Masonic Research Society
War Work In England
By Brother Dudley
Editor "The Freemason,"
BROTHER Dr. Fort Newton has honored me with the
request that I should put on paper some particulars of what the
England are doing toward the relief of the distress and suffering
being through this terrible war and what steps they are taking to bring
in an honorable manner, the end toward which all eyes are turned. The
not an easy one for the very reason that Brother Fort Newton himself
a few days since at the City Temple. English people do not advertise,
be to announce in a loud voice the indiscretions they commit.
this so of the brethren of the Craft in England. I have frequently met
who have almost shuddered when they have seen the report of a Masonic
in the secular press. "Oh, how wrong!" has been their exclamation. It
is, perhaps, unnecessary for me to say that I make them shudder as
often as I
can. There are members of the Craft who refuse to subscribe to Masonic
on the ground that they are unnecessary and ought to be abolished. But
there may be another explanation of this refusal.
The beneficence of the Craft in England has,
however, and rightly so, been honored with magnificent advertisements
English press of late. The extraordinary results achieved by the great
institutions at their recent festivals, when, according to the latest
tabulation, sums amounting in the aggregate to considerably over a
quarter of a
million pounds sterling, or, according to the coinage of New England, a
and a half dollars were collected, have excited not a little wonderment
good deal of admiration in that large world outside the Craft. This
beneficence, however, is but a very small part of the whole that has
is being, done by the great Masonic body in this country towards
distress, pain and suffering occasioned by the war.
Apart from the great London area, which
nearly eight hundred lodges, England and Wales are divided up into
Masonic Provinces, which include in their dominion more than 1,800
Every one of these Provinces has its own Provincial Benevolent Fund and
these has reported increased receipts during the year at the annual
which have just been held-- East Lancashire has more than doubled its
income--and each, following in the wake of the three great
elected its beneficiaries without ballot. Then, during the past few
Freemasons War Hospital has extended its operations by taking over that
of Fulham Palace, so generously offered by the Bishop of London to the
The Provinces, also have been assiduous in
ways. The Wallasey brethren purchased and equipped a six-cylinder,
horsepower motor ambulance which they presented to the local branch of
Cross Society. The Nottinghamshire brethren set out to collect the
necessary for the installation of an up-to-date orthopedic treatment
wounded soldiers in the local hospital, but the Masonic response to the
issued was so spontaneous and hearty that they found themselves in a
to erect a new wing for the apparatus and patients as well as the
This, apart from the fact that the same brethren have established a hut
Chipstone Camp at a cost of 1,300 pounds and are maintaining five
Belgian refugees. In a similar manner the North London Freemasons
provide a motor ambulance for the conveyance of wounded soldiers. The
contributed enabled them to do this and provide also one year's
Now they are on the road to supplying a second ambulance.
In the East End of London the brethren, without
difficulty, found themselves in possession of more than 1,000 pounds
needed for the endowment of a bed in Queen Mary's Hospital and so they
the balance, together with other sums they are still collecting,
new wing which is to be erected in commemoration of the brave men of
who have fallen in the conflict. Warwickshire and other Provinces have
provided motor ambulances. Bath ‒ there are only five lodges in Bath ‒
an organ for the local war hospital. These are but a few of the things
have been done, for so much has been done by stealth. One member of the
established on his own account a "Smoker's Gift" and spends a great
portion of his time collecting the names and addresses of brethren and
serving at the front in order that he may send them gifts of tobacco.
It is an
open secret that one volunteer regiment composed entirely of men over
age, or otherwise disqualified, and performing regular and useful
really brought into being by members of the Craft by whom it is almost
manned. The members of the London Rank Association, all men of middle
age, devote time to visiting the hospitals, rendering various services
fellow Masons or their relatives there.
It would be practically impossible to enumerate
Masonic church services which have been held, at all of which the
have been devoted either to the Freemasons War Hospital or to some
directly connected with the relief of suffering or distress occasioned
Many lodges, particularly those peculiarly
for such hospitality by their constitution, such as the Royal Colonial
Institute Lodge and the Anglo-Colonial Lodge, have made it a special
welcome American and Colonial brethren in khaki passing through this
their way to the front. Handsome contributions have been made to the
Prisoners' War Fund ‒ the Province of Northamptonshire alone gave 1,000
‒ the Belgian Relief and other War Funds.
This is but a part of what has been
England and Wales. The Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland have been
active and generous in proportion to their strength, as have the sister
English-speaking Grand Lodges across the seas and the thirty District
Lodges working under the United Grand Lodge of England and Wales.
By Bro. George W.
Baird. P.G.M., District of Columbia
Matthew Thornton, whose memorial is shown as
frontispiece of this issue, was one of the three signers of the
Independence who were born in Ireland. His ancestry were Scotch, and
to the north of Ireland about the year 1650. Thornton was born in 1714,
came to the American Colonies with his parents and other Scotch-Irish
The Thorntons were Presbyterians. They figured
prominently in the Colonial Wars, the Revolution, the War with Mexico
Civil War and, no doubt, the descendants are now participating in the
World War "Somewhere in France."
Matthew Thornton was a physician, enjoying a
practice in the time of the Colonies. In 1775, as Surgeon of a New
Regiment, he went with the expedition to Cape Breton, which resulted in
capture of Louisbourg. The town of Thornton was named for Matthew
granted to him and others by the King in 1763.
In 1760 he was married to Hannah Jack, who was
considered a great beauty. Five children were the result of the union,
whom became distinguished.
Dr. Thornton held many public offices. Among
were Representative in the Legislature, selectman of Londonderry and
in the town meetings. He was commissioned by the Royal Government as
the Londonderry Regiment, which he commanded. He was commissioned a
the Peace of the Court of Common Pleas, in which position he served for
number of years and attended the Court in general session.
He was active in church work, and advocated a
uniform and equitable system of taxation in the church.
He served in the Second Provincial Congress and
represented the Provisional Government in the Watertown Congress, in
he was chosen president pro tem, and was on the committee to prepare a
ways and means to furnish troops, which was at once effective.
He was an excellent Greek and Latin scholar,
marvelous command of the English language, and was usually the central
in all assemblies. Though much in love with his medical profession, he
continually persuaded away from it, into public life, by acclamation of
people. In that day of patriotism the office sought the man ‒ but,
times have changed.
In 1775 Thornton was on the committee of
The President invited him to consult with Franklin, Lynch and Harrison,
task of forming an army.
Matthew Thornton was a member of an Army Lodge
the 28th Regiment, Foot, and was initiated at Londonderry. This fact is
confirmed by Gould in volume IV of his "Library of Masonic History,"
and is in accordance with the family traditions, so we are informed by
descendant, Mr. Charles F. Adams, who resides in New York City. The
this lodge were lost and never afterwards found, as was the case of so
the Revolutionary records.
The picture of the monument tells of the
of New Hampshire. The monument is of dressed granite and is situated at
Thornton's Ferry, a town in New Hampshire, near Merrimac, on ground
property of Dr. Thornton and which is still in the possession of his
By Bro. Roscoe Pound,
Dean, Harvard Law School
IV ‒ Masonic Law Making
NO idea is today more familiar than the idea of
making law. Wherever any sort of sovereign authority exists, men take
granted that it will proceed to justify its existence by copious
and assume as a matter of course that the quantity of its legislative
the measure of its efficiency. This was not always true. Indeed
law-making on any large scale is a wholly modern phenomenon not only in
state but in those human organizations which exist to conserve other
political values and secure other than political interests, but are
along lines analogous to those which govern politically organized
Hence by way of introduction it is worthwhile to give some account of
development of legislation in the legal systems of modern states.
Five stages may be perceived in the development
legislation as the everyday agency of law-making: (1) unconscious
in the period of customary law, (2) declaratory legislation in the
the traditional law is reduced to writing, (3) selection and amendment
the political union of peoples with divergent customs it becomes
choose in declaring the custom of the new whole, (4) conscious
law-making as an occasional expedient, at first to meet political
but gradually to effect important changes here and there in the legal
great emergencies, and (5) habitual legislation as the ordinary agency
development, usually culminating in codification of the law as a whole.
In the first stage of legal development, the
of traditional modes of decision based upon repeated decisions by
divine inspiration, there is not a little unconscious law-making. The
hand may not be exactly like one which has arisen previously, but those
have the custody of the tradition may assimilate it thereto. Moreover
custodians of the tradition may warp it more or less unconsciously to
needs. The laws obeyed are regarded as having always existed. Men are
conscious of the innovations which creep in from time to time and in
of faith confuse new usages with the old. Thus for a time law-making is
purely subconscious process.
Later we come upon a stage of declaratory
legislation. In the beginnings of law all legislation, as such, is of
type. It is not an authoritative making of new law ‒ it is an
publication of law already existing. All the so-called ancient codes
this type. Indeed the prologue to the laws of Manu, reciting how
had learned the tradition from Manu, authoritatively dictated them to
sages, the prologue to the Senchus Mor, in the Ancient Laws of Ireland,
how the bards were brought together and recited the traditional laws to
Patrick, and the prologue to the Salic Law, telling how chosen men from
different villages were brought together and discussed among themselves
traditions, as they remembered them, till they arrived at an
to be reduced to writing ‒ such prologues tell the story of primitive
Conscious law-making begins when it becomes
necessary to make choice between conflicting traditions or when
traditions must be harmonized through amendment. This necessity arises
attempt is made to reduce the tradition to writing or to compare and
different versions of the written tradition. It becomes acute when
made to declare the common custom of a political unit formed by the
formerly distinct tribes or peoples with customs of their own. An
example is to
be seen in the laws of Alfred. He tells us that he had to pick and
even amend, but adds "I durst not set down much of my own." From this
it is an easy stage, but one taken only gradually and occasionally, to
conscious constructive law-making. The first step in this direction
men perceive that by changing the written record of the law they can
law which theretofore had been held eternal and immutable. Even when
discovery is made, however, after a brief law-making ferment, the law
back to a process of growth through development of tradition, and it is
until the maturity of legal systems that we enter upon a real stage of
A similar development may be seen in Masonic
lawmaking, and it will conduce to sounder appreciation of our written
look at its history in this way. It is true a wholly different view of
subject became classical in Masonic literature. Thus Mackey, after
the landmarks, says:
"Next to the unwritten laws, or Landmarks of
Masonry, come its written or statutory laws. These are the
they are usually called, which have been enacted from time to time by
Assemblies, Grand Lodges, or other supreme authorities of the Order.
in their character either general or local."
(Jurisprudence, chapter 2.)
We are then told that the "General Regulations
are those that have been enacted by such bodies as had at the time
jurisdiction over the craft," and the year 1721 being fixed as the
decisive point beyond which such general regulations were no longer
because there were no longer general assemblies with general powers,
authentic and authoritative acts of general Masonic legislation down to
are set forth as follows:
"Old York Constitutions of 926" (for which he gives Oliver's abridged
version of the articles and points from the Halliwell MS.);
"Constitutions of Edward III" (taken from Anderson's Constitutions,
"Regulations of 1663";
- the "Ancient
Installation Charges" (taken from Preston's Illustrations);
"Ancient Charges at Makings" (also from Preston);
"Regulation of 1703" (given on the authority of Preston);
"Regulations of 1717" (given on the same authority);
"Regulations of 1720" (an authentic regulation, adopted at a
quarterly communication of the Grand Lodge of England, June 24, 1720);
"Charges Approved in 1722" (presented to the Grand Lodge of England
in 1721 by Anderson and Desaguliers, adopted March 25, 1722, and
the first edition of Anderson's Constitutions, 1723); and
"General Regulations of 1721"
compiled by George Payne, Grand Master in 1720, approved by the Grand
England in 1721, printed in the first edition of Anderson's
Thus, it will be noted, we are asked to believe
a series of acts of Masonic legislation, wholly analogous to a
the law or the enactment of a new paragraph of the written law by a
American Grand Lodge, extending from the tenth century to the
eighteenth. It is
the first step in a proper understanding of Masonic Jurisprudence to
this idea completely. There were no such assemblies as this conception
MS. constitutions postulates down to 1717, and it was not till the
century that men began to think of the wholesale making of laws out of
cloth as a normal, much less a legitimate process.
Thanks to the studies of Hughan and Gould and
Begemann, we know much more about the MS. constitutions than was known
when Mackey's Jurisprudence was written. Today no serious Masonic
believes that constitutions "were framed at the City of York in the
926" or that the constitutions so framed "were seen approved and
confirmed in the reign of Henry VI." The unconfirmed authority of
and Preston, moreover, will not suffice to establish legislation of the
quarter of the eighteenth century. What we find is not a uniform tract
law-making, analogous to that set forth in the statutes of the realm,
rather a written tradition from the end of the fourteenth century,
based on an older oral tradition, changing and developing slowly in the
of successive transcripts, and laid hold of on the rise of the Grand
system in the eighteenth century as the basis of Masonic law. In other
we may see an unconscious development in the (Masonically) pre-historic
of oral tradition, declaratory law-making when in the middle ages the
traditional regulations were reduced to writing, selection and
time to time as the MSS. were recopied and re-edited, conscious
law-making as an occasional expedient in the fore part of the
century in the Mother Grand Lodge, and finally an era of habitual
law-making in the nineteenth century which has reached its highest
in America. Gould's conclusion that the earliest of our authentic MSS.
"a gild or fraternity which commemorated the science without practicing
the art of masonry" seems well founded. It was as far back as the
fourteenth century a "fraternity from whom all but the memory or
of its ancient trade had departed." Hence, as Gould puts it, "many of
the old laws or disciplinary regulations of the earlier Masons became
fossilized or petrified." "They passed out of use, though retaining
their hold on the written and unwritten traditions of the society"
(Concise History, Am. ed. 308). When, in the eighteenth century,
Grand Lodge Masonry became a world-wide institution, these traditions
had to be
put to a new use. Instead of being read to or shown to the initiate,
to be transformed into a body of law for a society with new values to
and new interests to secure. In this respect Mackey's instinct was
he fixed upon Payne's General Regulations of 1721 as the turning point.
Why should the Masons of the last half of the
eighteenth century and of the first three quarters of the nineteenth
have deceived themselves so completely upon a matter of such
reason, and perhaps the chief reason, is to be found in
ideas of codes and of law-making. For one thing, the eighteenth century
age of absolute governments. The local, feudal, decentralized
medieval Europe had definitely broken down. In England the Wars of the
had demonstrated that the general security called for something
the Tudors and Stuarts had furnished it, howbeit the struggles against
Stuarts had preserved for the modern world the sound kernel of the
polity. In France, which in the days of Louis XIV had furnished the
eighteenth-century politics, centralized royal government had
Roman Corpus Juris, compiled in sixth-century Constantinople, gave us
ideas of law as the product of the sovereign will, and the Byzantine
law, expounded by French publicists in the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries, accorded so exactly with what men saw before their eyes that
scarcely needed the aid of an idea that Roman law was embodied reason
it currency. The time was one of codes and legislative programs. Men
the "codes" of the Anglo-Saxon kings and thought of the traditional
law of English-speaking peoples as a body of statutes worn down by
time. It was
the fashion among historians to attribute all legal and political
to the deliberate invention of this or that ruler. A sounder view came
Hegel's philosophy and the rise of the historical school in the
century. But that view did not reach Anglo-American scholarship at once
not become significant in American thought till sometime after the
Again we must remember that the eighteenth
thought of itself as the age of reason. Men had absolute faith in
believed that they could work out everything by their own unaided
without troubling to do the futile work of investigating details.
believed firmly in what they called "natural law." They conceived
that what ought to be and what was were to be made synonymous; that
one could show a moral principle that ought to govern conduct he had
shown a legal principle that did govern it. This attitude led naturally
confusion of what ought to be and what was, and it was an easy
what one would like to think to what ought to be. Thus much of
eighteenth-century historical writing was ultra-subjective. It is a
what the writer thought a priori must have been the course of history,
that to show what ought to have been sufficiently demonstrated what
therefore, Gould says of Preston that he was "a Masonic visionary who ‒
untrammeled by any laws of evidence wrote a large amount of
rubbish, wherein are displayed a capacity of belief and capability of
which are hardly paralleled at the present day by the utterances of the
promoter, or even of the mining engineer," he is but saying that
was a child of his time. The need of fortifying the Grand Lodge system
appeal to antiquity was strong. Men were not trained in historical
Rather they relied on their individual reasons for all things, and what
took to be reason was often no more than enthusiasm and desire.
Thus the first five of Mackey's ten forms of
old written law of Masonry take on a wholly different aspect. The sixth
seventh are Preston's generalizations from the result of the
the Grand Lodge system. The principles which he formulates in these
regulations were thoroughly established in his day. Characteristically
assumed that they must have resulted from deliberate law-making and,
terms as accurately as he could, he reported them circumstantially as
time and place of their adoption, exactly as the eighteenth-century
could report the precise words spoken in a council of war centuries
report out of his own reason the details of intrigues and conspiracies,
debates of secret councils, and even of the communings of a king or
with himself. Indeed the apocryphal character of the so-called
1703, which contradicts all that we know of Masonry from the fourteenth
eighteenth centuries, suggested itself to Mackey, who sought to avoid
difficulty by interpretation in a footnote. The remaining four are
examples of legislative declaration of existing law, with minor
of legislative innovations to secure new interests and conserve new
Today the written law of the craft in any
particular Jurisdiction, which Mackey would call its local regulations,
up commonly of four elements: (1) constitutions of the Grand Lodge,
usually compiled and edited from time to time and thus kept in
systematic form exactly as a state of the Union compiles its
else after a definite compilation are held in that form by a practice
introducing new legislation in the form of amendments of or additions
or that paragraph; (2) decisions of the Grand Lodge on appeal from the
of subordinate (or constituent) lodges or from the lodges themselves;
edicts of the Grand Master; and (4) answers of the Grand Master to
to the law submitted to him, or decisions of the Grand Master upon
asked by Masters of lodges with reference to matters pending before
their lodges. To understand these we must turn to the Roman law where
forms of law developed and got the names which still attach to them not
the law of the state but in Masonic law.
A Roman emperor made or declared the law by
constitution, by decision (decree), by edict, and by rescript or
letter. He had
this power, in legal theory, because at his accession the Roman people
specially conferred it upon him for his life by a special act of
Down to the reign of Diocletian, at least, in political theory, the
was a republic. Sovereignty was in the Roman people. The emperor was
"princeps," first citizen, a citizen upon whom the Roman people had
devolved their sovereignty for the time being by an act of legislative
authority upon an extraordinary occasion. Later, in Byzantine times,
emperor came to be thought of as the repository of sovereignty and the
of law. But in classical times he simply wielded the powers of the
Roman people which had been devolved upon him. Accordingly as the Roman
in their legislative assembly could enact a statute (lex) the emperor,
the legislative power of the people, could enact a law. What he thus
established (constituit) by virtue of the legislative authority
him, was called a constitution (constitutio). Thus in Roman law a
is a rule established by legislative act. And such precisely is a
in Masonry. Only with us the legislative power of the fraternity in
jurisdiction has devolved upon the Grand Lodge. Hence what the Grand
establishes and promulgates as a rule of law, by virtue of its
authority, is a constitution. At the end of the eighteenth century,
sovereign peoples began to adopt for themselves a fundamental law,
framework of government and imposing limitations upon the several
government so set up, the term constitution came to be applied to such
enactments of the sovereign people. Thus it has come into use in
to a less extent elsewhere, in the sense of a superior fundamental law,
which ordinary acts of the several departments of government or of the
of a society must yield, a conception growing out of the circumstances
colonial government in America prior to the Revolution, where executive
legislative acts were subject to the measure of the colonial charter.
Masonic law we preserve the older use of the term, speaking from the
of the eighteenth century, when the modern political written
Another way in which the Roman emperor made or
declared law was by his decisions in causes taken to him on appeal or
determined by him directly. These were called decrees. For the Roman
had no power to render a judgment of the strict law. This could be done
judices or arbitrators, chosen for the case in hand, somewhat as the
demands the verdict of a jury as the foundation of a judgment. But the
magistrate could decide certain things extra ordinem and render a
this power, along with the other powers of the Roman magistrates, was
devolved upon the emperor at his accession. In Masonry, the power of
determining appeals, as an attribute of sovereignty ‒ for so it was
when men forgot how the Roman emperors came by it ‒ devolved upon the
Lodge, to which in the eighteenth century sovereignty definitely passed.
Still another way in which the Roman emperor
or declared the law was by his edict. The power of issuing an edict
originally to the superior magistrates of the Republic and was
by the praetors or judicial magistrates. Strictly the edict was a
by the magistrate of the course which he proposed to take in the
of his office. It was a sort of post-election platform from which the
might know what to expect from the officer in question. But this easily
a law governing the administration of his office, and when the
power was devolved upon the emperor the power of issuing an edict came
to be in
substance a power of issuing general orders governing matters of
administration. The term was so used in French public law in the
and eighteenth centuries and was generally used in this sense at the
Masonic law was formative. In this same sense we use it in Masonry. An
a general administrative, as distinguished from a judicial order,
the conduct of some matter of administration, on prescribing the
Masons in some matter of administrative cognizance. A good example may
in the edicts of Grand Masters in different jurisdictions against the
Finally a Roman emperor made or declared the
means of rescripts. The rescript or letter was an answer which the
returned to a question put to him by a judge or magistrate who had a
pending before him. In the classical Roman polity the judices who had a
before them were advised as to the law by the expert opinion of a
In the imperial polity the emperor was taken to be the most
jurisconsult and the practice of submitting questions for his
opinion as to the law was a natural result. This practice passed to the
law, where the Papal rescripts had similar authority, and was well
known to the
law of continental Europe in the eighteenth century. Naturally it came
Masonic practice along with other institutions of the time when, in the
formative period of Grand Lodge Masonry, a universal polity had to be
rapidly. The decisions of the Grand Master in answer to questions might
well be called rescripts, exactly as his administrative general orders
called edicts. They are not decisions in a judicial sense, they are
authoritative opinions of the most authoritative jurisconsult of the
the time being. Being mere opinions there is no impropriety in the
many Grand Lodges to which the Grand Master regularly reports his
review. His decision is not reviewed. Indeed Mackey seems justified in
position that the decisions of a Grand Master as such are not or at
not to be reviewable. In legal theory what happens might be explained
opinion of the Grand Master upon the point of law involved in his
considered and the doctrine which it announced is given the force of a
constitution by the approval of the Grand Lodge or else the doctrine is
rejected as a rule for the future and some other rule given legislative
It will be noted that of the four forms of
or declaring the law which were in use by the Roman emperor, two are
appropriate to the Grand Lodge and two to the Grand Master. In the
imperial polity all the powers of sovereignty were in the emperor. As
Institutes put it, his will had the force of law. But along with the
Roman conceptions, familiar to the time through the writings of
based on Justinian's law books, another set of conceptions were
Englishmen at the time when Masonic legal institutions were formative.
memory of the contests with the Stuart kings was still fresh and in the
of that contest English lawyers had resurrected and furbished up many
that belonged to the polity of the Plantagenets. Thus the British
in the eighteenth century was a superposition, as it were, of what were
modern ideas and institutions upon the older and radically different
institutions of medieval England. As a result the balance was
chiefly by custom and precedent and respect for traditional lines
authorities and magistracies with large potentialities of theoretical
jurisdiction. Experience gradually settled the lines and respect for
established them. The same phenomenon is to be seen in the development
Anglo-American Masonic polity. Legislation by general regulations or
constitutions and the power of judicial decision on appeal, with the
power of so declaring the law, became functions of the Grand Lodge. The
nearly administrative functions of issuing edicts and rendering what
be called rescripts became functions of the Grand Master. They can
said to be common-law powers in the same sense as those universally
prerogatives which Mackey sought to establish as Landmarks. No doubt
Lodge legislation may interfere, as it sometimes has done, to abridge
them. But it is significant that with the example of the separation of
in American public law constantly before them, American Masonic lawyers
acquiesced in and developed a system of law-making proceeding on
different lines and originating in the law books of Rome.
Direct, deliberate law-making by constitutions
the type of Masonic law-making that calls chiefly for our attention.
tells us that "the capital fact in the mechanism of modern states is
energy of legislatures." True, the lawyer is somewhat skeptical. He
with good reason the possibility of achieving by law more than a small
of what the promoters of new laws confidently expect. But the layman's
the efficacy of legislative law-making is unbounded and there is no
abatement of the huge annual output of our political law-making
There are many causes behind this phenomenon. But one is of special
significance for Masonry and is behind a similar excess of zeal for
law-making in too many of our jurisdictions. The theory that law is the
the sovereign, that a sovereign democracy, or its representatives or
in its name, can make law by the simple process of translating its will
time being into chapters and sections, the magic words "be it
enacted" justifying all that follow, arose by applying to sovereign
peoples the ideas which had been worked out with reference to absolute
sovereigns. The will of the emperor had the force of law; hence the
will of the
people is to have the force of law. But a confusion was involved here.
emperor owed it to his subjects to use his will rationally when willing
The power to give his declarations of will the force of law did not
from obligation to measure the content of those declarations by reason.
fathers were conscious of this with good reason and so sought to limit
law-making and give security against arbitrary and capricious action by
of rights. But these securities are available only within comparatively
limits. So long as the theory of law as will prevails, the flood of
In American Masonry we have very generally a
similar situation, as has been said, for a like reason. For one thing,
all been trained in the theory that what we will collectively or in
mass to make a majority is law in substance and only needs a mechanical
of receiving the legislative guinea stamp to be law in form. It is very
transport this conception to every other connection in which the word
appears. Is there Masonic law? Then it is to be made by the will of the
sovereign. Have we a sovereign Masonic body? Go to, let it justify its
existence by making laws. Such ideas confuse exercise of the will as a
and exercise of the will as an end. The means of making law is the
will of the sovereign. But the end of making law is not to enable the
to declare his will. The end is to conserve values and to secure
Delicate processes of weighing values and cataloguing, appraising, and
balancing interests must be gone through with before the matter is ripe
Having no bills of rights in Masonry and hence
nothing beyond a handful of vaguely defined Landmarks to restrain him,
then are our barriers against the ravages of the zealous, energetic,
Masonic law-maker? Legal barriers there are none. But some of the most
interests of life have only moral security and on the whole do not lose
thereby. For example, the claims of husband and wife respectively to
other's society and affection are left as between the two with no other
security than the moral sense of the community. It is important to ask,
therefore, how far there are agencies for focusing the moral sentiment
craft upon the Masonic legislator and making it an effective moral
such agency, which has been of no little service, is the report of the
Committee on Correspondence, whereby in so many jurisdictions the
the Masonic world is reviewed, criticized, and adjusted, if possible,
general theories of Masonic law. These reports vary greatly in value.
and large they are inestimable repositories of Masonic law. Moreover it
needs give the Masonic innovator pause when he reflects that what he
run the gauntlet of critical scrutiny by veteran reviewers upon the
on Correspondence of a majority of our jurisdictions. Another
influence is coming forward with the development of Masonic study.
so dogmatic as ignorance. A better and more general acquaintance with
history, philosophy, and legal traditions of the craft is certain to
law-makers more cautious, more intelligent, and more effective. Such
comparative studies in Masonic legislation as those already begun in
BUILDER* are likely to do much for intelligent law-making where library
facilities are small and law-makers are zealous. But above all things
rely upon the principles of Masonry. Let us remember Krause's formula:
"Law is the sum of the external conditions of life measured by
reason." Our measure is to be reason, not will, and all the lessons and
symbols of the craft are eloquent of measurement and restraint.
In conclusion, let me repeat the disclaimer
which I began. I have not sought to expound the law of the craft at
large or of
any jurisdiction in particular. I have sought rather to consider how
may be said to be such a thing as Masonic jurisprudence, what materials
hand for an organized body of knowledge that may be called
science of Masonic law, what general principles may be found for such a
science, and in particular how far the problems of legal science
be found in and their solutions may be applied to the law of our craft.
studied, the subject of Masonic jurisprudence has great possibilities
as yet scarcely opened. The ambitious Masonic student who essays any of
problems as he would a problem of the everyday law, going through our
Lodge proceedings as he would the legal sources, using our texts as he
legal text book, reasoning from our traditions as he would from the
written tradition we call the common law, will not only be abundantly
but will do a service in helping to make Masonic jurisprudence a
* Advancement vol.
III, p. 60.
III, p. 9.
Ballot for the
Degrees, vol. III, p. 70.
Dimits, vol. III,
Physical Qualifications for
Initiation, vol. III,
Symbolism of the Three
By Bro. Oliver Day
Part IV ‒ The Symbolism
Of The Master Mason Degree ‒ (Concluded)
The Five Points of
The Five Points of Fellowship are symbolized by
Pentalpha, or five pointed star. The connection of this geometrical
the art of building is not at once apparent, but recent researches show
entered extensively into determining the plans of many of the splendid
and cathedrals of medieval times. To this fact is probably due its
or retention among the symbols of our Speculative Craft. (1)
This figure has, however, from very ancient
borne a moral signification also. Says a recent writer:
"In the more esoteric philosophy, the symbol
is used to designate man, and an examination of the shape of the figure
that by a stretch of imagination it may be construed into a crude
of a human figure." (2)
In this connection it is interesting to note
there exists in England a secret gild of operative Masons who have a
wherein is represented the mock-assassination of one of its three Grand
Masters. His body is said to be raised and borne out of the hall on the
points of fellowship in this wise ‒ each seizing an arm or foot and a
under the middle of the body.
The Pentalpha with one of its points elevated,
a symbol of the pure and the virtuous and a harbinger of good, but with
its points elevated it became the accursed Goat of Mendes, which
and foreboded evil and misfortune. (3)
In England, the Five Points of Fellowship are
h., f. to f., k. to k., b. to b. and h. over b.(4) It is well known
that in the
United States we substituted m. to e. for h. to h. Mackey thinks this
was made at the Baltimore Conference of Grand Lecturers in 1843, and I
persuaded that the English working is the ancient and correct one.
The winged foot has for ages been the symbol of
swiftness, the arm of strength, and the hand of fidelity. In the center
Pentalpha as employed by us is usually seen two hands clasped. This as
learned in the Entered Apprentice degree is the ancient symbol of the
Fides.(5) It is an appropriate emblem of the fidelity and readiness to
other, which would characterize members of the Masonic Fraternity. Let
be supposed that by assigning symbolical meanings to the persons and
of the legend of Hiram Abif, I thereby mean to deny its reality. I see
reason (and such seems to be the opinion of most students of
this legend may not be based upon a substratum of fact, as probably
similar legends which characterized the Ancient Mysteries. That it has
undergone many alterations and been greatly overlaid with fiction is
but that it is founded wholly upon fable is not at all probable.
The Lost Word
We next come to consider one of the most
conceptions in Freemasonry. The allegory of a search for a Lost Word is
search for any particular word; in fact it is not even a search for a
all. The expression "The Word" had significance to the Jews and other
ancient races which is hard for us to comprehend. While not strictly
we shall not be far wrong in saying that to the ancient mind "The
Word" signified all truth, particularly divine truth. To us the most
striking and familiar passage in literature containing this expression
in St. John, as follows:
"In the beginning was the Word. And the Word
was with God, And the Word was God." Ch. 1
John does not here announce any new doctrine,
one that was perfectly familiar to the Jewish thought of his day; only
identification of Jesus of Nazareth with the Word was new. Nor was this
expression or this idea by any means confined to the Jews; it belonged
nearly all ancient philosophy. Among the Greeks it was the "Logos" a
term derived from the Greek verb "lego", to speak; the same root from
which comes our word "Logic", the name of that science by which we
determine moral truth.
That noble attribute of man, the power of
articulate speech, whereby his wisdom and his most abstract thoughts
known to his fellows, a power so far as we can see possessed by no
animal, must have in all ages greatly impressed this thoughtful mind.
spoken word seemed an instrument worthy to be employed by Deity
only in promulgating divine truth but even in creating all things that
According to ancient ideas Deity v as so omnipotent that he had but to
and the thing was done; he said "Let there be light" and there was
light; and that without "The Word" was not anything made that was
Hence "The Word" under the development of
philosophy, particularly that of Philo Judaeus, a contemporary of
synonymous with every manifestation of divine power and truth, so that
it was regarded as not only co-existent with but metaphorically as
with Deity himself. This is clearly the meaning of St. John.
The Masonic search for the "Word",
therefore, symbolizes the search for truth, particularly divine truth.
lesson here to us is to search diligently for the truth, never to
prejudice, passion or interest to blind us, but to keep our minds
to the reception of truth from whatever source, or however opposed to
preconceived notions it may be; and having seen it and received it,
act agreeably to its dictates. Hence Masons everywhere are devoted to
doctrines of freedom of thought, freedom of speech and freedom of
But we are also cautioned not vaingloriously to
imagine that we ever here achieved all truth. The Master Mason is
with the True Word, but with a Substitute Word, implying that in this
may know only in part, that we may approach, we may approximate truth,
we never attain it in its perfection. This search shall continue as
this life lasts, but not until we shall have passed on to a higher
existence will divine truth be disclosed to us in all its fullness and
I may say here that this final disclosure is symbolized in the Royal
The preservation of this extremely ancient
conception of "The Word" is not without historic value also as
indicating the great antiquity of Masonic symbolism. (6)
The Marble Monument
Incidental to this legend of Hiram Abif are
introduced certain other symbols. For example, the virgin weeping over
broken column, an urn in her left hand and a sprig of evergreen in her
and an old man behind her dressing her hair. Masons are familiar with
explanation of this group given in our ritual, but I am persuaded that
very superficial to say the least.
In the Egyptian Mysteries, as we have seen,
finds her husband's body encased in a tamarisk, or acacia tree, which
of Byblos converts into a column. This column, still containing the
finally carried away and broken by Isis and the body released. We can
imagine her weeping over this broken column. Apulieus (second century,
describes her as a "beautiful female, over whose divine neck her long
thick hair hung in graceful ringlets," and in a procession depicting
are shown female attendants following who are combing and dressing her
The urn is an ancient sign of mourning. A small
in which figuratively to catch the tears was worn by the mourners,
widows. This explanation of the presence of the urn in this emblem, as
of grief, better accords with our tradition as to the disposal of our
Master, as well as with history, than does that given in our Master's
We know that it was a well-nigh universal custom of the Jews as well as
to bury and not to cremate their dead. Likewise from ancient times it
common for the mourner to bear in the hand to the place of interment an
evergreen sprig and there to deposit it in the grave as an avowal of
a life to come. It seems to me that in these ancient traditions and
to be found the true origin of our Marble Monument (7) and that this
signifies that, while we mourn for, and cherish the memory of our dead,
believe that they shall live and that we shall see them again.
The Setting Maul
The Setting Maul is a wooden instrument used in
setting firmly into the wall the polished stone, and is one of those
traditionally said to have been used at the building of Solomon's
would very properly be in the hands of the three Fellow Crafts, who are
third degree reputed to have made a notable use of it just before the
completion of the Temple. From that incident it is employed among us as
emblem the meaning of which is known to every Master Mason.
It has, however, in different forms been
as a symbol of destruction from prehistoric times. In Norse mythology,
the god of Thunder, was represented as a powerful man armed with a
hammer, Miolnir (the smasher). Counterparts of this god and his
weapon are found in many of the ancient religions and mythologies.
In the Cabiric Mysteries the seven gods who
the eighth were called "Paticii", or wielders of the hammer.
It was a custom of the Jews to plant at the
the grave an acacia sprig for the double purpose of intimating their
immortality and of marking its location, as to tread on a grave was by
regarded as extremely unlucky. To them, therefore, the acacia was, as
it is to
us, an emblem of immortality and of innocence. The true acacia is the
tamarisk which abounds in Palestine, and we have seen that strangely
the legend of Osiris his dead body was said to have been cast ashore at
foot of a tamarisk or acacia tree, and that this circumstance led to
discovery. This tree, owing to its hard-wood quality, its evergreen
its exceeding tenacity of life bore to the Egyptian and Jew the same
significance it does to us. Of its wood was constructed the tabernacle,
table for the shew-bread, the Ark of the Covenant and the rest of the
furniture of the Temple, and of its boughs was woven the crown of
was placed upon the head of Jesus of Nazareth.
Each of the Ancient Mysteries possessed a
plant which was employed in their initiations and ceremonies for the
purpose and with the same symbolical significance as the acacia is by
the Egyptians it was the Lotus and the Erica, among the Greeks the
among the Scandinavians the Mistletoe. That a tree or plant had
properties was an idea familiar to the Jews in the earliest times, as
the Tree of Life mentioned in Genesis, and by New Testament writers the
immortality of man is likened to the recurrence of plant life. (I Cor.
The Pot of Burning
The Pot of Burning Incense was employed in
Solomon's Temple to produce a sweet savor in the Holy of Holies, that
say, according to the Jewish conceptions, in the actual presence of J H
V H. It
is not supposable that the intelligent Jew regarded this as other than
symbolical of the offer of a pure heart as a sacrifice to the Deity.
sacrifices of bullocks, lambs and goats, as well as the peace and sin
offerings, were offered in less sacred precincts of the Temple and
meant no more than to impress the people that they should be ever
dedicating their earthly wealth to the service of God and the hastening
Kingdom, but the pure, immaterial offering of a delightful incense was
remind them that after all the only sacrifice worthy of Deity himself
spiritual and immaterial offering of a pure heart.
The Bee Hive
To the operative Mason could anything be more
important than industry? By it he lives, and by it were reared those
architectural beauty which excite our wonder and please our fancy.
Is it any less necessary to the speculative
in his work of building human character? Is it not far more so? The
human life is incomplete unless every talent and every virtue is
brought to the
highest possible state. A few years at most suffice to complete and
greatest structures. If the builder die before it is finished, others
it on to completion after him. But the time allotted to no man was ever
sufficient for the complete development of all the possibilities of his
and character. If he die before the work is finished, none can take it
finish it for him. How important, therefore, is it that not a moment of
time, that most precious gift, should be wasted?
In all nature nothing is more constantly busy
the bee, and from ancient times it has been an emblem of industry.
as a bee" has become an aphorism. A place of great industry we call a
hive, and while I do not find it to have been employed in ancient
symbol of labor could be more appropriate than a bee hive.
Masonry in every degree, and in none more than
Master's degree, signifies labor. Its very name is synonymous with
its very implement reminiscent of labor. Toil is noble, idleness
Deity himself is recorded as having worked and we see on every hand the
results of his labor. He reared the mountains, He laid down the plains,
the rivers and the seas; the very smallest of these beyond the
millions of men. He deposited the rich ore in the bosom of the earth.
stocked the waters with fish and the land with an infinite variety of
vegetation and living animals both great and small. Finally He made
man; not a
single man, but millions, yea billions, of men; about every thirty-five
He makes one and a half billions, four and a half billions to the
about ninety billions since the birth of Christ. How many hundreds of
of billions he made before we cannot even surmise. But this is a
of only one phase of His unceasing and prodigious activity. In
other forms, it displays itself in equally staggering figures. If
conceived of God as an idler, let him get that notion out of his head.
rested on the seventh day, we may be sure that He began work again on
eighth. We can understand the value of the grub and even the
the utility of the sluggard in the economy of this universe is beyond
perception of man, unless it be to afford us an example of something to
The Book of Constitutions guarded by the
sword may be, as is claimed, a new emblem among us, but the virtue it
commemorates, silence, is an old and excellent one. How much better it
if we thought more and talked less. This virtue seems to have been more
by the ancients than by us. The disciples of many of the ancient
were required to practice absolute silence for long periods of
so important was it deemed in their religious and philosophical systems
it was allotted a special deity, Harpocrates, who was represented as
eyes and ears, signifying that many things are to be seen and heard but
to be spoken. (9)
The All Seeing Eye
The All Seeing Eye is a very old symbol of
The Egyptians represented Osiris, their chief god, by an open eye,
placed in all his temples. The idea was also familiar to the Jews, for
in Psalms (xxxiv, 15) that "The eyes of Jehovah are upon the
righteous," and (cxxi, 4) that "he that keepeth Israel shall neither
sleep nor slumber." In Proverbs (xv, 3) Solomon says "The eyes of
Jehovah are in every place watching the evil and the good." This symbol
was to the Egyptians and the Jews the same that it is to us, the symbol
Deity manifested in his omnipresence and omniscience. To us it is a
that things we would not do before the eyes of men, yet do in secret,
beheld by an eye that can explore our innermost thoughts and will
against us before a tribunal where there are no perjured witnesses nor
miscarriages of justice. (10)
The Anchor and the Ark
The Ark as a symbol in the third degree has
supposed by some to refer to the Jewish Ark of the Covenant, but others
more reason think it refers to the Ark of Noah. All the Ancient
to have contained allusions more or less clear to the Deluge and Noah's
There being so many other symbols common to Masonry and the Mysteries,
not surprising to find the Ark also employed as a Masonic symbol. To
pre-Christian ages, the idea of a regeneration, or a new birth, was as
as it is to us. In the Ancient Mysteries, we are best able to judge,
tradition of the Deluge and the Ark, by which the human race was
have been both purified and perpetuated, was in a variety of forms
teach this doctrine of regeneration.
In the Funeral Ritual of the Egyptians, it is
means of the Ark or boat that the deceased passed to Aahlu or the place
blessed in Amenti. (11) We are all familiar with the Grecian myth which
represents Charon as ferrying the shades of the departed over the river
Thus it is seen that the Ark has for ages been the symbol of the
this world to the next. We attach to it a very similar meaning, it
to that power or influence by which we are fitted for and raised a
of existence in the life that is to come. (12)
The anchor does not seem to have belonged to
ancient symbolism. Paul appears first to have employed it as an emblem
of immortality and bliss after this life (Heb. i, 19.) Kip, in his
Rome, says that the primitive Christians looked upon life as a stormy
and that of their safe arrival in port the anchor was a symbol. Mrs.
says that the anchor is the Christian symbol of immovable firmness,
patience. Though apparently of Christian origin as a symbol, there is
narrow or sectarian in its significance, and it may with equal
employed by Jew and Gentile, as well as by all others who share in the
of a peaceful place of abode hereafter for those who have made a proper
this life. (13)
In the symbol of the Anchor and Ark we,
see again pressed upon our attention the doctrines of Deity, the
regeneration, resurrection and immortality.
Problem of Euclid
The Forty-Seventh Problem of Euclid is the
Masonic symbol we have on record; it appears as the frontispiece to
"Book of Constitutions," published at London in 1723 [Lib 1723], accompanied by
the word "Eureka" in Greek characters. It will be understood that
prior to this date only one book on Freemasonry had been printed, and
three-quarters of a century later did our Monitors contain
illustrations of the
emblems and symbols. So it happens that the Forty-Seventh Problem is
absolutely, so far as is known, the earliest illustration of Masonic
In the text of the same book it is declared to
"if duly observed, the foundation of all Masonry, sacred, civil and
military," (p. 23) and in the second edition of this work (1738 [Lib 1738]), he speaks of
it as that "amazing proposition which is the foundation of all Masonry,
whatever materials or dimensions" (p. 26). This figure is known by a
variety of names. The Theorem of Pythagoras, the Theorem of the Bride,
Theorem of the Three Squares. It was also known as the Gnomon, the
for knowledge, and Plato in his Commonwealth, denominates it the
Figure." To our fathers in their school days, it was an object of
the "Pons Assinorum," or the Bridge of Asses.
The remarkable properties of the right-angled
triangle are well known to those who have studied geometry. Astronomers
are acquainted with its value; with it they measure the universe. Its
usefulness is understood by architects and builders. Even those
are so ignorant that they do not know that a figure whose three sides
each other as 3, 4 and 5 is a right-angled triangle, yet are aware of
convenience in making corners of a building perfectly square. When they
three feet along one wall and four feet along the other, if five feet
exactly reach across, they know that the corner is square. These things
well understood by ancient and medieval operative Masons, and they
a part of their trade secrets.
But it is equally certain that to this
triangle they ascribed moral and philosophical (not to say religions)
which are now little understood by us.
Of this figure Brother G. W. Speth says "it is
certain that, while our medieval brethren may have been familiar with
symbolical meaning, we are not." (14) We are merely told in our
that "it teaches Masons to be general lovers of the arts and
sciences." Perhaps this is true, but we are given no hint as to why or
it does so. The deeper meanings of this symbol are wholly lost except
who have made it a special study. Much of it I believe is lost beyond
It is a curious fact, the psychological reason
which is not known, that dimensions increasing by half (e.g. a
a solid 20x30x45), and the ratios of the base, perpendicular and
a right-angled triangle whose sides are as 3, 4, 5, are very pleasing
eye. The equilateral triangle in ways not now fully understood seems
enter into the element of proportion in successful architecture.
Odd as it may appear that geometrical figures
as points, lines, superficies and solids, angles, triangles, squares
should be invested with such meaning, yet the fact is undoubted. The
moral philosophers attached what appears to us an inordinate importance
geometry and geometrical figures.
Plato, the greatest of philosophers, wrote 400
years before Christ on the porch of his academy, "Let no one who is
ignorant of geometry enter my doors." He taught that God was "always
geometrizing," and that "geometry rightly treated is the knowledge of
the Eternal." (15) At his time, geometry was the only exact science
(arithmetic being not yet invented); hence, quite naturally a knowledge
science was deemed indispensable to one in search of philosophical
Pythagoras, all the ancient writers give credit for first having raised
geometry to the rank of a science, and Proclus tells us that he
its principles in a purely abstract manner and investigated his
the immaterial and intellectual point of viewed." (16)
In short, "from the earliest times, the
knowledge of geometry was looked upon not only as the foundation of all
knowledge but even by the Greek philosophers as the very essence of
religion, the knowledge of God." (17)
Numerous echoes of this ancient veneration for
geometry are preserved in Freemasonry, thus affording further evidence
great age. But of all geometrical figures the right-angled triangle, or
set-square, was most revered by the ancients. It has from extremely
and among extremely remote peoples borne profound moral significations.
Confucius, the great Chinese teacher, tells us
B. C.) that not till he was seventy-five years old "could he venture to
follow the inclination of his heart without fear of transgressing the
the square." (18)
In a Chinese book written between 500 B.C. and
B.C., called "The Great Learning" we are told that a man should not
do unto another what he would not should be done to himself; "and
this," it is there said, "is called the principle of acting upon the
It is, to say the least, a strange coincidence
the Greek word for square, "gnomon," also means knowledge and that
the initial of this word, the Greek letter gamma is a perfect
said by Brother Sidney T. Klein, a distinguished Mason and architect of
England, to the ancients "geometry was the foundation of knowledge and
gnomon was the knowledge of the square." (20)
In the symbolical writings of the Egyptians
thousands of years ago, the square or right-angled triangle was the
and symbol of perfection; it was also the symbol of life. (21)
The ancients taught a very peculiar philosophy.
According to their ideas Nature was tripartite, masculine, feminine,
offspring. This conception was applied in an endless variety of ways.
was regarded as masculine or active; the moon as feminine or passive
Mercury as the offspring. So the ancient Egyptian Trinity consisted of
the father, Isis the mother, and Her-ra, or Horus, the son. To
conception of Deity they employed a right-angled triangle whose sides
the proportion of 3, 4 and 5, wherein the shortest side, 3, represented
4 represented Isis, and 5, the resulting hypotenuse, represented
son, or the result of the union of the male and the female. This
therefore, became an emblem of life.
But as it also represented Nature, and as they
wise enough to see that Nature uninterferred with was perfect, this
became the recognized symbol of perfection.
This implement so useful among operative Masons
testing the perfection of the work was, therefore, appropriately
them as symbolical of that perfection which should mark the temple of
character. This symbolical square is the instrument by which all
and religious conduct is tested.
The Hour Glass
Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, a distinguished Masonic
scholar of England, expressed the opinion that the Hour Glass is not,
speaking, a Masonic symbol. This is probably based upon the fact that
is wanting of its ancient employment as a symbol. The antiquity of its
use as a
measure of time is, however, undoubted, and it is a most fit emblem of
flight of time and of the wasting away of our lives. If it is a recent
acquisition to our ritual, we will not quarrel with the monitor maker
introduced it. (22)
In ancient symbolism, the scythe was one of the
attributes of Saturn because he was reputed to have taught men
Saturn was also the god of Time, and, as by another ancient myth human
said to be a brittle thread spun by the three Fates, it is natural that
peaceful implement of agriculture should become the symbol of the power
severs the slender thread and puts an end to our existence.
To us the coffin is an obvious emblem of death,
it has sometimes been claimed that it would not be so to the Jews, who
anciently buried their dead in shrouds and winding sheets only. But in
Ancient Mysteries of those peoples surrounding the Jews the candidate
placed in a coffin or chest as a symbolical representation of death.
custom, as well as the use by Egyptians of the coffin for burial, was
undoubtedly well known to the Jews whether they practiced it or not.
The ancient symbolism of the coffin seems to
been intimately connected with that of the Ark. In fact in Hebrew the
denoted both. But the subject is too recondite to be entered upon
this time. (24)
Some have questioned whether those engaged in
operative art of building could comprehend such abstruse symbolism as
have herein attempted to outline. Whether they understood it or not, it
certain that they, at least those of them engaged in temple and church
building, employed it. The important structures devoted to purposes of
from the most ancient period through medieval to modern times, abound
symbolism. It is doubtless true that many of these operative workmen
know the meanings of their own symbols, just as many speculative Masons
now know them. But we must bear in mind that operative Masonry in
medieval times did embrace classes that well may be supposed to have
them. They were in the closest association with the priestly and
orders to whom we are indebted for most of the learning of the ancients
has come down to us. Architecture and its kindred sciences were until
comparatively recent times the most honorable of all callings.
Brother Albert Pike claims that "during the
splendor of medieval operative Masonry the art of building stood above
other arts, and made all others subservient to it; that it commanded
services of the most brilliant intellects and of the greatest artists."
It must be admitted that men like these were
capable of appreciating and preserving the most refined symbolism.
further declares that they "reveled in symbolism of the most recondite
kind; that geometry was the handmaid of symbolism; that it may be said
symbolism is speculative geometry." (26)
Brother Gould has admitted his belief that the
Masons of the fourteenth century, or earlier, were capable of
did understand to a greater extent than ourselves the meaning of a
of the symbolism which has descended from ancient to Modern Masonry.
In conclusion, permit me to say, that for every
statement herein contained there is respectable Masonic authority. It
claimed, however, that on none of these questions is there difference
opinion. Where this is the case, I have been compelled simply to adopt
which appeared to me most reasonable, and did not have time always to
different views and the reasons-for each. This each student must do for
himself. My expectation has not been to accomplish more than to arouse
if not all, of you, a curiosity to learn more of our beautiful and
Arcane Schools, pp. 118, 119. [Lib 1909]
(2) Tyler Keystone, Oct. 5, 1909, p. 161. [Lib*]
(3) Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. 1, pp. 31, 61 [Lib 1895]; vol. VIII,
pp. 90, 105 [Lib 1895]: Universal
Library, vol. VI (2), p. 62. [Lib 1855; Vol 6]
(4) Emulation, pp. 111, 112. [Lib*]
(5) Mackey's Symbolism, pp. 67 [Lib 1882], 190: Morals
and Dogma, p. 88. [Lib 1871]
(6) Morals and Dogma [Lib 1871], pp. 204,
264, 266; 269, 268, 269, 270, 279, 281; Edersheim's Life of Jesus, pp.
46, 66 [Lib
2]: Mackey's Symbolism, pp.
176, 197, 216, 224, 226, 232, 280, 298, 300. [Lib 1882]
(7) Morals and Dogma, pp. 17 80 378, 887 [Lib 1871].
(8) Ars Quatuor Coronatorum vol. I, p. 67 [Lib 1895]; vol. IV, p.
48 [Lib 1891]: vol. VI, pp.
9. 14 [Lib 1893]: Mackey's
Encyclopedia, pp. 6, 8, 9 [Lib 1914]: Mackey's
Lexicon of Freemasonry, D. 16 [Lib 1869]
Masonic Magazine, vol. I, p. 126 [Lib*]; Morals and Dogma, p. 82 [Lib 1871]; Kenning, p.
4 [Lib*]; Tyler Keystone, Aug. 20,
1908, p. 78 [Lib*]:
Universal Masonic Library, vol. X, p. 83 [Lib 1855; Vol 10]
(9) Lodge of Research "Masonic Reprints," No, 1, p. 42 [Lib 1871]: Morals and
Dogma, pp. 106, 269 [Lib 1871].
(10) Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. IV, p. 43 [Lib 1891]; Kenning, p.
18 [Lib*]; Mackey's Encyclopedia,
pp. 9, 67 [Lib 1914]: Mackey's
Lexicon of Freemasonry, p. 29. [Lib 1869]
(11) Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. II, p 24. [Lib 1889]
(12) Idem, vol. I, p. 31 Mackey's Encyclopedia, p. 64 [Lib 1914], Mackey's
Lexicon of Freemasonry, D. 46 [Lib 1869], Universal
Masonic Library, vol. VIII, p. 7 [Lib*],
vol. X, p. 64. [Lib 1855; Vol
(13) Mackey's Encyclopedia, p. 64. [Lib 1914]
(14) Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. III, p. 27. [Lib 1890]
(15) Idem, vol. X, D. 83 [Lib 1897].
(17) Idem p. 91.
(18) Idem vol. XIV, D. 30 [Lib 1901].
(19) Idem, p. 31.
(20) Idem, vol. X, pp. 84, 92[Lib 1897].
(21) Idem, p. 93.
Kenning, p. 318 [Lib*]; Mackey's Encyclopedia, p. 700. [Lib 1914]
(23) Mackey's Encyclopedia, p. 700. [Lib 1914]
(24) Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. 1, p. 81 [Lib 1895], vol. III,
pp. 59 [Lib 1890], 40 Mackey's
Encyclopedia, p. 64 [Lib 1914], Mackey's
Lexicon of Freemasonry, pp. 93, 641. [Lib
(25) Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, vol. III, D. 16.
(26) Idem, p. 16.
By Bro. Joseph Barnett,
CONCERNING the Immortality of the Soul,
offers no argument. It states the principle as an unquestioned integral
the Institution. The hope that life does not end with the physical
continues through a boundless future, has through past ages been an
to brightness of life, patience, perseverance and process. As a life
has throbbed through the inertia of savage existence and quickened man
extraordinary efforts that produced civilization. A shining pillar of
day, of fire by night, the beacon of humanity is Immortality.
Long before the written Word of Revelation, men
seen its prototype in the forces of nature. Eternal life was written on
midnight skies in the constancy of the constellations, on the gracious
earth in recurring forms of beauty in the springtime, and on the azure
heaven in the daily miracle of the morning sun. And with the dream of
quite naturally came to be associated the idea of a physical
The Resurrection of the Body is a doctrine dear
human hearts. Through the influence of heredity, it has become an
expectation. Its prototypes still appeal to us, religious sects teach
literature has engraven it on its pages, love and hope have enshrined
human beings probably have a more distinct vision of its meaning than
strictly spiritual idea.
In ancient times, hierarchies magnified its
importance till it became the most impressive element of religious
was taught of old that every soul was to pass through purgatorial
the underworld; and that the soul found worthy would eventually return
earth, perfected, to re-inhabit the old physical body, and thereafter
under more favorable conditions than in the former life. In order that
returning spirit might have as little trouble as possible in finding
occupying the body, the dead were embalmed and placed in vaults as
prepared as homes. This curious idea of the outcome of immortality has
present day counterpart in hierarchical opposition to cremation, and in
priestly exercising and blessing of burial places of the faithful.
does not discuss re-incarnation of the immortal spirit, except
mentioning it as
one of Mackey's Landmarks. What Freemasonry asserts is that the spirit
It was also taught of old that, if, after
opportunities, a soul was not amenable to purgatorial improvement, it
last annihilated by a flaming ray on the steps of the underworld.
priestcraft has built up a doctrinal system of punishments in the
that, to be effective, would logically require a physical body. Burning
brimstone and immortal spirits are not co-ordinates. Freemasonry does
speculate on the question. It teaches that men should be good and true,
through fear, but because their claim of Divine relationship makes
of life a natural attitude.
While men may generally allow that the progress
made in our lifetime bears some relation to our progress in eternity,
priestcraft has urged that it bears an exceptional and disproportionate
relation. In ancient Egypt, this idea was so successfully exploited by
priesthood that almost every act in the daily life of the people had
rules established and was constantly scrutinized by the temple
national life and thought became so crystallized into unchanging, and
eventually meaningless, habits and customs, that in the end it checked
and helped to ruin the nation. In modern times, we see its imitation in
lingering imposition of the Confessional, Friday fasting, and similar
superstitions. Freemasonry teaches that the hope of immortality should
from superstition, and encourage him of his own free will and accord so
shape his life that it shall be fitted to be a living stone in the
Ancient religious systems classed kings with
immortal gods, whose mouthpieces and privileged representatives the
claimed to be. They divided the people into classes, and established a
system with the priesthood at the head. Today, we see the reflection of
the Divine Right of kings and the still more audacious pretensions of
Freemasonry classes kings, priests and princes with all other men; it
away the artificial attributes of power, wealth and caste, and declares
equal because they are all children of the Supreme Father. This has an
interesting parallel in the claim of equal civil rights in our
Independence. Both Freemasonry and our Republic are a constant protest
Priestcraft has declared some of the great and
of the past to be saints, beings with direct and special relations to
and with special influence in Heaven. Freemasonry recognizes the debt
we owe to
men of the past, men who lived in less favorable times than ours, but
sought the light of knowledge, strove valiantly for progress, and
their lives to justify their claim of Divine relationship. The aspiring
in men today recognizes a similar fervency in men of the past, and
such in esteem, not after the superstitious manner of priestcraft, but
so far as the memory of their example may influence us also to be
just and true.
On the doctrine of the Immortality of the Soul,
Freemasonry represents: not a threat, but a promise; not fears, but
autocracy, but liberty.
FOR THE MONTHLY LODGE MEETING
Bulletin ‒ No. 22 Devoted To Organized Masonic Study
Edited By Bro. H. L.
BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY
OF THE COURSE
Course of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic
BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained
references to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia
worked up as supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment
Course with the papers by Brother Haywood.
Course is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn
as is shown below:
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
Work of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
Mysteries ‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
month we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is
the foregoing outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial
Masonry. There will be twelve monthly papers under this particular
On page two, preceding each installment, will be given a list of
be used by the chairman of the Committee during the study period which
bring out every point touched upon in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
other sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject
by Brother Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used
supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by the members from
monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would otherwise
possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus
monthly installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence
Bulletin should be used one month later than their appearance. If this
the Committee will have opportunity to arrange their programs several
advance of the meetings and the Brethren who are members of the
Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to enter into the
after they have read over and studied the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
Encyclopedia. These references are pertinent to the paper and will
enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or bring out new points
reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the Committee to
Brethren who may compile papers of their own from the material thus to
found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts
be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be followed
members may not feel able to compile original papers, or when the
be deemed appropriate without any alterations or additions.
ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
Lodge should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three
"live" members. The study meetings should be held once a month,
either at a special meeting of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at
regular meeting at which no business (except the Lodge routine) should
transacted ‒ all possible time to be given to the study period. After
has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master should
the Lodge over to the Chairman of the Research Committee. This
be fully prepared in advance on the subject for the evening. All
whom references for supplemental papers have been assigned should be
with their papers and should also have a comprehensive grasp of Brother
FOR STUDY MEETINGS
Reading of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper and the
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
opened. Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections
distributed among the members for this purpose at the opening of the
Discussion of the above.
subsequent sections of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
should then be taken up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same
"QUESTION BOX" THE FEATURE OF YOUR MEETINGS
questions from any and all Brethren present. Let them understand that
meetings are for their particular benefit and get them into the habit
all the questions they may think of. Every one of the papers read will
questions as to facts and meanings which may not perhaps be actually
all in the paper. If at the time these questions are propounded no one
answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US. All the reference material we have
gone through in an endeavor to supply a satisfactory answer. In fact we
prepared to make special research when called upon, and will usually be
give answers within a day or two. Please remember, too, that the great
of the Grand Lodge of Iowa is only a few miles away, and, by order of
Trustees of the Grand Lodge, the Grand Secretary places it at our
any query raised by any member of the Society.
foregoing information should enable local Committees to conduct their
study meetings with success. However, we shall welcome all inquiries
communications from interested Brethren concerning any phase of the
is not entirely clear to them, and the services of our Study Club
are at the command of our members, Lodge and Study Club Committees at
* * *
Questions on "The
following questions the Committee should select, some time prior to the
of the study meeting, the particular questions that they may wish to
their meeting which will bring out the points in the following paper
desire to discuss. Even were but a few minutes devoted to the
each of the questions given it will be seen that it would be impossible
discuss all of them in the period of time devoted to the study meeting.
wide variety of questions here given will afford individual committees
opportunity to arrange their program to suit their own fancies and also
additional material for a second study meeting each month if desired by
conducting the study periods the Chairman should endeavor to hold the
discussions closely to the text and not permit the members to speak too
one time or to stray onto another subject. Whenever it becomes evident
discussion is turning from the original subject the Chairman should
speaker to make a note of the particular point or phase of the matter
to discuss or inquire into, and bring it up when the Question Box
- Why has the apron been
interpreted so variously?
- Give a list of the
interpretations you have heard.
- Why is it dangerous to seek for
symbolisms in the present shape and size
of the apron?
- How long has it had its present
shape and size?
the shape and size has changed from time to time is it safe to build
any symbolism thereon?
- Can you give any examples of
non-Masonic use of the apron not mentioned
in the text?
- Why, do you suppose, has the
apron been so widely used?
- Why did the Operative Mason
wear an apron?
- What do you imagine its
material and size to have been?
- If it was once of leather, why?
- Why was it changed to its
- Why is the apron we usually
wear in lodge of material different from
that given to us during initiation?
- What led Speculative Masons to
change its material and shape?
- Give usual dimensions of aprons
as worn in American lodges.
are they sometimes varied for different degrees and offices?
- What is a badge?
- What is the badge of a Mason?
- What is the difference between
a badge and an emblem? A symbol?
- Has the Masonic use of the
apron done anything to wear down the old
prejudice against manual labor?
- Why were men ever so prejudiced?
- How long has it been since the
prejudice began to break down?
- What were the causes?
- What are the labors of a Mason?
they of any great value to society?
- In what way is the apron as now
used the symbol of sacrifice and
- Why have men so frequently
thought of white as a symbol of innocence?
- Give examples of the early use
of the color as such symbol.
- What is the meaning of
- How can a grown man be innocent?
is the Masonic meaning of innocence?
- What do you think of Brothel
Crowe's argument as given in the text?
- Why is the lamb the symbol of
- Can you give examples from the
Bible of such a meaning?
- What is sacrifice?
- Why is sacrifice necessary?
- What is a Mason's sacrifice?
- What was the Golden Fleece?
- The Roman Eagle?
- Star and Garter?
- Why is the apron more ancient
and honorable than these?
would it affect human society if all men accepted the Masonic
meaning of toil, innocence and sacrifice?
* * *
Encyclopedia [Lib 1914]:
Apron, p. 72.
Vol. I ‒
The Apron (poem) p. 222; Meaning of, and Presentation of the Apron, p.
‒ The Master's Apron, (poem) p. 4; Symbolism of the Apron, (poem) p.
Lambskin or White Leather Apron, (poem) p. 215.
‒ On Presenting the Lambskin Apron, (poem) p. 8; The White Leather
(poem) p. 19; The Apron, 74; The Apron Lecture, (poem) p. 128; The
Clothing of a Mason, Dec. C. C. B. p. 4.
‒ Symbolism of the Three Degrees ‒ The Apron, p. 239; Symbolism in the
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood,
Part X - The Apron
privileged to read a great deal of Masonic literature we may say that
other one symbol has so much nonsense been written. It has been made to
thousand and one things, from the fig leaf worn by Adam and Eve to the
mathematical theory of the Fourth Dimension; and there is little to
wonder that the intelligent have been scandalized and common men
an interpretation can be made that steers a safe course between the
the learned and the fanaticism of the ignorant it will have some value,
whatever may be said of its own intrinsic worth. Warned by the many who
fallen into the pit of unreason we shall be wise to walk warily and
generally, and without the slightest hint of disrespect of our fellow
in this field, it may be said that a majority of the wildest theories
based on the shape of the Apron, a thing of comparatively recent origin
to a mere historical accident. The body of it, as now worn, is
square in shape and thus has suggested the symbolism of the square, the
right-angle and the cube, and all arising therefrom; its flap is
this has suggested the symbolism of the triangle, the Forty-seventh
Proposition, and the pyramid; the descent of the flap over the body of
Apron has also given rise to reasonings equally ingenious. By this
interpretation men have read into it all manner of things, the
mythology of the
Mysteries, the metaphysics of India, the dream-walking of the Kabala,
Occultism of Magic. Meanwhile it has been forgotten that the Apron is a
symbol and that we are to find out what it is intended to mean rather
it may, under the stress of our lust for fancifulness, be made to mean.
the Ritual is consulted, as it always deserves to be, we find that it
the Apron (1) as an inheritance from the past, (2) as the Badge of a
as the emblem of innocence and sacrifice.
I ‒ The Apron Is An Inheritance
purpose or another, and in some form, the Apron has been used for three
thousand years. In at least one of the Ancient Mysteries, that of
candidate was invested with a white Apron. So also was the initiate of
Essenes, who received it during the first year of his membership in
and it is significant that many of the statues of Greek and Egyptian
so ornated, as may still be seen. Chinese secret societies, in many
used it, and the Persians, at one-time, employed it as their national
Jewish prophets often wore Aprons, as did the early Christian
baptism, and as ecclesiastical dignitaries of the present day still do.
same custom is found even among savages, for, as Brother J. G. Gibson
remarked, "wherever the religious sentiment remains ‒ even among the
savage nations of the earth ‒ there has been noticed the desire of the
to wear a girdle or Apron of some kind."
this, however, we must not infer that our Masonic Apron has come to us
such sources, though, for all we know, the early builder may have been
influenced by those ancient and universal customs. The fact seems to be
the Operative Masons used the Apron only for the practical purpose of
protecting the clothing, as there was need in labor so rough. It was
more than one item of the workman's necessary equipment as is shown by
W. H. Rylands, who found an Indenture of 1685 in which a Master
supply his Apprentice with "sufficient wholesome and competent meate,
drink, lodging and Aprons."
II ‒ Because the Apron was so
portion of the Operative Mason's costume
and so persistent a portion
equipment, it was inevitable that Speculatives should have continued
for symbolical purposes.
earliest known representatives of these, we are informed by Brother J.
Crowe, who was one of the first of our scholars to make a thorough and
scientific investigation of the subject (A.Q.C. vol. V, p. 29), "is an
engraved portrait of Anthony Sayer. . . Only the upper portion is
the picture, but the flap is raised, and the Apron looks like a very
leathern skin. The next drawing is in the frontispiece to the Book of
Constitutions, published in 1723, where a brother is represented as
number of Aprons and gloves into the Lodge, the former appearing of
size and with long strings." In Hogarth's cartoon, "Night,"
drawn in 1737, the two Masonic figures, Crowe points out in another
(See his "Things a Freemason Should Know") "have Aprons reaching
to their ankles." But other plates of the same period show Aprons
only to the knee, thus marking the beginning of that process of
of general decrease in size and change in shape, which finally gave us
Apron of the present day; for since the garment no longer serves as a
protection it has been found wise to fashion it in a manner more
wear, nor is this inconsistent with its original Masonic significance.
this fact, as I have already suggested, that has made the present form
Apron a result of circumstances, and proves how groundless are
founded on its shape.
to Blue Lodge usages in the United States the Apron must be of
lambskin, 14 to 16 inches in width, 12 to 14 inches in depth, with a
descending from the top some 3 or 4 inches. The Grand Lodge of England
specifies such an Apron as this for the First Degree, but requires the
the Second Degree to have two sky-blue rosettes at the bottom, and that
Third Degree to have in addition to that a sky-blue lining and edging
than two inches deep, "and an additional rosette on the fall or flap,
silver tassels." Grand officers are permitted to use other ornaments,
embroidery, and, in some cases, crimson edgings. All the evidence goes
that these ornate Aprons are of recent origin. The Apron should always
outside the coat.
III ‒ The Badge of a Mason."The
thick-tanned hide, girt around him with throngs, wherein the Builder
and at evening sticks his trowel," was so conspicuous a portion of the
costume of the Operative Mason that it became associated with him in
mind, and thus gradually evolved into his badge; for a badge is some
voluntarily assumed as the result of established custom whereby one's
station, or school of opinion, may be signified.
is the Mason's badge a mark? Surely its history permits but one answer
‒ it is the mark of honorable and conscientious labor, the labor that
devoted to creating, to constructing rather than to destroying or
As such, the Mason's Apron is itself a symbol of a profound change in
attitude of society toward work, for the labor of hand and brain, once
by the great of the earth, is rapidly becoming the one badge of an
life. If men were once proud to wear a sword, while leaving the tasks
to slaves and menials, if they once sought titles and coats of arms as
of distinction, they are now, figuratively speaking, eager to wear the
for the Knight of the present day would rather save life than take it,
prefers, a thousand times over, the glory of achievement to the glory
or name. Truly, the rank has become the guinea's stamp, and a man's a
a' that, especially if he be a man that can do; and the real modern
Carlyle was always contending, is "the man who can."
is the message of the Apron, none has a better right to wear it than a
if he be a real member of the Craft, for he is a knight of labor if
was one. Not all labor deals with things. There is a labor of the mind,
the spirit, more arduous, often, and more difficult, than any labor of
hands. He who dedicates himself to the cleaning of the Augean stables
of the world,
to the clearing away of the rubbish that litters the paths of life, to
fashioning of building stones in the confused quarries of mankind, is
more than any man, to wear the badge of toil!
IV ‒ An Emblem of Innocence and
Candidate is invested with the garment he is told that it is an emblem
innocence. It is doubtful if Operative Lodges ever used it for such a
purpose, though they may have done so in the Seventeenth Century, after
Speculatives began to be received in greater numbers. The evidence
that it was after the Grand Lodge era, and in consequence of the rule
Apron should be of white lambskin, that Masons began to see in its
emblem of innocence and in its texture a suggestion of sacrifice.
doing they fell into line with ancient practices for of old, white "has
been esteemed an emblem of innocence and purity." Among the Romans an
accused person would sometimes put on a garment of white to attest his
innocence, white being, as Cicero phrased it, "most acceptable to the
gods." The candidate in the Mysteries and among the Essenes were
invested, and it has the same meaning of purity and innocence in the
which promises that though our sins be as scarlet they shall be white
In the early Christian church the young catechumen (or convert) robed
in white in token of his abandonment of the world and his determination
a blameless life. But there is no need to multiply instances for each
of us feels
by instinct that white is the natural symbol of innocence.
happens that "innocence" comes from a word meaning "to do no
hurt" and this may well be taken as its Masonic definition, for it is
evident that no grown man can be innocent in the sense that a child is,
really means an ignorance of evil. The innocence of a Mason is his
his chivalrous determination to do no moral evil to any person, man, or
or babe; his patient forbearance of the crudeness and ignorance of men,
charitable forgiveness of his brethren when they wilfully or
him evil; his dedication to a spiritual knighthood in behalf of the
virtues of humanity by which alone man rises above the brute, and the
carried forward on the upward way.
V ‒ Texture
It is in token of its
texture ‒ lambskin
‒ that we find in the Apron the further significance of sacrifice, and
also, it seems, is a symbolism developed since 1700.
been generally believed until recently that the Operatives used only
Aprons, and this was doubtless the case in early days, but Crowe has
many of the oldest Lodge records evidence a use of linen as well. "In
old Lodge of Melrose," he writes, "dating back to the Seventeenth
the Aprons have always been of linen, and the same rule obtained in
Chapel' No. 1, Edinburgh, the oldest Lodge in the world; whilst Brother
Smith, in his history of the old Dumfries Lodge, writes, 'on inspecting
of Lodge 53, there was only one Apron of kid or leather, the rest being
linen!' As these Lodges are of greater antiquity than any in England, I
fair case is made out for linen, versus leather, originally."
be said, however, that Brother Crowe has entirely made out his case,
authorities contend that the builders who necessarily handled rough
heavy timbers must have needed a more substantial fabric than linen or
But in any event, the Fraternity has been using leather Aprons for
these two centuries,
though cotton cloth is generally substituted for ordinary lodge
it is in no sense far-fetched to see in the lambskin a hint of that
of which the lamb has so long been an emblem.
do we mean by sacrifice? To answer this fully would lead us far afield
ethics and theology, but for our present purpose, we may say that the
sacrifice is the cheerful surrender of all that is in him which is
If he has been too proud to meet others on the level he must yield up
meanness; if he has been guilty of corrupting habits they must be
else his wearing of the Apron be a fraud and a sham.
with it so rich a freightage of symbolism the Apron may justly be
"more ancient than the Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle, more honorable
the Star and Garter," for these badges were too often nothing more than
devices of flattery and the insignia of an empty name. The Golden
Fleece was an
Order of Knighthood founded by Philip, Duke of Burgundy on the occasion
marriage to the Infanta Isabella of Portugal in 1429 or 1430. It used a
Ram for its badge and the motto inscribed on its jewel was "wealth, not
servile labor!" The Romans of old bore an eagle on their banners to
magnanimity, fortitude, swiftness and courage. The Order of the Star
in France in 1350, being founded by John II in imitation of the Order
Garter; of the last named Order it is difficult to speak, as its origin
clothed in so much obscurity that historians differ, but it was as
aristocratic as any of the others. In every case, the emblem was a
aristocratic idleness and aloofness, the opposite of that symbolized by
Apron; and the superiority of the latter over the former is too obvious
* * *
Symbolism in the Apron
By Bro. J. George
clothing of the Freemason is not introduced for the purpose of
"profanes", since it is almost entirely absent when the public is
present. It is in the lodge functions alone that its use is compulsory,
wearing of each article of Masonic clothing is but a memorial and a
signification of the Faith of a Mason. It is not only interesting, but
essential to the effective life that the full significance of the apron
be realized by every Entered Apprentice, and remembered by those who
degree to degree go forward and upward to excellency and attainment.
institution of Modern Freemasonry in England we look to the seventeenth
century; but for its origin and causation we may go back beyond
and Essenism to the practice of the ancients of every age of
however far we travel we still find traces of the white lambskin apron
clothing of Masonic novices. There must always have been some special
significance connected with its use, and with the colour also, as well
its use. Indeed, it is upon these three lines of material, of color,
user, that we must seek for light as to the full sense of its
to the idea of user are suggestions both of labor and of religion. From
earliest age of Noachidae there have been signs that labor and
energy were, and would ever remain, honored by the highest distinction
because of their operative values. The Jewish, Persian and Egyptian
wore aprons to indicate their high rank. The royal standard of Persia,
land of fire worshippers, was originally an apron. And in the Ancient
of the Persian Mithras novices were clothed with white aprons, as also
others. And today certain dignitaries of churches are found wearing the
though of a somber color. In fact, Masonry appears through all ages to
been incorporated with the particular religions of each nation, and was
body what religion is to theology.
that the builder is the true King of Man, the clothing of the operative
was adopted by the speculative Freemason in the earliest age as the
the priestly and teaching class. Nothing could so signify ability as
dress of a workman, of a powerful operative of a builder of temples.
consensus of today's millions approve the ancient dictum of the Sacred
Work is that which tells; and the clothing of a toiler is honorable
of a Mason's apron should be white. This is the color of light, the
reflects most light, the clean color which shows stains most plainly.
the color worn by the Israelitish Levite, and by the later Essenes, by
Roman sacrificing priests, and by the Druid votaries of the highest
The candidate for the Ancient Mysteries was clad in spotless white, and
Christian churches the officiating clergyman chiefly wears white while
in the sacred office.
the emblem of purity: and the Apocalyptic Seer, seeking to describe a
Justice as absolutely pure, tells us of the "great white throne of
God", and of the purified as wearing robes of pure white. Is this not
manifestly the reason why the Masonic novice is clothed with a pure
apron? Some Christian ministers clothe the candidates for baptism in
Freemasonry receives her children to the white garb of purity. The
Apprentice has turned his back upon the "profane" world; and, when he
passes the Tyler he is Masonically clad in purity and open to the
of Masonic life.
pure as the white light is, it is a composed color. It contains all the
and is the perfected blend of colored lights. The Druid perhaps saw
he made the last degree the white degree; and perhaps also the Roman
knew this when in the supreme duty of his office he wore white in which
sacrifice. Certainly the Freemason acts wisely when he retains the
for the Entered Apprentice, since whatever that novice may become is
and only assured in the purity of his soul and desire as he takes the
Masonic apron must be of simple lambskin. Not of cloth of gold, nor of
silk, nor of a splendid texture of any kind. The lamb is the emblem of
innocence, and of innocence sacrificed. All progress involves sacrifice
blood. If man would rise he must bleed somehow, or someone must.
very raiment was the skin of slaughtered animals. Advance in
involves a victim; and the making of a Mason means a recognition of the
light and labor. In the highest degrees there are changes in form or in
ornament. Perhaps the lambskin may be almost hidden under the red and
the Royal Arch, or by the jewels of rank and office: but the lambskin
all the time, and a Masonic apron can be made properly of no other
who wears this is made conscious that as Cain built Enoch out of his
pain, so all Masons are compelled to prepare for the time when hard
to be done, sore things to be endured, and fortitude to be cultivated.
is not a mummery but a life; and the clothing of a Mason is that fit
for his labor
and suggestive of his duty.
lastly, the use of the lambskin apron symbolizes the great object of
Freemasonry, the building of a Human Temple to the Great Architect of
and earth. True, the blue strip of the craft color tells the virtue of
brotherhood and trust, as well as the love which is over all and in
the ordinary white lambskin apron is much more eloquent could we
that it means.
I see a
massive pile of Masonry before me in the ages long gone past. There are
and bare heads, men of ranks and of all nations, fiery drabs and dark
Gibeonites, active Tyrians and heavy limbed fellaheen from the banks of
river of Egypt. Some are but unskilled laborers; but many thousands
Mason's lambskin apron, and carry the tools of their calling. They are
from all lands to build a House for Jehovah, Solomon's God: and from
to labor to the call off to refreshment they are hard at work. One is
the mighty blocks to shape, another is carefully squaring and smoothing
surface and making the even bed, another is carving the facade stones
designs and obeying each command conveyed in the plans of the designers.
scene changes. A weeping crowd of returned exiles cast off their
clear the level of the ancient ruins. These men also wear the apron of
They have sacrificed and suffered, and suffer now. The same process and
and persistence. Again in scattered bands men gather upon the site of
some fortress, some Cathedral, some Palace of Justice. There is the
lambskin apron. There is the same obedience to the Master and there is
loyalty to the Volume of the Sacred Law. The lambskin apron is the
symbol of labor,
of sacrifice, of construction, of obedience to design, of service to
brothers, and of educative process ever going on.
not today stand alongside the rude mason's bench and with gavel and
dress huge blocks of hardest stone. But we stand before a delicately
masterpiece which we must finish, or fail in our lives. The world is
workshop; the tools of a mason are in our hands, and the apron is both
speculative and operative in suggestion. We are called to cultivate
to deepen human sympathy, to draw closer the chords of brotherly love,
prepare ourselves by discipline for each post as the great Grand Master
appoint us. We have before us imperfect Human Society which must be
progress, and established by the inspiration of a Humanity which
is greater than patriotism. The reminder of the Mason's apron ought to
us to a nobler consecration and a more human interest and service. We
it, in lodge, until we are called of labor, and the hour of our Eternal
come, and the voice of the Great Warden calls us home.
The Hidden Truths of
is so full of cunningly hidden suggestions of immortal truths that one
almost inclined at times to claim for it inspiration. It is becoming
acknowledged among believers in a Deity that all life is a
manifestation ‒ or
perhaps it had better be called an outpouring ‒ of the presence and
God. That all life owes its origin to Him, and at extinction, returns ‒
waters return from the sea ‒ to its original source. Moses, or the
author of the account of the creation, did not deal in metaphor when he
"the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground and breathed into
nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul." What is
expressive of life than "breath"; or of death than its absence?
Masonry declares: "Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was,
the spirit shall return unto God who gave it." It draws a striking
illustration from the acacia which reminds us of that immortal
survives the grave and bears the nearest affinity to that Supreme
which permeates all animate nature and which can never die.
ears are only attuned to these melodies they sound at every stroke of
and every opening and closing of the lodge. "Familiarity doth breed
contempt." We should rather cultivate an ear to hear like those
in vast machine shops, who can recognize the fall of a pin, because the
recognizes the pitch of the diminishing seventh.
Rob Morris Bulletin.
By Bro. Dr. G. Alfred
Lawrence, New York
In the British Colonial Possessions in America
Military Lodges took an important part in the diffusion and propagation
Captain Alexander (Fourth Lord Colville) of the
British Navy, initiated by Lord Cornwallis in 1749 at Halifax, was
the following year Master of the "2nd Lodge at Boston" and which he
represented at every meeting of the Provincial Grand Lodge until his
appointment as Deputy Grand Master of North America in 1752. He was
the capture of Louisburg in 1758, served in the expedition against
1759 and in command of the fleet at the recapture of Newfoundland in
after which he was promoted to Rear-Admiral of the White.
At Louisburg the 1st, 15th, 17th, 22nd, 28th,
40th, 45th, 7th, 48th and 58th Foot, two battalions of 60th (Royal
Fraser's Highlanders (78th) were engaged and six of these were known to
had lodges attached to them ‒ the 1st, 15th, 17th, 35th, 47th and 48th.
does not mean that the other Regiments did not also have lodges in 1758
was not uncommon for lodges to exist in Regiments without being
included in the
"official lists." It is known that by the commencement of the
Revolutionary War all thirteen of the above Regiments had lodges
them ‒ the 28th having received an Irish warrant in 1734, but lapsed in
a new lodge under a Provisional Charter was formed in the Regiment by
Richard Gridley in this year (1758); the 40th received a
"constitution" in 1759; the 78th in 1760; the 60th in 1764; the 45th
in 1766; and both the 22nd and 58th in 1769.
There were at least six registered lodges
accompanying the British land forces in the expedition against Quebec
probably others not on the official lists) as it was a common practice
"congregate all Free and Accepted Masons" on such occasions and
"forming them into one or more lodges" in the Masonic jurisdiction of
Military Lodges were thus known to have been
established at Lake George and Crown Point in addition to Louisburg and
after the capitulation of Quebec the eight or nine "warranted" lodges
of the Regiments assembled and elected an acting Grand Master. The
year (1760) on St. John's Day, June 24th, Col. Sir Simon Fraser of the
Foot was elected to preside over the Canadian lodges. It is interesting
that Thomas Dunckerley, gunner of the Vanguard, through whom a lodge
established on board the Vanguard, on his official warrant from the
of England to inspect into the state of the Craft wherever he might be
"honoured them with his approbation of their conduct and installed Bro.
Fraser in his high office." Such roving commissions to seafaring
to exercise the functions of a Provincial Grand Master, when no other
Provincial covers the territory, had also been given before and after
period. Brother Dunckerley was present at both the reduction of
the capitulation of Quebec and later on, returning to Quebec with other
prevented the retaking of this latter city. He had the Masonic
establishing the first "Sea Lodge" as above mentioned on the Vanguard
and when he was later transferred to the Prince he established a second
"Sea Lodge" (on board this latter vessel) on May 22nd, 1762. This
lodge was designated "No. 279," and upon Dunckerley's later transfer
to the Gaudeloupe he evidently transferred No. 279 to the same as it is
recorded that the latter was "held on board the Guadeloupe." Later
these sea lodges were established by Dunckerley on land ‒ that of the
becoming the "London No. 108" and that on the Prince and later the
Guadelope becoming the "Royal Somerset House and Inverness No. 4." A
third Sea lodge was established in 1768 "On Board His Majesty's Ship
Canceaux at Quebec" and struck off the roll in 1792 for not having paid
for its constitution or returned any list of members. No other Sea
constituted by the Grand Lodge of England but a petition was received
"Naval Kilwinning" to be held on board H.M. Ship Ardent from
Lieutenant Crawford and other naval officers in 1810. The Grand Lodge
Scotland, however, after consulting with sister jurisdictions
"notwithstanding the respectable station of the applicants felt itself
constrained to refuse."
Referring back to the situation at Quebec, the
first Military Lodge coming into existence there was "St. Andrews,"
established October 20th, 1760, in the 78th Highlanders by the above
Sir Simon Fraser, Colonel of the Regiment and Provisional Grand Master.
lodges were soon organized in addition to the various sojourning lodges
in existence among the troops from the British Isles ‒ the "Ancients"
becoming stronger as time passed but the "Moderns" held their own
among the Colonies that later became the United States. This struggle
successful supremacy of the "Ancients" was largely due to Army Lodges
established under their jurisdiction, especially at Boston in 1768 and
in 1781-2 (the British having occupied the latter city in 1776 and
"Ancient" Masonry into the State.)
Col. Richard Gridley, who distinguished himself
both the siege of Louisburg and Quebec, later planned the work for the
and was wounded at the Battle of Bunker Hill and here also the
Rawdon (afterwards Second Earl of Moira) fought against the American
in which engagement Major General Joseph Warren was killed. All three
soldiers were prominent and brilliant Masons. For a long time it was
that Gen. George Washington was made a Mason in the "Lodge of Social
Military Virtues" in the 46th Foot (holding warrant No. 277 from the
Lodge of Ireland granted in 1752) as the Bible is preserved in the
mess with this inscription "On this Sacred Volume Washington received a
degree of Masonry." It was twice taken by the enemy and both times
to the regiment" "with all the honors of war." The first
instance was when their Masonic chest fell into the hands of the
Washington ordered a guard of honor to return the same with other
value belonging to the 46th Foot. Later at Dominica this same 46th Foot
attacked by a French force and again lost its Masonic chest and the
taken on board their fleet without knowledge of its contents. Three
the French government at the earnest request of the officers who had
the expedition returned the chest with several complimentary presents.
this same lodge was at work in the same Regiment at Sydney, Australia,
1817 on the coast of Coromandel, India, and at the latter place
obtained a local
charter, No. 7. After 1822 when marching from Cannanore to Hyderabad
members died and others invalided and the lodge chest forgotten. It was
accidentally rediscovered in 1829 by Capt. Lacey, a Mason, who brought
chest back to England in 1833. Its Irish warrant was renewed in 1834 at
time there was but one member who had originally been connected with
In 1847 its Regimental or Travelling warrant was returned to the Grand
Ireland. Two days later a new warrant of a Military, though stationary
character, with the same number was issued making it a permanent
situated at Montreal. In 1855 this No. 227 joined the Grand Lodge of
receiving a civil warrant and two years later the name was changed to
of Antiquity," "to take precedence of all numbered lodges." In
1869 a Grand Lodge was established for the Province of Quebec and
"Antiquity" was the first lodge placed on its roll and the two next
on the list were "Albion" and "St. John's" formerly in the
Royal Artillery. This "Lodge of Antiquity" is now No. 1, Quebec, and
observes with great ceremony its "Military Night" at which large
numbers of officers and volunteers appear in uniform.
Another instance of Military Masonic courtesy
that in which the Constitution of "Unity Lodge No. 18" in the 17th
British Regiment fell into the hands of the Americans and on July 23rd,
it was returned accompanied by a very courteous and fraternal note from
Samuel H. Parsons. This lodge was originally chartered by the Grand
Scotland as No. 168 in 1771, landed at Boston the same year and removed
Philadelphia in 1777. While here (although still on the Scottish roll
remaining on same until 1816) it accepted a warrant from the Provincial
Lodge of Pennsylvania under the "Ancients" with local number
"18." This same Gen. Parsons founded and was treasurer of
"American Union" a Military Lodge in the American forces during the
Revolutionary War and warranted by Col. (afterwards General) Richard
Deputy Provincial Grand Master of Massachusetts under the "Moderns."
In April 1776 the members of Unity Lodge No. 18 were on duty with their
Regiment in New York State and an application for confirmation of their
was denied. A new one, however, was granted with title "Military Union
1." This long-continued rivalry between "Ancients" and
"Moderns" practically disappeared as a result of the influence of
Military Lodges during the Revolutionary War. Many of these Regimental
became stationary lodges in both the United States and Canada. An
this is a still existing lodge, "Zion No. 1," originally constituted
in the 60th Foot in 1764 when this Regiment was stationed at Detroit,
the "Moderns." In 1794 at the instance of another Army lodge (Now
"Albion, No. 2") at Quebec it went over to the "Ancients"
becoming "Zion Lodge No. 10" on the Provincial roll of Lower Canada.
In 1806 the Quebec warrant was surrendered and a new one, No. 62,
the Grand Lodge of New York. In 1819 it became No. 3 and in 1826 united
formation of the Grand Lodge of Michigan under which Grand Body this
"Traveling Lodge" now holds first place under the original title
"Zion No. 1."
In the prolonged struggle between Great Britain
France from 1793 to 1815 there was much activity in the various
in the many Regiments engaged on both sides. Not infrequently Regiments
their warrants or paraphernalia and in some instances duplicate
issued as in the case of Irish warrant No. 441 in the 38th Foot in
owing to the original having been taken by the French. Both the warrant
(granted in September 1795 by the Grand Lodge of Ireland) and Masonic
No. 570 of the 5th Dragoons were also captured by the French and a
warrant was also granted in this instance. In February 1798 the
established a Military Lodge in the 11th Foot at Norwich and when the
of this entire Regiment became prisoners of war in Flanders in May 1798
not exchanged until 1799) they probably met Masonically during this
the custom of meeting as Masons has always prevailed to a very large
among prisoners of war, and this lodge was still in existence in 1807.
"No. 441" in the 38th Foot frequently conferred the Higher Degrees
(as was the Irish practice) under the warrant of the first three
lodge upon resuming working of the Royal Arch Degree in 1822 and upon
received the following reply: "There are not any warrants issued by the
Grand Lodge of Ireland other than that you hold; it has therefore
the practice of Irish Lodges to confer the Higher Degrees under that
A Regimental lodge (No. 183) established by the
"Ancients" in February 1803 in the 9th Foot lost their archives when
the transport Ariadne on which the First Battalion had embarked went
the coast of France near Calais and the staff officers and two hundred
sixty-two soldiers were made prisoners of war and resumed their Masonic
at Valenciennes. The proceedings of this "Captive Lodge" extended
from January 30th, 1806 to January 25th, 1814. On January 25th, 1814,
brethren dispersed and the "Ark" was taken from Riom in the province
of Auvergne and returned to England in charge of one of the brethren
lodge ceased to exist shortly thereafter.
The 96th Foot received warrant No. 170 from the
"Ancients" in 1804 and the following memorandum by the Grand
Secretary appears: "6th January 1809; Warr. No. 170, Box and Furniture
lost at St. Croix. Members all lost or dead or disposed of but Bro.
Baxter, Quartermaster." During this period the 42nd Foot not only had
Irish Lodge ("Hibernia, No. 42") actively at work but also a Scottish
Lodge (St. Andrew, No. 310). It may be mentioned here that during the
Peninsular War (18081814) Irish Lodge "No. 557" in the 6th Dragoon
Guards lost its chest containing the lodge furniture, warrant and
during an engagement and a French officer directed its return to the
Regiment under a flag of truce and a guard of honor.
After the Battle of Waterloo the British Army
reduced to a peace footing and many Military Lodges passed out of
became stationary ‒ among the latter "Virgin [(ia
- rhm)] Lodge" at Halifax, now No. 3 on the roll of Nova
Scotia; "Union Waterloo" at Kent; "St. Johns" at Gibraltar;
"Humility with Fortitude" and "Courage with Humanity" at
Calcutta and "Orion in the West" at Poona (the latter three formerly
in the Royal Bengal and Bombay Artillery); and "Amphioxus Lodge"
originally in the Royal Marines and becoming stationary at the inland
Heckmondwike, Yorkshire. "Royal York Lodge of Perseverance" was first
established as a stationary lodge at London in 1776, became a Military
1793 in the Coldstream Guards, and in 1821 again resumed its stationary
"Mount Olive Lodge" in the 67th Foot was
transferred to the Royal Regiment of Cornish Miners in 1807 and
exchanged its military warrant for a civil warrant and is now the
of Fortitude" at Truro, and "Euphrates" at London,
"Unanimity" at Preston, and "One and All" at Bodmin, were
originally held in the West London, Third Lancashire and First Cornwall
respectively. "St. Cuthberts" in the Durham Militia, with a Scottish
warrant, continued its Military character until the Regiment was
1813. It then continued under the same warrant as a stationary lodge,
at Bernard Castle. In 1825 it applied for and received an English
1836 it applied for its original Scottish warrant but was refused.
"Shakespeare Lodge," Warwick was originally a stationary lodge at
Norwich. In 1796 its members sold their furniture to some brethren in
Warwickshire Militia and made them a present of their Constitution and
latter designated it "Shakespeare Lodge." On the removal of this
Regiment in 1795, the lodge accompanied it and five years later was
Warwick. The next year the battalion was again ordered into service but
lodge remained at Warwick. The Regiment returned in 1805 but three
was ordered to be quartered at Sunderland. The lodge, however, passed a
resolution that it should be made stationary at Warwick. A protest was
the members at Sunderland but the Grand Lodge decided in favor of the
at Warwick, so that Shakespeare Lodge was removed from the Warwickshire
to the guardianship of non-military brethren at Warwick.
A custom sprang up among Scottish lodges of
commissions, or as afterwards termed, dispensations, "which led to
evil of brethren traversing country and obtaining membership for their
lodges to the detriment of those locally situated." This practice of
forming branch lodges by "dispensation" became very popular in
and one such branch remained in active operation for eight years in the
Militia, the Mother Lodge being "Renfrew St. Paul." It was usual on
the part of the lodge granting such dispensations to exact one-half the
received as entrance fees but this was subject to modifications as
the above mentioned Mother Lodge "from a wish to indulge her brethren
the Ayrshire Militia" asked "no more than 3s. for each entrant, 2s.
9d. of which was to be retained to defray any necessary expenses." This
practice was also carried out by an Irish lodge whose dispensation was
by Mother Kilwinning.
In 1813 fifty Regimental lodges were carried
by the Union of the two English Grand Lodges ‒ forty-four working under
"Ancient" warrants to six under "Modern" warrants and the
proportion of Military to civil lodges was about one in twelve in 1878
became one in three hundred and by 1899 the proportion was one in
The early Military Lodges largely originated in
rank and file and later extended to the officers and towards the end of
eighteenth century it became increasingly customary to have lodges in
exclusively confined to officers. The first "Officer's Lodge" (of
which there is any known record) was established by the Grand Lodge of
in the 32nd Foot with warrant No. 617 issued in 1783 and subsequently
for neglect" between 1785 and 1792. Before, during and after this
there was a Scottish Lodge No. 73 "presumably the resort of
non-commissioned officers and privates," in this same battalion.
No. 274 for "Orange Lodge" was granted to officers of the 51st
Regiment in 1801 by the Grand Lodge of Scotland ‒ there being at the
two other lodges in the corps, both of the same name, and one under
the other under "Ancient" warrant and both of the latter bearing,
to relate, the number 94. From the year 1815 the practice of admitting
soldiers, except as serving brethren, was absolutely forbidden by the
Lodge of England and while there was no actual law on the subject by
Lodge of Ireland there is every reason to believe that from about the
the regulations of all Military lodges ‒ regimental or garrison ‒ have
contained a clause to a similar effect. Subsequent to the Union of 1813
practice of commissioned officers meeting as brethren without the
of the lower ranks obtained a great vogue and there were "Officer's
Lodges" in Bengal, Madras and Bombay. In 1815 the Grand Lodge of
promulgated a law forbidding the admission of civilians into Military
which was probably observed by the Regiments on home service but by
abroad, especially in the East, it was for many years totally
"Lodge of Hope" at Poona was formed by civilian members of
"Orion in the West" in the Bombay Artillery in 1825 and in the same
year "Humanity with Courage" (an offshoot of "Courage and
Humanity," Bengal Artillery) was so flourishing at Penang in the Malay
Peninsula that every civilian of respectability was ranged beneath its
Also "Union Lodge" in the 14th Foot, then stationed at Meerut,
returned as a member A. J. Colvin, Judge and Magistrate, in 1826.
The Irish practice only curtailed the freedom
their Military lodges when prejudicial to the interest of their
lodges and enabled the former on several occasions to be the means of
establishing local (or civil) lodges on continents or islands where
to which they were attached happened to be sent on duty. The 1st Royals
previously stated) constituted a new stationary lodge at Albany, New
1759 and many were formed by the 39th Foot in Hindustan at a still
period. In 1857 the 4th or King's Own while serving at Mauritius
twenty-eight gentlemen of Port Louis into their Regimental lodge and in
prior to leaving the island, the brethren of the Military lodge
officers of the civil lodge (consisting of nineteen members of the
who remained in the Mauritius). In the same way the "Lodge of
Yokohama," the earliest in Japan, was an offshoot of the "Sphinx
Lodge" in the 2nd battalion of the 20th Foot which initiated sufficient
numbers of civilian members to enable the work of Masonry to be carried
the departure of the Regiment from that country in 1866.
Military Lodges were also formed in Volunteer
Regiments and two of the most famous were the "Edinburgh Defensive
Band" erected in 1782 and the "First Volunteer Lodge of Ireland"
in 1783. The former was raised towards the close of the American War of
Independence and about fifty of its members, in anticipation of its
disbanded, formed a lodge of the same name under the Mastership of its
Lodges existing at the present time in the Volunteer forces both in the
Isles and its colonies, are very numerous ‒ among them the "Fitzroy"
in the Honorable Artillery Company of London.
The list of lodges in garrison towns or
places which are or were of a Military, though stationary, character
and among the prominent lodges in this class may be mentioned
"Friendship" and "Inhabitants" lodges at Gibraltar;
"St. John and St. Paul" at Malta; "Pythagoras" at Corfu and
others in the West Indies, Australasia, North and South Africa, the Far
and the Dominion of Canada.
It is interesting to note the outgrowth from
Military lodge system of a large number of "Class Lodges" ‒
University, Authors, Lawyers, Physicians and members of many other
and callings. Among such class lodges in London of a Military or Naval
character are the "Navy," "Household Brigade," (of both
which the Prince of Wales, Admiral of the Fleet and Field Marshal was
Master); "Nil Sine Labore" (Army Service Corps); "Army and
Navy" (chiefly non-commissioned officers in Household Cavalry and
of Guards); and "Ubique" (Royal Artillery). The "Aldershot Army
and Navy" and "Camp" Lodges are examples of similar associations
in the province (and county) of Hampshire.
The custom of prisoners of war, who were
congregating in lodges in all the countries of Europe during the many
wars of the
past two hundred years resulted in many interesting events. In some
they were permitted to visit regular lodges and even admitted to
is related that many of the French officers interned at Brandon in
admitted members of the "Ancient Boyne Lodge" in that Irish town and
other French captives were recipients of fraternal kindness at Leeds in
Kelso in 1810 and at Selkirk ‒ where twenty-three of their number were
as honorary members of the "Lodge of St. John" in 1812. Prisoners of
war at Basingstoke in 1756 "finding themselves a competent number"
formed a lodge making due submission to the (older) Grand Lodge of
a warrant placed at their disposal but owing to pecuniary reasons they
obliged to decline. In 1758 part of these captives were removed to
and formed a second lodge and again made "due submission" to the
Grand Lodge. The latter took no notice of same and these French
taking silence for approval "continued working and making Masons until
middle of 1759." A further change of quarters of some of these
resulted in the formation of a third lodge at Leeds, which still
1761. In 1762 "a constitution or warrant" was granted by the Grand
Lodge of York to similar captives "on their parole," to hold a lodge
at the "Punch Bowl" in that city, "prohibiting them nevertheless
from making anyone a brother who shall be a subject of Great Britain or
Ireland." In Scotland French prisoners of war also held lodges of their
own ‒ one of which, "St. John of Benevolence," was constituted by
leave and warrant of the Lodge of Melrose. Another lodge must have met,
by direct at least by tacit permission of "St. Johns" Selkirk, as the
minutes of the latter state that "the prisoners held a lodge from time
time, the proceedings of which were conducted by themselves in their
language." A similar lodge under the Grand Orient of Marseilles was
established at Malta after its occupation by the British. This
its allegiance and became "Les
Amis en Captivité"
on the English roll but its life was a short one and it disappeared
ever having made any return to the Grand Lodge. Considerable sums were
various occasions by both the Grand Lodge of England and that of
the relief of French prisoners of war confined in Great Britain. During
Crimean War the "Lodge of Integrity" which accompanied the 14th Foot
to the Crimea, continued to work during the war in the depth of winter
distinguished officers were initiated in this lodge amidst the booming
‒ amongst them being Lord Eustace Browniow Cecil who was initiated in
before Sebastopol, May 24th, 1855.
(To be continued)
The following letter was mailed to every Grand
Master in the United States after a meeting of the Grand Master of
Advisory Council, held at Anamosa on the evening of October 2nd, at
contents of the letter were approved and the following sums
appropriated from the
War Fund of the Grand Lodge of Iowa and immediately cabled to the
Grand Lodge of France, for the relief of Mason
prisoners of War in Germany $2,000.00
International Bureau of Masonic Affairs,
Switzerland, to assist in its work of locating missing soldiers
Masonic Club, Saint Nazaire, France $500.00
Heather Still Masonic Club, A. E. F., France
* * *
Has Masonry A Duty In
One Grand Master's
GRAND LODGE OF IOWA, A. F. & A. M. GEO.
GRAND MASTER OF MASONS IN IOWA
ANAMOSA. IOWA, OCT. 3, 1918
To All Grand Masters in the United States.
My Dear Brother Grand Master:
There are times when a problem weighs so
upon a man's conscience that he cannot sleep nights. This is not a good
for the health. The only antidote offered by science for a case like
that he unburden himself, fully, freely and frankly to some friend in
can trust. Such an hour of confession is akin to prayer. I cannot
understand why, when a problem of this kind is discussed between two
thoughtful men, it is not a prayer. For surely God is present upon such
occasion; and if He be the loving Father we picture Him in Masonry, He
give an ear to such a problem, presented in a reverent way.
It seems to me that there is a problem which
and I ought to be considering in just such a way as I have outlined. I
believe that we have considered it as carefully as it merits. Had we
done so, I
feel that we would long since have gotten together in this reverent way
have tried to describe, to survey it from every possible angle.
In approaching it, I do so with a feeling of
trepidation. Like many another problem which it becomes ours to deal
have a difference of opinion is by no means to imply bad faith to
Scattered as we Grand Masters are, in forty-nine different parts of the
States, surrounded by an infinite variety of conditions, and our minds
by the details of everyday duties in our respective offices, it is not
strange that we may have not seen all sides of it. In looking at a
see but a few of its facets; and it is not to be wondered at that we
large divergence of opinion as to its brilliancy.
In order to present my own ideas upon this
I wish to come to you as if we were closeted together, alone, under
of friendship and mutual esteem which would permit of the fullest and
expression. If in doing so I turn the searchlight of study into the
innermost depths of my own soul, please do not accuse me of egotism. I
disclaimers other than that. My friends who know me, over the United
will have to acquit me of that feeling or of that attitude. It is not
impels me, but a deep-seated conviction, which has grown with the
we as a nation have entered into this terrible war, that I am not doing
as a Mason. The action of the Grand Lodge of Iowa in elevating me to
highest position within its gift does not rob me of my right to think.
has done is to impress upon me a thousand-fold the fact that the
measure of the
honor which that position brings to me is the measure of service to our
which I bring to it, and no more. And this deep-seated conviction that
falling short of my bounden duty to give to Masonry the best that is in
challenges that conception of the position which I hold in Iowa. I must
To speak elsewhere than to my confreres who hold, or have held, the
position in this and other Grand Lodges, is to dodge the issue. That I
Listen then, to an unhappy soul unburdening
For almost a year and a half our Free Nation
been at war with the ancient enemy of all Freedom - Despotism.
Despotism in its
most damnable form - so damnable that thoughtful men everywhere wonder.
it seems like ordinary lunacy; to others, devilishness gone mad. Had
Nazarene succumbed to Satan upon the mountain-top, when he offered Him
kingdoms of the earth, He might have become like the Kaiser of Germany.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, are mighty words
so mighty that they spell the ultimate doom of Despotism. Now they are
Of the ultimate result we need no longer fear. America has arrived, and
not "Too Late." France, our Sister Republic, England, our Mother, and
all the nations of the earth know it. Even despotic Germany knows it in
It is only a question of time and blood. Time and blood, the great
antiseptics which eventually overcome every scourge which besets
has been so, and it will be so again.
Liberty, Equality and Fraternity are dynamic
And nowhere more dynamic than in the great Masonic institution. Let me
capitalize that word "Institution." As I conceive it, it knows no
territorial boundaries. It is a Spirit Thing, binding heart to heart,
its sweet ministry upon men of every color and race according to their
to receive the Truth.
What is The Great Truth? Leaving those to
who love to dogmatize, may I not ask is it anywhere revealed in greater
or in an atmosphere of greater affection than in the Constitution of
States? Again, leaving to the historians to tell exact data in what
suits them best, is not this great truth the very essence of Masonry?
put there by Masons, and they did not fail in their duty.
Masonry, then, pure and undefiled, is
the American Constitution, because its principles underlie that
every true American reveres.
By so much as this is true, this war is
war! And every Masonic principle is at stake in this war.
We sit now in the chamber of reflection.
I come to you sick at heart. I, a Mason ‒ aye,
Grand Master of Masons, am sick at heart because I cannot make Iowa
take its proper place in a World Temple whose very pillars are falling
True, we have asked our lodges to register and
sweet the memory of their brethren who wear the khaki of our country.
have raised a War Emergency Fund, as a free will offering, and stand
raise more when it is needed. True, we are accepting the petitions of
would be Masons before they go "over there," and using every
legitimate means within our power, waiving technicalities, in order
ambitions to be numbered among the Great White Souled Brotherhood may
gratified. They are worthy to be so numbered. True, the Grand Lodge of
extended its fraternal hand to the Grand Lodge and the Grand Orient of
applying only the standards of Fraternal Service to them and thereby
them truly Masonic ‒ and may God grant that Iowa Masonry may forever
enough to apply only that standard. True, we have respected the hailing
distress from across the waters, voiced by the Grand Master of the
of France in the memorable and modest words which follow, by expressing
good will and aiding the cause. True, our lodges have bought Liberty
True, they have contributed to every humanitarian cause which is
classed by our
government as a legitimate one. True, our membership throughout the
stood behind the government in its every activity, leading where the
of a great people have chosen them to be leaders, following when it
someone else could best do the work.
We have given our money as lodges.
We have given ourselves, as citizens. But we
not given ourselves as Masons!
If the action of the Grand Lodge of Iowa had
been favorable to the recognition of French Masonry at its Annual
of last June, I could not recite the following touching reply from
Peigne, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of France, acknowledging our
"I beg leave to acknowledge receipt of your
letter confirming your cablegram of the 13th June, which we received
greatest joy. It is for us, indeed, a veritable pleasure to have your
Lodge renew fraternal relations with ours. Like you, we are convinced
co-operation will be beneficial.
"Replying to your wish, which conforms to
ours, of exchanging between our two Societies guarantees of friendship,
Federal Council has honored me by appointing me representative to your
Lodge and of submitting this choice for your ratification. I will
fulfill this command with pleasure.
"You wish to thank me for the courtesy with
which we have received the American Masons who have come to France in
of Right and Justice. We have received them as brothers and we
most cordial relations with them. We are always happy to see them among
number. It is with the greatest pleasure that we have fulfilled and
continue to fulfill this fraternal and pleasant duty, and we are glad
have so generously appreciated our sentiments in their regard; an
which you repeat.
"I am greatly touched also by the offer which
you make of co-operation in our war work. I would believe myself
lacking in a
sacred duty should I not reply with the frankness which you asked for.
"Most of our lodges in the Provinces have
established and are carrying on very interesting work; Military
to the families of the heroes who have disappeared in the torment which
ravaged our country for four years. Personally our Grand Lodge
its property, a Military hospital, which has been suppressed since
existence, in a city like Paris, being of little importance on account
few beds we were able to install. We also established free meals for
benefit not only of Masons, but of others who were so tried by the war.
having been rapidly resumed and the want having abated; we gave up this
which no longer responded to a necessity.
"There are two things which we began at the
commencement of the war, and which we still follow and hope to pursue
end of the war if possible; the work of calling for families of those
and above all, the work of sending food to the prisoners of war.
"We commenced this last work in 1915. At first
we sent two packages a month to our Masons who were prisoners, by means
Berne Committee (attached to the Red Cross) of aid to the prisoners of
which the Secretary General is a Mason, very devoted, and the President
Alsatian, a big-hearted woman, become Swiss through her marriage, but
French in soul, and who gave her son for the defense of France and
his glorious death.
"Unfortunately, the war still continues, the
misery increases with the mourning, and although we bear stoically all
misfortunes which overwhelm us; although we shall stand firm for a just
victory, we cannot, now, help the unfortunate in the same proportion,
have had to reduce our ration for the prisoners to one package a month,
decision for us, because the Germans let them die of hunger. And now
is coming when we shall not be able to give them this slight help. We
appeal to our lodges in the Provinces, for they have difficulty in
carrying on the
work they have undertaken. Our lodges in Paris and foreign lands helped
they could. In the beginning of the war we sent an appeal to the
Lodges and to the Orients abroad. Alone, the Grand Orient of Brazil
they sent us some 13,000 francs. We are poor today because
three-fourths of our
Masons are in the army. Many of them have fallen. There remain the
victims of war, and in the first place, prisoners and children. There
also the misery which we shall have to help in the invaded regions,
hour of freedom shall come. In spite of all, we desire earnestly to
with these works. We shall be very happy to have the American Masons
be made prisoners have a share in this. We have a great affection for
have found in the Americans spirits kindred to our own. Such, very
you demanded, is our situation as we enter the fifth year of the war.
"Permit me, in closing, to tell you of the
admiration we have, which our soldiers who fight beside them have for
courage, the devotion, and the self-sacrifice of the Americans."
A Mason wrote that letter. Gentle, kind,
bighearted, modest, smothering his own sorrow, praising the samples of
bravery of which I am proud, but forgetting to mention the volumes of
and sacrifice shown by his countrymen, yes, he is a Mason. He is my
heart as well as in arms.
French Masons have given themselves, as Masons!
Let it not be said that American Masons are not
thinking about what we ought to be doing, as Masons. In December last,
following the conference of Fraternal Societies held at the request of
Secretary McAdoo, the Grand Masters of some twenty-five or thirty
met informally at the invitation of Grand Master Witten of the District
Columbia, and the matter was touched upon. Of that conference little
be said. It was not to its credit that it permitted the specter of a
Grand Lodge to drive out of the conference room the vision of that
in khaki, no small part of which needs the grasp of a brother’s hand on
other side of the water. Through the kindness of my predecessor in
office I was
privileged to attend that little meeting, and the memory of a brother
not vote upon a resolution to have a group of Masons named as a
study the problem, because his Grand Lodge had not acted upon the
remains a nightmare to haunt me.
The conference in New York, though lightly
attended, promised more. M. W. Brother Thomas Penny had a vision of the
problem. He propounded certain questions which no thinking Mason could
conscientiously ignore. They went to the core of the matter. Without
prejudice, they frankly asked the question whether Masonry might not
something worthwhile to do in the maelstrom "over there."
With all due respect to the Resolutions
I want to protest the "seemingly," the "so far as
possible," the "be invited to contribute," and the
"recommend" phrases in the resolutions which resulted. If the,
visiting brethren believed that which in their resolutions they said
believed; if they believed what the New York brethren evidently did
then their resolutions should have rung throughout Masonic America as
Liberty Bell rang for Freedom. No countryside, no "Grand
Jurisdiction," should have been too far distant to have heard its
If the reports of the conference in the Masonic
Press are to be believed, this effort "to unite the Masons of America
one common mass" for the purpose of effecting a working organization to
help our brethren overseas was abortive, because no one dared to use
Trowel! As hosts to the Conference, our New York brethren could not
All honor to them, therefore, that they are following the vision as
it, raising a substantial fund to carry it through, while the rest of
appointing War Boards (some of us are) in order to be able to work with
when they finally launch their splendid program.
Right here is a good place to quote from a
in my possession from a brother who knows what the New York program is,
helping it from the inside. He says:
"We are not 'over there' yet, and there is
nothing definite when we will be. We are being held up (and I use the
advisedly). You cast draw your own inference."
My brother, we are still in the chamber of
and I want you to ask a question: Do you like the stinger in the above
quotation? Do you suppose that if the Masons of America (I'm talking
Craft, now, and not Grand Officers) knew that such a condition existed,
would sit supinely by and twirl their thumbs? I do not think they
would! Yet I
feel that I am doing that very thing, up to this date!
Our government, by the very nature of the
which it faces, is forced to restrict welfare work to as few
possible. I believe that they have no business recognizing forty-nine
different organizations, all Masonic. We are entitled to no such
recognition. If we would work together as one, we could get results.
We are still sitting together in the chamber of
Humiliating as it is, I must read you another
letter. This one hurts. It hurts deep. But I've been twirling my
thumbs, and I
accept the reproof which it implies. Whether it will bring the lump
throat I do not know. Can you listen to the voice of an American
telling of his need, without a lump? I cannot. I feel a blush of shame
my neck every time I read this letter. I've had it only forty-eight
touched the trigger, and that's why my pistol is going off.
Listen to him, brother o'mine, asking favors of
He, a Captain in my army, asking as a favor that I send him magazines!
the tired and the lonesome and the wounded may rebuild shattered
nerves, get a
mental handclasp with the thinking brother back home, and forget the
suffered that I might be free. He, a Captain drawing barely enough
money to pay
his expenses and keep up the little home "Somewhere in the U.S.A.,"
and his brother, a Private, drawing $30.00 a month, need money, so that
can have a little Masonic Club House "Somewhere in France," and keep
sweet, keep manly, keep clean for the wife and babies at home ‒ a place
no religion is preached at them, but where the tender bud of Masonry
into the flower of new friendships and renewed Fraternal ties. They
Yes, as God is my witness, they need money to
for themselves the work which I, an able-bodied member of the Masonic
Fraternity, should long ago have been planning and executing for them!
the naked truth, openly confessed. Now read the letter:
Masonic Club Base Section No. 1
W. F. Jerome,
Charles J. Cook,
Saint Nazaire, France, Sept. 1, 1918
The National Masonic Research Society,
Will you please publish and find out if anyone
would be so kind as to send any and as many Masonic Journals as
possible to our
Club, as we can dispose of them very easily and put them into valuable
circulation. They need not be fresh from the press, but after they have
read and of no more value to the folks at home, forward them to the
Club, Base Section No. 1, Saint Nazaire, France, and I assure you they
well appreciated by our worthy brothers who visit the Club, and sick
wounded in the hospitals.
Thanking you for any consideration given, I
Edmond Dupras. Secretary..
And he enclosed a little advertisement that
are running in an American newspaper of French vintage, as follows:
Masonic Club ‒ Saint Nazaire. Meets every
7 p. m., Masonic Hall, Place Marceau, over Cafe American. Club rooms
7 p.m., to 11 p.m. every night. All Masons welcomed.
E. Dupras, Secretary
Finally, he inserts a mimeographed letter from
Club Committee, of which this is a verbatim copy:
Masonic Club, Base Section One
A.P.O. 701, A.E.F.
Sept. 1, 1918.
Since coming abroad Masons belonging to the
American Expeditionary Forces have been working under peculiar
it is for a correction of these conditions that we appeal to the
Masonic Clubs have been organized quite
throughout the different army units, and in base ports and large cities
attained considerable importance, but the real activities and purposes
these organizations are greatly hampered, and some have ceased to exist
First. ‒ Membership is drawn entirely from the
army, navy, and attached civilians, whose first consideration must be
of those duties to which they have been assigned in the service, and
often leaves little or no time for anything else. We are first to win
Second. ‒ The large field for work makes time
Third. ‒ The absence of support which comes
co-ordination, recognition and outside help.
As a remedy for these conditions, we suggest
That a central body be organized in the United
States, whose duty it would be to raise funds, appoint a staff of
above military age, and systematize Masonic activities among the troops
especially in France and Italy.
An executive officer, having plenary power,
be stationed at a central point, like Paris, to whom the various Clubs
make known their needs, and to receive reports. Club rooms should be
at all the principal points, such as base ports, large cities, casual
camps, and other places where the membership would seem to warrant.
these Club rooms should be under the charge of a civilian Secretary
with sufficient funds to furnish and maintain the rooms, and for the
all worthy Masons.
This being a base port, and also near a large
we come in daily contact with many Masons upon their arrival in France;
the wounded sent back from the front; and with soldiers returning to
homeland, which places us in an excellent position to carry out the
our noble Order by extending Fraternal greetings, rendering aid to
distress, and visiting the sick and wounded.
Until other arrangements are made, any funds
you might feel disposed to give can be placed to a good purpose through
Club, and money is needed!
In conclusion we bespeak your earnest
of our Masonic conditions and ask that you immediately take such steps
necessary and seem best for the greater fulfillment of our obligations
responsibilities as Masons.
Masonic Club Committee.
Edmond Dupras, Secretary.
Do you wonder that I feel like a slacker?
I've been one.
But the explosion is out, and I'm not a slacker
I cannot do this work alone: The Grand Lodge of
Iowa can and will help, and I will help myself, to the best of my
we cannot do it alone. It is a job for American Masonry; that is what
it is! No
labels that indicate degrees have any place in this work. It is not a
titles, or of Rites, or of Grand Jurisdictions. It is a matter of
You are big enough not to ignore this call. So
your Grand Jurisdiction. I'm not afraid to meet you and talk this
to its last detail if necessary! And the Grand Lodge of Iowa is not
have me come and talk the matter over with you. I'm not afraid of an
organization, with officers having "plenary power," as our brother
expresses it, or "all buttoned up," as my good friend Brother Watres
of Pennsylvania would say, in order to do the jab that needs to be done
brethren in khaki. We don't care who fathers it, so that we get the
that American Masonry possesses. Forget "General Grand Lodge" with
its eerie phantom! Our country is in a crisis, the like of which it has
faced before. Our brethren are flocking to the colors; they're being
like hash in the griddle ‒ but they're still Masons! They are meeting a
too! And in that crisis they are calling on you and me to help them.
The New York plan may be the best one to unite
around ‒ I don't care how it is done, so that we answer that Masonic
Committee's letter as it deserves to be answered. To answer it at all
that we answer it effectively.
Our government has told us that they will
us as a National organization, but they will not do so as forty-nine or
Can you, and will you, meet me within thirty
at some central point in the United States of America to talk this
And will you bring with you one, or two, or three of your strong Masons
strongest men you have in your jurisdiction ‒ so that when we have met
level and evolved something, we can go before the Masons of America and
them that we have a constructive plan which will represent American
its best? We don't need to worry about money, if we show them that we
to try to do the job, and do it right. And they will accept nothing
With all sincerity, I am
Geo. L. Schoonover,
Grand Master of Masons in Iowa.
Edited By Bro. H.L.
The object of this Department is to acquaint
readers with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the
Masonic literature now being published; and with such non-Masonic books
especially appeal to Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to
possible assistance to studious individuals or to study clubs and
either through this Department or by personal correspondence; if you
learn something concerning any book ‒ what is its nature, what is its
how it may be obtained ‒ be free to ask him. If you have read a book
think is worth a review write us about it; if you desire to purchase a
any book ‒ we will help you get it, with no charge for the service.
Your Department of Literary Consultation.
THIS book, written by Allen Upward [Lib 1915], and published
by Houghton, Mifflin Co. at $1.75, is a study of the origins of
written from the point of view of modern anthropology. The author sees
faith as an inevitable development out of the religions which preceded
indeed he traces its origins back to the most primitive forms of
as magic, primitive genius, etc. ‒ and these primitive forms of
are often condemned as childish superstitions, he interprets as having
naive interpretations of real experiences and events; thus he holds
early magician began as a rain-maker, and that he was probably a man
supersensitive nervous system who was able to forecast the coming of a
thunder-storm by his own feelings, a human barometer, as it were.
primitive mind held that that which preceded a thing was its cause it
for them to believe that because the magician announced the coming of
he was really the cause of the rain. The same supersensitive nervous
working in other directions would be the genius, the prophet, or the
poet, all of whom Mr. Upward believes, may have unwittingly exercised
now call thought-reading, clairvoyance, etc. Because of their unusual
they were first feared, then reverenced, and at last worshipped. After
death of the wizard he was gradually deified, and thus, according to
author's argument, the gods were transfigured men who had at one time
One may hold whatever theories he may please
these matters, but no reader can deny that Mr. Upward has worked out
with great learning, with fearless and original thinking, and with
conciseness; nor are his pages lacking in literary appeal. It would be
impossible for the author of that sparkling work, "The New Word,"
which won for him the Nobel Prize, to write a dull page if he tried:
noteworthy is the brevity of the treatment made possible by his ability
condense into a single striking paragraph a long and very complex
But the cautious reader will be on his guard
against rapid generalizations, and there can be no doubt that Mr.
sometimes led to rush in where more circumspect scholars fear to tread.
well-informed Masonic reader will note this in Mr. Upward's references
mysteries of our fraternity, as in the following passage on the Hiram
"A development from idolatry is the
consecration of a building by means of a human victim. The first temple
tomb, and in architecture as in other arts religion led the way. The
the ghost extended from the gravestone to pervade the sacred fabric,
imitation a single victim buried under the foundation gave magical
a whole building, or to the whole circuit of a city wall. The custom
be said to have died out yet among savages, and there are many traces
of it in
our midst. The most remarkable is the ceremony of admission to the
Master Mason. The original meaning of their ritual has been lost by
Freemasons, the liturgy now used by them being a medieval allegory, but
anthropologist can hardly fail to see that the candidate who goes
pantomime of death, burial and resurrection, is personating the ancient
And more to the same effect.
A thoroughly trained Masonic scholar would
as Gould was always admitting, that we cannot be sure of possessing the
original meanings of our ritual, and he would be the first to
certain faint echoes of early practices remain in our ceremonies: but
our liturgy a "medieval allegory" flies beyond all evidence. Speth,
than whom there was no better informed authority on the subject,
essay in which he tentatively advanced the theory that our drama has
connections with the old custom of burying a victim under the
he frankly admitted that his thesis was largely guess-work: when
Upward asserts without proviso that what Speth held as a working
an actual fact, and to be asserted as such, we feel that he is going
To hold a theory is one thing: to assert it as a fact is quite another:
Upward is altogether too much given to making assertions in regard to
about which we are as yet very ignorant.
But after making all such deductions "The
Divine Mystery" is a brilliant book, well worth reading, especially for
Masons. It is an essay in a field which is comparatively virgin soil
and we may
be sure that in the years to come scholars will hit upon some very
fruitful discoveries in the origins of religion.
* * *
Jonah: A Book for
The book of Jonah occupies but two pages in the
Authorized Version of our Bible but in value it far outweighs other
absorb many times its space, for, with the exception of the latter half
Isaiah and a few of the Psalms it strikes a higher note than any other
the Old Testament. Professor Cornill, whose "Prophets of Israel" [Lib
1899] has become one
of the classics of Biblical exposition, writes of this slender work:
"I have read the book of Jonah at least a
hundred times, and I will publicly avow, for I am not ashamed of my
that I cannot even now take up that marvelous book, nay, nor even speak
without the tears coming to my eyes, and my heart beating higher. This
apparently trivial book is one of the deepest and grandest that was
written, and I should say to everyone that approaches it, 'Take off thy
for the ground whereon thou standest is holy ground.' "
Who wrote this book we do not know, but
evidence goes to show that he lived at about the middle of the fourth
before Christ. At that time the literary allegories were the fashion,
novels now are, and it was natural for him to throw his message into
as natural as it was for Winston Churchill to write "The Inside of the
Cup." [Lib 1913]
In those days there were two classes of
teachers in Israel; on one side were the bigots who believed that
the private property of the Jews, having His residence in Palestine,
He was determined to destroy the heathen nations root and branch; on
side was a smaller but more intelligent group who understood that
the Creator of the whole earth and that the heathen were as much his
The author of Jonah was a member of the latter
group and his book is evidently a blast directed against the bigots. He
Jonah, the son of Amittai, to be the central figure of his tale because
prophet had lived in the eighth century when narrow-mindedness had run
among the Jews. If one will bear this in mind and if he will remember
conditions of the author's own age and his purpose in writing his work,
easily catch the point of the allegory.
Jonah, the embodiment of human bigotry, refuses
go to Nineveh to prophecy against her because he is afraid that if he
heathen will repent and Jehovah will not destroy them. So he runs away
in the opposite
direction and takes ship for Tarshish. But the storm overtakes the
in the midst of that storm Jonah makes the discovery that the heathen
are as full of the milk of human kindness as himself. Later on, he
Nineveh and cries out his warnings. Here again he learns how erroneous
opinions of the non-Jews for the hated Ninevites reveal the
trait of repentance and all turn from their evil ways and Jehovah
Angered because the Ninevites have been saved
goes off to a hillside to pout. He trains a gourd vine over a few
order to enjoy the shade, but a worm gnaws the vine and a sultry wind
it up and Jonah is so filled with pity for the vine that he weeps; then
it is that
Jehovah says to Jonah:
regard for the gourd, for which thou hast laboured, neither madest it
which came up in a night and perished in a night; and should I not have
for Nineveh that great city wherein are more than six-score thousand
that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand; and
What could be plainer than this sublime moral?
Where is there a book that more clearly expresses the ancient Masonic
the essential and inalienable Brotherhood of Man?
Closing Hymn – [A Poem]
Bro. Rev. George Gibson,
P. G. Chaplain,
Northumberland and Durham.
Seeking now a peaceful rest.
Cleanse, O King, our secret heart;
May our slumber, Lord, be blest.
All our labor now is done,
And we lay our tools aside;
In refreshment help us shun
Fruitless thoughts; be Thou our Guide.
With us be till next we meet
Round Thine Altar, O Most High;
Leave us never, we entreat;
In all trouble, Lord, be nigh.
When no more we gather here,
When we stand in heaven above,
Then in mercy, Lord, be near;
Crown thy work with endless love.
So mote it be.
The Question Box
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
responsible for his oven opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is
than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not
any one school of Masonic thought as over against another; but offers
alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or
its own merits.
The Question Box and Correspondence Column are
to all members of the Society at all times. Questions of any nature on
subjects are earnestly invited from our members, particularly those
with lodges or study Clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of
Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be answered promptly by
mail before publication in this department.
Persian Literature and
I have rather amateurishly tried to inform
regarding Persia, 1000 to 1500 A.D., by reading Sir Thomas Moore's
Rookh." [Lib 1890] Can
you suggest a course of reading in this connection, covering the
Persia of the above dates, costumes, essays upon the religions ‒
Mahometism and Buddhism ‒ particularly as to their clashing in Persia
respective inherent mysticism?
In a word, the Grotto is not unrelated to these
times, and it occurred to me that the researches of the N.M.R.S. would
that some of the editors and contributors would be able to suggest some
at least which I might profitably read.
In order to collect the materials about which
inquire it will be necessary for you to ransack a number of books and
periodicals because there is no volume, known to us at least, or even
of books, in which you could find gathered such information as you
course you will desire to read the Zend-Avesta [Lib 1880], Persia's Bible;
you will find it in Max Muller's "Sacred Books of the East." [Lib 50 Volumes
to that in importance will come those world classics which Persian
contributed to literature: "The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam [Lib 1859]; the
"Divan" [Lib 2006] of
Hafiz, so beloved by Emerson; the "Bustan" [Lib*] and the
"Gulistan" [Liv 2013] of
Sa'di; the heroic epics of Firdousi (Hakim Abu ʾl-Qasim Ferdowsi Tusi) [Lib 2015], Persia's Homer,
and one of the greatest writers that ever lived; as Persian religion
been prevailingly pantheistic you will care to read something of the
Jelal un-din Rumi [Lib 2011], who
has often been described as "the greatest writer of pantheism that the
world has ever known." For histories the following may be recommended,
given in order of value, according to our views: "History of Persia,"
[Lib 1829; Vol
1, Vol 2] by
Sir John Malcolm; "Literary History of Persia," [Lib 1906] by G. E. Browne;
"The Story of Persia," [Lib 1887] by S.G.W. Benjamin; "History
of the Parsis,"
[Lib 1884 Vol
1, Vol 2] by
Dosabbai Franiji Karaka; "Biographical Notices of Persian Poetry," by
Sir G. Onseley. [Lib*]
V.W. Jackson's is one of the best books on
"Zoroaster," [Lib 1899] the founder of
better has been written than Rhys-Davids' various books of Buddha and
Bhuddism; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India];
"Buddhism; Its History and Literature," [Lib 1896] being the most
comprehensive of his more popular writings; D. S. Margoliouth's
"Mohammed" [Lib 1905] steers
a safe course between extremes in presenting the portrait of the
founder of Mohammedanism.
In Watts-Dunton's essay
on "Science and Poetry," [Lib*] you will find an Englishman's
estimate of "Sufism"; in Hogel's "Philosophy of History," [Lib*]
you will have a metaphysician's estimate of the value of Parsiism to
religion; and Emerson included an essay on "Persian Poetry" in his
"Letters and Social Aims." Scattered through the following
miscellanies you will discover many interesting things on the Persians,
In volume I of Draper's "History of
Intellectual Development of Europe" [Lib 1905; Vol 1, Vol 2] are
some interesting pages on the latter stages of Mohammedanism; you will
plates representing Persian costumes in the set of books called
of All Ages" [Lib*]; Gibbon has some larger studies of the larger world
aspects of Mohammedanism in his "Decline and Fall of the Roman
Empire," volume V [Lib 2013; Vol 5], "The Story
of the Saracens," [Lib 1894] by Arthur Gilman is found in
the set of
books called "Story of the Nations"; in his “Childhood of Religions,”
Edward Clodd prints some incisive pages of the earlier Mohammedanism;
Persian marriage customs see "Current Literature" for June, 1902;
Lady Shiel contributes an article on "Life and Manners in Persia," in
"The Living Age," volume LI, page 449; Malcolm Khann has an article
on "Persian Civilization" in "The Contemporary Review,"
volume LIX, page 238; in the "American Historical Review," volume
XII, page 602, is an interesting essay on "Persia, Past and Present,"
by A.V.W. Jackson, who knows his subject.
On the various phases of mysticism, in Persia
elsewhere, there is no better work than Evelyn Underhill's
"Mysticism." [Lib Practical
Mysticism or The Mystic Way] For
Persian pantheism, look up any good work on the history of pantheism,
especially on Sufism, which was the most vital development of pantheism
If an article or two should develop out of your
of reading, don't forget to try them out on THE BUILDER
H. L. H.
* * *
Questions on "The
Builders" And Suggestions to Study Club Committees
There was commenced in the June 1915 number of
BUILDER, on page 128, a series of questions, being a sort of catechism
Brother Newton's book "The Builders," which series was continued
until January, 1916. You also published another series of one hundred
eighty questions of a similar nature on "The Story of Freemasonry,"
during 1916. The questions, it appears, were prepared by the Cincinnati
I wish to know whether either or both of these
lists of questions have been printed in pamphlet form, and if so, where
can be obtained. Some of the Masonic brethren in this locality desire
to form a
Masonic Study Club and it would seem that these two catechisms in handy
would furnish a ready means of interesting Masons in the study of
The questions on "The Story of
Freemasonry," have not, to our knowledge, been printed elsewhere than
the columns of THE BUILDER. The questions on Brother Newton's book "The
Builders," however, have been issued in pamphlet form by "The Masters
and Wardens Club" of Grays Harbor County, Washington, and may be
through this office.
We are mailing you data concerning the course
Masonic study now running in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin section
BUILDER which will give you much additional information relative to our
that is not given in the space devoted to the subject in pages 1 and 2
Correspondence Circle Bulletin. This additional information will be
any member of the Society desiring to bring the matter before his
Several lodges that are following the course of
study in their monthly meetings have adopted the Plan of including a
all of the questions appearing in the monthly study installment (to be
page 2 of the Correspondence Circle Bulletin) in the notices of their
meetings which are sent out to all resident remembers of the lodges,
giving each member an idea of the subjects to be discussed and enabling
who are readers of THE BUILDER to study the study paper beforehand and
themselves for the subsequent discussion of the subject. As a
interest in the plan is being manifested in these particular lodges and
attendance at their meetings is constantly growing.
* * *
What is the meaning of the letters
"V.S.L." as used by Brother Haywood in his article on "The
Lights" in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin section of the September
number of THE BUILDER? I have asked a Past Master here and he cannot
These letters are an abbreviation for the
"Volume of the Sacred Law." As explained in Brother Haywood's article
other books are substituted for the Bible in non-Christian countries.
* * *
Freemasonry In 1728
In Pope's "Dunciad," [Lib*] Book 4, lines
571 and 572, appears the following:
Free-Masons, join in the silent race
Worthy to fill Pythagoras' place."
This was first published in 1728, and was
as a satire on Freemasons. Is it of any importance to us in the study
The quotation from Pope is of considerable
importance and clearly shows that Pythagoras was held in high
estimation by our
brethren of 1728, whom Pope endeavors to ridicule. Some of the theories
have been advanced are that the brethren of the early decades of the
era were devoted principally to convivial pursuits, and that the
Masonry was nearly dormant or had not yet developed.
It is also of importance in showing that
Freemasonry in 1728 was of sufficient prominence to be noticed in a
satire on the
more prominent institutions and men of that time.
* * *
The Level and the
Can you inform me where I can procure a copy of
poem "Meet upon the level, and part upon the square?" I recently
heard it delivered at a lodge meeting and was deeply impressed by it.
Two versions of this masterpiece of Brother Rob
Morris are published in his volume "The Poetry of Freemasonry," [Lib 1895] and since
neither of them have previously appeared in THE BUILDER, we herewith
The Level and the Square – [A Poem]
meet upon the
Level, and we part upon the Square ‒
What words of precious meaning those words Masonic are!
Come, let us contemplate them; they are worthy of a thought ‒
With the highest and the lowest and the rarest they are fraught.
We meet upon the level, though from every station come ‒
The King from out his palace and the poor man from his home;
For the one must leave his diadem without the Mason's door,
And the other finds his true respect upon the checkered floor
We part upon the square, for the world must have its due;
We mingle with its multitude, a cold, unfriendly crew;
But the influence of our gatherings in memory is green,
And we long, upon the level, to renew the happy scene.
There's a world where all are equal ‒ we are hurrying toward it fast ‒
We shall meet upon the level there when the gates of death are past;
We shall stand before the Orient, and our Master will be there,
To try the blocks we offer by His own unerring square.
We shall meet upon the level there, but never thence depart;
There's a mansion ‒ 'tis all ready for each zealous faithful heart;
There's a Mansion and a welcome, and a multitude is there,
Who have met upon the level and been tried upon the square.
Let us meet upon the level then, while laboring patient here ‒
Let us meet and let us labor, though the labor seem severe.
Already in the western sky the signs bid us prepare
To gather up our working tools and part upon the square!
Hands round, ye faithful Ghiblimites, the bright, fraternal chain;
We part upon the square below to meet in Heaven again.
O what words of precious meaning those words Masonic are ‒
We meet upon the Level, and we part upon the Square.
The above is the original form in which the
was written in August, 1854, while the following is a later version:
meet upon the
LEVEL and we part upon the SQUARE:
What words sublimely beautiful those words Masonic arel
They fall like strains of melody upon the listening ears,
As they've sounded hallelujah's to the world, three thousand years.
We meet upon the LEVEL, though from every station brought
The Monarch from his palace, and the Laborer from his cot;
For the King must drop his dignity when knocking at our door
And the Laborer is his equal as he walks the checkered floor.
We act upon the PLUMB ‒ 'tis our MASTER'S great command,
We stand upright in virtue's way and lean to neither hand;
The ALL-SEEING EYE that reads the heart will bear us witness true,
That we do always honor God and give each man his due.
We part upon the SQUARE ‒ for the world must have its due,
We mingle in the ranks of men, but keep The Secret true,
And the influence of our gatherings in memory is green,
And we long, upon the LEVEL, to renew the happy scene.
There's a world where all are equal ‒ we are hurrying toward it fast,
We shall meet upon the LEVEL there when the gates of death are past;
We shall stand before the Orient and our Master will be there
Our works to try, our lives to prove by His unerring SQUARE.
We shall meet upon the level there, but never thence depart.
There's a mansion bright and glorious, set for the pure in heart;
And an everlasting welcome from the Host rejoicing there,
Who in this world of sloth and sin, did part upon the SQUARE.
Let us meet upon the LEVEL, then, while laboring patient here,
Let us meet and let us labor, though the labor be severe;
Already in the Western Sky the signs bid us prepare,
To gather up our Working Tools and part upon the SQUARE.
Hands round, ye royal craftsmen in the bright, fraternal chain!
We part upon the SQUARE below to meet in heaven again;
Each tie that has been broken here shall be cemented there,
And none be lost around the Throne who parted on the SQUARE.
The Symbolic Lights
In connection with the article on the Symbolic
Lights, by Brother Atchison in the September number of THE BUILDER
some interesting information bearing on the subject to be found in vol.
the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, pages 243-264, in an article on "The
Evolution of the Tracing Board." [Lib 1916] I would especially call
attention to figures 2
and 3 in which the position of the three symbolic lights is given from
different rituals. In "Masonry Dissected," published in 1730, there
is no reference to the greater or lesser lights, but there is a
the three lights of the lodge and the three fixed lights of the lodge.
catechism is as follows:
Q. Have you any lights in your lodge?
A. Yes; three.
Q. What do they represent?
A. Sun, Moon and Master Mason.
(N. B. These lights are three large candles
on high candlesticks.)
Q. Why so?
A. Sun to rule the Day, Moon the Night, and Master Mason his lodge.
Q. Have you any fixed lights in your lodge?
Q. How many?
(N. B. These fixed lights are three windows
supposed to be in every room where a lodge is held.)
Q. How are they situated?
A. East, South and West.
Q. What are their uses?
A. To light the men to, at and from their work.
Q. Why are there no lights in the North?
A. Because the sun darts no rays hence.
It is not until 1860 that I find a reference to
three greater and three lesser lights, and at this time we have the
Square and Compasses introduced as the three great lights of Masonry.
candles are here referred to as the three lesser lights, representing
Moon and Master Mason, thus, you will note, transposing the present
which the three candles are representatives of the three lesser lights.
Possibly the change was made earlier than 1760, in which the Bible is
introduced as one of the three greater lights but I do not find any
it, and so far as I know, the statement so often made that it was not
1760 that the Bible became one of the three great lights of Masonry is
It was not Preston who made the Bible one of
three great lights in 1760, for he was not made a Mason until 1762.
I would also call attention to the position of
lights in the various figures illustrated in the before-mentioned
the Carmick Manuscript, 1727, is a floor cloth which gives two candles
of three. In the French ritual, as shown in figures 9, 10, 11 and 12,
candles are shown as placed in the northeast, southeast and southwest
of the lodge, in figure 10, while in figure 11 it appears as though
there was a
three-branched candlestick in each of these three corners. In figure 12
is a design representing a window in the southeast corner, one in the
and a third in the west, slightly to the right of the Senior Warden's
In the frontispiece accompanying the article on
"The Scald Miserable Masons," which appeared in THE BUILDER for
October, 1917, will be noticed a representation of the Sun, Moon and
carried in the procession. In the inscription these are called the
great lights" ‒ the Sun, hieroglyphically, to rule the day, the Moon,
emblematically, to rule the night, and the Master Mason, politically,
the lodge. This might indicate that prior to 1760, or at least in 1742,
three great lights were what we now call the three lesser lights. At
any rate I
find no reference to the three great and three lesser lights prior to
* * *
In the Question Box department of the August
of THE BUILDER there appears an interesting question and answer
crosses. The answer, in my opinion, is incorrect.
Heraldry is built upon a number of figures,
directions, postures and positions, each of which mean some particular
and is intended to convey some particular meaning. It may be a plain
which is one of the Ordinaries of heraldry, by which is meant a figure,
which by its ordinary and frequent use in a shield of arms becomes most
essential to the science of heraldry.
When the word "cross" is mentioned in
heraldry, the plain arms crossed at right angles, arms of equal length,
meant. Now if one arm is longer than the other. its name is no longer
"cross", but "passion cross", although that is not exactly
correct If we take the original cross and place across or on the ends
four arms a short bar, making each arm look like the top of an
crutch made in the country shop, it is no longer a cross, but a cross
for the reason that each arm has the appearance of a portion of a
in Chaucer's time was called a "potent." If from the center of the
crossing of the arms you depict light, short lines diverging in all
it is not a cross, but a "cross rayonnant," or rayed.
Now, if the Blue Lodge should adopt the cross,
could not properly call it a "Blue Lodge cross." If we found that the
Consistory, in using a "cross potent", described it as a
"Teutonic cross" I would conclude that this term was used to make it
more simple of understanding to us folk who would want to know the
to be used, since not many of us have heard the word "potent", do not
know its original meaning, and have never met Chaucer.
I have three very old standard books on my
One makes no mention of the word "Teutonic," although the cross
potent is described and illustrated, as are thousands of other emblems.
shows plates of decorations and gives the history of the Teutonic
their badge is shown as an attenuated design of a cross "patee,” while
star (or cross) of the Order is a pure cross "patee." This Order
still exists as a fief of Austria. They have had very interesting
have but little prominence now; almost all of their lands have been
from them and they have been conquered by the Poles and West Prussians.
Napoleon abolished the Order in the Rhinish provinces. When a new
Austria comes to the throne, the brand Master must renew his fief.
nothing to connect our thirty-second degree jewel with the Teutonic
In Edmonson's ''Complete Body of Heraldry,"
the Herald's Bible, it is stated that the original badge of the old
Knights was a "cross potence sable," or a black "cross
potent", (remember the crutch,) and at subsequent times were added a
double potent gold cross, then the imperial eagle, and St. Louis of
them a green cross-bar on which appears the fleur-de-lis of France. The
Masonic cross does resemble this only in the "cross" particular, but
it must be remembered that because the Teutonic Knights adopted or were
the use of the "cross-potent" as a badge, that did not in any way
make it a "Teutonic cross" ‒ it is still a "cross potent."
(In the Question Box department of the February
number of THE BUILDER, on page 63, we described the jewel of the
degree as a Teutonic cross of gold with certain embellishments. We took
authority the Statutes of the Supreme Council of the Southern
Possibly Brother Hugo will enlighten us concerning this official
* * *
In THE BUILDER for June, 1917, I found a
signed by one T.J.D. asking "Why preachers limit Brotherhood by the
'in Christ'?" As you pointed out it would been better had your
correspondent asked a preacher.
Let me point out that the expression has a
meaning, one universal and one limited. First: "Because we thus judge
Christ died for all then were all dead, and that he died for all," etc.
Recognizing therefore that Christ died for all, we address men as
"Brothers in Christ". For we believe "in God the Son who has
redeemed me and all mankind". Secondly: The phrase may have, according
the connection in which it is used, a more restricted meaning, as a
also believes in the same Christ as we do. In such connection it no
"limits" Brotherhood than one speaks of a brother in the ministry, or
a brother Mason, or a brother anything else.
Masons, at least, should understand the use of
a phrase, when, although they recognize in every son of Adam a brother
dust, they are also expected to keep in due bounds with all mankind,
especially with their brethren in Masonry.
Literary History of Persia
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Masonic Sketches and Reprints
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Mohammed and the Rise of Islam
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Morals and Dogma
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The Childhood of Religion
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The Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire Vol 1
Gib13RF1 / auth. Gibbon Edward. - Pictou : ronigo, 2013. - Vol. 1 : 6 :
p. 373. - 2.8 MB.
The Decline and Fall of the
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The Decline and Fall of the
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The Decline and Fall of the
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The Decline and Fall of the
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The Decline and Fall of the
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The Dhammapada and The
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The Divine Mystery
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The Grihya-sutras Vol 1
Mul86SBE29 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1886. - Vol.
29 : 50 : p. 480. - 13.4 MB.
The Grihya-sutras Vol 2
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30 : 50 : p. 412. - 10.3 MB.
The History of Persia Vol 1
Mal29HP1 / auth. Malcolm John. - London : John Murray, 1829. - Vol. 1 :
2 : p. 577. - 25.4 MB.
The History of Persia Vol 2
Mal29HP2 / auth. Malcolm John. - London : John Murray, 1829. - Vol. 2 :
2 : p. 602. - 28.0 MB.
The Inside of the Cup
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The Jaina Sūtras Vol 1
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The Jaina Sūtras Vol 2
Mul95SBE45 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1895. - Vol.
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The Laws of Manu
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The Life and Times of Jesus the
Messiah Vol 2
Ede99LT2 / auth. Edersheim Alfred. - New York : Longmans, Green, and
Co., 1899. - 8th and Revised Edition : Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 830. - 58.6 MB.
The Minor Law-Books Brihaspati
Mul89SBE33 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1889. - Vol.
33 : 50 : p. 415. - 11.6 MB.
The Mystic Way
Und13 / auth. Underhill Evelyn. - New York : E. P. Dutton &
Co., 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 409. - 13.1 MB.
The Pahlavi Texts Vol 1
Mul80SBE05 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1880. - Vol.
5 : 50 : p. 507. - 14.5 MB.
The Pahlavi Texts Vol 2
Mul82SBE18 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1882. - Vol.
18 : 50 : p. 552. - 15.2 MB.
The Pahlavi Texts Vol 3
Mul85SBE24 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1885. - Vol.
24 : 50 : p. 419. - 12.3 MB.
The Pahlavi Texts Vol 4
Mul92SBE37 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1892. - Vol.
37 : 50 : p. 562. - 14.5 MB.
The Pahlavi Texts Vol 5
Mul97SBE47 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1897. - Vol.
47 : 50 : p. 332. - 10.5 MB.
The Poetry of Freemasonry
Mor95 / auth. Morris Rob. - New York : The Werner Company, 1895. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 420. - 10.5 MB.
The Prophets of Israel
Cor99 / auth. Cornill Carl H / trans. Corkran Sutton F. - Chicago : The
Open Court Publishing Company, 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 215. - 7.0 MB.
The Questions of King Milinda
Mul90SBE35 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1890. - Vol.
35 : 50 : p. 425. - 10.9 MB.
The Questions of King Milinda
Mul94SBE36 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1894. - Vol.
36 : 50 : p. 421. - 9.5 MB.
The Qur’an Vol 1
Mul80SBE06 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1880. - Vol.
6 : 50 : p. 385. - 7.8 MB.
The Qur’an Vol 2
Mul80SBE09 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1880. - Vol.
9 : 50 : p. 370. - 8.9 MB.
Kha59 / auth. Khayyam Omar / trans. Fitzgerald Edward. - New York :
Illustrated Editions Company, 1859. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 162. -
Illustrated - 24.8 MB.
The Sacred Books of China -
Mul79SBE03 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1879. - Vol.
3 : 50 : p. 551. - 53.9 MB.
The Sacred Books of China Vol 2
Mul82SBE16 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1882. - Vol.
16 : 50 : p. 468. - 12.6 MB.
The Sacred Books of China Vol 3
Mul85SBE27 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1885. - Vol.
27 : 50 : p. 535. - 13.7 MB.
The Sacred Books of China Vol 4
Mul85SBE28 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1885. - Vol.
28 : 50 : p. 502. - 12.1 MB.
The Sacred Laws of the Aryas
Mul97SBE02 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1897. - Vol.
2 : 50 : p. 379. - 33.2 MB.
The Sacred Laws of the Aryas
Mul82SBE14 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1882. - Vol.
14 : 50 : p. 402. - 11.3 MB.
Mul84SBE21 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1884. - Vol.
21 : 50 : p. 495. - 12.2 MB.
The Satapatha Brahmana Vol 1
Mul82SBE12 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1882. - Vol.
12 : 50 : p. 502. - 13.8 MB.
The Satapatha Brahmana Vol 2
Mul85SBE26 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1885. - Vol.
26 : 50 : p. 508. - 14.8 MB.
The Satapatha Brahmana Vol 3
Mul94SBE41 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1894. - Vol.
41 : 50 : p. 458. - 11.3 MB.
The Satapatha Brahmana Vol 4
Mul97SBE43 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1897. - Vol.
43 : 50 : p. 446. - 11.5 MB.
The Satapatha Brahmana Vol 5
Mul00SBE44 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1900. - Vol.
44 : 50 : p. 655. - 21.2 MB.
The Story of Persia
Ben87 / auth. Benjamin S G W. - New York : Putnam's Sons, 1887. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 322. - 16.7 MB.
The Story of the Saracens
Gil94 / auth. Gilman Arthur. - New York : G P Puntnam's Sons, 1894. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 519. - 34.5 MB.
The Symbolism of Freemasonry
Mac82 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Clark and Maynard, 1882. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 365. - 18.2 MB.
The Texts of Taoism Part 1
Mul91SBE39 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1891. - Vol.
39 : 50 : p. 338. - 10.3 MB.
The Texts of Taoism Part 2
Mul91SBE40 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1891. - Vol.
40 : 50 : p. 356. - 7.8 MB.
The Upanishads Part 1
Mul79SBE01 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1879. - Vol.
1 : 50 : p. 415. - 34.0 MB.
The Upanishads Part 2
Mul84SBE15 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1884. - Vol.
15 : 50 : p. 393. - 9.8 MB.
The Vedanta-Sutras Vol 1
Mul90SBE34 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1890. - Vol.
34 : 50 : p. 572. - 15.6 MB.
The Vedanta-Sutras Vol 2
Mul96SBE38 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1896. - Vol.
38 : 50 : p. 527. - 14.2 MB.
The Vedanta-Sutras Vol 3
Mul04SBE48 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1904. - Vol.
48 : 50 : p. 817. - 26.0 MB.
The Vinaya Texts Vol 1
Mul81SBE13 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1881. - Vol.
13 : 50 : p. 394. - 9.6 MB.
The Vinaya Texts Vol 2
Mul82SBE17 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1882. - Vol.
17 : 50 : p. 448. - 11.9 MB.
The Vinaya Texts Vol 3
Mul85SBE30 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1885. - Vol.
20 : 50 : p. 449. - 11.9 MB.
The Zend-Avesta Vol 1
Mul95SBE04 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1895. - Vol.
4 : 50 : p. 488. - 13.1 MB.
The Zend-Avesta Vol 2
Mul83SBE23 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1883. - Vol.
23 : 50 : p. 401. - 9.8 MB.
The Zend-Avesta Vol 3
Mul87SBE31 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1887. - Vol.
31 : 50 : p. 450. - 12.4 MB.
Universal Masonic Library Vol 06
Var55ML06 / auth. Various. - New York : Jno W Leonard & Co,
1855. - Vol. 6 : 30 : p. 409. - 19.7 MB.
Universal Masonic Library Vol 10
Var55ML10 / auth. Various. - New York : Jno W Leonard & Co,
1855. - Vol. 10 : 30 : p. 435. - 27.1 MB.
Vedic Hymns Vol 1
Mul91SBE32 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1891. - Vol.
32 : 50 : p. 687. - 18.9 MB.
Vedic Hymns Vol 2
Mul97SBE46 / auth. Muller Max. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1897. - Vol.
46 : 50 : p. 518. - 13.0 MB.
Zend Avesta Pt. 1 Vendidad
Zor80 / auth. Zoroaster / trans. Darmesteter James. - Oxford : Oxford
Univesity Press, 1880. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 720. - 2.7 MB.
Jac99 / auth. Jackson A V Williams. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 338. - 9.6 MB.