealed its edicts of
with the Grand Orient of France and arranged for an exchange of
Reasons for Continuance
of Breach with Grand Orient
If the only differences between the Grand
France and the Grand Lodge of California were those growing out of the
of the territorial jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana, then
be no obstacles in the way of immediate establishment of full fraternal
with the Grand Orient of France. It appears, however, that after the
of relations in 1869, certain changes were made in the constitution of
Orient of France which are now the subject of controversy. For several
Grand Orient discussed the proposition of striking all reference to the
the rituals and the constitution. In 1877 the Grand Orient, after a
year of serious
deliberation, by a vote of 135 to 76 lodges, resolved to make the
change in the
constitution. It seems that prior to 1849 the constitution and rituals
of the Grand
Orient were essentially the same as they stand today. In 1849, probably
of growing closeness of political relations with Great Britain, the
amended its laws and practices so as to more nearly conform to those of
Lodge of England. We understand that, following the English model, the
adopted the following rule in 1849:
"Freemasonry has for its principles the
of God, the immortality of the soul, and the solidarity of mankind."
In 1877 this provision of the constitution was
and in lieu thereof the following was substituted:
"Whereas, Freemasonry is not a religion, and
therefore, no doctrine or dogma to affirm its constitution, the
the Vaeu IX., has decided and decreed that the second paragraph of
Article I of
the constitution shall be erased and that for the words of said article
shall be substituted:
"Freemasonry, an essentially philanthropical
progressive institution, has for its object the pursuit of truth, the
study of morality,
and the practice of solidarity; its efforts are directed to the
material and moral
improvement and the intellectual and social advancement of humanity. It
its principles, mutual tolerance, respect for others and for one's
self, and absolute
liberty of conscience. Considering metaphysical conceptions as
to the individual judgment of its members, it refuses to accept any
Its motto is: 'Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.'"
Upon making this change in the constitution,
Lodges in English speaking countries then in fraternal relations with
Orient, dissolved the same, and many of the Grand Lodges in the United
having already severed relations because of the Louisiana incident,
action of the Grand Orient. The attitude taken is not easily understood
remember that many protesting Grand Lodges held fraternal relations
with the Grand
Orient prior to 1849, and that the announced principles of the Grand
to 1877 were practically identical with those avowed in the years
The most plausible explanation is that the Grand Orient was under
the violation of the Jurisdiction of Louisiana, and that instead of
faith and credit to its actions, other Grand Bodies looked askance upon
doings. It is needless to add that our French brethren made the most
of their action and were astonished and grieved at the fraternal
discord that ensued.
The Grand Orient explained that by its action
it merely reverted to the Anderson Constitutions of 1723, which are
as the common law of Masonry. These Constitutions appear under the
Charges of a Freemason" in our Blue Book, at page 342. Article I reads
God and Religion
"A Mason is obliged
by his tenure to obey the moral law, and if he rightly understands the
art he will
never be a stupid atheist, nor an irreligious libertine. But, though in
times Masons were charged in every country to be of the religion of
or nation, whatever it was, yet it is now thought more expedient only
them to that religion in which all men agree, leaving their particular
to themselves; that is, to be good men and true, or men of Honour and
whatever denominations or persuasions they may be distinguished;
becomes the centre of union and the means of conciliating true
persons that must have otherwise remained at a perpetual distance."
The Grand Lodge of
England adhered to these Constitutions until 1815, when it changed the
inserting the word God in a number of places, but these changes were
by the Grand Lodges in the United States. The Grand Orient, however,
did in 1849
make changes to correspond with those made by England in 1815, and then
reverted back to the original basis of 1723.
The French Masons have
been roundly denounced and abused by Grand Lodges and Ecclesiastical
Powers as godless
and atheistic. It is illuminating to examine their views of the charge.
The Committee urging
the adoption of the proposed amendment said in 1877: "Who is not aware,
this moment, that in advocating this suppression no one among us
as making a profession of atheism and materialism. In regard to this
misunderstanding must disappear from our minds, and if in any lodge
remain any doubt in reference to this point, let them know that the
without reservation that by acceding to the wish of Lodge No. 9, it
it no other object than the proclamation of absolute liberty of
Brother Frederic Desmons, a Protestant minister
and high character, who was nine times President of the Grand Orient of
strenuously urged the adoption of the amendment, and later said:
the formula respecting the G. A. of the U. we did not mean to replace
it by a materialistic
formula. None among us in proposing this suppression, thought of
or materialism, and we declare formally and emphatically that we had no
in view than to proclaim absolute liberty of conscience."
Brother Maricault, the reporter of the
amendment of the law, in recommending a postponement in 1876 of the
the following statement:
has recognized that bad faith alone could interpret the suppression
a denial of the existence of God and the immortality of the soul; human
and freedom of conscience, which would be henceforth the exclusive
basis of Freemasonry,
imply quite as strongly belief in God and in an immortal soul as they
positivism, or any other philosophic doctrine."
By "solidarity" Brother Maricault and his
brethren mean "brotherhood of man."
The Grand Secretary of the Grand Orient wrote
English brother as follows:
"The Grand Orient
of France has not abolished the Masonic formula, 'To the glory of the
of the Universe,' as you appear to believe, still less have they made
of atheism. In their general assembly of September, 1877, they purely
proclaimed absolute liberty of conscience as a right belonging to every
out of respect for this liberty they expunged from their Constitution a
formula, which seemed to a great majority of the members to be in
with liberty of conscience.
an article of its statutes the Grand Orient of France by no means
intended to make
profession of either atheism or materialism, as would seem to be
alteration has been made either in the principles or the practice of
Masonry remains what it has always been ‒ a fraternal and tolerant
We are informed that French Masons contend that
to 1877 the Book of Constitutions had lain upon the altars, and that it
as the "Book of the Law" or "Volume of Sacred Law." In some
quarters we find the claim made that the Bible was taken from the
altars of French
lodges because of the attacks of the Catholic church on Masonry in that
and that because the Bible was used on the altars of the Church,
Masonry could not
place it upon its altars and remain consistent in its defense of the
rights of conscience.
It appears that no change of practice with reference to the Bible has
by the Grand Orient for nearly a hundred years. We understand that the
is neither deistical nor atheistical, but tolerates the widest liberty
and is not sectarian or dogmatic in matters of religion; and that both
Orient and the Grand Lodge open and close their lodges and obligate
"to the glory of the Great Architect of the Universe."
No Breach with Grand Lodge
The Grand Lodge of California has never entered
fraternal relations with the Grand Lodge of France, and thus far we
have had no
occasion to protest its principles or practiced. The Grand Lodge of
before us today seeking our fraternal recognition. It exhibits the
the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite in matters of religion,
recognizes the existence
of God, requires the "Book of the Law" upon its altars, prohibits
and political discussions, and exercises jurisdiction of only the three
of Symbolic Masonry. It recognizes the concurrent jurisdiction of the
in its territory.
The Spirit of French Masonry
Your committee are satisfied that the brethren
Grand Orient and the Grand Lodge of France are actuated by a splendid
and exemplify in an honorable and unmistakable manner the principles of
love, relief and truth. We think the most recent communications
received by us from
these two Bodies will fully justify our opinion. In these times, which
trying to the souls of the men of France, when their people have been
decimated by a dreadful war, and after their Masonic powers have been
repudiated by Anglo-Saxon Masonry, the two great French powers have
taken the opportunity
to address communications to the Grand Lodge of California breathing in
the aroma of friendship and fraternity. These letters are as follows:
GRAND LOGE DE FRANCE Rue Puteaux 8 Paris
O.'. de Paris, July 20, 1917 (E. V.)
The Grand Secretary,
The Grand Lodge of California,
Masonic Temple, San Francisco.
Dear Sir and Very Worshipful Brother:
The landing in our country of the vanguard of
which is crossing the ocean to unite with us in the great struggle for
of the world, is an event of momentous import. It has aroused within us
that it is highly desirable that our ancient institution, which has
for liberty, should celebrate this manifestation of brotherhood by
of the bonds of fraternal esteem and affection, which unite Freemasons
With this thought in our minds, we are writing
to your Grand Lodge an invitation to enter into official relations with
us and to
cement those relations by an exchange of representatives.
The Grand Lodge of France was constituted in
the Supreme Council 33rd for France and the French Colonies, to
administer and control
the lodges working the three degrees of Craft Masonry. In 1904, as a
result of friendly
negotiations with the Supreme Council, became a sovereign and
As an integral part of the A.A.S.R., our
are those common to the Rite in general as set forth in the
declarations of the
convents of Lausanne of 1876. We have 136 Lodges working under our
among them one ‒ the Anglo-Saxon 343 ‒ which works in English, and the
which are almost exclusively British and American.
In the hope that you will agree with us that
union as we propose will appear all the more in harmony with the ideals
of our Order,
if realized in the hour when the brethren of our two countries are
life-blood in common for the triumph of justice and civilization, we
Yours faithfully and fraternally,
LE GR. MAITRE,
LE GR. ORATEUR,
LE GR. SECRET. GENERAL,
LE GR. TRESORIER.
16, Rue Cadet, Paris, October 12, 1917.
Worshipful Sir and Brethren: The world-wide
for the liberation of oppressed nations and for the triumph of the
justice and liberty in which a good many allied countries now take an
part, has assembled on French soil most of the glorious, armies
fighting for right,
who are now to be joined by an imposing contingent of your noble
In the first rank of these gallant troops,
strengthened by their ideal, we are sure to find, more numerous every
of the United States of America, and we have thought of offering them,
as soon as
they arrive in the French capital, a warm, fraternal welcome becoming
Under the auspices of the Grand Orient of
worshipful "La Fraternité des
formed a reception at the Temple of the Grand Orient, 16, Rue Cadet, a
home. Here your brethren will always find devoted Masons, speaking
ready to answer all inquiries and furnish any useful information they
to assure them a fraternal help in all circumstances, to keep in touch
with them, to visit them in case they are ill or wounded, to serve as
between them and their relatives, etc.
The usefulness of this central bureau will at
apparent to you, not only for our brethren who are in the army, but
also to those
near and dear to them and who in their thoughts will follow them across
and who will know that they are not left to themselves and abandoned
dangers of every-day life, but that a fraternal and helping hand is
to them in case of need.
We therefore ask you to kindly inform the
your Worshipful Lodge and their relatives that in applying to us they
find us ready to be of use to them, and happy to render them any
the measure of our means and capabilities.
Please communicate this letter to the different
under the jurisdiction of your Grand Lodge.
We are, worshipful sir and brethren, yours most
for and on behalf of the MASONIC BUREAU FOR ALLIED ARMIES IN FRANCE.
(Signed) W. M. A. BESNARD, F. D. P. 16, Rue Cadet, Paris.
All the Grand Lodges in English-speaking
adhere to the principle that each Grand Lodge is sovereign and supreme
its territorial jurisdiction, and that an invasion of the territorial
of any Grand Lodge by another Masonic power is an act of hostility and
to place the usurper outside the pale of fraternal recognition and
brands it as
an outlaw. This is a salutatory doctrine, and in English-speaking
countries at least
should be vindicated and perpetuated. In the Latin countries the
doctrine of exclusive
territorial jurisdiction does not obtain, but in those countries each
is sovereign and supreme, not throughout the territory it occupies, but
subordinate lodges and their members. This explains why the Grand
Orient of France
and the Grand Lodge of France, occupying the same territory, are in
friendly relations each with the other. It does not seem necessary to
and maintenance of our doctrine of exclusive territorial jurisdiction
that we shall
force the same upon our brethren of the Latin countries of the world
to give their adherence to a different doctrine, which suits them
better and under
which they seem to live together in Masonic peace and fraternal concord.
The California Policy Respecting
In 1913 the Grand Lodge of California adopted a
report and recommendation made by the late M.W. Edward H. Hart,
Chairman of the
Committee on Correspondence, and thereby fixed the tests to be applied
by the Grand
Lodge of California in the matter of recognition of other Grand Lodges.
are as follows:
First, The Grand Body seeking recognition must
formed by subordinate lodges which trace their origin to regular and
Ancient Craft Masonry.
Secondly, the Grand Body applying for
hold undisputed sway as the acknowledged Supreme Power in Ancient Craft
in the territory in which it claims jurisdiction, and must not render
or obedience, in any sense whatsoever to any other Masonic power, or
but must be absolutely sovereign and supreme within its territory. As a
corollary of this condition, it must recognize the exclusive
jurisdiction of all
other Grand Lodges in their respective territories, and shall not
presume to project
its authority or sovereignty into the territory of any other Grand
Thirdly, The Grand Body applying for
a sovereign Grand Lodge of Ancient Craft Masonry must confine its
the exercise thereof, to the three degrees of Craft or Symbolic Masonry.
Fourthly, the Grand Body applying for
recognize and support the Ancient Landmarks, which include,
particularly, the Three
Great Lights, and belief in God, and the immortality of the soul.
An application of the foregoing rules
the Grand Lodge of California to the Grand Orient and the Supreme
Council of France
shows that no recognition can be given to these Bodies without a change
of the policy
of this Grand Lodge. The Grand Orient is regular in its origin, but its
a supreme power is acknowledged only by the lodges of its obedience,
and in its
territory it has concurrent jurisdiction with the Grand Lodge of
France. It does
not appear to be invading the jurisdiction of any regular Grand Lodge,
not expressly and in terms profess a belief in God and the immortality
of the soul.
The Grand Lodge of France more nearly meets these requirements than
does the Grand
Orient, for, as heretofore stated, the Grand Lodge confines its
the three degrees of Symbolic Masonry and it exhibits the Three Great
obligates its candidates and opens and closes its lodges with appeals
to the Great
Architect of the Universe, and requires the "Book of the Law" upon its
altars, but it may trace its origin to a Supreme Council having
many degrees instead of to Ancient Craft Masonry.
Precedents of Today
Since the Great War came to America, many Grand
of the United States have been seriously and earnestly considering the
fraternal relations with the French bodies. At the time of formulating
several Grand Lodges have not held their annual communications for
1918, but the
action taken by some of the Grand Lodges during this year is
significant of the
widespread desire for harmonious relations with France, and is
indicative of ultimate
concord between the Grand Lodges of France and those of the United
The following Grand Lodges have resumed
with the Grand Orient of France: Louisiana, Rhode Island, Iowa,
Kentucky, New Jersey.
The following Grand Lodges have recognized and
into fraternal relations with the Grand Lodge of France: Louisiana,
Iowa, Kentucky, District of Columbia, New Jersey and Nevada.
The following Grand Lodges, in addition to
have enacted laws permitting their members to visit the lodges and hold
relations with the members of the obedience of the Grand Orient and the
of France: Alabama, New York, New Jersey, Utah, Indiana, Georgia,
Colorado and Nevada.
Notwithstanding the attitude assumed at
in the past by the Grand Lodge of California with respect to the
Grand Bodies of Masonry in Latin countries, the time has now arrived
must be a new examination of the question and a revision of former
past judgments correctly reflected our best thought, but now a new
over the world and the conditions growing out of the Great War compel
us to change
some of our rules and earlier determinations. The time has arrived when
demand that the reality of universal brotherhood be substituted for
phrases and expressions; that we be neither confused nor misled by
catch words for
which we have developed an almost superstitious reverence. Now is the
time for our
institution to show a broad catholicity of spirit and not to reject any
power which holds sway over the affections of men and engages the
attention of the
world, if that power displays the principles of brotherly love, relief
and is working for the benefit and happiness of humanity, and bases
eternal and immutable principles of Freemasonry.
Masonic scholars and jurists are divided in
respecting the recognition of French Masonry. The members of one group
there can be no recognition of these powers because: (a) they are not
and supreme within their territory; (b) that the lodges of obedience of
Lodge of France do not trace their origin to regular Ancient Craft
that the Grand Orient exercises power over degrees other than the first
of Symbolic Masonry; (d) that the Book of Constitutions, instead of the
is found upon the altars of the lodges; (e) that a belief in God and
of the soul is a landmark and is fundamental in Masonry. This group
when a Mason ceases to express a belief in Deity, he ceases to be a
Mason. It also
asserts that an open Bible is an indispensable part of the furniture of
and that these requirements are immovable landmarks. We know that until
most of the Grand Lodges in English-speaking countries were to be found
these principles, and they were supported by innumerable
statutory enactments and utterances of the sages of the Craft.
However, there is the second group, which is
growing in size and importance, which has made new evaluations and
formed new conclusions
since the war has thrust this subject into prominence and caused a
demand for a
better and wiser solution. Your Committee feels that it is in harmony
with the thought
and spirit of this second group. The requirement that lodges must
or immediately from regular organizations of Ancient Craft Masonry does
universal adherence among Grand Bodies. The application of the doctrine
to arrest the growth and development of Masonry in many parts of the
might forever destroy the possibility of universal Masonry. No harm
could be done
by adopting the principle of recognizing, in countries where no
Symbolic Grand Lodge
exists, the lodges and members of a legitimate and regular Supreme
Council. If we
deny the legitimacy of lodges originally founded under the Supreme
Council or Grand
Orient system, then a large part of the territory of the world must,
unrecognized, and we could have no relation with the Masons of South
Italy, Greece, Spain, Belgium and other countries, in all of which
lands are Supreme
Councils recognized by the two Supreme Councils of the United States.
It seems to
your committee that a just rule to apply to the Masonry of Latin
be to recognize lodges and Masons of any country where no Grand Lodge
Masonry exists, provided such lodges and members are of the obedience
of a jurisdiction
recognized by the Supreme Council of that country, and such Supreme
Council is affiliated
with the Supreme Council of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of
for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States.
With respect to acceptance on the part of the
Bodies in Latin countries of the principle of concurrent jurisdiction,
we do not
see why the Grand Lodge of California cannot tolerate the
this subject by such Bodies. It is true that the Grand Orient and Grand
France have not at all times, nor do they now in all respects, comport
in accordance with the standards which we have set for-the regulation
of our principles
and practices, but we have no more right to demand that they accept the
of exclusive territorial jurisdiction than they have to demand that we
principle of concurrent Grand Lodge jurisdiction. Our Latin brethren
seem to live
in fraternal concord under the rule they have seen fit to adopt, and we
that the Grand Orient of France and the Grand Lodge of France,
adoption of this jurisdictional peculiarity, are not weakened in their
and they are doing a great Masonic work in behalf of the distressed, of
of man, of the welfare of humanity and of the advance of civilization.
On the subject of the exercise of authority
of Masonry other than the first three, we merely direct your attention
to the fact
that the Grand Orient of France, prior to 1877, ruled more than three
Masonry, that it placed the Book of Constitutions, instead of the
Bible, upon its
altars, and operated under the same form of government as that in force
at the present
time, and yet, for generations prior to that date, it enjoyed the
and held fraternal relations with the mother Grand Lodge of the world ‒
Grand Lodge of England.
Religious dogmatism was not introduced into
until 1760, when the Holy Bible was, on motion of Preston,* made a
as dear as this alleged landmark is to the hearts of American Masons,
thrust outside the pale of brotherhood good men and true who have not
innovation in the body of Masonry. The form and nature of our rituals
as the same
have developed through the years have operated to fix m the minds of
Masons the belief that Masonry is a religious institution, and that the
a necessary part of the furniture of a Masonic lodge, yet the ritual
itself is not
fundamental, and "its biblical nature is largely due to chance that
chief compilers a French Huguenot and a Scotch Presbyterian. * * * This
apparently indispensable book is quite unnecessary for the validity of
a lodge which
is neither Christian nor Jew." If there has been a departure from the
Constitutions, we, and not our French brethren, have drawn away from
a dogmatic landmark.
When we arrive at the ultimate and basic cause
estrangement of the Anglo-Saxon Masonry and the French Masonry, we find
it to consist
in the religious test applied by the English-speaking lodges and
renounced by the
French lodges. The Grand Master of Louisiana, in addressing the Grand
Lodge in 1918,
"I submit, my brethren, that in the
of the position of our French brethren regarding their interpretation
philosophy, English-speaking Masonry is clearly in the wrong, and we as
should be ready to admit it. While French Masonry is religiously
tolerant, it is
not in itself a religion in the restrictive sense of the word. It
proclaims no dogma;
it demands no profession; it respects all opinions, and in that
tolerance is an
exemplar of that true religion which is the basis of Freemasonry ‒ the
of mankind, which leads us through love of our fellowmen a spark of His
‒ to the love, honor and glory of the Great Architect of the Universe."
It is held by many of our best thinkers that no
creed or religious observances should be made an issue in any matter
connected with religion; that Freemasonry is not a religion and,
therefore, a religious
test should not be applied to it, and that while it is perfectly
competent for any
Masonic body to require such confession of faith from its own members
as it deems
expedient, yet it should not refuse the name of brother to those who
act on truly
Masonic principles, but do not demand any confession of religious faith
as a condition
It is not possible for us, as deeply attached
are to our rituals, forms and professions, to affirm with any surety
that we would take on the subject of religion, if we were unhappily
a Catholic country, in the midst of an antagonistic population and
subject to the
vicious and continuous attacks of powerful ecclesiastical and illiberal
Our brethren in France suffer from slanderous reports and accusations
and are the
objects of hatred and persecution. They should have our sympathy and we
to view with brotherly concern the measures they have in good faith
references to the Deity have been stricken from the French
Constitutions and the
Bible does not lie upon French altars, your Committee has no more right
French Masonry godless and atheistic than it has to assert that the
people of the
United States are godless and atheistic because there is no reference
to the Deity
in their Constitution, or that the schools of our country are atheistic
the Bible is not taught therein. We are not disposed to reverence the
sentiments nor admire the Christian kindness of the German militarists,
how loudly and frequently they call upon God; but, on the other hand,
in the charity and tolerance and brotherly love and love of liberty of
French brethren, who have omitted the name but not the service of God
rituals and Constitutions, and who are fighting for the very essence of
Noble France is in the very forefront of the great fight for humanity
and is aiding
in no uncertain or impotent way the great cause of Masonic brotherhood
and the universality
of Freemasonry. We are very hopeful that our French brethren, having
into new and intimate relations with their American brethren, will in
the near future,
out of a new-born love for us, and inspired by a fraternal desire for a
union, alter their Constitutions and rituals to more nearly conform to
bind in fraternal bonds the hearts of more than a million American
It is the belief of your Committee that the
of California should retain the policy it adopted in 1913, hereinbefore
as the test to be applied to any Grand Lodge of an English-speaking
our recognition, but that such test should not hereafter be the measure
to Grand Lodges situated in the Latin countries of the world. That each
for recognition made by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient located overseas
or in South
America should be considered by this Grand Lodge on its merits, and
that if it appears
that such Grand Body exercises authority over the three degrees of
and is recognized as a sovereign power over its lodges and members, and
its adherence to the principles of brotherly love, relief and truth,
and is engaged
in the promotion of the happiness of mankind and the brotherhood of
man, then, unless
objections of a character other than dogmatic appear, such Grand Body
entitled to recognition. We believe that the Grand Lodge of California
unceasingly in behalf of the universality of Masonry and should strive
fraternal relations between all the legitimate powers of Masonry in the
to this end should examine into the regularity and Masonic character of
Bodies with which it is not now in fraternal correspondence.
Your Committee respectfully recommends the
of the following:
- That the
action taken by this Grand Lodge in 1869, by which fraternal relations
Grand Orient of France were severed and forbidden, be, and is hereby
- That the
Grand Lodge of California is hereby declared to be in fraternal accord
with the Grand Orient of France, and that an exchange of
representatives be requested
of said Grand Orient.
- That the
Grand Lodge of California is hereby declared to be in fraternal accord
with the Grand Lodge of France, and that an exchange of representatives
of that Grand Lodge.
- That the
principles enunciated by this Grand Lodge in 1913 as tests for the
other Grand Lodges, be, and the same are applicable only to Grand
Lodges of English-speaking
countries, and that as to the Grand Lodges and Grand Orients of other
each application be considered upon its merits with relation to the
the applicant and with a view to doing full and complete Masonic
permission granted by resolution in 1917 to our brethren to hold
with the Masons in Belgium and Italy and to visit any of their lodges,
until the further order of this Grand Lodge.
* Preston could not have introduced this
he was not made a Mason until 1762. ‒ Editor.
Rest – [A Poem]
L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
your weary feet
shall have reached at last their toilsome journey's end
It will be to you the priceless gift of your best and truest friend, ‒
'Twill be nature's way to speak to you the word that sounds the best
When she kisses you her fond good-bye and sweetly whispers, ‒ Rest.
"Words and Realities"
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
Being thoughts evoked by the Report of the
on Recognition of Foreign Grand Lodges of the Grand Lodge of Missouri.
THE REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF THE GRAND LODGE
ON THE RECOGNITION OF FRENCH MASONRY
In reference to the question of fraternal
with the Grand Orient and the Grand Lodge of France, as suggested by
the Grand Master
in his address, your Committee regrets the necessity of differing with
Master in this matter. The Grand Lodge of Missouri has twice refused to
for reasons fully set forth in each report. No additional reason or
data has been
submitted to the Committee to cause it to change its mind.
Because our country is an ally of France in
War does not constitute a reason or justification for the recognition
Freemasonry. This war is a national struggle for the principles of
against Aristocracy, and a philosophy of life that is the father of
war is not a Masonic war; we, as Freemasons, are heart and soul in this
war to assist
France to save and maintain her national existence and not to propagate
by the recognition of irregular organizations that once were Masonic.
There is no more reason for the recognition of
Orient or the Grand Lodge of France, than for the Methodists,
any other church to throw aside its creed, and admit men of no faith or
merely because members of such a church, as patriots, are with France
in her struggle.
Your Committee cannot conceive of such a
condition of recognizing as Masonic, because of the war, an
organization that we
would not and could not recognize in times of peace. We cannot make
regular, neither can it place its seal of legality upon illegality.
It is true, as stated by our Grand Master, that
the Grand Master of the Grand Orient said: "Our tenets are, God, the
of the soul and brotherly love." Would that the Grand Orient had
to this noble and inspiring declaration, but in 1877 Freemasonry of
She struck from her constitution these tenets, divorced God and faith
in the immortality
of the soul, and enthroned Reason as its God.
In 1877 the constitution of the Grand Orient of
declared that, "The basis of Masonry was a belief in God and the
of the soul." This basis was deliberately stricken out and there was
therefor the following: "The basis of Freemasonry is freedom of
The reason for this radical departure was
by one of the leading Frenchmen, that the old declaration was a barrier
to the admission
of many distinguished men. May we ask, what was the barrier to which
to become Freemasons, objected? It could be nothing but a belief in God
immortality of the soul. When a man does not believe in God and the
of the soul, what is he? Is he not an atheist? Has a professed atheist
initiated into a lodge in Missouri? No. Shall we, therefore, stultify
now, because of the war by recognizing an organization that calls
yet has stricken from its constitution a belief in God and the
immortality of souls?
The Grand Orient and the Grand Lodge of France
never receded from this action, taken in 1877, nor reaffirmed her
to 1877. The specious arguments or excuses for her action in 1877, that
it was due
to the oppression of the hierarchy and priestcraft of the Catholic
not bear investigation. Because of the religion of Jesus Christ has
and misused is no argument for the rejection of the purity and
genuineness of the
teachings of the Great Master.
The excuse for this atheistic Freemasonry in
is puerile. There is no excuse, however specious the pleadings of her
may be, for the striking from her constitution belief in God and the
of the soul. When the first Grand Lodge of Masons was born in 1717, its
of religious belief was distinctly Trinitarian Christianity. In 1723
when the Anderson
Constitutions were adopted Trinitarian-Christianity was changed,
was deemed expedient to bind men to that religion in which all men
What was this religion in which all men agree? It surely was not in a
God, but it was a belief in God, divested of all sectarian bias.
Has the Grand Orient and the Grand Lodge of
as some of their champions declare, to this simple faith of the Mother
of the World? No, but it has deliberately stricken out the religion in
men can agree and has not returned to first principles. Religion means
A few years ago this Grand Lodge recognized the
Independent Grand Lodge of France and her colonies. Why? Because the
a constitutional number, that formed this Grand Lodge, refused to
remove the Bible
from its altars, and also required a belief in God. This Grand Lodge
in France and it is the only one that has not deviated from the great
of Freemasonry. It is an active Grand Lodge.
Your Committee can state that one of its
Rouen, has conferred by request, the degrees on one of the boys of
No. 282 of this city. Anglaise Lodge, Paris, has been visited by the
Masons of this
country and they found it working and occupying quarters in the Temple.
Anglaise and other lodges are legitimate lodges and under the
jurisdiction of the
National Independent Grand Lodge of France. This Grand Lodge is
recognized as legitimate
and regular by the United Grand Lodge of England and by the Grand Lodge
Shall the Grand Lodge of Missouri, who has
her fraternal hand across the seas to the only legitimate Grand Lodge
stultify herself by giving recognition to the Grand Lodges of France to
National Independent Grand Lodge refused to bow her knee in godless
No. The Grand Lodge of Missouri must be true to her best traditions,
the heritage of nearly one hundred years; she cannot play the traitor
to the National
Independent Grand Lodge of France by the kiss of affection and also
guide the hand
that would stab her in the back.
Your Committee can but repeat what it said one
"Your Committee holds now, as it has in the
that a belief in Deity and the 'Open Book of the Law' on our altars is
fundamental principle of the Fraternity of Freemasons. To recognize
means chaos and anarchy. For this reason, your Committee must again
to the Grand Lodge of France and the Grand Orient. "Your Committee is
of the heroic struggle in which the soldiers of France are now engaged.
of the United States our hearts beat in unison with the brave men of
and as citizens of the great Republic we have pledged our all to the
people of the
Republic of France. The ashes of the heroes of our country and of
France may mingle
in the blood-drenched soil of that fair land, the grass may grow green
graves and the flowers may bear beautiful testimony to the valor of men
in a common cause. We are willing to make the sacrifice, and sincerely
pray that out of it will be born a new Grand Orient, which will
recognize the God
who gave them victory, and will replace on its altars that book which
has been the
solace, comfort and stay of her own soldiers on the battlefront and in
WM. F. KUHN,
CHARLES C. WOODS,
JAS. W. BOYD,
WM. A. HALL.
FOR THE brethren whose names are signed to this
as well as for the position which they set forth so ably and sincerely,
I have the
utmost respect. Nevertheless, with the utmost good will I must dissent
If from one point of view the writers of the Report seem to have a
from a larger outlook they have no case at all. In point of fact, it is
about words, not about realities; and this is a day when every
is to observe the modern world must face realities.
True, "this is not a Masonic war"; but Masonry,
if it is not hopelessly immobile and antiquated, will be profoundly
it. Neither was it an American war ‒ America did not start it, and she
and patiently to keep out of it. No, it was a world war, and never
again will the
world be the same. Little issues about which men were so talkative a
while ago are
forgotten, and we wonder why they ever agitated us.
America found that the historic policy of
was obsolete. She not only entered the war, she entered the world ‒ and
if it is to have the great future to which it is entitled, must do the
island of the sea, however remote, but has felt the shock of war. No
no child on earth but have had extra burdens laid on their backs by
reason of it.
The world has been together as never before into a brotherhood of
peril, pain, and
immeasurable sorrow, and the one thought in all minds is how to
organize the future
so as to prevent another disaster of like kind. A League of Nations?
Yes, but a
League of Nations without a League of Masons would show that our
unequal to the demands of an advancing world.
As it is, there are things that Masonry cannot
it cannot wield, voices it cannot utter, moral demands it cannot make,
it cannot render, because it is divided; because it has no real sense
of world unity,
opportunity, and obligation. Even British and American Masonry, the one
from the other, and having so much in common, have not made themselves
heard as they might have done; and the war has made us see the
handicap. This is
the more strange because Masonry, by its very genius ‒ to say nothing
of its claims
‒ is an international institution, and should render a real service as
this opportunity, which is also an obligation, no argument can long
of all when it is a mere difference about words.
When in 1877 the Grand Orient of France removed
Bible from its altar and erased from its rituals all reference to
Deity, it was
disfellowshiped by nearly all Grand Lodges. The implication was that
brethren were stupid, irreligious atheists, and at such a thought the
held up its hands in holy horror, whereas they should have made some
least, to understand their brethren before withdrawing fellowship. Were
Masons atheists? No! The writer of the article on Masonry in the
Encyclopaedia" saw the real situation, and he is much fairer to the
Masons than their own brethren have been. He understood that the act of
Masons did not mean that they were atheists, or that they did not
believe that there
exist atheists in the absolute sense of the word. He quotes Albert Pike
of his point:
"A man who has a higher conception of God than
those about him, and who denies that their conception is God, is very
be called an atheist by those who are really far less believers in God
(Morals and Dogma, p. 643.)
Thus, Pike goes on to say, the early
said the heathen idols were not gods, were accounted atheists, and
to death. Socrates suffered a like fate, as many have done since,
victims of the
same blindness. Just so, French Masons, like Plutarch, held that no
God is better than a dark, distorted conception which wraps men in
terror; and they
erased a word which, for them, was synonymous with spiritual autocracy
superstition ‒ erased it the better to seek unity of effort and freedom
in behalf of a nobler faith.
One may feel that their action was unwise, but
us to understand their position and point of view, lest we be found
guilty ‒ and,
indeed, we were guilty ‒ of a petty bigotry in regard to a word when
is common treasure. Our brethren in France were engaged in a heroic and
fight against Latin ecclesiasticism and they needed the aid of all free
men to bring about the overthrow of that power and the separation of
State. Wisely or unwisely, they erased from their rituals a word made
them by its associations with the perversions of that ecclesiasticism,
they were atheists, but because they denied that such a caricature of
God is God
‒ denied it, because they held a nobler, truer, purer conception of
One of a hundred names.” The truth is that we simply deserted them at a
they most needed our sympathy and the reinforcement of our brotherly
How strange that I, a Christian minister,
be arguing in behalf of my brethren in France, and defending them
against the charge
of atheism. Yet it is so, and so it should be, because the landmark for
French brethren fought is of far more importance than any technicality
as to the
word by which we shall describe the indescribable all words being but
a truth too great for words. And the same is true as to the "Open Book
Law" on our altar. Some of us love it, live with it, expounding it in
keys and tones as we can command; but we know that it is but a symbol
of that larger
Will of the Eternal which no book, nor all the books in the word, can
fullness. There is whole book in the Bible in which the name of God
does not appear.
Yet the thought of a Supreme Being is there, and the sustained
suggestions of His
providence, as it is in the rituals of French Masonry. If only men
could get behind
words to the realities!
"Slowly the Bible
of the race is writ,
And not on paper leaves nor leaves of stone;
Each age, each kindred, adds a word to it,
Texts of despair or hope, of joy or moan."
A living word of God has been speaking to us in
"long-lived storm of great events", if we have ears to hear and hearts
to heed; a word not only for our personal life, but a word calling us
to a new comradeship,
a new unity of friendship of peoples. Masonry must listen to that Word
it, undertaking new adventures, or it will be left behind among the
that are no longer of use to the heroic, pathetic, aspiring,
of man. Such is the new atmosphere, the new demand, asking not for
for appreciation, for intelligent sympathy and understanding ‒ an air
Masonry and friendly to all its true interests and endeavors.
The Human Interest of History
IT MAY be that some of us have come to think of
as one of the hardest and driest of subjects: if so I am quite sure it
in school we read so-called histories which were mere chronicles of
and political events interspersed with numberless dates, all of which
we were compelled
to learn by heart. If we think of such a book as being a history let us
disillusion ourselves for in matter of fact there is no other thing
more entrancing, than a real history, a record of the past, or some
part of the
past, written by a man fully informed, endowed with imagination and
"the divine power to use words." A book in which the past lives again,
in which we meet, as in a drawing room, with the mighty ones who have
tides of events, and with the nameless multitudes of our fellows who
on this strange earth a while then vanished like shadows into the
unseen ‒ what
could strike on the mind with such power! what could more excite the
Unlike fiction, history is a record of actual
for that reason alone it is necessarily more interesting than any work
because there is never anything so strange, so mysterious, so
unexpected as a fact.
Jack London drew from his fancy a picture of some arch-villain, with
his mind set
on ruling the world, discovered a deadly disease bacillus and then
mounted an aeroplane
to scatter it over enemy lands: does that tale grip us half so closely
as the true
account of Pasteur's discovery of the germ origin of disease? does it
half as much as the tale of how the belligerent in this present war
unheard of schemes for dealing death to their foes?
Moreover, history, even a history of some one
of the past, is always a larger, richer canvas than any work of
"War and Peace" [Lib 1869], Hugo's "Les Miserables" [Lib 1900,
3 Volumes], Sienkiewicz's trilogy of Polish novels [Lib
1894-1919; 8 Volumes],
Balzac's "Comedie Humaine" [Lib 1900; 25 Volumes], Eugene Sue's
of historical novels [Lib 1844/46; 8 Volumes], these contain
and develop a larger series of actions than any other works of modern
yet how meagre they are, how almost microscopic they appear, when laid
Gibbon's "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire" [Lib 2016. 6
or Motley's "Rise of the Dutch Republic"! [Lib 1909, 3 Volumes]
If the fictionist's story of one's life, and
imaginary life, can interest us, how much more the biography or the
of some strong personality that has actually lived, how much more
history as a whole
which is nothing other than the biography of the human race! I believe
that if a
man will read Professor Breasted's "Ancient History" [Lib 1916] or Winwood Reade's
"Martyrdom of Man" [Lib 1872] (of this book Cecil Rhodes
said, "It made me
what I am!") he will agree that there is not any novel of such gripping
he will agree with Henry James, himself a novelist, when he says, "The
significant footnote of history stirs me more than the most thrilling
fiction. Nothing that ever happened in the world finds me indifferent."
One of the secrets of the interest of history,
we have discovered that interest, is that it enables each of us to
become a traveler,
such a traveler as no globetrotter ever was or ever could be. We would
it a rare privilege could we go today from country to country and have
of the various peoples of the earth in all the variety of their daily
through history we can travel not only over the world as it is now but
the world as it has been, over all the lands and into all the nations,
and thousands of them; we can escape out of our own century into every
We can enter the caves of the troglodytes, there to watch them at the
which men pursued in the beginnings of things; we can go thence to the
the Medes, the Parthians, the Babylonians, the Grecians, the Chinese,
the Romans, the Jews; we can enter the council chambers of all the
all the wars, go on voyagings to unknown places, we can go up and down
and in and
out whithersoever we will! All English readers have been spellbound by
old tale of the motley pilgrims who went to Canterbury: but what a
is that which passes before the man who reads the records of the past!
All the vanished
peoples that have ever lived, in all the fantastic variety of their
manners, coming from the four quarters of the earth, will pass before
him in a pageant
which, for its subduing solemnity, its tragic grandeur, its infinite
far surpasses the utmost reach of imagination as Shakespeare surpasses
tale told by the fireside on a winter night.
But history is practical as well as
the scientist would carry out his experiments he goes into a
with all necessary apparatus, and there tests his theories by
what the laboratory is to the scientist, history is to the student of
and all the varied activities of the race. In it we can see every
theory of government,
of religion, of politics, of sociology, or art and conduct being tried
out; we can
see the world making experiments of its own hypotheses; we can note
what proves of value, and what, on the other hand, proves worthless.
we can ourselves be on guard against errors, for many of the notions,
the highflown theories which often bid for attention to-day are nothing
ancient fallacies long exploded, the ghosts of which have come again in
a new and
deceptive disguise. A wise man's mind will refuse to embrace that which
of the race has once and for all shown to be an error.
It seems that no theory has ever been too
for men to try; oftentimes these theories have been clung to, in a
to make them work, for thousands of years, after which long period of
have been compelled to acknowledge them untrue. Such was astrology,
which so many
multitudes held to for so many thousands of years; such was alchemy,
with its unnatural
attempt to wrest gold from the base metals; after these two things have
so thoroughly what man in his senses will undertake them again? Yet
there are many
other errors which men still accept, which they may still preach and
that have been as decisively disproven in the laboratory of history;
and one who
knows what has been tried in the past will be the last one to be led
astray by them
in the present, for history enables us to avoid futile effort! Nothing
us more against the errors of the present than a thorough knowledge of
to see what has been done in history's laboratory is to help us, to a
extent, from attempting the impossible and that is a thing of the very
It was one of Emerson's favorite ideas that
mind is a kind of epitome of all history: there is a little Napoleon in
us; the Shakespeare of the dramas speaks to a Shakespeare latent in the
the wars, the national movements of the past, reveal, as in a mirror,
goes on in our own minds. There may be something fantastic in this
idea, we may
agree that it is over-stated, for no individual can possibly have such
for experiences as the race has had; nevertheless, there is surely an
truth in it, for history does help us to understand ourselves, not only
reason that Emerson gives but also because each of us is but a part of
race is a whole.
The greatest utterance of the nineteenth
has said, was the saying by Herbert Spencer that "Humanity is an
August Comte was expressing the same idea when he called humanity The
What an idea it is! Humanity is an organism, the individual is but one
cell in that
organism: as a cell in the human body could not possibly comprehend its
except through a knowledge of the body as a whole, so we cannot
understand the purposes,
the ideals, and the functions of our own individual existence except we
of the race as a whole. In history we see our race not as a multitude
units but as a living whole, as a great organism, and thereby we can
comprehend our own individual lives. Unless a man knows the road the
race has travelled
he cannot know the road he himself is travelling; unless a man knows
what it is
that the race is striving to do he cannot know what is his own larger
To know ourselves we should know the career of that Great Being of
which each of
us is so microscopic a part.
Because the race is an organic unit we must
all time and of all racial experience as an unbroken continuity: for
our rough every-day
convenience it is necessary to divide time into the past, the present
and the future:
but in reality, as needs not be said, there is no such division: time
is a flowing
stream and there is not a break from the beginning to the end:
yesterday flows into
to-day, to-day will flow into the future. What is grows up inevitably
out of that
which has been: what will be grows out of that which is.
How foolish, therefore, to speak of the past as
Much of it has been forgotten: much of it, because of the limitations
of our minds,
must be ignored, but not for that reason has any of it ceased to be:
the past is
living still so that what men thought and said and did in the beginning
will live and function and bear influence in the world until the end is
And because time is an unbroken continuity,
the past continues to live on into the future, we must see that what we
is nothing other than one great task at which all peoples have been
on which all present and future generations must continue to labor. We
ourselves off from the work of our fathers; we cannot wipe clean the
slate and begin
anew. Civilization may be likened to one of the old cathedrals not one
was designed by any individual or completed by one group of men, but
grew into shape
out of the minds of many minds and the labors of many generations: the
one period laid the foundations, those of the next period put up the
following generation built the roof and dome, and others coming still
the spires and hung the bells. So it is with that massive, that almost
structure of civilization; its foundations were laid in a far foretime
since, generation after generation, countless men have labored at the
nor is the task yet in sight of completion, if indeed it can ever be
our generation has its part to play, even as our children will have
and their children, theirs and so on until the last generation of men
that may live.
In short, we cannot understand the present, its problems or its duties,
know the past.
The unbroken organic unity of all history,
seems to me, is the central law, the deep inner truth of all history.
delivered his famous oration on Universal History he used the phrase,
concatenation of events," suggesting thereby that every event is tied
other event that has preceded it as one link in a chain is bound to all
links: it is by this insight, and by this alone, that we can understand
aright. No world occurrence operates alone; as the red and white
corpuscles of the
blood flow through the whole blood stream and pass through every part
of the body
so every historical influence passes into relationship with all other
and thus is the life of the race a living whole.
You can test this for yourselves by trying to
the roots of any great epoch; you work your way back to what seems to
be the beginning
of that epoch only to discover that its beginnings link on to a
until at last your search will lead you back to the beginning of the
even there you cannot stop for the race's beginning links on to the
out of which the race evolved, and those lower orders in turn rise up
out of the
bosom of nature, and nature rises up out of the Eternal Mystery out of
things have come. In a true sense the whole world is the cause of every
happens inside the world; the entire universe itself conspired to
that lives in it.
Thus it turns out that each of us individuals
himself only as he sees himself as a part of the stupendous whole; any
is a false perspective; so also with any given period of time; that
be studied against its own backgrounds else its meanings will entirely
All of us, I believe, have discovered this to
of the Great War which has already constituted itself as an historical
to none in importance. To understand the War we must understand that
out of which the War grew. The story of Poland and Russia, the struggle
of the Slavs
in south-eastern Europe, the evolution of the Balkan situation, the
history of Turkey,
the development of a united Germany out of the numerous little German
seventy-five years ago, the work of Bismarck, Disraeli and Cavour, the
revolution, the founding of America, the Franco-Prussian War, these are
but a few
of the numerous subjects with which we should be familiar if we are to
causes and issues of the Great War in all their fullness. Therefore is
it that no
subject is at the present more worthy of study than history; and in
the War grips us with its interest so will we find that history itself,
the mother of this War, which is the mother of us all, will have for us
interest far beyond that of any other subject with which our minds can
All that I have said about history in general
certainly true of Masonic history in which myself and readers are
surely most interested.
How interesting it is only those know who have read it, at least, those
hit upon the real histories of it; our own past is organic; beginning
with the Men's
House in far-off days, coming on down through the Mysteries, the
medieval builders, and all the rest, it hangs together as a living
whole; to understand
any part thereof requires that we know something of the entire body.
And for us,
also, our own history has been a kind of laboratory in which
experiments have been
made; many things have been tested and found living and perpetually
worthy of worth;
other things have been found wanting. Therefore, to understand our
problems in the
present it is very essential that we have a comprehensive grasp of the
There is no need to particularize but I cannot
from indicating one lesson which we have learned in the laboratory of
Masonic history. We are all regretting that our fraternity with its
nearly two million
members was not able to achieve greater things in the course of the
war; have we
inquired the reason for this? Is it not because we are forty-nine
than one Masonry? How could the government deal with forty-nine
If we are to learn anything from our own past surely we must see that
the time has
come for the establishment of some kind of a loose but efficient
where through all the Blue Lodge jurisdictions of the country can
combined influences. Not for a moment is it proposed that any Grand
Lodge is to
be shorn of any of its own authority or power! Far from it! But, as the
of this Society has so well said in a recently published communication,
it is possible
to build up some kind of a League of Grand Lodges so as to enable
the occasion requires, to speak to the country in one voice. If we can,
days, achieve the formation of such a League, we shall be thereby
enabled to add
a chapter to the history of American Masonry which will its future will
H. L. Haywood.
Roll Up Your Sleeves – [A Poem]
Detroit Free Press
the scoffers scoff,
and the mockers mock,
And the knockers stand at the side and knock,
Just roll up your sleeves and buckle in,
And stick to your task, and you're bound to win.
If the thing's worthwhile you are sure to hear
The doubters doubt and the jeerers jeer;
For never a victor has arisen yet
But somewhere the jibes of the wise has met.
So, deaf to the scoffers, just work along,
And stick to your dream till you know it's wrong,
And toss them a smile when you hear folks mock;
It's a healthy sign when the knockers knock.
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
The object of this Department is to acquaint
with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the best
now being published; and with such non-Masonic books as may especially
Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to render any possible
studious individuals or to study clubs and lodges, either through this
or by personal correspondence; if you wish to learn something
concerning any book
‒ what is its nature, what is its value, or how it may be obtained ‒ be
ask him. If you have read a book which you think is worth a review
write us about
it; if you desire to purchase a book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get
no charge for the service. Make this your Department of Literary
‒ A New Journal
MASONRY evolved out of the experience of the
began when civilization began and has maintained itself, under a
ever since; linking onto many other worthful institutions, ramifying
into all other
fields of thought and endeavor, equipped with a symbolism in which is
loftiest and best ideas and ideals; as an influence it is endless, and
as a field
for study it is inexhaustible. For this reason every attempt to present
to interpret its teachings, and to tell its story is to be welcomed,
from any source
whatever, and in any form; in a field so large there is room for a
laborers; one student helps another; one book or periodical lends
every other book and periodical.
Therefore is it that we bid God-speed to
Notes," the latest comer among Masonic Journals; there is no need to
it nor to explain its purposes because its founder and editor has done
in his introduction to the first number, (November, 1918,) which is as
A short foreword is necessary to explain the
of this new Masonic publication and to give the reasons which have
prompted me to
In May, 1911, the late Brother E. L. Hawkins,
of "A Concise Cyclopaedia of Freemasonry," [Lib*] brought out a
serial in England called "Miscellanea Latomorum, or Masonic Notes and
with the idea of facilitating intercommunication between Masonic
students on matters
of interest. Any subscriber who was looking for information on any
point (not of
too esoteric a nature) connected with the various Masonic degrees vitas
to send a query to the editor. This query was published, and so came to
of others who might be in the position to submit a reply, which would
a succeeding issue. In addition, brief notes on Masonic matters of
Brother Hawkins stated in his introductory
his object in putting forward the scheme was partly to supply a want
that he thought
must exist and partly to create a want that he thought ought to exist
if it did
not. The result was gratifying, and the publication continued until
death in April, 1913.
In August of that year, Brother F. W. Levander
a new series of the same publication, bringing out nine copies each
year, and this
was continued successfully until Brother Levander died in December,
My intention is to issue this serial on the
but I must make it quite clear that this is an entirely independent
and has no connection whatever with the former work. I feel that there
is a great
need for a small periodical of this nature, and believe that I am in a
to launch it into the Masonic world. Being a student of Masonic history
in England for many years, I am well acquainted with Masonic work in
and have been brought into touch with many Masonic centers both in the
and in the United States since my advent to this country in 1916.
There are a great number of small differences
the work in England and that in America, which are of particular
interest at the
present time, when there are so many Canadian and American Masons
bonds between the Grand Lodges of the various Allied Powers have never
than they are now, and a work such as this, which will bring Masons on
of the water into contact, cannot fail to be of interest to a great
I shall endeavor to get subscribers in as many
as possible, in order to get varied views on the points which will
Queries on all degrees will be welcome,
are not of too esoteric nature. Notes of general interest are also
in this connection I should state that the intention is to exclude all
history, as the publication of this matter is already sufficiently
and I do not wish to compete with the regular Masonic press or the
of any literary lodge. The serial will also include a Sale and Exchange
Masonic books, etc., through which subscribers can give notice of their
charge. Nine copies will be issued during the year, and the
subscription will be
one dollar per annum, payable in advance.
Brethren who join during the year will receive
numbers published in that particular year. In order to encourage
Brethren to place
the periodical in the hands of likely subscribers, I will send it free
for one year
to any Brother who sends in three subscriptions; in other words, four
be given for the price of three.
The future of this publication depends more
subscribers than it does upon the editor, and I will take the
opportunity of asking
those who read this issue to introduce it to friends whom they think it
Specimen copies will be provided on application. At the same time, I
wish to thank
those who are helping to introduce the publication into new spheres.
C. C. Adams,
Royal Military College,
All communications with regard to this
be addressed to the editor,
CAPTAIN C.C. ADAMS, M.C., R.E.,
* * *
The Ancient Mysteries Again
"The Mystery Religions and the New Testament," [Lib 1918] by Henry
C. Sheldon. Published by the Abingdon Press of New York and Cincinnati.
Dr. Sheldon begins with the following
the Ancient Mystery Cults: "The word mystery' was the name of a
founded, not on citizenship or kindred, but on the choice of its
members, for the
practice of rites by which, it was believed, their happiness might be
in this world and in the next. The Greek word 'mustarian' does not, of
its own force,
imply anything in our sense of the word 'mysterious,' that is to say,
difficult to comprehend. That which it connotes is, rather, something
only be known on being imparted by someone already in possession of it,
not by mere
reason and research which are common to all."
The cults, which are thus described, were in
the Greek and Roman world all during the early period of Christianity
are many who have traced, or who have sought to trace, their influence
new faith. The author of this little volume undertakes to examine this
He begins by an acknowledgement of the
our sources of information. What we do actually know about the
shows that they borrowed much from each other, were voluntary
more importance in liturgical rites than in moral teachings, employed
somewhat pantheistic, and were usually based on some nature myth. Each
had its own
peculiarities but such were the elements common, more or less, to all.
Dr. Sheldon admits that there are many apparent
of agreement between these cults and Christianity; they emphasized the
of a future life, used many rites similar to those employed by the
taught theories comparable to the eschatological doctrines of the
church, and one
and all led men into allegiance with a divine person. But while all
this may have
prepared men for Christianity it does not imply, the author argues, any
indebtedness on the part of Christianity. These features are pretty
common to all
forms of religion.
The contrast between Christianity and the cults
more striking than their agreements. They were occult in nature,
open to all, irrespective of race or sex; it made no use of nature
myths but set
forth a God altogether above nature; it gave little or no place at all
to the use
of magic, and built its system on a very strong moral foundation;
moreover, it sprang
from its own unique origins and did not, as the Mysteries,
from other religions.
Dr. Sheldon shows that St. Paul employed many
in use among the Mysteries but holds that these same terms were
familiar to philosophers,
to other religions, and to the Hebrew literature in which St. Paul's
mind was so
steeped; therefore it cannot be shown that he deliberately borrowed
from the cults.
And even where his terms are the same as theirs, the ideas behind the
altogether different; by "initiate” he did not mean what the Mysteries
nor by "baptism," "regeneration," “Gnosticism," and so
on. "Anyone," our author says, "who can discover in their bizarre
and variegated mythology an equivalent for the Pauline doctrine of
be gifted with peculiar eyesight." What is said of St. Paul, he holds,
more true of the unknown author of the New Testament writings
attributed to John.
In this general position Dr. Sheldon is in
agreement with the recognized authorities on the subject, such as
and Foucart. His study is elementary in form and size but it is of
value to those
who desire a little introduction to a vast and fascinating topic,
those who are Masonic students; for the Mysteries, as we all know,
stand in the
line of those early organizations through which our Fraternity traces
The volume has nothing to say about Masonry, of course, but it throws
on our origins, or supposed origins, and may therefore be cheerfully
to our readers.
* * *
A Little Book about a Great
"The Teachings of Jesus," [Lib 1918] by Harris Franklin
Rall. Published by the Abingdon Press of Cincinnati and New York at 75
Often we have been asked by our readers to
a little handbook of the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth; willing as we
try to be
in all such service we have hesitated to approve any book because so
many of them
are either too technical for laymen or such as to entirely ignore all
of modern biblical scholarship; here, at last, is a volume of 200 pages
be most heartily vouched for at the entrance to every broad and
Dr. Rall has divided his study into twenty-six
in text-book fashion; at the end of each is a short series of questions
so as to aid those who care to use the manual in class work; but those
for neither text-book nor class manual will find it always interesting,
and fearless in its positions. The dogmas about which we wrangle so
much and of
which we know so little are either in the background or entirely
absent; and, while
the technicalities of a scholarship are not permitted to encumber the
book itself implies thorough training on the part of its author. Dr.
of Jesus" [Lib 1917] had a
very wide and richly deserved success; we predict as much for the
Life – [A Poem]
aching hands and
We dig and heap, lay stone on stone;
We bear the burden and the heat
Of the long day and wish 'twere done.
Not till the hours of light return
All we have built do we discern.
The Question Box
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a
of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one
school of Masonic
thought as over against another; but offers to all alike a medium for
and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits. The
and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at all
of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from our
those connected with lodges or study Clubs which are following our
Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be answered
by mail before publication in this department.
Lodge and Membership Statistics
of the United States.
Where can I find statistics relative to the
Masons in the United States, also the number of lodges?
R. H. A, New
For the information of our New Jersey brother
as others to whom the figures may be of interest, we give below a
taken from the Illinois Grand Lodge Proceedings for 1918:
| Grand Lodge
|| Net Gain
| District of Columbia
| New Hampshire
| New Jersey
| New Mexico
| New York
| North Carolina
| North Dakota
| Philippine Islands
| Porto Rico
| Rhode Island*
| South Carolina
| South Dakota
| West Virginia
| Total U. S
* Figures 1917
* * *
The American Representatives
at the Armistice Conference
I am enclosing a clipping referring to General
General T. H. Bliss, Admiral W. S. Benson, Admiral Henry T. Mayo and
M. House, the representatives sent by President Wilson to the armistice
in France. How many of these men are Masons?
W.W. D., West
Our latest information concerning General
to the effect that he was dimitted but has since been reinstated in the
and is now in good standing. We are trying to confirm this and also to
Masonic history and hope to have it for the February issue.
A Washington member of the Society to whom we
your query advises us that while he has been personally acquainted for
with General Bliss and Admiral Mayo, he does not think they are Masons.
brother, who has sailed the seas with Admiral Benson, says that he is a
Roman Catholic by marriage. He was raised a Methodist and has several
* * *
A High Priest In Need Of
Help, Aid and Assistance.
Can you help me? I have just been elected High
of my Royal Arch Chapter and want to revive it during the coming year.
been a woeful lack of interest in the work here for several years and
it has been
difficult to secure sufficient attendance for a quorum at the meetings.
can you suggest to get the members to turn out and to interest the
officers in learning
their ritualistic work?
Companion, there are others in the same boat
There surely must be a number of Past High Priests among the 50,000
readers of THE
BUILDER who will give those who have been selected to preside over
for the coming year, the results of their experiences in such matters.
Come forward, Companions, with your suggestions!
* * *
Material for a Saint John's
Will you kindly assist me in arranging for a
for St. John's Day, December 27th, in naming a few appropriate subjects
occasion and works of reference from which to obtain the material?
J. B. California.
"The Two Saints John," in Gould's Concise
History [Lib 1904] tells
how our Fraternity came to make use of the festivals dedicated to these
Newton's "The Builders," contains some valuable notes on the same. They
may be used to represent law and light.
"The Meaning of Masonry." Ask Brother Newton
R. Parvin, Grand Librarian, Iowa Masonic Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa,
to send you
Brother Newton's two pamphlets.
"Masonry and the War." From the files of almost
any Masonic periodical you can get material for such a talk.
"Masonic Study: Its Pleasures and Practical
THE BUILDER has carried a number of articles on this, all of which
could be drawn
upon for materials and suggestions. A speaker could give an
interpretation of some
symbol or rite in order to give a demonstration of his theme. I have
done this before
many lodges and Grand Bodies and have found it very acceptable.
A biographical study of Pike or Webb would also
interest and value; nearly any Masonic library could furnish books and
H. L. H.
* * *
Material for a Lecture on
the Fellow Craft Degree.
Are there any articles in back numbers of THE
on the ritual of the Fellow Craft degree? I am to make a talk before
Club of our State University and want some worth-while data for these
Volume I (1915). ‒ Page 7, "The Philosophy of
‒ William Preston."
Volume II (1916). ‒ Page 239, "The Winding Stairway."
Volume III (1917). ‒ Page 76, "The Geometry of God: A Masonic sermon."
Volume IV (1918). ‒ Page 175, "What a Fellow Craft Ought to Know."
University Masonic Study
Club of Austin, Texas
We know you will be interested in learning of
Study Club organized by the Masons of the University of Texas. This new
has brought forth much favorable comment from all parts of the State
such intense interest in such a short space of time that it is almost
The nature of the Club and the great enthusiasm it has created for
Study Clubs among
Masons may exert such an influence as to stimulate the formation of
throughout the State. Our Club has an excellent start and promises to
in many ways.
The "University Masonic Study Club” had its
at a meeting of members of the faculty and students of the University
who had been
called together for this purpose on November 7th, at the Scottish Rite
I had only seen a few Masons personally, the most of them responding to
published in the college paper to the effect that a Study Club for
be organized on the above date. To my surprise more than twenty
at the preliminary meeting. After short talks by Brothers W. T.
Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Texas, and Grover Hartt, it
to form the "University Masonic Study Club" and the following officers
were duly elected:
E. E. Dunlay, President.
Grover Hartt, Vice President.
W.. S. Hendrix, Secretary-Treasurer.
At the following meeting, held on November
organization of the Club was completed with the adoption of a
Constitution, a copy
of which I will send you later. We followed the suggestions contained
in the January,
1917, issue of THE BUILDER in drafting our Constitution.
At this meeting Brother W. G. Franklin
Club on the "First Degree in Masonry."
We will study in as systematic way as we can,
this outline: Ritual, Symbolism, History and Jurisprudence, elaborating
as time will permit. It will be our plan to give a birds-eye view this
of a very intensive study, as we do not have very much material at hand.
Those of our members who return to their homes
the vacation periods will advocate the establishment of Study Clubs in
We are asking brethren who are well versed in
to deliver lectures on particular topics, sufficient time being given
them to prepare
their papers. A general discussion will follow each lecture, and
be invited from any or all brethren present. By this method we expect
to have interesting
and profitable meetings and to have every one feeling at the close of
that their time has been well spent.
Our Club is different in character from any
Club that we know of. Its membership consists not only of Masons
attending the University
but also those interested in the aims of our Club and the welfare of
Our Club will not affect Austin alone, but a great part of the State of
feature which we shall endeavor to impress upon our members is that
they shall endeavor
to spread the Study Club idea throughout the State of Texas at every
To my mind there are great possibilities before us. With expert
guidance and advice
we expect our project to result in great good.
I have been instructed to write to you for
and assistance. How may our Club obtain the benefits of your special
advice? All suggestions will be thankfully received and tried out. We
are new in
this work and need assistance.
E. E. Dunlay,
(Editor's Note: The Masons of Austin are to be
on the organization of the "University Masonic Study Club," and we hope
to be able to give the readers of THE BUILDER further information
activities in an early issue. Special literature covering the Society's
Course of Masonic Study,” which has been running in the Correspondence
section of THE BUILDER for the past year, has been furnished to the
members of the Club and they will doubtless become one of the N.M.R.S.
soon as they have had opportunity to digest our plan in detail. This
concerning our Course of Study has not appeared in the columns of THE
certain reasons, but is available to all members of the Society who may
* * *
The Plans of a 1919 Master
I am getting a great deal of good out of the
in THE BUILDER. What a fine thing it would be if every officer in each
become a member of the N.M.R.S. and read those instructive and
But most of them give the excuse that "they are busy in learning the
and conferring degrees,” and have no time to study Masonry.
It may not be the right thing to say, but
I think a period of "dull times" would be a boon to our great
as it would give many of us time to study and might be an incentive to
contrive plans to interest their members and strengthen their
attendance at "business
meetings" of the lodge where now nothing but routine business is
I am serving as Senior Warden of my lodge this
and if the custom of the past is followed I shall probably be chosen to
next year. Therefore I am preparing to stimulate the attendance by
talks on the history and symbolism and various other aspects of
the occasion may merit. Your Study Club proposition appeals very
strongly to me,
but I am finding it difficult to interest the other officers of my
lodge in this
direction as the greater portion of our spare time is taken up in
visiting and conferring
degrees and attending Lodge of Instruction one night each week, where
only the ritualistic
work is taught.
I have memorized the two lectures "What An
Apprentice Ought to Know," and "What a Fellow Craft Ought to Know,"
by Brother Hal Riviere, which have appeared in recent issues of THE
BUILDER. I hope
he will soon let us have his promised article on "What a Master Mason
to Know," as his papers are excellent and just what I have been looking
for a long time.
Sometimes I fear I may get "cold feet" in
endeavoring to put into effect my plan of enlightening our members in
of our ritual and ceremonies, as some of the venerable Past Masters of
may accuse me of "making innovations in the plan of Masonry," or
on some of the so-called "ancient landmarks."
However, I am going to make the attempt and
be able at a later date to write you of my success.
* * *
"Ready to Be Tried
The question of our Louisiana brother in regard
condition or situation of a brother who is in the training camp of
as it did, coincidentally in the October issue of THE BUILDER
containing my effort
entitled "Ready to be Tried Again," was certainly very interesting to
But what gives the matter a still keener
myself especially is the fact that in Michigan we use the term "ready"
instead of "willing." Would it not appear that the word, while it means
all that can be implied in willingness, seems to court in a kind of
confident, earnestly expectant way what the more passive form does not?
Herein is indeed a beautiful study, either in
or symbolic sense. In this connection I would say that in all the
answers of the
three lessons in Masonry the initiate is given the advantage, that is,
is such that he is anticipating in those answers the loftiest
conception that the
mere form can imply.
And this gives me the opportunity to say that
well-balanced brother on the literal and symbolic interpretations ‒
such as is beautifully
exemplified in the answers to our Louisiana brother, ‒ would take up
and symbolic meanings of the three degrees in Masonry it would be much
and practical to more readers than are many of the long, studied
articles of a research
The three lessons in Masonry given to the
he is yet on trial, while he is yet dependently seeking, while he is in
supposed to be in a qualifying relation to the Order, are the stepping
the future of most men's Masonry, which, if not made the most of for
what they stand
for in this plastic, susceptible relation, the loss in most cases will
Realizing this as a fundamentally qualifying
to the best that can obtain in Masonry, it is a wonder to me how few
make the third obligatory even on conditions. These three lessons, well
and comparatively well understood mean more to the average Mason than
all he ever
L. B. Mitchell,
* * *
Masonic Jewelry vs. Masonic
In my endeavors to interest Masons in the study
of Masonry I have met with quite a number who, after spending their
money for the
"high degrees,” so-called, think more of buying costly watch charms
eagles, Maltese crosses, etc., than of the idea of endeavoring to find
out the meaning
of the ceremonies which they have passed through. To cover themselves
jewelry places them in the ne plus ultra stratum of Freemasonry, in
I say this advisedly, because I have had these
degrees myself, but at the same time I have been a student of Masonry
for over forty
years, and I would not exchange my little Masonic library for all the
that one big Mason may adorn himself with.
I like THE BUILDER, and at the close of each
get the copies bound in book form. I also appreciate the personal
the officers of the Research Society take in the individual members. If
to know anything concerning any Masonic subject we write the Society
get the information if it is possible to obtain it.
Wishing you God-speed in the great work, I am,
O. B. Slane. Illinois
* * *
Simon Fraser Conferred First
Royal Arch Degree in Virginia
The minutes of Lodge No. 4, Fredericksburg,
December 22, 1753, inform us: "Which night the lodge assembled. Was
R.W. Simon Fraser, M.G.," etc., and that three brethren were raised to
degree of Royal Arch Masonry.
THE BUILDER for November, in that most
on "Military Lodges" by Brother Lawrence, states that Sir Simon Fraser,
Colonel of the 78th Highlanders was a provincial Grand Master in 1760.
be possible that this is one and the same person? The name is not an
The Simon Fraser of Fredericksburg mention was
for that night only, and conferred the Royal Arch degree for the first
time in Virginia.
Joe L. Carson,
* * *
"The Original Samaritan"
I was much pleased when I noticed an item in a
issue of THE BUILDER relative to the Cable Tow, the first sentence of
an early reference in the Bible, I Kings, xx-31. This fact was made the
of a poem entitled "The Original Samaritan," on page 37 of my "Poems
of The Temple,” and other parts of this same biblical chapter show even
references to this Masonic story of an Israelitish king who, instead of
to death a conquered foe, announced, to the astonishment of his
is my brother, go ye and fetch him," invited him to ride in his
made a friendly treaty with him; yet this son of Omri was of another
race and not
even an Israelite, much less a "brother" other than a brother of the
"Deeds of honor,
Over many pages spread,
Show the searcher after knowledge
Paths through which out truths have led.
Oft in allegory hidden,
Overlooked by careless scan,
Still, in glorious beauty, showing
Man's fraternity with man."
L. A. McConnell, Colorado.
* * *
The reading of Masonic literature ‒ which
history, philosophy and symbolism of Masonry ‒ will beget a large
concept of its
beauties as well as the fuller knowledge of its true worth as a factor
True, ritualism has its place in the economy of
institution ‒ but it is of a subordinate character; and its object is
the dormant faculties in the votary. But, on the other hand, reading
tends to educate
and cause the neophyte to reflect upon the possibilities within the
scope of its
work for the upbuilding of character, and enlarging opportunity for the
of those glorious virtues which have emblazoned its escutcheon for
Nothing strengthens the Craft like unto the
of its members; to make them more useful citizens, and more dependable
Thus they will be better fitted to play their part with credit to
honor to the Fraternity: for they will be more able to uphold its
extend its benign influence.
the Los Angeles Masonic Library.
The Terminal Triangle – [A Poem]
L B. Mitchell, Michigan
of thought that has been to men denied
By that intolerance which ne'er with men divide
The right to read the way to human destiny
Save in the ways wherein its creeds may point the way.
Equality, that means a tolerance that springs
From motive to accord to all the right of things
That by the Golden Rule may be worked out to give
That which is due to those who in its spirit live.
Fraternity, the word that holds all other terms
By which this old, old world in sorrow slowly learns
That men and nations in true Brotherhood must live
Before the wage, their dues, then can in full, receive.
A Concise History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
Ancient Times - A History of
the Early World
Bre16 / auth. Breasted James H. - Boston : Ginn and Company, 1916. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 827. - 47.9 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 006 - 1893
Ars93 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 311. - 20.3 MB.
Sue46 / auth. Sue Eugene / trans. Herbert Wm Henry. - Boston : Henry L
Williams, 1846. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 98. - 10.4 MB.
Ber11 / auth. Bergson Henry / trans. Mitchell Arthur. - New York :
Henry Holt and Company, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 423. - 15.5 MB.
Hugo's Works Vol 02 - Les
Miserables Pt 1 - Fantine
Hug00HW02 / auth. Hugo Victor. - New York : The Jefferson Press, 1900.
- Vol. 02 : 10 : p. 652. - 33.7 MB.
Hugo's Works Vol 03 - Les
Miserables Pt 2 - Marius
Hug00HW03 / auth. Hugo Victor. - New York : The Jefferson Press, 1900.
- Vol. 03 : 10 : p. 686. - 36.6 MB.
Hugo's Works Vol 04 - Les
Miserables Pt 3 - Valjean - Hans of Iceland
Hug00HW04 / auth. Hugo Victor. - New York : The Jefferson Press, 1900.
- Vol. 04 : 10 : p. 731. - 38.0 MB.
La Coucaratcha Vol 1
Sue45LC1 / auth. Sue Eugene. - Paris : Charles Gosselin, 1845. - Vol. 1
: 3 : p. 291. - French - 8.3 MB.
La Coucaratcha Vol 2
Sue45LC2 / auth. Sue Eugene. - Paris : Charles Gosselin, 1845. - Vol. 2
: 3 : p. 305. - French - 7.9 MB.
La Coucaratcha Vol 3
Sue45LC3 / auth. Sue Eugene. - Paris : Charles Gosselin, 1845. - Vol. 3
: 3 : p. 291. - French - 7.4 MB.
Sie98 / auth. Sienkiewicz Henryk / trans. Curtin Jeremiah. - Boston :
Little, Brown, and Co, 1898. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 557. - 41.3 MB.
Sie06 / auth. Sienkiewicz Henryk / trans. Binion S A. - New York : Thomas
Y Crowell, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 544. - 30.2 MB.
Sie97 / auth. Sienkiewicz Henryk / trans. Curtin Jeremiah. - Boston :
Little, Brown, and Company, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 554. - 29.3 MB.
Rrise of the Dutch Republic Vol
Mot09DR1 / auth. Motley John L. - London : M Dent & Co, 1909. -
Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 486. - 21.7 MB.
Rrise of the Dutch Republic Vol
Mot09DR2 / auth. Motley John L. - London : M Dent & Co, 1909. -
Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 513. - 22.6 MB.
Rrise of the Dutch Republic Vol
Mot09DR3 / auth. Motley John L. - London : M Dent & Co, 1909. -
Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 470. - 20.6 MB.
Car97 / auth. Carlyle Thomas / ed. MacMechan Archibald. - Boston : Ginn
& Company, Publishers, 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 515. - 26.3 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 01 -
At the Sign of the Cat and Racket
Bal00CB01 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 25 : p. 655. - 26.8 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 02 -
A Study of Woman
Bal00CB02 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 25 : p. 662. - 25.7 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 03 -
A Marriage Settlement
Bal00CB03 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& SOn, 1900. - Vol. 3 : 25 : p. 685. - 26.4 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 04 -
Bal00CB04 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 4 : 25 : p. 633. - 25.6 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 05 -
Ursule Miruet, Eugenie Grandet
Bal00CB05 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 5 : 25 : p. 483. - 20.0 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 06 -
Pierrette; The Abbe Birotteau; A Bachelor's Establishment
Bal00CB06 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 6 : 25 : p. 544. - 25.7 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 07 -
The Jealousies of a Country Town
Bal00CB07 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 7 : 25 : p. 371. - 15.6 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 08 -
Parisians in the Country
Bal00CB08 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 8 : 25 : p. 530. - 26.6 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 09 -
A Distinguished Provincial at Paris
Bal00CB09 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 9 : 25 : p. 409. - 15.0 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 10 -
Bal00CB10 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 10 : 25 : p. 432. - 16.5 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 11 -
A Harlot's Progress
Bal00CB11 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 11 : 25 : p. 583. - 24.8 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 12 -
Bal00CB12 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 12 : 25 : p. 625. - 26.8 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 13 -
The Unconscious Mummers
Bal00CB13 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 13 : 25 : p. 559. - 24.3 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 14 -
Bal00CB14 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 14 : 25 : p. 541. - 20.6 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 15 -
Cousin Pons; Old Goriot
Bal00CB15 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 15 : 25 : p. 629. - 26.1 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 16 -
Bal00CB16 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 16 : 25 : p. 471. - 19.3 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 17 -
A Most Mysterious Case
Bal00CB17 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 17 : 25 : p. 534. - 21.3 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 18 -
The Member for Arcis
Bal00CB18 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 18 : 25 : p. 489. - 20.0 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 19 -
The Chuans; The Country Doctor
Bal00CB19 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 19 : 25 : p. 634. - 26.4 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 20 -
The Peasantry; The Country Parson
Bal00CB20 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 20 : 25 : p. 651. - 27.4 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 21 -
The Wils Ass's Skin; The Quest of the Absolute
Bal00CB21 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 21 : 25 : p. 505. - 22.9 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 22 -
The Unknown Masterpieces
Bal00CB22 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 22 : 25 : p. 407. - 14.4 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 23 -
The Child of Malediction
Bal00CB23 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 23 : 25 : p. 329. - 12.0 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 24 -
About Catherine de' Medici
Bal00CB24 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 24 : 25 : p. 389. - 28.4 MB.
The Complete Balzac - Vol 25 -
Bal00CB25 / auth. Balzac Honoré de. - New York : Peter Fenlon Collier
& Son, 1900. - Vol. 25 : 25 : p. 354. - 25.3 MB.
The Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire Vol 1
Gib13RF1 / auth. Gibbon Edward. - Pictou : ronigo, 2013. - Vol. 1 : 6 :
p. 373. - 2.8 MB.
The Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire Vol 2
Gib13RF2 / auth. Gibbon Edward. - Pictou : ronigo, 2013. - Vol. 2 : 6 :
p. 395. - 2.9 MB.
The Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire Vol 3
Gib13RF3 / auth. Gibbon Edward. - Pictou : ronigo, 2013. - Vol. 3 : 6 :
p. 339. - 2.5 MB.
The Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire Vol 4
Gib13RF4 / auth. Gibbon Edward. - Pictou : ronigo, 2013. - Vol. 4 : 6 :
p. 364. - 2.7 MB.
The Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire Vol 5
Gib13RF5 / auth. Gibbon Edward. - Pictou : ronigo, 2013. - Vol. 5 : 6 :
p. 350. - 2.6 MB.
The Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire Vol 6
Gib13RF6 / auth. Gibbon Edward. - Pictou : ronigo, 2013. - Vol. 6 : 6 :
p. 324. - 2.5 MB.
The Deluge Vol 1
Sie19TD1 / auth. Sienkiewicz Henryk / trans. Curtain Jeremiah. - Boston :
Little, Brown, and Company, 1919. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 606. - 29.6 MB.
The Deluge Vol 2
Sie19TD2 / auth. Sienkiewicz Henryk / trans. Curtain Jeremiah. - Boston :
Little, Brown, and Company, 1919. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 670. - 32.6 MB.
The Knights of the Cross Vol 1
Sie00NC1 / auth. Sienkiewicz Henryk / trans. Curtain Jeremiah. - Boston
: Little, Brown, and Company, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 422. - 11.1 MB.
The Knights of the Cross Vol 2
Sie00NC2 / auth. Sienkiewicz Henryk / trans. Curtin Jeremiah. - Boston
: Little, Brown, and Company, 1900. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 361. - 9.3 MB.
The Life of Jesus
Ral17 / auth. Rall Harris F. - New York : The Abington Press, 1917. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 211. - 11.2 MB.
The Martyrdom of Man
Rea72 / auth. Reade Wynwood. - London : Trubner & Co, 1872. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 553. - 16.5 MB.
The Mystery Religions
She18 / auth. Sheldon Henry C. - New York : The Abingdon Press, 1918. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 153. - 3.8 MB.
The Origin of Species
Dar09 / auth. Darwin Charles. - New York : P. F. Collier & Son,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 561. - 20.9 MB.
Sue44 / auth. Sue Eugene. - New York : J Winchester, 1844. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 116. - 10.7 MB.
The Teachings of Jesus
Ral18 / auth. Rall Harris F. - New York : The Abington Press, 1918. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 223. - 6.2 MB.
The Wandering Jew Vol 1
Sue46WJ1 / auth. Sue Eugene. - London : Chapman and Hall, 1846. - Vol.
1 : 3 : p. 559. - 28.6 MB.
The Wandering Jew Vol 2
Sue46WJ2 / auth. Sue Eugene. - London : Chapman and Hall, 1846. - Vol.
2 : 3 : p. 405. - 22.1 MB.
The Wandering Jew Vol 3
Sue46WJ3 / auth. Sue Eugene. - London : Chapman and Hall, 1846. - Vol.
3 : 3 : p. 416. - 21.2 MB.
War and Peace
Tol69 / auth. Tolstoy
Leo. - Pictou : ronigo, 1869. - Digital : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1171. - 3.9
With Fire and Sword
Sie94 / auth. Sienkiewicz Henryk / trans. Curtain Jeremiah. - Boston :
Little, Brown, and Company, 1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 802. - 37.0 MB.