Masonic Research Society
By Bro. Emery B. Gibbs,
P. D. G. M., Massachusetts
THE instituteion of Masonry was introduced into
Colonies at an early stage of their existence. The growth was slow at
but after the Revolution it spread more rapidly. From 1790 to 1820 the
was very marked. It had the sanction of many of the most distinguished
the country. Nothing had occurred up to 1826 to mar its progress. Men
in Masonry spoke publicly of the many positions of trust and importance
men belonging to the Masonic Fraternity. Some were indiscreet enough to
announce that Masonry was exercising its influence in the pulpit, in
legislatures, and in the courts. To this but little attention was paid
the Morgan episode in 1826.
William Morgan was a native of Virginia, born
Culpepper County in 1775 or 1776. Little is known of his early history.
the assertions regarding it is one story that he was a Captain in
Jackson's army at the battle of New Orleans, and another that he
belonged to a
band of pirates and was sentenced to be hanged, but pardoned on
he enter the army. But little credit should be given to either of these
In October, 1819, at the age of forty-three or
forty four, he married Lucinda Pendleton of Richmond, Virginia, then in
sixteenth year. In 1821 Morgan and his wife moved to Canada, where he
the business of a brewer near York in the Upper Province. The loss of
brewery by fire reduced him to poverty and he then moved to Rochester,
York, where he worked and occasionally received assistance from the
Fraternity. From Rochester he went to Batavia, in the county of
worked at his trade, which was that of a mason, until his disappearance
During his residence at Batavia he was
frequently neglecting his family. With but little education, it is said
a fair knowledge of writing and arithmetic, kept reasonably good
a man of common sense, pleasing manner, and when not under the
strong drink was a pleasant, social companion among his fellows.
No one has been able to ascertain where he was
a Mason. He met with the lodge at Batavia. In 1825 or 1826 a petition
Grand Chapter of the state was drawn up to obtain a charter for a
Royal Arch Masons in Batavia. This petition Morgan signed. Before it
to the Grand Chapter, others who had signed it and knew his habits and
character were unwilling to have him become a member. A new petition
prepared and signed and presented without Morgan's name. On this
charter was obtained. When Morgan learned that he was not a charter
knew that he could be admitted only by a unanimous vote, he was
offended at being excluded from the Chapter, and from that time became
active and very ardent foe of Masonry.
A few years previously one David C. Miller had
established himself in Batavia and was publishing a local newspaper.
undertaking as an editor and printer was unprofitable. He was a man of
and of a certain ability; reputation not very good, and of
habits. At some time prior to his living in Batavia, he had been
an Entered Apprentice at Albany, New York. Objection being made to his
advancement on the ground of his character, he never received the
Morgan and Miller, having a common grievance
against the Masonic Fraternity, planned together how they might create
something of a sensation and acquire a substantial, if not great
of the venture to disclose the secrets of Freemasonry. Their threats
suggestions were regarded at first as of no significance. The Masons at
paid little attention to the rumors until it was evident that Morgan
were bound to carry out their threats and publish in Miller's paper a
revelation of so-called Masonic secrets. [Lib 1827] There was a strong feeling on
the part of a few
who were quite as much opposed to Morgan and Miller personally as they
zealous in the cause of Masonry that this publication should be
the matter became the topic of street conversation and one night an
made to sack Miller's office and some forty or fifty persons assembled
purpose of breaking in and securing the manuscript. Nothing was
this time, but two nights later an attempt was made to set fire to the
Whether this attempt to burn the place was made by persons who were
Morgan and Miller, or made by Miller himself, was an open question and
satisfactorily settled. Masons offered a reward of one hundred dollars
discovery of the incendiary. A man by the name of Howard, suspected as
accomplice, fled, no one knows where, after a warrant had been issued
The details of Morgan's arrest for petty
his acquittal, his arrest again for debt, and his discharge after the
been paid, his ride in a carriage to Rochester with several other men,
there to Fort Niagara, are all familiar. One writer on this event,
himself not a
Mason, traces Morgan to Fort Niagara and concludes by saying that there
reliable evidence of what happened to or became of Morgan after he was
To the question, what became of Morgan? no
answer has been, and so far as we can learn, ever can be given.
The American Quarterly Review for March, 1830
published an article on the Anti-Masonic excitement, by Henry Brown, an
attorney-at-law of Batavia, New York. This article was reviewed and
on by Masons and by those who were not Masons, as being a carefully
and well-presented statement of what occurred.
Brown, in narrating the events which followed
disappearance of Morgan and the efforts made to discover his body,
the searching of the Niagara River and a part of Lake Ontario, all
success, and when a good deal of the public excitement in that locality
abated, states that a body was discovered on the 7th of October, 1827,
town of Carlton about forty miles from Fort Niagara. It was lying at
water's edge. An inquest was held, witnesses who were personally
with Morgan were examined, and the jury pronounced it the body of some
to them unknown who had perished by drowning. The body was in a
offensive state at the time, and was quietly buried.
This inquest was published in the newspapers
suspicion was at once excited that this was the body of Morgan. Several
from Batavia and Rochester had the body disinterred, and then
pretended that they discovered, points of resemblance between this body
Morgan. They had the body watched over night to prevent the Masons from
carrying it away. Mrs. Morgan was visited and went to Carleton and
"On arriving at Carleton on the 15th of
October the body was slightly and imperfectly examined. It was bloated
entirely black, putrid on its surface and offensive (beyond anything
conceivable) to sight or smell. Its dress did not correspond with
which they had seen before, and the religious tracts in the pocket
some of the most credulous. There was not in fact a single circumstance
dress, size, shape, color or appearance of the body which pointed it
The men active in fomenting the excitement were
unwilling to lose the advantage of so valuable an asset. A second
held over this body which, if it had been that of Morgan, must have
thirteen months in the water.
Mrs. Morgan testified she believed it to be the
body of her husband, though the clothes were entirely different from
wore at the time of his disappearance, and there were found in the
number of religious tracts of a description not known in the
One witness recognized the shape of his head;
another the outline of his features; a third the color of his hair; a
the whiskers; a fifth the teeth, and a sixth the hair inside of the
these grounds the jury decided that this was the body of William Morgan
he came to his death by drowning.
The body was removed with great parade of
to Batavia and there interred in the presence of a vast crowd, and a
oration pronounced by one Cochran, who, Brown says,
when sober and sometimes when otherwise, preached in the vicinity and
assistant editor to Col. Miller."
(Miller was associated with Morgan in the
publication of the so-called Masonic secrets.)
These events inflamed the indignation of the
to the highest pitch and Freemasonry was detested more bitterly than
was on the eve of an election.
"The cry of
vengeance was wafted on every breeze and mingled with every echo of the
where Morgan's ghost, it was said, performed its nightly rounds."
About this time a notice appeared in the
newspapers that one Timothy Monro, of Clark, in the District of New
Upper Canada, left that place for Newark in September, 1827, in a small
and was drowned in the Niagara River while attempting to return. A
of the body found in Carleton, together with the clothing and religious
found in the pocket, being published in the newspaper soon after the
inquest and coming to the knowledge of Monro's friends, induced the
the body found in Carleton was his. Mrs. Sarah Monro, widow,
accompanied by her
son and one John Cron, her friend, after hearing of this body, went at
examine it. In consequence of their testimony, the body was a second
disinterred and a jury of inquest a third time summoned.
After hearing all the evidence, this jury
that it was the body of Timothy Monro, who was drowned in Lake Ontario,
September 26, 1827. Mr. Brown in his article gives the testimony of the
witnesses at length, which is entirely conclusive as to the propriety
last verdict, in which it was proved that the body pronounced to be
Morgan was at least five feet nine inches long, whereas the height of
when alive was less than five feet six inches. It also appeared in
that the hair of his body had been so disposed by art as to make it
that of Morgan.
The Morgan excitement was rapidly waning and
political situation of the Anti-Masonic party was becoming sadly in
some new stimulant, when it was furnished by the confession of one
declared himself one of the murderers of William Morgan. He was
committed to jail in Buffalo, where he signed a confession. He was then
to Lockport for trial, but refused to go before the Grand Jury to
the truth of his confession. The Grand Jury, believing him insane,
find a bill and he was discharged. No clew to his conduct has ever been
discovered. It may be an injustice to the politicians to suggest that
carefully coached, played his part, knowing that no serious harm would
him, and so contributed to the excitement and bitterness of feeling
Masons. In any event, his part was well played and the effect
More than forty trials took place of persons
suspected of being concerned in Morgan's disappearance. The greater
resulted in acquittals. Several, however, were convicted and served
M.W. Brother Gallagher stated in an address
Maj. Benjamin Perley Poore, for many years Washington correspondent of
Boston Journal, while in Smyrna, Turkey, in 1839, knew that Morgan was
alive and identified by men who had known him in New York.
I have referred to these different reports as
what became of Morgan, but I leave it as I began, with uncertainty and
inability to determine his fate.
Prior to the Morgan incident there may have
some excuse for accusing Masons of political activity and using the
organizations for political purposes.
In 1816, John Brooks, a Mason, and Samuel
not a Mason, were opposing candidates for the office of Governor of
Massachusetts. In 1798, Mr. Dexter had written a letter to Grand Master
Bartlett strongly condemning and ridiculing Freemasonry.
In 1816, Benjamin Russell was editor of the
Centinel" and also Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts and
ardent supporter of General Brooks as against Mr. Dexter. In the
Centinel" of March 30, 1816, appeared the following paragraph:
"TO THE MASONIC
Brethren: ‒ It
need not be repeated that the internal regulations of your benevolent
exclude all discussions of political dogmas. But every Master Mason
his public obligation obligates him to discharge the duties he owes to
state with diligence and fidelity.
candidates, therefore, present themselves for his suffrage, he is not
inquire to what party the one or the other belongs; but whether he is
good man and true," and faithful to the Constitution which he may be
called upon to administer. And all other things being favorable, he is
every Masonic obligation to give his vote for the one who is a Free and
Accepted Brother in preference to one who is not.
Brooks shall receive the vote of A MASTER MASON."
In New York, in the year 1824, De Witt Clinton
candidate for Governor against a candidate who was not a Mason. At that
Mr. Clinton was Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of New York, General
Priest of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter of the United States,
Master of the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar for the United
Sovereign Grand Commander of the Grand Consistory of the United States.
held other Masonic offices. All these Masonic titles, from the highest
lowest grade, were centered in Mr. Clinton at about the same time. A
called the "National Union" was published in New York solely to aid
his election as Governor. Samuel H. Jenks, of Nantucket was the editor.
Jenks was the Deputy Grand Master in Massachusetts in 1825. The
published in that paper October 30, 1824:
Your former Grand Master is now a candidate for the support of the
accepted.' De Witt Clinton, if there be any virtue in the cardinal
of your faith, will receive your undivided suffrage for Governor. It is
periods of trial, like the present, that the wisdom of Freemasonry has
exercised, its strength tested, and its beauty displayed. Amidst the
of past time, the great lights of our Order, though often obscured,
been extinguished. Shall they now be eclipsed by the 'introduction of
among the workmen?' Will you suffer the political edifice to be 'daubed
mortar?' No, surely! The architect of your internal prosperity is
Enter warmly into the cause of your Brother ‒ pass onward to the ballot
with the tokens of your zeal and fidelity ‒ and by your united votes
to raise the State to that exalted rank to which she is so justly
Mr. Clinton's election was accomplished by a
great majority. This was in 1824. Mr. Clinton was Governor of New York
when Morgan disappeared.
The political situation then suddenly changed.
the spring of 1827 Masons were proscribed simply because they were
Genesee and Monroe countries. In the Fall of 1827 the Anti-Masonic
announced its object as the destruction of Freemasonry through the
instrumentality of the ballot box.
George A. S. Crooker was nominated for Senator
eighth district. Although he was defeated, the Anti-Masonic party
Genesee, Monroe, Livingston and Niagara counties in the face of both
Democratic, or Jacksonian party, and the National Republican or Adams
In 1828 Solomon Southwick of Albany, was
for Governor of New York. His total vote was 33,345, and, while
the more radical counties he received a very large vote.
In the State election of 1829 the eighth
elected Albert H. Tracy senator by a majority of 8000 votes, and the
they carried fifteen counties, with a total vote in the state of over
In 1830, Francis Granger was nominated for
at a convention held at Utica in which forty eight counties were
one hundred and four delegates. He received a vote of 120,361, but was
Granger was nominated again in 1832 and again
defeated, although his vote was 156,672.
To show the rapid growth of the Anti-Masonic
in New York, the following votes are given:
1828 ‒ 33,345; 1829 ‒ 68,613; 1830 ‒ 106,081;
‒ 98,847; 1832 ‒ 156,672
In 1833 the estimated strength of the
party in the United States was 340,800. Its most rapid growth was in
of New York.
In Maine the Anti-Masonic vote in 1831 was 869;
1832 ‒ 2384; in 1833 ‒ 1670. That was the end of the party in Maine.
In Vermont the feeling was so intense that in
she cast her vote in favor of the Anti-Masonic candidate for President,
the distinction of being the only state in the Union to be carried by
In Pennsylvania the feeling was so intense that
a convention of Anti-Masonic delegates held in Philadelphia, September
the report of a committee was adopted which recited that "Morgan was
foully murdered," rehearsed the several obligations of Freemasonry, and
demanded the suppression of the institution. Among the reasons given
drastic action may be cited the following:
government Freemasonry is wholly opposed. It requires unresisting
its own authority, in contempt of public opinion, the claims of
the rights of private judgment."
"The means of
overthrowing Freemasonry cannot be found in any, or in all, of our
authorities. They cannot be found in our judicial establishments."
adequate corrective of Freemasonry ‒ that prolific source of the worst
is to he found in the right of election, and to this we must resort."
ought to be abolished. It should certainly be so abolished as to
restoration. No means of doing this can be conceived so competent as
furnished by the ballot boxes."
In 1836 the Anti-Masonic party held its last
national convention at Philadelphia and its influence as a factor in
practically ended at this time.
In reading accounts of the campaign carried on
during these Anti-Masonic days, one is impressed with the bitterness,
fierceness and intensity of the Anti-Masonic spirit. One writer
describes it in
the following language:
excitement which spread over our land like a moral pestilence, which
the innocent with the guilty, which entered even the temple of God,
distracted and divided churches, which scattered the closest ties of
life, which set father against son and son against father, arraigned
against her own husband, and in short wherever its baleful influences
felt, deprived men of all those comforts and enjoyments which render
life to us
Resolutions were adopted in the different
legislatures calling for investigations, demanding the surrender of the
charters of the Grand Lodges, and looking towards every possible way of
the Masonic institution.
In Rhode Island a committee of five was
by the legislature, no one of them Masons. This committee held eighteen
sessions in the principal cities of Rhode Island, hearing all the
offered, whether hearsay evidence or evidence in the proper form as
courts, and then made a very complete report in which it declared that
charges presented to it against the Masonic order were baseless and
In Massachusetts our Grand Lodge surrendered
act of incorporation to the legislature and turned its property over to
trustees to be held by them, rather than engage in any controversy on
subject with the legislature. It is interesting, however, to know that
committee of the legislature appointed in 1834, after long
hearings, made an elaborate report, from which the following is taken:
BY A JOINT COMMITTEE OF THE LEGISLATURE OF MASSACHUSETTS,
Committee of the Central Court to whom were referred the memorials of
Allyn and other citizens of the Commonwealth, praying for a full
into the nature, language, ceremonies, and form of rehearsing
oaths in Masonic bodies, and, if found to be such as the Memorialists
them, that law may be passed, prohibiting the future administration of
and such other extra-judicial oaths as tend to weaken the sanction of
oaths in Courts of Justice; and praying also for a repeal of the
granted by this Commonwealth to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, have
the duty assigned them, and ask leave to
The committee are
fully impressed with the sacred character of the right which the people
Commonwealth, in their Bill of Rights, have retained to themselves, of
petitioning their Legislature for the redress of grievances. The right
exercised in the present instance by more than eight thousand citizens,
hundred and twenty Memorials referred to the Committee, complaining of
institution of Freemasonry as a grievance.
The report then
goes on to recite different reasons and motives for these Memorials and
method of conducting their investigations; that they had invited the
of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts and all other Masons to attend;
neither the Grand Master nor any other member of the Grand Lodge, nor
adhering Mason appeared before them, and that the committee had failed
efforts to have anyone appear before it who should fairly represent the
Fraternity; that at the request of counsel for the petitioners
sent to the following adhering Masons:
Rev. Paul Dean,
Rev. Samuel Barrett, Rev. Asa Eaton, Rev. Sebastian Streeter, Rev.
Cogswell, Benjamin Russell, Esq., Robert G. Shaw, Esq., Samuel Howe,
Charles Jackson, Hon. Josiah J. Fiske.
Two of these
respectfully declined attendance in writing; the others neither replied
attended. At the request of the committee, the House gave them power to
for persons and papers, but the Senate refused to concur in the action
information as the committee could obtain from the petitioners, among
many seceding Masons, they submitted the following conclusions:
Freemasonry is a moral evil; inasmuch as it holds its proceedings
cautious and almost impenetrable secrecy, and at an hour of darkness,
withdraws its members unseasonably, from that family circle, which
ought to be
the first care and the first solace of every good citizen; as it offers
temptations in the form of 'refreshments,' to a departure from that
and temperance, which should mark the character of an intelligent and
community; as it familiarizes the mind, theoretically at least, to the
contemplation of scenes of violence and blood; and especially as some
rites and ceremonies are offensively sacrilegious, profaning what the
generally religiously respect; thus undermining those sentiments of
which are acknowledged to be the very basis and safeguard of morality.
Freemasonry is a pecuniary evil; inasmuch as it collects from the
under the false pretenses of extensive charity and peculiar science,
amounts of money, which are afterwards chiefly expended in unprofitable
entertainments, parades, and trinkets, which, in the language of an
departed statesman, 'a well-informed savage would blush to wear.'
Freemasonry is a political evil; inasmuch as it is a government
existence independent of civil governments, and administering oaths,
from their number and frequency, tend to impair the binding force of
oaths ‒ threaten penalties, severe even to barbarity, and calculating
an appalling and controlling effect on weak and uninformed minds ‒ and
tenor conflict with the civil obligations of the citizen, calling on
to violate the latter in obedience to his Masonic oaths, or to violate
Masonic oaths in obedience to his civil obligations."
The report continues to set forth the reason
its conclusion and the following is taken from part of the report
the second finding:
of the Grand Lodge appropriate one fourth part of the annual fees and
part of all initiation fees paid by subordinate lodges, to the charity
that is, two dollars for every lodge, and one dollar for every
the State. Thus one hundred one lodges would pay $808, and if nine
Masons were made annually, as was the increase in 1826, they would pay
more, of which $1206 would go to support the 'dignity' of the Grand
$502 be added to the charity fund, the interest alone of which can be
to charity ‒ so that by this process, it would require $2700 to enable
Charitable Society, the Grand Lodge, to distribute in charity $30.12 a
Lodge dues $8. Initiate dues to Grand Lodge $3.
(1/4 of $808 equals $202. 900 initiates would
$2700. 1-3 of $2700 equals $900. $202 plus $900 equals $1102 instead of
$1102 at 6 per cent interest would produce
instead of $30.12 as so solemnly declared by this legislative committee
The period 1820 to 1840 was one of intense
On July 4, 1827, in the Seventh Presbyterian
of the city of Philadelphia, Ezra Stiles Ely said in a sermon:
fellow-citizens, a new sort of Union or if you please a Christian party
politics, which I am exceedingly desirous all good men in our country
join, not by subscribing to a constitution, but by adopting and avowing
on religious principles in all civil matters."
At this time also
the more orthodox members of the Congregational church were alarmed at
different beliefs creeping into their fold. For this purpose it was
many to adopt synods like those of the Presbyterian Church in order to
their tenets exactly. A large body of the church even desired the union
Congregational and Presbyterian churches.
party having so many religious men in its ranks, and being at this time
crusade in which the churches were distracted, naturally entered as
element in the religious distress of the period. In New England this
especially true, as the party there was composed of the older religious
people, already in opposition to the liberal spirit of the cities.
party received the name of the "Christian Party in Politics."
Every effort was directed against Masonic
and laymen. Churches in their councils condemned the order. Before the
disappearance of Morgan, the Presbyterian Church at Pittsburgh in
1821, condemned the institution as "unfit for professed Christians."
After the Morgan incident the Presbyterians required their ministers to
renounce Masonry and their laymen to sever all connections with it and
fellowship with Masons. The Congregationalists took practically the
attitude in New England and Eastern New York. They attacked at one and
time the Unitarians, the Universalists, and the Masons. In New England
Anti-Masonry was looked upon as "nothing more than Orthodoxy in
In one of the Vermont papers opposed to the
appeared a letter in which the writer made the following appeal:
awake from thy slumbers, and show to these Orthodox (Anti-Masons) that
yet a majority and that we calculate to retain the majority." March 11,
As early as 1823
the General Methodist Conference prohibited its clergy from joining the
In Pennsylvania during the Masonic excitement it was said by the
that "No religious sect throughout the United States has done more for
Anti-Masonic powers than the Methodists." It forbade its members to
lodges or be present at any of their processions or festivals and
rules against ordaining any ministers who belonged to the Order. The
church was rent and torn by the struggle, and many churches, fearing
did not allow the question to come up, but passed non-partisan
The Baptist church
also was rent with dissensions over the question, although not to so
extent as the Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Methodists. At a
convention of delegates from Baptist churches held at LeRoy, New York,
30, 1827, it was
that all such members as belong to the Baptist church and who also
the society of Freemasons, be requested to renounce publicly all
with that order, and if the request is not complied with in a
to excommunicate all those who neglect or refuse to do so."
Many of the friends of temperance, which was a
growing reform at this time, were also enemies of Masons.
Another peculiarity of Anti-Masonry is that it
found its chief support in the country and not in city. It is
note that Anti-Masonry was essentially a New England movement. There
exceptions, but in New England and New York and throughout the path of
England emigration the party was strongest. Most of the leaders in New
like Weed, Granger, Holley, Ward and Maynard, were of New England
The party in Pennsylvania was led by men of New England extraction and
called by the Democrats "a Yankee concern from beginning to end."
The Anti-Masons accused the newspapers of being
"muzzled" by the Masons. Anti-Masonic papers were established. In
1832 there were one hundred and forty one of these papers. New York had
forty-five weeklies and one daily, while Pennsylvania had fifty-five
Considering all these conditions, the Morgan
incident was but the spark that lighted the fire. The fire was fanned
controlled by some of the shrewdest political leaders this country has
seen. The greatest of all of these politicians were Thurlow Weed [Lib
1883; Vol 1, Vol 2] of New York and
Thaddeus Stevens [Lib 1899] of
Pennsylvania, while in New England, Hallett of Rhode Island was active,
Phelps and Thatcher of Massachusetts may be mentioned among the most
although there were many very active in New England.
In 1826 there was a general practice, which had
prevailed for years, of giving credit for the degrees. The door of
thrown open to a great many. It was, as we say, popular to belong to
Masonic Fraternity. It is possible that during the period immediately
the Morgan episode a good many had been accepted into the Fraternity
being carefully investigated, or if they were, the committees and
too eager and anxious to swell their numbers to exercise that careful
of the applicant which has been found so essential if the lodges are to
maintain that high standard of character which the institution
consequently, when the storm burst and the Fraternity was openly
violating the law of the land and the murder of an innocent citizen, a
many of those who dropped out or became seceding Masons improved the
opportunity to destroy their financial indebtedness and at the same
some notoriety in their several communities.
The work of the lodges fell off very rapidly.
some states the Grand Lodges suspended their meetings for years. The
Lodge of Vermont had but seven lodges represented at its meeting in
1836 the Grand Master, the Grand Secretary, and the Grand Treasurer of
were empowered to meet every two years and adjourn the Grand Lodge
or oftener. This was done during the years 1837, 1838, 1840, 1842 and
in 1845 these Grand Officers took counsel to resume labor. It also
their records that various constituent lodges at that time resumed
would indicate that their communications had never legally ceased and
charters had not been surrendered. Probably these lodges followed the
as to associations and so maintained a consecutive legal existence from
prior to the Anti-Masonic period. In Maine the Grand Lodge failed to
several years and, had a nominal meeting in other years. While from
1843 the Grand Lodge met annually, at one meeting they were without a
representative from a single lodge, and but twice during this period of
years did they have representatives from more than four lodges. Nearly
lodges in Maine during this period or some part of it, suspended their
and became dormant, even if they did not surrender their charters.
In New Jersey the Grand Lodge in 1824 and 1825
representatives from twenty-two to thirty-three lodges. After this
opposition the lodges in New Jersey were reduced to six.
In New York there were four hundred and eighty
in 1826 with a membership of about twenty thousand. From 1827 to 1839
Lodge maintained its annual meetings, but only fifty to ninety
were represented in that time. In 1835 there were but seventy-five
the State of New York; twenty-five of these were in the city of New
a membership of about three thousand. In 1839 there were seventy-five
the state, twenty-two were in New York City and Brooklyn and
fifty-three in the
remainder of the state. Masonry was at its lowest ebb in New York about
There are many remarkable instances of loyalty
heroism in connection with these local lodges. One or two instances
suffice. Olive Branch Lodge No. 39, at Le Roy, in Genesee County, did
suspend its communications, and was recorded as the "Preserver of
Masonry" in Western New York; seven of its most zealous and devoted
members entered into this solemn agreement:
"To meet once
in four weeks for the purpose of opening and closing the lodge and
This agreement was literally kept, and never
during that time, although obliged to travel a distance of more than
miles, did they fail to have their meetings.
Union Lodge No. 45, at Lima, Monroe County,
continued to hold its regular meetings, although it was fiercely
Batavia lodge, where the Morgan trouble began,
dormant for sixteen years, but was revived in 1842.
On June 17, 1825, occurred the laying of the
cornerstone of Bunker Hill Monument, by the officers of the Grand Lodge
Massachusetts, who were honored by the presence of Brother LaFayette,
and companion of George Washington.
Eighteen hundred and twenty-five was the last
prosperous year Massachusetts Masonry was to see for two decades. That
number of lodges rose to one hundred and seven. In 1844 it had sunk to
and at one Communication of the Grand Lodge only eight lodges were
In 1833, the meeting of December 12th was
to December 20th, and at that meeting the only business transacted,
to the records, was the passing of the following vote:
R. W. Francis J. Oliver, R. W. Augustus Peabody, R. W. Joseph Baker, R.
Soley, and R. W. Charles W. Moore, be a committee to consider the
surrendering the act of incorporation of the Grand Lodge, and report at
The next meeting was held December 27, 1833,
the following action was taken:
the Master and Wardens of this Grand Lodge be authorized and directed
surrender to the Legislature the act of incorporation granted to the
Wardens and Members of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, June 16, 1817,
present therewith the foregoing memorial signed by them."
The memorial referred to is a dignified,
prepared statement of the reasons for surrendering this act of
and a plain statement of their position on all questions involving the
principles of Masonry.
At this meeting it was reported that the sale
the Masonic Temple as authorized, had been made to Robert Shaw.
In 1843, December 27, the Grand Lodge met and
a Lodge of Instruction, at which the three degrees were fully worked
exemplified by the Grand Lecturers with "facility and skillfulness."
More brethren from the country were in attendance at this meeting than
previous occasion for ten years. In the same year a new and revised
the Grand Constitutions was adopted.
In 1845, December 27, two years later, a Grand
Lodge of Instruction was called at 9 a.m., at which the representatives
twenty-seven lodges were present. The work of the three degrees was
by the Grand Lecturers and favorable comments on their efforts are
On June 17, 1843, occurred the great
the completion of the Bunker Hill Monument, at which were present the
magistrates and dignitaries of the nation and some of the states. In
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge occurs this comment:
had the direction of the great jubilee did not feel the propriety of
our Grand Lodge to assist in the ceremonies."
King Solomon's Lodge, of Charlestown, was
especially invited, and it seems that the members of the Grand Lodge
with the members of King Solomon's Lodge in the procession and so
in the proceedings, but with great regret that they were not permitted
participate officially in the proceedings, in view of the illustrious
who participated in the battle that this monument was to commemorate.
Twenty years after the Morgan episode, the
of "Letters on Freemasonry" [Lib 1875] by John Quincy Adams, stated
in an introduction
to those letters as published in 1847:
excitement which arose in consequence of the disclosures then made had
effect, at least for a time, if not permanently, to check the further
that association. The legislative power of some of the states was
at last actually interposed, to prevent the administration of
oaths, including of course all such as were constantly taken in the
Order. This was the furthest point which the opposition ever reached.
not succeed in procuring the dissolution of the organization of the
even the repeal of the charters under which it had recognized existence
social system. From the moment of the adoption of a penal law deemed
enough to meet the most serious of the evils complained of, the
further danger from Masonry began to subside. At this day (1847), the
has ceased to be talked of. The attention of men has been gradually
other things, until at last it may be said that few persons are aware
fact, provided it be not especially forced upon their notice, that not
Freemasonry continues to exist, but also that other associations
its secret nature, if not of its unjustifiable obligations, not merely
but greatly flourish in the midst of them."
A careful reading of many articles published
resolutions passed at about the time of the Morgan episode indicates
that a few
members of the lodge at Batavia thought they were serving a good
securing Morgan's manuscript before it was published and separating
Miller, editor of the local paper. Quite a number of Masons were
knowing to the
These plans included an agreement with Morgan
he should destroy all the manuscript and printed sheets connected with
proposed publication; he was to quit drinking, and from the money to be
clothe himself decently and provide for the immediate wants of his
refuse all further interviews with his partners; promise that he would
disclose this arrangement to anyone, and that within a short time he
to a remote locality in Canada, where he was to settle down, his family
supplied with money and transportation to join him, and a substantial
to Morgan for giving up the publication and the expected income from
disclosures. Morgan was to be well treated and his family provided for
they should join him in Canada.
In view of these arrangements, which were well
known to the Masons in the locality of Batavia, it did not occur to the
took this ill-advised action that anything like the excitement which
would be occasioned. That the plan was entirely a local arrangement, we
is conclusively shown by action of the Masonic Grand Bodies at that
The Grand Lodge of New York took no action in
matter until 1831, when it adopted resolutions reciting the facts and
misrepresentations and appointing a committee to ascertain and report
next annual communication. In 1832 a supplemental report was adopted in
they deplored the action, characterizing it as "a violation alike of
Masonic obligation and the law of the land," and asked for further time
complete their investigation.
The Grand Lodge of Vermont, October 7, 1829,
an appeal in which it held itself guiltless of the different charges
against the Fraternity in connection with the Morgan incident.
Other Grand Lodges took similar action. Perhaps
most effective and complete statement issued by Masons was the
the Freemasons of Boston and vicinity, dated December 31, 1831, which
great service in restoring the public mind to a normal state. This
is well worth consideration, and reveals not only a fine appreciation
situation, by our best men, but also a splendid spirit of resolution to
results. It is as follows:
public mind remained in the high state of excitement to which it had
carried by the partial and inflammatory representations of certain
committed by a few misguided members of the MASONIC INSTITUTION in a
state, it seemed to the undersigned (residents of Boston and vicinity)
expedient to refrain from a public DECLARATION of their principles and
engagements as MASONS. But believing the time now to be fully come when
fellow citizens will receive with candor, if not with satisfaction, A
AND UNEQUIVOCAL DENIAL OF THE ALLEGATIONS which, during the last five
consequence of their connection with the MASONIC FRATERNITY, have been
reiterated against them, they respectfully ask permission to invite
to the subjoined
Whereas, it has
been frequently asserted and published to the world that in the several
of FREEMASONRY, as they are enforced in the United States, the
his initiation and subsequent advancement, binds himself by oath to
Masonic brethren in acts which are at variance with the fundamental
of morality and incompatible with his duty as a good and faithful
justice therefore to themselves, and with a view to establish TRUTH and
IMPOSITION, the undersigned, many of us the recipients of every degree
Freemasonry known and acknowledged in this country, do most SOLEMNLY
existence of any such obligations in the MASONIC INSTITUTION, so far as
knowledge respectively extends. And we as SOLEMNLY AVER that no person
admitted to the Institution without first being made acquainted with
of the obligations which he will be required to incur and assume.
secures its members in the freedom of thought and of speech, and
and every one to act according to the dictates of his own conscience in
of religion, and of his personal preferences in matters of politics; it
knows, nor does it assume to inflict upon its erring members, however
be their aberration from duty, any penalties or punishments other than
ADMONITION, SUSPENSION, and EXPULSION.
The obligations of
the Institution require of its members a strict obedience to the laws
and man. So far from being bound by any engagements inconsistent with
happiness and prosperity of the nation, every citizen who becomes a
doubly bound to be true to his GOD, to his COUNTRY, and to his
In the language of
the Ancient Constitutions of the Order, which are printed and open for
inspection, and which are used as text books in all the lodges, he is
to keep and obey the MORAL LAW; to be a quiet and peaceful citizen,
true to his
government and just to his country.
the making of proselytes; she opens the portals of her asylum to those
admission with the recommendation of a character unspotted by
vice. She simply requires of the candidate his assent to one great,
religious truth ‒ THE EXISTENCE AND PROVIDENCE OF GOD; and a practical
acknowledgement of those infallible doctrines for the government of
are written by the finger of God on the heart of man.
sentiments, as MASONS, as CITIZENS, as CHRISTIANS, and as MORAL MEN,
impressed with the conviction that the MASONIC INSTITUTION has been,
continue to be, productive of great good to their fellowmen; and having
'received the laws of the society, and its accumulated funds, in sacred
for charitable uses,' the undersigned can neither renounce nor abandon
We most cordially
unite with our Brethren of Salem and vicinity in the declaration and
'should the people of this country become so infatuated as to deprive
their civil rights, in violation of their written constitutions, and
wholesome spirit of just laws and free governments, a vast majority of
Fraternity will still remain firm, confiding in God, and the rectitude
intentions for consolation, under the trials to which they may be
This declaration was written by Charles W.
for many years Grand Secretary of our Grand Lodge. It was originally
only for the Boston Encampment of Knights Templar. Later, at the
request of prominent Masons, it was submitted to the Grand Master, and
subsequently signed by one thousand, four hundred and sixty-nine Masons
fifty four towns and districts in Massachusetts. Four hundred
More than six thousand Masons in New England
subscribed to this declaration, which was given to the public on
M. W. Brother Gallagher, in commenting upon
declaration in an address given by him at Camden, Maine, on June 24,
"It was the
first heavy blow given to Anti-Masonry and with the political defeat in
Jackson campaign sounded the death knell of its existence. That famous
declaration embodies and states concisely about all there is in the
of the Masonic Order. Printed and read in our lodges, it would serve to
in pursuing anew our journey in the paths of rectitude and Masonic
The Approaches to the Heart – [A Poem]
Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
you crave an
inspiration straight from nature's very heart,
Beating true to the creation of which you're a conscious part?
Would you, somehow, in your longing, form a kinship to the earth
That might make its elementals of a sweeter, richer worth ‒
That might make all things in nature to your soul a means of grace,
Wooing with the charm forever of her omnipresent grace?
Then unto her soulful readings, blended with Masonic Art
Open wide all the approaches to the portals of the heart.
* * *
Liberty's in every blow!
Let us do or die.
* * *
But what is truth? 'Twas Pilate's question put
To Truth itself, that deign'd him no reply.
The Comacine Masters ‒
By Bro. W. Ravenscroft,
SINCE writing my "Further Notes on the
Comacine Masters," which appeared in THE BUILDER for July, August and
September, 1918, I have had opportunity for reading some additional
to them and, as they throw fresh light on the subject, I have
translated a few
extracts from these references as an appendix to what I have already
The translations are as follows:
L'Italia: Monumentale, Asti. Prof. A. Bevilacqua
"Of the Lombard-Carlovingian period there are
preserved to us in Asti three precious relics; the Crypt of S. Secondo
Mercato), of S. Giovanni and part of that of S. Anastasio.
"These show us the first tentative efforts and
the commencement of artistic progress in that nucleus of artificers
Lombard territory at the beginning of the seventh century, were already
developing a reproduction of the traditional Roman construction and
Europe the architecture of the following middle age.
"Crypt of S. Secondo. Erected on the spot
where tradition places the martyrdom of the patron saint of the city
from the earliest ages of Christianity, sacred, it arose probably in
half of the seventh century. Of that period are its capitals surmounted
coarse abacus something like a cushion and of a form vaguely
of the pre-Lombard cube introduced in Lombardy at the end of the
century. (See illustrations.)
"Crypt of S. Giovanni. This was the ancient
Episcopal baptistery of Asti. It arose probably in the period of
(712-744). Since we find already formed the pre-Lombard cube capitals
(according to the denomination of Rivoira), with the cube roughly
of which we certainly have no examples before this date. One may also
this epoch, indirectly confirmed by documents, the transfer of the
seat which, until the seventh century, was placed without the walls
church of S. Secondo and thereby made a little more secure. One remarks
crypt the capitals of the Theodorican' reconstruction of Asti and the
capital, one of two only, dating from the pre-Lombard artistic period
"Crypt of S. Anastasio. It arose not much
before 792-793, the year of the document in which it is mentioned. The
in its construction were assisted by Ravennese, at any rate in the
portions as is evidenced by the capitals of the two schools when
some others of the Theodorican time. It is noteworthy that one of the
capitals shows a remarkable affinity with one co-eval of S. Vincenzo in
Milanese (eighth century) and one Comacine which preludes an art more
Referring to the church of S. Anastasio
destroyed), Prof. Bevilacqua-Lazise says (p. 10):
"The church taken altogether permits the
affirmation that it was the work of Comacine Masters nor is there in
ornamentation any trace of trans-Alpine influence."
Merzario: "I. Maestri Comacini," vol. I, p.
113, writing about S. Marks, Venice, says:
"The basilical iconography and its system of
masonry; the crypt, which is a medieval in use before 900; certain rude
discordant sculpture in the taste of that of Altino; some forms of
vaults and of arcades; several symbolic figures, griffins, flowers,
birds and hieroglyphics,
and the other emblems which are seen in the atrium and in the narthex
Ambrose of Milan are almost exclusively the property of the Comacines,
added to this their continual dependence on the Patriarchate of
attested of their presence in S. Marks."
L'Italia: Monumentale, Venice (S. Mark), L.
Marongoni, p. 6.
"In the year 829 under the Doge Giovanni
Partecipazio, brother of Guistiniano, was initiated the construction of
first edifice which was of more restricted proportions than the
church, its architecture being that of a Latin basilica."
L' Italia: Monumentale, Como. D. Santo Monti, pp.
"Seventy-five years after the descent of the
Lombards into Italy, in 643, appeared a code of Rotari and after about
100 years an edict of King Liutprand, both referring to a Society of
Comacini' and of their 'Colleganti.' It will not be unreasonable to
that this Society or association, college or fraternity, whichever you
existed some time before the coming of the Lombards into Italy and
under the Goths and under Greek influence; that it was probably a
an ancient college or association of arts and business existing from
times and under their laws, the cradle, so to speak, of Mustio the
Pliny, and not altogether lost from amongst us, surviving unimpaired
darkness of the age of barbarian domination."
L'Italia: Monumentale, Trieste. A. Berlam, p. 10.
"In the first times of Christianity about the
fourth century arose the little church of S. Silvestro in honour of the
Silvester I who baptized Constantine. According to tradition, on the
the church stood the house of the Triestine martyrs Eufemia and Tecla
sarcophagus was preserved until 1700 as we read in the writings of the
historian Ireneo della Croce."* * * And still we come to this church,
to the heart of all Triestmes both as a symbol of Latinity and as a
the fourteenth century free commune, to this S. Cicisto toward which
Italian homage of Carducci.
L'Italia: Monumentale, I Monumenti del Lago di
Monneret de Villard.
"The Lake in the Antonine Itinerary is called
Comacina ‒ its ancient name" ‒ p. 6.
"Not only the three 'Pievi' but also the Island
of Comacina set up itself as an independent republic." p. 9.
"In this epoch of quarrels and massacres the
architecture of Como flourished a school special and distinct from the
('Romanica') architecture of Italy ‒ that which one sees always so
called by the generic name of Lombard.
"The Lombard architecture is itself a school
distinct from the great Romanic trunk which, contrary to
tendencies, methods and objects peculiar to itself, differing from
those of the
Comacine School. If this confusion has been possible and it was
one was simply a local form of the other and one saw but little
them, it is due to the carelessness and the want of goodwill of
attracted and fascinated by the grand monuments of the Milanese, found
fatiguing and too little interesting to explore the Como district to
monuments which have there been erected from the commencement of the
to the end of the thirteenth centuries.
"In these short pages it is not possible to
treat deeply the questions, but we may perhaps indicate the limits at
"Comacine architecture in the Romanci epoch
has sufficiently well- defined boundary; it includes the high valleys
of the Ticino
and the Adda, the Canton Ticino which is found in our days, the
the territory of the ancient diocese of Como, the northern part of the
countship of Seprio, the northern Brianza, the Valassina and the
the eastern bank of Lario (Lake Como) which depended from the diocese
approaching that which constituted the district under the
of the province of Como and that of Sondrio and the canton Ticino and
frontiers of the bordering regions. The heart of it is certainly Como
Lake: here it is that we find the greatest number and most important of
monuments. The materials of which use was made are naturally those
soil produced; thus we see why the architecture Milanese or Lombard,
we wish to call it, is based on terra-cotta ‒ the Comacine uses stone;
quarries of Moltrasio and those of analogous material furnished the
elements while the marbles of Olcio and of Musso less spread (more
served for the works more refined. The great river fiints are not
works of less importance.
"From the constructive point of view the
problem of the vault is fundamental in Lombard architecture as in all
schools of Romanic architecture it is of great architectural
Comacine architecture it is, on the contrary, secondary only.
"As in France the Norman school and that of
the Isle of France, as in Italy the architectural Romanic school of the
and south of the peninsula, so in the northern part Comacine
rather than prosecute the efforts of the Carlovingian epoch of adapting
vault to the basilican plan, or to the central form of plan, contented
with results already achieved by the Latin school with the basilica
a wooden roof.
"The only vaulted part in the Comacine
churches is the apse, except certain cupolas in transepts as at
Vertemate at S.
Giacomo and at S. Fedele of Como, or adopted to the polygonal plan as
Giovanni in Atrio di Como and a few transepts covered at the crossing
of the apses, an example of which can be seen in S. Giacomo of Bellagio.
"The problem of the vault has drawn in its
following special forms of pillars grouped in isolated support and of
pilasters and counter forts to external walls. There is nothing of all
Comacine architecture of which the supports are always simple (it being
conservative and traditional school) having generally the form of
reality they were round pillars composed of many dressed stones, as for
at S. Abondio di Como and at S. Giacomo di Bellagio, pillars which are
be found at Gravedona at Vertemate and in the Episcopal palace of Como.
walls are always simple and if they have pilasters they are such as are
decorative and not constructional.
"The roofs are covered with wood, some open
timbered, others enclosed with ceilings as at S. Nicolao di Piona or at
Maria di Martinico above Dongo.
"It is only in the monuments of Como that the
of the Lombard school is felt which we find in 'Tiburium' over the
This is systematically wanting in all other cases. The arrangement of
plan as a
rule in the Comacine school is that of the basilica with one nave (3)
with semicircular apse, toward the end of the twelfth century the
apse was substituted for this.
"Basilicas with two naves as at S. Agata di
Montrasio are very rare ‒ generally the second nave came as an
the church. Rare also are basilicas with three naves as at S. Benedetto
Perlana, S. Giacomo di Bellagio, S. Marta Sopra Carate and the
church of S. Vincenzo in Gravedona. Still more rare are the churches
central form of plan, of which on the Lake we may instance the
Lenno, S. Maria del Tigilo at Gravedona and the square demolished
Menaggio. Interesting crypts we have at Lenno and at Gravedona; rarely
finds cloisters of which the sole remaining one on the Lake is that of
"The campanili are during the eleventh and
twelfth centuries always of one same type ‒ square towers with
pilasters at the
angles divided in the several stages by rows of little arches
sometimes by rows of stones placed dentil-wise.
"To the several stories loopholes open of
single lights, of two lights, and sometimes in the belfry of three
"In the thirteenth century was substituted a
simpler type of tower, square and terminating with four piers which
roof as at S. Martino di Caleno and at S. Pietro in Vincoli at
campanili similar to the tower of Broletto of Como.
"The octagonal campanile of Gravedona and that
like it, now demolished, of Piona are exceptions derived from
"The position of the campanili also is little
varied. In general flanking the nave near the apse but at other times
the front occupying only a part of the facade as at Bellagio, or masked
completely as at S. Nazaro e Celso di Scaria, and sometimes arising
interior of the church placed on two walls of the nave of which one is
front wall, as at S. Andrea di Lenno.
"The entrances are generally formed with
lunettes surmounting friezes, the windows always round-headed. In the
are usually cruciform lights, and towards the end of the twelfth
appeared the round windows, as at S. Maria di Martinico.
"Examples of external arcades flanking the
naves and apses we have not except in the case of S. Giacomo and S.
Como where there are evidences of Lombard-Milanese or Rhenish
facades, when the basilicas are of three naves, are divided, the
portion raised, and demonstrating clearly the structure behind, S.
Como being alone the exception. In this particular the Comacine School
is distinguished from the Lombard-Milanese which always treats the
as one front.
"Comacine decoration is both simple and
interesting. Generally under the eaves of the edifice runs a cornice of
arches surmounted sometimes by a dentilled frieze. In the apses besides
arches we get also vertical pilasters enriched sometimes with
these small arches run on the facades, following the sailing courses of
pediments. This is in fact the customary treatment of Lombard Milanese
"The churches were nearly always covered with
frescoes, conspicuous amongst which is the gigantic figule of S.
the protector of travelers.
"It is in sculpture that Comacine architecture
reveals its proper characteristics ‒ the capitals have rarely the
Lombard form but they present in great variety forms recalling in some
"The decoration, contrary to that of the
Lombard Milanese School which made much use of interlaced ribbons,
true characteristics of sculpture with figures of animals such as dogs
following each other in the capitals of Cernobbio heads, and eagles, as
Piona, and sometimes with truly animated scenes, as in the magnificent
conserved in the museum of Como.
"The Comacine school is meanwhile that which
was most affected by external influence ‒ -that of the Rhenish school
explaining itself easily by the frequent and important relations which
Ghibelline city (Milan?) had with the empire, the Lake and its valleys
the natural road for descent from Germany into Italy, and that of
the introduction of the Monastic orders of the Benedictines ‒ the
Benedictines and the Cluniacs, who from the center of the Island of
spread themselves over all the region' of Como. The Rhenish influence
itself chiefly on architectural form and alone can explain the
positions of the
frontal towel s of S. Giacomo di Como, while the Burgundian, which is
powerfully revealed in S. Maria del Tiglio at Gravedona, dom'inates the
"A development so rich of Romanic art ought
not to leave a large place for Gothic architecture ‒ in effect all the
countries, being already provided with churches when this new form of
architecture appeared, did not feel the need of erecting others.
the Comacine School, liking not vaults as coverings, would not allow
be attracted by the new school, which in the solution of this problem
base, its object, and its raison d'être.
"For this reason there does not exist a
Comacine Gothic architecture strictly characteristic.
"In the greater number of cases the architects
were content to apply to a Romanic structure decorative forms nearly
only substituting lancet for semicircular arches where they are small
decorative." (p. 10 et seq.)
In the foregoing extracts there is considerable
unanimity of opinion, if perhaps one or two of the statements of Sig.
de Villard, to which I propose to make a few allusions, are excepted.
Sig. de Villard, it will be noticed, takes a
limited view of the territory and scope of the Comacine Masters.
an extremely wide one. The former comes to his conclusions by
the Comacine from the Lombard school to an extent one is not prepared
altogether. He refers to the latter as a branch of architecture
the Roman trunk depending for development largely on the use of brick
effort to deal with the vault, which latter in Comacine work, he says,
important place. But he admits the influence of each school on the
gives examples of such.
Now it must not be forgotten that for a
considerable time the Comacines were first in the field working
the Lombard plain, the Lombards for a long time having no school of
architecture. The natural inference therefore is that the Lombard
developed from the Comacine and largely influenced by the use of brick
vault ‒ both of which were to some extent used by the Comacines.
Moreover the differences between the two
if they are to be in any great sense regarded as distinct ‒ are not
strongly marked as, for instance, those between the Norman and early
styles of architecture where, in early English work all the leading
in their full development, are the very opposite of those in Norman
yet we know, subject of course to a good deal of external influence,
grew out of the other and there was for a short time a transition stage
All the same it would be going too far to speak
Comacine and Lombard work, especially as time advanced, as one and the
Sig. de Villard's contentions as regards a few
details, one would submit, are not altogether borne out.
For instance, he makes the cushion capitals of
columns the property of the Lombard school, and speaks of their rare
in Comacine work. Yet without looking specially for them, one has seen
S. Albondio Como, S. Giacomo Como, at Bellagio on Comacina, at
in the crypt of S. Marks, Venice ‒ all Comacine work and mostly in the
So with the interlaced ornament. There is
of it at S. Abondio Como and beautiful specimens at Gravedona and
this same district, as well as all over Italy ‒ all probably having
One would submit further that in several
especially in campanili the use of brick does not, as Sig. de Villard
denote the work as Lombard, seeing that notwithstanding this material
these works have features which he regards as distinctly Comacine.
tells us that the "three naves" plan in Comacine work is rare, and
yet he says where found therein it is always emphasized and not masked
facade as in Lombard work. This treatment, however, is to be found all
Italy and the principal church on Isola Comacina was a "three nave"
As a matter of fact it is impossible to draw
definite line between the two schools ‒ one would rather say as they
in time they showed increasing tendencies to separate development, the
being the more conservative in its character.
The churches at Piacenza, as well as some of
in Milan, give good illustrations of the development in brick of
From the foregoing translations generally it is
unreasonable to conclude:
Eastern and trans-Alpine influences on both Comacine and Lombard work
admitted, but with less constructive effect in the former than in the
the Lombard school, insofar as it merits a separate name, was developed
the cushion capitals of the Norman school were derived from the
examples not being known before the eighth century, when they may have
evolved in the manner described by Prof. Bevilacqua-Lazise.
the influence of trans-Alpine Gothic in Italy generally, and
the Comacine and Lombard schools was, especially in its earlier days,
superficial and never wholly satisIactory or complete.
A few words may be added as to the relation
the Comacine plans of churches and the earlier examples which remain to
England of the Saxon and early Norman periods.
Sig. Monneret de Villard states that the
number of Comacine churches were planned each with one nave only, and a
semicircular apse, which latter was substituted toward the end of the
century by the rectangular chancel. Also that the nave and aisle
was not so common in Comacine work, while crypts are to be found in
instances. And we have already seen that repeatedly artificers were
from the Continent to England to build churches in the Roman manner. It
surely, therefore, be more than a coincidence that the plans of a large
of these early churches conform to those of the Comacines, and, taken
other evidence already adduced, one submits the reason for this was the
Comacine influence brought to bear on them.
No attempt is here made to give a complete list
these English churches, but the following are just such as have come
Those consisting of nave only and apse are:
Four connected with the Mission of S. Augustine
England (sixth century).
The first Cathedral of Rochester.
The Church of S. Pancras at Canterbury.
The original priory of Christchurch, Hants, consisting of several
standing apart from each other, two still remaining beneath the
the present church.
The original church of Corhampton, Hants.
Those consisting of nave only and rectangular
chancel, as in the later Comacine work are:
The Saxon church of Bradford on Avon.
The Saxon church of Escomb, Durham.
That of Monkwearmouth, Durham. (Since enlarged.)
That of Jarrow, Durham. (A. D. 684.)
That of Corbridge, Northumberland.
That of Boarhunt, Hants.
That of Hambledon, Hants. (Since enlarged.)
Also many others where the original plan is
obscured by later additions.
Those of the basilican form, i.e., with nave
and apse are:
Wilfrid's Church at Hexham, having also a crypt
arrangement of stairs thereto, all of Comacine type.
Wilfrid's Church at Ripon, similar in arrangement.
The Saxon Church at Brixwortll, Northants,
about A. D. 680, and having a rectangular presbytery placed between the
and apse, another Comacine feature.
The Church at Lydd, Kent.
The Church at Wing, Bedfordshire.
The Church at Reculvers, Kent.
The original Cathedral of Canterbury (destroyed by fire in 1067) with
at the west end.
The original Church at Romsey.
The crypt of Winchester Cathedral.
The Parish Church, Goring, Oxon.
To give a list of churches illustrating the
basilican plan, but with rectangular chancels with or without transepts
central towers, would carry beyond the scope of these notes, because
have to be drawn chiefly from types of later date which can scarcely be
to have such direct Comacine association.
the Great, A. D. 455-526.
(2) S. Eufemia (Sept. 16) was honored in Como, being patron of the
afterwards known as S. Fedele, also of the excavated church at
Tecla is honored at Torno.
(3) Italian writers generally denominate as "naves" not only those
portions of a building we understand as such, but also those adjacent
call "aisles." "Transepts," also in Italian works,
frequently means only the crossings and not the extended wings which we
understand by the word.
(4) If the twisted knot in the shafts of minor columns is allowed to be
Comacine (probably derived from the East or of Greek origin) they are
first left-side doorway at S. Marks, Venice, an evidence of these
Brightness of Life – [A Poem]
thought that is
winged from friend to friend
Doesn't seem such a wonderful thing;
Yet it carries the prayer for a joy without end,
And it throbs with a big, friendly ring
A mere word of cheer, in the shadow of night,
Cohen discouragement darkens the way,
Will illuminate our hearts with the glorious light
Of a hopeful and sun-brightened day.
When failure confronts us and darkens our goals,
How we long for the clasp of a hand!
It is then that we cry from the depths of our souls
For a friend who can just understand.
A bright, cheery smile often gives us the strength
That we lack in the vortex of strife,
For it lightens our load as we travel the length
Of the care-laden Path we call Life.
So we find, after all, that the things we thought small
Loom colossal above all the host;
That the best of God's gifts are the friends we can call
To our side when we need them most.
* * *
that keeps its twilight hour,
And, in the depths of heavenly peace reclined,
Loves to commune with thoughts of tender power ‒
Thoughts that ascend, like angels beautiful,
A shining Jacob's-Ladder of the mind!
‒ Paul H. Hayne.
* * *
Kindness is wisdom. There is none in life
But needs it and may learn.
How the Red Cross Works
By Jeanne Judson
"It's not that we are not grateful ‒ you have
done much ‒ but we are old, and it is hard for the old to be away from
own homes ‒ and the crowds ‒ we are not happy in the crowds ‒ we want
alone ‒ if we could be alone in ever so poor a place, we would be
The speaker was a man of sixty, still strong
in spite of the hardships that had been his lot. His wife, not quite so
but still courageous stood beside him, nodding approval of his words.
"If we could be alone ‒ the smallest
lodging," she repeated.
They had stopped the Red Cross delegate on the
street; their bright old eyes looked at him appealingly and yet with
confidence. The American Red Cross man would sympathize, would
somehow in the miraculous manner of American Red Cross men he would be
provide what they asked.
As it happened the Red Cross delegate was even
on his way to the Refugees' "Intelligence Office" to speak about them
and about others whose circumstances were just as pitiful.
The farmer had been very prosperous and he and
good wife had been ready to enjoy in their old age the comfort and
they had earned by years of industry and frugality. Then came the war,
prosperous farm was wrecked. They enumerated the glories of it, the
possessions that were now lost to them forever ‒ four horses, twenty
hundred hens and other livestock.
But all this could have been borne quite easily
were it not that their son was a prisoner in Germany. All through the
vicissitudes that war had brought they had not lost courage, but now
were back in their own province with hundreds of other repatriates they
nearer to having a home than they had been on the first day that they
driven from their farm, where they had watched the flames devouring the
cherished possessions of years. There was something very pitiful about
couple with their nostalgia for dear, familiar things ‒ their shrinking
The prefecture and other French officials had
great interest in co-operating with the American Red Cross to provide
for the repatriates. An old factory and a convent had been fixed up to
accommodate three hundred. They had provided straw mattresses and even
blankets, and everything was scrupulously clean. Here men, women and
would have a shelter until they could be distributed to different
a more pleasant lodging and useful work could be provided. But all this
take time and the old farmer and his wife were very tired, very weary
having a place of their own; the old convent where they had lodged
many strangers had sapped their courage as nothing that had gone before
done and they looked at him with such confidence.
The Red Cross
A Red Cross worker, a girl, was going to a
on the eleven o'clock train. Why not let her take them with her? It
could do no
harm ‒ they had no home and one place was good as another. They would
have a pleasant excursion and a good dejeuner ‒ and perhaps they would
something to do or some place to live. He explained the plan to them
and to the
girl. They radiated agreement ‒ they were in the hands of their
friends and it meant that they would not spend another night in the
At the station when they were waiting for their
train the Red Cross man took a picture of them ‒ a happy smiling
The trip proved to be a great success, lodgings
were found and work for both on a neighboring farm.
It is almost inconceivable how many individual
cases a Red Cross worker can carry in his mind at ones the number seems
limitless. Perhaps the farmer and his wife remained a more vivid memory
most ‒ there is something infinitely appealing about the courage of old
few days after their departure the Red Cross man sent them a copy of
picture he had taken at the station, and they have sent it to their son
German prison camp.
Bereft of all their household goods, toiling
bread instead of resting as they had hoped to rest, they are still
cheerful, hoping against hope that he will one day be restored to them,
while they wait they are thankful that they still have strength to work
These are people for whom the Red Cross works
unceasingly ‒ the little children who are too young to understand, and
people who understand too well. It is a comforting thought that the
Red Cross has 22,000,000 members in addition to 800,000 members
enrolled in the
Junior Red Cross. Of course all of these are not contributing members.
necessary that they should be. The big thing is that every American
express our unfaltering belief in mercy and justice by becoming a part
great humanitarian organization. The Christmas Roll Campaign for Red
membership is being made for this purpose. Membership costs only one
Half of every dollar will be sent to help in the work abroad and one
be kept at home for the support of local chapters and to carry on the
home service work.
The Morality of the Lost Word – [A Poem]
By Bro. Arthur Edward Waite,
a measure of
light and a measure of shade,
The world of old by the Word was made;
By the shade and light was the Word conceal'd,
And the Word in flesh to the world reveal'd
Is by outward sense and its forms obscured;
The spirit within is the long lost Word,
Besought by the world of the soul in pain
Through a world of words which are void and vain
O never while shadow and light are blended
Shall the world's Word-Quest or its woe be ended,
And never the world of its wounds made whole
Till the Word made flesh be the Word made soul!
* * *
Christmas Eve ‒ 1918 – [A Poem]
By Jeanne Judson
the snow so white,
Laid like a cloak on the earth below;
Christmas chimes, and the sunset light
Bathing the cross in a blood-red glow.
Red Cross above and white clad earth,
Promise renewed in earth and sky,
Chimes for the Peace Lord's glad rebirth
Mercy endures ‒ He did not die.
* * *
"Birthdays" – [A Poem]
Mother on Her Birthday
all must have them, Mother, dear
They come quite regular ‒ once a year;
They make some folks feel old and gray,
But then, with you, "it ain't that way."
Your hair is gray, dear Mother o' Mine,
But you're just foolin' Father Time;
You've got a grip on Life that'll hold ‒
Why, sakes alive! you'll never "grow old."
There's love in your eyes ‒ I see it there
As plain as the silver that's in your hair;
It shines from your heart with a steady ray
That makes me sure it's there to stay.
Why, Mother, you're my Sweetheart True,
And thru thick and thin ‒ my whole life thru ‒
My Sweetheart you will always be ‒
My ardent Lover thru Eternity.
And so our "Birthdays" come and go,
But, Mother o' Mine, you'll always know
Your Soldier boy is being true
To his God, his Country, his lover, and you.
July 16, 1918.
Written by the son of a Mason, Brother John Galloway, La Grange, III.,
mother on her birthday.
* * *
The Cable Tow
the first reference to the cable tow is in I Kings, xx-31. The noose
commonly used in Brahmanical initiation, and the removal of it was
of freedom attained, as an escape from death. The word religion comes
"religio," meaning to "bind anew," while Webster says it
"seems originally to have signified an oath or vow to the gods, or the
obligation of such an oath or vow which was held very sacred by the
Abyssinian Christians receive at their baptism a blue cord which they
round the neck and in some cases a ring or cross attached.
derivation of the word cable is doubtless from the Hebrew, as their
cord or rope is chebel.
initiation of the Cabiri they were given a purple ribbon which they
their bodies to preserve them from the perils of the sea.
not be a far cry to the use of the stole in the Roman and Anglican
by the clergy, which has never been very satisfactorily explained.
Rob Morris Bulletin.
* * *
zeal knowledge is gotten, through lack of zeal knowledge is lost; let
who knows this double path of gain and loss thus place himself that
Bulletin ‒ No. 22 Devoted To Organized Masonic Study
Edited By Bro. H. L.
THE BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR
LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
FOUNDATION OF THE COURSE
THE Course of Study has for its foundation two
sources of Masonic information: THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
another paragraph is explained how the references to former issues of
BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be worked up as supplemental
exactly fit into each installment of the Course with the papers by
The Course is divided into five principal
which are in turn subdivided, as is shown below:
Division I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
Division II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
Division III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
Division IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand Lodge.
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent Lodge.
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
Division V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries ‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
THE MONTHLY INSTALLMENTS
Each month we are presenting a paper written by
Brother Haywood, who is following the foregoing outline. We are now in
"First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will be twelve monthly
papers under this particular subdivision. On page two, preceding each
installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
upon in the paper.
Whenever possible we shall reprint in the
Correspondence Circle Bulletin articles from other sources which have a
bearing upon the particular subject covered by Brother Haywood in his
paper. These articles should be used as supplemental papers in addition
those prepared by the members from the monthly list of references. Much
valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
many of our members will thus be presented.
The monthly installments of the Course
the Correspondence Circle Bulletin should be used one month later than
appearance. If this is done the Committee will have opportunity to
their programs several weeks in advance of the meetings and the
are members of the National Masonic Research Society will be better
enter into the discussions after they have read over and studied the
installment in THE BUILDER.
REFERENCES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
Immediately preceding each of Brother Haywood's
monthly papers in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a
references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references
pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge upon many of the points
upon or bring out new points for reading and discussion. They should be
assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may compile papers
own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances the
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
latter method may be followed when the members may not feel able to
original papers, or when the original may be deemed appropriate without
alterations or additions.
HOW TO ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY
The Lodge should select a "Research
Committee" preferably of three "live" members. The study
meetings should be held once a month, either at a special meeting of
called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which no business
the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to be given
study period. After the Lodge has been opened and all routine business
of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of the
Committee. This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the
for the evening. All members to whom references for supplemental papers
been assigned should be prepared with their papers and should also have
comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's paper.
PROGRAM FOR STUDY MEETINGS
1. Reading of the first section of Brother
Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers thereto.
(Suggestion: While these papers are being read
members of the Lodge should make notes of any points they may wish to
or inquire into when the discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper
to those used in elections should be distributed among the members for
purpose at the opening of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of Brother Haywood's
paper and the supplemental papers should then be taken up, one at a
disposed of in the same manner.
4. Question Box.
MAKE THE "QUESTION BOX" THE FEATURE OF
Invite questions from any and all Brethren
Let them understand that these meetings are for their particular
get them into the habit of asking all the questions they may think of.
one of the papers read will suggest questions as to facts and meanings
may not perhaps be actually covered at all in the paper. If at the time
questions are propounded no one can answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US.
reference material we have will be gone through in an endeavor to
satisfactory answer. In fact we are prepared to make special research
called upon, and will usually be able to give answers within a day or
Please remember, too, that the great Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa
a few miles away, and, by order of the Trustees of the Grand Lodge, the
Secretary places it at our disposal on any query raised by any member
The foregoing information should enable local
Committees to conduct their Lodge study meetings with success. However,
shall welcome all inquiries and communications from interested Brethren
concerning any phase of the plan that is not entirely clear to them,
services of our Study Club Department are at the command of our
and Study Club Committees at all times.
* * *
Questions on "The
From the following questions the Committee
select, some time prior to the evening of the study meeting, the
questions that they may wish to use at their meeting which will bring
points in the following paper which they desire to discuss. Even were
but a few
minutes devoted to the discussion of each of the questions given it
seen that it would be impossible to discuss all of them in the period
devoted to the study meeting. The wide variety of questions here given
afford individual committees an opportunity to arrange their program to
their own fancies and also furnish additional material for a second
meeting each month if desired by members.
In conducting the study periods the Chairman
endeavor to hold the discussions closely to the text and not permit the
to speak too long at one time or to stray onto another subject.
becomes evident that the discussion is turning from the original
Chairman should request the speaker to make a note of the particular
phase of the matter he wishes to discuss or inquire into, and ring it
the Question Box period is open.
- Why is
the candidate "re-invested with that of which he had been divested"?
Why not wait until the end of the degree?
- Is a
boy half-way through school standing in education's "Northeast"?
- What is
the Masonic meaning of "profane"?
- Why is
the North a place of darkness and the East a place of light?
- Why is
an Entered Apprentice said to be midway between the two?
- Do you
know of any members of your lodge who are still in the Northeast?
your study club helped you to find the East?
the posture of the candidate as he stands in the Northeast Corner.
- Why is
he made to stand thus?
a man morally upright?
- What is
the function of a cornerstone in a building?
you ever attended a ceremony of cornerstone laying? If so, describe
- Why a
would you describe as a cornerstone of government? Of education? Of
way is the Entered Apprentice the cornerstone of Masonry?
the cornerstone ceremonies in early times.
- Why was
a living man sacrificed?
- What is
the real meaning of sacrifice?
you ever made sacrifices for Masonry?
- In what
way has the Fraternity a right to expect sacrifices from its members?
you agree with this definition of Masonic sacrifice: "Masonic sacrifice
the surrendering of all that conflicts with the principles of Masonry"?
some things which men commonly do that would so conflict.
sacrifice has Masonry as a whole been making during the war ‒ not
lodges, but the Craft as a whole?
- What is
your opinion of human nature?
- Do you
believe that man is by nature depraved?
- Is our
hope for the race built on what man is now, or on his capacities?
can be meant by the divinity of man?
- Has man
a capacity for the god-like? If so, how does Masonry appeal to that?
does Masonry help to develop it?
- What is
the point of Brother Markham's poem?
- Do you
agree with him?
- Is it
mere sentimentalism to deal with men in such a way as to call out the
is in them?
way does Masonry make its appeal to the best that is in us?
Mackey's Encyclopedia: Northeast Corner, p. 519.
THE BUILDER: Vol. III ‒ Ceremony of the
Corner, February C.C.B. p. 3. Vol, IV ‒
Northeast Corner, p. 242.
* * *
By Bro. H. L. Haywood,
Part X ‒ The Northeast
WHEN the candidate, reinvested with that of
he had been divested, is placed in the Northeast Corner of the lodge as
youngest Entered Apprentice, both the position in which he stands and
posture of his body have reference to such laws of the "new life" of
Masonry as is deserving of our most careful consideration. Northeast,
no need to say, is neither North nor East but a place midway between
which partakes of the character of both. Inasmuch as the North is ever
symbol of the place of Masonic darkness, and therefore represents the
world, and the East is the symbol of that complete Masonic light which
to those who master the sacred art, it is entirely fitting that the
Entered Apprentice be led to the Northeast, for as yet, having received
light but not all he is neither a profane nor completely an initiate,
Mason in the making.
Unfortunately, in the true sense of the words,
who have received their three degrees have never passed beyond the
Corner. In the mere process of initiation they have necessarily
Masonic light, but, owing to their indifference, their disinclination
to make further
studies, their refusal to think out the meanings of our symbols and
they have never come into possession of all the light which Masonry has
to them. Neither profane nor illuminated, they are half Masons, and in
spiritual sense remain always in the Northeast Corner. If some wise
the Fraternity could devise ways and means whereby Masonry could
brethren to pass from their half-way station on to the full privileges
prerogatives of the Masonic life, he would confer on them and on the
at large an incalculable benefit. Meanwhile each of us can ask of
"I have left the North, but have I yet reached the East?" This is a
question which it would be well for each of us to ask ourself.
The upright posture of the candidate as he
in the Northeast corner is at once a hint and a prophecy: it is a hint
it is indicative of the plumb which is given to him as one of his
in a higher grade so that he may already begin to prepare himself for
it is a prophecy because it anticipates that raising up which will come
sublime degree. That which is to be completely unfolded in the
degrees is latent in the First degree ‒ the Entered Apprentice is being
to become a Fellowcraft and a Master Mason.
The Northeast Corner is something more than the
half-way station between darkness and light: it is also the place of
of the cornerstone. In operative architecture the laying of the corner
a sign that all preparations have been completed, the foundations have
laid, the materials are at hand, and that the erection of the structure
to proceed: consequently the builders, from of old, have seen in it an
great significance and have accordingly laid it with elaborate
act, speech, and music.
The cornerstone is to a building what the
is to an arch. "That is called the cornerstone," writes a seventeenth
century commentator, "or chief cornerstone, which is placed in the
angle of a foundation, conjoining and holding together two walls of the
meeting from different quarters." Performing a function of such
importance the cornerstone has appealed to men with a meaning beyond
uses, serving as the symbol of that which is the foundation and
consistency in a structure. In no far-fetched sense, therefore, is the
Apprentice considered the cornerstone of Masonry; as the youth of human
step into the gaps left by the death of their elders, so with the
a Masonic lodge; he takes the place of those who have gone to the Grand
above, and thus out of the young men does the Fraternity recruit itself
keep itself alive. The Apprentice, then, is to be not only a builder
upon: out of him the future of the Craft is made, and a wise lodge will
care that it selects only that building material of which strong walls
made for the future.
But the cornerstone also had for builders a
even beyond all this. As our Masonic scholar George William Speth has
clearly described in his "Builder's Rites," the architects of the
earliest times believed that they should always pay tribute to the god
ground on which they were to raise their building; to their child-like
each plot of earth was the property of some god, and the gift must be
this god ere a building be placed on his land. At first, human beings
buried alive under the cornerstone because it was supposed that men
of their best to their god; later on, as men became more humanized, a
effigy of a man was interred as a symbol of the gift of a life: this
last refined away into the custom of placing metals, jewels, or other
under the cornerstone, even as we Masons now use corn, wine and oil.
In keeping with all this we may see in the
Apprentice who stands in the Northeast Corner a dedicated, a
who offers himself as a building stone for the spiritual temple which
is making of itself and striving to make of all human society. This
wholly divested of inhuman practices of which it is a faint reminder,
beautiful and wise in every way, for until men, the individual as well
as the many,
do offer their own lives to the service of the Brotherhood and the
Brotherhood and State must be quite impossible. It is interesting to
what would be the results if men were to give themselves to free
service in our
schools, churches, governments and all similar institutions as
the old-time builder, chosen for the human sacrifice, gave himself to
of the ground on which the building was to be erected! That would be
Kingdom of Heaven come on earth, would it not?
The Entered Apprentice is the material out of
the Fraternity makes itself, out of which it is to build whatever
life it dreams of; yet this Entered Apprentice is nothing other than a
ordinary, everyday man, like ourselves. Indeed, each of us has stood in
Northeast Corner himself! Consider in all this what a tribute
to human nature! We men are frail, our natures are often marred by
weakened by vices, and twisted by prejudices; the wisest of us are
foolish, the most learned are ignorant; yet it is out of us that all
stately, beautiful things of the future are to come! There is no need
call angels to our assistance, or any celestial beings whatever; in us,
we are, are qualities and capacities of nobleness and wisdom which, if
only permit them to rule us, would bring the will of God to pass on
regard to this it is worthy of notice that the reigning religion of the
world dares to link God and Man together as if they have somewhat in
if there were in each of us not only a humanity but also a hidden
What a thought it is, and how beautifully has our Masonic laureate,
Markham, set it to music!
"We men of
earth have here the stuff
Of Paradise ‒ we have enough!
We need no other thing to build
The stairs into the Unfulfilled ‒
No other ivory for the doors ‒
No other marble for the floors ‒
No other cedar for the beam
And dome of man's immortal dream.
Here on the paths of every day ‒
Here on the common human way ‒
Is all the busy gods would take
To build a heaven, to mould and make
New Edens. Ours the stuff sublime
To build Eternity in Time!"
* * *
There's music in
the sighing of a reed;
There's music in the gushing of a rill;
There's music in all things, if men had ears;
Their earth is but an echo of the spheres.
* * *
The more we live,
more brief appear
Our life's succeeding stages;
A day to childhood seems a year,
And years like passing ages.
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
in a lodge of
pines I sit;
The canopy thrown over it
Is heaven's own of very blue;
Due east and west it's precincts lie
And always the all-seeing eye
Of summer's sun is shining through.
Its portals open to the west;
The chipmunk, gray and sober dressed,
The tyler is: You see him dodge
To challenge every new alarm:
He has no sword upon his arm
But well he guards this secret lodge.
Our master is that giant pine
Who bends o'er us with mien divine
To keep the lodge in order trim:
His wardens are two grey-beard birch
Who sit like elders in a church
Or make decorous bows to him.
The deacons are two slender trees,
Who move about whene'er the breeze
Brings orders from the master's seat;
Our organist? Where thickest glooms
Are darkening in the pine top's plumes
The brother winds our music beat.
Whoever knocks upon the door
To learn the ancient wildwood lore,
That one he is our candidate:
We strip him of his city gear,
And meet him on the level here,
Then to our ways initiate.
We slip the hoodwink from his eye
And bid him look on earth and sky
To read the hieroglyphics there;
More ancient these than Golden Fleece
Or Roman Eagle, Tyre, or Greece,
Or Egypt old beyond compare.
On grass and stone and flower and sod
Is written down by hand of God
The secrets of this Masonry;
Who has the hoodwink from his eyes
May in these common things surprise
The awful signs of Deity.
Here bird and plant and man and beast
Are seeking their Eternal East:
And here in springtime may be heard,
By him who doth such teachings seek
With praying heart, and wise, and meek,
The thundering of the old Lost Word.
All things that in creation are
From smallest fly to largest star,
In this fellowship may be
For all that floweth out from Him,
From dust to man and seraphim,
Belong to God's freemasonry
To think and to
feel, constitute the two grand divisions of men of genius ‒ the men of
reasoning and the men of imagination
There is nothing
strictly immortal, but immortality. Whatever hath no beginning may be
of no end.
Sir Thomas Browne.
By Bro. Dr. G. Alfred
Lawrence, New York
In India the early stationary lodges, all of
partook of a Military character were established at Calcutta in 1730,
1752 and at Bombay in 1758. In 1787 there were two Iodges "amongst the
lower military" at Calcutta. At Madras Major (afterwards
Brigadier-General) Matthew Horne of the Coast Army was Provincial Grand
of Madras (under "Moderns") in 1776 during which year governor Lord
Paget was deposed by the Council and party spirit ran so high that
closed the lodges. Meanwhile "Ancient" or "Atholl" Masonry
was introduced and a lodge under the same was established at Fort St.
In November, 1784, the dissensions among the "Moderns," having
subsided, a new lodge, "Carnatic Military," was established at Arcot
by Sir David Baird and his officers with the idea of taking the place
English Roll of No. 355 at Trinchinopoly (the warrant of which
Master, Dr. Terence Gahagan, a surgeon of the Coast Army, on field
1781 and was captured with the baggage of Dr. Gahagan in the action
Col. Owen and Hyder Ali). This revival of "Carnatic Military Lodge"
led to the union in 1786 of the "Atholl" or "Ancient" with
the "Moderns" and the opening of a new lodge, "Perfect
Unanimity," the history of which, from 1786 to the present time, being
history of Freemasonry on the Coast of Coromandel ‒ this movement in
anticipated the "Union" of these two Grand Lodges of of England by
A "movable" warrant, No. VII, "Unity
and Friendship" was granted to the 33d Foot in 1802. There had been an
"Atholl" or "Ancient" lodge in this Regiment "No.
90", and this having been lost in 1795, the brethren applied for a
Provincial Charter under the impression they were communicating with
"Atholl" or "Ancient" Masons. On returning to England they
returned to the old allegiance and resumed work under No. 90 which had
regranted and sent to Fort William, Calcutta, (evidently lost enroute)
Junior Grand Lodge of England ("Ancients") in 1798.
In 1799 "St. Andrews Union" was
established in the 19th Foot at Madras and numbered X in the Coast
shortly thereafter transferred to Ceylon. The regularity of their
impugned as not being "Ancient" by "No. 329"
("Atholl" or "Ancient") in the Royal Artillery which had
been working at Colombo since 1802. At first these two lodges
subsequently ceased to have any dealings with one another. Lodges "No.
863" (Irish) in the 89th and one of the two "Orange" lodges (one
under an "Ancient," and the other under an Irish warrant) "No.
94" in the 51st Regiment also refused to "sojourn" with these
brethren of "St. Andrews Union" although admitting the work was
"strictly Ancient" nevertheless "declared the warrant to be
The above "No. 863" in 1823 however
relinquished its Irish warrant becoming "Hibernian and Union No. XI"
on the coast of Coromandel and in due time "No. 633" on the registry
of the United Grand Lodge of England.
A Military Lodge, "Strength and Beauty No.
VIII," was constituted at Vellore in 1802 but came to an untimely end
1806 when the warrant was found in tile Fort, after the meeting. The
"Travelling" bodies established on the coast, from loss of members by
death or transfer, often ceased to exist after varying periods. An
this is the "Lodge of Philanthropists" in the 94th Foot (formerly the
Scotch Brigade) warranted in December 1801 and designated "Lodge No.
XI" on the Provincial Lists. Having lost two-thirds of its members from
long continued field service it was no longer mentioned after 1809 and
Union of 1813 was erased from the lists.
The "Lodge of United Friendship No. V"
was formed at Madras in 1812 by officers of the 16th Native Infantry,
"Orion in the West" No. XV at Poona by officers of the Bombay
Artillery in 1823; and "Corinthian Lodge" No. XIV at Cannanore by
non-commissioned officers of the 7th Native Infantry. Three privates in
73rd Regiment in September 1818 petitioned for a warrant to establish a
to be designated "St. John's Lodge." This was not granted because the
Provincial Grand Master thought Ceylon was beyond his jurisdiction.
At the close of the 18th century there was
general defection from this Provincial Grand Lodge ("Moderns").
The lodges "True Friendship" and
"Humility with Fortitude" (composed of non-commissioned officers and
privates) were the first to transfer their allegiance to the
"Ancients" and the "Marine Lodge" (consisting of persons
employed in the marine service of the government) soon followed their
The celebrated statesman, soldier and Mason,
Earl of Moira, who as Lord Rawdon, fought at Bunker Hill and later
Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in India did much as Acting
Master of India to harmonize all Masonic factions in the Far East and
flourished and increased under his wise administration. It is believed
was initiated in a Military Lodge (either No. 86 attached to the 5th
which he served as a subaltern, or in No. 512 in the 63rd Regiment to
was transferred as a Captain ‒ both Irish lodges) and in 1790 he held
exalted position of Acting Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England.
years later, in 1799, by the statute ‒ 39, George III, c, 79 ‒ it was
"that all societies, the members whereof are required to take any oath
authorized by law, should be deemed unlawful combinations." The
enforcement of this statute meant the extinction of Masonry and by the
effort of the Earl of Moira, lodges of Freemasons were under certain
exempted from the operation of the Act ‒ thus the Earl of Moira saved
from total extinction.
"Moira Lodge Freedom and Fidelity" was
the only lodge warranted by him as Acting Grand Master of India, as
thereafter he re-established the Provincial Grand Lodge of Bengal.
By 1827 there were ten or more lodges of a
though stationary, character in Bengal ‒ three "Sincerity" at
Cawnpore, "Hastings" at Allahabad and "Northern Star" at
Barrackpore composed of officers in the cantonment and neighborhood.
"Hastings" formed "Independence with Philanthropy Lodge"
out of the non-commissioned officers and men of Allahabad. This latter
later returned its warrant intimating that in future its meetings would
under dispensation obtained from lodge "Union" in the 14th Foot until
a charter could be obtained from England "for which an application had
been made direct." This petition was successful and a civil warrant was
granted under which it still exists under the same name and at the same
In India Regimental lodges were confined to the Queen's troops,
Bengal and Bombay Artillery as the number of officers in the Native
were too few to establish permanent Masonic lodges in the same. If the
brethren suddenly removed to a new station where no lodge existed it
customary for them to apply to a regular lodge for a dispensation and
under the same until a warrant arrived from England. This custom was a
one and prevalent in numerous other jurisdictions ‒ at Halifax, Nova
St. Johns, Newfoundland, Quebec, etc. ‒ but fell into disuse with the
general existence of Provincial Grand Lodges and there is no survival
usage recorded after 1840.
Lodge "No. 361" in the 17th Dragoons, at
Kaira in Goojerat in 1813 was the only one with an English warrant for
years in the Presidency of Bombay and that of its thirtyfour members
were Royal Arch Masons and sixteen Knights Templar ‒ twenty-nine were
officers and the remainder private Dragoons. They not only worked the
"three regular steps" but also those of Past Master (in the lodge),
Royal Arch, Super-Excellent, Mark and Link (in the Chapter), and
Templar, St. John of Jerusalem and' Knights of Malta in the Encampment.
commissioned officers of other regiments and one civilian were admitted
membership of this lodge in 1821 and in the same year these seven
the Grand Lodge for a warrant which was forwarded by "No. 361" and it
was agreed that the half-monthly meeting be entirely for the "Brother
Officers" (Military) thus virtually two lodges working under the same
warrant until they left India ‒ one for the commissioned officers and
of the Civil Service and the other for the non-commissioned officers
private Dragoons. "Benevolent Lodge No. 746" was established on
recommendation of the above No. 361 in 1822 all the Military
petitioners for it
were founders of another lodge "Orion in the West" installed in the
Bombay Horse Artillery at Poona in 1823. In this latter none but the
of the lodges, or officers of the regiment could become members, and
officers were only admitted as serving brethren. In 1832 a subaltern of
corps being "the only uninitiated officer of the mess" was admitted,
"though under age," by dispensation.
The above "Benevolent Lodge No. 746"
removed to Bombay at which latter place were thirteen non-commissioned
too poor to establish a lodge of their own and too modest to admission
this aristocratic lodge, so met over Apollo Gate in the guard room.
this the members of Benevolent elected these thirteen honorary members
In 1846 Dr. James Burns was appointed Grand
of Scottish Freemasonry in India.
By 1857, owing to the mutiny, the siege of
many other engagements the ranks of Masonry were seriously depleted in
and many of the lodges suspended their meetings and the Military Lodge
in this British Colonial possession practically ceased to exist.
In France lodges from the beginning were of a
Military character and the first lodge according to tradition was
Paris by the Earl of Derwentwater in 1725 and it is quite certain that,
to 1738 there existed in Paris one and in the Departments two regularly
constituted lodges and all of a Military character. Marshal Destrees,
Saxe and Duc de Richelieu (also Marshals of France) became Masons about
Some three years later the so-called "Scots degrees" appeared among
the legion of "higher degrees" of Freemasonry that sprang up on the
continent during this period. Then followed the Chapter of Clermont
Knights of the East (1756) Emperors of the East and West (1758). Many
of the degrees
afterwards absorbed within these various rites originated in lodges
by prisoners of war, of which the most industrious and inventive were
working at Berlin in 1757 and at Magdeburg (1759-1761). The great
between the "Knights" and "Emperors" resulted in discord in
the Grand Lodge of France from 1760 until the close of its career. The
"Montmorenci-Luxembourg" in the Regiment of Hainault Infantry was the
stem from which the Grand Orient of France sprang in December 1773 and
de Luxembourg (Colonel of the Regiment) was Master and all the members
were noblemen. Of the first officers of the Grand Orient, the six
rank ‒ including Duc de Chartres, Grand Master, and nearly all of the
Grand Offlcers ‒ were members of this lodge. In the archives of this
Orient are the record of about two hundred Regimental lodges, together
some documents formerly belonging to lodges established in England (and
elsewhere) by French prisoners-of-war. Others existed which are only to
traced in the official lists. Of the Older French Army Lodges there
seventy-six ‒ the last on the roll being "Parfaite Amitie" in the
Royal Italian Infantry constituted in 1787. About one-third of these
founded by the Grand Lodge and about two-thirds by the Grand Orient.
on the list "Parfaite Egalite" in "Regiment Islandais de
Walshe" has the date 1688 but was not placed on the roll of the Grand
Lodge until 1772. The second in the "Vivarais Infantry" was established
in 1759 and with hardly a doubt must be regarded as the older of the
consequently the senior lodge of its class in the monarchy of France.
the Regiments to which lodges were attached served in America during
Revolutionary War and many of the high Military officers were members
same including the Duc de Biron (afterwards Marshal) and Marquis de
No field lodges were constituted during 1788 and 1789 and only eight
to 1801. Forty-three Regiments had lodges attached to them in 1804 of
only one was of earlier date than the Revolution and no less than
lodges were warranted between 1802 and 1804. In this latter year the
Council, Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite for France was formed as an
of the Emperors of the East and West, by Compte de Grasse-Tilly (son of
Admiral defeated by Lord Rodney) "Captain of Horse."
When Glogau in Silesia was occupied by the
in 1808 a Military Lodge was at work there attached to the Headquarters
6th Corps of the Grand Army. In 1811 there were sixty-nine lodges in
Army and there is ground to believe that Napoleon I was a Freemason and
his initiation took place at Malta in 1798. Additional Military lodges
to the list in 1812 and 1813 but by 1815 all virtually ceased to exist
Master Joseph Bonaparte sailed for America leaving the administration
affairs in the hands of a Military triumvirate consisting of Marshal
General Buernonville (afterwards Marshal) and the Marquis de Valence. A
lodges were established in Regiments after the restoration but in 1844
"Cirnus" in the 10th Regiment of the Line, the last of the long roll
of French Military Lodges, disappeared from the scene. In 1845 Marshal
a circular letter to the Colonels of Regiments declared "that it was
contrary to the rules of the service for any of the military to become
of the Institution" ‒ this in spite of the fact that he was a
and his diploma (or certificate) found in his tent after the battle of
Vittoria, and which afterwards fell into the possession of a Scottish
was returned to him through the British Ambassador in 1851. Many other
of France of this and earlier and later periods were also Freemasons
most instances Grand Officers. Marshal Magnan was appointed Grand
Master of the
Grand Orient by Emperor Louis Napoleon in 1862 and remained in office
death in 1865. General Mellinet succeeded him but declined re-election
Throughout Germany Field or Camp lodges were
auxiliary to regular or stationary lodges and in every case erected to
only a temporary purpose and before the candidate was accepted for
he was required to name a stationary lodge as the one to which he would
for admission when the warrant of the movable or transitory body was
surrendered or withdrawn. They only existed in time of war or when war
impending. One of the earliest is "Parfaite Union" founded by French
prisoners-of-war at Magdeburg in 1761, as previously mentioned. At a
much-earlier date, however, in both North and South Germany military
of high rank enrolled as officers of the society ‒ Francis, Duke of
afterwards Emperor of the West, was initiated in 1731 and Frederick,
Prince (afterwards King of Prussia) in 1738. At the death of the
father he founded the "Royal Lodge" and was Master of the same until
1744 and many distinguished princes and soldiers received Masonic light
hands. During his reign three Grand Lodges grew up in Berlin, to all of
he formally extended his protection ‒ in the earliest of them, Grand
Mother Lodge of the Three Globes" he filled the Grand Master's chair.
Lodge "Minerva" was established at Potsdam in 1768 and its members at
first consisted of military officers only. The first "Travelling
Lodge" was "Flaming Star" founded in 1770 "it being
desirable to take the brethren of military rank out of all the lodges,
erect a separate lodge for them, which in the case of war might follow
and exemplify the benefits of Masonry in the field" and from this time
military candidates were sent to "Flaming Star" for initiation. In
1778 troops were concentrated in both Saxony and Silesia and as
Star" accompanied the former a branch or "dispensation" lodge
under Major von Kliest was formed in the latter. In 1779 the brethren
reunited in a single stationary lodge, still in existence in Berlin.
Seven other Field lodges were established, the
important were the "Golden Goblet," "Finger Post" and
"Army Lodge No. 1," founded between 1778 and 1787 and five additional
lodges were established from this period to the ending of the Battle of
Waterloo ‒ one in Blucher's Army Corps on the Prussian Coast of the
designated "Fie]d Lodge No. 1," of which General Blucher was a member
in 1812. There were also two Military Lodges at Frankfort ‒ one
chiefly of foreigners, founded by Count Schmetten in 1743, and the
other in the
Royal Deux Ponts ( successively a Swedish, French and Bavarian)
founded about 1760. This latter Regiment and doubtless the lodge,
General Rochambeau to North America in 1780 as the latter was still in
existence and transferred its allegiance to the Grand Orient of France
termination of the war in 1783. Five additional Military Lodges were
established in the Prussian Army up to 1820; in 1850 an additional
founded and the last Military Lodge in 1861. Prior to the present world
Field or Garrison lodges which existed at any date in Germany either
extinct or have long ceased to possess any military character. From the
Frederic the Great every King of Prussia, except Frederick William IV
late deposed Emperor have been Freemasons. J. W. von Zinnendorff ‒ a
surgeon and one of the most remarkable Masons that ever existed ‒ was
founder of the "Grand National Lodge of German Freemasons" and was
Grand Master at one time. General von Scharnhorst the Archivist of the
"Grand Lodge of the Three Globes" at Berlin, who served throughout
the Franco-German War states that during the armistice of 1871, in
attended a "Grand Field Lodge" at which were present one hundred and
eighty German officers and military employees and about three hundred
officers and military employees and civilians.
In Austria, Masonry really never flourished,
although at one time enjoying the patronage of Emperor Francis ‒ a
of Lorraine who died in 1765. The suppression of the Craft had been
1764 but not carried out until 1795. Emperor Francis was commonly
by the brethren at Vienna as "Grand Master of the Old Lodge." This
was the "Trois Canons" (at first styled the Grand Lodge) of which he
became a member on its formation in 1742. About 1760 it merged into the
"Loge Royal Militaire de Vienne" with a membership composed mostly of
the Military. In 1765 a movable lodge (loge volante) named "Sincérité" was at work at Pilsen and afterwards at
Ellbogen and Klattau. In 1778 a Regiment garrisoned at the latter place
members of this lodge was ordered to Silesia and there applied for and
a warrant from Prague by virtue of which a lodge, "Joseph of the Three
Trophies," was founded but ceased to exist after the treaty of peace
the ordering of the Regiment back to Bohemia. "La Parfaite Union" was
founded at Magdeburg by Austrian, Hungarian and civilian
after returning to their respective countries, they established other
The first of these was "Lodge of Military Friendship ' founded at
Croatia between 1764 and 1769.
As stated above Masonry was forbidden in 1764
the edict was not carried into effect until 1795 and, although the ban
extend to Hungary, the Craft was viewed with such suspicion by the
military authorities that few, if any, Hungarian army officers cared to
their chance of professional advancement by applying for initiation.
Many of their
national heroes who served in their Revolutionary War became Freemasons
their subsequent exile, as Generals George Klapka and Stephen Turr,
founders, and the latter Master of Lodge "Mathias Corvinus"
established later at Buda-Pesth.
The first Dutch field lodge was established at
Maastrecht in 1745 and twenty additional field lodges were established
this date and prior to 1814. At this latter date the 22d and last field
was established at Alkmaar.
The "Lodge of the Swedish Army" (Svenska
Armeens) was formed at Greifswald (Pomerania) in 1761 and during the
continuance of the Seven Years War it established off-shoots at
Stralsund and Christianstadt. A pension fund was established for
soldiers and the recipients of the same wore silver medals struck at
expense of the lodge. Prince Frederick Adolphe, Duke of East Gothland,
King's brother, was its Master at the time of his decease. In 1781 it
exist and the members joined other lodges at Stockholm. The most famous
of Swedish Freemasonry was Marshal Bernadotte, who as Crown Prince was
Master until he ascended the throne, when he assumed the superior
"Vicarius Salamonis" ‒ always held by the King of Sweden for the time
In Russia, James Keith, after trying his
Spain, became Master of a lodge either at Moscow or St. Petersburg (now
Petrograd) in 1732, was present with his brother, Earl Marischal, at
session of the Grand Lodge of England in 1840 and on being recalled to
bore with him a commission as Provincial Grand Master, which was
granted by his
kinsman, Lord Kintore. In 1744 after having attained the rank of
Lieutenant-General he left Russia, joined the Prussian Army as a Field
and was killed at the battle of Hochkirchen in 1758. In 1761 a Field
established in the Russian Army which at this time had its headquarters
Mareinburg, West Prussia.
A second Field lodge (afterwards the stationary
lodge "The Three Towers") with Major-General von Tscheplin as Master
was established at the same place and others at St. Petersburg in 1773
Kief in 1784. A fifth under Colonel von Scheffler was at work at
East Prussia, in 1814. The latest of all "George the Victorious" was
constituted in France in 1817. All Russian lodges were suspended in
1794 but in
1804 Alexander, who with good reason is supposed to have been a
it be understood that he would not interfere with meetings of the
and from this time until its final suppression by an Imperial Ukase in
Masonry flourished greatly in Russia and the leading officers of its
enrolled under its banner.
In Poland, Masonry was introduced at a very
date and mainly fostered by military officers of rank. The gallant
Joseph Poniatowsky, created a Marshal of France on the field of
Napoleon, was drowned in the river Elster while covering the retreat of
French Army in 1813. A solemn "Funeral Lodge" was held in his honor
at Warsaw the following year. Polish Freemasonry was suppressed in 1821.
In Belgium only four Field lodges and two
lodges were established, the first in 1832 and the last in 1836 and all
passed out of existence.
No warrants for Field or Army lodges were
at any time under the Grand Jurisdictions of Switzerland, Greece,
Hamburg or Darmstadt.
In the Peninsula the first lodge was
Madrid in 1728 by Philip, Duke of Wharton, who with James (afterwards
Keith was a Jacobite Refugee and had fought in the Spanish trenches
Gibraltar the previous year. The Craft became inactive but revived
Peninsular War (1808-14). Ferdinand VII in 1814 however abolished the
Institution and declared Freemasons to be guilty of treason and many
both of Spain and Portugal were imprisoned or put to death.
In Italy many of the leading military and naval
commanders were Masons and Eugene Beauharnais, Viceroy of Italy was
Master of the Grand Orient "de la Division Militaire" at Milan in
1805. Guiseppe Garibaldi, Liberator of Italy, was a member of every
Italy and of many in England, France and America.
It is stated that Mexico owes her independence
Freemasonry. Hidalgo Costilla, a priest, headed the first revolt
Spaniards but was captured and shot in 1811. Morelos, of Indian blood,
Caracuaro, assisted in the revolution against the Spaniards but later
executed. General Xavier Mina, a native of Spain, with a party of
landed in Mexico and fought for its independence and at the battle of
Tamaulipas was defeated, taken prisoner, and put to death. The remains
three Masonic patriots repose in the "Grande Chapelle Sepulcrale" of
Mexico City. Many Generals and Presidents of the Mexican Republic were
one of the most notable being the late General Porfirio Diaz, who was
of the Craft in Mexico.
In this connection it is fitting to mention the
following distinguished Military brethren of other countries who were
General Paoli, the celebrated Corsican Patriot; Simon Bolivar, the
South America; General Paez, President of Venezuela, who fought against
Jose Maria Monson, Roman Catholic Chaplain in the Peruvian army of
Abd-el-Kader, the heroic Emir of Algeria initiated in the Lodge of the
Pyramids" at Alexandria.
In 1762, upon the conquest of Cuba by England,
48th Regiment was part of the force of occupation that landed at
attached to it was Military Lodge No. 218 (Irish) and the same remained
the English left the Island, on July 6th, 1763, initiating eleven
while there, none of whom were Cubans, however.
In the struggle for Cuban Independence known as
"Ten Year's War," a Military Lodge without warrant (as there was no
constitutional authority able to grant the same under existing
formed by their leader, Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, who became the first
and the lodge was named Independencia." Many of the most noted Cuban
were initiated into this lodge during its active existence of over
In Cuba's second and successful struggle for
independence, beginning in 1894, a second Military Lodge was organized
1896, as "Agramonte Lodge." The first meeting was held n July 12th,
1896, and General Luis Perez acted as Master. In 1897 the camp was
the Spaniards under General Manrique de Lara who was a Mason, and
the other huts were burned he commanded that the one marked with the
Compasses (used by the patriots as their Masonic Temple) be spared.
loss of their camp but few meetings were held, and the lodge was
disbanded as American intervention, a short time thereafter, speedily
about Cuba's independence. The Cuban patriots, Generals Lopez and
prominent and active Masons during these turbulent times.
In the United States during the Revolutionary
when the Colonies were struggling for their independence, the fact hat
Commander-in-Chief, General George Washington and most of his Generals,
active and earnest Masons brought his worthy institution close to the
these patriots fighting for righteous liberty. The Battle of Bunker
fought on the very day Washington received his commission as
of the American forces and Major-General Joseph Warren, M. D., Grand
Massachusetts, lost his life in that memorable engagement. There were
Military Lodges at work in the American Army during this War. The
"St. John's Regimental" was granted a warrant by the Provincial Grand
Lodge of New York in July 1775. "American Union" in the Connecticut
Line, though of later date, was the first lodge organized in the
and is described as "having moved as a pillar of light in parts of
Connecticut New York and New Jersey." This lodge met for the last time
an Army lodge April 23rd, 1783 and ordered "to stand closed until the
M. should call them together." This occurred in 1790 when a colony from
New England having established themselves northwest of Ohio, the lodge
re-opened at Marietta by Jonathan Heart, the Master. This lodge united
others in the formation of the Grand Lodge of Ohio, of which General
Putnam became first Grand Master in 1808. This lodge under its old
"American Union" retains its place as No. 1 in the jurisdiction of
"Washington Lodge" in the Massachusetts
Line (at whose meetings the Commander-in-Chief was a frequent visitor)
at West Point in 1779 and the first Master was General John Patterson
first Wardens were Colonels (afterwards Generals) Tupper and John
"Army Lodge No. 27" in the Maryland Line received a warrant from
Pennsylvania in 1780 and General Mordecai Gist was the first Master and
(afterwards General) Otis Williams and Major (afterwards General)
Anderson, the first Wardens. The only records of American Field lodges
period extant are a portion of the minutes of the above "American
Union" and some returns of the above "Washington Lodge" ‒ the
former gives names of the principal officers of the Army and Generals
command as frequent visitors and states that at all banquets the first
was "Washington" or "Congress" and the second invariably
"Warren, Montgomery and Wooster" followed by the Dead March; and the
latter merely informs us "that in 1782 two hundred and fifty names had
been borne on the roll of the lodge."
General Washington countenanced the formation
encouraged the labors of Army Lodges and frequently visited them. It is
recorded that when the Continental Army in December, 1777, retired to
Forge, La Fayette was initiated in the Army Lodge (General Washington
present and in the chair) and shortly thereafter he was commissioned a
In December, 1779, the headquarters of the Army were at Morristown, New
and "American Union Lodge" met to celebrate the festival of St. John.
At this meeting a committee of which General Mordecai Gist was
appointed from the lodges in each Line and the staff of the Army to
the expediency of a General Grand Master being elected to preside over
lodges in the Republic ‒ thirty-six members of "American Union" and
visitors (including General Washington) being present. Masons of
met three times in this connection and it was generally understood that
Washington was the choice for Grand Master but the exigencies of active
resulted in this movement never coming to fruition.
During the winter of 1872 the principal
forces under Washington were stationed near Newburg, New York, on the
the Hudson river and the Camp lodges were so well established and
their influence that an assembly room or hall was built to serve ‒
purposes ‒ as a lodge room for the Military Lodges. "American Union"
met there in June 1783 preparatory to celebrating with "Washington
Lodge" at West Point the festival of St. John. It is recorded that
Hugh Maloy was initiated in General Washington's marquee in 1782, the
occupying the chair, and it was at his hand that the candidate received
light of Masonry. Captain Maloy later moved to Bethel, Ohio, and was
alive at the
age of ninety-three years in 1844. Among the many distinguished
Freemasons of this period should be mentioned General Israel Putnam,
hearing of the beginning of hostilities immediately left his plow and
the Continental Army. Upon his tombstone is the well-merited
"He dared to lead where others dared to follow." Gen. Rufus Putnam,
"Father of the North-West," for some time chief engineer of the
American Army commanded a brigade under General ("Mad Anthony") Wayne
(also a Mason) in 1792. He was a cousin of General Israel Putnam and
Mason in "American Union Lodge" in 1779 and elected first Grand
Master of Ohio (as has been previously mentioned) in 1808.
Commodore James Nicholson (in 1776 head of the
of Captains in the Continental Navy) and his brothers Samuel and John
Captains) were Masons as well as Paul Jones, Stephen Decatur, Edward
a long list of other distinguished naval officers. Commodore Whipple
member of "American Union" and was a brilliant officer of the Army
before entering the Navy. He burned the Gaspe in 1772.
The first Field lodge after the peace of
(1783) was formed in the "Legion of the United States" and commanded
by General Anthony Wayne in 1793.
In 1814, during the War of 1812-15, some
of the Northern Army applied to the Grand Lodge of New York for a
"Marching Warrant" which was referred to the Grand Officers but it is
not recorded whether it was granted. Later in the same year a Military
was established by the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania "to be held wherever
the Master for the time being should be stationed in the United States."
Two or more Military Lodges accompanied the
American Army during the Mexican War and many of the officers who took
were Masons ‒ notably Generals William J. Worth and John A. Quitman.
During the Civil War (1861-65) there were many
Field lodges established in both the Northern and Southern Armies but
experience of that great conflict was decidedly unfavorable to their
The practice was to issue dispensations and when the regiments in which
were held were mustered out of service or when the individuals to whom
were granted returned to civil life, the lodges ceased to exist. Over
hundred of these dispensations were issued during the war, the largest
being thirty-three issued by the Grand Lodge of Indiana. Among the
Masonic veterans of this war General James A. Garfield and Major
McKinley became residents of the United States. General Robert Anderson
Sumter fame and General Albert Pike were also distinguished Masons. The
valuable Masonic Library of the latter at Little Rock, Arkansas, was
be destroyed by the Federal troops during the war but General Thomas H.
(Grand Master of Iowa) in command of the Union forces interposed, and
the house his headquarters, not only preserved the library but also the
During the few months that the Spanish-American
lasted in 1898 dispensations for the formation of Military Lodges were
by the Grand Lodges of Kentucky and North Dakota. Our sterling patriot,
Theodore Roosevelt, led the charge up the San Juan Hill, Santiago and
afterwards became President of the United States.
There never have been Military Lodges in the
standing army or navy of the United States but we have seen that they
formed during every period of active warfare in which our country has
engaged among our volunteer forces.
The history of Military Lodges in the present
World War is now in the making. Since the entrance on April 6th, 1917,
United States into this war the Grand Lodges of several of the States
granted special dispensations for Military Lodges while other Grand
declined or disapproved of such action. The first to respond was the
Lodge of Kentucky. On July 28th, 1917, a dispensation was granted to
A. Colston Lodge, U. D." in the First Kentucky Infantry (now the 159th
United States Infantry) while stationed at Camp Taylor, Louisville,
The officers of the lodge elected were officers of the Regiment ‒
Colonel W. A.
Colston having been elected Junior Warden. On September 25, 1917, a
dispensation was granted by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky to "Kentucky
Lodge" (changed to "J. N. Saunders Army Lodge") in the second
Kentucky Infantry (now the 160th United States Infantry) with Major
Jones as Master.
On September 8th, 1917, a dispensation was
by the Grand Lodge of Montana to "Montana Army Lodge No. 1, U. D." in
the 2nd Montana Regiment. This lodge, with Major Foote as Worshipful
now at work upon the Western Front in France.
On October 6th, 1917, the Grand Lodge of New
through the Grand Master, issued a warrant for "Sea and Field Lodge,
1" "to sit throughout the world, and initiate, pass or raise
candidates without regard to age, simplify the ritual at will, to have
by-laws or dues and with a minimum entrance fee of twenty dollars." The
Grand Master appointed as officers of this lodge officers of the
Lodge of the State of New York and up to May 7th, 1918, four hundred
sixty-one Masons have been raised of which two hundred and eighty-one
members of this Sea and Field Lodge No. 1. Thirty-nine brethren are
age of 21 years; one hundred and seventeen were elected in other lodges
York State and had the degrees conferred upon them by Sea and Field
1. The remaining number received the degrees in this lodge at the
twenty-two other Grand Jurisdictions (the largest number from
South Dakota). This lodge has already turned over to the New York State
War and Relief Fund $3,400. There have been twenty-six meetings to date
officers are qualified to take any part of the work. A Bible is
The Grand Lodge of Ohio granted a dispensation
Ohio brethren to form a lodge (name and date not given) at Camp
Montgomery, Alabama, but they can only confer degrees on Ohio men while
The Grand Lodge of Colorado has authorized its
Grand Master to grant dispensations for the formation of Military
Lodges but up
to the beginning of 1918 none had been granted.
The Grand Lodge of Arkansas went on record "to
do anything that will promote Masonry."
The Grand Lodge of Connecticut is prepared to
The Grand Lodge of Michigan is not opposed to
granting dispensations to Military Lodges provided they work only in
without power to receive or act on petitions.
The Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Oregon
favors Military Lodges but the matter has not been taken up by the
The Grand Lodge of North Dakota has issued a
dispensation to North Dakota Military Lodge No. 2, U. D., A. F. and A.
original jurisdiction to confer the degrees upon anyone elected by a
in the United States, at the request of such lodge. This lodge was
No. 2, because in 1898, during the Spanish-American War, at the time
First North Dakota Infantry was on its way to the Philippine Islands,
Grand Master of North Dakota issued a dispensation for a Military Lodge
designated North Dakota Military Lodge No. 1, U. D., A. F. and A. M.,
lodge worked Masonically in the Philippine Islands greatly to the
the Craft. The present Lodge No. 2, of which Colonel John H. Fraine is
Worshipful Master, held several meetings and conferred some degrees in
Masonic Temple at Charlotte, North Carolina. Another meeting was held
the transport the night before landing in Europe. Since its arrival in
weekly meetings have been held and at one such over 100 brethren were
attendance, representing 37 different States, and all meetings are
attended. Owing to the rules promulgated by the Secretary of War that
can be done in any camp of the United States troops, meeting places are
necessity selected outside the camp limits.
The Grand Lodge of South Dakota is favorable to
granting of dispensations, but no requests for such have been made.
The Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Virginia
favorable to the granting of dispensations for Military Lodges for
soldiers but not to confer degrees.
The Grand Lodge of Manitoba is inclined to
dispensations for Military Lodges.
The Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Nova
is favorable to the granting of dispensations for Military Lodges but
dispensation for a lodge to be composed solely of officers.
On July 28th, 1917, one hundred and twenty-four
Masons of the "Masonic Ambulance Corps of California" applied to the
Grand Lodge of California for a dispensation to meet as a lodge, but
privilege of conferring degrees. This was refused by the Grand Master
stated he was opposed to the idea of Military Lodges.
The Grand Lodges of Alberta and Kansas have
to grant dispensations for Military Lodges.
The Grand Lodges of Alabama, Georgia, Oklahoma,
Minnesota, Missouri, Arizona, Florida, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts,
Ontario, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Wyoming, Utah and
Wisconsin are not favorable to the establishment of Military Lodges.
The Grand Lodges of Illinois and Quebec doubt
necessity for Military Lodges.
There are no provisions under the laws of the
Lodge of Texas for the granting of dispensations for Military lodges.
The by-laws of the Grand Lodge of New Jersey
prohibit the formation of Military Lodges.
The Grand Lodge of New Brunswick has not acted
the subject of Military Lodges.
The Grand Lodge of Iowa has not authorized any
Military Lodges, and unless conditions very materially change rendering
lodges a necessity, none will be chartered.
The Grand Master of North Carolina, Right
Worshipful Claude L. Pridgen, who entered the United States service as
officer in the 113th Field Artillery, issued a dispensation for the
of a Military Lodge in this unit, thereby going on record as approving
Lieutenant Charles E. Brautigan presided over
Military Lodge (Grand Lodge affiliation not given) at Camp Shelby,
Miss., from May to September, 1918, during which time 130 men were
then the lodge was abolished.
An event of unusual historical interest and one
which approaches in a sense to a "Military Scottish Rite Emergency
Lodge," was the assemblage under special dispensation of officers from
Albany Sovereign Consistory, of Albany, N.Y., Delta Chapter of Rose
Council of Princes of Jerusalem, and Delta Lodge of Perfection, (the
latter of Troy, N.Y.), at Plattsburg, N.Y., on Nov. 4th, 1917, where in
presence of Most Illustrious William Homan, 33d, Deputy of the Supreme
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction,
Scottish Rite degrees from the 4th to the 32nd, inclusive, were
337 commissioned officers who had just successfully completed their
at the Reserve Officers Training Camp, and without expense to the
This class was organized as the Barton Smith
National Defense Class, of which Most Puissant Sovereign Grand
Barton Smith, 33d, and Most Illustrious William Homan, 33d, were made
In the British Army the celebrated Military
"Unity, Peace and Concord, No. 316" in the Second Battalion Royal
Scots (previously referred to); "Social Friendship, No. 497" in the
Second Battalion of Royal Irish Fuziliers, and "Pegasus, No. 2205"
(unit to which connected not given) are in active operation on the
in France under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of England at the
Doubtless many other Military Lodges in the
Masonic Jurisdictions will be reported as well as an enormous amount of
useful and humanitarian Masonic activity directly connected with the
World War when the Masonic history of this epoch-making period shall
Military Lodges. 1732-1899, by Robert Freke
THE BUILDER, October, November and December, 1917; January,
February, March, September, 1918.
Masonic Standard, Oct. 5th, 1918.
Brotherhood, Nov. 1918.
Membership Dues For
All members of the Society whose dues become
delinquent December 31st have been notified by mail of this fact and
urged to remit their 1919 dues without delay to insure the receipt of
January and subsequent 1919 numbers of THE BUILDER.
The War Industries Board has requested all
publishers to discontinue all subscriptions immediately at the
the period for which they have been paid, and to eliminate any surplus
or "over-runs." This means that we shall find it difficult to supply
the January number to those of our members whose 1919 dues are not
SEND IN YOUR 1919 DUES TODAY!
* * *
How to Write an Article
for the Builder
We hope that suggestions on such a theme as
may not seem presumptuous, especially to those brethren who have
favored us with contributions. Such brethren as have a working
knowledge of the
art of preparing contributions for publication may pass this present
because its purpose is to offer a few hints to those who have not had
The mere fact that you have never yet submitted
article for publication need not deter you from so doing. You may have
something to say of great value. The most hardened publicist had to
first essay. There is never any disgrace in making a first attempt,
beginner will do well to remember that in the nature of things he will
as successful as the experienced writer. If you will follow the
embodied in this present article you may be saved from failure and
And it may also be said that the hints given herewith are as applicable
articles prepared for other publications as for THE BUILDER.
Like the preparation of the candidate for
initiation, the real preparation for writing an article begins in "the
heart," or, as we say in modern language, "in the mind";
therefore you should not attempt to write a single line of your
until your mind is ready.
First of all, be sure that you know your
thoroughly. Many articles, otherwise acceptable, are rejected because
so full of errors on matters of fact. If you don't master your subject
can't master your reader.
Don't tackle too big a subject. This is one of
commonest mistakes. Thus, a writer will compose an essay on
in Latin Countries" who knows almost nothing about the theme; he has
one or two articles by somebody, he has heard a lecturer or two refer
matter, he has caught up some rumors, and he has formed some opinions
own; on such a foundation he attempts to build up an article! Such an
is necessarily in vain. That subject, like so many others, is one that
a wide reading and a thorough knowledge. It is better to begin with
nearer home, something that will lend itself to briefer and simpler
Before you attempt to write the first sentence
your article be sure that you can verify every statement you make. THE
is read by so many thousands of men that in the large number there is
be some brother who will call you to time for a misstatement.
"watch your step!"
After you have all your materials collected it
wise to make first an outline of your proposed essay; by this means you
sure to keep the various ideas in their logical order and you can see
that the proportion is preserved so that too much space will not be
one "point" and too little to another.
In writing the first draft of your article be
to use the simplest, clearest, most familiar words that you can think
albeit it is wise to avoid slang, except in rare instances. Unfamiliar
especially long words, reveal no scholarship necessarily; neither do
any brilliancy of mind. If you know what the long words mean yourself
that a majority of your readers won't; if you use long words without
their real meaning "your speech will betray you," and some sarcastic
reader may throw your article aside by saying, "this man is a fool."
Above all, don't indulge in any "fine writing"; only the masters of the
tongue can do that so as "to get away with it." Remember that Lincoln
wrote the Gettysburg Address in the simplest words he could find;
great writers aim at simplicity. Simplicity of expression is in itself
of culture. Moreover, if you write for effect the reader will detect
insincerity and your article will make no impression on his mind.
Above all things, avoid sarcasm. If another
holds a different opinion remember that he has a right to it, and that
possible that his opinion may be right and yours wrong. The flinger of
is usually hit by his own boomerang. Moreover, sarcasm is unmasonic.
After you have written the first draft of your
study lay it aside for a week or two and then read it over to yourself
this will reveal weak sentences or paragraphs which seemed very strong
on the first writing. Of course, you will then re-write the whole thing
beginning to end. After that, it is a good thing to read it to some
Mason in order to see how your theme appeals to another mind; after so
you will, if you are wise and in earnest, write your article a third
may sound like a great deal of trouble; if so, remember that if your
worth writing at all it is worth writing well.
The Mechanics of
If at all possible write your article on a
typewriter, or hire it done. Your handwriting may be easily legible to
illegible to another. Manuscripts are often returned merely because the
has been unable to decipher the writing.
Write on one side of the paper. Double space
you use a machine; leave plenty of room between sentences if you write
Leave wide margins in order that the editor may have room for notations
corrections. See that nothing else is written on your manuscript
is often confusing. Place the title of your article at the top; write
name under it, giving your Masonic titles, and whatever other
be necessary. Enclose it in a self-addressed envelope and be sure that
name and address is easily legible. If you believe that your article
printed at once, say so; if not tell the editor that you are willing to
your turn; otherwise he may return your manuscript because he may not
be able to
use it for a long time. Don't try to bully him into printing it by
to send it to some other magazine; he will give you that permission
a usual thing, because he receives far more contributions than he can
Don't feel badly if he makes changes in your
manuscript, if he strikes out a word, recasts a sentence, or improves
punctuation; all editors have this right, else there would be no need
editors. Nor should you feel hurt if your manuscript is returned; this
reflection on your article: it may be that the magazine has published
articles on the subject you have treated that no more are wanted. When
is returned try it out on another editor. Better still, prepare another
and try again.
And remember, all this while, that your
contribution is simply a form of Masonic service; THE BUILDER is not a
money-making undertaking nor are the editors receiving any salary for
labors; it is all for the good of the cause.
* * *
Notify Us of Your
Change of Address
Scores of changes of addresses are received
each issue of THE BUILDER is mailed out each month, from Postmasters.
these are illegible carbon copies and give us no information other than
THE BUILDER is delivered to some one of our members.
Members are earnestly requested to notify us of
change in their address, whether they move from house to house or from
to another. Such notices should be sent two weeks before they are to
effect and both old and new addresses must always be given.
Under present conditions it will be impossible
us to furnish duplicate copies of THE BUILDER to those who fail to give
prompt notice of changes of address as all members' copies are sent out
regular mailing just prior to the first of each month and no extra
* * *
Conference at Cedar Rapids, Iowa
More than forty Grand Masters of the forty-nine
Grand Jurisdictions of the United States have replied favorably to the
of Grand Master Schoonover, of Iowa, published in the November issue of
BUILDER, signifying that practically every state in the Union will be
represented at this Conference, which will be held at Cedar Rapids,
November 26th, 27th and 28th.
This will be the most important meeting ever
in the history of American Masonry and a full report of the proceedings
will be published in the January number of THE BUILDER. Every Mason is
personally concerned in the outcome of this Conference and every member
Society owes it to himself and his Masonic friends to acquaint himself
with the action that will be taken on several very important questions
Make certain that you receive YOUR copy of the
January BUILDER by remitting your 1919 dues before January first.
* * *
1918 Bound Volumes for
The price of binding material has greatly
over last year's prices, and labor is also higher. These factors have
necessitated an increase in the price of the 1918 Bound Volumes over
previous years. A supply will be ready for Christmas delivery. As we
only a limited number this year members should send in their orders
to insure the early receipt of their copy.
The binding will be uniform with that of former
Prices: Goldenrod Buckram binding, $3.50
Three-quarters Morocco, $4.50, postpaid.
* * *
Binding Members' 1918
Files of the Builder
For binding members' 1918 files of THE BUILDER
sent in to us for this purpose, the price will be $2.50 plus return
charges. Members are recommended to communicate with us to obtain the
amount of return postage charges before making their remittances or
their copies for binding.
Edited By Bro.
The object of this Department is to acquaint
readers with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the
Masonic literature now being published; and with such non-Masonic books
especially appeal to Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to
possible assistance to studious individuals or to study clubs and
either through this Department or by personal correspondence; if you
learn something concerning any book ‒ what is its nature, what is its
how it may be obtained ‒ be free to ask him. If you have read a book
think is worth a review write us about it; if you desire to purchase a
any book ‒ we will help you get it, with no charge for the service.
your Department of Literary Consultation.
"The Theology of
Joseph Fort Newton"
THOSE who are familiar with the winsome and
gracious pages of Dr. Newton, as most readers of THE BUILDER are, will
read this twelve page pamphlet written by Paul Harold Heisey. In it the
attempts to discover what may be the system of theology underlying Dr.
sermons, lectures and books but with unsatisfactory results as may be
from the following sentence summary:
"In a general way, the criticism might be
brought against Dr. Newton that he does not seem to have a well-defined
This does not surprise anybody who knows Dr.
Newton's mind; it does not surprise Dr. Newton ‒ indeed, on the cover
copy of which he sent to the present writer he made this humorous
"I did not know I had so much theology."
Any attempt to pigeon-hole, or classify, or
theologically identify Dr. Newton must necessarily fail for the
reason that his teachings do not rest on a system but on experience,
that is to
say, on life itself, and life is notoriously incapable of
The pamphlet is innocent of literary charm but
has the values of candor, kindliness, and sincerity; a reader will have
temptation to quarrel with it even if he finds it a very inadequate
of Dr. Newton's theology. In one paragraph however, that temptation is
strong, as where the writer says, "His whole tendency is that of
individualism. * * Individualism, if logically carried out in any field
thought or experience, would lead to anarchy." Those who are familiar
Dr. Newton's untiring services to the Masonic Fraternity will wonder
charge of individualism which may "lead to anarchy!"
This pamphlet is an office of vain observance:
day has passed when any religious teacher of consequence can build his
teachings on any foundation simple enough to permit of classification:
avails himself of the numberless ramifications of truth as it has been
us from the past, and who undertakes to meditate that truth to the
mind of the present, will necessarily break through any creed, theology
classification whatever. Calvin could build his system on the Bible;
erect his structure on the inward light: but the teacher of today must
not on one foundation, but many.
I can imagine that a group of Dr. Newton's
might gather around a table to construct a system of theology for him
can't imagine their being able to persuade him to accept it, or to
it. He who has learned that "Religion is no longer a thing apart from
life, it is life itself at its highest and best" needs no such services.
This pamphlet is reprinted from the Lutheran
Quarterly; no address is given, nor is any price indicated.
* * *
"The Aims of Labor" [Lib 1918] by Arthur
Henderson, M. P.,
published by B. W. Huebsch, at one dollar.
It may be that by the time these words are in
the war will have come to its conclusion: if not, the end will surely
far off. In either event it seems that the time has arrived for us to
thinking about the inevitable problems of reconstruction, not only as
the dismantled communities of Europe, but also as concerns our own
are our war industries to be re-transferred to a peace basis? How can
or four million mobilized men be reinstated in the commercial and
fabric without seriously dislocating everything connected therewith?
the millions now working in positions supporting the military service
place for themselves after the war is over? Such are the questions
already beginning to confront us. Unfortunately our political parties
have given little attention to these matters nor have many
much importance bent their efforts toward solving them.
In England, however, there is far more concern
being manifested: one Londoner, while visiting this country, said that
compatriots had grown more anxious about what is coming after the war
war itself. Will the government continue to own or control the great
industries? What will be its attitude toward labor? Will socialism come
form, or will there be a reaction toward the old days of laissez faire?
Thus far the British Labor Party is the first
the great English political organizations to formulate an after-the-war
program. Not only does this body believe that a new social order will
inevitably as one of the results of the war, it has even drafted a
this reconstruction which is so radical that it has made all
with astonishment and shiver with fear.
We have all been hearing about this Labor Party
program: now, fortunately we can read and study it for ourselves,
the volume mentioned at the head of this article, Arthur Henderson has
published his party's war aims and also its social program. Preceding
documents are ten chapters of exposition and defense, in which the
carefully thought out, explained and enforced in language that is
and very simple. The reader will be left with no doubts in his mind as
what the Labor Party aims to do.
Alexander Mackendrick, writing in The Public,
hailed this volume as "probably the most epoch-making document that has
ever been given to the world, not excepting the English Magna Charta,
American Declaration of Independence. Never, indeed, since the greatest
labor-leader of all ages issued his manifesto to the rulers of Egypt on
of the oppressed Israelites, have the privileged classes been addressed
terms so peremptory and unmistakable and in language so well adapted to
understanding." Many of us will not go to such lengths of praise of
truly remarkable book, but nobody can deny that it is a volume which
owes it to himself to read: ii is a harbinger of many such
which will, in the future, be addressed to the people of our own
problems of reconstruction are before us and it behooves every man to
understanding of the matter.
Space does not permit of a detailed review of
contents of Mr. Henderson's volume: his war aims seem to be essentially
same as President Wilson’s. In a chapter on the proposed economic
against Germany he gives the best of reasons for rejecting any such
because it would merely perpetuate the war under industrial conditions.
radical thing in the book is its social program: this is frankly
as may be seen in the four "pillar" articles under which all the
various demands are subsumed:
The Universal Enforcement of the National
which has reference to wages and living, conditions;
The Democratic Control of Industry, which aims
the socialist ideal of popular ownership or control of all the basic
and the land;
The Revolution of National Finance, which aims
wresting the control of capital from the hands of individuals or
The Surplus Wealth for the Common Good: this
purposes to tax all surplus wealth away from individuals in order that
be spent for public improvements, etc.
This is not the Marxian Socialism of the old
Socialist parties; neither is it the Christian Socialism of Maurice,
and Ruskin; it is a blend of the two adapted to present conditions. Not
us perhaps as said above, will agree with such a program, but,
fact that the Labor Party seems destined to come into control in
England, it is
wise for us to understand these things. Such a movement will not remain
other side of the Atlantic.
In the January Builder
In addition to the report of the proceedings of
American Masonic Conference to be published in the January issue of THE
there will appear one of the most comprehensive articles on French
we have yet printed ‒ the report of a special Committee of the Grand
California, as a result of this Committee's
investigation and recommendations, has not only extended unequivocal
recognition to the Grand Orient and Grand Lodge of France, but has also
all obstacles heretofore existing against the recognition of similar
Grand Bodies of the world, and has taken a great step forward toward a
world-wide Universal Masonry, ‒ a step which we predict will be
many more Grand Lodges in America during the next few years.
* * *
The moderation of fortunate people comes from
which good fortune gives to their tempers.
‒ La Rochefoucauld.
The Question Box
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is
than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not
any one school of Masonic thought as over against another; but offers
alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or
its own merits. The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to
members of the Society at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic
subjects are earnestly invited from our members, particularly those
with lodges or study Clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of
Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be answered promptly by
mail before publication in this department.
History of the Royal
Arch and Knights Templar Degrees
I would like to make myself more familiar with
history and philosophy of Capitular Masonry, and if you can suggest the
whereby I may be able to accomplish this I shall likely take it up.
I am well up in the ritualistic work of
and Templar Masonry, but not long on the history of these two branches
Order. I would like to take up the history of both branches, if
with the view of becoming better informed as to the history, origin and
progress of these branches.
All Masonic students would rejoice with you if
information on the Capitular degrees and on the Knights Templar were
into two or three volumes; but, unfortunately, it is necessary to make
here and there and piece what scattered scraps of information are found
something of a coherent whole.
The literature on the Chapter degrees is in a
unsatisfactory condition but that is all the more of a stimulus to an
learner. Begin by leafing through Mackey's Encyclopaedia [Lib 1914]; he
carries a large number of references to matters pertaining to the
degrees, and by reading all the articles one gains something of a
survey of the subject. Then turn to Gould's History of Masonry [Lib
1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4] ‒ if
you have not the four volume edition, use the one volume edition ‒ the
will furnish you with all your references so that there is no need to
entire book. The History of Masonry and Concordant Orders [Lib 1891], by Stillson,
Hughan and others, contains a valuable chapter on the subject, but the
treatment in the writer’s estimation will be found in A.E. Waite's
Tradition in Freemasonry" [Lib 1911; Vol 1, Vol 2]; this last, however, is not
neophytes and it is the wisest to be pretty well prepared before
it. If you have access to any Masonic library it would be easy to dig
large number of articles from the files of Masonic magazines after you
familiar enough with the subject to recognize the titles as referring
Capitular Masonry; a glance through the index of THE BUILDER for the
years will reveal a large number of articles.
In reading the history of the Knights Templar
best to begin with a study of the Crusades as a whole; the best books
average reader are as follows:
"The Crusades," [Lib 1874] by Cox; volume
one of Guizot's "History of France" [Lib 1869; Vol 1 (total 8
– see Bibliography)]; Michaud's "History of the
Crusades" [Lib 1900; Vol
1, Vol 2, Vol 3];
Milman's "Latin Christianity,"
volume IV, pages
15-67 [Lib 1881; Vol
1+2, Vol 3+4; 1903;
5+6, Vol 7+8];
Lane-Poole's "Saladin" [Lib 1898]; " Peter, the Hermit," [Lib 1906] by Goodsell.
The Encyclopaedia Britannica carries a valuable
series of articles on the Crusades and also on the Knights Templar (the
body as well as the Crusading body) and Jaques de Molay. After reading
historical background you can turn for interpretation of the Masonic
the same Masonic writings above referred to.
If, after you have learned the history and
of all these grades, you will put it all into simple language and
publish it in
a compact volume, you will place the whole Craft under your obligation
such a work is very, very badly needed.
* * *
Will you please explain the meaning of the
"K. C. C. H." as used in the Southern Jurisdiction of the Scottish
W. H. C.,
These letters stand for Knight Commander of the
Court of Honor. The Court of Honor is an honorary body between the
thirty-second and thirty-third degrees. It was established to confer
certain brethren whose zeal and work for Scottish Rite Masonry have
them to recognition. This Court of Honor is composed of all
Masons whether active or honorary, and also such thirty-second degree
the Supreme Council may select. In the Court of Honor there are two
of Knight Commander and that of Grand Cross. No more than three Grand
can be selected at each regular session of the Supreme Council, but the
Commander rank is not so restricted. At least two weeks before each
session of the Supreme Council each active thirty-third degree member
nominate one thirty second degree member for the honor and decoration
Commander. In addition to this he is entitled to nominate for this
candidate for every forty Masons of the fourteenth degree in his
who has received that degree since the preceding regular session of the
Council. This does not mean that a fourteenth degree Mason is entitled
honor. On the contrary, the honor can only be conferred on one who has
the thirty-second degree at least two years prior to his nomination,
number of such thirty-second degree Masons who may receive the honor is
by the number of those who have received the fourteenth degree in the
jurisdiction of the member making the nomination. However, if in the
of the Supreme Council there are others not so nominated who should
honor, the Supreme Council may elect without such nomination.
The rank of Knight Commander or Grand Cross
be applied for, and if applied for, must be refused. It is an honor
come unsought, because those in authority deem it worthily earned.
The Court of Honor may assemble as a body
called together by the Grand Commander, and when so assembled is
by the Grand Cross designated by the Grand Commander. They may adopt
order, or by-laws, for their government and may recommend measures for
to the Supreme Council, and may be heard in the Supreme Council by
their Grand Crosses.
A Mason must have received the honor of Knight Commander of the Court
before he can receive the thirty-third degree. For this reason it is
called a stepping-stone to the thirty-third degree.
The Dorr Field Masonic
To appreciate the full value of Masonic Clubs
Camp life it would be necessary to take every step that leads from the
enlistment to the moment of breaking home ties. Next the Military life,
includes everything from drilling to aviating and guard duty, with the
recollections that come at bedtime or other times of reflection, and
Masonic Club meeting, like the Y.M.C.A., looms up as a source of
comfort and an
enjoyable social hour.
After getting together a dozen or more brethren
the first meeting, the preparations consist of electing a President,
Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer, and Tyler. All present should
their receipt cards and sign their names, lodge name and number, and
after which the amount of dues should be decided upon. The Dorr Field
Club charges ten cents dues per month.
Whenever a new squadron or company enters camp
is the duty of members of the Club to search out the members of the
them. As the new companies are given two weeks in quarantine ‒ and
they are at best ‒ these get-acquainted calls are truly welcome.
made and if anything is wanted or needed from sources that the
brother cannot himself reach, efforts are made by the members of the
see that these things are supplied.
We also receive the benefit of many very
interesting and instructive talks by brethren who are capable of
things worthwhile, and who are valuable additions to our association.
After the first meeting of Dorr Masonic Club,
made it a point to visit the lodge in the nearest town, where each
the Club was duly examined.
It is the unanimous opinion of every one of our
members that there is nothing in our camp life equal to the pleasure
with membership in an Army Masonic Club.
Leo Mayer, President,
Dorr Masonic Club,
Dorr Aviation Field, Arcadia, Fla.
* * *
The Acacia Club, Tours,
The Acacia Club, 42 Boulevard Heurteloup,
James B. Krause,
R. W. Grand Master,
The purpose of this letter is to inform you
the Masons of the American Expeditionary Forces stationed at Tours,
the vicinity, have organized a Club known as the Acacia Club, with
rooms at No.
42 Boulevard Heurteloup, Tours, which are open to all members of the
travelling through, or stationed at Tours.
The regular weekly meetings of the Club are
the Y.M.C.A. headquarters, 14 Rue des Halles, Tours.
It is earnestly requested that you will
this letter among the brethren of the Craft and in this manner place on
the establishment of such a Club, the members of which are endeavoring
way to co-operate with the various Masonic Clubs which have been formed
throughout the American Expeditionary Forces.
William E. Tinney,
James W. McEwan,
* * *
A Masonic Meeting on
A group of Masons, while in the war zone
overseas service, believing that it would be of benefit to the Craft to
meeting of all the Masons on shipboard, called a meeting on the evening
August 26th, 1918. Through the courtesy of the Captain of the vessel,
proper permission was obtained.
One hundred and sixteen Masons assembled at the
appointed hour, and were called to order by Brother Surgeon R. I.
U.S.N., a Master Mason of Charter Rock Lodge No. 410, Berkeley,
a member of Iowa Consistory No. 2, Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
The evening was sociant in pleasant
illuminating information concerning the history of Freemasonry, various
anecdotes, and items of general interest in regard to Masonic relations
overseas. The meeting was purely of a social nature, the assembly
powers. However, certain suggestions were made which were formed into a
The meeting was marked by a spirit of
and Masonic goodfellowship. All of the members were gratified with the
knowledge of there being such a large number of Masons on board. It was
matter of regret that a number of of Masons were denied the privilege
attending the meeting because of their duties.
Among those who addressed the meeting were:
Surgeon R. I. Longabaugh, U. S. N.
Lieutenant C. C. Shaw, Medical Corps, U. S. A.
Private Harold I. Salins, U. S. A.
Private M. O. Zeigler, U. S. A.
Chaplain A. F. Vaughn, U. S. A.
Chief Yeoman K. H. Goss, U. S. N. R. F.
Lieutenant C. A. Rowe, U. S. N.
Chaplain H. H. Moore, U. S. A.
Chaplain J. V. Thompson, U. S. A.
The following resolution was unanimously
1. That every brother Mason present send to his
home lodge a copy of these minutes, and that the home lodge be
convey to each of its members now in the service, and such other
members as may
enter the service, the following address in France where every Mason
information and help.
Temple of the Grand Orient,
16 Rue Cadet, Paris, France.
A. Besnard, F. D. P., Worshipful Master.
2. (a) That home lodges be requested to provide
each of its members now in the service, or who may hereafter enter the
of the Army or Navy, with an aluminum or silver tag, bearing the
and the name, number and location of the home lodge, and the name of
(b) That a certificate of membership, printed
English, French and Italian be provided to members in the service.
(Some of the
brethren present had such certificates, and others had tags. It was the
unanimous opinion of all present that all Masons should be provided
The use of the tag is urged because printed matter is easily lost.)
3. That the hearty appreciation of the members
present be expressed to the captain of the vessel and the members
for the meeting, particularly Brothers Surgeon R.I. Longabaugh, U. S.
Chaplain A. F. Vaughan, U. S. A., Lieutenant H. A. Montgomery, U. S.
Surgeon M. T. Mayo, U. S. A.
A committee was appointed to secure the names
those present and formulate a statement of the proceedings to be sent
lodges represented at the meeting.
* * *
A Letter From The
Heather Hill Masonic Club
Somewhere in France.
Mr. J. M. Thompson,
Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
Dear Sir and Brother:
Your very interesting letter of July 3rd, to
Brother J.F. Low, with its enclosure was handed to me by Jimmie with
request that I answer it as I might see fit.
My dear brother, I hardly know how to begin an
answer to you, nor to thank you for the draft of 141 francs. But we
wish you to
know that deep in the hearts of all of the members of the Heather Hill
Club is a warm spot for all the members of Crescent Lodge, and you have
warmest thanks for the donation, and we shall try to make use of it in
that will make you proud of us and your help.
Our Club was organized on the 8th of August,
at our Camp in England, and as we had met on the top of a very high
overlooked our camp and the surrounding country, you can well imagine
created an impression upon us that we are not likely to forget. As the
covered with both English and Scottish heather it was a very easy thing
to pick a name for our Club, and at the suggestion of Brother Perry,
our Y.M.C.A. Secretary, we adopted the Scottish heather as our emblem
we get where it can be done, we intend having some pins to represent it
for each member to wear.
We did not know at first just what we would do,
as we grew from a small number at first until we now have about 160
set of by-laws and everything that a bunch of good fellows need; we
have as our objectives the care of the sick and needy and the erection
tombstones, suitably engraved, to mark the resting places of any of our
brothers who may lose their lives for the glorious cause of liberty. Up
present time we have lost but one member, Brother Charles E. McFarland,
Euclid Lodge No. 64, La Junta, Colorado, and we erected over his grave
of which we are justly proud, as we are certain it is the first, if not
only one of the kind ever erected in France, certainly the first
erected by the
A.E.F. We have had some photographs taken of it and as soon as they are
delivered by the photographer we shall be very glad to send you some of
I am enclosing with this letter a photograph of
adopted French orphan, Maurice Rack, of Protestant parentage, and if it
possible for us to do so, we hope to take him back with us to the
States, educate him and do our very best to make a just and upright man
and give him a good start in life. I am also enclosing some views we
of our lodge of Sorrow, held in memory of Brother McFarland; an
of the lodge and an outside photograph of all the boys who could be
that sad, but memorable occasion.
In regard to other Masonic Clubs over here,
are two or three others that I know of, and I will look up the
send them to you with all the available data as soon as I can get it.
I only wish that I might go into the details of
work and also tell you of the many interesting things that we see over
but you know I cannot do that. But some day, when we return to our
we shall be able and willing to tell our brethren all that they may
Our brothers from Cedar Rapids and all over the
country are making good, and we point with a great deal of pride to the
we have: Not a Mason has ever been in the guard house since this
Thanking you one and all once again for the
interest you have taken in us, and for the money which will be used to
of our judgment and in a way that will cause the kindness of the
Crescent Lodge to live long in our memory, we beg to remain
Heather Hill Masonic Club,
Sergt. A. G. Wyant, Secretary
Co. B. 15th Engineers (Ry),
American Expeditionary Forces, France.
* * *
The Mysteries of the
Art of the Caverns and Early Builders
There seems to have been a race of men,
rather suddenly, who mixed with the then existing population throughout
about 25,000 years ago. Their creative and inventive faculties were the
of evolutionary processes from a higher type of man existing elsewhere.
were superior in brainpower to their neighbors, and this primitive race
recognized A POWER behind the great phenomena of nature, which is
their reverence for the dead. Their belief in future existence is
their mode of interment. As advocators of a "pure and blameless life '
we not dare say that these men "were searching for the lost master's
word," it being only a matter of degree?
In due time and in accordance with biological
of development these races made pottery and adorned them eventually
"points" and "lines," which last fact is of especial
interest to Masonic students. The progress continued, and bye and bye
bronze swords in the remains of the long ago, sometimes finding them in
places where Paleolithic and Neolithic flints are found, which indicate
these early inventors, masons or craftsmen, whatever name you may
teaching someone else their arts. So, because of their intelligence,
among ferocious beasts and most savage tribes of man and became the
a gentler race. Indeed we may truly say with Lucretious in his De Rerum
Not urged by
competition, but, alone,
Studious thy toils to copy; for, in powers,
How can the swallow with the swan contend?
Or the young kid, all tremulous of limb,
Strive with the strength, the fleetness of the horse;
Thou, sire of science! with paternal truths
Thy sons enrichest: from thy peerless page,
Illustrious chief! as from the flowery field
Th' industrious bee culls honey, we alike
Cull many a golden precept ‒ golden each ‒
And each most worthy everlasting life.
The continent of Europe was man's empire and in
northwest has been unearthed a magnificent structure (to be correct
several in England and Denmark) which I shall endeavor to describe.
stone-structure was 280 feet in circumference. It had been surrounded
stones, these would appear like a fence from the distance. The chamber
was oval in form and lay north to south. It was 17 feet in length, 41
feet in circumference
and 5 feet in height. The walls had 12 large unhewn stones, the
filled with smaller stones. The passage ‒ on the east side ‒ was 10
length, two feet wide and formed by eleven side stones and three roof
threshold was indicated by small stones on the side and a large stone
floor between them. Many had been buried here from time to time; many
amber-beads, a symbolical bronze-sword were found here, also pottery
with points and lines.
Why were perfect unused flint flakes buried
and some of the best instruments of the age? Has it a Masonic
The probable lapse of time from the appearance
this intelligent race in south of Europe to the time of the grave
about 15,000 to 18,000 years.
This subject is too great for details; allow me
therefore to say just a little regarding their belief in a future
the "pottery" graves the body was placed on one side; the food,
flints and vessels (usually of the best) were placed opposite. At one
skeleton of a sheep, bones of an ox and a pig were found between the
the usual carving flint accompanying the bones.
Why did these people give to the dead good food
perfect implements? Maybe it was their wish that when the dead man
might have a better start in the future life, than had been his
the past. Certainly they showed charity extending beyond the grave.
in Prometheus Bound, says:
lawlessly they did all things,
Until I taught them how the stars do rise
And set in mysteries, and devised for them
Number, the inducer of philosophies,
The synthesis of letters, and, beside,
The artificer of all things, Memory
That sweet Muse-mother.
* * *
Arrangement of the
Lesser Lights in Kansas and Maryland
Our attention has been called to the fact that
the Grand Jurisdiction of Kansas the three lesser lights are grouped on
north side of the altar, with the apex of the triangle at the south.
In Maryland the apex of the triangle is also at
south instead of the west as it is shown on page 273 of THE BUILDER for
* * *
From labour health, from health contentment
Contentment opens the source of every joy.
‒ James Beattie.
Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences
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