Masonic Research Society
of the Temple
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
MORE than a year has passed since I paid my
to the House of the Temple, headquarters for the Scottish Rite for the
Jurisdiction, which stands in Washington, but the impressions remain as
as though I had seen it yesterday. There are many remarkable buildings
in our Capital
City, some of them historic, a few of them beautiful; but, with the
of the Capitol building itself, the House of the Temple is the most
beautiful of them all. He who has seen the building, outside and
inside, will say
this whether he be a Mason or not.
I shall never forget my first view of it. On a
April morning it stood amid the fog as something almost eerie and
that palace which Coleridge saw in his vision of Kublai Khan; there was
it which seemed to speak of antiquity, as though the genius of the
had wandered into the Capital City of the new West; it had an air of
about it which made it hard to believe that it had not yet been
completed five years.
In general shape it is patterned after the
Mausoleum which Queen Artemisia erected to contain the ashes of her
hundred and fifty-three years before the birth of Christ. The body of
is cubical, as is appropriate in a structure which is to serve as an
altar of Freemasonry.
The roof is a series of stone terraces which rise to an apex. The
around the cornice is as beautiful as was ever seen on a Grecian Temple.
The building is much larger than it first
when seen from a distance. One approaches it up a series of three,
five, seven and
nine steps; the platforms between these series are so wide that one
could set a
large building on each one. At either side stands a huge sphinx,
dreaming and brooding
with level eyes, as though it were still standing on the banks of
My mind still lay under the hush of these
when I knocked at the door and was received by a guide who is there to
of the hundred or more visitors who enter the portals every day. He
stowed my umbrella
away in a safe place and told me to feel at home. But one couldn't very
at home in that magnificent, but subdued, atrium in which I found
myself. Far overhead
was a carved and gilded ceiling, like a dream of beauty in the upper
either side was a row of giant monoliths, pillars of the house, of
granite, their sides fluted. Behind each of these stood a seat, also of
in the center was a table of Cavanazza marble. At the further end was
stairway which leads to the council chamber of the Supreme Council; to
coldness of its white marble, John Russell Pope had set in a band of
it is one of the boldest strokes of architectural genius about the
Keeping watch at the foot of this stairway were two Egyptian figures, a
reminder, were one needed, that Masonry is as old as the world.
On both sides of this atrium, or lobby, are the
leading into the offices of Grand Commander, the Secretary General and
at the left side is the entrance into the executive chamber of the
these walnut doors are so hidden away in the shadows at the side that
they do not
disturb the unity or serenity of the great chamber itself.
From Secretary General Brother John H. Cowles I
a welcome as warm as the cheerful fire which blazed in the wide
fireplace near his
desk. He introduced me to the Librarian, Brother William L. Boyden, who
me around" the library. Being something of a bibliomaniac I have been
to see many libraries but none that I have ever entered has left quite
impression. It is dignified but homelike and the atmosphere about it
as conducive to prayer as to study. The library room proper lies in a
the building; it opens into a semi-circular series of stack-rooms which
across the end of the building that lies opposite to the entrance.
The center of interest in the library
is the collection of mementoes of Albert Pike. Here were several
of his body lying in a casket; here was one of the quill pens with
which he wrote;
the scrap of paper containing his last words before death; badges and
once decorated his breast; family albums; his family Bible, and a
ritual which he
wrote. There was also a collection of pipes, one of them valued at
$600, a prize
winner at the Paris Exposition. Brother Boyden told me that the General
every one of them; the size of two or three gave me an added respect
for the General's
powers. One of them looked as though it would have held enough tobacco
for a week's
The center of the Pike collection, it needs not
was in the cases full of his original manuscripts. He had written all
of these by
hand, with meticulous care, so that one might look through several
seeing so much as one misformed letter; the writing was not in the
script but more like a page of copperplate, the letters being shaped
Of these manuscripts, all of them bound like books, there were, I
eighty: "Maxims of Roman Law" in thirteen volumes; "Maxims of Military
Science and Art" in six volumes; "Vocabulary of Indian Language"
in one volume; materials for a history of France in six volumes (part
of this has
been published); "Commentaries of the Kabbala" in two volumes; Masonic
Rituals in twelve volumes; moreover there was also a volume of
by his secretary from notes dictated by Pike himself. There were many
Eastern Philosophy which he had translated. These evidences of the
intellect impress one almost more than the size and grandeur of the
which they are preserved.
In addition to all this there was a compass
had used in the Southwest; his set of chess men; a chair which he had
for himself, with a patent, spring in it for raising and lowering the
ring for the fourteenth degree, and much of his Masonic Regalia. It may
that the last words before mentioned were addressed to Brother
Secretary General at that time, and read as follows:
"Shalom: Peace ‒ that comes with blessing to
men, when death's dreamless sleep ends all suffering and sorrow."
One of the rare mementoes in the library is a
of Albert Mackey made in January, 1859. Among the 85,000 volumes in the
40,000 are on Masonic subjects. There is also a collection of rare old
Rite patents and many other documents of almost priceless value. About
stand some six busts, one of them of Pike; these faces of past leaders,
thousands of volumes ranged about them, brought home to one's mind how
been the intellectual labor devoted to Masonry.
On the same floor with the library is the
chamber of the Supreme Council. Honorary members of the Council are
attend when meetings are held in the great chamber on the second floor
"active Thirty-Thirds" are ever admitted to the executive chamber while
the Supreme Council is in session there. The room is so beautiful as to
It is the most beautiful room that I ever saw. An altar stands in the
for the members are built against the wall, and each seat is furnished
with an accoustic
apparatus which enables the hard-of-hearing to catch every word that is
Needless to say, there is a complete telephone service in this and in
in the building. It would be hard to find anything that is lacking in
The floor immediately beneath this is mainly
to the banquet room, albeit there are a number of committee rooms
around the side.
In the banquet room are twelve tables which will seat ninety-six men;
tables are in fumed quartered oak, ivory finish; carpets, hangings and
make a king proud. Behind the banquet room is a serving room,
and furnished with every imaginable convenience.
Immediately underneath is a kitchen that would
any housewife green with envy. I shall not describe that kitchen lest
who chances to read this will apply for a position there the next time
Council meets. It is a dream of a-kitchen. On this same floor is a
with capacity for four hundred tons of coal; also a ventilating plant
$80,000.00, and actually ventilates.
Somewhere on one or the other of these two
(I do not remember just where) I ran across the office of that genial
Mason, Brother Horace P. McIntosh, the editor of The New Age. He told
me many strange
things about Masonry in foreign parts, all of which were true, for,
McIntosh was once a sailor, he is also a Scotchman. He showed me a
of The New Age with a great deal of pride, as was fitting, because The
New Age is
the best Masonic magazine in the world with the exception of one; what
is I am too modest to say.
The heart and soul of the House of the Temple
Supreme Council Chamber which occupies the floor just above the
The door leading into the chamber is itself a supreme work of art; it
is of oak
covered with leather. Just inside is a high wooden screen which shuts
off the view
of the interior when the door is opened; in a concealed room above this
the pipe organ, not a sign of which is anywhere visible in the chamber
shall not attempt to describe the chamber itself; I don't know how.
At the center stands an altar of black marble,
the bottom of which runs this legend:
"From the light of the Divine Word, the Logos,
comes the wisdom of life and the goal of initiation."
As a frieze about the room runs another
selected by Brother George F. Moore, Grand Commander:
"Unto the Divine Light of the Holy Altar, from
the outer darkness of ignorance, through the shadow of our earth life,
beautiful path of initiation."
Above the Grand Commander's station is a vast
round which coils a huge serpent which symbolizes, one may suppose,
the two sides of the room are twenty-six desks for the active members;
are seats for the honorary members. There are great windows at the side
massive curtains, and at the top are sky-light windows, the shades over
operated electrically. The furniture is in Circassian walnut. This
sounds as if
the room might appear luxurious, but it is not so; the effect is one of
and grace, as befits the council chamber of a Scottish Rite.
At one corner of the room, behind a small door,
spiral stairway leading down to the bottommost floor. One look down
that dizzy well
of space helps one to understand the total height of the building,
which is more
than four stories, though it does not appear so high from the street.
Everything about the building was especially
for it; nothing was used out of stock. The entire structure, it may be
those who are curious about such matters, cost more than two million
fifteen or more employed in the building all of the time.
The erection of the House of the Temple was
direction of an executive committee of five, the chairman of which was
E. Rosenbaum, of Little Rock, Arkansas, General Pike's old home. The
John Russell Pope, whose design for the building won the national
prize in 1916.
The House of the Temple is the Headquarters of
Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite; it is also a monument to the memory
Albert Pike whose genius made the Scottish Rite what it is. As one
it he feels as if the heroic, scholarly, eloquent spirit of that great
were hovering about him.
The Mason's Holy House – [A Poem]
(By Albert Pike)
have a Holy House
A Temple splendid and divine
To be with glorious memories filled;
Of Right and Truth to be the Shrine;
How shall we build it strong and fair ‒
This Holy House of praise and prayer
Firm set and solid, grandly great?
How shall we all its rooms prepare
For use, for ornament, for State?
Our God hath given the wood and stone
And we must fashion them aright,
Like those who toiled on Lebanon,
Making the labor their delight;
This House, this palace, this God's Home,
This Temple with its lofty dome,
Must be in all proportions fit
That heavenly messengers may come
To lodge with those who tenant it.
Build squarely upon the stately walls
The two symbolic columns raise,
And let the lofty courts and halls
With all their golden glories blaze
There, in the Kadosh Kadoshim
Between the broad-winged cherubim,
Where the Shekinah once abode
The heart shall raise its daily hymns
Of gratitude and love to God.
Masonry in the Seventeenth Century
By Bro. Ossian Lang. Grand
Historian. Grand Lodge of New York
Central Tenets of the Brethren
of the Rosy Cross
FLUDD and Frisius agree in essential points. As
"Summum Bonum" supplies all we need for our present purpose, we may
from this work whatever information is desired for our inquiry. The
turns around the stone, Aben, (1) and the building of the House of
is an abundance of allegorical uses of the word stone or stones, in the
New Testaments, which are made use of by Frisius to justify the
philosophy of the
Brethren of the Rosy Cross.
"Thus saith the Lord of hosts: Consider your
go up to the hill-country and bring wood and build the house." ‒ Haggai
"They that are far off shall come and build in
the temple of the Lord." ‒ Zechariah VI, 15.
"Wisdom hath builded a house, She hath hewn out
her seven pillars." ‒ Proverbs IX, 1.
"Through wisdom is a house builded, "And by
understanding it is established; "And by knowledge are the chambers
"With all precious and pleasant riches." ‒ Proverbs XXIV, 3-4.
"The wise man buildeth his house upon a rock.
rains may descend and the floods come; the winds may blow and beat upon
it will not fall; for it is founded upon a rock." ‒ St. Matthew VII,
Aben, Frisius argues, is the cabalistic stone. In it, we have the Holy
For in Hebrew, Ab means Father and Ben Son; but where the Father and
the Son are
present there the Holy Ghost must also be.
Aben is then explained as the foundation stone
universe, the macrocosm. ("The Lord answered Job out of the whirlwind
Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? Declare if
thou hast understanding.
Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the
‒ Job XXXVIII, 1, 4, 6.)
The macrocosmic Aben, then, is the foundation
of all and for all. It was laid in Zion, and all the prophets and
upon it, though the ignorant and wicked builders rejected it as a
and stone of contention:
"Thus saith the Lord God: "Behold, I lay in
Zion for a foundation a stone, "A tried stone, a costly corner-stone of
foundation. "He that believeth shall not make haste. "And I will make
justice the line, "And righteousness the plummet." ‒ Isaiah XXVIII,
"According to the grace of God which is given
me as a wise Master builder, I have laid the foundation, and another
But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.... For other
no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ." ‒ St. Paul, 1;
"The stone which the builders rejected "Is
become the chief corner-stone." ‒ Psalm CXVIII, 22.
"As it is written in the scripture, Behold, I
in Zion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth in
not be confounded.
"Unto you, therefore, which believe, he is
but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders
same is made the head of the corner, and a stone of stumbling, and a
rock of offence,
even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient." ‒ I Peter
If we consider the significance of Aben for the
man (the microcosm, or the universe on a small scale), we find we are
parts of the
same spiritual stone, "cut out of that catholic (universal) rock":
"Coming to Christ, as unto a living stone,
indeed of men, but chosen of God and precious: Ye also, as living
stones, be ye
built up a spiritual house." ‒ I Peter II, 4-6.
In other words: Build yourselves upon Christ,
foundation stone, as living stones, to a house of God.
"We are laborers together with God: Ye are
husbandry, Ye are God's building." ‒ I Cor. III, 9.
"Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and
that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man defile this temple
of God, him
shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy which temple ye are."
Cor. III, 16-17.Nor are those excluded who are-not of our faith. The
temple of God
is built up of all men who seek Him and strive to know Him. Quoting
John, the Baptist:
"Say not within yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father': for I say
you, That God is able of these stones to raise up children unto
The plan of the building which the Fraternity
Rosy Cross is seeking to establish is given in the words of Hebrews
XIII, 1: "Let
brotherly love continue."
"Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for
to dwell together in unity." ‒ Psalm CXXXIII, 1.
An example of the mystic, allegorical
of the Scriptures, met with everywhere in Rosy Cross literature, is the
As Christ was hidden in that Rock or Stone,
days of Moses, since the spiritual is usually concealed in the
physical, so also
does Moses conceal in his writings the spiritual Aben; that is why we
say he wrote
under a veil, i. e. mystically. That is why the Apostle Paul says (II
6) "The letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life."
"The Lord said unto Moses, Behold, I will stand
before thee, there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shall smite the
rock, and there
shall come water out of it, that the people may drink." ‒ Exodus XVII,
"Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should
be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all
the sea; "And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea;
did all eat the same spiritual meal; "And did all drink the same
drink; for they drank of that spiritual Rock that went with them: and
was Christ." ‒ I Cor. X, 1-4.
Alchemistically expressed, the water which
the Rock was potable gold, the word of God, words of Wisdom.
That suggests also what we Alchemists mean when
of producing gold. It is not the gold the multitude hankers for. Ours
gold, the gold of God, that which the Psalmist calls silver:
"The words of the Lord are pure words, "As
silver tried in a crucible on the earth, refined seven times." ‒ Psalm
The Rosy Cross alchemy in the transmutation of
metals into gold, is not that of the spurious Rosicrucians who deceive
by false promises; it takes the base, natural man and turns him by its
a new, spiritual man, through the Word of God and the practice of
In the same manner the rough ashlar is turned
As God has promised to dwell among men, to have
tabernacle among them, we must with all our strength and with spiritual
for Aben. As the prophet Isaiah says: "Ye that seek the Lord, Look unto
rock whence ye were hewn." (Isaiah LI, 1.)
The first step toward finding this Rock (the
Stone) is to look for it within yourself; hence begin to know thyself.
If you desire
help from the writings of the Alchemists, remember that these wrote
them in a veiled,
mystic manner. Thus Darnaeus says "Change ‒ oh! change yourselves from
stones into living philosophical stones!"
In order to realize the chemical steps of
we must first seek to discover the true sense of the Alchemists through
insight. Then it will be found that they wrote differently and wanted
to be understood
differently. (Masonically speaking, one must first possess "the key of
to interpret correctly.)
We summarize, as follows; always following the
The human body is a temple. Christ is its
When we raise this corner-stone, His temple is also raised, as was the
Solomon, when his players were fulfilled and the glory of the Lord
"Similarly, Kephas and Aben were at one time
dead stones, now become living stones through an actual transmutation,
in that from
the condition of Adam after his fall from grace they transformed
Adam's original state of innocence and perfection; just as if there had
a transmutation from ordinary dirty lead into the purest gold. And this
took place by the intermediation of that living gold as of the mystic
stone of the
Philosophers, which to us represents the divine emanation of wisdom.
however, is the gift of God, and nothing else."
More Light from the "Summum
The study of true Magic, the Cabala and
the sciences called the three principal columns of the house of wisdom.
is meant the art of wisdom practised by the Magi who came to worship
the new born
Christ. Cabala stands for mystic mathematics (or strength). Chemistry
as the study of nature (beauty). The true Brethren of the Rosy Cross
architects who build the house of God, after the manner already
Why did the Brethren adopt the name of the Rosy
There is an order of the Holy Cross. The Knights who went to war
against the Saracens
bore on their cloaks the emblem of a deep red cross. The Brethren have
true and living cross of Christ as the emblem of wisdom, that mystic
the Bible calls the Tree of Life whose root is the Word of Light.
The color of the cross is that of blood or as
red roses mixed with lilies.
(We omit all mystic elaboration of the ideas
indicated nor do we include other matters which have no bearing on the
of the Freemasonry of the Symbolic Lodge.)
R. C. Brethren as Master
Builders and Form of the Lodge
Finally, the Brother is to labor at the
this work in the character of an architect, or master builder. (I Cor.
In order that the structure may be firmly
in order that we may arrive at the rosy blood of the cross hidden
within the foundation
stone, we must dig from the surface to the center, we must seek and
we pursue our work with zeal, all our efforts will be wasted. All
bodies have manifest
height, occult depth and intermediate breadth. From the manifest form
of a body
we can only conjecture what its occult form must be, when we destroy
to advance to the revelation of its occult form. The truth of this is
we contemplate the depth of the geometric cube.
The wise artist and the true religious
penetrate the earth and labor in every particle of the threefold
dimension, if he
wants to find the true rectangular foundation stone which God has laid
in the foundation
of the earth (Job 38, 4-6). Then he will know that "the love of Christ
knowledge, and that ye might be filled with all the fullness of God."
Then knock and strike zealously and
"Ye have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin." (Heb. XII,
4). Here the Apostle teaches us occultly that a transgression here,
there, not emanating from the pure truth which is Christ Jesus, is
must be broken off and gotten rid of, from the human or soul-endowed
truth will illumine the master builder and true Brother, and it will
gleam in a
rose-red or blood-colored glow, and he will see in this divine light
his own light
and receive and enjoy at last the wages of his labors. Then he shall be
a Brother of the Rosy Cross and he shall be called a member of the true
The Royal Art
Everything thus far has been gathered from the
Bonum," arranged so as to serve best our present purpose and in
suitable to our times, without however changing the essence and the
spirit. I shall
add no extended comment. The brethren who are at home in the language,
and the spirit of Freemasonry can gather their own conclusions. What
has been gleaned
from the work of Frisius, together with the notes on the symbolism of
would seem to be quite sufficient to explain why the Brethren of the
should have been considered the forebears of the Accepted Free Masons.
a brief concluding summary, we must give a moment's attention to the
of the idea of the Royal Art which is the true name of Freemasonry.
First let us take another word from the "Summum
Bonum," which describes the Rosy Cross view of the Royal Art:
There were in antiquity,
four renowned schools of natural Magic, to-wit, the Hindoo, the
Persian, the Chaldaic
and the Egyptian. From the Persians came those three Kings (Magi, Wise
were seeking the new born "King of the Jews," to present gifts unto Him
and to worship Him. The sons of Persian Kings, as Plato has related in
were initiated into Magic that they might learn from the study of the
the universe how best to govern their own dominions and to preserve
order and administer
justice therein. Cicero, too, speaks of this, in his "De Divinatione,"
saying that no one was crowned among the Persians with the royal diadem
he had been fully instructed in Magic. That is why Oriental kings were
so well grounded
in wisdom and coveted the name of Magi or Wise Men. Hence those who
came from the
far East to worship the Christ child, were called by the Holy Spirit
Recalling that in the early days of the Grand
of England we met repeatedly with the declaration, "There have been
have been of this sodality," we shall have another clue to the
Freemasonry, as it was conceived by the organizers of the speculative
Or take this quotation from "The Master's Song"
of the premier Grand Lodge:
Thus mighty Eastern
Kings, and some
Of Abram's Race, and Monarchs good
Of Egypt, Syria, Greece and Rome.
True Architecture understood.
Who can unfold the
Or sing its Secrets in a Song?
They're safely kept in Mason's heart
And to the ancient Lodge belong.
Those familiar with the Constitutions of 1723
changes were made to make the ancient "Charges" conform to the newly
ideals of the Fraternity. What was there said regarding the attitude
"old Gothic Constitutions," applies also to the religious tenets of the
Brethren of the Rosy Cross. The changes gave a simplified definition of
Art," though the spirit remained what it had been in the "Summum
Indicating the new meaning in the briefest form, I would answer:
What is the Royal Art? The practice of the
And the Royal Law?
"If ye fulfill the Royal Law according to the
Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself, ye do well." So wrote St.
first Bishop of Jerusalem, the same who declared that "Pure religion
before God and the Father is this; to visit the fatherless and widows
in their affliction,
and to keep himself unspotted from the world."
In conclusion, I beg to submit a summary
findings based on many years of search to arrive at some sort of
of the puzzling question as to the derivation of the substance of
summary is not complete and is intended to serve merely as a supplement
to my paper
on "Freemasonry and the Medieval Craft Gilds."
The establishment of Christianity was
by the marvelous rise of the power of the Church and the rigid
application of this
power. The first need and therefore the first care was to establish
in the faith.
The disintegration of that which had been the
Empire had sounded the death knell for pagan civilization. An era of
The most extravagant teachings were in circulation. Passions and vices
because of the prevailing anarchy. A cult of a thousand years had been
by a young cult which had the promise of eternity but had not then been
firmly enough to compel respect. People hesitated between the creed of
and the creed of the tomorrow. There was one giant among men, who had
to choose, and having chosen, to battle for his creed without
weakening. That was
St. Augustin, the great Doctor of the Church, mystic and man of action,
and master organizer and administrator. He united in himself the genius
of the Semitic
race with the wisdom of the Latins, the Greeks and the Alexandrians. He
be called the establisher of the Roman Church which became, and for a
thereafter remained, the supreme ruler of Western Europe. (2)
One indirect but quite logical effect of St.
war upon heresies was the suppression of every form of free speculation
Unity of creed must be established at any cost. The apostasy of the
had convinced doubting ecclesiastics of the danger lurking in an
of study. Three years after the death of St. Augustin, the Fourth
Council of Carthage
(in 398) formally prohibited the reading of secular books even by the
529, the philosophical schools were abolished by decree of Emperor
Freedom of thought cannot be suppressed by
But a check may be put on the expression of thought. And it was put on.
sprang up secret ("invisible") Colleges, Academies, Lodges, etc., for
meetings of independent seekers after truth. In Italy, particularly,
associations-displayed great activity, hiding their real purposes under
and forms selected to mislead the watchful spies of the hierarchy. (4)
Members of the Academy of the Trowel, for
wear builders' aprons and display builders' tools, presenting the
a gild of operative Masons. By giving mystic meanings to emblems of a
operative character, they could freely discuss prohibited topics in a
understood by trusted initiates. If they wished to be regarded as men
architectural subjects, they would try to have those present who were
reputed to be interested in such matters. The membership was made up
scientists, philosophers, architects, musicians, painters, sculptors
In spite of their camouflage, the brethren of
"invisible" lodges were occasionally discovered. Yet so well were their
secrets guarded that practically no firsthand knowledge of them has
come down to
us, though we can obtain information enough from Roman Catholic
sources, if we make
proper allowances for always unmistakable prejudices. Thus Pastor in
"History of the Popes" [Lib 1891-1953; (40 Volumes –
to the "invisible" Roman Academy founded by Julius Pomponius Laetus,
in the University of Rome, in the fifteenth century, as "the center of
for all discontented and pagan Humanists." We are told that the
religious usages, regarded themselves as a college of priests, with
Grand High Priest. Gregovorius who is quoted with approval, calls the
classical Freemasons Lodge."
The Brethren of the Academy of Pomponius were
under Pope Paul II (1464-1471), as having conspired to kill the Holy
they were pagans and materialists, etc. Imprisonment and death
threatened the Brethren.
"Safety first" in those days meant punishing the accused first and
afterward. Most of the Academicians fled. Ultimately all were, on the
of Scotch verdict, absolved from the charge of heresy. Owing to the
of the scholarly and liberal Cardinal Bessarion, Pomponius and the
others were allowed
the freedom of the city, under close surveillance.
The Academicians were predominantly Platonists.
the members of most of the other forbidden secret societies (or
while the Church officially upheld Aristotle and for a long time sought
Plato to whom religion consisted essentially in the practice of justice.
In the Teutonic countries, speculative
were to be found largely among the mystic Alchemists who are often
spoken of as
"Hermetic Philosophers," in Masonic writings. They had no central
Wherever two or three of them met together, they formed a lodge for
and the initiation of worthy candidates who, after a period of
probation more or
less extended, would be put in possession of the secret symbols and
they might obtain a key to the literature of all the mystics.
In Great Britain, the Rosicrucian Alchemists
has been indicated, essentially Christian theosophists. They studied
not for purely scientific purposes; they sought rather to discover in
traces of the mystic Supreme Architect of the Universe, revealed as
well as concealed
in and by the visible and discoverable phenomena.
The predominance of religious speculation led
separation from the mystic Alchemists of those who preferred to
specialize in the
experimental study of nature. The philosophical reform work of Francis
was probably the chief cause of the change.
At the beginning of the seventeenth century,
the influence of Robert Fludd (1574-1671), the Fraternity of the Rosy
in Great Britain. This Fraternity represented the mystic portion of the
whose practices they followed. "Heresy" had been no safer under the
"Bloody Bess" than it had been in Pre-Reformation times; the only
being in the kind of "heresy" for which men were hanged or burned by
executioner of the power which happened to be in control at the time.
with the predilection for symbols having to do with house and temple
doubt accounts for the appearance of the names of reputed
Rosicrucianism the membership
lists of the operative gild of Masons. The Alchemists of an earlier day
also to have been identified with this particular gild. The inference
is that they
formed occasional lodges of their own and were the "secret brotherhood"
in the bosom of the Masons Company referred to in the records of that
would account for the presence among the "Accepted" Masons of Elias
Sir Robert Moray, Dr. Thomas Wharton, Sir George Wharton, William
John Hewitt, the astronomer and astrologist, William Lily and Sir
all of them distinguished scientists interested in the Rosy Cross
And now a word to account for the statement in
of 1738, at a time when there were many alive who would have objected
to it if it
had not been true, that the decay of the lodges of Accepted Freemasons,
after 1708, was due to Sir Christopher Wren's neglect of the office of
Gould's insistence that Wren was not a Freemason and never could have
Master, in spite of trustworthy evidence which should have caused him
not to be
so positive, is easily explained. Gould is usually very careful,
content with nothing
but the original sources but it is quite evident here that he had never
consideration to the possibility of Rosy Cross relationships.
Sir Christopher Wren was a speculative Mason,
and may have been known as Grand Master of the "Accepted" circle. His
"neglect of the office" shortly after 1708 appears quite natural to me.
That which had attracted him into the "Acceptation" was no doubt the
of the men who were associated with it and who were active in it. But,
there had been incorporated in London the Royal Society, which as time
absorbed more and more the spare time of the men more directly
interested in scientific
progress. After the close of the seventeenth century, "acceptation" of
men of this stamp in the Masonic fraternity ceased altogether. The
mere convivial clubs and for these Sir Christopher had no time.
This leads me to advance a conclusion for which
to have prepared the ground. I believe that the Royal Society and
sprang from the same original source or sources.
"Alchemy" which comprised in Pre-Reformation
days all pursuits in science and philosophy had passed into
"Novum Organum," [Lib 1902] in 1620, having established
the necessity for specialization
in experimental science, Rosicrucianism was doomed to final extinction.
"New Atlantis" [Lib 1909] (1624)
set up a new ideal for men eager to enlist in the service of mankind by
of civilization. (5)
"The New Atlantis" was written, as Diderot
pointed out in the prospectus of the French Encyclopedistes, "at a time
so to say, neither sciences nor arts existed." The twilight efforts of
Alchemists no longer sufficed. More light was wanted. Day was at hand.
House, that beautiful dream of the philosopher, began to be realized
less than forty
years after his death." (6) The picture of Solomon's House drawn by
"The New Atlantis" was the model from which the Royal Society was
(7) The historian of this Society, Dr. Thomas Sprat (1636-1713) Bishop
made acknowledgment of this when he wrote: "I shall only mention one
man who had the true imagination of the whole extent of this
enterprise, as it is
now set on foot, and that is Lord Bacon." (8)
Professor Nichol sums up the established
all authorities on the subject, in these words: (9) "It is admitted
suggestion of the College of Philosophy instituted in London (1645) and
Restoration extended into the Royal Society (1662) was due to the
of Solomon's House in the New Atlantis. Wallis, one of the founders of
exalts him by name, along with Galileo, as heir master. Sprat says "It
a work becoming the largeness of Bacon's wit to devise and the
greatness of Clarendon's
prudence to establish." Boyle invokes for its inauguration "that
naturalist * * * one great Verulam."
The spirit that animated the whole conception
House was "the love of man and the honoring of God." The Royal Society
limited its membership quite naturally to men considered capable of
service to the advancement of scientific discovery. Thereby it assured
of the great work it had undertaken, but it limited, at the same time,
of the ideal pictured in the "New Atlantis." The consciousness of this
fact, together with the remembrances of the derivation from the true
truth among the earlier Alchemists, were, I am persuaded, the chief
prompted many of the members of the Royal Society to join the "revived"
Society of Freemasons, shortly after the establishment of the Grand
Lodge of England.
In Freemasonry they hoped for the complete and universal realization of
ideal of the "New Atlantis," with the Royal Society as the scientific
center of Solomon's House.
This is, briefly and summarily told, my
the evolution of "Speculative" Freemasonry, more particularly during
seventeenth century, for "the love of man and the honoring of God."
as the result of my researches is placed before you, my brethren, I
hope to have
at least suggested where to look for traces of the origins of our
founded upon the Fatherhood of God, the mystic foundation stone of the
and the practice of the Royal Art which is the fulfilment of the Royal
to the Scripture: "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.'
I trust I have not given the impression that
of modern Freemasonry was derived from the Rosicrucians. An organized
of the Rosy Cross probably never existed outside of books. The writings
and Frisius formulated for Great Britain a body of Rosy Cross tenets
essential points from the teachings of the Rosicrucians of Continental
and Scottish Alchemists followed Fludd and Frisius. Their attempts to
the plans of these leaders into practice, appears to have induced some
of them to
form occasional lodges, either independently under the designation of
‒ the name of Rosicrucian having fallen into disrepute ‒ or in the
bosom of Masonic
craft gilds, as a separate "secret brotherhood" of Accepted Freemasons.
Read in connection with "Freemasonry and the Medieval Craft Gilds," the
suggestion will be clearly understood.
Freemasonry, as established by the
1722-3, represents the confluence of two streams, each having many
The sources of the one stream must be looked for in the Anglo-Saxon
gyld, and its
name is democracy; the sources of the other must be looked for in the
of philosophers searching for the One Living God, Father of all men,
and its name
is liberty of conscience.
(1) Aben or
Eben (as in Ebenezar) is Hebrew for stone.
(2) For a vivid picture of life in the fourth century, the period so
men's souls, I refer those who read French to the charming, wonderful
book of Louis
Bertrand on "St. Augustin." [Lib 1914 (English)]
(3) See Laurie's "Rise of Universities," [Lib 1887] first two
(4) Especially from the fourteenth century onward.
(5) "Doubtless it was one of Bacon's highest hopes that from the growth
true knowledge would follow in surprising ways the relief of man's
as an end, runs through all his yearning after a fuller and surer
method of interpreting
nature." ‒ Dean Church.
M.C. Adam's "Philosophie de F. Bacon," [Lib*] Paris, 1890,
p. 328. Bacon died on April 9th, 1626. The London
"College of Philosophy"
which became the Royal Society, was instituted in 1645.
(7) G.C. Moorr Smith, in his edition of "The New Atlantis,' (Pitt Press
Cambridge, 1900, page 28.
(8) "History of the Royal Society," edition of 1667, page 35.
(9) "Francis Bacon; His life and Philosophy," [Lib 1901; Vol 1, Vol 2] (Blackwood's
Phil. Classics) 1889, vol. II, p. 236.
Symbolism of the Three Degrees
By Bro. Oliver Day Street,
Part III – The Symbolism
of the Master Mason Degree
MANY of the lessons of the third degree are
to the most superficial mind, but others (and these the most important)
only after long and patient study. I shall not attempt anything
original, but only
lay before you in an imperfect way a few of the reflections and
conclusions of some
of our most trustworthy Masonic scholars.
I believe it susceptible of the clearest proof
Freemasonry, viewed in the aggregate, is an elaborate allegory of human
the three degrees considered collectively, symbolically epitomize man's
both here and in the hereafter. My excuse for recurring to this idea is
my judgment Speculative Masonry cannot be otherwise adequately
explained. The lodge
is emblematical of the world; initiation, of birth; the Entered
Apprentice, of the
preparatory stage of life, or youth; the Fellow Craft, of the
or manhood; the Master Mason, of the reflective stage, or old age,
death, the resurrection,
and the everlasting life. This explanation of the three degrees is
in our lecture on the "Three Steps" delineated on the Master's Carpet.
Any symbol or any meaning attributed to a symbol which does not
to this allegory may be discarded as nonMasonic.
The Antiquity of Masonic
The age of our symbolism is an important
this connection, because upon it to a great extent depend the meanings
be assigned to our symbols. While some of them may be of comparatively
many of them are older than the oldest written language.
Says Brother Robert Freke Gould, one of the
of our historians:
of Masonry, or at all events a material part of it, is of very great
and in substance the system of Masonry we now possess, including the
of the Craft, has come down to us in all its essentials from times
remote to our
Another of our historians of the most exacting
Brother William J. Hughan, declares that "symbolism in connection with
antedates our oldest records."
Even this cautious statement would date our
back more than five hundred years, and Brother Gould is on record as
if it can be put back that far, there is practically no limit backward
its beginning must be assigned. (2)
Another distinguished Masonic scholar, Brother
William Speth, records his belief that "the greater part of our
all essentials) is undoubtedly medieval at least, and probably
centuries older than
Still another, Brother William Simpson,
as an orientalist, says:
"The more important
Masonic symbols are ancient and their true meanings can only be found
them back into the past. This will be found to be particularly the case
third degree; its true meaning can only be realized by the study of
which appear to go far back into the history of our race." (4)
These are the opinions of men who, noted for
have disregarded our Masonic traditions and studied the question from
Following them, (and if they cannot be followed
are none who can be,) our symbolism has come down to us from ancient
Of some of these symbols we know a part at
their meanings, but of some we know nothing at all. We get a hint from
that much of our symbolism has been forgotten, and Brother Gould
asserts the same
and declares that "to a considerable portion of the symbolism of
even at this day, no meaning can be assigned which is entirely
satisfactory to the
intelligent mind." (5)
Heckethorn, a non-Mason, says that many of the
figures and schemes of very ancient times are preserved in Masonry
meaning is no longer understood by the Fraternity. (6)
It should therefore be obvious that if we are
reacquire this lost knowledge, we must have recourse to the records and
of ancient times.
The Ancient Mysteries
Do we find any institutions in ancient times
to our own and employing our symbols for like purposes? I answer at
once that we
In all periods from the dawn of history till
fifth century, A. D., there is recorded the existence in nearly every
of secret societies which, so far as our knowledge of them enables us
were strikingly like Freemasonry in all except name. Our foremost
Brother Gould, says that they taught precisely the same doctrines in
same way. These ancient societies bearing different names in different
yet appearing everywhere to have been the same thing, are generally
In Egypt they were known as the Mysteries of
and Isis, and these appear to have been the model for all others. They
in Egypt, India, Persia, Phoenicia, Greece, Rome, Gaul, Britain, and
countries. The most ancient of these were certainly in existence as
early as 3000
B. C., and some of them were still flourishing in Western Europe, in a
state, it is true, as late as the fourth century of the Christian era.
Notwithstanding their differences in name, it
admit of a doubt that they were all substantially the same; "so much
it has been said by high Masonic authority, "that we may conclude
they were all independent copies from a great original or that they
one from another." Brother Gould, than whom no more judicious historian
ever written on any subject, thinks they were only differentiated types
of one original
form of worship, the object of which was in every instance the God of
of Truth and of Beneficence. The Osiris of Egypt, the Brahma of India,
of Persia, the Bacchus (or Dionysius) of Greece, the Bel (or Baal) of
the Belenus of Gaul, the Baldur of Scandinavia, the Adonis of
Phoenicia, and the
Adonai of the Jews were all the same god; each, to his own people, was
One, the Creator, the Enlightener, Lord and Master. All the mysteries
taught a more
or less pure system of monotheism, though coupled with the idea of a
one God in three persons. Their Trinity differed from ours, however, in
conceived it to be a male, female and offspring, or Father, Mother and
taught also the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead and the
the soul. (7)
Cicero tells us that in the Eleusinian
were taught to live virtuously and happily and to die in the hope of a
"The great doctrine of immortality of the
says Brother Gould, "and the teachings of the two lives, the present
future, are to be found in the Ancient Mysteries, where precisely the
were taught in precisely the same way" that they are now taught by the
It seems that among pagan people of ancient
few superior minds and spirits were found who did not accept the
of the populace as an adequate conception of the Deity and who searched
in the great book of nature in the effort to find out and understand
To have openly proclaimed their beliefs and their rejection of the
and popular religion would have but called down upon themselves
contempt and ridicule
and doubtless persecutions. They, therefore, chose to drift along with
herd to all outward appearances, reserving the contemplation and
discussion of their
cherished beliefs for secret communication with those of kindred mind
where they were secure from observation and the interference of the
Such seems to have been the occasion of the origin of these ancient
These societies were characterized by fixed
initiation, successive steps or degrees, oaths of secrecy, a symbolical
teaching, and the possession of emblems and perhaps of grips, signs and
recognition. (9) Their rites were usually celebrated at night in
guarded against intrusion and arranged similarly to our lodges, often
with the three
chief officers seated in the South, West and East.
With all of them the East was an object of
veneration as the source of light and knowledge.
Initiation was an allegorical search for light
and consisted of prescribed physical and moral preparations of the
purifications and the administrations of oaths of secrecy; the ushering
to light symbolizing a transformation from ignorance to knowledge, from
to moral and spiritual purity; the investiture with an emblem of this
sometimes of a white apron, sometimes of a white sash or robe; the
of trials and dangers sometimes mock and sometimes real. In the
the candidate was received into the place of initiation upon the point
of a sword
piercing his naked left breast. Many of their symbols were identical
that can now be seen in any Masonic lodge.
To each of the Ancient Mysteries pertained a
legend, which was made the instrumentality of teaching with great
the doctrines of the resurrection and immortality.
The legend of Osiris, probably the oldest and
for all the others was as follows:
Osiris, meaning the
soul of the Universe, the Governor of nature, was at once king and god
of the Egyptians.
The name appears as far back as 3000 B. C. Having taught civilization,
and agriculture to his own people, he magnanimously resolved to spread
their benign influence throughout the world. Leaving his kingdom in
charge of his
wife, Isis, he departed upon his beneficent mission. After an absence
of three years
he returned, but meanwhile his brother Typhon had organized a
conspiracy to murder
him and seize the throne. At a grand banquet given in honor of his
provided a magnificent chest which exactly fitted the body of Osiris.
All the other
guests being in the conspiracy, they feigned great admiration of the
chest and finally
Typhon announced that he would give it to the one whose body it would
contain. Osiris, trying the box, was no sooner in it than the lid was
and securely fastened and the whole thrown into the river Nile. It was
to sea by the current and in course of time was cast ashore at Byblos,
at the foot of an acacia tree. The tree grew up rapidly and completely
chest containing the body of Osiris.
No sooner had Isis
learned of the fate of her husband than, weeping, she set out in search
of his body
and on her way interrogated every one she met for information
concerning its whereabouts.
Virgins accompanied her who dressed and combed her hair.
She finally discovered
the body in the acacia tree, but the king of that country, struck with
beauty caused it to be cut down and a column made of it for his palace.
engaged herself to the king as a nurse for his children and asked and
her pay this column. The column was broken and the body released and at
back to Egypt, but before it could be properly interred it was again
seized by Typhon
and cut into fourteen pieces and these hidden in as many places. After
Isis succeeded in finding and bringing together all the parts except
and the body was embalmed and buried in due form. It will be borne in
according to ancient Egyptian ideas there could be no resurrection in
of the body; hence, the great care with which they embalmed their dead.
as the body of Osiris had been recovered and buried, it was announced
that he had
risen from the dead and had resumed his place among the gods.
The ceremonies of initiation into the Egyptian
dramatically represented the death of Osiris, the search for his body,
in the acacia tree, and its burial and resurrection, the murdered god
by the candidate.
Pertaining to each of the Mysteries was a
of this legend. In Greece, Osiris becomes Bacchus, (not the drunken
Bacchus of later
ages,) who is slain by the Titans and his limbs torn asunder. Isis
who after long and bitter search finds and inters his body, and in due
takes his place among the gods. In the Dionysian Mysteries celebrated
in his honor
an effigy was stretched upon a couch, as if dead, while his votaries
his decease. After a proper time the figure was quickly removed and the
made that the god had risen from the dead. Likewise in some of the
India the candidate underwent an allegorical death, burial and
celebrated in Phoenicia during the time of Solomon, King of Israel,
of Tyre and Hiram Abif were obvious copies of those of Egypt. Adonis
and Venus became
substitutes in the legend for Osiris and Isis. During the course of
with which our three ancient Grand Masters must have been familiar, an
laid upon a bier as if it were a dead body. During a momentary darkness
was invisibly removed, after which it was announced that the god had
the dead. The substantial identity with each other of all these
Mysteries and doctrines
they were intended to inculcate is obvious.
It is claimed by students of ancient mythology,
this legend of the Mysteries and the ceremonies based on it were all
the coming of a Messiah, who should triumph over death and the grave,
demonstrate to mankind for a certainty that there is a life after
death. That this
was common belief, not merely among the Jews, but the Egyptians,
Babylonians, Persians, Chaldeans, Hindus, Greeks and Romans is now
The teachings of the Mysteries have been thus
a spirit of unity and humanity, purified the soul from ignorance and
secured the peculiar aid of the gods; the means of arriving at the
virtue; the serene happiness of a holy life; the hope of a peaceful
death and endless
felicity in the Elysian fields; whilst those not initiated therein
after death in places of darkness and horror."
Thus did these ancient societies seek by means
dramatic presentation of a legend to teach the great Masonic doctrines
of the resurrection
and the life after death.
There were lectures explanatory of the
the crowning ceremony of initiation was the communication to the
candidate of an
ineffable name which it was lawful to speak only on certain occasions
and in a certain
manner. Among the Egyptians, Persians and Hindus, notwithstanding their
this was the mysterious AUM, pronounced OM. I have purposely mingled
with things similar to Freemasonry but the intelligent Master Mason
will be able
to detect the points of resemblance.
Brother Robert F. Gould, whom I have already
times quoted, without venturing to pronounce Freemasonry and the
"It is a well-known
fact that these Mysteries offer striking analogies with much that is
found in Freemasonry;
their celebration in grottoes or covered halls, which symbolized the
which in disposition and decoration presented a distinct counterpart to
their division into degrees conferred by the initiatory rites
wonderfully like our
own; their method of teaching through the same astronomic symbolism the
truths then known in Philosophy and Morals; their mystic bond of
equality and brotherly love."
He intimates strongly his belief that
a development out of the Mysteries of Mithras, which, originating in
to Greece, Rome and Western Europe and lingered there until the fourth
century, A. D.
Enough has been said on this point to make it
that anyone who would understand our Masonic symbolism must at least
make a study
of what these same symbols meant to these ancient societies.
Third Degree Symbols
I shall not lengthen this paper and tax your
by repeating explanations laid down in our monitors and lectures. I
shall for the
most part confine myself to things that are not explained at all, or
that are explained
Many of the symbols of the Master's degree are
to the preceding degrees and these I shall touch upon very briefly.
There is, however,
discoverable in their use as the degrees progress, an increasing
depth of meaning.
For instance, in the first two degrees, the
the world, the place where all workmen labor at useful avocations and
in the acquisition
of human knowledge and virtue. But in the Master's degree it represents
Sanctorum, or Holy of Holies of King Solomon's Temple, which was itself
of Heaven, or the abode of Deity. It was there that nothing earthly or
allowed to enter; it was there that the visible presence of the Deity
was said to
dwell between the Cherubim. In the Master's lodge, therefore, we are
brought into the awful presence of the Deity. The reference here to
death and the
future life is obvious and is a further evidence that this degree
typifies old age
But there is even a deeper symbolism in the
lodge. The allusion is not only to the sacred chamber of Solomon's
it alludes also to the sacred chamber of that spiritual temple we all
are, or should
he, namely, a pure heart, and admonishes us to make of it a place fit
himself to dwell.
The likening of the human body to a temple of
is an ancient metaphor. Jesus said, in speaking of the temple of his
this temple and in three days I will raise it up." Again, Paul says,
ye not that ye are a temple of God, and that the spirit of God dwelleth
If any man destroyeth the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the
God is holy, and such arc ye." I quote these passages, not as a
but as a beautiful expression of Jewish thought far older than
can with difficulty conceive the extreme sacredness of the Temple in
the eyes of
the Jew. It far exceeded the veneration with which we now regard our
synagogues. This idea once comprehended shows how greatly this figure
ennobles the human body. It declares it a fit dwelling place for Deity
In the Entered Apprentice and Fellow Craft
Light typifies the acquisition of human knowledge and virtue; in the
it typifies the revelation of divine truth in the life that is to come.
In the first two degrees the square and
the earth and inculcate and impress upon us the desirability of curbing
in the third degree the compasses symbolize what is heavenly, because
to our ancient
brethren the visible heavens bore the aspect of circles and arches,
figures produced with the compasses.
In some of the monitors we are told that "the
are peculiarly consecrated to this degree," but the reasons there given
not satisfying. In ancient symbolism the square signified the earth,
while the circle,
a figure produced with the compasses, signified the sun or the heavens.
therefore symbolized what is earthly and material while the compasses
the heavenly and the spiritual. It is not without significance,
in the Entered Apprentice degree, both points of the compasses are
beneath the square;
that in the Fellow Craft degree one point is above the square, while in
degree both points are above, signifying that in the true Master, the
has obtained full mastery and control over the earthly and the
Discalceation, or the plucking off of one's
in the Entered Apprentice degree, as we there learned, a symbol of
fidelity to our
fellow man. In this degree, however, it alludes to an ancient act of
by man to Deity, namely, the Eastern custom that prevailed among both
Jews and Gentiles
of entering only barefooted into any sacred place or upon any holy
ground. In the
one case, this practice was a testimony of man to man; in the other, it
is a testimony
of man to his Creator.
Pythagoras taught his disciples in these words,
sacrifice and worship with thy shoes off." Adam Clarke includes the
of this custom among his thirteen proofs that all mankind has descended
ancestors. A Master Mason's lodge represents, as we have seen, the Holy
of Solomon's Temple into which the High Priest alone entered only once
then with bare feet. The lodge in some of the old rituals is said to
stand on holy
ground. God said to Moses at the burning bush: "Put off thy shoes from
feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground." (11)
Note also the deeper significance of the shock
as the degrees progress. In the first, the appeal is to the sense of
fear, in other
words, purely physical. In the second, appeal is made to the moral
sense and inculcates
fair dealing with men, but in the third it is not merely to our sense
towards our fellow man, but to our brotherly love for him and to those
elements of our nature whose proverbial seat is the breasts.
It is a mistake to limit the "Brotherly Love"
of this degree to members of the Masonic fraternity. If the lodge
world, as it undoubtedly does, so should its members symbolize all the
thereof. The love that should prevail among the members of the lodge,
typifies the love that should prevail among all mankind. In the highest
men are our brothers precisely as we are so strikingly taught in the
the Good Samaritan that all men are our neighbors.
Circumambulation, from the Latin word
to walk around, is a very ancient rite, one common to all the Ancient
The sun, the fructifier and giver of life, in his daily course across
appears to those living in the Northern Hemisphere, where the ancient
to proceed from the East by the way of the South to the West, and
the darkness of the night via the North back to the East again.
Vegetation was seen
to spring up, animal life to be aroused from slumber and take on
as the King of Day moved with dignity across the heavens. To the
of primeval man it is not strange that the sun should appear to be the
life, the very Creator himself. His apparent course, therefore, from
the South to the West and back to the East by way of the North became
of life", as the ancients expressed it.
The ancients in their ceremonies when
pursued this course, and we Masons follow their example. To proceed in
direction typified death, and as every Master Mason knows at one
in our ceremonies we take this reverse course. At the grave of a
however, contrary to what might be expected, we still follow the course
as a token of our belief in the life that follows death. (11)
The Working Tools
With us in America the especial working tool of
Mason is said to be the Trowel. In England, this symbol is almost
they employ the Skirret, Pencil and Compasses.
Of the Trowel, Dr. Oliver, a noted but somewhat
Masonic authority, says:
now called the Trowel, was an emblem of very extensive application and
revered by ancient nations as containing the greatest and most abstruse
that it signified equally Deity, Creation and Fire." (12)
We will learn directly something more of the
signification of the triangle.
The Skirret, the Pencil and the Compasses are
in America among the working tools of a Master Mason. The Skirret is an
working on a center pin and used by the Operative Mason to mark out on
the foundation of the intended structure. The Pencil is employed in
plans and the Compasses in determining the limit and proportions of its
parts. Symbolically they are explained in English (Emulation) working
in the following
"The Skirret points out to us that straight and
undeviating line of conduct laid down for our guidance in the volume of
law. The Pencil teaches us that all our words and actions are not only
but are recorded by the Most High, to whom we must render an account of
through life. The Compasses reminds us of his unerring and impartial
having defined for our instruction the limits of good and evil will
or punish us, as we have obeyed or disregarded his divine commands."
We must admit that the trowel would seem more
to belong to the Fellow Craft, who in Operative Masonry puts the stones
rather than to the designer and overseer who corresponds to our Master
Brother John Yarker in his Arcane Schools [Lib 1909] says that the Skirret
as a hieroglyphic signifies the origin of things. (14)
Deity and Immortality
There are a few who feign that they believe
that cannot be experienced through the five senses of the body.
Wonderful as are
these faculties, I am persuaded that we are possessed of a sixth sense
higher and finer even than those of the body. By this sense we perceive
see not; we feel though we touch not; we understand though we hear not;
though we neither taste nor smell. By it, also, we are aware of all the
of the mind and soul; by it alone are we conscious of our own
is not thinking. Nor is hearing, or feeling, or tasting, or smelling.
senses are but ministers to this sixth sense. The five senses of human
were concerned with in a former degree, but we are here concerned with
far superior to them, whatever we call it, whether consciousness,
faith, mind, soul
or spirit. Are the testimonies of this sixth sense any less real or any
than those of the five senses of the body? By it mankind has always, in
and in every condition, felt intuitively that there was a God and that
live again. These beliefs are so strong and so ever present with us
that we never
doubt them until we begin to argue about them.
There is nothing in Masonry so constantly
our thoughts as these two great doctrines. Signs, symbols, and legends
are all repeatedly
employed to emphasize them.
In the Master's degree, the Pot of Incense, the
Eye, the Three Grand Masters, the Triangle, and the legends of the
Temple and of
Hiram Abif are all employed for this purpose, as I shall attempt to
We read with incredulity that men could ever
to, and worship, idols. Doubtless the thoughtful and intelligent ones
done so even in pagan countries. They looked beyond and viewed the idol
a symbol. As the idol among pagan people usually assumed a human form,
as well as other believers in monotheism of ancient times, forbade the
of the human effigy as a symbol of Deity. To supply the need so keenly
felt by the
ancients of a symbol to represent every idea, conventional figures such
circles, triangles, etc., were adopted by the ancient monotheists to
Deity. Thus perhaps it is that the being which alone is said to have
been made in
the image of his Creator is nowhere employed in our symbolism to
represent the G.
A. O. T. U.
The Hiramic Legend
The most important series of symbols in
is the legend concerning Hiram Abif and the other symbolic allusions
For obvious reasons, I do not attempt to narrate the story of this
legend. Nor shall
I undertake to make any systematic or exhaustive study of it, but only
in a disconnected way those symbols associated with it that are most
whose meaning is least obvious.
As we have already seen, the Ancient Mysteries
a legend dramatically presented to teach the great doctrines of the
Deity, the resurrection of the body, and the immortality of the soul.
the legend of Hiram, the builder, is employed in a strikingly similar
way to teach
the same truths. It is not permissible, even if it were necessary, to
into details in order to demonstrate this parallel, but the points of
will be sufficiently obvious to the intelligent Mason.
A few observations upon the name Hiram Abif
be out of place. Abif is certainly not a surname as our use of it would
indicate. It is translated in the English Bibles "Hiram, my father's"
and "Hiram, his father." This scarcely makes sense; and hence the
consensus of opinion among Masonic scholars is that "Abif" is a Hebrew
idiom indicating superiority in his Craft and may therefore, in a
be said to be synonymous with "Master." (15)
The name "Hiram" itself has been supposed
by many to bear a symbolic meaning. In Kings it is written "Hiram" but
in Chronicles it is written "Huram." Brother Albert Pike contends that
the proper form is "Khirum" or "Khurum." The former Khirum is
from the Hebrew word "Khi" meaning "living", and "ram"
meaning "was or shall be raised or lifted up." Hence Khirum means "was
raised or lifted up to life." The other form, Khurum, means nearly the
"raised up noble or free." Brother Pike shows this name to be
with the Egyptian Her-ra, and the Phoenician Heracles, the
personification of Light
and the sun, the Mediator, the Redeemer and the Savior.
But do not be misled into supposing that the
is here Christian. The idea of a Mediator, Redeemer or Savior is far
Christianity and by no means confined to the Jews. It is a concept that
have been almost universal in the ancient world.
Again, it is said that Hiram, in its pure and
form, literally meant Light or the sun. His murder by the three
ruffians is by many
scholars believed to have symbolic reference to the declension of the
the south during the three winter months with its accompanying
temporary death of
many forms of vegetable and animal life; the discovery and raising of
to the return of spring with its manifestations of newness of life in
of forms. There is no doubt that this astronomical phenomenon, so
typical of both
death and a new life, was extensively employed by the ancients to teach
of resurrection and immortality.
Those who attach an astronomical signification
legend of Hiram Abif believe the fifteen Fellow Craft to be a faulty
the true number is twelve, corresponding to the twelve signs of the
which the sun apparently passes every year; that the number of those
and the number who recanted have been confused; that name, typifying
those who recanted,
fill the spring, summer and autumn with their seasons of planting,
growth and harvest,
while the three who persisted typify winter, when all nature, if not
to be dormant. It has been pointed out as corroborating this
interpretation of this
legend that our two festival seasons, June 24th and December 27th, the
respectively of John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, very nearly
with the summer and winter solstices; that is to say that when the sun
is at its
greatest intensity, and, when in the dead of winter, having reached his
limit to the South, he begins his fructifying and vivifying journey
I can but touch upon this abstruse symbolism,
the serious student of Freemasonry to its study. It cannot be covered
in an evening;
volumes have been and may still be written upon the subject without
In nearly all the ancient systems of religion,
was regarded as a triad or trinity, by whom, acting conjointly only,
be done that was done. Our own doctrine of the Trinity is but a mere
modification of this ancient trinitarian conception. The secrets known
only to our
Three Grand Masters typify divine truth known only to this trinitarian
which is not to be communicated and made known to man, the Fellow
Craft, the workman,
until he has completed his spiritual temple. Then, according to divine
if found worthy, if this temple he nobly and worthily built and made a
place for divine truth, these secrets will be communicated to him. He
can then travel
into that foreign country whither we all are bound and there obtain the
the master, that is to say, the reward of a righteous and well spent
life. But he
who would force or steal this knowledge or obtain it other than by
and effort to prepare himself for its understanding and enjoyment is no
a murderer and robber. It is the same allegory as that of Adam eating
of the tree
of knowledge. For a like offense, stealing the sacred fire of the gods
it upon man, was Prometheus bound to the rock, his body torn open and
fed upon by the vultures of the air.
The Three Ruffians
One having the least familiarity with the
of the East cannot fail to recognize in the names of the three ruffians
of the gods of Palestine, Phoenicia and Egypt, Jah, Bel and Om, spelled
will be even more striking to the Royal Arch Mason. Whether this is a
or the result of design, or if designed, what is the significance, are
LOW TWELVE ‒ in ancient symbolism, the number
denoted completion. Whether this meaning arose from the fact that
completed the year, or twelve signs of the Zodiac, or whether from the
what was regarded as the most stable geometrical figure known, the
cube, is marked
by twelve edges, opinions differ. At any rate, it denoted a thing
was, therefore, an emblem of a human life. Death followed immediately
the number thirteen immediately after twelve; it is for this reason
has long been regarded as an unlucky number. With us the solemn stroke
marks the completion of human existence in this life.
The Lion of the Tribe of
The Lion from most ancient times has been a
might or royalty. It was blazoned upon the standard of the tribe of
it was the royal tribe. The kings of Judah were, therefore, called the
Lion of the
Tribe of Judah, and such was one of the titles of Solomon. Remembrance
of this fact
gives appropriateness to an expression employed at one point in our
is otherwise obscure, not to say absurd. Such is the literal meaning of
but it also has a symbolical one.
The Jewish idea of a Messiah was of a mighty
king. He was also designated as the Lion of the Tribe of Judah; in fact
was regarded as peculiarly belonging to him. The expression does not,
as many Masons
suppose necessarily have reference to Jesus of Nazareth. The Christian
privileged to so interpret it, if he so likes, but the Jew has equal
right to understand
it as meaning his Messiah. Indeed, every great religion of the world
the conception in some form, of a Mediator between God and man, a
Redeemer who would
raise mankind from the death of this life and the grave, to an
with God hereafter. The Mason who is a devotee of one of these
religions, say Buddhism,
Brahmanism or Mohammedanism, is likewise entitled to construe this
referring to his own Mediator.
In an ancient Egyptian inscription is depicted
seizing by the wrist a man lying in front of an altar, prostrate upon
his back as
if dead. The lion seems to be raising the man up and to symbolize that
which the dead are brought to newness of life. Near the altar stands a
his left arm elevated in the form of a square.
(To be continued)
(1) Ars Quatuor
Coronatorum vol. III,
p. 10. [Lib 1890]
(2) Idem, p. 24.
(3) Idem, p. 27.
Idem, p. 26.
(5) Idem, p. 23.
(6) Idem, p. 24.
(7) Gould's Concise History, pp. 24, 25 [Lib 1904]
(8) Mackey's Symbolism, p. 36. [Lib 1882]
(9) Yarker's Arcane Schools 113. [Lib 1909]
(10) Morals and Dogma. pp. 850, 854. [Lib 1871]
(11) Mackey's Symbolism, pp. 124, 129. [Lib 1882]
(12) Oliver's Signs and Symbols, p 10 [Lib 1837]; Universal
Masonic Library, p. 14;
Transactions Lodge of Research 1909-10, p. 42. [Lib*]
(13) Aiken, p. 80. [Lib*]
(14) Yarker's Arcane Schools, pp. 33, 220. [Lib 1909]
(15) Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914], p. 3: Morals
and Dogma, p. 81. [Lib 1871]
(16) Festival of Mal-Karth, Morals and Dogma, p. 78. [Lib 1871]
(17) Morals and Dogma, pp. 80, 82, 448, 488 [Lib 1871]: Tyler
Keystone, Aug. 20, 1908, pp. 77, 78. [Lib*]
(18) Portal, p. 30; Masonic Magazine, p. 328 [Lib*]: Morals and Dogma,
pp. 79, 254,
461. [Lib 1871]
Ready to Be Tried Again – [A Poem]
Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
no matter how
much work we have done ere dawned today
'Tis no matter how we've striven on an upward, onward way;
There are duties ever new falling due each day to men,
And the one who does them best waits but to be tried again.
Though we have been tried as came duties new upon the way,
Though the storm obscured the sun that was bright as dawned the day;
Though the yesterdays are past 'tis no matter what they've been,
'Tis today that we must be ready to be tried again.
There's no wage can come to us only as our work is done,
There's no premium to life save as are its triumphs won;
Recompense comes with the toil e'en as we the task begin,
E'en as we report to self, ready to be tried again.
And as Masons we are taught that while we've been often tried
We are never by the Craft of the privilege denied
Of the trying for the work that it makes so clear and plain,
And for which we all should be ready to be tried again.
And the fact that we're in wait may unlock the mystic door
To the findings in the Art that may prove a golden store;
'Tis an inspiration e'en if there's not a moment when
We're not in the firing line, ready to be tried again.
And by trial comes the glow of a brighter, keener joy ‒
That real something that we know in the mystic Arts employ;
Tis the thought unfolding to the ideal it gives to men
That the trial is in being ready to be tried again.
And the thought is larger still, 'tis a trial now and here
For and in and as the task as each day's new claims appear,
Trial measured by the TRUTH as it may respond amen
As we ever DO and DARE, READY TO BE TRIED AGAIN.
Memorials to Great Men Who
By Bro. George W. Baird,
P. G. M., District Of Columbia
THERE is a bronze statue of
Dr. Rush in front of the United States Naval Hospital, in Washington,
by a grateful Republic, to a famous patriot and signer of the
Declaration of Independence,
but by the Medical Societies of the United States, more than a century
War of the Revolution.
Out of the fifty-six signers of the Declaration
are but three memorialized in the Capital City; not one by the
Government, but all
by private subscription. To Medical Director A.L. Gihon, U.S.N., more
than to any
other one man, the subscription for this monument and its location are
it is in a part of the city not frequently visited by tourists.
Dr. Rush, a signer of the Declaration, was born
in 1746, and died there in 1813. He was the first American Alienist;
the first Surgeon-General
of the U.S. Army; a Member of Congress, and the author of a number of
books on medical
subjects. He was descended from one of Cromwell's officers. An orphan
at the age
of six years he was educated by his uncle, the Rev. Dr. Finley, and was
at Princeton College. Dr. Rush kept a diary, which proved to be of
great use to
his successors in the medical profession, particularly in his notes on
fever epidemic in 1762.
Dr. Rush was ever warmly patriotic, but he
politics. He was a quick and ready debater, which led his friends to
put him forward
in politics. He was a consistent and conscientious Christian, a member
of the Protestant
Episcopal Church, and though a Freemason, was probably never active in
however, in his day, were not carefully kept nor preserved, which may
his activity. In the Masonic History, Vol. IV, he is recorded by that
The statue shown in the cut was modeled by R.
Perry and Lewis R. Metcalf, and was unveiled on the 11th day of June,
all the eclat, eulogy and honor the American Medical Association could
and but for the presence of the uniformed medical officers of the Navy
and the Army
there would have been an absence of Nationalism. The Government
authorized the placing
of the statue on the lawn, in front of the buildings of the Navy
and Hospital. It is a beautiful piece of work.
Dr. Rush left one son who was held in high
a grandson, a Commander in the Navy, whom the writer has ever held in
and memory. The American people, so full of patriotic oratory, have
a practical proof of that highly commendable quality.
Life is a pure flame, and we live by an
The fearful Unbelief is unbelief in yourself.
FOR THE MONTHLY LODGE MEETING
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 21 Devoted To Organized Masonic Study
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
OF THE COURSE
of Study has for its foundation two sources of Masonic information: THE
and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In another paragraph is explained how the
to former issues of THE BUILDER and to Mackey's Encyclopedia may be
worked up as
supplemental papers to exactly fit into each installment of the Course
papers by Brother Haywood. MAIN OUTLINE
is divided into five principal divisions which are in turn subdivided,
as is shown
I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work
of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries
‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
we are presenting a paper written by Brother Haywood, who is following
outline. We are now in "First Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will
be twelve monthly papers under this particular subdivision. On page
each installment, will be given a list of questions to be used by the
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
possible we shall reprint in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin
articles from other
sources which have a direct bearing upon the particular subject covered
Haywood in his monthly paper. These articles should be used as
in addition to those prepared by the members from the monthly list of
Much valuable material that would otherwise possibly never come to the
of many of our members will thus be presented.
installments of the Course appearing in the Correspondence Circle
be used one month later than their appearance. If this is done the
have opportunity to arrange their programs several weeks in advance of
and the Brethren who are members of the National Masonic Research
Society will be
better enabled to enter into the discussions after they have read over
the installment in THE BUILDER.
FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
preceding each of Brother Haywood's monthly papers in the
Bulletin will be found a list of references to THE BUILDER and Mackey's
These references are pertinent to the paper and will either enlarge
upon many of
the points touched upon or bring out new points for reading and
should be assigned by the Committee to different Brethren who may
of their own from the material thus to be found, or in many instances
themselves or extracts therefrom may be read directly from the
originals. The latter
method may be followed when the members may not feel able to compile
or when the original may be deemed appropriate without any alterations
HOW TO ORGANIZE
FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY MEETINGS
should select a "Research Committee" preferably of three "live"
members. The study meetings should be held once a month, either at a
of the Lodge called for the purpose, or at a regular meeting at which
(except the Lodge routine) should be transacted ‒ all possible time to
to the study period.
Lodge has been opened and all routine business disposed of, the Master
the Lodge over to the Chairman of the Research Committee. This
be fully prepared in advance on the subject for the evening. All
members to whom
references for supplemental papers have been assigned should be
prepared with their
papers and should also have a comprehensive grasp of Brother Haywood's
of the first section of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental
While these papers are being read the members of the Lodge should make
any points they may wish to discuss or inquire into when the discussion
Tabs or slips of paper similar to those used in elections should be
among the members for this purpose at the opening of the study period.)
of the above.
3. The subsequent
sections of Brother Haywood's paper and the supplemental papers should
then be taken
up, one at a time, and disposed of in the same manner.
"QUESTION BOX" THE FEATURE OF YOUR MEETINGS
from any and all Brethren present. Let them understand that these
meetings are for
their particular benefit and get them into the habit of asking all the
they may think of. Every one of the papers read will suggest questions
as to facts
and meanings which may not perhaps be actually covered at all in the
paper. If at
the time these questions are propounded no one can answer them, SEND
THEM IN TO
US. All the reference material we have will be gone through in an
endeavor to supply
a satisfactory answer. In fact we are prepared to make special research
upon, and will usually be able to give answers within a day or two.
too, that the great Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa is only a few
and, by order of the Trustees of the Grand Lodge, the Grand Secretary
at our disposal on any query raised by any member of the Society.
information should enable local Committees to conduct their Lodge study
with success. However, we shall welcome all inquiries and
communications from interested
Brethren concerning any phase of the plan that is not entirely clear to
the services of our Study Club Department are at the command of our
and Study Club Committees at all times.
* * *
Questions on "Signs,
Tokens, Words, and the Rite of Salutation"
- Give examples of the use of
secret modes of recognition in past times.
- What does Gould say about the
use of signs, grips, etc.?
- Why, do you suppose, are these
"common features" of all secret
- In what way do they protect
- Why should secrecy be protected?
- Can you name any political,
social, religious, or literary clubs which employ
secret modes of recognition?
- If so, why do they use them? If
not, why do they not use them?
and druggists employ arbitrary signs to stand for various formulae
and these are understood only by themselves. Are such signs analogous
to our own?
- What evidence is there to show
that Freemasons used signs in old times?
- Why is the evidence so slender?
- Why were not these signs
published and explained?
- What is the point of the
quotation from Ferguson?
- Even if the early Operative
Masons had been able to read and write, could
they have dispensed with their signs and grips?
can all read and write: why have we not dispensed with them?
- Can you guess what the Scotch
"Mason Word" may have been?
- What was the significance of
"words" among Masons in other countries
at that time?
- How, and for what purpose, do
we use words?
- Can you define a "password"?
- What are its usages and
- Does the army employ passwords?
- What other organizations do so?
- In what way is "Word" used in
the third degree?
is the meaning of "The Lost Word"?
- What is the "due-guard"?
- Why was it invented and taken
up by American lodges?
- What is the meaning of "an
Americanism" as Mackey employs the term?
- In what way are grips and
tokens different from pass words?
- Can you give any examples of
your own use of these outside the lodge room?
- When we say we have given a
friend "a token of our esteem" do we
use the word in its Masonic sense?
- Why are Masons entitled to use
secret modes of recognition?
you give reasons not given in this paper?
- What is the meaning of
- How is it used in general
- Is tipping your hat to a lady a
- Why does a private salute an
officer in the army?
- Give all the reasons you can
think of to explain why the candidate should
salute the Wardens.
what way do they represent the law and authority of the lodge?
- What is there in the principles
of Masonry that has ever caused it to be
the champion of liberty?
- Can you offer examples not
given in the paper?
- Can you tell the story of
Masonry's part in the Revolutionary War?
- What great leaders in that day
- Was LaFayette a Mason?
- Where was the Bible obtained on
which Washington took his oath of office?
- Can liberty exist in a monarchy
as well as in a democracy?
- What is the difference between
"freedom" and "liberty"?
- Between "liberty" and
- Can a nation be independent
without enjoying liberty?
- Did Italy secure liberty when
she gained independence from Austria and France?
- What is a "free thinker"?
- Are Masons "free thinkers"?
- Why is law necessary to liberty?
would become of liberty if laws were destroyed?
- What does law do for us in our
- Why should a man desire to be
- What are the advantages of
- What are the relations between
liberty and authority?
- Are they opposed to each other?
- Why are Masons bound to uphold
the dignity of law and order?
- What is meant by "civil
- Does the habit of speaking
sarcastically of law and of courts help to uphold
men's respect for social order?
- What should be a Mason's
attitude toward the laws of his own community?
- Suppose, as was the case in
Italy, that Masonry itself were declared unlawful,
should a Mason under such circumstances oppose the law? If so, why?
- In what way should such
opposition be different from lawlessness?
- Is the desire to substitute a
good law for a bad law, lawlessness?
- How were the laws of Masonry
- How are they enforced?
- In what way do they protect the
liberty of each member?
- Would you say that the Masonic
organization is a constitutionalism or a democracy?
is the difference?
* * *
690; Significant Word, p. 691; Sign of Distress, p. 691; Token, p. 789;
Vol. I ‒ Shibboleth, p. 43; The Master's Word, p. 285. Vol. II. ‒ A
Grip, p. 57;
Masonic Signs, p. 253; Masonry and The Mysteries, p. 19; The Three
Grips, p. 30.
Vol. III ‒ Aboriginal Races and Freemasonry, p. 96; Masonry Among
p.39; Modes of recognition, June C.C.B., p. 2; Secret Societies of
Islam, p; 84;
Sign, Token and Word, p. 207. Vol. IV. ‒ Voice of the Sign in this
* * *
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Part IX ‒ Signs, Tokens,
Words, and the Rite of Salutation
II ‒ THE
USE of signs, grips, words, tokens, etc., is very ancient and
universal. Some historians
believe that a sign language was in use before oral words were
that be true or not it is certain that long after language was spoken
these secret methods of communication were in common use. The Spartans
gestures to words; the initiates of the Mysteries were given a very
of passwords and grips; the custom is even referred to in the Bible, as
in the case
where Ben-Hadad saved his life by making a sign. Both the Essenes and
communicated with each other by signs. In Rome whole dramas were
produced on the
stage by gesture alone by the Pantomimi, who anticipated the art of the
In medieval monasteries the Monks were frequently taught a sign
the alphabet." Brother R. F. Gould, whose essay on "The Voice of the
is a repository of such examples, writes that "signs and passwords, I
we may confidently assume, were common features of all or clearly all
from the earliest times to our own."
enough there is no documentary evidence to prove that Freemasons used
than the seventeenth century but all analogy and all indirect evidence
goes to show,
of course, that in common with other secret societies they employed
means of identification and recognition. Ferguson, in his "History of
explains why we may be morally certain that the medieval founders of
did make use of words, grips and passwords just as we continue to do
"At a time when writing was unknown among the
and not one Mason in a thousand could either read or write, it was
that some expedient should be hit upon, by which a Mason traveling to
his work might
claim the assistance and hospitality of his brother Masons on the road,
and by means
of which he might take his rank at once, on reaching the lodge, without
the tedious examinations or giving practical proof of his skill."
III ‒ At one time in Scotland a man was made a
by merely having conferred upon him the "Mason Word": what that word
we know not, but it was probably something more than a "password";
Operative Masons in other countries "the word" seems always to have
used in the last named sense. We continue to use passwords in our
and also, it should be noted, we have given it a high symbolic meaning,
as may be
clearly seen in the legend of the "Lost Word" in the third degree.
IV ‒ "Due Guard," it is probable, was never
used in English lodges but came into use in this country. Mackey calls
Americanism." It is a perpetual reminder of the obligation and is
in entering or retiring from a lodge.
V ‒ Grips and tokens are signs of fellowship
which may be used both within and without the lodge room. How long they
employed among Masons it is impossible to know for manifestly their
nature and purpose
has been such as to make written records or explanations impossible;
but we may
feel sure that they have been used ever since Masonry has been a secret
This custom of having secret modes of
Masons has often been misunderstood among the profane and sometimes
when a friend remarked to the present writer, "Masons are like little
with their signs, grips and such nonsense." Had this man understood the
and purpose of the fraternity he would have spoken differently. Words
are as necessary as secrecy, and for the same reasons. Masonry is a
itself, and Masons are as a hidden race among men, so that there is
natural than that they should have a language of their own. Moreover,
modes of secret
recognition are always on the side of gentleness and charity for they
one brother to assist another without the injury of self-respect
VI ‒ After having taken the obligation and
the words and grips the candidate is a real member of the lodge
according to the
corresponding degree. The lodge formally recognizes this fact by having
conducted to the Wardens and Master who so greet him; at the same time
he is given
a drill, as it were, in the use of the modes of recognition he has just
But we are entitled to see more in the ceremony
this. Like every other act of the candidate it has a symbolic meaning
of great value,
if only we look beneath the surface. Salutation is a two-sided act. The
recognize the candidate as a brother, the candidate recognizes the
Wardens as the
authorized representatives and spokesmen for the lodge. He has now the
the lodge, but he is not free from the lodge; he holds his rights as a
under the Jurisdiction of the laws and masters of the organization of
which he has
become a member. Are we not privileged to see in this a fact of large
a fact that helps us to understand the Masonic principles of liberty?
VII ‒ Masonry has never given anything to the
more precious than its influences toward liberty, not only the liberty
and faith, but actual political and social liberty. It worked like a
leaven in France
at the time of the Revolution; it was one of the underground forces
which made for
independence and nationality in Italy during the times of Mazzini and
as we all know, it was a prime factor in our own Revolution. Albert
Pike was but
giving voice to the Fraternity's achievements in actual history when he
Masonry "is devoted to the cause of Toleration and Liberality against
and Persecution, political and religious, and to that of Education,
and Enlightenment against Error, Barbarism and Ignorance.
VIII ‒ But to Masonry, and to all who
true nature, liberty is never freedom from but freedom in the law. This
way, and law is never saying else, if it really be law and not mere
it is an open path along which life walks to ample power. He that keeps
of hygiene enjoys the vigor and liberty of health; he that keeps step
with the seasons
and observes the ritualism of seed-time and harvest will reap the
usufruct of the
fields; he that thinks in the rhythm of the fact and evidence is made
free of the
truth. It is our loyalty to just laws, whether they be natural, social
that sets us free; it is our keeping the rules of the game that yields
us the joy
and spontaneity of the game.
All just civil laws partake of the same
their purpose is to release us from the bondage of caprice, the
dominance of the
brutal, and all tyranny, whether it be the tyranny of a monarch or the
it is law that makes it safe for women and children to go about the
law is the friend and protector of the human race and guards our
our quarrels, secures us the fruit of our toil, and, night and day,
above our lives. Always the best country is that where the head is held
heart is open, the mind free, and men walk in that true liberty which
If there is any danger lurking in our midst
is that subtle and insidious civil skepticism which flouts authority
and makes light
of order. If these skeptics be rich they will seek to prostitute the
the land in support of ill-gotten gains; if they be poor they will seek
laws in order to wrest that which they desire from those that have; and
of whom there are more in fact than in name, whisper that law is itself
and every authority a tyrant. Masonry teaches that whatever evils there
may be in
present laws can only be remedied by making laws more wise and just,
not by denying
the necessity and beneficence of law itself, and that the cure for bad
is good authority. It is a significant fact in our ritualism that the
is no sooner released from the cable tow, which is the symbol of
bondage, than he
is required to salute the Wardens in recognition of their authority.
* * *
The Voice of the Sign
By Bro. Robert Freke Gould,
IN the "Naturall Historie of Wiltshire," [Lib
1847] of which the last
chapter was written in 1686, John Aubrey informs us that the Freemasons
"known to one another by certayn Signes and watchwords," and Dr. Plot
[Lib 1686] ‒ writing in the
same year ‒ mentions their "Secret Signes" as being endowed with so
an efficacy, that on the communition of any one of them to a Fellow of
he would be compelled to come at once "from what company or place
was in; nay, tho' from the top of the Steeple," to know the pleasure
to assist his summoner. This whimsical conceit is thus pleasantly
alluded to in
a pamphlet of 1723:
"When once a man
his arm forth stretches,
It Masons round some distance fetches;
Altho' one be on Paul's great steeple,
He strait comes down amongst the people."
In the year last named (1723) there appeared
of the long series of Masonic catechisms, or (so-called) exposures of
has come down to us. It is almost certain that there were earlier
those of 1723 and 1724 styled respectively "A Mason's Examination" [Lib
1758] and "The Grand
Mystery of Freemasons Discover'd," [Lib*] both of which are given at
in my history of our Society, will amply serve to illustrate my
purpose, which is
to establish that, in the popular estimation, at least, the gesture
the Freemasons constituted no mean portion of the learning of that
this, indeed, many other proofs might be afforded, though I cannot
pause to cite
them, as I must pass on to my general subject, to which the preceding
must be regarded as merely preliminary.
Krause was of the opinion that the Masons
custom of having signs of recognition from the usage of the Monastic
in truth, the existence of signs can be traced back to the remotest
in other words, so far into the past as there is either written history
to guide us.
It is laid down by Warburton in his famous
Legation," [Lib 1846; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] that "in the
first ages of the world mutual converse was upheld by a mixed discourse
and actions; hence the Eastern phase of 'The Voice of the Sign,' and
use and custom,
as in most other affairs in life, improving what had arisen out of
ornament, this practice subsisted long after the necessity was over;
amongst the Eastern people, whose natural temperament inclined them to
a mode of
conversation, which so well exercised their vivacity, by motion; and so
it, by a perpetual representation of material images." Of this,
instances are afforded in the sacred writings, from which we learn that
of old, by certain actions instructed the people in the will of God,
with them in signs.
As speech became more cultivated, this rude
speaking by action was smoothed and polished into an apologue or fable.
a noble example of this form of instruction in the speech of Jonathan
to the men
of Shechem, in which he upbraids their folly, and foretells their ruin,
Abimelech for their King. This is not only the oldest, but, according
the most beautiful apologue of antiquity, and the same writer then
proceeds to show
how nearly the apologue and instruction by action are related, which he
instancing the account of Jeremiah's adventure with the Rechabites ‒ an
partaking of the joint nature of action and apologue.
But it is not only in Biblical history that we
with the mode of speaking by action. "Profane antiquity," says
"is full of these examples; the early oracles in particular frequently
it, as we learn from an old saying of Heraclitus ‒ that the King, whose
at Delphi, neither speaks nor keeps silent, but reveals by signs."
The Pythagoreans used certain conventional
by which members of the Fraternity could recognize each other, even if
never met before, and that, in all the Ancient Mysteries the initiated
secret signs of recognition is free from doubt. In the "Golden Ass"
1893] of Apuleius, Lucius,
the hero of the story is initiated into the mysteries of Isis, but
finds that it
is also expected of him to be instructed in those "of the Great God,
Father of Gods, the invincible Osiris." In a dream he perceives one of
officiating priests, of whom he thus speaks, "He also walked gently
step, the ankle bone of his left foot being a little bent, in order
that he might
afford me some sign by which I might know him." In another work
the author of the "Metamorphosis" says:
"If anyone happens
to be present who has been initiated into the same rites as myself, if
he will give
me the sign, he shall then be at liberty to hear what it is that I keep
Plautus, too, alludes to this custom in one of
when he says:
"Give me the sign,
if you are one of these votaries."
Chironomia, or the art of gesticulating, or
with the hands and by gestures, with or without the assistance of the
one of very great antiquity, and much practiced by the Greeks and
Romans, both on
the stage and in the tribune, induced by their habit of addressing
in the open air, where it would have been impossible for the majority
what was said without the assistance of some conventional signs, which
speaker to address himself to the eye as well as to the ear of his
were chiefly made by certain positions of the hands and fingers, the
which was universally recognized and familiar to all classes, and the
reduced to a regular system, as it remains at the present time amongst
of Naples, who will carry on a long conversation between themselves by
and without pronouncing a word. It is difficult to illustrate such a
matter in an
article like this; but the act is frequently represented on the Greek
other works of ancient art, by signs so clearly expressed, and so
similar in their
character to those still employed at Naples, that a common lazzaroni,
one of these compositions, will at once explain the purport of the
a scholar with all his learning cannot divine.
of the Romans combined with the arts of gesture, music and dances of
the most impressive
character. Their silent language often drew tears by the pathetic
they excited: 'their very nod speaks, their hands talk, and their
fingers have a
voice,' says one of their admirers. Montfaucon (L'Antiq. Exp., v. 63)
that they formed a select fraternity."
To judge by two familiar anecdotes, the old
brought their art to great perfection. Macrobius says it was a
well-known fact that
Cicero used to try with Roscius, the actor, which of them could express
in the greatest variety of ways, the player by mimicry or the orator by
and that these experiments gave Roscius such confidence in his art that
a book comparing oratory with acting. Warburton tells a story of a
Prince, entertained at Rome by Augustus, being, among other shows and
amused with a famous pantomime, whose actions were so expressive that
begged him of the Emperor for his interpreter between himself and
nations, whose languages were unknown to one another.
The Spartans, indeed, (as we are told by
preferred converse by action to converse by speech, believing that
action had all
the clearness of speech, and was free from all the abuses of it. This
in his Thalia, informs us that when the Samians sent to Lacedemon for
distress, their orators made a long and laboured speech. When it was
ended the Spartans
told them that the former part of it they had forgotten, and could not
the latter. Whereupon the Samian orators produced their empty
said they wanted bread. "What need of words," replied the Spartans; "do
not your empty bread baskets sufficiently declare your meaning?"
Of the Essenes, we are told by Porphyry, that
meeting for the first time, the members of this sect at once salute
each other as
intimate friends"; and Matter informs us that the Gnostics communicated
means of emblems and symbols.
A symbolic language appears to have existed in
monasteries, the signs not being optional, but transmitted from
antiquity, and taught
like the alphabet. The Cistercian monks held speech, except in
to be sinful, but for certain purposes communication among the brethren
so that the difficulty was met by the use of pantomimic signs. Two of
lists or dictionaries are printed in the collected edition of
they are not identical, but appear to be mostly or altogether derived
from a list
drawn up by authority. Disraeli tells us:
"That the Monks
had not in high veneration the profane authors appears by a facetious
To read the classics was considered as a very idle recreation, and some
in great horror. To distinguish them from other books they invented a
sign; when a Monk asked for a pagan author, after making the general
sign they used
in their manual and silent language when they wanted a book, he added a
one, which consisted in scratching under his ear, as a dog, which feels
scratches himself in that place with his paw ‒ because, said they, an
is compared to a dog. In this manner they expressed an itching for
those dogs Virgil
A curious method of recognition, also relating
monastic orders, is thus pleasantly narrated by the same ingenious
"By the Monks
it was imagined that Holiness was often proportioned to a Saint's
one of these heroes declares that the purest souls are in the dirtiest
this they tell a story of a Brother Juniper, who was a gentleman
on this principle. Indeed, so great was his merit in this species of
that a brother declared that he could always nose Brother Juniper when
mile of the monastery provided the wind was at the due point."
Much to the same point are the remarks of a
in his reference to the habits of the priests of Diana, who were
forbidden to enter
the baths, and he observes,
"that in all religions
emanating from the East, personal dirtiness has ever been the
and visible sign of inward purity ‒ fully exemplified in fakirs,
I shall next allude to a semi-monastical
the Komoso, which, according to Japanese tradition, first came into
at the time of the rise of the last or Tokugawa dynasty of Shoguns ‒
i.e., in the
year 1603. Its history prior to that date is unknown, but from then
down to the
year 1868, its existence was fully recognized.
The Society (or Fraternity) was filled from the
of the Samurai class alone, and entrance into it proved a means of
refuge for any
person who had committed a deed of bloodshed, etc., which rendered it
for him to flee away from the territory of his feudal chieftain. Thus
were recruited chiefly from among those who had, under the influence of
or in some other way than of malice aforethought, killed or wounded a
a friend, or other person. None, however, was admitted who had been
guilty of any
disgraceful crime held to be unworthy of a Samurai ‒ as, for instance,
burglary, or theft.
The chief lands of the Society were situated in
province of Owari, a little to the east of the castle town of Wagoya,
removed from the high road (Tokaido). Here was the Honji, or chief
temple of the
society, but there were also Matsuji, or branch temples, in different
parts of the
country. Meetings were held in these branch temples at various
intervals, and troops
of Komoso were often to be seen entering some remote town or village in
localities; but where or when they met was a profound mystery, and the
dawn saw them leaving the place as silently as they entered it.
The Society was under the command of a Chief,
by the general votes of the members. Under him were the Assistant
and other officers; all chosen in a similar manner. The Chief usually
the principle temple, and was invested with wide powers. His style of
general position are said to have been equal to those of any Daimio. He
of life and death over all his fellows, and was only required to make a
the Government in the event of any Komoso being put to death by his
Assistant Chief might act in his stead whenever such necessity arose.
Anyone desirous of entering the Society, used
to the chief temple stating his case, and giving the reason why he had
feudal lord's domain. He was then lodged in the temple while private
set on foot to ascertain the truth of his statement; if it was
discovered that he
had committed some unworthy deed, he was rejected and dismissed, but if
that his offence of bloodshed was not premeditated, he was admitted
into the Society
with all due rites and ceremonies. What these rites were is unknown,
but it is allowed
that every candidate was bound by solemn oath to conceal them.
The distinctive dress of the Komoso was white,
of the loose Japanese Kimono and tight fitting trousers. The wide
trousers and upper
mantle usually worn by the samurai class were never used. They carried
but one long
sword. The hat was of bamboo, in shape resembling a large inverted
basket of circular
form, with a small aperture to enable the wearer to see freely. This
hat was never
removed during a journey; it was worn, too, in lodging houses, and even
When sleeping, however, the Komoso might take it off, and in the
temples of the
Society it could be laid aside at will. A long staff and a flute
equipment, and certain notes blown on the latter formed one of the
signs by which
the members could make themselves known to their fellows.
The lands granted to the Society enabled its
to obtain sufficient means of maintenance. On a journey they were
assisted by other
Komoso, and often by outsiders also. If a Komoso met another person
he at once challenged him by signs, etc., to ascertain if he were a
of the Society. In case of failure to respond, such person was deemed
to have assumed
the garb merely as a disguise (as was, indeed, often the case), and the
was then held to be justified in seizing and confiscating the clothing
of the pretender.
The white clothing was in the first instance given to each man by the
of the Society. The Chief, when traveling, was always attended by a
of his followers and their journeys were performed on foot.
No women were admitted into the Society, and a
of entering it used therefore to leave his wife and family in the
charge of relatives
or friends. A son was often admitted with his father, but boys of
tender age were
on no account received. Communication with the outer world was
and it was an exceedingly difficult matter for any uninitiated person
to gain access
to a friend who had entered the Society. He was always subjected to
at the temple, before various members, ere he could be allowed to see
and even then the interview was but brief.
Those members who died were buried in the
whenever this was practicable. The tombstones, so tradition has it,
the true name of the deceased, and thus, in death, were at last known
appellations of those who during their lifetime, had wandered to and
and unknown men. One of the principal Komoso cemeteries is said to
exist even now
in the neighborhood of Nagoya, and another to the east of Kioyoto; the
however, of the latter is well-nigh unknown, and it is probable that
has shared the fate of the chief temple to which it was originally
I pass over the shadowy and half-mythical
the Steinmetzen, the Companionage, and other Secret Societies and
all of which may have and probably had their special signs and modes of
and recognition, though we can only speculate upon their possible
getting much nearer to what they really were. In a manuscript of the
Order of Gregorians,
written in the last century, I find the following:
"The Sign Manual
being given by the Grand, he shall give in charge to the new Brother,
that in all
these cases (for fear of discovery) he shd chuse rather to receive than
Signs and passwords, I think we may confidently
were common features of all or nearly all secret societies from the
down to our own.
Boswell tells us:
of Corsica, like the Italians, express themselves much by signs. When I
of them if there had been many instances of the General (Paoli)
events, he grasped a large bunch of hair, and replied, 'Tante Signore'
Among the aborigines of North America the
signs has attained a very high degree of development. Sir Richard
characteristic of the Prairie Indian is his habit of speaking, like the
dumb, with his fingers. The pantomime is a system of signs, some
instinctive or imitative, which enables tribes who have no acquaintance
other's customs and tongues to hold limited but sufficient
communication. An interpreter
who knows all the signs which, however, are so numerous and
complicated, that to
acquire them is a labor of years, is preferred by the whites even to a
Some writers, as Captain Stansbury, consider the system purely
Captain Marcy, for instance, hold it to be a natural language similar
to the gestures
which surd-mutes use spontaneously. Both views are true, but not wholly
It is, however, among the Prairie Indians alone
gesture: speech has arrived at such perfection, that it may properly be
language, and this ‒ as we learn from Colonel Dodge ‒ for the very
that these tribes use it not only in intercourse with people whose oral
they neither speak nor understand, but for everyday intercourse among
In their own camps and families, this language is used so constantly
that it becomes
a natural and instinctive habit; almost every man, even when using oral
accompanying his words by sign-pictures conveying the same meaning. In
wonderful facility and accuracy of expression by signs is attained. Of
pantomime," Tylor observes:
considers it to be a mixture of natural and conventional signs, but so
far as I
can judge from the one hundred and fifty or so which he describes, and
those I find
mentioned elsewhere. I do not believe that there is a really arbitrary
them. There are only about half a dozen of which the meaning is not at
and even these appear on close inspection to be natural signs, perhaps
abbreviated or conventionalized. I am sure that a skilled deaf and dumb
understand an Indian interpreter, and be himself understood at first
scarcely any difficulty. The Indian pantomime and the gesture language
of the deaf
and dumb are but different dialects of the same language of nature."
Within comparatively a few years the attention
has been particularly directed to the sign language. Some authorities
"all the tribes of North American Indians have had, and still use, a
and identical sign language of ancient origin," which serves as a
converse from Hudson Bay to the Gulf of Mexico. Others deny this. To
learn it sufficiently
well for ordinary intercourse is no more difficult than to learn any
to master it, one must have been born in a lodge of Prairie Indians,
and have been
accustomed to its daily and hourly use from his earliest to mature
Two expert sign talkers engaged in conversation
make every sign with one hand so distinctly as to be understood. Two
wrapped up in a blanket tightly held with the left hand, will thrust
the right from
under its folds and engage in animated conversation. So also when on
though the left hand is holding the reins, the conversation will not
flag nor be
On the other hand, however, a slight
may entirely alter the meaning that an amateur sign talker is desirous
Thus Baillie Grohman undertook to say to an Arapahoe: "How has it come
that the bravest of the brave, the man of all men, the dearest friend I
the Arapahoes, has grown such a flowing beard?" but only succeeded in
the gentle savage "that his face was like a young maiden's, and his
of an old squaw."
The Arapahoes, who possess a very scanty
can hardly converse with one another in the dark, and like the Bushmen
Africa ‒ who intersperse their language with so many signs that they
are only intelligible
during daylight ‒ when they want to converse at night are compelled to
their camp fires.
A story is told by Burton of a man who, being
the Cheyennes to qualify himself for interpreting, returned in a week
his competence. All that he did, however, was to go through the usual
with a running accompaniment of grunts.
The first lesson is to distinguish the signs of
different tribes, each of which has not only its distinctive name, but
sign, by which it is known and designated by all other Indians. "It
observed," says Burton, "that the French voyageurs and traders have
named the Indian natives from their totemic or Masonic gestures.
"The Pawnees (Les Loups) imitate a wolf's ears
with the two forefingers; the right hand is always understood unless
"The Arapahoes, or Dirty Noses, rub the right
of that organ with the forefinger. Some, however, call this bad tribe
and make their sign to consist of seizing the nose with the thumb and
"The Comanches (Les Serpents) imitate by the
of the hand or forefinger the forward crawling motion of a snake.
"The Cheyennes, Paikanavos, or Cut Wrists, draw
the edge of the hand across the left arm, as if gashing it with a knife.
"The Sioux (Les Coupes-gorges) by drawing the
edge of the hand across the throat. It is a gesture not unknown to us,
a truly ominous salutation, considering those by whom it is practiced:
Sioux are called by the Yutas, Pampe Chyimina, or Hand-Cutters.
"The Hapsaroke (Les Cerbeaux), by imitating the
flapping of the bird's wings with the two hands ‒ palms downward ‒
to the shoulders.
"The Kiowas, or Prairie-Men, make the sign of
prairie and of drinking water.
"The Yutas, 'they who live on the mountains,'
a complicated sign which denotes living in the mountains.
"The Blackfeet, called by the Yutas, Paike or
pass the right hand bent-spoon fashion, from the heel to the little toe
of the right
Further tribal signs are given by Dodge, from
description I take the following:
"The Northern Arapahoes join the fingers and
of the right hand, and strike the points on the left breast several
"The Apaches move the right hand in much the
way as a barber strops a razor."
Among the miscellaneous signs may be cited
"Hat Wearer," by which with apt gestures, the White Man is referred to,
"Beard Wearer," in like manner applied to Mexican, and "Black White
Man" to the Negro.
The sign of love is made by folding the hands
over the breast, as if embracing the object, assuming at the same time
a look expressing
a desire to carry out the operation. This gesture, Sir Richard Burton
will be understood by the dullest squaw.
The Indians, observes the same careful writer,
the Bedouin and North African Moslems, do honor to strangers and guests
their horses to speed, couching their lances, and other peculiarities,
readily be dispensed with by gentlemen of peaceful pursuits and shaky
friendly, the band will halt when the hint is given, and return the
salute; if not,
they will disregard the order to stop, and probably will make the sign
Then ‒ they were scalped!
"It is asserted by squaw men and others, in a
to know that almost every tribe of Indians has its secret societies,
passwords, grips, and signs, as the Masons. Odd Fellows. etc. I have
able positively to ascertain the truth or falsity of this statement.
Most of the
Indians deny it, but from the grim silence that falls upon an
occasional old head-man,
when asked about it, I suspect it may be true. "The existence, among
of North America, of Fraternities bound by mystic ties; and claiming,
like the Freemasons,
to possess an esoteric knowledge, is, I believe, fairly well attested.
relates, on the authority of a respectable native minister, who had
signs, the existence of-such a society among the Iroquois. The number
of the members
was limited to fifteen, of whom six were to be of the Seneca tribe,
five of the
Oneidas, two of the Cayugas, and two of the St. Regis. They claim that
has existed from the era of creation. The late Giles Fonda Yates, in
his work on
the ceremonies of the Indian tribes, sought ingeniously, if not
to discover a Masonic meaning in the Indian mystic rites.
The experiment of bringing Indians and deaf
has often been tried during visits of Indians to the East, and they
readily, the signs being, of course, ideographic. A very wonderful
of the extent of natural meaning in signs and expression was a test
President Gallaudet, of the National Deaf Mute College, at Washington,
he related intelligibly to a pupil the story of Brutus ordering the
his two sons for disobedience, without making a motion with hand or
arms, or using
any previously determined sign or other communication, but simply by
and motion of the head.
The best evidence of the unity of the gesture
(to quote the words of Mr. Tylor), is the ease and certainty with which
from any country can understand and be understood in a Deaf and Dumb
school. A native
of Hawaii is taken to an American institution, and begins at once to
talk in signs
with the children, and to tell about his voyage and the country he came
Chinese, who had fallen into a state of melancholy from long want of
quite revived by being taken to the same place, where he can talk in
his heart's content.
Alexander von Humboldt [Lib 1857] has left on record
his experiences of the gesture language among the Indians of the
"'After you leave
my mission,' said the good monk of Uruana, 'you will travel like
mutes.' This prediction
was almost accomplished, and not to lose all the advantage that is to
be had from
intercourse even with the brutalized Indians, we have sometimes
preferred the language
Describing the Puris and Coroados of Brazil,
Martius, having remarked that different tribes converse in signs, and
the difficulty they found in making them understand by signs the
objects or ideas
for which they wanted the native names, go on to say how imperfect and
inflection or construction these languages are. Signs with hand or
mouth, they say,
are required to make them intelligible. To say, "I will go into the
the Indian uses the words "wood-go,' and points his mouth like a snout
direction he means.
Gesture-signs are mentioned by Captain Cook as
an accompaniment to spoken language among the Tahitians, who, he says,
signs to their words, which were so impressive that a stranger might
Mr. W. Simson, in his "History of the Gipsies,"
[Lib 1878] says: "Not only
have they had a language peculiar to themselves, but signs as
as are those of the Freemasons. The distinction consists in this people
language, a cast of mind, and signs, peculiar to itself."
Mr. Laurence Oliphant [Lib 1850] tells us, "The Druses have
secret signs of recognition,
and are in fact organized as a powerful political, as well as secret
and the same writer goes on to say, "among the Ansariyeh there are two
as among the Druses ‒ the initiated and uninitiated," ‒ but the curious
who may wish to pursue the inquiry is referred to the account of the
or Nusairis of Syria," given in the "Asian Mystery," [Lib 1860] by the Rev. Samuel
Of the Todas of the Neilgherries, Sir Richard
says, "A Brother Mason informs us that the Todas use a sign of
similar to ours, and they have discovered that Europeans have an
with their own." Yet as the great traveler goes on to say, "but in our
humble opinion, next to the antiquary in simplicity of mind, capacity
and capability of assertion, ranks the Freemason ‒ it will but,
perhaps, not to
lay too much stress on the alleged similarity between customs that
after all may,
and probably do not, possess a single feature in common."
Mr. Wilfrid Powell, who passed three years of
among the Cannibals of New Britain, thus describes the Duk-duk Society
of that island:
"The Duk-duk is both a curse and a blessing his people; he certainly
order and makes the natives raid to commit any flagrant act of felony,
but at the
same time it encourages cannibalism and terrorism
"There are secret signs between the initiated
which they know each other from outsiders. It is curious how widely
is this Duk-duk system in the north peninsula of New Britain. It is in
district, also in New Ireland, from the west coast lying south of the
to Cape St. George, and how far it may spread on the other side I
Dr. Milligan, speaking of the language of
the habit of gesticulation, and the use of signs to eke out
says that the Aborigines conveyed in a supplementary fashion by tone,
gesture, many modifications of meaning, which are otherwise expressed
With regard to the practice of uncovering the
Tylor says, when we find the Damaras, in South Africa, taking off their
before entering a stranger's house, the idea of conducting the practice
Ancient Egyptian custom, or of ascribing it to Moslem influence, at
itself, but the king off the sandals as a sign of respect seems to have
in Peru. No common Indian, it is said, dared go shod along the Street
of the Sun,
nor might anyone, however great lord he might be, enter the house of
the Sun with
his shoes on, and even the Inca himself went barefoot into the Temple
of the Sun.
The custom (or as called by some Masonic
rite) of discalceation ‒ i.e., the act of putting off the shoes as a
is frequently referred to in the sacred writings, and Dr. Adam Clarke
the custom of worshipping the Deity barfooted to have been so general
nations of antiquity, that in his commentary on Exodus he assigns it as
one of his
thirteen proofs that the whole human race have been derived from one
The lowest class of salutation, says Tyler,
aim at giving pleasant bodily sensations, merge into the civilities
which we see
exchanged among the lower animals. Such are patting, stroking, kissing,
noses, blowing, sniffing, and so forth. The often-described sign of
greeting of the Indians of North America, by rubbing each other's arms,
and stomachs, and their own, is similar to the Central African custom
of two men
clasping each other's arms with both hands, and rubbing them up and
down, and that
of stroking one's own face with another's hand or foot, in Polynesia;
and the pattings
and slappings of the Fuegians belong to the same class. Darwin
describes the way
in which noses are pressed in New Zealand, with details which have
accurate observers. It is curious that the Linnaeus found the
salutation by touching
noses in the Lapland Alps. People did not kiss, but put noses together.
Islanders salute by blowing into another's hand with a cooing murmer.
speaks of an Indian tribe in the Gulf of Mexico who blew into one
and Du Chaillu describes himself as having been blown upon in Africa.
of joy, such as clapping hands in Africa, and jumping up and down in
Fuego, are made do duty as signs of friendship or greeting.
There are a number of well-known gestures which
hard to explain. Such are various signs of hatred and contempt ‒ for
out the tongue, which is a universal sign, though it is not clear why
be so, biting the thumb, making the sign of the stork's bill behind
(ciconiam facere), and the sign known as "taking a sight," which was as
common at the time of Rabelais as it is now.
Shaking hands, it may be observed, is not a
belongs naturally to all mankind, and we may sometimes trace its
countries where it was before unknown. The Fijians, for instance, who
used to salute
by smelling or sniffing at one another, have learned to shake hands
from the missionaries.
The Wa-nika, near Mombaz, grasp hands, but they use the Moslem variety
of the gesture,
which is to press the thumbs against one another as well, and this
makes it all
but certain that the practice is one of the many effects of Moslem
Tylor lays down that gesture-language is a
of expression common to mankind in general and also that it is the same
and similar in its details all over the world. "It is true," he
"that the signs used in different places and by different persons are
partially the same; but it must be remembered that the same idea may be
in signs in very many ways, and that it is not necessary that all
The "universelle longage of Maconnes" is named
in the Leland-Locke MS. as being among those secrets which "the
aud hyde." This document has of late years been given up as apocryphal,
it exercised no slight influence in its time. The original was said to
in the handwriting of King Henry VI., the copy to have been made by
the antiquary, and the annotations to have been the work of John Locke
In his alleged commentary Locke is made to say:
Universal language has been much desired by the learned of many ages.
It is a thing
rather to be wished than hoped for." It is evident, however, says
such a substitute for a universal language has always existed among
are certain expressions of ideas which, by an implied common consent,
even to the most barbarous tribes. An extension forward of the open
hands will be
understood at once by an Australian savage or an American Indian as a
peace, while the idea of war or dislike would be as readily conveyed to
them by a repulsive gesture of the same hands." "These are not,
continues the same careful writer, "what constitute the signs of
The words last cited are worthy of remembrance, and may aid in
dispelling many an
illusion. The crop of "traveller's tales" increases year by year,
as a common feature, appear either the manifestation of the recognition
signs by Arabs of the desert, native Australians, Bushmen, Afghans, and
In the expressive pantomime of the gesture language an Indian, it has
will by his signs, "talk all over," his whole body being made use of to
convey a message, but in all cases of the kind whatever resemblances
to exist with our Masonic customs, will, in the vast majority of cases,
only, and fall within the doctrine of "chance coincidences" a phrase
happily coined by Mr. Hyde Clarke in 1864.
The Triangle Of The World – [A Poem]
Bro. L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
‒ the thread
of finest, purest gold
That is woven from the loom of ages old
Has lived to see its principles unfold.
FRATERNITY ‒ the Truth worked out in man,
The only thing that has or ever can
Bring to him peace and wars forever ban.
DEMOCRACY ‒ with love upon its throne ‒
The fruitage of the seed that has been sown
Will make the world a sweeter, better home.
By wisdom wealth is won!
But riches purchased wisdom yet for none.
Success is counted sweetest
By those who ne'er succeed.
A word hurts more than a wound.
By Bro. Dr. G. Alfred Lawrence,
"Neither in ancient nor in modern time, has the
schoolmaster made single step of progress, except by holding on to the
the soldier's coat. Regular armies gave the first check to the
barbarism of the
Middle Ages, and it was under their protection alone that arts,
and industry grew up and extended in Europe."
THE above statement of Major Gen. Mitchell we
is applicable to the role of Military Lodges in the general diffusion
throughout the world. No other single factor has been so potent and
The flower of royalty, nobility, members of the military and naval
statesmen, men of letters and of the liberal arts and professions of
every civilized nation of the earth have identified themselves with
many although not by profession military or naval officers have at some
identified with the service and gained their first knowledge of the
Military Lodges. A mere enumeration of the host of distinguished Masons
class would occupy many pages. Such men as Lord Nelson of Trafalgar,
our own immortal
Commander-in-Chief, George Washington (and practically all of his
Marshals Lord Roberts and Lord Kitchener, and Sir Charles Warren (first
Quatuor Coronati Lodge of London), are striking examples.
There were no less than sixteen Military
the membership roll of Lodge No. 4, which with numbers 1, 2 and 3
founded the Grand
Lodge of England in 1717. Shortly after this, in 1728, the first purely
Lodge (of which there is any distinct record) was established at
Gibraltar and originally
numbered 57 on the lists. This was constituted by the Duke of Wharton
in the Spanish service and was thus also the first lodge in foreign
parts to obtain
a place in the Grand Lodge of England.
In 1734 another Duke, (Richmond), a gallant
and former Grand Master of England, assisted by Baron de Montesquieu
at Paris, admitted many distinguished persons into the Society of
in the following year (1735) Desaguliers, formerly Grand Master of
at the Hotel Bussy in Paris, admitted into Masonry the Second Duke of
a general) assisted by Lord Dursley (afterwards Fourth Earl of Berkeley
and a General
in the Army.)
The Grand Lodge of York (established in 1725,
in 1761, and expiring about 1792) issued a Military Warrant to the
Regiment of Dragoons in 1770.
The junior Grand Lodge of England (established
which arrogated to itself the title "Ancients" established many
Lodges and was even more active in this respect, especially in regions
seas, than the parent Grand Lodge of England established in 1717 and
styled "Moderns" by these self-designated "Ancients." This junior
Grand Lodge of England was also designated as the "Atholl Grand Lodge"
from the Fourth Duke of Atholl who was Grand Master of same from 1775
to 1781 and
Grand Master of Scotland during 1778 and 1779.
The Grand Lodge of Ireland established in 1731
very active in establishing Military Lodges and always worked according
to the system
in vogue among the so-called "Ancients." The first warrant creating a
travelling lodge of Freemasons by this Grand Lodge ‒ to which No. 11
assigned ‒ was issued to the First Foot (then the "Royal Regiment" and
now the "Royal Scots") a British Regiment, in the year 1732.
The Grand Lodge of Scotland, established in
not erect a Military Lodge until 1743 when William, the Fourth Earl of
was Grand Master. The petitioners were some sergeants and sentinels
Col. Lee's (afterwards the 55th) Regiment of Foot. This lodge had no
to it in the official roll however so that the following lodge in
of infantry is recorded as the earliest Military Lodge chartered by the
of Scotland. This latter was "The Duke of Norfolk's" in the 12th Foot
and was placed on the Scottish roll as No. 58 in 1747 and in their
averred that "The Duke of Norfolk's Masons Lodge" had been "erected
into a Mason body bearing the title aforesaid, as far back as 1685."
It is a matter of interest to note here that
Deputy Grand Master of Scotland and a Lieutenant Colonel at the
massacre at Fort William Henry in 1757 was in this latter year
Grand Master of all the Scottish lodges (mostly of a Military
character) in America
and the West Indies.
In addition to Military Lodges established by
Lodge of Scotland, "Mother Kilwinning" issued warrants directly to many
Military Lodges and was recognized as their superior and entirely
the Grand Lodge of Scotland. In 1747 there was a Military Lodge in the
(now the Royal Scots Grays), the exact date of its constitution is
the interesting point is that it obtained its warrant from Kilwinning
influence of the Earl of Eglinton.
All these bodies issued many other warrants in
to the above. The Grand Lodge of Ireland shortly after 1732 issued
warrants to Military
Lodges in four other British Regiments, then bearing the names of their
but which afterwards became the 33rd, 27th, 21st and 28th Foot ‒ making
of five at work under this jurisdiction in 1734 and this number had
eight when the first Military Warrant was issued by the Grand Lodge of
in 1743. Two of these eight, dated 1732 and 1734 and bearing the
numbers 11 and
33 were attached to the 1st and 21st Foot respectively ‒ both Scottish
There were other Military Lodges in existence in Scotland other than
enumerated as early as 1744 as the minutes of "St. John's Old
at Inverness records the visit of "David Holland, Master of the Lodge
in Brigadier Guize's Regiment," afterwards the 6th Foot, then "lying at
Fort George." This lodge seems to have been without any charter or
but the lost archives of the Grand Lodge of Ireland might have supplied
a key to
the mystery and undoubtedly there must have been many Irish Military
Lodges in the
British Army and elsewhere of which all traces have been lost. There
39 Military Lodges on the registry of the Grand Lodge of Ireland and 5
on that of
the Grand Lodge of Scotland, so far as the records show, when the
Lodges were established by the rival Grand Bodies of England.
A Military Lodge was established in the 8th
the "Moderns" in February, 1755, and one in the 57th Foot of the
in September of the same year and as many more constituted by both
Bodies from this
Abraham Savage who was authorized by the
Grand Master of North America under the "Moderns" "to congregate
all Free and Accepted Masons in the Expedition against Canada into one
or more lodges"
admitted into Masonry at Crown Point (after the surrender of that
twelve officers of the 1st Foot in a lodge he had established there and
he was Master in 1759.
Later in the same year at Quebec "the
of St. John the Evangelist was duly observed by the several lodges of
in the garrison."
On October 1st, 1766, the 14th, 29th and part
69th Regiments arrived at Boston, Mass., and a little later the 64th
and 65th Foot
direct from Ireland and the three Military Lodges in the above all
the "Ancient system" ‒ No. 58 in the 14th Foot, No. 322 in the 29th
and No. 106 in the 64th Foot ‒ holding under the Grand Lodges of
Ireland and Scotland respectively. The members of St. Andrews, a
at Boston, fraternized with these visiting Military brethren and
this means to form a Grand Lodge under the Grand Lodge of Scotland. It
to note that none of these Army lodges were represented at the
installation of the
Provincial Grand Master under England ("Moderns") in November, 1768,
all joined in a petition to the Grand Lodge of Scotland requesting the
of a "Grand Master of 'Ancient' Masons in America." In 1769 Dr. Joseph
Warren was appointed "Grand Master of Masons in Boston and within 100
of the same." The 64th regiment having removed from this station in the
the Grand Lodge was formerly inaugurated by St. Andrew's Lodge, Lodge
No. 58 ("Ancients")
in the 14th Foot and Lodge No. 322 (Ireland) in the 29th Foot. By a
patent in 1772 Dr. Joseph Warren (afterwards killed at the battle of
where although holding a commission as Major-General he fought as a
appointed Grand Master for the Continent of America ‒ this patent being
by the Fifth Earl of Dumfries, Grand Master of Scotland, 1771-1772 and
of the Foot Guards. It is of interest to note here that of the 27 Grand
of Scotland prior to 1769, 14 held commissions in the army.
Under General Oughton in 1770 the Lodge "Scots
Grays of Kilwinning" in the 2nd or Royal North British Dragoons, having
their charter and all their records in the wars, petitioned for a
warrant from the
Grand Lodge of Scotland, which was granted, and the lodge reconstituted
1770, as "St. Andrew's Royal Arch" having as its Master Colonel William
(afterwards Sixth Lord) Napier, then in command of the 2nd Dragoons.
The Earl of Ancrum, afterwards Fifth Marquis of
and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Scotland in 1794-95 served for
in his father's regiment (the 11th Dragoons) in which a lodge was
the Grand Lodge of England ("Moderns") "in Captain Bell's troop."
In this troop he held a commission as Lieutenant in 1756 and attained
the rank of
General in the army in 1796.
Of great interest is the fact that the
and field lodges in New York met as a Grand Lodge and elected Grand
January 23, 1781, and a warrant for a Provincial Grand Lodge was
granted by the
Grand Lodge of England ("Ancients") September 5th, 1781. This
Grand Lodge was duly inaugurated by three stationary and six ambulatory
December, 1782. The stationary lodges were numbers 169, 210 and 212 on
of the "Ancients" ‒ the first acknowledged as the leading authority by
the various Army lodges and the latter two were also to a great extent
Bodies. Of the six Travelling or Military Lodges, No. 52 was attached
to the 37th
Foot, No. 213 to the 4th Battalion Royal Artillery and No. 215 to the
Regiment ‒ all three English ("Ancient"); No 132 attached to the 22nd
Foot, Scottish ‒ No. 441 to the 38th Foot, Irish; and Sions Lodge in
the 57th Regiment
holding under a dispensation granted by Lodge No. 210 ("Ancients") with
the consent and approval of No. 132 "Moriah" in the 22nd Foot and No.
134 Eskdale Kilwinning at Langholm in Dumfriesshire. In the following
a majority of the Grand Officers left New York with the British Army
and by that
date lodges had been formed by this Provincial Grand Lodge in New
the Regiment of Knyphansen, the 57th Foot and the Loyal American
this same period two Irish Lodges, Nos. 478 in the 17th Dragoons and
No. 90 in the
30th Foot, arrayed themselves under its banner. After the Revolutionary
Grand Body thus established by British Military Lodges abandoned its
character and assumed the title of the Grand Lodge of New York. The
No. 132, "Moriah" in the 22nd Foot originally received an Irish warrant
which it "lost in the Mississippi" about the year 1759 and next applied
for this Scottish warrant No. 132. This latter was granted in 1769.
part in the formation of the Grand Lodge of New York as just described,
a most remarkable incident if the following statement which appeared in
Courant" of January 4th, 1770, can be credited: "This is to acquaint
public that on Monday, the first inst., being the lodge (or monthly
of the Free and Accepted Masons of the 22nd Regiment, held at the Crown
(Newcastle) Mrs. Bell, the landlady of the house, broke open a door
(with a poker)
that had not been opened for some years past, by which means she got
into an adjacent
room, made two holes through the wall, and by that stratagem discovered
of Masonry; and she knowing herself to be the first woman in the world
found out that secret is willing to make it known to all her sex. So
any lady who
is desirous of learning the secrets of Masonry by applying to that
woman (Mrs. Bell, that lived fifteen years in and about Newgate) may be
in the secrets of Masonry."
Military Lodges continued to increase in number
importance so that up to 1790 one hundred are recorded as having been
by the Grand Lodge of Ireland (and doubtless many others of which the
now lost), twenty-one by the Grand Lodge of Scotland, and forty-nine
the "Ancients," in addition to a large number of subsidiary lodges
by the provincial authorities under this "Ancient" system in America,
Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia, Gibraltar and Jamaica, including
lodges. To a more restricted extent the "Moderns" also issued local
in foreign districts and up to the above date fourteen Regimental
lodges were listed.
There were also about fourteen Army lodges attached to various brigades
in addition to many other stationary lodges of a Military character in
of the Indian Presidencies, especially on the coast of Coromandel. In
the above there were "Royal Navy" Lodges at Deal, Gosport, London, and
Halifax; a Marine Lodge at Plymouth; "The Royal Military" at Woolwich;
"Lodge of Mars" at Yassy in Russia (established by the "Moderns"
in 1784); "Carnatic Military Lodge" constituted at Arcot in 1784; and
"St. John's Lodge of Secrecy and Harmony" (in the Order of Knights of
St. John) at Malta, established in 1789. Two years later in 1792 there
Military Lodges at Gibraltar, one Scottish, six Irish and three English
and one Provincial ‒ in as many different regiments then stationed
On St. John's Day, 1813, the "Ancients" and
"Moderns" united to form the "United Grand Lodge of England,"
of which the Duke of Sussex became the first Grand Master and by this
116 Military Lodges established by the "Ancients" and the 25
by the "Moderns" came under the allegiance of this newly formed Grand
Body. The number of Irish lodges had increased to 190 and the Scottish
to 21 making
a grand total of 352 Military or Regimental lodges created to this
date. Many of
these had become dormant however so that only 219 were actually
carrying on work.
After the battle of Waterloo (1815) the decline
Lodges owing to the reduction of the British Army to a peace footing
was very rapid
so that in 1822 only about thirty Irish, 25 English and 2 Scottish
lodges were chartered
‒ 57 in all ‒ thus making a total of 409 Ambulatory lodges known to
have been constituted
by the Grand Lodges of the British Isles. In addition to the above
there were no
less than forty "Regimental," "Military," or "Army"
lodges and several bearing the title of "Royal Navy" or "Marine"
warranted by the English provincial authorities abroad and which were
in the books of any of the Grand Lodges. The last Travelling (Military)
the Scottish Roll was "cut off" in 1860. In 1886 there were only
such bodies working under the Grand Lodges of England and Ireland and
by 1889 these
were still further reduced to eight of which six were Irish and two
is of interest to note here that the famous English Masonic Historian,
Gould, was the first Master of the Military Lodge, established in 1858
in the 31st
Foot and which continued in existence for over thirty years. Among
others who made
Masonic History prior to this may be mentioned Edward Augustus, Duke of
brother of King George III, who was the first member of the English
in the Naval service to become a Mason. He was initiated in 1765 at
Berlin in a
lodge, which as a result of this event, assumed the title "Royal York
and is now the Grand Lodge of that name. Three years prior to this
Earl Ferrers, became Grand Master of England, 1762-1763, while a
Captain in the
Naval service (promoted to Rear-Admiral in 1775.)
The Lord High Admiral, the Duke of Clarence,
King William IV of Great Britain; Sir John Ross, the famous Arctic
William Sidney Smith, who vainly endeavored to effect a reunion of the
all the European Orders and succeeded to the Regency of the Knights
Templar of France
in 1838 ‒ General Sir James Outram (the Bayard of India), Sir Henry
Admiral of the Fleet, and several of the Dukes of Wellington were
famous in Naval
and Military Masonry.
It is not generally known that the celebrated
Historian, Edward Gibbon, was at one time a Lieutenant-Colonel in the
and made a Mason in the "Lodge of Friendship" in 1775 and Sir Walter
held a commission in the Royal Midlothian Cavalry in 1797 and became a
the "Lodge of St. David" Edinburgh in 1801.
Lieutenant-General Thomas Desaguliers, son of
Grand Master of that name, joined a Military Lodge in the Royal
Artillery and to
his influence and example is attributed the extraordinary prevalence of
Lodges in this branch of the service during the latter half of the
Our own famous naval hero, Paul Jones, our
to France at a critical Military period, Benjamin Franklin (also
Colonel of a regiment
in 1755), the famous Voltaire, and many other Military and Naval
brethren were members
of the "Lodge of the Nine Muses" at Paris.
Field Marshal Viscount Wolseley was initiated
Lodge No. 728, Dublin, in 1851, served as its Master, and with Field
Roberts and Kitchener was one of the Past Grand Wardens of the Grand
Lodge of England.
Illustrative of the many ramifications of the
Lodge system a zealous Master of Royal Military Lodge No. 371, Captain
while Inspector of the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich and
Provincial Grand Master
for Kent, found some Master Masons confined in the Kings Bench Prison.
his lodge, with the Constitution, to said prison and there held a
meeting and made
Masons. This was brought to the attention of the Grand Lodge which very
ruled "that in the opinion of the Grand Lodge it is inconsistent with
of Masonry that any Freemasons lodge can be regularly held for the
purpose of making,
passing, or raising Masons in any prison or place of confinement."
this Royal Military Lodge No. 371 was erased from the list and still
Capt. Smith, who had committed a still graver misdemeanor, was expelled
A still more unique experience was that of the
adventurer, General William Augustus Bowles, who joined the British
Army in 1776
and in 1791 was initiated in the "Prince of Wales Lodge" and
made "Provincial Grand Master" of the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw and
Indians under the Grand Lodge of England.
These Military Lodges wherever located, as a
harmoniously with, and exchanged Masonic courtesies with the stationary
the vicinity and of interest in this connection is the fact that in
1759 when members
of Lodge No. 74 in the 2nd Battalion of the First Foot left Albany, N.
granted an exact copy of their Irish warrant to some influential
citizens of that
city, who in 1765 changed it for a Provincial charter and this lodge,
Vernon," now holds the third place on the roll in New York State. A
patent ‒ in fact the first Military Warrant ever issued ‒ had been
to the First Battalion of this same regiment and the lodge (Irish)
never took a
name and was only known by its number (No. 11). In 1814 this latter
with the Fourth Battalion having "Royal Thistle Lodge No. 289"
was stationed at Quebec. A third lodge "Unity, Peace and Concord, No.
was established in this same First Foot (now Royal Scots) and in the
This latter lodge attained the longest span of uninterrupted existence
of any Army
lodge, receiving its warrant in 1798 and renewed in 1808 when this
serving on the Coast of Coromandal "to some 'privates' stationed at
These petitioners, however, were not all private soldiers but included
a large number
of non-commissioned officers. In the following year (1809) the officers
2nd Battalion asked permission to form a second lodge in the same corps
to be styled
"The Officers Lodge." The result of this petition was not recorded but
there are numerous examples in India and elsewhere of lodges formed in
the membership of which was restricted to commissioned officers. This
Peace and Concord No. 316" undoubtedly was No. 74 originally granted by
Grand Lodge of Ireland in 1737 and although cancelled in 1801 would
have been renewed. This famous lodge is working today in the 2nd
Scots on the western battle front in France under the designation
and Concord, No. 316."
"The Military Lodge of the Duke of Norfolk"
in the 12th Foot was among those that walked in the procession at the
the Foundation Stone of the North Bridge with Masonic honors at
Edinburgh in 1762.
A Military Lodge in the 25th, now the "King's
Borderers" obtained an Irish warrant in 1749 and the minutes of an
"Border Lodge" (which they evidently visited) is the only record that
the lodge chest of this regiment was lost at Munster, Germany, and a
new one was
"consecrated" at Berwick in December, 1763.
At the first recorded meeting of the Royal Arch
"St. Andrews" in Boston in the month of August 1769, foreign soldiers
were chosen as the first officers of the lodge and William Davis of No.
in the 14th Foot received "four steps" described as those of
Super-Excellent, Royal Arch and Knight Templar."
About this same time "Royal Arch Lodge No. 3"
of Philadelphia was in close communication with No. 351 (Irish) in the
and these two bodies were in the habit of lending their Royal Arch
Some of these Military Lodges later became
as "Fuzilier Lodge No. 33" originally chartered 1734, later lapsed and
their warrant renewed in 1817 in the Royal North British Fuziliers and
that regiment to Tasmania, where it was granted a civil warrant with
the old name
and number and became the first stationary lodge in that Colony in 1823.
There was much rivalry at times between the
and "Moderns." At Gibraltar, for instance, there were various Military
Lodges and No. 148 in the Royal Artillery wrote to the Junior Grand
Lodge of England
"Ancients" stating "that a set of people who had their authority
from the 'Modern' Grand Lodge thought proper to dispute the legality of
No. 148; that in the said garrison there were also held Lodges 11, 244,
420 and 466 (in 1st, 2nd, 39th, 56th, 76th, and 58th Foot respectively)
on the registry
of Ireland and No. 58 (12th Regiment) in the Registry of Scotland."
Murray, R. N. for services rendered to No. 148 "in proving the
of their warrant" was awarded a gold medal by the "Ancient" Grand
Lodge in 1777. Later in 1786 the Provincial Grand Lodge of Andalusia
which had been
under the jurisdiction of the "Moderns" for over twenty years applied
for a warrant under the "Ancients" and refused to act any longer under
the former, although the Duke of Cumberland was said to be Grand Master
of the "Moderns."
There was a similar rivalry between the
and Moderns" on the coast of Coromandal, India, in 1786. Intimate
however, were often maintained by these Military Lodges with the
in the community where they might be stationed and it is recorded that
No. 960 in the 2nd Dragoon Guards "in token of respect for their
conduct during their stay in Norwich were fraternally entertained by
the Lodge of
Eleusinian Mysteries at that city in 1825." On St. John's Day (winter
a Masonic ball was given by the "Cameronian Lodge" No. 26 at Calcutta
to which visiting (Military) brethren were freely invited. In the same
year at a
meeting of No. 7 in the 7th Dragoon Guards, then stationed at
from nearly all the lodges in that Metropolis were present. Later in
No. 26 returned from India and while quartered in Edinburgh assisted in
foundation stone, officially recorded as follows: "Amongst the numerous
in attendance was that of the 26th or Cameronian Regiment, in the
Registry of Ireland,
which being a visiting stranger lodge, under the rule of a Sister Grand
placed near the Grand Lodge of Scotland.
Coming to the period of the Seven Years War
by Frederick the Great in alliance with England against France,
Sweden, Saxony and most of the smaller German States, at the famous
battle of Minden,
fought on August 1st, 1759, so numerous had become Military Lodges that
of English Infantry engaged (with the possible exception of the 51st)
had one or
more Military Lodges in the same. These were the 12th, 20th, 23rd, 25th
and lodges were known to have also been attached to the troops of the
About this time on the Continent the Rite or
called the "Strict Observance" was in vogue based on the fiction that
at the time of the destruction of the Templars a certain number of the
refuge in Scotland and thus preserved the due succession of the order
by the election
of Pierre d'Aumont as Grand Master of the Templars in Scotland in 1313.
reasons these Knights were said to have joined the Gilds of Masons in
and thus arose the Society of Freemasons. The great doctrine laid down
for the followers
of this Rite was "that every true Mason is a Knight Templar." Thus
in British Regiments constantly worked side by side with lodges under
Observance which for twenty years at least pervaded all Continental
many Masons taken by both sides fraternized with their captors and thus
of such prisoners of war sprang into existence and the degree of Knight
became a favorite one in the lodges of the British Army. They must have
their knowledge of this degree from associating with lodges and
brethren under the
"Strict Observance" and thereby finally introduced the same into
and America. It was due to intercourse with brethren belonging to
served in Ireland toward the end of the eighteenth century that
actually owed their acquaintance with Knight Templarism. It was known
Masonry" and was propagated to a large extent through charters issued
lodge of Freemasons at Dublin, which had been constituted by "Mother
for the practice of Craft degrees. This action of the daughter lodge
led to the
belief in Kilwinning being a centre of so-called "High Degrees" and in
1813 application was made to Kilwinning Lodge requesting it to
authorize the transfer
of a "Black Warrant" from the Knights of the Temple and of Malta in the
Westmeath Militia (holding Irish warrant No. 791 cancelled in 1826) to
the same degree serving in the Shropshire Militia (holding an English
made civil and stationary in 1820 and now authorized to assemble as
Masons of the
"Salopian Lodge of Charity" at Shrewsbury). Kilwinning Lodge in reply
to the Sir Knights of this Shropshire regiment, however, repudiated the
of any maternal tie between herself and any Society of Masonic
Knighthood and expressed
her inability-to regard anything as Masonry beyond the three regular
steps. It is
thus probable that all degrees above the first three obtained a footing
in the British
Islands through the medium of Army lodges. In Scotland these additional
were first conferred by the lodges and afterwards more often in
Encampments. A Lodge
"Aboyne" was formed in the Aberdeen Militia in 1799 and an Encampment
in 1812 and moved with the regiment to Dover in 1812, Liverpool 1813,
and returned to Aberdeen in 1815. In this latter year the degrees
practiced in this
"St. George Aboyne Enampment" were arranged in seven groups: 1. Master
past the Chair, Excellent and Super-Excellent, Royal Arch; 2. Ark,
Black Mark, Link
and Chain; 3. Knight Templar, Knight of St. John of Jerusalem,
Knight of Malta; 4. Jordan Pass, Babylon Pass; 5. Knight of the Red
Cross, 6. High
Priest; and 7. Prussian Blue. Both Master Masons and Royal Arch Masons
as candidates and if former they began with Group 1 and if latter with
When the degrees of Group 1 were conferred the meeting was called a
for the remainder an Encampment. In the "Moderns" the only degrees
(with official sanction) down to 1813 were the first three but by the
of 1813" the Royal Arch and Installed Master's degrees were accepted as
to "pure and ancient Masonry bequeathed to them in 1717." In the
however, prior to 1813, both the Royal Arch and installed Master's
essential features of their system. The practice of conferring the
under warrant for the first three degrees is shown by the following
from the Deputy Grand Secretary by the Irish lodge "No. 441" in the
Foot in 1822: "There is not any warrant issued by any Grand Lodge of
other than that you hold; it has therefore always been the practice of
to confer the Higher Degrees under that authority." "Minden Lodge No.
63" of the 20th Regiment continued the work of the Royal Arch under its
(Craft) warrant until 1838 when a separate charter was issued by the
This Irish lodge "No. 63" just mentioned,
took the additional name of "Minden" owing to the Regiment (20th Foot)
greatly distinguishing itself in the battle of Minden and celebrated
of its warrant in 1848 ‒ having received its warrant of constitution
in December 1748 from the Grand Lodge of Ireland and its first Colonel
Lord) George Sackville was appointed its first Master. This practice of
the Colonel (or commanding officer) of a regiment the first Master was
by no means
Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, who commanded the
forces at this battle of Minden and served in several campaigns under
the Great, was initiated in December, 1740 in the "Lodge of the Three
at Berlin and in 1770 was appointed English Provincial Master for the
Duchy of Brunswick
but in 1771 "he forsook pure and ancient Freemasonry" and was admitted
into the "Strict Observance."
Sir David Baird, Colonel of both the 24th Foot,
the Westminster Militia stationed at Harwich, was ordered with the
former for service
in the Baltic. So great was their affection for their Colonel and
that the members of the Militia offered to a man to volunteer but it
could not be
done until the Military transfer Bill was passed whereupon 223 of the
228 men enrolled
themselves with the 24th Foot. Military Lodge No. 426 of the English
List for 1768
was in this 24th Foot and lodge "Westminster Militia" in this Militia
(To be continued)
If – [A Poem]
James T. Duncan
you quaff each joy
With its alloy;
If you heed no warning fears,
Deep in the heart
Is set apart
The pearl of tears.
If, crushed alone
'Neath sorrow's stone,
If your soul no fires destroy,
Deep in the heart
Is set apart
The diamond ‒ Joy.
There is nothing so powerful as truth; and
‒ Daniel Webster.
By Bro. Charles Sumner Lobinger,
The number of communications which THE BUILDER
on Zionism proves that to many of our readers this is a timely subject.
article, written by a Mason, should prove interesting to Zionists and
SUCH was the title which Tasso, the Italian
the late Middle Ages, chose for the epic in which he sang the glories
of the First
Crusade. It and its seven successors fill a notable page in human
history, but it
seems to have been reserved for our day to realize the age long dream
of the Crusaders.
Jerusalem was indeed "delivered" by Godfrey
de Bouillon and his army of Christian knights in 1099; but the
deliverance did not
long continue, for the strength of the Seljukian Turks was too great.
"The Christian throne of Jerusalem fell in the
dust. The Mosque of Omar still occupies the site of the Holy Temple.
with all their pomp and pageantry of war and romance, went by, and have
faded away in the dim past. A new age has succeeded, with new ideas,
new aims; and if the Holy Sepulcher is again to be the heritage of a
and the appendage of a Christian Throne, that will be brought about by
negotiation, or as the result of a war between great nations, in God's
and not by a new Crusade."
Do these predictions written many years ago,
in the present mighty conflict? They would certainly seem to in the
light of recent
events. The British army which, under Sir Archibald Murray, started
from Egypt a
year and a half ago or more, has been moving slowly but surely
northward, not far
from the traditional pathway of the wandering Israelites. On December
10 last, Jerusalem
was taken and on the following day the commanding general entered the
city and the
British, French and Italian flags were raised.
Thus for the first time in seven hundred and
years the Holy City is once more in the hands of "a Christian power"
it is not strange if some with historic vision see in this the
completion of the
work of England's crusader king, Richard Coeur de Lion. One such wrote
"Again the Briton
nears the ancient gates!
The city of the Holy Sepulcher
Sits in its Eastern calm and dumbly waits
The coming of the legions from afar.
They're dust a thousand years, the knightly train
That followed Richard's leopard-blazoned shield
Down the long road that valor pointed plain ‒
The path of honor to the stricken field.
Now men as bold as they, their sires' sons,
Toil through the sands where centuries ago
Their forebears fought ‒ awake with roaring guns
The dead who heard crusading trumpets blow.
Perchance the ghost of grim old Saladin
A scimitar across their path may fling.
Yet shall one wave them onward till they win ‒
The wraith of England's Lion-hearted King!" (1)
The taking of Jerusalem ‒ the most spectacular
of the present stupendous conflict ‒ has riveted the attention of three
Christendom, Islam and Israel ‒ and for the moment, at least, places
of Palestine's future in the foreground of discussion. On one point
there is a singular
unanimity. All of Christendom and nearly all of Islam and of Israel
the position taken by the head of the Roman church, and implied in both
Wilson's and Premier Lloyd George's recent statements of the allied war
the Turk must not be allowed to reconquer the Holy Land.
It is not so long since the Turk had his
Lord Beaconsfield's party e.g. not only helped the Sultan to keep his
realm but actually defended his policy. "Oh," they would say, "the
Turk is not so bad. Those Armenians are terrible fellows and had to be
for their crimes." Today this reminds one of a defense of the Belgian
And even above the wretched babble of that day rose the accusing voice
characterizing the Sultan as "The Great Assassin." And such is the
of posterity. No one now speaks of the Turk's right to rule. In the
eyes of both
Moslem and Christian he has long since forfeited any claim to such
right. This cruel
barbarian from the steppes of Central Asia, this abductor of children,
women, murderer of millions of his subjects and oppressor of all
others, must no
longer be allowed to pollute earth's fairest and most historic regions.
If the present
war ends without eliminating the Turk it will fail in one of its most
But when the selection of a successor to the
mentioned, unanimity is not so pronounced. Palestine is the Holy Land
not of one
faith only but of many ‒ of all indeed who profess to revere the God of
Testament and who venerate its heroes.
"Whatever is done there," says a recent writer,
(2) "must be a setting aside of all places holy to others. The Russians
pilgrimages to the Holy Sepulcher. The Crusades were fought for it.
next to Mekka in the Moslem mind."
Godfrey de Bouillon, indeed, founded his Latin
of Jerusalem on the cornerstone of religious intolerance, marking his
entry of the
Holy City by the massacre, it is recorded, of 70,000 Moslems, and the
the Jews in their Synagogue. One who reads that ghastly story can
or wonder that the Latin kingdom was so short-lived, lasting barely two
But how refreshing by way of contrast is the
of the latest occupation. The allied forces (for there were French as
well as British)
carefully planned and deferred their attack so as to avoid a
bombardment and to
save the holy places. The Latin Patriarch reports to the Vatican that
no firing or damage in the city. And the allied commander, Sir Edmund
Jerusalem on foot and was greeted by the Sheiks at the Mosque of Omar
with other places sacred to Islam, he placed Moslem guards) and by the
of the Eastern churches.
The entry on foot was to demonstrate, no doubt,
the allied commander came not as a conqueror but as a deliverer. So the
of damage and the detail of guards appear to have been Britain's public
of a pledge made early in the war to her Moslem subjects (of which she
than any other power) that their holy places would be respected and
In March, 1917, Sir Archibald Murray, then
these new crusaders, issued a proclamation stating his views, and
of his government, regarding the future of Palestine.
"There can be little doubt," he said, "that
we should revive the Jewish Palestine of old, and allow the Jews to
dreams of Zion in their homeland. Not all the Jews will return to
many will. The new Jewish State, under British or French aegis, would
spiritual and cultural center of Jewry throughout the world. The Jews
would at least
have homeland and a nationality of their own. The national dream that
them for a score of centuries and more will have been fulfilled."
On November 2 last, Mr. Balfour, British
wrote to Sir Lionel Rothschild, Vice President of the English Zionist
"His Majesty's Government views with favor the
establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people,
and will use
its best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it
understood that nothing shall be done which will prejudice the civil
right of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and
status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." (3)
For of all the aspirants the claim of the Jews
any other. They may not, indeed, have been the aborigines of Palestine
were at least the kinsfolk and successors, even if dispossessors, of
And of the long list of usurpers who followed them ‒ Assyrians,
Greeks, Romans, Saracens, Crusaders, and Turks ‒ the Jews alone have
preserved their identity to be able now to occupy the Holy Land. Well
may the Jew
ask with Byron,
Rome, Carthage, where are they?"
And the ghosts of those vanished nations must
"Lo all our pomp
Is one with Nineveh and Tyre."
But the Jew may invoke the later lines of the
"The tumult and
the shouting dies,
The captains and the kings depart,
Still stands thine ancient sacrifice,
An humble and a contrite heart."
After 2000 years of exile the Jew still looks
land of his fathers and is prepared to enter it once more ‒ yea has
it in part, as will presently appear.
The land of his fathers; there is another prop
Jew's claim. For to no other claimant is Palestine his ancestral home;
it is merely
a shrine ‒ a repository of sacred and historic remains. But Canaan is
from Israel ‒ the background of its history, the scene of its Golden
Age, the stage
on which its national tragedy was enacted.
Finally the Jew needs Palestine. I am well
there are large and fortunate sections of the Jewish race notably those
and America ‒ whose own surroundings are so favorable that they have no
return to Palestine and who even oppose a movement to that end. But
not obscure the obvious fact that there are other larger and less
like those of Russia, Rumania and Austria which have long needed and,
political changes, are still likely to need, an asylum. Have their
forgotten Kishnieff, or the Rumanian persecutions of barely four years
I repeat, therefore, that the Jew needs
of course, the oppressed and persecuted Jew. And one of the best
that need is the movement known as Zionism. That movement really began
operations of the Alliance Israelite Universelle in 1860. But organized
formally inaugurated in the closing decade of the last century by the
Herzl, merely gave organized expression to Israel's age long dream of
At its first Congress in Basel in 1897 it formulated a program for "the
of a publicly recognized, legally secured, homeland for the Jews in
That program has finally won the adherence of
the most representative Jews ‒ Israel Zangwill, Jacob H. Schiff, Adolph
and Mr. Justice Brandeis of our Federal Supreme Court. Last spring a
expressing confidence that the allies would use their best efforts
toward its realization
was adopted by an organization representing some 2,000,000 Jews of the
Last month a conference of Orthodox Jews, representing widely scattered
in America, assembled at New York to organize for practical work in
about the same time a mass meeting of Jews was held in London, under
of Lord Rothschild, at which resolutions were unanimously adopted
thanking the government
for its Palestine declaration and pledging its wholehearted support to
cause. And later in the same month (Dec. 29) it was announced that even
Zionist Association had adopted similar resolves. The claim that the
Jews as a whole
do not want Palestine meets almost daily refutation.
Nor does this need rest solely upon the desire
asylum of refuge. Says Dr. Harry Friedenwald, a leading American
"It is only in a great re-settlement of
in the normal development of our people that it can again rise to real
The lioness of the forest does not bear young in captivity, even
well-fed and surrounded
by comfort, and the lion of Judah has failed to bring forth prophets
and great men
in 2,000 years of captivity and dispersion."
So Mr. Justice Brandeis recently wrote:
seek to establish this home in Palestine because they are convinced
that the undying
longing of Jews for Palestine is a fact of deepest significance; that
it is a manifestation
in the struggle for existence by an ancient people which had
established its right
to live ‒ a people whose three thousand years of civilization has
produced a faith,
culture, and individuality which enable them to contribute largely in
as they had in the past, to the advance of civilization; and that it is
not a right
merely, but a duty of the Jewish nationality to survive and develop.
that there only can Jewish life be fully protected from the forces of
that there alone can the Jewish spirit reach its full and natural
that by securing for those Jews who wish to settle in Palestine the
to do so, not only those Jews but all other Jews will be benefited and
long perplexing Jewish Problem will, at last, find solution." (4)
I have said that the Jew has already returned
in part. For that statement I need only refer to the Jewish colonies
planted and flourished there before the war. An English writer (5) of
the past year
"the number of
colonies has risen to about forty, with 16,000 inhabitants in all and
of land, and these figures do not do full justice to the importance of
movement. The 15,000 Jewish agriculturists are only 12 1/2 per cent of
population in Palestine, and 2 per cent of the total population of the
but they are the most active, intelligent element, and the only element
rapidly increasing. * * * Under this new Jewish husbandry Palestine has
recover its ancient prosperity. The Jews have sunk artesian wells,
built dams for
water storage, fought down malaria by drainage and eucalyptus planting,
out many miles of roads. In 1890 an acre of irrigable land at
earliest colony, was worth 3.12s., in 1914 36 pounds; and the annual
trade of Jaffa
rose from 760,000 pounds to 2,080,000 pounds between 1904 and 1912."
Nor is this development solely on the material
Schools were long since established in which the medium of instruction
is the ancient
"The foundation of a national university in
is as ultimate a goal for them as the economic development of the land,
greatest achievement has been the revival of Hebrew as the living
language of the
Palestine Jews." (6)
Funds for such a University were being raised
ago and included in the plan was a provision for scholarships for
(7) Indeed we might expect such an institution to occupy a place
superior even to
that of the University of Athens which in recent years has attracted so
students from foreign lands. What possibilities are here of research
by Jewish scholars working on their own ground in the tempting fields
archaeology, history, philology and jurisprudence!
The aspirations of the Jew as the restorer of
need not conflict with the interests which any other race or religion
may have in
Palestine. It is estimated (8) that the country will easily support
or more than four (and some say ten) times its present number. And that
presence has already benefited the native, Arabic speaking population
we have evidence
from a source which cannot be suspected of bias toward that side. In
1912 the German
Vice Consul at Jaffa (Joppa) reported:
"The impetus to
agriculture is benefiting the whole economic life of the country." (9)
Herbert Samuel, speaking at the mass meeting in
last month, emphasized the thought that "in any new development of
there must be full recognition of Arab rights and reverent respect for
and Mohammedan holy places."
As to the Christian (and in the main the
at large, it has no desire for Palestine as a place of residence. Its
satisfied if the ancient land is made safe and inviting as a place of
The lack of that, you remember, ‒ the inability of pilgrims to visit
the Holy Land
in safety ‒ was the immediate cause of the First Crusade.
But now even the medieval pilgrimage is largely
For during the centuries which have intervened since the Crusades,
been slowly coming to realize the conception of its Founder as
expressed in that
illuminating conversation (10) at the Shechem well where one said: "Our
worshipped in this mountain and ye say that Jerusalem is the place to
And the other replied:
"The hour cometh
when ye shall neither in this mountain nor yet at Jerusalem worship the
Our own Whittier echoes the same thought when
"That all the
good the old hath had,
Remains to make our own time glad;
Our common, daily life, divine,
And every land a Palestine"
Christians will be satisfied if Palestine is
and attractive for travel and (since I have heard Professor Sayce feel
add) excavation. They would like its repulsive sights removed, ‒ the
who infest almost every scene and mar its hallowed or historic
horrible incongruity of Turkish soldiers guarding the Holy Sepulcher;
of the wretched folk at the temple enclosure. They would have the
beggars and the
wailers transformed into an industrious yeomanry and the Turkish
And after all most of us find no great
visiting a mere ruin. We would like to see Palestine restored as nearly
‒ its historic scenes reproduced ‒ its ancient prosperity revived. And
who is more
likely to accomplish that result than the Jew? For him all this would
be a labor
of love. There he would find a most congenial field for his thrift, for
and industry and above all for his idealism. The Jew is best fitted to
trustee and caretaker of Palestine!
But it is recognized that the trusteeship will
a protector at least for a time. General Murray's announcement, it will
mentioned a protectorate under Britain or France. Our own nation has
Norman Hapgood wrote long since: "The position of the Jews in all
will be improved if America can be brought to accept a protectorate
America is better situated to conduct diplomatic negotiations for a
than any other power because we are not the rivals of any other in the
Doubtless the protector will be one of these
But the selection should afford no occasion for rivalry or competition.
offer no occasion for territorial expansion but only one for
and the sole question should be, What nation can best discharge the
The deliverance of Jerusalem, then, makes
realization of two age long dreams ‒ that of the Jews for repatriation
of the crusaders for the possession of the Holy Sepulcher. And each may
without hindering the other, indeed each may greatly assist the other.
devoted to the restoration of Palestine and the good faith of
through a leading power pledged to its protection, may together enable
land once more to assume a pivotal place in the world. Certainly there
no more effective object lesson in religious tolerance than the making
a place where Christian, Jew and Moslem may meet on common ground in
peace and safety,
reverently visiting the same shrines and acknowledging the same Deity,
to his own ideals yet respecting those of his neighbors and considerate
sentiments and convictions. And when that is made possible by the
of Christian powers it will be a long step toward the brotherhood of
(1) O. C. A.
Child in the New York Times.
(2) Lit. Dig., Vol. 54, p. 710 (Mch. 17, 1917).
See The Nation (New York) Vol. 105, p. 690.
(4) See The Nation (New York) Vol. 105, p. 692.
(5) Turkey, A Past and a Future, The Round Table, June, 1917, 60, 61.
and the Jewish Future (London, 1916) 138 et seq.
(6) Id. p. 64.
(7) The Nation (New York) Vol. 93, p. 472.
(8) Id. Vol. 105, P. 555-
(9) Turkey, A Past and a Future, The Round Table, June, 1917, p. 61
(10) John, IV, 20, 21.
Thomas Smith Webb ‒ Masonic
By Bro. R. M. C. Condon,
IN many cases the life story of our Masonic
is buried in a fog of tradition, not always trustworthy, but not so in
of Thomas Smith Webb. Fortunately he was one of those rare men who kept
‒ it is still in possession his descendants ‒ and from this we can
learn not only
the events of his own private career but many facts of wide interest
the Masonic Fraternity at large, which is indebted to Webb as to few
Webb, who was born in the time-hallowed city of Boston on October 30th,
the son of Samuel and Margaret Webb who had migrated from Northern
few years previously, hoping to make their fortune in New England. As a
was unusually precocious, morally and temperamentally as well as
while only three years of age his family and friends predicted great
him, he was so winning in spirit, so bright, so talented.
At an early age he entered a public school,
he made his way to a Latin school, from which he graduated with highest
From boyhood he found his chief pleasure in books, and, like many
another boy book-lover,
aspired to publish something of his own, and, again like most young
he first attempted poetry. Poetry is the most difficult of all literary
young Webb became so proficient in it that his effusions attracted the
of a Boston editor who afterwards took the young man into a partnership
him to learn the printing business. Despite the drudgery of this work
he loved it,
and persevered the while with his poetry, one of his songs, "Companions
on this Joyful Day," coming to have a wide popularity.
From Boston he moved to Keene, New Hampshire,
he was initiated into Masonry, becoming a member of Rising Sun Lodge.
Later on he
moved to Albany, New York, at that time one of the principal centers of
Masonry. Here he opened a book store, one of the most regular customers
was himself, for he had grown in his fondness for books. It was at this
while studying the old Preston lectures, that he saw the need for a
the ritual for American use. Thus it was that he came to publish in
1797, the now
famous "Webb Freemason Monitor," [Lib 1859] in which he re-systematized,
and often re-wrote, the
entire Blue Lodge Ritual, adding some new material to it.
Needless to say, Brother Webb became one of the
influential Masons in Albany; he was elected Worshipful Master of
Temple Lodge and
took a prominent part in organizing a Royal Arch Chapter and an
encampment of Knights
Templar. From Albany Brother Webb moved to Providence, Rhode Island,
where he became
a member of St. John's Lodge in 1801. So zealous in the work of
Masonry, so earnest
to have it grow and flourish, and so efficient in all its various forms
he was soon prominent throughout the jurisdiction, so prominent that in
was elected Grand Master, and then re-elected in the following year.
time he was successful in business, as might have been expected in one
were so various and yet so symmetrical.
It is believed by some that the plan of
first Grand Encampment of the United States was originated by his
that may be, it is certain that he played a conspicuous part in the
project. A measure
of his popularity is indicated by the fact that he was elected the
first Grand Commander.
From Providence Brother Webb moved to Walpole,
where he established a cotton factory which was one of the first in the
to employ safety devices to protect the life and limbs of employees..
In 1817 he
moved this factory to Worthington, Ohio, a suburb of Columbus, and put
Brother John Snow, in charge.
During February of the following year Brother
a dispensation to Brother Snow to form an encampment in Worthington; at
plan was to hold meetings for six months in Columbus, but this plan was
and all the meetings were held in Columbus: thus was begun the famous
Commandery which recently celebrated its one hundredth anniversary with
In 1819 Brother Webb started on a business trip
but while in Cleveland, Ohio, making preparations to continue his
journey, he was
stricken down with apoplexy. This was on June 6th. He died during the
the same day. The body was interred in Cleveland but was later removed
in November, at which time the Masonic Bodies of the nation paid a
to his memory.
Before Philosophy can teach by Experience, the
has to be in readiness, the Experience must be gathered and
Philosophy is nothing but Discretion.
The greatest trust between man and man is the
of giving counsel.
What do American Masons really believe is the
attitude for our Fraternity to adopt in the present world crisis? How
far do they
appreciate how vitally Masonic principles are involved in the
across the seas? We have taken a little space in these columns to speak
that this Fraternity of ours, so all-embracing in its American
personnel, has not
measured up to its opportunities because it has as yet failed to
consider the problems
from a national viewpoint. Optimistic to the core on the general
subject of the
Masonic efficiency of the future, we do not despair. But we are still
discover the 1918 reincarnations of the Masonic Patriots of 1776. Where
General Warrens, the Paul Reveres and the Benjamin Franklins of today?
personages who wove into the woof of this Republic the principles of
would not remain silent in these days when those principles are
attacked by the
viper of Autocracy! To us it seems as if the voices of thousands of
are in the air, calling on us to defend the priceless jewel of Freedom
they gave their utmost energy!
And so, when Brother Greenfield, our esteemed
editor from Georgia, voices the thought which to us seems a dynamic
force like the
echoes which haunt Independence Hall, we wonder if others would hear
them if a convention
of Masons were assembled to consider Masonry's duty in wartime?
Likewise there comes
to us a voice from across the seas ‒ the voice of an American soldier
who sees the
vision of what an American Masonic dynamo could accomplish in Europe
today. It too,
is an editorial. Typical of hundreds that have come to us, it perhaps
a crying need of the hour as we see it.
Why can we not heed these clarion calls? Do we
too long? Is our sleep an indefinite sleep? Or is it a form of
hypnotism? Are we
listening to soft voices which are false? Are our eyes blinded to all
but the routine
duties concerning which we debate so much? Do we know, or are we
refusing to admit,
that insidious forces are at work among us which would stifle our every
be "just to our Government and true to our Country?" in the highest and
most practical sense?
Pause and reflect, brethren. Let us TRUST ONE
* * *
Stop, Look And Listen!
THESE four simple words are being placed at
crossing in the United States. They are words of tremendous import.
They are a warning
to the wayfarer that here danger is always present and that upon
obedience to that
warning may depend human life.
This same command is worthy of regard elsewhere
on the great highways of the continent. The young man enjoying the many
of life should stop, take counsel with himself, look forward to where
his mode of
conduct is tending, and listen to the promptings of his better
judgment. The man
of mature age engaged in the eternal fight for financial independence,
look into his own being, see if his higher nature and nobler impulses
warped and contracted, and listen to those finer instincts that would
life and make him a potent factor in every forward movement. And the
man whose life's
sands are running low should stop in his self-satisfied journey, look
the road he has traveled, and listen to the voice of the soul that
you done all your abilities and opportunities would have enabled you to
the benefit of mankind and the glory of God?"
As with individuals, so with Fraternities,
made up of individuals, and as with Fraternities in general, so with
Fraternity in particular. I single it out because it is the one we are
in, and because it is confessedly the greatest, the most philosophic,
the most universal
(in a territorial sense) and the most influential of all; would it not
be well if
the Royal Craft would stop, look and listen?
We live in the greatest age of all centuries.
distance, and talk through space without physical connections. We
waterways between oceans, defying in their construction, pestilence,
and landslides. We abolish deserts; converting them into fruitful
fields and smiling
gardens. We cast down the gauntlet to disease, summon science to our
aid, and cure
deformities that a few years ago seemed impossible of correction. We
live on a high,
although an exhaustive plane; but we have bettered sanitary conditions,
modes of living; ameliorated labor annoyances, and have begun to pay
to our neighbors' needs and woes.
The Masonic Fraternity is in the heyday of its
It numbers it votaries by the million. Today it is quite the
respectable thing to
be a Free and Accepted Mason. The masculine world is knocking at
the membership is growing by leaps and bounds. All over this broad land
of special functions of one sort and another. The newspapers teem with
Communications, Conclaves, Reunions and Ceremonials. All kinds of
used to catch the attention. One lodge announces a meeting on a
mountain top, another
in the dark recesses of a canyon. Still another holds out as an
a degree will be conferred by a team of Past Masters, and so on.
Suppose we, too, stop, look and listen. Stop
for a season
the work of doing nothing but making more Masons; look the tendency of
of the Craft squarely in the face, and listen to what our reason and
our love for
the Order tells us what we ought to do. And then above all things let
us do it.
We should stop in the mad rush for new members,
the wild desire to add to our numbers. A healthy growth is both
desirable and necessary.
It is needed to repair defections from death, dimit, loss of interest
reasonable causes. But is the present growth a healthy one? The great
the average presiding officer is to add more to the roster than his
He has ceased to be an instructor, a leader in actual performance. His
the amount of "work” he has done and in time he turns over his lodge to
Senior Warden, who, by virtue of the rotation system now so largely in
becomes the Master and who, as a rule, keeps up the same old grind. The
a relaxing of that strict inquiry into fitness and character that once
The effect of this is now too apparent. No one
and is observant, can deny the fact that the morale of the Craft is not
as it used to be, and that it is not held in as high esteem, by the
Why is it that few of the leaders of thought in
land take an active part in the work of the Order? Masonic historians
tell us, and
Masonic orators are fond of repeating the statement, that Washington,
and John Hancock,
and Paul Revere, and Joseph Warren, and Benjamin Franklin, and Henry
Clay, and many
others of that type, were proud to be Masters of lodges and Grand
Masters of their
respective States. Today, hardly a figure of national prominence is
in Masonic work. They hold membership, it is true, but we only know it
of them is a candidate for an office… Then the degrees he has taken are
in full in his press announcements. Very often he becomes a regular
the meetings until balloting day is over, when he promptly drops out of
the time comes for reselection. Such a member is not an asset to the
than that, any member that fails to assume his share of the
does nothing but pay his dues, is almost a distinct liability. He is
by the proper motives, and his object in retaining his membership is
We should listen to the criticisms of those
the Temple; listen to the murmurings of the Craftsmen themselves;
listen to the
call for aid in combating the evils of our complex civilization;
prepare to face
the problems of post-war conditions.
We often speak of the wasted talents of an
but what of the wasted potentialities of Freemasonry? The failure to
use the powers
and influences for good, of nearly two million selected men, men of
character, of keen business acumen, and presumably of high ideals, is a
on the intelligence and leadership of those who are directing the
destinies of the
What can they do? Anything they win to do! I
faith in mankind and the potency of his determined will. They can cure
the national moral spirit; they can elevate the "submerged tenth" of
population; they can mold public opinion; they can control and dictate
of empire. I go further ‒ there is not any great evil known to mankind,
how strongly entrenched, that could not be stamped out of existence by
directed power of the Masons of America. The liquor traffic, the white
the sweat shop, child labor ‒ all would vanish like snow on a summer's
the onslaught of such an army.
What stands in the way of such achievement?
vanity, jealousy, the question of prerogatives, of precedence. Some
time ago I participated
in an informal conference. There were all kinds of high sounding titles
There were Most Worshipfuls, Right Eminents, and Very Excellents, and
Companions. Even Inspectors General were not missing. In the absence of
else to talk about, the subject of the war came up. The argument was
eloquently supported, that some united (mark the word "united") action
should be taken by the Craft to minister to the needs of our brethren
with the Colors,
while at Camp, in the trenches and after the war is over. What was the
that discussion? One or two exalted brethren said their Grand Bodies
to the Red Cross and the Y.M.C.A. funds and they thought they had done
In other words, it was so much easier to let someone else do it. Others
it was a question for each particular jurisdiction. This meant they
were only interested
in those that belonged to their own household of faith. Many sat glum
Finally, as usual, nothing was done, and a magnificent opportunity was
lost to do
something for God, for humanity, and for the brethren.
When the boys in khaki have done their duty at
and come back to civil life, what are you going to do for them? Are you
prepare in advance, meet them more than half way and help them to
or are you going to wait until they come knocking like beggars at the
doors of Masonic
Relief Boards, and then salve your conscience by handing them out a
There ought to be started a great National
utilizing all Masonic activities, including the General Grand Bodies.
to strip their treasuries to the last cent; co-operate with the
Vocation plan; sink petty jealousies; forget the question of
and personalities; and act as a united body of consecrated men, fired
with the spirit
of Masonic love, and governed by that high sense of duty, that spirit
that is willing to crucify itself on the altar of obligation.
The great need of the Craft today is unity,
purpose, unity of method, unity of action. We also need some sort of a
head. We now have forty-nine Grand Lodges pulling in forty-nine
Suppose our Nation was run in the same fashion. How much help could we
winning the war?
One of the ambitions of the Fraternity seems to
of Temples. They are good things; and after other more pressing claims
satisfied, it may be agreed that the dignity and grandeur of the order
But I would rather stand before the final judgment bar, and proffer as
for admission into the Celestial Lodge, a crippled child made whole, or
soldier made self-sustaining, than all the offerings of "frozen-music"
that can be erected from now until the end of time.
We all have visions of the future, and I
to myself what Masonry will be, when all its various elements are
in a common cause, and each individual is doing his part. There is a
India called the Taj Mahal. It is said to be the most beautiful
structure in the
world, but it is the tomb of a woman. The Pyramids are the most
of the builder's art ever erected, but they are the tombs of a vanished
St. Peter's at Rome is the grandest religious temple now in existence,
but it is
the tomb of a dying hierarchy. Westminister Abbey is the pride of the
race, but its glory is in its memorials of the dead.
Freemasonry in the future will not be like
will be a living, sentient, dominant force; a world power; one of the
of Almighty God, moving forward to its appointed task, catching the
music of the
spheres and joining in the anthem of the Universe; leading the onward
march of human
progress entering the lists full panoplied against the forces of evil,
ever and always for the final triumph of all that makes men pure and
true and noble.
It will be the incarnate spirit of Brotherhood; the spirit of the Man
the spirit of triumphant hosts of heaven as they sing their hallelujahs
threat White Throne.
And He who sitteth as the Judge Supreme looking
army of the Compasses and Square will smile with approbation, and from
will come the blessed approval: "These are my beloved children," while
the glory of a constructive, character building Craft will rest like a
the hearts of men.
May we all work together to hasten the coming
* * *
Since coming to France I have missed the
so prevalent in my home-state and especially those splendid Masonic
While in the interior I had very little time to devote to things of
that kind, and
while I am not much better fixed as regards time than I was then, yet
here is pressing and should have attention.
In this vicinity is situated Base Section No. 1
the United States troops and while numerous changes are being
constantly made, yet
a large number are here constantly and in this number I believe I am
when I estimate the number of Master Masons as being 500 at all times.
I was assigned
to duty here about seven weeks ago and as soon as I got my work in
hand, began to
investigate the situation and could find no traces of any Masonic
I gathered five congenial spirits into my room and we went to work on a
with the expectation of other things later. An informal banquet was
held at which
we had an attendance of ninety-one and on last Tuesday evening we held
for business at the Y.M.C.A. with over 100 present. At this meeting I
three other attempts had been made to start something but for one
reason or another
the attempt ended with the election of officers. After the debris of
attempts had been cleared away we elected officers for Base Masonic
Club No. 1,
together with several committees. Since then we have rented a nice hall
can use temporarily at least for a meeting place to transact business
as a sort of club. We meet again tomorrow night and I expect to see at
A telegram was sent you a short time ago asking
as to the proper methods of going after a dispensation for the Order
only a few members of each jurisdiction were stationed and we would be
indeed, if the matter could be arranged. We have a crying need for a
here. In the first place we miss the fellowship and naturally many of
for carrying out the responsibilities which our obligation entails.
of communication is necessary for the greatest good and this can be had
organization. The club will help in a great measure, but more is
needed. I am sorry
to state that I am informed that several brothers, some of whom are
returned from the front, have crossed the Great Divide right here
without the consolation
of knowing that a brother has in charge their last messages to friends
ones at home, or were ever visited by a brother Mason during their stay
the hospital. We have a sick committee now and will attend to these
cases so far
as possible in the future. This will be a base for troops until long
after the war
and it should be arranged in some way to have a working Masonic body
here. I personally
know of a number of officers and men who were able to get only the
before they left the States who are more than anxious to complete the
work. It is
true that some officers might change, but an emergency exists that
should be met
in some way. So far as I can learn there are no Masonic lodges in
France with which
we can affiliate.
Here is a chance for the Masons of America to
really worthwhile, and I face the future with confidence that a way
will be provided
for the relief of the present situation here.
An Army Captain
Man's Insignificance – [A Poem]
I knowledge? Confound
it shrivels at Wisdom laid bare.
Have I forethought? How purblind, how blank to the Infinites Care!
Do I task any faculty highest, to image success?
I but open my eyes ‒ and perfection, no more and no less,
In the kind I imagined, full-fronts me, and God is seen God
In the star, in the stone, in the flesh, in the soul and in the clod.
And thus looking within and around me, I ever renew
(With that stoop of the soul which in bending upraises it too)
The submission of man's nothing-perfect to God's all-complete,
And by each new obeisance in spirit, I climb to His feet.
Life is not measured by the time we live.
Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time,
that is the stuff life is made of.
‒ Benj. Franklin.
A small degree of wit, accompanied by good
less tiresome in the long run than a great amount of wit without it.
‒ La Rochefoucauld.
Where Liberty dwells, there is a country.
Edited By Bro. H.L. Haywood
The object of this Department is to acquaint
with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the best
now being published; and with such non-Masonic books as may especially
Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to render any possible
studious individuals or to Study Clubs and Lodges, either through this
or by personal correspondence; if you wish to learn something
concerning any book
‒ what is its nature, what is its value, or how it may be obtained ‒ be
ask him. If you have read a book which you think is worth a review
write us about
it; if you desire to purchase a book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get
no charge for the service. Make this your Department of Literary
Poetry of the Day
WE ARE in the midst of a renaissance of poetry;
since Browning, Tennyson, Swinburne and Wadsworth were in full song has
been blessed with such a choir of singers as today. John Masefield,
Edwin Markham, Edwin Arlington Robinson and a few others are known on
of the Atlantic: alongside of these are a host of lesser lights, some
of whom seem
destined, it seems, to write great poetry.
For the most part these poets are content to
old meters and the old themes; certain of them, however, have struck
out on new
paths. Impatient of what they believe to be the restraints of regular
and weary of time-worn vocabulary of previous singers they have
fashioned a new
style of verse and adapted to their uses such words as Tennyson would
to use. Whether or not imagism, verse libre, Vorticism, Neopaganism,
etc., are to
win a permanent place in the future classifications of poetry remains
to be seen;
meanwhile all lovers of the art welcome the innovators for bringing a
of influence into a very ancient craft.
Edward J. O'Brien, himself a poet of the new
has recently edited an anthology of this "New Poetry" under the not
descriptive title of "The Masque of Poets." [Lib 1918] It is published by
Dodd, Mead and Co., at $1.25. The half hundred poems in this volume
published anonymously in The Bookman, and the fact that they were well
by a public ignorant of their authorship indicates that they possess
Nevertheless one reads the slender anthology with disappointment. The
over-sophisticated too subtle, too much in the way of an appeal to an
of satiated readers. In many cases the meaning escapes one entirely, in
one feels that whatever meaning was intended might better have been
a less recondite manner. Edwin Arlington Robinson's Browningesque
dialogue is solid.
Maxwell Bodenheim contributes a few lines very much like Edgar Lee
River Anthology." [Lib 1915] Amy Lowell
supplies one or two pieces of distinction. Vincent O'Sullivan
undertakes to infuse
"magic" into his verse, after the manner of Walter de la Mare. John
Feltcher displays a mind at work in his verse, a mind of penetrative
for the most part there is not a page in this volume that a reader will
There is not a poem that contains the bread of life.
The unsophisticated reader will find more to
in the two volumes of present day poetry edited by Mrs. Waldo Richards:
Melody of Earth," [Lib 1918] ($1.50)
and "High Tide," [Lib 1916] ($1.25), both published by
Houghton Miflin and Co.,
contain some four or five hundred poems, all written in recent years.
Poetry" is well represented but the majority of the pieces are such as
has been wont to find in the old familiar 'Standard Authors."
The "Melody of Earth" [Lib 1918] is an anthology of
garden and nature poems. T.A. Daly's two poems in Italian dialect are
the price of the volume. "High Tide" is a collection of poems "selected
chiefly because they strike the vital spark of inspiration and
The latter volume contains Richard Le Gallienne's great poem, "To a
Dawn," [Lib 1914] and also
two poems by Alice Mynell, who is unquestionably one of the noblest of
It also contains the following poem by James Stephens, the Irish mystic
that delectable story, "The Crock of Gold." We believe these verses
strike a responsive chord in the breasts of all Masons.
The Road – A Poem]
our lives are
so cowardly and sly,
Because we do not dare to take or give.
Because we scowl and pass each other by
We do not live: we do not dare to live.
We dive, each man, into his secret house,
And bolt the door, and listen in affright.
Each timid man beside a timid spouse,
With timid children huddled out of sight.
Kissing in secret, fighting secretly!
We crawl and hide like vermin in a hole
Under the bravery of the sky,
We flash on meannesses of face and soul.
Let us go out and walk up the road
And quit forevermore the brick-built den
The lock and key, the hidden, shy abode,
That separates us from our fellow-men.
And by contagion of the sun we may
Catch at a spark from that primeval fire
And learn that we are better than our clay.
And equal to the peaks our desire.
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a
of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one
school of Masonic
thought as over against another; but offers to all alike a medium for
and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits
Masonic Symbolism in the
Forty-Seventh Problem of Euclid
It has been stated that the Forty-Seventh
Euclid contains the entire symbolism of Masonry. I am unable to find
even all the
implements of Masonry revealed therein. Can someone explain, or what is
submit drawings to illustrate?
O. B. S., Illinois.
By the statement that the Forty-Seventh Problem
contains the entire symbolism of Masonry is meant that the symbolic
by Masonry are also taught by the symbolism of the Forty-Seventh
Problem. It was
used by the ancient Egyptians to measure and lay out the ground on
which they were
to build their temples, as we use the twenty-four-inch gauge to measure
out the time we are to spend on each part of the work. The very word
measurement of the earth and the Operative Mason measures his work by
gauge as the ancient Egyptians measured theirs by the principle of the
Problem. By the common gavel, he breaks off the uneven surfaces which
stones from fitting squarely into the building. So it teaches us as
Masons to divest ourselves of all the vices which prevent us from
living on the
square so that we can fit as living stones into that spiritual building
‒ the house
not made with hands.
The plumb admonishes us to walk uprightly,
of the perpendicular. The horizontal reminds us of the level, these two
are at right
angles to each other and represent the square. The hypotenuse of the
triangle which binds the two sides together and keeps them square,
cement of brotherly love and affection which is spread by the trowel.
but hints of the resemblance between the working tools and the
and may be carried further if you wish.
The ancient Egyptians in measuring out the
their temples could determine the north and south line from the stars;
but the east
and the west line was found by means of the Forty-Seventh Problem. On
and south line, as ascertained by the stars, a string or cord was laid.
Let N S be the north and south line, A B C D the cord. On this cord
they took a
rod of any convenient length and laid off three lengths of the rod from
A to B.
four lengths from B to C, and five lengths from C to D. The cord was
by pegs or pins at B and C, and then A to D were brought together at
the same point
as A prime D prime. A right triangle would thus be formed with sides 3,
4 and 5
with the right-triangle at B. and the east and west line of the
building would be
found in AB.
Anderson, in his Constitutions of 1723, [Lib 1723] page 21, says "The
Forty-Seventh Problem is the foundation of all Masonry, sacred, civil
In his edition of 1738, [Lib 1738] page 26, he calls it "That
which is the foundation of all Masonry of whatever materials or
The high regard in which the ancients, as well as the earliest Masons,
proposition has doubtless lead to the claim to which you refer.
it may not be true, and yet hints of the lessons taught in each of the
Masonry can be found in some application of the Forty-seventh Problem.
* * *
"Often Tried, Never
Denied, and Willing to be Tried Again"
The following question was recently brought up
of our study meetings and the Research Committee of Mount Moriah Lodge
No. 69 found
themselves unable to give a satisfactory answer to it. Can you answer
it for us?
"What must be the condition of a brother to say
he has been often tried, never denied, and willing to be tried again?"
This question has a two-fold application ‒ the
and the symbolic. In the literal sense it means that the brother has so
that he is able to prove himself to be a Mason whenever tested. He was
he presented himself for advancement; he was not denied when the
him proficient. No well-informed brother after trying him has ever
denied that he
was a Mason. Having thus been tried and accepted in the past, he feels
of his ability to prove himself a Mason and is willing to be tried
In the symbolic sense, Life is a trial ‒ a
trial. Each of us are moral builders for eternity. The Master has never
as being unfit material to be worked into the spiritual temple, and if
we are true
Masons, endeavoring to do our part, we are not only willing, but
desirous of continuing
in the work, or in other words, willing to be tried again.
* * *
The Unknown Life of Christ
Has there ever been any systematic research
to what transpired in the life of Jesus Christ between the time he is
having been found by Joseph and Mary in the Temple "sitting in the
the teachers, both hearing them and asking them questions," and his
The accepted belief is that this intervening
spent by him in Galilee as a carpenter. But, so far as the writer
knows, there is
no positive proof that this is, or is not, a fact. Also there are other
including that of being a member of the "Great School," but these are
apparently without authenticity.
I have often wondered why, if there has been no
research work, that students have not considered it a subject worthy of
This query is not prompted by any disposition
irreverent or to create discussion, but by a real desire for
Ever since the canon of the New Testament was
this interval of time in the life of Jesus about which you inquire has
a vast deal of speculation and controversy. Some would have it
example,) that Jesus spent this period in Egypt or India; others, that
in a circle of occultists somewhere ‒ the so-called "Great School" ‒
recently George Moore, in his "Brook Kedron" [Lib 1916 (Broock Kerith?)] disinters
the old notion that Jesus was an Essene and spent those years in one of
unfortunately these theories, one and all, like the dome seen by
Coleridge in his
dream, hang in the air.
Thus far not one single item of tangible
been brought forward to substantiate any one of these theories. It is
easy to make
assertions, difficult to offer proof. On the other hand, the New
a number of facts which give much weight to the traditional view that
the interim in Palestine, presumably at Nazareth; how otherwise would
he have become
as familiar with the ideas, institutions and customs of his people,
the slight details of his daily life, a turn of phrase, a touch of
nature, a private
gesture. His solidarity with his people implies that he had spent years
You ask if any systematic research has been
to this. Such research as the paucity of data makes possible has been
and that exhaustively, ever since the Renaissance times; those who
waive the "traditional
views" aside so airily would do well to familiarize themselves with the
scholarship on which it rests. If you have not time or inclination to
books you will find an epitome of the various arguments in the
of Moffat's "Introduction to the New Testament," [Lib 1918] and in "The
Jesus of History," [Lib 1917] by T. R. Glover. The latter
work is scholarly
and intensely interesting, a book worth going twenty miles to read.
PERTINENT COMMENT ON THE JUNE ISSUE OF THE
Names of Candidates in Lodge
While enjoying the contents of the June
BUILDER, I noticed
some items on which a few words from me might seem interesting.
To begin at the end, I notice a brother is
the practice of publishing names of candidates in lodge notices. It is
of course, that harm might occasionally be done a candidate in this
way, but on
the other hand, the safety and wellbeing of the lodge is so much
that in the Grand Lodge of Canada, in this Province, such publication
by the Constitution. Then, too, although this method works well enough
communities where there are say a half dozen lodges, it has been found
to go still further in the larger cities. Here in Toronto there are
lodges, and up to about five years ago there had been found cases of
men so determined to penetrate our ranks that they applied to two
lodges at once,
and were sometimes initiated in one before the news of their rejection
could get around. Or they would re-apply shortly after rejection,
instead of waiting
twelve months as required, and get in because our very numbers made the
too cumbersome. Also there were other causes for Masonic scandal in the
our membership, which needed to be prevented.
Out of these condition arose the formation of a
Masonic Bureau, with which at first the lodges affiliated voluntarily
at their discretion.
To the Secretary of this Bureau (I was Secretary for three years) all
names of candidates
were sent, together with the dates of their initiation or rejection.
were card indexed and all new names were compared with those on file,
and if it
were found, for instance, that John Smith had previously applied to A
had been rejected in B Lodge, this information with dates and names was
sent to the Secretary of C Lodge so that they might know how to deal
with his application.
This system worked out so well that after some
years' trial it was adopted into our constitutional machinery by our
and I may add that it has saved our lodges and also our Secretaries a
of labor and other trouble. Similar bureaus can be found in any town
are two or more lodges having concurrent jurisdiction, and the system
a watch for those men who try to slip in under the dual residence plan.
I hope that
eventually the Bureau will become provincial rather than municipal,
that obtaining in the Grand Lodge of Ireland in Antrim, when it will be
good as we can make it.
* * *
Assistance from Enemy Masons
C.V.H. asks as to "enemy Masons having aided
other" in the present war.
One of our brethren, who went over with the
returned a Lieutenant, told me this incident, which he had from one of
benefited by it.
It occurred at the second battle of Ypres. A
group of English prisoners were being marched to the rear, when our
so heavy that they and their captors had to seek shelter. During this
"non-com." in charge of the English prisoners went through the pockets
of some of them and came across one of those certificates of membership
languages, which have been used quite extensively. It was a question
party could proceed further without being destroyed as a party, so the
handed back the card to its owner and told him he could go where he
liked with his
I was also told by the editor of our "Masonic
that he knew a lady in this city who had been helped out of Germany,
Holland, by a German officer because he found her wearing a Masonic
* * *
The Cable Tow
Brother Haywood says, on page four of the
Circle Bulletin, that "before the obligation the candidate is held by
and cites the cable-tow as the symbol thereof.
I do not think this is well founded at all. I
understood that candidates expressly stated they were in that position
own free will and accord, and that it was unMasonic even to solicit
In more primitive times the cable-tow served as
wherewith to draw the man along an unknown path, and, insofar as
a new birth, the cable-tow can very properly be arranged to represent
cord and its special uses. This would apply especially to those States
work acknowledges the particular relationship of the J. D. to the
‒ N.W.J.H., Canada.
* * *
A Discussion of the Discrepancies
in the Flag Number of the Geographic Magazine
Editor THE BUILDER:
I am returning the letter of Gilbert L.
with my comments on same.
It seems to me that THE BUILDER is to be
on the very timely publication of the flag article. There is hardly any
on which there is greater interest than the flag.
I have been more than anxious that there should
error in that and I was equally more than anxious that there should be
in my reply to the Geographical Magazine. I have carefully looked up
and I am fully convinced that we have made no error in any particular,
but I am
more fully convinced than ever that the Geographic Magazine did make a
error in omitting the flag of 1812. This in addition to the outright
history seems to me to make it more than reasonable that the Geographic
would make some corrections.
However, I am not so interested in what the
Magazine does as I am that THE BUILDER is put absolutely right.
John W. Barry, P.G.M., Iowa.
* * *
A LETTER FROM THE EDITOR OF THE GEOGRAPHIC
Editor THE BUILDER: I have your favor of recent
with respect to the criticisms of the Flag Number of the National
by Mr. John W. Barry, published in the April number of THE BUILDER. It
is not my
purpose to engage in any controversy with Mr. Barry, but I am sure you
will be glad
to publish the answer as you published the charge, as a matter of
fairness as well
as of courtesy.
Mr. Barry states that the Geographic is in
saying that the Union flag was raised first on January 2nd. Admiral
that matter and fixed the date as January 2nd. He cites the letter to
Gazette reporting the activities of the army on that day, in which it
that the flag "was raised on the 2nd in compliment to the United
He also cites other letters to the same effect. General Washington's
does not say when the flag was raised.
It is asserted by Mr. Barry that there was no
as a Colonial standard, yet he says that the contemporaneous writings
Schuyler and the drawing in colors of the flag of the Royal Savage
a Union flag. General Washington says in his letter to Joseph Reed that
hoisted the Union flag in compliment to the United Colonies.”
Mr. Barry then goes on to assert that this flag
promptly abandoned, being an English flag. The record shows beyond
he is in error in that conclusion. First there is Major Samuel Seldon's
dated March 9th, 1776, showing the ship Amaraca flying the striped flag
British crosses. That was the date when the British were forced to
agree to evacuate
Boston. Again, under authority of Congress, North Carolina issued paper
April 2, 1776. Thereon appears a perfect representation of the
with the union crosses and the thirteen stripes. Still further, under
date of May
13, 1776, a writer from New Providence to the London Ladies' Magazine,
the colors of the American fleet were striped under the Union with
Still further yet, we find a report of the Virginia convention read to
at Williamsburg, May 16, 1776, in which it is stated, "The Union Flag
American States waved upon the Capitol during the whole of this
These citations certainly prove that the Union
was in general use before the Declaration of Independence.
That this "Union Flag" was also in general
use after the Declaration of Independence is shown with equal
clearness. On July
30, 1776, Captain Chapman, of H.M.S. "Shark" wrote to Vice-Admiral
saying, "I saw a sail in the offing with colors which I was
(being red and white striped, with a Union next the staff) found to be
armed ship, mounting 18 guns, 6 pounders, and wears a Jack, Ensign and
I have since learned her name to be the Reprisal, Capt. Weeckes." Here
an American naval vessel flying the Union flag after July 4th, 1776,
and the records
show that she sailed from America after that date. Again, sometime
after July 12,
1776, Ambrose Searle, confidential secretary to Admiral Lord Howe,
wrote to the
Earl of Dartmouth describing the colors used by the American troops as
"Their colors are thirteen stripes of red and white alternately with
Union in the corner." Again, we find the Royal Savage, as cited by Mr.
flying the Union flag, yet Wyncoop (whose schooner Schuyler says she
was, and the
notation on the water color painting showing her flying this flag) did
command until sometime after May 2, 1776, and Arnold did not supersede
August. The ship was run aground October 11th, 1776. Still again, under
October 17, 1776, the Andrew Doria, Captain Isaiah Robinson, sailed for
island of St. Eustatius, more than three months after the signing of
of Independence. On November 16th, 1776, she was saluted by the Dutch
the island. Great Britain protested the salute and submitted two
that the Andrew Doria flew "the flag of the Continental Congress."
under date of November 19th, 1776, we find a report to the Maryland
Council of Safety,
from St. Eustatia, "All American vessels here now wear the Congress
These citations show beyond controversy that the Union flag was flown
vessels long after the Declaration of Independence was adopted, and
leave no ground
whatever for the statement that the Union flag was "promptly abandoned"
because it was an English flag. They also show that there was a
recognized as the flag of the Continental Congress. Having direct,
testimony that the official ships of the United States were flying the
as late as November, 1776, testimony borne out by ship masters and
it were a waste of time to discuss the contention that this flag was
July 4, 1776, or that Betsy Ross designed a flag that superseded the
on that date. After July 4, 1776, the American Army was using the Union
so was the American navy.
As to the evidence upon which the Betsy Ross
is hung a passing notice is sufficient. Aside from the hearsay evidence
of her descendants,
there is offered the fact that regiments were allowed money after July
for altering their colors, that certain Indians petitioned for a "flag
United States" eleven days before June 14, 1777, and that Captain
is alleged to have flown "the Stars and Stripes," on the Nancy. This
allegation is based on the statement of his daughter that he received
the news of
the Declaration of Independence before sailing from St. Thomas and a
of the new flag, from which he promptly had one made and unfurled. Yet
show that the Nancy was blown up off Cape May June 29th, 1776, five
the Declaration of Independence, and that she had left St. Thomas
before Betsy Ross
is alleged to have designed the Stars and Stripes.
Again Mr. Barry says that General Washington
in having Betsy Ross make the flag, and in proof thereof cites a letter
Putnam, written May 28th, asking him to speak to the several Colonels
them to get their colors done. But how could these colors be the Betsy
if Mrs. Ross designed the flag in June, as her descendants allege?
Again, Mr. Barry says that the Union flag was
of India, yet we have the statements of Benjamin Franklin and John
Adams that the
ideas represented in the flag were borrowed from the Dutch.
Clearly the statement that the picture of
Crossing the Delaware was painted by Peale was a slip of the pen. The
those lines has seen the original hundreds of times and knows well it
was by Leutze.
With reference to the statement that the
had erroneously substituted another flag for the one adopted in 1818,
it needs only
to be said that the arrangements of the stars was not specified by
navy always used the parallel lines of stars, and the Army finally
adopted the Navy
arrangement. The flag as the world knows it through the Navy must be
the flag and
that in 1818 had the stars in parallel rows as it has always had since.
Very truly yours,
Gilbert H. Grosvenor, Director and Editor.
* * *
Past Grand Master Barry's
Reply to Mr.Grosvenor's Letter
Editor BUILDER: I thank you for the opportunity
and comment on the letter from Gilbert H. Grosvenor, Editor of the
referring to my article as published in the April BUILDER.
Now it is clearly apparent that what he or I
of events before our time is trustworthy only insofar as we may quote
of the time under consideration or from later but accredited
historians. The absence
of authorities is the great defect in the flag article in the October,
of the Geographic Magazine and from the letter just handed me.
January 1, 1776 ‒ True Date of Grand Union Flag
The Orderly Book of George Washington is in the
Division of the War Department according to last report. George Canby
in his "Evolution
of the American Flag ' says on page 31, that he personally copied
quotation given in my BUILDER article establishing the date of January
as the date of first hoisting the Grand Union Flag. My reference was:
Archives, 4th Series, vol. IV, p. 568." Also "Avery, vol. V, p. 307."
Instead of saying the above is not true, it would be more convincing to
‒ even photograph the page of the Orderly Book. True, he cites Prebble,
but he is
on both sides, for on page 223, 4th edition, he gives a picture of the
Union" Flag with the date Jan. 1, 1776, while in the text he says Jan.
George Bancroft is generally recognized as an
on American history. In vol. IV, chapter XX, p. 322, he gives the date
of the Grand
Union Flag as January 1, 1776. There is, therefore, no room to doubt
of THE BUILDER on this point. See also Joumal of American History vol.
I, p. 15.
Mr. Grosvenor holds me in error for saying
no Colonial flag and that many flags were in use. Yet pages 338-9 of
the Flag number
of the Geographic show some of the many Colonial flags in use ‒ fully
my statement. Further, previous to June 14, 1777, no flag of any kind
had been established
by law, though various flags were in more or less general use including
Grand Union Flag Abandoned
Seven Months Before Stars and Stripes Adopted
I quoted from that eminent historian, Avery,
the Declaration of Independence the British Union was removed from the
the new nation." For so doing, Mr. Grosvenor takes me to task very
‒ using a whole page of citations but without giving specific
they prove just what was said in THE BUILDER. The last use of the Grand
was in November, 1776. No reference to any later use has ever been
careful search has been made, yet this was nearly seven months before
adoption of the Stars and Stripes, June 14, 1777. Evidently Avery and
are right on that point.
Grand Union "A
Signal of Surrender" Because Flag of India
That the Grand Union Flag was the counterpart
flag of the East India Company is shown by Prebble, p. 221. Many of the
Boston had seen service in India and when Washington raised this flag
Jan. 1, 1776,
naturally they took it, to use the words of Washington, "as a signal of
"Thus," he says, "We gave great joy to them (the Red Coats, I mean)
without knowing or attending it." See Washington's letter to Reid.
Betsy Ross Made, and
Washington Designed, the Stars and Stripes
Mr. Grosvenor says that it is "a waste of time
to discuss the contention that Betsy Ross designed a flag." Now no one
ever contended that Betsy Ross designed the flag, but that she did make
‒ that is all. Washington is generally given credit for the design and
been assisted by Francis Hopkinson who rendered bills to Congress for
His bills were not paid because he was already in government service,
others had been consulted, but Betsy Ross was paid for making flags
about that time
and continued many years at the same job and in the same little house
See also Journal American History, vol. I, p. 13.
The Geographic Wrong
as to Trumbull and Peale
Mr. Grosvenor is not very discriminating. He
to the sketch on Major Samuel Sheldon's powder horn as perfectly good
yet I am unable to find the name of this Major in any reference book
though I have access to a fair reference library. On the other hand, he
credit to John Trumbull, one of Washington's noted commanders, who in a
commemorating the battle of Princeton, Jan. 3, 1777, shows the Stars
in use six months before their formal adoption by Congress. How does
such a witness, who actually participated in that battle? He says he
left the country
while Washington was before Boston nearly a year previous and was away
This must be another slip of the pen for he was active in the U.S.
until 1780 and
later Congress provided by resolution to pay Trumbull $32,000 to paint
he had witnessed ‒ the four large pictures now in the rotunda of the
Mr. Grosvenor makes only one admission in this
"Comedy of Errors," thus: "Clearly the statement that the picture
of Washington crossing the Delaware was painted by Peale was a slip of
The writer of those lines has seen the original hundreds of times and
knows it was
by Leutze" ‒ many thanks, but the Leutze picture is not in point. What
Peale's picture of Washington at Trenton bought by Congress because of
to fact and now hanging in a glass case in the Capitol at Washington at
of the grand staircase, Senate Wing? Has he seen this once? It is the
It shows the Stars and Stripes in use about seven months before their
by Congress June 14, 1777. Peale was one of Washington's commanders
there and even
Mr. Grosvenor should give him at least as much credit as he does the
of a sketch on a powder horn. Neither was Trumbull in anyway related to
as might be assumed from Mr. Grosvenor's statement because their
tend to sustain her claims as the maker of the first "Old Glory." Mr.
Grosvenor confuses "colors" with flags ‒ two very differed things. Even
now the company colors often have but little semblance to the flag.
letter to Putnam was mentioned to show that Washington had the matter
of flags and
colors on his mind. No one conversant with the terms can misunderstand.
Mr. Grosvenor says "We have the statements of
Franklin and John Adams that the ideas represented in the flag were
the Dutch." Well, Ben and John have written much and I have read some
But just what are the "statements" and where may they be found? Please
be a little more specific. Give book and page.
of a Well Known Flag
Mr. Grosvenor justifies the suppression of the
adopted by Congress in 1818 because the law did not specify the
arrangement of the
stars. The same reason would justify omitting the flag of 1895. The
law of June, 1777, said nothing about the arrangement of either stars
or bars, because
in all probability, Washington had laid before them the flag he had
Betsy Ross make
for him. Now if in practice the bars had come to be vertical as in some
historian, in fidelity to facts, should show the flag adopted. In 1818
then adopted was very different from the one now shown in the
It is true the one shown is authorized because the law did not specify
of the stars. But here again, in 1777, Congress was adopting a design
the House and any attempt to excuse the historian from showing just
what that design
really was is mere camouflage.
The records of Congress show, and so far as I
no one claims any different, that the flag adopted had its twenty stars
in the form of one great star. The flag was made by Mrs. Samuel Chester
to her husband’s design as adopted by Congress April 4, 1818. The flag
April 13, and at once hoisted over the Capitol as shown by my quotation
Schouler in THE BUILDER.
Further, this form of the flag was in general
years ‒ a fact shown by Rear Admiral George Henry Prebble whose
testimony is competent
because he was many times an eye witness of that flag. In his history
of the flag
first published in 1872, he devotes twelve pages to the flag law of
1818. Just to
show the flag suppressed by the Geographic Magazine is in point of fact
omission from the flag story, let Prebble testify. On page 348 of 4th
says: "This, the first flag of the kind put together or hoisted, was
New York by Mrs. S.C. Reid, under the direction of her gallant husband,
twenty stars on its union, representing as many states were arranged to
great star.” See No. 22 in THE BUILDER. Continuing, Prebble says:
"The unions of the flags which wave over our
and in use by the Military Department of the Government are generally
if not always,
so arranged. In the navy flags, the stars have always been set in
Now, Mr. Grosvenor, inasmuch as the Geographic
purports to give the military and land flags as well as the flags of
the navy, the
suppression of this Reid flag actually adopted by Congress in 1818 and
used so generally,
as Prebble shows, can in no way be justified because of changes made by
direction in later years. You have omitted an important flag, long the
known to the interior of this country. You are not to blame for all
they are almost inherent in such a work. But I cannot see how you can
be held blameless
unless you correct them, particularly this last one ‒ the omitted flag.
John W. Barry,
Concise History of Freemasonry
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The Freemason Examind
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David Nutt, 1893. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 254. - 10.9 MB.
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London : John Hodges, 1891. - Vol. 1 : 40 : p. 479. - 22.3 MB.
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London : John Hodges, 1891. - Vol. 2 : 40 : p. 616. - 27.8 MB.
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London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co, 1900. - Vol. 4 : 40
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The History of the Popes Vol 05
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Webb's Freemason's Monitor
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