Masonic Research Society
By Bro. R. Perry Bush,
Past Grand Chaplain, Massachusetts
FOR quite a number of years I have been a
of Freemasonry and it has been my aim to follow into the distant past
of causation by means of which our noble institution has been developed
its present form and influence. Steadily but surely the origin of the
been pushed back amid the dim mists of farthest antiquity. Not that in
far-off times there was anything like the present organization or
that our genealogy includes the builders of the great cathedrals of
those who gave glory to Rome and Athens, and even those who reared the
wonderful temples at Karnac or heaved the pyramids above the sands of
now the accepted belief.
With the advance of knowledge, the better and
complete understanding of the factors that go to make up our present
civilization, and the constant bringing to light of facts that for long
were lost from human sight, it becomes morally certain that the roots
modern Masonry may be traced not only to the reign of Solomon and the
erected on Mt. Moriah, but far beyond that day and generation.
Within the last half century the archaeologists
have pushed their investigations into almost every nook and corner of
world, and they have brought forth from the storehouses of the long ago
complete record of the thoughts and deeds of those of ancient times
ever before in the possession of mankind. Throughout the Peloponnesus
the waters of the Nile and in the valleys of the Tigris and the
have been digging in the earth and uncovering the story of man's
ages long anterior to the Christian era. The discovery of the Rosetta
the laying hold upon the secret of the deciphering of the cuneiform
inscriptions of Assyria; the finding of the laws of Hammurabi, these,
other helps that have been afforded, have led to a discarding of the
conceptions previously entertained regarding the peoples of antiquity,
it plain that we must reconstruct our theories of the far-off past. And
abundantly evident that they of old time were wrestling with much the
problems that confront us at the present moment. And they were dealing
their way ‒ both with the practical protection of their welfare as
with the philosophy of life ‒ the distinction between the body and the
that tenants or is imprisoned in the flesh.
That the great multitudes of those of operative
skill were banded together and that they hedged themselves about with
means of identification, there is today no shadow of doubt, and that
the progenitors of our modern lodges, and that we are their lineal
in my judgment it is impossible reasonably to deny.
They who in this day write the history of
are more and more inclined to look upon the 24th of June, 1717, as but
when the transition from its operative to its speculative form was
consummated. They are not content to start at that point and simply
what it since has been and done, but almost without exception they go
that date to the stone Masons of the Middle Ages and through these to
Corporations of Builders which had their origin under Numa Pompilius in
eighth century before Christ and try to connect these in some more or
definite way with the architects and builders of Egypt and Assyria and
that we may justly claim that this is the attested line of our descent.
To this kind of work I have applied myself with
much interest, but it is only the following of the history of what was
effect but an old time Knights of Labor. It is worth our while, in my
estimation, for it is no small honor to be allied with an institution
spans so many centuries, and there is a certain justifiable pride in
age of the Craft, but fundamentally I do not personally worship
antiquity, nor do I go into any temple of the long ago to find the
whose feet I lay my truest sacrifice. It does not necessarily recommend
to me to tell me that it is old. If I love it heartily, it is because
is embodied a nobler song, a higher ideal, a more vital help and
than I can find elsewhere.
So it is that in my study of Masonry I have not
been satisfied simply to trace the fortunes of the workmen of various
ages, the signs and grips and words by which they communicated with
and the testimony that there is a line of relationship running back
lodges to the days of the earliest Pharaohs, but I have found a keener
in the revelation that is made of what is really deeper and more vital
institutions of the past out of which our fraternity and its teachings
Now it requires but a little investigation to
that one is amply repaid who applies himself to this more philosophical
of study, and at every step it will grow upon us that Masonry is but a
expression of that innate something in man which from the dawn of his
has led him to reach out toward the Eternal-not-ourselves and to strive
understand the meaning of what we may designate as death. And to him
contemplates it in this fashion it appears as of the same character as
other line of man's development which has been expressed in the
temples and churches of worship.
As one delves into the history of the operative
Masons he finds all through the ages, especially in the long ago, that
novice was taken in charge to be initiated and instructed there was a
which he was made to follow. On the one hand he was trained in the
architecture: he was taught the laws of building and acquired skill in
construction. There was another part of his training, however, which
been so much emphasized, but which after all may be found to be most
the inheritance which has come down from those ancient brethren to us
Masonic fraternity of today. I discover beyond a peradventure that in
and in Greece and in Egypt, and I doubt not in other lands as well, to
the Craft were imparted teachings concerning the Infinite Architect of
Universe and the destiny of the human soul. In the lecture of our third
today we refer to our ancient brother, the great Pythagoras, and we
figure by which we afford the proof that the square described upon the
of a right angle triangle is equal to the sum of the squares described
other two sides ‒ which is purely mathematical. It is, however, far
interesting to me, and far more significant as regards what is most
Masonry, that Pythagoras saw resemblances to numbers of things, and
held it to
be true that one quality of numbers was Justice, another Soul, and
etc., and that he taught that it is by mathematical and scientific
man looks into nature and finds things obeying the laws he has
himself in his own mind and that therefore the meaning of the Universe
revealed in the soul and not by the senses, and that if, thus rightly
we look within, we shall find the Eternal God. Moreover, he maintained
soul element is not limited to bodily substance. It is not our
he reasoned, but it belongs to infinity and cannot be annihilated. All
shows plainly that the Pythagorean education was to lead to intercourse
God and that it held within it the teaching of immortality. Even here
the heart of the system to be the reaching out after the answers to the
questioning of the mind of man and it is pertinent to observe that what
Pythagoras thus taught in regard to these deeper or mystical
their relation to the science of mathematics, is typical of what we
have been a characteristic of Masonry in many lands.
Whether we consider it to be to our glory or to
shame, the men of all ages have been Mystics ‒ they have either
implicitly recognized the essential relation of our nature to God and
to adjust their lives accordingly.
Mysticism, so far as we have acquaintance with
may be said to have had its birth in the Orient among the Brahmins, and
attributes to the human mind the ability to rise to an immediate
God and thereby to a knowledge of all truth. This consummation is not
obtained on the lower level of discursive reasoning, but an ecstatic
the soul is a necessary condition for the contemplation of the absolute.
The Brahmin laid aside all that pertains to the
world of sense and allowed God alone to work within him until in the
of mind he became identified with the hidden deity ‒ "the God greater
all gods and men." Transplanted to the West, this mysticism appears in
Neo-Platonists and later in a Tauler [Lib 1900] and other Christian mystics,
or in such a one as
Eckhart [Lib 1916],
whose teachings called forth the anathema of the Vatican. To all these
a realm above that of sensible things, but there is a faculty in man
attaining thereto and upon being introduced into that magical circle
becomes cognizant of the absolute and of his own undying nature.
It is true that many of the schemes evolved by
these mystical dreamers are not altogether satisfactory to us today.
Brahmin, the Buddhist, and even Eckhart held that as all men have
God so all desire to return to the divine being, and the final end of
activity is attained when, by the resignation of all individuality,
back to the source from whence they came, the union with deity, the
into Nirvana ‒ lost so far as our distinct personality is concerned by
once more a part of that from whence we came. But in all of this we see
wrestling with the same old problems of the Infinite Artificer of the
and the destiny that waits us beyond the grave.
It is pertinent at this point of our study also
affirm that Plato is understood only in the light of the mysteries. The
credit him with a "secret doctrine," and they maintain that his
teacher Socrates, put his hearers through an "initiation" whereby
they found something within them they were not aware of possessing.
The place where these philosophers taught was
filled with the spirit of the mystics, and Plato's dialogues [Lib 2007] mean more or
less according to our spiritual condition. Truth or falsity is decided
something within which opposes the physical body and is not subject to
laws. Socrates approaches death as he would any other event. In the
which Plato records the last words of his master, there is but little
for immortality, but there is the teaching that death is a release and
folly to rebel against it.
Now the particular fact to which we here call
attention as contributory to what we hope to make plain is that the
religions of the Ancients did not give satisfaction to the minds and
hosts of thinkers among them, and so there sprang up great groups of
everywhere who guarded their secrets by a priestly caste and by most
vows. There was an oneness of belief which runs like a golden thread
all the fabric of these old time organizations and which is not lost
the votaries turn to shame and debauchery. To each of the mysteries
there was a
different god or hero, but always the same aim and purpose, the
the initiated to the apprehension of God and immortality, and I shall
to acquaint you with what one is able to learn concerning the methods
by those of old time to enforce their lessons and to show that there is
something more than a casual connection between these companies of
and our Masonic fraternity.
The task is the more difficult because those
presented the mysteries hedged themselves about by such sacred vows of
as most effectually held the initiated from revealing what was imparted
and if there were in those days those who because of pique or with
personal gain, exposed the secrets, their works were somehow suppressed
have disappeared from history. There is enough, however, that has come
us, to give us a very definite idea of what the mysteries were in
to show that almost without exception that most vital in each concerned
deity and the life beyond the grave.
We will therefore consider first the mysteries
Osiris and Isis, for the Egyptians are the most ancient people whose
set before us in the annals of the past. Herodotus, the father of
constantly alludes to these mysteries, but he always speaks with
caution, since it is evident that he had himself been initiated into
In the "Book of the Dead," [Lib 1910] that ancient
collection of prayers and hymns supposed to aid the soul in its journey
Amenti, there is some aid to us, but in that work the myths are mostly
for granted as being well known, and therefore are not enlarged upon.
our knowledge in this domain comes to us from Greece, to which country,
altered form, the mysteries were transplanted, but it is sufficient to
us to reconstruct the Osiriac myth which was, in a sense, the model for
Osiris was the greatest of the Egyptian heroes
he was by his devotees transformed from a mortal king to be an immortal
was he who introduced civilization among the dwellers of the Nile, and
everywhere teaching the people agriculture and the arts. During his
his brother Typhon, who was a rival for his throne, formed a conspiracy
him. He had a beautiful carved chest made, inlaid with gold, and he
give it to him whom it should fit when he should lie down in it. When
tried it Typhon closed the lid and made it secure and had the chest
the river where it floated along until cast ashore at Byblos, in
Isis, the sister and also the wife of Osiris,
overcome with grief, searched everywhere for the chest and at length
but Typhon again obtained possession of the body which he cut into foul
parts and scattered about. Isis then searched for the fragments and
found one she buried it, and that was the reason Egypt was so rich in
graves of Osiris. One part, that of propagation, Isis could not find,
she consecrated a model thereof and the Phallus henceforth becomes
with the mystic rites. Afterwards, Osiris was resurrected, returned
region of shades, and was reunited with his consort.
This is the myth as nearly as we are able to
recover it. It is certain beyond question that the priests of Osiris
monotheists and it may yet appear that it is to them rather than to the
that we owe the first definite teaching of the doctrine of the one and
God; while every mummy that they embalmed speaks to us of their belief
immortality. Even if we do not know much concerning the ceremonies of
initiation as they took place in the land of the Pharaohs, there is
light thrown upon our study from the fact that these mysteries were
transplanted to Greece somewhere about the fourteenth century before
and to other lands a little later on, and here they assumed various
all of them bearing resemblance to each other. Here, however, as in
there could be no greater crime than the betrayal of the secrets, as is
attested by a host of the classic writers such as Pindar and Sophocles
Isocrates and Aeschylus (the last, because of what he put into one of
plays, being obliged to flee to the altar of Dionysus, where he escaped
only by legally proving that he had never been initiated).
Nevertheless, from one
source and another has come sufficient help to enable us to follow in
the forms and ceremonies and the mystic teaching of those ancient
From earliest times there were secret cults and
Mysteries in Greece. Every clan had its sacred locality and ceremonies,
which those of every other clan were excluded. Some of these rites were
and some were of a lewd character, but all together they exerted a
influence upon the people. Some of them were even dedicated to the
worship of infernal
Pluto and others to Demeter and Cora, but gradually, almost without
they took on the hope of a bright hereafter beyond the vale of death.
At the time when the Persian Empire arose on
ruins of other ancient monarchies it subjugated Lydia and the
colonies of Asia Minor. It was then that Greece issued out of its
and Athens was enlarged by the incoming of new tribes, became the
Attica, and laid the foundation for its future greatness. One
expression of its
growing importance was the spread of the influence of its mysteries
had been its special and particular cult, became dominant wherever the
held sway. The mysteries of Eleusis exhibited the greatest attempt of
genius to construct a religion which would keep pace with the growth of
and civilization in Greece. That they were related to the mysteries of
and Isis we are well assured, but the method of their transmission from
and the full process of their transformation into the elaborate system
prevailed at Eleusis we do not know.
It was my good fortune a few years ago to visit
scenes where those elaborate ceremonials took place. I followed the
the pageants that went out from Athens and lingered at the many shrines
which the devotees paused to pay their tribute and wandered among the
the great temple at Eleusis ‒ which was the largest sacred edifice of
Greeks ‒ begun, it is said, by Eurnolpus, the first priest of the cult,
B.C. Naturally, I endeavored to learn as much as possible concerning
ancient Greeks and to lay hold, if I could, upon what was really the
what they thought and the motive which prompted them to those
exhibitions. And as it is from the rites of Eleusis that we derive the
part of our knowledge of the mysteries in general, it will be my aim to
you a fairly adequate conception of what they were like.
In the first place, they were in honor of the
goddess Demeter, the patroness of agriculture, and they dealt much with
procreative power of nature. Later they turned to the deeper problems
and death and the great beyond. From the Homeric hymn to Demeter we
she was the daughter of Kronos and that she gave to Zeus a daughter,
(or Cora.) One day when Cora was gathering flowers she was abducted by
the God of Hades, and with the consent of her father, Zeus, who was a
of Pluto, she was carried to the infernal regions.
Demeter arrived too late to assist her
but after searching for her for nine days and nights with torch in hand
learned from Helios (the sun) the name of her seducer and also that of
accomplice (Zeus). Incensed at her husband, she left Olympus and the
disguised as an old woman she determined to scour the earth to find her
Arriving at Eleusis she was discovered by
(the ruler of the realm) sitting upon a stone, in tears. He took pity
and she entered his family as a nurse to the queen's son. Wishing to
boy immortal, she anointed him by day with ambrosia and hid him by
fire, but his mother discovered what was being done and, not
import of it all, she was terrified and the boy was rescued by his
After that the bestowal of immortality was
impossible and Demeter left the house, but she revealed herself to King
and by her direction he built a temple that she might initiate the
into her mysteries. To that temple Demeter retired, but her grief for
of her daughter was limitless and she vowed vengeance against gods and
a year she spread sterility over the earth. Zeus sought in vain to
wrath of Demeter and finally he sent Hermes to Pluto ordering him to
Cora to her mother. This Pluto was obliged to do but before her
gave her secretly a sweet pip of a pomegranate which compelled her to
periodically to the nether world forevermore and henceforth she spent a
of the year there and two-thirds in the world above.
By the return of her daughter, the wrath of
was appeased, but as she was ordered to return to Olympus, before doing
called the princes of the realm together and initiated them into the
which assured them of honor after death; and at Eleusis, the place of
sufferings, she founded the cult which should keep her faith in
Now the meaning of this myth is quite apparent
it is often set forth in the Greek classics. It is that the soul
from the immortal and it is led astray by what is transitory. It lives
alternately above and below. It cannot abide permanently upon the
the divine. It is never-dying, but is doomed to recurring
transformation by birth
and death until it is reunited with the source from whence it sprung,
temple service instituted by Demeter was to help establish its votaries
as possible in the divine life.
This was the beginning of the mystic system at
Eleusis which later developed to such proportions that it became a
influence in the Grecian life and transcended all other similar rites
brilliancy of presentation. It was in great part a revival of the
established religion of the realm and this conduced to its adoption as
state religion, but it was reinforced by foreign elements, namely, the
introduction of gods who did not inhabit Olympus and who had suffered
These mysteries were supposed to enshrine a
primitive revelation of divine truth, and it is maintained by Pindar
Sophocles and Plutarch (and their contemporaries and successors) that
exercised a healthy and saving effect upon their votaries, and although
time of Diogenes they lost their religious character and became simply
splendid ceremony and under the Romans they degenerated to mere
yet they endured with power for nearly a thousand years, coming to an
during the reign of Theodosius II. Let me as briefly as possible
portray to you
what took place and the significance of the rites as I interpret them.
Every device of painting and sculpture, of
architecture and music and dancing, of gorgeous costumes and
darkness and dazzling light was called into being to make an impression
the initiate, and he was taught that by what was to be imparted he was
an advantage in the future world. The novitiate was subjected to a
preparation, his mind was wrought up to a breathless expectation, and
disqualified if he had committed murder and had not made reparation
There were what were called the Lesser
which were celebrated at Athens on the hill of Agra, near the Stadium,
month of February, but these were but a preparation for the rites which
follow. The novitiate was subjected to a most sacred vow of secrecy and
only admitted to the vestibule of the sanctuary of Demeter. He had to
year before he could advance to what was designated as the Greater
These Greater Mysteries occupied nine days in
presentation, from the fifteenth to the twenty third of September. Two
previous to that time heralds from the priestly families went forth to
the coming of the celebration and a holy armistice was declared for
were waging war, so that all might be free to travel in safety.
As the date set for the beginning of the
drew near the novitiate was subjected to a fast which lasted for nine
then he was ready for initiation. We are told by many writers of the
the minds of those who were about to pass through the ordeal and it is
compared to the preparation for death.
On the fourteenth of the month, at full moon,
priests of Eleusis, headed by the hierophant (who was dressed to
governor of the universe), removed from their repository the Sacred
and, followed by the populace, carried them in procession to Athens.
Athenians went out to meet them, the youths from eighteen to twenty
age formed a guard of honor around the sacred objects, and they were
at the foot of the Acropolis, the announcement of their arrival was
made to the priestess of Pallas Athena, the tutelary goddess of Athens,
high festival began.
The following morning the novitiates were
that they could not participate unless their lives were clean and they
speak with intelligible voice. Next day, the sixteenth, was the feast
Purification when they bathed in the sea that their minds might be pure
undefiled. On the seventeenth was the sacrifice of Soteria, which was
salvation of the Senate, the citizens of Athens, and their wives and
On the eighteenth there was a sacrifice in
Aesculapius, and the next morning the multitude started on the
to Eleusis. There were altars and shrines all along the way and a pause
made and offerings bestowed at each of these. It was night before the
pilgrimage was completed, so that torches were lit. Everyone from
out to meet the worshippers and they finished their journey with
chanting and a
wandering in the dark along the shores and plains in search of the lost
daughter of Demeter.
The next twenty-four hours were spent in rest
in preparation for the great initiation which took place on the
and twenty-second of the month, and was representative of the lives of
deities by whom the mysteries were instituted and developed. All that
accomplished by dazzling lights and gorgeous costumes and strange
and wonderful voices and every possible spectacular device was called
operation to produce an impression upon the novitiates.
After their credentials were examined, they
crowned with myrtle and admitted to the mystical enclosure where a
proposed certain questions to which the answers were to be returned in
and particular form. Then they underwent further purification and were
specially prepared by partaking of a sacred draught, after which they
allowed to kiss the holy treasures of the temple, and then they
supreme moment of their exaltation. From the profound darkness of the
they were suddenly ushered into the midst of transcendent and
light. On every hand issued loud cries for help and laments of agony.
noises came as from earth and heaven. Flames burst from the surrounding
and were extinguished by invisible hands. The lightning flashed with
brilliance and peal after peal of thunder rent the air. The place shook
vibrated and whirled and strange and amazing objects appeared
around. As they advanced there were flambeau bearers representing the
near an altar was the Adorer symbolizing the Moon, and there was
messenger of the gods, and a multitude of similar characters most
As the candidate approached, he saw a spacious
habitation replete with glittering gems. Above him, the roof was
with stars, and he was raised up into a place burning with fire. When
pleased those around him assumed the likeness of men, and when they
they gleamed as gods and appeared or vanished at will. All around him
lightning hissed and flashed, terrestrial demons with every device to
the human passions waited all along his path, and if he yielded he was
into an abyss of darkness and suffering.
All this was continued until the eighth day of
festival, when the ceremonies were completed and the candidates fully
when they either remained to participate in the sports which followed
returned to Athens in somewhat the same spectacular way in which they
excepting that they no longer preserved a serious and solemn mien, but
in all sorts of chaffing and buffoonery.
Such were the famous Mysteries of Eleusis, in
which, as is clearly to be seen, the legend of Osiris is transformed
of Demeter, but with the same fundamental teaching of immortality and a
reaching after a being behind and transcending the gods whom the people
ignorantly worshipped and as Athens came in course of time to dominate
her ceremonies served in a large measure as a pattern for others
Greeks extended their influence.
Mackey tells us that the Dionysian mysteries
very old and that previous to the building of Solomon's temple the
of Attica had conquered Asia Minor and there they introduced these
before they were corrupted by the Athenians, and in them was presented
of the demigod Dionysus, the search for his body and his restoration to
The same historian informs us that Hiram Abiff was initiated into these
and that later his own death and resurrection were substituted in place
There were also Mysteries of Mithras
the wonderful teachings of Zoroaster and the contest between the hosts
Ahriman and those of Ormuzd. There were again the Samothracian and
Mysteries which had their special characteristics, but all with the
underlying principles and teaching. There was something also of the
manifestation in our older scriptures where the Jews pictured Jehovah
dwelling in the thick darkness, and in the fact that they never voiced
sacred name of deity, and again in the New Testament in our book of
In all ages, therefore, we find man
erecting-altars, reaching out after God if haply he might and him and
on beyond the grave to a life that is endless. And it were folly to
Masonry has had its place through the long centuries and among such
peoples without appropriating to itself something of what was so vital
mankind. Indeed the more I study its history, the more I am persuaded
we have found to be the heart of the ancient mysteries was also the
soul of Masonry in days gone by, as it is, in my thought, in this day
Not that we in our fraternity are banded
as religious sect. Thank God we have no creed, but we meet strictly
level, and we ask of no man what church he attends or whether he
outside them all. But on the threshold of our lodge rooms we do demand
those who would unite with us shall declare their faith in God, and
is his conviction, none may pass through our ceremonies and sit with us
circle of fraternity, and furthermore, he who does not learn from our
degree the lesson of immortality has not yet apprehended its true
We are not only one with those who carved the
sphinx and erected the statue of Memnon and with those who embellished
Acropolis with that series of temples that even in their ruin are the
and delight of all who look upon them, but we are also one with those
what seem to us crude and often barbarous rites and ceremonies sought
to man an apprehension of deity and a surety that death is but an
an endless career.
We might, as Masons, cherish a just pride in an
institution which reaches back through so many centuries of the long
if we conceive of it as embodying only good fellowship and affording
members the means for travelling in foreign countries with the
receiving a Master's pay. But this would place it in the same category
thousand other gilds or trade unions which men have devised for their
emolument, and to see no more than this in the work and teachings of
would be to overlook what to me is our transcendent glory. To minister
bodily comforts and our social enjoyment is assuredly a worthy mission,
needs but little apprehension of that which constitutes the real man ‒
deeper needs, the higher joys, the supreme longings of our race ‒ to
that those who contribute to this nobler part of our nature are our
And of such have been those who through the
have gathered within the sacred circle of Freemasonry and radiated from
altar the inspiration that comes from the recognition of a Supreme
the certainty of immortality.
How far the Craft have been allied with those
in so many lands and ages rose above the popular religions there and
vogue and laid hold upon the one God and the unending tomorrow we may
arbitrary in affirming, but that our operative forebears, while
knowledge of the science of architecture, held also among their secrets
same priceless convictions it is not difficult to substantiate.
And in my judgment it was not because of the
working of blind chance that we find such to have been the case, but
may believe that Masonry is one of the ordained instruments by which
Infinite Artificer of the Universe is to transform the rough ashlar of
barbarism into smooth and polished and completed manhood, it is one of
means by which we are to advance by regular and upright steps to the
of our individual perfection and that of our human race.
Mark ye, brethren, the destiny of nations and
secret of their downfall! It is written on every page of history! They
wealth and power but they forgot the demands of righteousness and they
the altars of the Most High.
Today, as never before in the annals of time,
world is being devastated by war and cursed by a philosophy which is
materialistic. The very foundations of society are threatened with
Our only hope is in God and in the dissemination of the spirit of
the recognition of our obligations as members together of one great
Amid the turmoil and doubt and strife stands
fraternity of which we are a part, and within our lodges we are taught
together in unity and to put our trust in one who is unconquerable, and
light which gleams upon us when we are raised to the sublime degree of
Mason we recognize the indestructibility of the human soul. Surely it
privilege and an honor which is ours, but I would call it to your minds
also imposes vital obligations. It may yet be proved that as Masons we
between mankind and its reversion to barbarism and it is possible that
greater and more glorious future than that of which we have ever
Everything depends upon the shaping of our
organization and our discharge of the duty that devolves upon us. If
the word I
have voiced in this hour shall have waked in any of you who have
patiently a higher conception of the significance and mission of
Masonry and a
firmer fidelity to its demands I shall have been abundantly repaid for
effort that I have put forth in your behalf.
Speculative Masonry in
the Seventeenth Century
By Bro. Ossian Lang,
Grand Historian, Grand Lodge of New York
The birth-year of the present Grand Lodge
Freemasonry is securely fixed. Of the time of establishment, between
1723, we have only a few more or less unimportant data and next to
regards reliable information explaining the momentous developments
have taken place before "The Constitutions," the Magna Charta of
modern Freemasonry, could be formulated and issued in printed form.
The reasons for the lack of reliable historical
material concerning the status and activity of the Fraternity, before
simple enough. History recording is an after-thought. It arises when
degree of greatness, or at least the promise of greatness, is achieved.
why Israelitic History began with David and Solomon. (1) That is why
history began with Alfred the Great. That is why Masonic history began
Grand Mastership of John, Duke of Montagu, whose connection with the
aroused widespread interest in Freemasonry.
The publication of the Constitutions, in 1723,
became a direct challenge to historians, and now began the questioning
as to antecedents
which has been going on ever since. Before the Grand Mastership of
there was nothing in the existence of the Fraternity in any way
this was destined to attain importance, let alone greatness. Of the
united to form the premier Grand Lodge, only one evidenced real
soon became extinct. Another had to be reconstituted in 1723. A third
only thirteen members between 1721 and 1723. There appeared to be no
to record history.
A suggestive side-light is thrown on existing
conditions by a note in the autobiography of Dr. William Stukeley [Lib
Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3], F. R. S. (1687-1765),
reading as follows:
curiosity led him to be initiated into the mysterys of Masonry,
to be the remains of the mysterys of the antients; when, with
number sufficient were to be found in all London. After this, it became
public fashion, not only to spread over Brittain and Ireland, but all
Those of us who have experienced what it means
initiate candidates with barely enough brethren present to form a
sympathize with Brother Stukeley. The point of historical significance
recital is that on January 6th, 1721, the date when he was "made a
Freemason," it was only "with difficulty" that "a number
sufficient was to be found in all London" to welcome him and two other
distinguished Londoners into the Fraternity.
Another interesting item is the entry in Dr.
Stukeley's diary, under date of December 27th, 1721, as follows:
"We met at
the Fountain Tavern, Strand, and by the consent of the Grand Master
Dr. Beal (D. G. M.) constituted a lodge there, where I was chose
That throws light on many things. Taken
with other available stray bits of information, the entry suggests that
"the verbal consent of the Grand Master, or his Deputy, was sufficient
authorize the formation of a lodge." We find, further, that the now
required qualifications for elevation to the chair, were not known in
Brother Stukeley had been a Mason for less than a year when he was
The presence of the Grand Master, John, Duke of
Montagu, is worth noting. Dr. Stukeley and the Duke had both been
Fellows of the Royal Society in 1717. Both belonged also to the
"Gentlemen's Society" of Spaulding, a literary club, which counted
among its members a number of men who won distinction in Freemasonry:
Desaguliers, the Earl of Dalkeith, and Lord Coleraine, Grand Masters of
Grand Lodge of England, 1719, 1723, 1727; Joseph Ames, David Casley,
Drake (the latter serving as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of All
1761-2); Martin Folkes, Sir Richard Manningham and Dr. Thomas
Andrew Michael Ramsey, Knight of St. Lazarus, reputed founder of the
Rite, became a member of this Society, in March, 1729.
The astonishing progress of Freemasonry, after
accession to the Grand Mastership of John, Duke of Montagu, may be
understood when we take into account his zeal for the Fraternity and
eminent men who were glad to co-operate with him. The rapid rise to
among the social organizations of the British metropolis may be
regarded as the
first real impetus to the study of the antecedents of the Fraternity.
edition of the Constitutions revealed evidences of serious efforts to
a satisfactory explanation of origins.
There was no doubt then, as there is no doubt
that the Fraternity had at one time been connected in some way with the
gild of Masons. It was equally clear that the lodges which formed the
Grand Lodge had been made up of "Accepted" Freemasons enjoying at one
time membership in the Masons' Company of London, but forming a
division within that Company and having no direct interest in operative
Masonry. The "Laws, Forms and usages" which the Fraternity had in
common with the "Craft and Fellowship of Masons," were plausibly
accounted for as having been derived from former gild connections. The
differences were not explained so easily. It is here where the
arose. The problem was how to account for the "curious secret
brotherhood" of Accepted Freemasons, which was regarded as the true
of the Fraternity. It has remained an open problem to this day. The
task I have
set myself for the present discussion is to suggest a solution as far
arguments in support of it may be presented in public print.
Hints Pointing To
Gould to whose faithful labors we shall ever be
indebted for the gathering together of a vast amount of valuable
relating to the development of our Fraternity, found that there is
unanimity among serious historians to the effect that "Freemasonry, as
emerged from the crucible in 1723, was the product of many evolutionary
changes, consummated for the most part in the six years during which
had been ruled by a central authority." We shall agree to this, with
rather important reservation: The changes that were wrought, between
1723, did not spring from a desire to create something altogether new,
rather to restore what was believed to have been the true character of
Fraternity in the past; hence an earlier order was assumed and served
model for the "many evolutionary changes." The attitude of the
restorers may be gathered from the "Defence of Masonry" [Lib 1738 (pp 216)] appended
to the printed Constitutions of 1734, from which I quote for our
purpose this passage:
as taught in the regular lodges, may have some redundancies or defects,
occasion'd by the ignorance or indolence of the old members. And
considering through what obscurity and darkness the Mystery has been
down; the many centuries it has survived; the many countries and
sects and parties, it has run through, we are rather to wonder it ever
to the present age without more imperfection. In short, I am apt to
Masonry (as it is now explain'd) has in some circumstances declined
original purity! It has run along in muddy streams, and, as it were,
underground. But notwithstanding the great rust it may have contracted
* * *
there is (if I judge right) much of the old fabrick still remaining;
essential Pillars of the Building may be discover'd through the
the superstructure be over-run with moss and ivy, and the stones by
time be disjointed."
The scholarly brother who wrote this, had in
very definite idea of the derivation of Freemasonry. His very language,
italicized words, and the reference to "the essential Pillars of the
Building," suggest to those familiar with these things, a fairly clear
explanation he had elaborated for himself, as we shall see further on.
In connection with the cited extract from the
"Defence of Masonry," I desire to invite your attention to the
consideration of a newspaper item appearing in the London Daily Journal
September 5th, 1730: (2)
"It must be
confessed that there is a Society abroad from whom the English
(asham'd of their true Origin) have copied a few Ceremonies, and take
Pains to persuade the World that they are derived from them and are the
with them. These are called Rosicrucians * * *.
Society have our Moderns endeavor'd to ingraft themselves, tho' they
nothing of their material Constitutions, and are acquainted only with
their Signs of Probation and Entrance, inasmuch that 'tis but of late
(being better informed by some kind Rosicrucian) that they knew John
Evangelist to be their right Patron, having before kept for his Day
dedicated to John the Baptist."
Here we have in convenient form a summary of
comments given currency by a number of contemporaneous critics of the
Fraternity, chiefly dissatisfied old brethren wedded to the belief that
Freemasonry was wholly derived from operative Masonry. By intimating
"our Moderns" were trying to "ingraft themselves" on the
Society of Rosicrucians, they reveal a significant fact which is
though in veiled terms, by our quotation from the "Defence of Masonry."
Bearing in mind that this "Defence" was published with the implied
official sanction of the Grand Lodge, we must assume that the learned
who directed the inner affairs of the Fraternity, were convinced that
substance of Freemasonry was in nowise derived from operative Masonry,
the "Mystery" had come down through the ages by way of quite a
different channel. Since the suggestion is offered that the
"Rosicrucians" were regarded as the true forebears, it will be worth
our while to examine this question more closely. (3)
We shall have to take for granted certain
discussed in my paper on "Medieval Craft Gilds and Freemasonry,"
published in THE BUILDER (November and December, 1917):
Constitutions, including "Laws, Forms and Usages," reveal former
external connections of the forebears of the Fraternity with gilds of
"drooping" lodges which united, in 1717, to form the Grand Lodge of
England were of an essentially convivial character, possessing certain
"antient" ceremonies and modes of recognition and guarding
"mysteries" of the origin and meaning of which the remnant of the
earlier "secret brotherhood" were ignorant.
earlier London lodge or lodges of "Accepted" (Speculative) Masons had
no continuous history, revealing its existence rather by sporadic
"an old order."
symbolism and ritualistic peculiarities known as "Arts and Sciences,"
consisted of borrowings from several sources, the selection and
being governed, in the first two decades of the Grand Lodge, by
efforts of the organizers of the work to restore the "Original purity
the old fabrick."
spirit of Freemasonry is a growth from beginnings which may he traced
degree of certainty to societies quite different from those which
Constitutions and suggestions for initiatory ceremonies.
Rosicrucians or Rosy
Our present inquiry will deal largely with
explanations of presumptions three, four and five, and more
the so-called Rosicrucian origins of Freemasonry.
Extensive researches regarding Alchemists and
reputed successors in Rosicrucianism, covering a vast and largely
literature on the subject, have led me to formulate a few conclusions
shall present more or less categorically. A fuller discussion would be
cruel a trial of the fraternal patience of the readers of THE BUILDER.
We shall probably never know for a certainty
whether there ever was an organized Fraternity of the Rosy Cross. We do
there were reputed and professed Rosicrucians, particularly in the
and seventeenth centuries, and there were also distinguished leaders of
who stoutly defended the doctrines ascribed to the Fraternity and many
reputable men who adopted the Rosicrucian symbolism, in an extensive
books. There is furthermore abundant testimony to warrant the inference
there were in existence "invisible" or secret societies and lodges
composed of men seeking honestly to give realization to the practice of
or arts described in these books as characteristic of the mystic
the Rosy Cross. The absence of a recognized authoritative central body
the course of events taken advantage of by impostors parading under the
Rosicrucians who played upon the credulity of the public till the name
into general disrepute.
The English and Scottish Rosicrucians who are
only ones to be taken into account for our purpose, were Christian
Theosophists. Like their brethren on the European continent, they made
Cabala, following chiefly the Alexandrinian Philo. Neo-Platonism or
Neo-Pythagorism, the Old Testament and Christian theology also engaged
attention. They devoted themselves with fervor to the study of
physics, music, astronomy and mathematics (particularly geometry).
allegorical interpretation of the Scriptures was a characteristic
supreme object, however, to which all studies were subordinated, was
promotion of the welfare of humanity.
These Rosicrucians were the lineal descendants
the theosophic portion of the Alchemists who are sometimes called
Derivation of Masonic
Bearing in mind that Hermetics and the Rosy
fraternity are fundamentally the same, though they differ in name and
in allegorical interpretation, let me now quote for you a letter by
Pike, addressed to the historian Gould, which contains this interesting
reference to Hermetic symbols to be found in Freemasonry:
"I have been
for some time collecting the old Hermetic and Alchemical works in order
out what Masonry came into possession of from them. I have ascertained
certainty that the square and compasses, the triangle, the oblong
three Grand Masters, the idea embodied in the substitute word, the Sun,
and Master of the Lodge, and others were included in the number.
that I have spoken of as Hermetic may have been borrowed by
all the same it had them, and I do not know where they were used,
Hermeticism, until they appeared in Masonry.
"I think that
the Philosophers, becoming Free Masons, introduced into Masonry its
My own investigations have verified Albert
conclusions. In fact, I would greatly extend the list of symbols,
them symbols which are to be found among the true Brethren of the Rosy
with this result:
Purely Rosy Cross Symbols: (4) Jacob's ladder;
rough and perfect Ashlar; Sun, Moon, and Master of the Lodge; flaming
three Grand Masters; three columns; two pillars; circle between
point within a circle; sacred delta (triangle); oblong; three, five and
Symbols which the Operative Gild and Brethren
the Rosy Cross had in common: Square; compasses; level; plumb; trowel;
bee-hive; horn of plenty; hour glass; cassia.
Purely Masonic: Three windows; twenty-four-inch
gauge; gavel; trestle board; tesselated border.
The first and second lists might have been
extended. We hope to have given enough, however, to suggest the
Freemasonry to the Rosy Cross.
The choice of two explanations is offered. One
that implied in the quotation we have given from the London Daily
1730, which would have us conclude that "the English Free-Masons
of their true origin)" imported Rosy Cross symbols and ceremonials into
the system of the Fraternity. The other is founded on the quoted
the "Defence," which tells in so many words that Freemasonry had come
down the ages through the Fraternity of the Rosy Cross, that much had
on the way which the Grand Lodge of England sought to restore in its
place. In other words, following the former allegation, the Grand Lodge
the Brethren of the Rosy Cross as forefathers; following the latter
declaration, the Brethren of the Rosy Cross were the true forebears.
There is no reason for assuming that the
were the originators of the symbols referred to in the foregoing list.
I am sure these symbols were borrowed from an older source.
Fludd and Frisius
We agreed to confine our attention chiefly to
theosophic Alchemists of England and Scotland. Let us limit the range
further by disregarding the older Alchemists and taking note only of
representative leaders of the later (if not the last) of the "True
Brethren of the Rosy Cross." (5) Here we have an abundance of firsthand
information in the several treatises in defense of the mystic
that renowned English physician and philosopher, Robert Fludd [Lib 1782 (German)], and
in the "Summum Bonum" (The Supreme Good), a Latin dissertation by a
Scottish friend of Fludd's, who wrote under the pseudonym of Joachimus
(or Frizius). [Lib*]
The Century Dictionary gives this brief
biographical notice of Robert Fludd, or Flud: "Born at Bearsted, Kent,
1574, died at London, Sept. 8th, 1637. An English physician and
philosopher. He wrote several treatises in defense of the fraternity of
'Rosy Cross." Waite, who presents a more extensive biography in "The
Real History of the Rosicrucians," adds this word of appreciation:
"The central figure of Rosicrucian literature * * * is Robertus de
Fluctibus, the great English mystical philosopher of the seventeenth
man of immense erudition, of exalted mind, and, to judge by his
extreme personal sanctity." Fludd was one of the last, if not the last,
the giants of universal scholarship of whom there were many, before the
specialization set in. He was a devout Christian and a staunch
basing his philosophy of the universe frankly on the Bible.
Of Joachimus Frisius, Frizius or Frize, whom we
shall call Frisius, we know nothing, except that Fludd tells us he was
Scotchman and wrote his book partly in Scottish and partly in Latin.
translated the Scottish portions into Latin, made a few slight changes
text, and had the whole put into print, under the title of "Summum
(To be continued)
(1) See "Early Hebrew History" [Lib 1904] by that distinguished authority on
literature, our R.'. W.'. Brother, the Rev. John Punnett Peters, Rector
Michael's Church, New York.
(2) As quoted by
Gould who had access to the original.
(3) In Scotland,
too, we find allusions to a connection between the Brethren of
the Rosy Cross and Masonry; as for instance in a poem forming part of
"Muses Threnodie," published at Edinburgh, in 1638. There in singing
the praises of the beauties of Perthshire, the poet says: "For we be
brethren of the Rosie Cross: "We have the Mason word and second
(4) Or Rosy Cross
and Hermetic combined, - or Alchemist symbols.
(5) We exclude, of
course, altogether the spurious Rosicrucianism which brought
the name of the, Fraternity into disrepute by its grandiloquence and
diletantism and the charlatanry and deliberate fraud carried on under
The Day of Peace – [A Poem]
When the lips of "patriots" are dumb
Throughout the world;
When the pure white flag of humankind
Shall be unfurled.
When will war die?
When from every land beneath the sky
"Laws" shall have passed,
And the higher, truer Law of Love
Shall bind men fast.
The Mystic Art
is the mystic
Just a blending, that is all
And so moulded to a test
That it is the Truth at call
To the heart who craves the guest;
Just a passport to the realm
Of the blest discovery,
Just a system at the helm
O'er life's trackless mystery.
What is the mystic Art?
Just a measure made to meet
Soulfulness upon the way,
Just a something thrumming sweet
Heartstrings tuned to Masonry;
Just a something that invites
To the social cheer the best,
Just a welcome that unites
In a higher moral quest.
What is the mystic Art?
Just a home where there is naught
But a benediction heard,
Where no ear has ever caught
Aught that's not a restful word;
Just the needful for the heart,
Just ideals for the mind,
Just a blend of soul-made Art
That they both so love to find.
What is the mystic Art?
Something that to mem'ry clings
More and more as years roll by,
Something that to manhood brings
Treasures gold can never buy,
Something that with cobwebs weave
Cables that for aye unite,
Something that in trials leave
Friendships glowing yet more bright.
What is the mystic Art?
There's no answer satisfies,
Not e'en what we all can say
That 'tis something that supplies
Something needed on the way.
Wonder tis, this alchemy
Of the Art that writes so plain
Does not interline the way
To the secret we would gain!
Dawn – [A Poem]
James T. Duncan
window as morning
Unfolds from the darkness of night,
And mark how the vine, in its climbing
Is seeking the kiss of the light.
Fling open thy heart to the glowing
Of love rising out of the gloom
The world by the warmth of its brooding
Will burst like a garden in bloom.
Fling open thy vision to childhood
That bursts like a sun from the sea,
And mark how, in growing to manhood,
Is life like a rose to the bee.
Unfetter thy spirit exulting
When darkness and storms disappear
Its pinions, at evening returning,
Some garland most surely will bear.
Though home be a roof that is humble,
Thy slumber on pallets of grass,
All nature will greet thee at dawning
And children will smile as ye pass.
Further Notes on the
By Bro. W. Ravenscroft,
IN order to trace a few of the leading features
which the architecture of the East as well as other allied arts
work of the Comacines, it will be desirable to give a very short
the larger type of church these Masters would build. It would consist
basilican ground plan (Fig. 3b) * having nave and side aisles, the nave
divided from the aisles by rows of columns or piers, the latter
sometimes without, capitals, and semi-circular arches generally without
mouldings and springing directly from the capitals where such occur.
these capitals would be elaborately carved, others of the cushion shape
in our own Norman work. Clerestory windows would occur above these
the covering of the nave would consist of a flat pitched roof of timber
construction. Beyond the nave, generally eastward, would come the
having aisles in continuation of those on either side of the nave, and
well as the presbytery, ending in a semi-circular apse. The presbytery
many cases have the space for the choir enclosed with a low screen and
frequently be raised several steps, having beneath it, approached by
crypt. With the exception of the nave, the various parts of the edifice
be sometimes vaulted with simple crossvaulting.
The High Altar would be a little away from the
central apse and placed under a baldachino.
One, sometimes two, campanili would rise either
from a presbytery aisle or from the west end of one of the nave aisles
other instances detached or nearly so.
The baptistery in most instances would be a
separate building nearby and generally octagonal in plan, with or
small apse on one side.
Architectural details, other than those already
mentioned, would consist chiefly in the small round-arched windows
recessed from the outside; small, and in some instances large circular
little openings in gables in the form of a Greek Cross; doorways
headed, generally having a lintel and tympanum, some very plain, others
less enriched with columns and moldings on arches; corbel tables under
and running up gables; pilaster strips at angles, some having
columns on their faces. these being also found on external walls
of pilaster strips, a kind of dentil ornament, used sometimes as a
course with corbel tabling beneath and sometimes under eaves and then,
ornament, the interlaced endless knot, nearly always in Italy composed
Decoration internally would consist of
capitals and other details, and of fresco painting and decorated
sometimes in low relief. The Comacine lion is a later product, but this
description above outlined would fairly well apply to a church of the
or twelfth century.
Better illustration there cannot be than is to
found in the Church of S. Abbondio at Como, and the Baptistery at Lenno
6 and 7). The Duomo at Modena also, originally designed as we have
seen, by Master Lanfrancus, contains practically all the chief
of Comacine work. In the earlier work of the Comacines ornament is
used and the striking feature of such work is its dignified solemnity.
Sig. Monneret de Villard, in a booklet entitled
"I. Monumenti del Lago di Como," [Lib*] (Milan), claims for the
Comacine Masters peculiarities in their work other than those already
in these notes, and, differing from Merzario, holds that it is not a
indifference as to whether the term "Lombard" or "Comacine"
be used in describing their work seeing there are features of both
distinctive as to render any such indifference misleading. Doubtless
offshoots or descendants of the Roman Collegia, but all the same he
they were separate offshoots.
Of course there were many features common to
and on the other hand it must not be supposed that even essential
were in every case rigidly maintained. Indeed, indications are not
the Comacine was the parent of the Lombard school.
The two outstanding features of difference
according to Sig. Monneret between the Comacine School and that which
designates as the Lombard or Milanese school, arose out of material and
Not having stone or marble the latter used
(in which one supposes may be included brick,) while the other used
This doubtless was a difference which would be
broken down in many instances; probably, however, rather in the more
use of stone and marble than of terra cotta and the use of the vault
have been a feature in the Milanese work of which the Comacine Masters
The vault in its larger development involved
consideration even in the laying in of foundations and the planning of
building seeing it necessitated buttresses, piers and their
meet its thrust.
So the Comacines, except perhaps in apses,
and sometimes isles, preferred the flat roof treatment with the beams
direct downward thrust, and having no projections in the form of
beyond the very flat pilasters already described in these pages.
They are also supposed to have preferred
elaborately carved capitals to the plain cushion capitals resembling
ones, but that they did also use these there is plenty of evidence. The
interlaced patterns of the Comacines Sig. Monneret considers to be the
elaborate type, and he attributes to them the curious figures of
Whether he is on sure ground here is certainly
doubtful, but the Eastern influence on Comacine work might, in part,
for this, if his opinion is correct.
One other point of difference between the two
schools appears to be that while the Lombard or Milanese covered the
their nave and the aisles with a facade, unbroken and as a single
Comacines, when they planned naves and aisles, marked in some way in
facade, either by pilaster strips or more generally by raising the
portion, the fact that behind it such existed, which in general the
Let us now see how in some respects the
architecture of the Comacines was affected by the East, and the first
must necessarily be the influence of the Greek plan and of the dome, so
characteristically Byzantine. The Greek plan which in its simplest form
consist of nave, presbytery and transepts, of approximately equal
having a dome over the crossing, was sometimes used by the Comacines,
very often, and it must not be forgotten that the suggestion of the
come from Rome quite as well as from Byzantium, seeing that when
attracted skilled Craftsmen to his new capital, the Pantheon at Rome
for centuries in their view, and thus the dome was not a new thing to
first seen in the East.
That this particular influence over the
was but partial is clear from the small number of their churches built
plan with domes and the great preponderance of those built on basilican
with or without campanili.
Professor Baldwin Brown says (From Schola to
Cathedral, p. 135 [Lib 1886]):
"In the West
the tower originating in early Christian times becomes, under the hand
medieval builders, the feature wherein resides especially that romantic
aspiring character of Christian architecture which finds its most
outcome in Gothic while the dome is the favorite form of the builders
Of the influence of the Byzantine dome,
singularly interesting example is found in the Duomo at Ancona.
As described by one of the clergy on the spot,
original church was Byzantine, but basilican in form, the altar being
west end (the present west transept) and the entrance being from the
(the present east transept.) That church dated from A.D. 500. In 1150
church was turned into a Greek Cross and the altar placed in the new
which was in the north. Then it was that the dome was formed with the
supporting the same and also the nave running south.
The extension of the choir which was
"renovated" in 1733 unduly lengthens the head of the Cross, and while
this is evidently eighteenth century work as regards the interior,
it appears to be that of the twelfth century.
The priest who gave this information described
two styles of work as Byzantine and Lombardic. Now, if the dome were
Byzantine, one would look for the pedentives (small angle arches
the cardinal faces of a building square on plain and bringing thus the
to an octagon, as better suited for a circular or octagonal dome) by
which circular domes were imposed on square spaces, characteristic of
work. But instead of this we have angle shafts and arcading filling out
space left between a square and a circle at each corner until the shape
dome is perfectly circular (see frontispiece), all in Comacine work. It
be interesting to trace in other instances how far the Comacines got
difficulty thus rather than in the correct Byzantine manner.
The influence of Byzantine art on Comacine
needs to be seen and felt and varies so much as to elude description,
careful examination will not fail to detect that influence when it
And in this connection a good example of a real
Byzantine capital, side by side with Comacine work, is to be found in
at Ancona where one or two of the capitals in the older part of the
still stand and look as fresh and strong as they did many centuries
8), and which are unmistakably Byzantine.
The omission of the entablature between columns
arches may not be peculiar to Comacine work, but in Byzantine
there frequently appears a sort of second abacus imposed on the real
acting as a kind of remembrance of the entablature which, in pure
work, is absent. S. Vitale, S. Apollinare Nuovo and S. Apollinare in
Ravenna, afford good examples of this super abacus.
Of the interlaced knot-work used as sculptured
decoration it is unnecessary to add to what has already been written
regard to it, but while in its full development it is claimed as a
distinguishing feature of Comacine work, it may be pointed out that in
simpler form it may have a Greek as well as a Roman origin. Its
widespread throughout Italy, chiefly of three-stranded work, and in
Rome in the
Forum, the Castle of S. Angelo and many a church, especially that of S.
the fragments remaining are numerous.
But there is one form of this work which is so
peculiar as to call for remark. It consists in the unsatisfactory
carving a knot in the shafts of columns. This treatment as carried out
Wurzburg has already been noticed, but its appearance in various parts
suggests that at least the same motive operated in each case. What that
was it is impossible to say ‒ it may have been a sort of Gild mark, or
have had a symbolic signification, which is more probable. At any rate
it is to
be found in the Broletto at Como, at S. Michaele Lucca, where four
thus treated, on the west front of Sta. Maria della Pieve at Arezzo,**
Valcamonica, and doubtless many other places in Italy and elsewhere.
In Didrons Christian Iconography, vol. I, pp.
and 389, will be found two illustrations of Greek crosses, each in a
having supported columns twisted in this manner and dated respectively
"first ages" and "eleventh century"; this suggests
certainly a Greek origin for this distinctly Comacine detail.
It is very unconstructional in design, making
column to appear as if it were composed of two parts with a kind of
in the center. It can only be done in the case of clustered columns of
more shafts and does not appear where great weight has to be carried.
The use of the small Greek Cross in gables and
other parts has already been shown to be of Byzantine origin.
(To be continued)
* Shown on page
199, THE BUILDER, July.
** See Fig. 9, September Issue.
There are no points of the compass on the chart
Symbolism of the Three
Part I ‒ The Symbolism
Of The Entered Apprentice Degree
IT is first necessary that we should understand
scope of my subject. First, be it understood, I attempt to exhaust no
upon which I touch, but only to stimulate the interest and curiosity of
readers to pursue the subject further for themselves. Under the term
"symbolism" I include also the legends and allegories of Masonry,
though properly speaking they are not symbols. Yet they are all so
interwoven and so employed for the same or like purposes they can
General Albert Pike, that great Freemason and
philosopher, says that "to translate the symbols (of Freemasonry) into
trivial and commonplace is the blundering of mediocrity."
That there has been some blundering of this
the part of our Monitor makers must be apparent to any serious and
student of Masonry.
Difficult as it is to assign adequate meaning
some of our Masonic symbols, it is equally difficult, when once
know where to stop. Says a distinguished British Freemason, Brother W.
always a difficult affair as everyone knows or at least ought to know.
once fairly launched on the subject, it often becomes an avalanche or
which may carry one away into the open sea or more than empty space. On
questions has more rubbish been written than that of symbols and
is a happy hunting ground for those, who guided by no sort of system or
ruled only by their own sweet will, love to allow their fancies and
imaginations to run wild. Interpretations are given which have no other
foundation than the disordered brain of the writer, and, when proof or
approaching a definite statement is required, symbols are confused with
metaphors and we are involved in a further maze of follies and wilder
Thus I am to steer our bark between the Scylla
Brother Pike and the Charybdis of Brother Rylands; without, therefore,
descending to the common-place on the one hand or soaring away from the
of common sense on the other, I hope to be able to say something of
concerning the symbolism of the First degree.
A symbol is a visible representation of some
or thing, real or imagined, employed to convey a certain idea.
is an apparent connection between the symbol and the thought
more often the association seems to be entirely arbitrary. The earliest
of symbolism of which we know were the ancient hieroglyphical systems
writing. We may indeed say that symbolism is but a form of writing; in
the earliest and for hundreds, and perhaps even thousands of years, the
form of writing known to the human race. It prevailed among every
people of whom we have any definite knowledge.
The learned Dr. William Stukeley, of England,
author of many antiquarian works, said truly that the "wisdom of all
ancients that is come down to our hands is symbolic."
This ancient form of writing, now generally
into disuse, Masonry has to some extent at least perpetuated and
recording her precepts and impressing them upon her votaries.
Another ancient and favorite method of teaching
still employed by Masons is that of the allegory. The allegory is a
speech, that is to say, a departure from the direct and simple mode of
speaking, and the employment, for the sake of illustration or emphasis,
fancied resemblance between one object or thing and another.
If we say of a man, as we often uncharitably
"He is an ass," this is a metaphor. If we say of him as Carlisle did
of Wordsworth, "He looks like a horse," this is a simile. An extended
simile with the comparative form and words left out, in which the real
is never directly mentioned but left to be inferred, is called an
most famous example of the allegory in literature is Bunyan's
Progress." [Lib 1885]
One desirous of entering into the real spirit
these ancient methods of imparting instruction should read Bacon's
of the Ancients," and particularly the preface to that remarkable book.
shows that nearly all the complex and to us absurd tales of Grecian
were but parts of a great system for inculcating natural, moral and
truths by means of the allegory. What more grotesque and revolting, we
than the myth of Pan?
"He is portrayed by the ancients," to
quote Bacon, "in this guise: on his head a pair of horns that reach to
heaven; his body rough and hairy, his beard long and shabby; his shape
biformed, above like a man, and below like a beast, his feet like goats
and he bore these ensigns of his jurisdiction, to-wit, in his left hand
of seven reeds, and in his right a sheephook, or a staff crooked at the
end, and his mantle made of a leopard's skin."
Yet under the master touch of Lord Bacon this
incongruous creature, half man and half goat, is shown to be a
apt symbol of all nature.
Approaching that branch of symbolism which at
present concerns us, Masonic Symbolism, it may be asserted in the
terms that the Mason who knows nothing of our symbolism knows little of
Freemasonry. He may be able to repeat every line of the ritual without
error, and yet, if he does not understand the meaning of the
signs, the words, the emblems and the figures, he is an ignoramus
It is distressing to witness how much time and labor is spent in
"the work"; and how little in ascertaining what it all means.
Far be it from me to under-rate the importance
letter perfection in rendering our ritual. In no other way can the
our emblems, ceremonies, traditions, and allegories be accurately
but I do maintain that, if we are never to understand their meanings,
useless to preserve them. The two go hand in hand; without either the
and symmetry of the Masonic temple is destroyed.
It is in its symbols and allegories that
Freemasonry surpasses all other societies. If any of them now teach by
methods it is because they have slavishly imitated Freemasonry.
The great Mason and scholar, Brother Albert
symbolism of Masonry is the soul of Masonry. Every symbol of a lodge is
religious teacher, the mute teacher also of morals and philosophy. It
is in its
ancient symbols and in the knowledge of their true meanings that the
preeminence of Freemasonry over all other orders consists. In other
some of them may compete with it, rival it, perhaps even except it; but
symbols it will reign without a peer when it learns again what its
mean, and that each is the embodiment of some great, old, rare truth."
In our Masonic studies the moment we forget
the whole and every part of Freemasonry is symbolic or allegoric, the
instant we begin to grope in the dark. Its ceremonies, signs, tokens,
lectures at once become meaningless or trivial. The study of no other
Freemasonry is more important, yet I believe the study of no aspect of
been so much neglected. Brother Robert F. Gould, of England, our
Masonic historian, declares it is the "one great and pressing duty of
Freemasons." Brother Albert Pike, no doubt the greatest philosopher
produced by our fraternity, declared as we have seen that symbolism is
We are told in our Monitors that "every
emblem, character and figure depicted in the lodge has a moral and
meaning and forcibly inculcates the practice of virtue." The same may
equal truth be said of our every ceremony, sign, token, legend, and
If this be true, it must follow that to be ignorant of Masonic
symbolism is to
be ignorant of Masonry.
In the ceremonies of making a Mason, however,
not attempt to do more than to indicate the pathway to Masonic
lay the foundation for the Masonic edifice; the brother must pursue the
or complete the structure for himself by reading and reflection.
There must be somewhere in Freemasonry a
plan running entirely through it by which all that is genuine in it may
rationally explained. It cannot be that a miscellaneous collection of
customs, symbols and moral precepts, however valuable in and of
thrown together without order or design, could have attracted the
among intelligent men that Freemasonry has done in all ages in which it
known. Surely unity must somewhere exist in the great variety which we
find in the
A little study will reveal to us that the
vital, underlying idea, sought to be inculcated by the several degrees
considered collectively and which runs entirely through the system, is
an allegorical or symbolical representation of human existence, not
but hereafter, and to point the way which leads to the greatest good
this life and in the life to come. Our ceremonies and symbols, while
and impressive in and of themselves incidentally teaching valuable
religion, morality and industry, all cluster around and contribute to
central idea. But it is only when we reflect upon them in relation to
sublime allegory of human life that we are enabled to comprehend them
fullness of their beauty and grandeur. The Masonic student, therefore,
never caught this conception of his subject has failed to grasp
its most instructive and important aspect.
Endeavor, therefore, to get clearly in your
the point I emphasize and which I shall attempt to demonstrate, namely,
every sign, every symbol and every ceremony in the First degree, in
any primary signification it may have, is also designed to illustrate
allegorically some moral phase of human existence. I have dwelt at
this thought because I believe that it is not otherwise possible
explain any part of the Masonic system.
Initiation is now as it has been for countless
ages, employed as a symbol of the birth and endless development of the
mind and soul. The Entered Apprentice degree represents birth and the
preparatory stage of life, or in other words, youth; the Fellow Craft
represents the constructive stage, or manhood; the Master Mason
reflecting stage, or old age, death, the resurrection, and the
life. This explanation of the three degrees is briefly given in our
the Three Steps delineated on the Master's Carpet.
Is it true that the lodge symbolically
the world? I might say to begin that some have thought the word
"lodge" derived from the Sanskrit word "loga," meaning the
world. However this may be, our monitors tell us that the form of a
lodge is an
"oblong square" from East to West and between North and South, from
earth to heaven and from surface to center. This of course, if it means
anything, can mean nothing less than the entire known habitable earth
Masonic scholars universally so interpret it. This meaning was more
the period when Freemasonry is supposed to have had its origin, for the
known world living around the shores of the Mediterranean Sea was
the form of an "oblong square." One doubting this may consult any map
of the ancient world.
Dudley, in his Naology [Lib 1846], says that the
idea that the earth was a level surface and of a square form may be
supposed to have prevailed generally in the early ages of the world. It
certain that down to a comparatively recent date it was believed that
certain limit northward life was impossible because of the darkness and
and likewise that beyond a certain limit southward it was impossible
the blinding glare and intense heat of the sun. It was even supposed
the farthest South the earth was yet molten. The biblical idea was that
earth was square. Isaiah (xi, 12) speaks of gathering "the dispersed of
Judah from the four corners of the earth," and in the Apocalypse (xx,
in the vision of "four angels standing on the four corners of the
So thoroughly grounded were these beliefs that
ancient times the "square," now the recognized symbol of the lodge,
was the recognized symbol of the earth, as the circle was of the sun.
antiquated expression "oblong square," we therefore have not only an
apt description of the ancient world and evidence that the lodge is
thereof, (1) but also a remarkable evidence of the great age of
tends strongly to date our institution back to the time when the human
conceived the earth to be a plane surface and was ignorant of its
Likewise the lodge, which is sometimes defined
"the place where Masons work," symbolizes the world or the place
where all men work. Again, its covering is said to be a cloudy canopy
decked heaven, a description that could have not the slightest
anything else but the world.
If the lodge symbolizes the world and the Mason
symbolizes man, it follows that initiation must symbolize the
the individual into the world, or the birth of the child. It was so
the ancient systems of initiation and is now so understood by Masonic
everywhere. It is the least important view to consider it merely as the
of admitting one to membership in a Society.
The preparation of the candidate and the plight
which he is admitted an Entered Apprentice strikingly typifies the
destitute, blind and ignorant condition of the newly born babe. But
means more than this; by all the authorities it is agreed to be a
representation of the process by which not only the child had been
existence and educated into a scholarly and refined man but that by
race has been brought out of savagery and barbarism into civilization.
neither n..... nor c....., b...... nor s......, w..... c...... t.....,
fittingly typifies the barbaric, not to say savage, state in which man
originally moved when he knew not the use of metals and out of which he
been brought to his present condition. It is precisely this that has
led to the
application of the term "barbarians" to the uninitiated. On this
point I quote Brother Albert Pike, again; he says:
preparation of the candidate which symbolizes the condition of the
especially in its infancy, he is deprived of all m...... and m......,
their use was not known to the earliest men; that he is neither
c...... represents the condition of the race when there were no
and the fabrics of the loom were unknown, when men dressed in the skins
animals, and, when the heat made these a burden, were hardly clothed at
That he is b....... represents their blindness of ignorance, even of
useful arts, and although of divine truths; and that in which the
appears, the c..... t......... three times around the n..... the bonds
they were held of their sensual appetites, their passions that were
masters, anger, revenge, hatred, and all the evil kindred of these; and
A little study and reflection will show that
Masonic symbol has an apt application not only to the moral and
life history of the individual but also to that of the race considered
collectively. Biologists tell us that this parallel between the
the race holds good in the material realm and that in the physical
development of every child from the moment of its conception till it is
grown man, there is epitomized the history of the evolutionary
the race through all the ages that have passed. However this may be, it
certain that an exact parallel does exist between the moral and
growth of the child and the process which history indicates the race as
has passed through.
One of the things first noticed in the Entered
Apprentice degree and continued throughout all the degrees is the
the tools of the operative Mason, as emblems of moralities. This
Freemasonry is well known even outsiders.
Brother George Fleming Moore, editor of the New
and Sovereign Grand Commander, A. and A. S. Rite, Southern
declares that it is clear that the ancient Chinese philosophers used
present Masonic symbols "in almost precisely same sense in which they
used by us in modern Freemasonry." (2)
The tools with which men labor are not
inappropriate for use as moral symbols, they are neither humble nor
They are worthy emblems of the highest and noblest virtues. Tools have
performed an astonishing part in civilizing and enlightening mankind.
one of the few things that distinctly mark man as immeasurably superior
other animals. Some scientists have even contended that it is alone
ability to fashion and use tools that has raised him above the level of
brute creation. But radical as this view must be, it cannot be denied
thoughtful man that the use of tools has been one of the chief
instrumentalities in all human progress, not only material but mental
spiritual. Without tools we could not till the soil, or work the mines,
reduce the metal; we could enjoy only the rudest shelters; and all the
of art which appeal to our spiritual natures would be impossible. The
stages of human advancement are named from the character of the tools
employed during them; thus, the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age.
Scientists suppose the first great achievement
man in his progress from savagery to civilization to have been the
of articulate speech; the second, the discovery of the uses of fire;
they believe to have been the invention of a tool, namely, the bow and
Pottery, another class of utensils, they hold to have been the fourth;
domestication of animals, the fifth; and the discovery of the
use of iron, the sixth. The seventh was the art of writing which also
the use of a tool. Thus we see that four of the epoch making strides of
and barbaric man had to do with the use of tools.
With civilized man, the case has been even more
striking. His first four great discoveries or inventions were
mariner's compass, the manufacture of paper, and the printing press.
was the demonstration by Copernicus (1530) that the earth revolved on
and that the sun did not daily make a circuit around her. The next in
the steam engine and machines for weaving and spinning. Lastly, we may
machines for generating and utilizing the boundless possibilities of
electricity. We might also mention in this connection the gasoline
will not count the flying machine whose value as a civilizing agent is
be demonstrated. Thus we see of civilized man, according to the highest
seven of his eight great and distinctive achievements have been the
and use of new tools. And it must be remembered that the eighth, the
of Copernicus, was rendered possible only through the use of another
the Psalmist the heavens declared the glory of God's handiwork, but a
times more solemnly and impressively do they now disclose it through
of the telescope. It was nothing less than an inspiration that prompted
ancient brethren to symbolize the tools with which they produced those
creations of art and architecture whose sight causes our breasts to
the highest emotions of which we are capable.
Professor Henry Smith Williams, (3) after
out the many material advantages involved in the use of tools, says
must not "overlook the aesthetic influence of edged implements."
And then what must be said of the tools that
our music? If there is a glimpse of heaven obtainable on earth, it is
wonderful art made possible through our marvelous musical instruments.
How our various working tools acquired the
particular symbolical meanings we now attach to them we know not. In
instances we know that they have borne them for ages.
At any rate, it is with peculiar fitness that
material tools, which contribute so essentially to the building and the
beautifying of the material structure, should be made to symbolize
virtues which are so essential to the building and beautifying of human
character, that moral and spiritual building not reared with hands.
Modesty of True
We are told that in the building of Solomon's
Temple there was not heard the sound of any tool of iron. It is a well
authenticated historical fact that the Jews, not to mention other
peoples, believed that an iron tool was polluting to an altar to Deity.
in the days of Moses, the laws prescribed that in erecting an altar of
Jehovah no iron tool should be employed upon it. The work of erecting
Temple, therefore, went on noiselessly but with speed and perfection.
This tradition, besides being borne out by the
known facts of Hebrew history, has a beautiful symbolism. It is this:
and adornment of the moral and spiritual temple in which we are
of human character, and of which Solomon's was typical, is not
the clang of noisy tools. About true character building there is
bluster and show; it is a silent, noiseless process. It is the emptiest
that makes the greatest noise. Whenever you see the front pages of the
newspapers constantly filled with the interviews of some man or when
him constantly struggling to get into the lime-light, you may rest
back of it all is not the highest type of character. It is certain that
is present vanity; it is probable that there is back of it selfishness
sinister purpose. Beware of the self-advertiser and "head-liner." The
greatest characters in the world's history have been men of modesty;
deeds, not their words, have silently spoken for them.
The candidate is early introduced to the
We have seen that his introduction into the E.A. lodge is symbolical of
Among the Hindus, the Brahmans wear a sacred cord symbolizing the
which they profess. The Cable-Tow thus has in Masonry what we might
primary allusion. It has, however, a deeper symbolism. The word is not
most of our dictionaries; it is characteristically Masonic. Its obvious
meaning is the cable or cord by which something is towed or drawn.
the greatest aptness it represents those forces and influences which
conducted not only the individual, but the human race out of a
ignorance and darkness into one of light and knowledge. With symbolical
meanings of this kind the cord seems to have been employed in many, if
of the ancient systems of initiation. The explanation of this
given in our lecture is its least important meaning.
It is very true that the plucking off of one's
shoes is an ancient Israelitish custom adopted among Masons. It was
among the Jews as a pledge of fidelity of one man to another. Such is
symbolism of it in the Entered Apprentice degree. It has another
which we are not concerned here, but which is brought out in the
A certain ceremony, the candidate is told, was
to signify to him that "at a time when he could neither foresee nor
prevent danger he was in the hands of a true and trusty friend in whose
fidelity he could with safety confide." This has a literal meaning very
applicable to the candidate's then condition, but if we regard the
we should, as man pursuing the journey of life, the symbolical
this ceremony becomes truly profound. We all grope in the dark from the
we are born till we are laid upon the bier. The candidate is no more
to his way than is every man in this life to what is before him. In our
of apparently greatest security we often to our astonishment find that
in the very presence of death. The sinking of the Titanic or the
but one of thousands of proofs of this truth. The winds, the lightning,
floods and the fires destroy us without warning. With all our boasted
and foresight we cannot see an inch into the future. But every man is
hands of a true and trusty friend in whose fidelity he can with safety
He needs but do his part to the best he knows and may then rest
our All-Father will take care of the results in a manner befitting an
and all loving Creator.
In eastern countries (and formerly in western
countries) the inferior approaches the superior, the servant the
subject the sovereign, in an abased or groveling manner, oftentimes
face averted as though it were insolence to look directly upon the
presence. Not so in Masonry; the candidate is taught to approach the
his face to the front, walking erect as a man should walk. This
attitude is one
of the characteristics that distinguish man from the other animals. A
feebly imitate it, but only on occasion and then haltingly. Nothing
to a man's self-respect and strength of character than to walk erect,
the head well up and looking the world and every man squarely in the
may experience a feeling of sorrow or sympathy for the man who appears
you with a cringing or abject bearing, but with this feeling there is
contempt. This idea we have turned into a terse though vulgar apothegm,
"Hold your head up if you die hard." We promptly suspect the
integrity of the man who cannot look us squarely in the eye.
Freemasonry teaches that all men are and of
ought to be free; that, therefore, no man should abase or humiliate
before another. But this manly, erect attitude which the candidate is
assume has the same symbolism as the plumb. It teaches that we should
walk upright in our several stations before God and man.
The Bible is one of the Great Lights, one of
Furniture, and rests upon the top of the Two Parallel Lines. No lodge
opened without its presence. Still it is but a symbol; it represents
truth in every form, whether in the form of the written word, or in
referred to by the psalmist when he says:
declare the glory of God;
And the firmament showeth his handiwork.
Day unto day uttereth speech,
And night unto night showeth knowledge."
Ps. 19, 1.
But the shadow must not be mistaken for the
substance. There is nothing sacred or holy in the mere book. It is only
paper, leather, and ink. Its workmanship may be much inferior to that
books. It is what it typifies that renders it sacred to us. Any other
having the same signification would do just as well. For this reason
Mason may with perfect propriety use the Old Testament alone, or the
may, as has been done, employ the Koran in his lodge. In fact that book
be used which to the individual in question most fully represents
We are told that the lambskin or white leather
apron, the badge of a Mason, is "more ancient than the Golden Fleece or
Roman Eagle, more honorable than the Star and Garter." This sounds a
little bombastic, we must admit, yet it is literally true. The order of
Golden Fleece, which is here referred to, had its origin in A.D. 1429;
Roman Eagle, which was Rome's ensign of imperial power, became
such, according to Pliny, no earlier than the second consulship of
or about 105 years B.C. On the other hand, it is certain that the apron
worn as a badge of honor or sanctity more than a thousand years before
The Garter is confessedly the most illustrious order of Knighthood in
and is historically identified with the chivalry of the Middle Ages.
this very reason, it like all the other orders of chivalric knighthood,
has been said by high authority, George Gordon Coulton [Lib 1915], (4)
"hampered by the limitations of medieval society." Edward A. Freeman,
the great English historian, who has perhaps most nearly defined the
influence of knighthood, says:
chivalrous spirit is above all things a class spirit. The good knight
to endless fantastic courtesies towards men and still more towards
women of a
certain rank; he may treat all below that rank with any degree of scorn
cruelty. The spirit of chivalry implies the arbitrary choice of one or
virtues to be practiced in such an exaggerated degree as to become
the ordinary laws of right and wrong are forgotten. The false code of
supplants the laws of the commonwealth the law of God and the eternal
principles. Chivalry again in its military aspect not only encourages
of war for its own sake without regard to the cause for which war is
encourages also an extravagant regard for a fantastic show of personal
which can not in any way advance the siege or campaign which is going
Chivalry in short is in morals very much what feudalism is in law. Each
substitutes purely personal obligations devised in the interests of an
exclusive class, for the more homely duties of an honest man and a good
This view presents knighthood as the very
antithesis of Freemasonry.
F. W. Cornish presents a somewhat brighter
of knighthood but says, "Against these (virtues) may be set the vices
pride, ostentation, love of bloodshed, contempt of inferiors, and loose
But whether we take the one or the other view,
Freeman or Cornish, chivalry will not bear comparison with Freemasonry
nobility of its principles. Let us set against the pictures of Freeman
Cornish the things which Freemasonry stands for. It is in theory at
vast school urging the study of the liberal arts and sciences which
broaden, strengthen and enlighten the mind. But it is much more than
is a great society of friends and brothers teaching by precept, and let
by example, all those mental and moral virtues which make and adorn
and prepare us to enjoy the blessings not only of this life but of that
is to come. Let me enumerate some of the things that are taught and by
ceremonies peculiar to Freemasonry, are impressed upon the minds and
its initiates. A belief in Deity; the service of God; gratitude for his
blessings; reverence and adoration for his holy name; veneration for
the duty and efficacy of prayer; the invocation of his aid in every
undertaking; faith in Him; hope in immortality; charity to all mankind;
relief of the distressed, particularly the brethren and their families;
cultivation of brotherly love and the protection of the good name of a
and that of his family and the sanctity of his female relatives; the
of the mind and heart; purity of life and rectitude of conduct; the
our desires and passions; living in conformity to the "Great Books"
of Nature and Revelation; the practice of temperance, fortitude,
justice; the cultivation of habits of patience and perseverance; the
of profanity; love for and loyalty to country; devotion and fidelity to
the beauty of holiness; the maintenance of secrecy; the observance of
the recognition of real merit; the contemplation of wisdom; admiration
strength of body and character; the love of the beautiful in nature and
the observance of the Sabbath; the promotion of peace and unity of the
brethren; the preservation of liberty of thought, conscience, speech
action; equality before God and the law; the cultivation of habits of
the certainty of retributive justice; the brevity and uncertainty of
the contemplation of death; the resurrection of the body and life
after death to those who love God and his creatures and observe his
of these and others I am not privileged to mention here are taught
candidate and are impressed upon his mind by peculiar ceremonies which
constitute a part of the secret arcana of the lodge.
Do you say that all these things may be learned
elsewhere with equal thoroughness and equal ease, and that Masonry is
therefore, a useless institution?
I maintain not. The fact that the institution
lived and flourished for so long a period and that it is today more
its influence and more general in its dissemination than ever before
not. It approaches the mind and heart from a direction that enables it
and grapple many men whom no other influence can reach, while at the
it doubles and multiplies many times the power for good of those whom
influences do reach.
Is it, therefore, any exaggeration to say that
Freemasonry is more ancient than the Golden Fleece and more honorable
Star and Garter, or any other order that can be conferred upon its
king, prince, or potentate?
Definition of Lodge
We are told that a lodge is a certain number of
Masons duly assembled with the Holy Bible, square and compasses. These
properties should indeed always be present but to the existence of a
its highest sense it is more necessary that there should be present
symbolize, namely: Truth, Virtue and Self-restraint. Without these
there may be
the semblance of but no real lodge. Bible, square and compasses should
displayed in every opened lodge, not chiefly for their own sake but for
High Hills and Low
We are told that our ancient brethren usually
their lodges on high hills or in low vales. This allusion to this
custom is another hoary lock upon the brow of our symbolism. The
given is a very simple and practical one, namely: because they better
themselves to purposes of secrecy. But there is another and deeper
Whatever may be the explanation, it is clear that from the remotest
and valleys have been peculiarly venerated by mankind. On the "High
Places" the Jews and their neighbors worshipped God; the glens and
our imagination has populated with the charming "Little People," the
sprites and fairies of mythology and our nursery tales. The beauty
earth are where mountains and valleys succeed each other in greatest
These are they that in all ages have testified to the majesty and glory
and stirred our imaginations and inspired our poets. (6)
Wisdom, Strength and
We are told in our Monitors that our
supported by three great pillars, Wisdom, Strength and Beauty, because
should be wisdom to contrive, strength to support, and beauty to adorn
great and important undertakings. The lodge whose members are
wisdom to plan with judgment, strength to resist evil tendencies and
influences, and by the beauty of brotherly love and charity is sure to
Nothing more is needed to give it success. Truly may it be said that
three attributes support our institution and with equal truth may it be
that they support all other institutions and creations.
Infinite wisdom planned and formed this
omnipotent strength hurls the sun, the earth, the moon, the stars
at speeds we cannot conceive, and yet holds each in its accustomed
such inerrancy that astronomers can now calculate the position of each
thousands of years hence, while a beauty which poets have for ages in
attempted to express completes the work. In short, wisdom, strength and
sum up the universe in three words.
Wisdom, strength and beauty make a perfect
building. There must be wisdom to plan and execute; this gives to the
convenience and utility. There must be strength to support; this gives
building firmness and durability. There must be beauty to adorn; this
that which pleases and appeals to man's moral and aesthetic taste.
There may be
wisdom and strength but without beauty the result is, as has been truly
observed, mere construction or at most a piece of engineering. It may
admirable, even wonderful, but without beauty it is not architecture.
be beauty, but if there is not wisdom of plan and execution and
resist the processes of decay the result is a disappointment. Who, that
the Chicago Exposition in 1893 and viewed that dream of beauty, was not
saddened by the thought that there was no strength there? These three
elements of architecture, Vitruvius, the noted architect who flourished
before Christ, enumerates as Firmitas, Utilitas, Venustas, which is to
stability, utility and beauty. (7)
So of man. Wisdom, Strength and Beauty make a
perfect man. How often have we said with a sigh "that is a beautiful
woman," or "that man is a beautiful character, but there is neither
wisdom nor strength." This beauty may be so great as to be lovely or be
even admirable but there is not perfection.
On the other hand, how sad, how inexpressibly
when we behold a man with a great mind and a great body and yet no
character; a soul in which there is selfishness instead of sympathy,
instead of kindness, hate and bitterness instead of love and charity.
beauty of heart and person and character you add wisdom to plan and
execute, weighing down all evil opposition, we have what may truly be
"the noblest work of God." Nothing can be added to wisdom, strength
and beauty in either a building or in a man, unless it be more wisdom,
strength and greater beauty.
Wisdom and Beauty early become subjects of
philosophical study and disquisition. Among the Greeks, "Wisdom" was
regarded as the knowledge of the cause and origin of things; among the
was regarded as knowing how to live in order to get the greatest
out of this life. Neither Greek nor Hebrew philosophy seems to have
itself greatly about a future life. This subject was productive among
of the "Book of Wisdom," which has been pronounced by Dr. Crawford H.
Toy, as "the most brilliant production of pre-Christian Hebrew
philosophical thought." The Greeks boasted a vast body of "Wisdom
literature," as it is called. So, Beauty gave rise to a body of
philosophical thought called Aesthetics. The earliest writers on this
as on so many others, were Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. Socrates
resolvable into the useful and as not existing independently of a
mind. Plato took the contrary view on each point. Aristotle made great
on both and defined certain essential elements of beauty which have
generally accepted. All agree that the purest of our pleasures arise
from the contemplation
of the beautiful and that the effect is chastening and elevating.
combines this philosophy with both the Greek and the Hebrew ideas of
a topic worthy of philosophical study. With us, as we shall see in the
degree, the conception of Wisdom is extended beyond what either the
Hebrews understood it and embraces the search for knowledge of the
Strength was greatly prized by the Jews, as
the Greeks and Romans, and among them was regarded as one of the
Deity. Both Samuel and Joel acclaim Jehovah as the Strength of Israel.
(xii, 13) declares "With him is wisdom and strength," while David
(Ps. xcvi, 6) sings "Strength and beauty are in his sanctuary." But
the Preacher (Ec. ix, 16) with a truer appreciation declares that
is better than strength." Examples could be multiplied indefinitely
the old Bible of the high esteem in which the Jews held these three
The Covering of the
The covering of the lodge is said to be a
canopy or starry-decked heaven. The appropriateness of this symbol is
when we regard the lodge as emblematic of the world, for such is
all times the covering of the earth. Equally true, in the literal
this description when lodges were held in the open air, as we are
as seems probable they were. In the earliest temples erected by man for
worship of God there was no roof, the only covering being the sky. As
also this description holds good. This fact may give additional point
meaning to the statement that our lodges extend from earth to heaven.
when temples were covered and our lodges began to be held in closed
was customary to decorate the ceiling with a blue canopy spangled with
This starry-decked heaven, when now exhibited in our lodge rooms,
either on the
ceiling or on our charts, or master's carpets, is obviously reminiscent
real canopy of heaven with which anciently our lodges were in fact
is symbolical of that abode of the blessed which is universally
located in the sky. (8)
The Ornaments of the
The ornaments of the lodge are the Mosaic
the indented tessel and the blazing star; that is to say its floor, the
thereof, and the stars with which its ceiling are or should be
this symbolism hold good when applied to the earth? It does most
the beholder the visible part of the earth appears as surface, horizon
The surface of the earth, if viewed from above chequered with fields
forests, mountains and plains, hills and valleys, land and waters,
found to look very much like a pavement of Mosaic work. A few miles up
seem almost as delicate. The horizon, that mysterious region that
land and sky, earth and heaven, where the heavenly bodies appear and
with its inexpressible charms and numberless beauties, has in all ages
source of mystery and inspiration to the poets. It is fitly typified by
splendid borders which surround the floors of some of our most
buildings and which is fabled to have surrounded the floor of Solomon's
while the firmament above studded with stars by night and the blazing
day complete the ornamental scheme of the earth. The surface, the
firmament embrace all of visible beauty of Nature there is, and they
yet been exhausted by poet, painter or singer.
The Three Great Lights
If we read discerningly the explanation given
these in our lectures and ceremonies we must perceive that they
respectively: (1) The Bible, the word of God, not merely that disclosed
revealed word, but including, also the knowledge which we acquire from
great book of Nature; (2) the square typifies the rule of right
(3) the compasses is an emblem of that self-restraint which enables us
occasions to act according to this rule of right. Beyond a perfect
God's word and therefore of the rule of right living nothing is needed
the perfect man except a perfect self-restraint.
The Three Lesser Lights
Equally appropriate is the symbolism of the
Lesser Lights. It was literally true to our ancient operative brethren
from the Sun and Moon they obtained all that natural light which
possible those great architectural creations, some of which still
perpetual sources of wonder and delight. But all this skill must have
perished from the earth had not the Master communicated to the
generation to generation the mental illumination which kept alive the
of architecture. Thus literally were the Sun, Moon and Worshipful
to our ancient operative brethren. But as a knowledge of architecture
than knowledge of God; as the correct rule of building is less than the
rule of living; as the restraints imposed upon the structure is less
than the restraint imposed upon one's self, so are the Sun, Moon and
Master less important lights than are the Bible, square and compasses,
To the untutored mind the sun was the most
object in nature. His daily march across the heavens must to those, who
know that his motion was only apparent, have been far more impressive
us. Add to these his enlightening and fructifying influences, which
been apparent to man even in his rudest stages of development, and we
surprised that the orb of day became in all countries an object of
point of his daily appearance, the East; his station at the mid-day
South; the quarter of his disappearance at night, the West, could not
become objects of special significances. He seemed to shun the North,
became in popular opinion a place of darkness. It is obvious that
like these belong to the past age and yet they contribute to the
that allegory of the world and human life which we know as Freemasonry.
Of scarcely less interest to man in all ages
been the Moon and the stars; little less striking and even more
they. The glorious orbs of day and night have not yet lost their power
thoughts of divinity in the human mind, as witness Joseph Addison's
firmament on high
With all the blue ethereal sky
And spangled heavens, a shining frame,
Their Great Original proclaim.
The unwearied sun from day to day,
Does his Creator's power display
And publishes to every land,
The work of an almighty hand.
Soon as the evening shades prevail
The moon takes up the wondrous tale
And nightly, to the listening earth,
Repeats the story of her birth;
While all the stars that round her burn
And all the planets in their turn
Confirm the tidings as they roll
And spread the truth from pole to pole.
What though in solemn silence all
Move round the dark terrestrial ball?
What though no real voice nor sound
Amid the radiant orbs be found?
In reason's ear they all rejoice
And utter forth a glorious voice;
Forever singing as they shine
The hand that made us is divine."
There are said to be three lights in the lodge,
in the South, one in the West, and one in the East. There is said to be
the North and that hence it is called a place of darkness. Applied to
ordinary lodge rooms this is meaningless, but applied to the world, as
ancients knew it, and of which as we have seen, the lodge is
emblematic, it has
a charming symbolism. It alludes to the fact that to persons living in
northern hemisphere, (where all the civilized people of antiquity
Sun each day appears in the East, ascends to the zenith in the South
seems to become stationary for a short space, and thence descends and
in the West. The East, South and West seem, therefore, to be his
never attains the North. The ancients supposed the South to be a region
intense heat and blinding light and the extreme North to be a region of
perpetual darkness. We have in this symbol, therefore, a reflection of
primeval conceptions of mankind concerning the world.
Situation of the Lodge
The situation of lodges due east and west is
all peculiar to Freemasonry. In ancient times the custom was well-nigh
universal to locate sacred edifices east and west. This is why the
and Solomon's Temple were so situated. This old idea of orientation, as
called, is practically lost except among Masons. We preserve it in
though necessity often compels us to depart from it in practice. The
between the lodge and the world holds good here as elsewhere. As the
or should be situated east and west, so in ancient times was the world.
"oblong square" which made up the ancient world had its greatest
length east and west.
The ladder is, of course, a familiar implement
the builder. It was in constant use by our ancient operative brethren.
system where working tools are made to symbolize moral properties, it
scarcely happen otherwise than that the ladder would be made to typify
power or means by which man is lifted or attains to a higher state of
existence. It was employed always with the same meaning in the Ancient
Mysteries and was a familiar symbol of salvation long before Jacob in
vision saw it extending from earth to heaven. We, as did the ancients,
to it seven rungs, symbolical with us of the four cardinal and the
theological virtues by which it was supposed a man was prepared for and
elevated to the higher state.
The cardinal virtues mean simply the
principal virtues. They were declared by Socrates and Plato 400 years
Christ, as they are by us today, to be Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence
Justice. This list has been criticized as being arbitrary, as not
entire field, and as overlapping each other. In the light of the
influence of modern ethical and religious ideas the justice of these
must be conceded. But reflection will disclose to us that these four
cover a surprisingly large part of the moral realm of human life.
Temperance means moderation not only in drink
in diet, not only in diet but in action, not only in action but in
only in speech but in thought, not only in thought but in feeling.
Fortitude implies, it is true, a physical
that leads one to resist insult or attack with force, but more
moral courage that enables one at the risk of incurring the sneers of
to refrain from a resort to violence except where the necessity is
When, however, this necessity arises it is not deterred by pain or
be it ever so appalling or threatening.
Prudence as the critics have pointed out,
some extent into the last named virtue. It signifies also to meet every
situation, however dangerous or difficult, with common sense and
reason. It is
a virtue which is lacking in a surprising large proportion of the human
Little need be added to what is said of the
of Justice in our monitors. It is truly the "very cement and support of
civil society." This conception of justice evidences a distinct advance
mankind. To be able and willing to mete out exact justice to every one,
one's self, in every relation of life, in thought, word and action,
sums up the total of all possible human virtue. In a system of moral
philosophy, such as Plato's (as distinguished from a religious
as we now have,) justice very nearly covers the whole field. (9)
What a multitude of evils and mistakes the full
possession and practice of these virtues would enable us to avoid!
But with the birth and development of theology
Platonic scheme seemed and doubtless was incomplete. It took little or
account of those higher speculative virtues which we class as
was absent from it the conception of that charity or love which has
largely into modern sociological thoughts and movements. The later
philosophical and religious teachers, therefore, added to the cardinal
what they termed the theological virtues, namely, Faith, Hope and
These three were believed to include anything omitted from the other
together were supposed to cover the entire field of the moral thought
conduct of man.
Chalk, Charcoal, and
We are told that Entered Apprentices should
their Masters with Freedom, Fervency and Zeal; with freedom, in that it
be done freely and without constraint as becomes a free man, not
hesitatingly as characterizes the slave; with fervency and zeal, these
are synonymous, one is from the Latin ferveo, to boil, while the other
the ‒ Greek zeo, meaning the same. I have been unable to find that
charcoal or clay, anciently bore any symbolic significations. It must,
be admitted that chalk is a fitting symbol of freedom, charcoal of
and earth of zeal.
North East Corner
From the most ancient times it has been the
of builders to lay with ceremonies the corner-stone of important
it was a custom of the ancients to orient their temples, that is to
face the east, so for some similar reason it was their custom to lay
corner-stone in the northeast corner. Why this particular part of the
was chosen has been the subject of much speculation. Some have
attributed it to
the fact that the rising sun sheds its beams more-directly upon this
a building situated due east and west than upon either of the other
But many have supposed (and no doubt truly) that a symbolical reason
for this custom. This also has given rise to further speculation and as
specimen I introduce this interesting conjecture by General Albert Pike:
apprentice represents the Aryan race in its original home on the
Pamir, in the north of that Asia termed Orient, at the angle whence,
great lines of emigration south and west, they flowed forth in
to conquer and colonize the world."
As speculative Masonry gradually developed from
operative Masonry, it preserved this ceremony of laying the
because of the moral and religious symbolism which seems always to have
pertained to it. With the operative it was a serious part of the actual
of building; with us its chief value lies in its symbolical
As placing the newly made Entered Apprentice in
northeast corner of the lodge marks the completion of his initiation,
symbolizes the completion of the preparatory period of life and his
to enter upon its serious labors and business. The admonition there
is, that having made proper moral preparation for life, his future
should be kept in accord with the teaching and training he had received
This, my brethren, briefly reviews the
teachings of the ceremonies of initiation. As said at the outset I have
touched upon them. Any one of them would be sufficient of itself to
whole evening. I could easily consume another hour talking to you about
symbolical teachings of the Entered Apprentice lesson without
Let me illustrate with a single question and answer and I am done.
"Whence Came You?"
Daily this question is asked by Masons without
slightest thought as to its real meaning. It is fitting that the answer
to it in the lodge is well-nigh unintelligible, for it is about as
as any ever given it or as probably will be given it. Who can answer
question "Whence came you?" Who has ever answered it? Who will ever
answer it? Equally baffling and profound is that companion question,
in some jurisdictions, "Whither are you bound?" Equally an enigma is
the answer we give it. Simple as these questions appear, they search
and cranny and sound every depth of every philosophy, every mythology,
theology, and every religion that has ever been propounded anywhere by
at any time to explain human life. They allude to the problems of the
and destiny of mankind; they lie at the foundation of all the thinking
all the activities of man except such as are concerned with the purely
utilitarian question "What shall we eat and wherewithal shall we be
clothed?" All our better impulses, all our loftier aspirations, all our
faiths, all our longing for and striving after a nobler state of
either in this or a future life, are but attempts to answer these two
questions. They are the supreme questions which men have been asking
and each other ever since men were able to think and to talk, and they
questions which men will continue to ask oftenest and most anxiously
time when we are promised that we shall know even as we are known. It
that study and reflection bring out the beauty and the profound
the simplest of Masonic formulas.
(1) Univ. Cyc.
Rome, vol. X.
(2) New Age, vol. XVII, p. 283.
(3) Enc. Brit., vol. VI, p. 404.
(4) Enc. Brit., vol. XV, p. 858.
(5) Norman Conquest, vol. V, p. 482.
(6) A.Q.C., vol. III, p. 21 ‒ U. M. L., Part II, p. 66; Orientation
Enc. Brit., vol. II, p. 370.
(8) Morals and Dogma, pp. 235, 365; Mackey's Symbolism, pp. 102, 117;
His. of Arch., p. 26; Steinbrenner, p. 150.
(9) Enc. Brit., vol. V, p. 324; Ibid, vol. 9, p. 813.
Work – [A Poem]
Henry Van Dyke
me do my work
from day to day,
In field or forest, at the desk or loom,
In roaring market-place or tranquil room;
Let me but find it in my heart to say,
When vagrant wishes beckon me astray,
"This is my work ‒ my blessing, not my doom;
"Of all who live, I am the one by whom
"This work can best be done in the right way."
Then shall I see it not too great, nor small,
To suit my spirit and to prove my powers;
Then shall I cheerful greet the laboring hours,
And cheerful turn when the long shadows fall
At eventide, to play and love and rest,
Because I know for me my work is best.
Knowledge is proud that he has learn'd so much;
Wisdom is humble that he knows no more.
Louisiana Relief Lodge
No. 1 – Its History and Purpose
By Bro. John A.
Davilla, Grand Secretary, Louisiana
THE Fraternity of Louisiana pride themselves on
possession not only of the oldest Masonic Relief Board in the United
but also on the fact that it is the only Relief Body in the world
known as a lodge.
During the year 1851, in answer to the call of
Master of one of the lodges of the city of New Orleans, representatives
six others met and organized a Board of Relief, the call stating that
purpose was "to do away with the present defective system" which we
presume to mean, the handling of Masonic Relief by the Masters without
consultation with each other, which no doubt was objectionable as it
them to imposition.
The Relief Board operated until the year 1854,
it applied to the Grand Lodge of Louisiana for a Charter, which was
the first of July of that year.
The general character of the organization is
shown from the following extracts from Article II, Chapter III of the
Regulations, together with edicts in explanation:
"The Charter granted to Louisiana Relief
Lodge, and issued on the 1st of July, 1854, is hereby perpetuated and
continue so long as two constituent lodges located in New Orleans shall
to retain it. The members of said lodge shall consist of its officers
be selected from its constituents at large, Past Masters and the
Masters and Wardens
in office (or their proxies) of such lodges as shall hold membership in
"The officers of this lodge and their duties
shall correspond, so far as may be, with the regulations for the
the constituent lodges. The lodge may more particularly prescribe the
its officers and members and make such other regulations as it may deem
necessary to better accomplish the ends of its creation.
"It shall remain invested with all the
property, rights, credits, effects and revenues, of whatsoever nature,
now possesses, and have the power to receive donations, and to raise
its support and maintenance, and to invest or expend the same in any
may deem best and most conducive to the accomplishment of the ends of
creation, and under such regulations as itself shall determine.
"Said lodge shall have no right to confer
degrees, nor to representatives in the Grand Lodge, nor shall it be
pay any dues, fees or charges to this Grand Lodge. It shall annually
return of its officers and members and the lodges they represent, and
the Grand Lodge, at each Annual Grand Communication, a synopsis of all
transactions during the year, and such other matters as it shall deem
interest to the Grand Lodge and to Freemasonry generally."
The Louisiana Relief Lodge No. 1, is to all
and purposes, a regular lodge; that is, its Master, when installed, is
legal Master of a legal lodge, and has all the rights and privileges as
and all the powers which the warrant of constitution gives him.
Resolved, that the W. Master of Louisiana
Lodge No. 1, has, and possesses, all the rights and privileges of the
any regular lodge, except that of voting in the Grand Lodge, and the
restriction expressly stated in the charter of that lodge, and in
Chapter III of the General Regulations; and he and the Past Master of
lodge are entitled to all the courtesies of Masters and Past Masters of
Resolved, that the R. W. Grand Lecturers, in
travels through the state in the discharge of their duties, are hereby
to call the attention of the constituent lodges throughout the state to
grand and good work being done by Louisiana Relief Lodge No. 1, to the
voluntary contributions may be made to the said lodge by the different
and brethren so disposed.
Resolved, that the W. M. of Louisiana Relief
No. 1, be and is hereby authorized to solicit contributions by circular
otherwise from any and all constituent lodges of this jurisdiction, and
the charter of said Louisiana Relief Lodge be perpetuated in any event.
The only natural presumption for the adoption
lodge formation instead of the Board system is that for years the south
been subject to annual visitation of Yellow Fever and Asiatic Cholera
necessity for centralizing authority in order to secure action speedily
obligatory in order to secure best results. During these periods of
vast sums of money in the shape of contributions came from other cities
care of epidemic victims and in order to handle these to better
Charter for Louisiana Relief Lodge was secured from the State
that the lodge is not only a creature of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana
also a corporate body under the State Laws.
The Masonic brethren of Louisiana, from their
experience, are now wedded to the lodge idea, but not only for the
reason that it centralizes responsibility and authority, but also
lodge in itself has all the inherent rights of a regular lodge, except
power to confer degrees and the right to representatives in the Grand
The Master of the lodge manages all of its affairs in the interim
between its quarterly
meetings and with the assistance of the Secretary, handles all cases of
without consultation with anyone. No restrictions whatever are placed
acts, he only making a report to these meetings held at quarterly
find that we are in this way able to accomplish more and in less time
would be possible under Board formation.
In case of the death of a sojourning Mason we
not placed to the necessity of calling upon one of the city lodges to
the ceremony but conduct it ourselves, and it is a matter of pride for
say that services of this nature held under our auspices are as largely
attended as those of the regular lodges.
Several years ago we added an employment bureau
our work. This has since been in successful operation and has
great amount of good.
The lodge is supported by subscriptions from
Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter of Louisiana and from the individual
other Masonic bodies of the city and state. Its membership plan being
as that of the Grand Lodge, we always have a majority with experience
work. Our official staff is very seldom changed, the lodge choosing to
retain in office those who have shown proficiency in the handling of
affairs. As we have no Masonic Home in the state of Louisiana, we are
of the Relief Fund of the Grand Master. In explanation, we can state
view of the fact that we have only about thirty beneficiaries, this
has deemed it the wisest policy to administer assistance to them at
homes or those of friends who might be willing to care for them. Our
Lodge acts as the intermediary for the Grand Master, conducts the
investigations when application is made and sees that the remittance
placed promptly each month.
The lodge has for years been a member of the
Masonic Relief Association of the United States and Canada,
active participation only when the Grand Lodge assumed its position in
regard several years ago.
We are glad to place the above brief historical
before the members of the National Masonic Research Society as we are
that the world should know something about this peculiar Masonic
regarding whose existence and work Louisiana Masonry feels so justly
Birth, Marriage and
To the Greeks and to many primitive peoples the
rites of birth, marriage and death were for the most part family rites
little or no social emphasis. But the rite which concerned the whole
essence of which was entrance into the tribe, was the rite of
puberty. This all-important fact is oddly and significantly enshrined
Greek language. The general Greek word for rite was telete. It was
all mysteries, and sometimes to marriages and funerals. But it has
do with death. It comes from a root meaning "to grow up." The word
telete means rite of growing up, becoming complete. It meant at first
then rite of maturity, then by a natural extension any rite of
was mysterious. The rites of puberty were in their essence mysterious,
they consisted in initiation into the sanctities of the tribe, the
'which society sanctioned and protected, excluding the uninitiated,
they were young boys, women, or members of other tribes. Then, by
the mystery notion spread to other rites.
‒ Jane Ellen Harlison, in "Ancient Art and
The heart is wiser than the intellect.
‒ J. Holland.
The Sphynx – [A Poem]
by the Sphinx
before the House of the Temple at Washington, D. C.)
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
within the lifeless stone,
Thou warden of the eldest mysteries,
What knowledge hides within thy level eyes,
What hidden wisdom do thy secrets own?
What are the ancient Words that thou hast known?
Afar, afar thy mother Egypt lies
Yet seems the shadow of her mystic skies
To fall on thee where thou dost stand alone.
A woman's face above a lion's shape!
Is this thy answer to our questionings?
Is this that Word that we have lost the while?
Is this the clue whereby our hearts escape?
Or is it Nature's snarl to human things,
"I keep a claw beneath my woman's smile?"
There is a claw beneath that woman's smile
Yet still above the talons thou dost look,
Gazing, perchance, on ways we men forsook
Ere thou didst learn to dream beside the Nile,
And ere we entered on this long exile.
Ah, Keeper of the Lore in Wisdom's Book,
Reveal in Nature what our hearts mistook
For craft of hate. For cunning craft of guile!
"The old Lost Word is hid within the stone,
Is written in the midnight's starry screeds,
Is tangled round the roots within the sod.
I gaze afar into the dim unknown:
Gaze thou into thy spirit's inmost deeds
And thou shalt find the Word that speaks of God!"
The Voices – [A Poem]
James T. Duncan
awakens the roses,
And crowns them with pearls of dew,
The loveliest rose in her garden,
Is calling, beloved, for you, ‒
Is calling, ‒
E'er calling, ‒
And calling, ‒
The voices are calling for you.
When Summer is sweeping the meadows,
And bells, at eve, herald the hour,
The harvest moon, beaming in heaven,
Is calling for you, in the bower ‒
Is calling, ‒
E'er calling, ‒
And calling, ‒
The voices are calling for you.
When Autumn is painting the wildwood,
And twilight is hovering near,
The voice of the stream, to the ocean,
Is calling for you, my dear, ‒
Is calling, ‒
E'er calling, ‒
And calling, ‒
The voices are calling for you.
When Winter is frosting the window,
And stars fall, in crystalline gleams,
A face, in the glow of the firelight,
Is calling for you, in its dreams.
Is calling, ‒
E'er calling, ‒
And calling, ‒
The voices are calling for you.
Masonry in Public but
Not On Parade
I AM writing these words at the very beginning
the vacation season; they will appear in print about the time when many
coming home from their rest period of the summer. During this occasion
the lodges have few if any meetings. Degrees are no longer conferred
ceremonial machinery halts. But Masonry moves on.
Everywhere one sees the badge of the Craft.
"Brother" is often on the lip. "Companion," "Sir
Knight," "Noble," and the others, how pleasant they sound to the
What care I if some do hold that "Sir Knight"
is an anachronism or worse. That the two terms are illogical when
either is correct but both when put together are improper ‒ all of
which we may
admit is goodly reasoning. But these long-established phrases have the
permanence of age, the sage flavor of antiquity, and well you all know,
brethren, how that does charm a Mason's ear.
Only the other day in fine old Philadelphia a
school girl sat next to me just when I was trying to puzzle out on the
"Subway" just what stop I should choose to connect with Broad Street
Station. On the girl's coat was pinned a "Shrine" button and to the
inquiry I made of her I got the prompt reply: "No, I'm not a member,
Dad belongs to Lu Lu Temple."
"Some Temple," said I, and forthwith we
were acquainted I had found a guide. My only regret was that the
journey was so
Thus over the land there is the fellowship of
Masonry alive among men. How many a sorrow it sweetens, and shortens
comforts the weary, sustains the failing, uplifts the fallen. If only
introductions what a worthwhile help it has been manifold. What
friendships have been mine by its gentle ministry!
Let me not in the gratitude for intimate
friendships overlook these delightful acquaintances that have now and
emerged from out the hosts of mankind. There comes easily to mind the
who sat with me late one night when mine eyes were sleep-proof. He
unobtrusively made up his report beside me. His watch charm started my
conversation and he soon proved to be a competent Craftsman, a Past
his Lodge and a Past High Priest of his Chapter. He long had made a
the "Apron" and was strong on its symbolism and was equipped with
more than one lecture. One, in rhyme, particularly touched my fancy. It
different from any other that ever came my way. Ever since I have
that I did not ask for a copy.
I really think that some of these fugitive
in "Apron Lectures" deserve to be gathered and I hope that a good
brother willing to do this for the general benefit will undertake the
A word of warning is not out of place here.
person wearing a Masonic emblem is not thereby a Mason nor entitled to
recognition by the fraternity. I am surprised at the readiness to
accept as an unquestioned truth that wearing a badge is conclusive
that the wearer is everything that is superficially indicated by the
pin or charm. At best, all that can off-hand be assumed is that such
is only presumptive and further inquiry is wise. To make a complete
is also out of the question in a public place even if one had the best
excuses for making it at all. For me there is but one place, the lodge,
one authority, the Master, for going into the matter in detail of
right of a person to claim membership. Caution is ever and always
with all strangers, and it is never unwise to be circumspect even with
accepted as Masons by others whom you know to be in good standing.
You may think this excessively prudent but I
known cases where men long believed to be Masons have been incapable of
establishing the assertion as a fact.
Neither is every Mason in good standing capable
proving the truth of another person's claims to bonafide membership.
very unfortunate but unquestionable. Maybe the initiation didn't leave
complete impression for keeps. Maybe the ceremony didn't take the first
and, like vaccination, a second operation is necessary. Maybe a second
initiation wouldn't do harm to any of us.
The Morality of the Lost Word – [A Poem]
By Bro. Arthur Edward Waite,
a measure of
light and a measure of shade,
The world of old by the Word was made;
By the shade and light was the Word conceal'd,
And the Word in flesh to the world reveal'd
Is by outward sense and its forms obscured;
The spirit within is the long lost Word,
Besought by the world of the soul in pain
Through a world of words which are void and vain.
O never while shadow and light are blended
Shall the world's Word-Quest or its woe be ended,
And never the world of its wounds made whole
Till the Word made flesh be the Word made soul!
What You Love – [A Poem]
Bro T. R Mitchell Michigan
are natural are the only things you love,
Just think it over a bit and it will the saying prove;
There is nothing about yourself that is not of nature's own
And nature CANNOT LOVE what is not by it, made known.
Edited By Bro. H. L.
The object of this Department is to acquaint
readers with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the
Masonic literature now being published; and with such non-Masonic books
especially appeal to Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to
possible assistance to studious individuals or to Study Clubs and
either through this Department or by personal correspondence; if you
learn something concerning any book, what is its nature, what is its
how it may be obtained ‒ be free to ask him. If you have read a book
think is worth a review write us about it; if you desire to purchase a
any book ‒ we will help you get it, with no charge for the service.
your Department of Literary Consultation.
"Leaves of Grass"
THE body of Masonry is to be found in our
organization, but the spirit of it is to be found everywhere. Thousands
poets, prophets, and seers are never so eloquent or convincing as when
giving voice to that which is the spirit and genius of our Fraternity,
they may be unaware of the identity of that which they say. Among the
poet-prophets of our land none has proclaimed brotherhood, democracy
liberty, the ancient Masonic teachings, with more power than has Walt
his volume, "The Leaves of Grass," [Lib 1855] in which his poetic work is
embodied, is a
veritable Masonic chant from beginning to end, and it is surprising
that he has
not found a place of equal favor with Robert Burns. The latter was a
the craft; he was a singer of brief and simple songs; Whitman was never
member, and his poems are usually long and somewhat difficult to read;
be the reason, it is unfortunate that we have permitted it to cause us
sight of the godlike utterances of brotherhood which are to be found in
"Leaves of Grass." That book is badly in need of a Masonic appraisal
and appreciation for it is doubtful if any other American has ever
volume which is more alive with Freemasonry.
Whitman was born on Long Island in 1819, ten
after the birth of Lincoln, with whom he has so much in common. When
of age he moved with his family to Brooklyn, then a suburban village,
lad attended public school for a time, after which he found a position
in a law
office. It was while here that he became initiated into the world of
was a healthy, outdoor boy, much given to long solitary walks, and
characterized by a certain placidity and calmness of spirit which he
inherited from his Dutch and Quaker ancestry. Oftentimes he would slip
a day or two to the Long Island beach where he would walk along the
reading Homer or Shakespeare aloud to himself, the oceanic surges
with the chant of the mighty songs. Commonplace in appearance, and not
precocious, he was all the while nourishing a youth sublime.
After a time he undertook school teaching and
journalism; the latter occupation took him as far as New Orleans. When
returned to Brooklyn he assisted his father in building cheap frame
for laboring men. All this time he was storing up impressions and
quietly growing to the full stature of his mind. Then came that which
impossible to describe or explain ‒ his spiritual transformation, his
birth, his growth into the cosmic consciousness. He himself has
in his poem, "The Prayer of Columbus,” a poem that is as great as the
experience of which it tells. From then on Whitman determined that he
undertake to write a new kind of book, a book in which the average
like himself could be completely expressed, body as well as mind. "I
undertook," he afterwards wrote, "to articulate and faithfully
express in literary or poetic form and uncompromisingly, my own
emotion, moral, intellectual, and esthetical Personality."
The writing of "Leaves of Grass" went on
slowly for Whitman was by nature leisurely and cautious, but it went on
steadily while he was engaged with his carpentering work. During those
would pause now and then to draw out of his pocket an old envelope or
paper, and write a few lines; other thoughts would come to him during
solitary walks, or while riding on an omnibus in New York City, or
sitting in a crowded theatre. After these writings had accumulated to
he set the type with his own hand and thus issued the first edition of
"Leaves of Grass" in a thin, unostentatious volume. It attracted no
attention until Ralph Waldo Emerson chanced upon it and discovered that
was a new prophet speaking: "Tell our Americans abroad to come home,"
wrote Emerson in an enthusiastic letter, "unto us a Man is born."
While writing "Leaves of Grass" Whitman
determined to put his whole self in, body, sex, nature and all; this
was such a
new thing in that day that many who read the book which the gentle and
Emerson had so highly praised were terribly scandalized. A storm of
broke over the book which would have absolutely destroyed any volume
filled with vitality. As for Whitman himself, when the hurricane broke
head, he went off quietly for a few days on Petonic Sound, thought it
from first to last, and returned more determined than ever to go on
with his poetic
But it happened that his enterprise was
interrupted, or at least deflected, by the Civil War. At first he was
what should be his own course with regard to the war but before long he
received word that his brother had been wounded so he set off to take
him; in this wise he came to enter into that career of nursing which
noble, so Christ-like. He had no official appointment; he drew no
he spent all his time among the sick and wounded, reading to them,
letters for them, taking them little articles of food, or soldier's
and helping them die. He combined, in a marvelous fashion, all the
a man with the gentleness of a woman. But he himself was not to escape
ravages of war: he suffered a case of blood infection and of fever
afterwards paralyzed him and almost made him an invalid for life.
Meanwhile he persevered with his poetical work,
not many years elapsed before he came to be recognized for his true
worth as a
great and original literary genius. Many famous men found him out in
house in Camden, New Jersey, where he went to live, and his name was
across to Europe, where his book was warmly welcomed by Tennyson,
Dowden, and other literati. He died in Camden in 1892.
But even after he had gone it did not seem that
was dead; he had so entirely succeeded in putting himself into his book
continued to live on. He himself had said of "Leaves of Grass":
this is no book;
Who touches this, touches a man."
"Leaves of Grass" is somewhat difficult
to read at first, especially to those who have read only the measured
rhymed verse of such poets as Tennyson and Lowell; almost none of it is
rhyme; neither is it in measured blank verse; indeed it is difficult,
impossible, to describe it at all, so far as its form is concerned.
could say that it is more like the Psalms, in style, than any other
writing. Its sentences ebb and flow like the waves of the sea, they ale
irregular, spontaneous, instinctive, yet underneath them all is a vast
like that which one hears when waves break over the shore.
Some readers, especially at first, before they
discovered the author's purpose, are offended by his apparent egotism;
starts his longest poem by saying, "I celebrate myself," and he gives
it his own name. But he goes on to say, "What I assume, you shall
people I see myself ‒ none more and not one a barleycorn less:
And the good or bad I say of myself I say of them."
It is not of Walt Whitman as a private
that he speaks, but Walt Whitman as a representative, average American.
reading it one should do as he did while taking the obligations; he
his own name in the place of the Master's; when so read the apparent
vanishes, and he finds that "Leaves of Grass" is the most democratic
book in the world.
The Democracy of it is its heart, and herein
its appeal to Masons. Ask yourself if the following is not almost a
statement of the aims and ideals of our Fraternity:
"I speak the
pass-word primeval, I give the sign of Democracy:
By God, I will
accept nothing which all cannot have their counterpart of on the same
"I dreamed in
a dream I saw a city invincible to the attacks of the whole of the rest
that was the new City of Friends; nothing was greater there than the
robust love ‒ it led the rest."
In his great prose work, "Democratic
Vistas," he puts his Gospel into different form:
"This is what
you shall do; love the earth and sun, and animals, despise riches, give
everyone that asks, stand up for the stupid and crazy, devote your
income to others, hate tyrants, argue not concerning God, have patience
indulgence toward the people, take off your hat to nothing known or
to any man or number of men; go freely with powerful uneducated persons
with the young and mothers of families, read these leaves (his own
the open air, every season of every year of your life; re-examine all
been told at school or church or in any book, and dismiss whatever
Whitman appeared at the time when the ache of
modernity was first troubling our souls, when it seemed that the
dwindling and the world was becoming more and more. Industrialism had
reduce thousands to the status of a cog in a machine; democracy, with
leveling tendencies, seemed to make each of us into a mere drop in a
ocean; science, by pushing time back to inconceivable distances, and by
unveiling the awful, the incredible size of creation had shriveled the
individual up to nothingness. In the presence of such a universe we
become mere infants crying in the night, in the awful cosmic night,
language but a cry.
At this juncture Whitman came to us to say,
not in these precise words: Does the infinitude of the universe crush
Learn that your own soul is just as infinite; stand up and confront it,
just as eternal as it is. You have a vastness within which balances
Indeed, all of its suns and systems, all of the slow gradual upheavings
long geologic ages, all the vast and gradual evolution of its forces,
all this been for if not to produce you? You are its child; fear not,
yourself are a universe. Or, better still, hear him in his own words in
magnificent psalmodic chant which is one of the greatest utterances in
any other book:
"I am an acme
of things accomplished, and I am an encloser of things to be.
My feet strike an apex of the apices of the stairs;
On every step bunches of ages, and larger bunches between the steps;
All below duly travelled, and still I mount and mount.
Rise after rise bow the phantoms behind me;
Afar down I see the first huge Nothing ‒ I know I was even there;
I waited unseen and always, and slept through the lethargic mist,
And took my time, and took no hurt from the fetid carbon.
Long I was hugged close, long and long.
Intense have been the preparations for me,
Faithful and friendly the arms that have helped me.
Cycles ferried my cradle, rowing and rowing like cheerful boatmen;
For room to me stars kept aside in their own rings;
They sent influences to look after what was to hold me.
Before I was born out of my mother, generations guided me;
My embryo has never been torpid ‒ nothing could overlay it.
For it the nebula cohered to an orb,
The long slow strata piled to rest it on,
Vast vegetables gave it sustenance,
Monstrous sauroids transported it in their mouths, and deposited it
All forces have been steadily employed to complete and delight me.
Now on this spot I stand with my robust Soul."
* * *
A Mine of Masonic
Freemasonry is perennially fascinating because
never comes to the end of it; through its history, its ritualism, its
symbolisms, etc., it opens out into one field after another until one
to believe that he who would know all there is to be known about
would have to know all there is to be known about the whole world. But
which is the fascination of the subject is also the despair of the
the nature of things so vast a subject will not be adequately covered
own literature. As many books as there are on Freemasonry they treat
small fraction of Masonic themes; for this reason the student is driven
other departments of literature in order to gather materials that bear
countless aspects of our Fraternity, its history, evolution, and genius.
Of all literature outside specifically Masonic
literature the most valuable, at least to the student, is perhaps to be
in the various encyclopedias and in such encyclopedic works on folk
ancient customs, old social conditions, and so on, as he will find in
of Frazer, Westermarck, Tyler, and Sir John Lubbock, to name but a few.
Encyclopedia Britannica contains many articles of special interest to
so also does the Dictionary of Biography.
But among all these reference works it is
if the Masonic reader will find any that contain so many treatises of
in Hasting's Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. [Lib 1908; (13 Volumes see
Dr. Hastings is a great editor and this is his
greatest work. It covers all religions, superstitions, all moral codes
ideas, and nearly everything else that has any relationship to religion
ethics at all. Thus far only nine volumes have been completed; when the
is finished the bulk of the work will be almost equal to that of the
Most of the articles are signed and everyone of
importance at all is followed by a bibliography, itself an almost
feature. Where a subject is large it is divided among several
insuring authoritativeness; and nearly all the articles stick to facts
leave the reader to fashion his own theories.
The Masonic student will find scores of
which throw light on his own subjects; among these, three or four are
The essay on "Circumambulation" is
contributed by our veteran Masonic scholar, Count Goblet D'Alviella:
columns of fine print he has crowded about everything that there is to
on this subject, so that those who would know whence we have derived
custom of circumambulation ("walking around") and what it means, will
find all they desire in ten minute's reading.
The article on "Foundation,” covering more
than six pages and written by Sidney Hartland, contains a wealth of
concerning old builder's customs: Brother Speth's little book on
"Builder's Rites" does not contain so much information. This study is
of special value because it offers us the clue to the probable origin
Hiram Abif legend.
The article on "Freemasonry" is by the
Masonic encyclopaedist, E.L. Hawkins; it condenses into three pages the
complete story of our Order. Study Club members, who haven't time for
histories, would find this a god-send.
The treatise on "Initiation" is a marvel
of completeness; it is divided into eight parts, each of which is
by a specialist in that particular field; Count D'Alviella, again, is
these authors. The sub-heads are as follows: "Introductory and
Primitive"; "Buddhist"; "Greek"; "Hindu";
"Jewish"; "Roman"; "Tibetan." A reader's only
regret will be that a section has not been devoted to Egyptian
Hasting's Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics
published by Scribner's at $7.00 per volume; it may be purchased on the
installment plan at $3.00 per month. Masonic Lodges would find it a
adjunct to their library.
St. Paul's Psalm of
– (I Cor. XIII)
By William Vincent
Had I not love, although my voice bade men and
angels all rejoice, with harmonies of heaven above, it were in vain,
cymbal's sound of tinkling brass, and naught my gain ‒ and naught my
gain ‒ had
I not love.
Though I were fain of mysteries and prophecies,
though I knew all secrecies of earth below and heaven above; and even
my faith should prove mighty to move yon mountain's mass, it were in
I not love.
And even although, with glad desire, my goods I
give that starving men may take and live; though at the stake in flame
I die for the Redeemer's name, and have not love, it were but shame.
He in whose mind the Heavenly Love its home
make, will suffer long and still be kind, for Lovers dear sake.
Love vaunteth not, for in its heart no vanity
pride hath part.
It moveth all to courtesy; it doth not seek its
own; it is not angered easily; it loveth not iniquity; it loves the
All things it bears; it has all faith; all
shares, nor doth it fail when railing tongues assail it.
Love does not fail, but prophecies and all the
of tongues shall cease; and knowledge, too, shall be no more.
In this brief day, we know in part, but when we
perfect grow in heart, our partial knowledge will not last, but pass
In infant's swaddling bands confined, I had the
infant's tongue and mind, but now no more am I beguiled by fancies that
please the child.
Though still we see all things that pass,
in a wizard's glass, yet when we gain heaven's perfect grace, we shall
things, face to face.
For here below, small is the part I e'er can
of God's great All; but there on high, before God's throne, there I, ‒
also, ‒ shall know as I am known.
And now remain Faith, Hope and Love, ‒ these
the greatest of God's train. And greatest of the three is love.
The Question Box
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is
than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not
any one school of Masonic thought as over against another; but offers
alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or
its own merits. The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to
members of the Society at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic
subjects are earnestly invited from our members, particularly those
with Lodges or Study Clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of
Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be answered promptly by
mail before publication in this department.
The Saints John
I find in Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914] under the
subject of "Lodge of St. John," this explanation:
tradition is that the primitive or mother lodge was held at Jerusalem,
dedicated to St. John ‒ first the Baptist, then the Evangelist, and
I would like to inquire if there is not a
inconsistency in this statement. If it means the traditional lodge,
Solomon installed, then the above assertion would not be true for the
of the Temple antedated the birth of the Saints by approximately a
years. If it means a lodge formed after the life time of the Saints, it
be at a period of more than five hundred years after the total
the Temple, and at a time when a Masonic lodge could not be held at
whether traditional or actual.
These statements are made with a knowledge that
wording of Mackey's Encyclopedia does not correspond verbatim with our
A little enlightenment on this difference would be greatly appreciated.
Mackey very frequently calls his account of
of St. John, "traditional"; in other words, he does not offer it as
verified history but as so much rumor. As you say, the story is most
inconsistent and there is not a Masonic scholar now living who accepts
account of the origin of the custom of speaking of our lodges as having
dedicated to St. John. Where, and when, and by whom that custom came to
nobody knows, albeit many have put forward guesses. It is a mystery
early Freemasons did not dedicate their lodges to St. Thomas who was
saint of architecture. In medieval times it seems that many Freemason
were really dedicated to "The Four Crowned Martyrs," or "Quatuor
Coronati," and a recital of the legend of these four old Masons is
in a few of the Old Charges. Hughan, than whom there is no better
such matters, says that prior to 1717 there was no connection with the
Saints John; after that date the Freemasons fell into the habit of
their Grand Lodge meetings on either or both of the St. John festivals,
the Baptist on June 24th, John the Evangelist on December 27th, and
that it was
in this way that our Fraternity came to be connected with these two
This, as was said above, is more or less of a guess and we must live in
that some future scholar will turn up a bit of evidence to explain the
to our satisfaction.
* * *
Jewel of the
On page 63 of the February issue of THE BUILDER
describe the jewel of the thirty-second degree as being a Teutonic
gold, with a green wreath encircling the numerals XXXII in gold. To the
Teutonic I take issue. My contention is that this cross, (as well as
crosses), is a symbol used in heraldry, and the cross you quote as
should be termed "cross potent," as in John Grand, Manual of
Heraldry. Am I correct?
The jewel of the degree of The Sublime Prince
the Royal Secret, commonly called the thirty-second degree, is a
cross. It is thus described because, from the twelfth century on, it
by the secret society known as the Teutonic Order. (On this Order see
Brit.) "Cross potent" is nothing but an heraldic term to describe any
device in which two crosses intersect each other, and there are a
crosses which might be so described. The crux ansata and the swastika,
mention the Christian cross, were long in vogue before heraldry was
* * *
The Templar Degrees and
the Scottish Rite
Will you kindly enlighten us as to the
Knight Templar become a thirty-third degree Mason without having taken
preceding degrees of the Scottish Rite?
- What is
the difference between the Templar degrees and the Scottish Rite?
Scottish Rite Mason become a Shriner without taking the Templar
1. No. The thirty-third degree is a Scottish
degree and has nothing to do with a Commandery degree of the York Rite.
2. They are entirely different and a full
explanation cannot be given without going into the ritual which, of
cannot be done here. We can simply say that they are as different as
conferred by two different orders and practically they are, except that
one is a branch of Masonry. The Temple degree is Christian in character
requires allegiance to the Christian religion, and by many is claimed
not to be
a Masonic degree at all. Some claim that none of the Templar degrees
Masonic and that the organization is one whose applicants, according to
regulations, must have received the Royal Arch degree in the York Rite.
might say that one important difference between the two Rites is that
so-called York Rite the three symbolic degrees are supreme and are not
to authority of any higher degree, and in fact the various bodies of
Masonry, Capitular Masonry, Cryptic Masonry and the Commandery are each
and entirely independent bodies, although each of the so-called higher
are higher only in the sense that they require their applicants to
one or more of the other bodies.
In Scottish Rite Masonry all the degrees, from
Entered Apprentice to the thirty-second, inclusive, are governed by the
members of the thirty-third degree. However, where York Rite Masonry is
established in North America, the Scottish Rite relinquishes any claim
authority over the first three degrees in favor of the Grand Lodges of
3. Yes. The Shrine is not a Masonic degree at
but according to its laws its members must be either Knights Templar or
thirty-second degree Masons. C.C.H.
The Use and Abuse of
This is a subject that undoubtedly has been
discussed in your valuable paper many times but being one of your
subscribers I have seen nothing relative to the question. However it is
that is of interest to every conscientious Mason, and one that he is
being called upon to consider, and I believe the more light that is
it, the more qualified we will all be to deal with it in a just and
I dare say that every Mason has had the
going away from a lodge meeting feeling that perhaps an injustice had
to some unfortunate petitioner, and then again we have been made to
ashamed because of the fact that someone totally unworthy has abused
confidence we have reposed in him. Either of these conditions is
in many cases could be avoided if at the time of balloting, calm, cool
unbiased judgment had been employed.
Masonry is religious but not a religion, and is
peculiar inasmuch as its followers do not go out into the highways and
in search of men, their souls to save.
The material used in the building of King
temple was prepared and made ready before it was brought to the temple,
it is with our candidates, we receive none knowingly into our order who
moral and upright before God and of good reputation before the world.
Therefore it seems to me the point to be
when balloting on the name of a petitioner is whether or not the
presented at our altar for the first time, the rough ashlar, so to
speak, is of
such a quality and texture that when the finished product is passed on
Chief Architect for final inspection, we shall have something of which
justly feel proud; or will our efforts prove in vain and we find
possession of a piece of work for which vie will constantly be making
Perfection on earth has never yet been attained; allowances must be
have been made or many of us would not be wearing the lambskin today;
behooves every Mason in making a decision to judge with candor,
friendship and reprehend with justice.
A recent case will show how a stone rejected by
builders can become one of the principal supports. The ballot was found
the sentiment of the lodge was that an injustice had been done. The
taken to the Grand Lodge and permission granted for a new ballot which
found clear, the brother being now a true, faithful worker.
Another instance where a certain faction ruled
practically owned a lodge. By careful manipulation this condition was
broken up and a new set of officers elected. For one year thereafter
did not confer a single degree, and it was the boast of some that it
would. But in due time the narrow-minded either died off or were
the error of their ways and today the lodge is a flourishing one.
In determining the qualifications of a
particular set of rules can be adopted, but I believe he should have a
conception of the duties he owes to God, his country, his neighbor and
In his duties to God will he measure up to the
ancient usages and customs and landmarks of the craft? In his duties to
country is he a law abiding citizen, true to the government in which he
In his duties to his neighbor will he live up to the fraternal ties
us together; especially does his past deportment warrant us in
he will obey the 9th tie of the M.M. oath? In his duties to himself, is
honest with himself, is he moderate in all things; if not he can't be
to be with others.
Consideration of these points will eliminate
poor timber and a great deal of mere drift-wood.
* * *
New York Masonic
I am trying to complete for the Library of the
Yonkers Masonic Temple the set of publications relating to Freemasonry
York State and would appreciate any assistance you can give me toward
missing publications. I have obtained quite a number of publications by
purchasing personally from the Library of the Supreme Council of the
Degree in Washington and a number by donation, as the Yonkers Masonic
unfortunately, has no funds available for this purpose.
We lack the following, which we are very
Proceedings of the Regular Grand Lodge, from June 5, 1816, to June 24,
and other publications.
from June, 1824, to June, 1839.
December 6, 1843, to June 8, 1844.
edition of 1837 (83 pp.), St. John's Grand Lodge of New York.
(regular) Grand Lodge of New York 1845, editions of 1852 and 1854.
of 1854, edition of 1866.
of 1873, editions of 1875 and 1877. (The above Constitutions are all
(regular) Grand Lodge of New York 1854, editions of 1860, 1861, 1864,
of 1873, editions of 1873, 1877, 1879, (12mo.).
- Constitutions of 1885, 1899,
1907, January, 1909,
- Statement of receipts and
expenditures of the Grand
Lodge of New York, 1806 to 1819, (77 pp.).
- Circular letter Grand Lodge
addressed to the
several lodges of New York, 1823, printed by Bellamy, (66 pp.).
- List of expulsions and
suspensions communicated by
foreign Grand Lodges, 1823, printed by Bellamy, (50 pp.).
for raising $50,000 for a Freemason's Hall,
1824, printed by Grattan, (7 pp.).
Any other available New York publications would
17 Battery Place, New York, N. Y.
(If any of the members of the Society are in a
position to help Brother Berolzheimer secure any of the above listed
publications they will please communicate direct with him at the
* * *
Proceedings of North
I am endeavoring to secure as complete a set as
possible of the Proceedings of the Masonic Grand Bodies of North
our local Masonic Library and it occurred to me that you might have
copies of some of the old Proceedings that we might be able to get at a
cost. We can obtain some of them from our Grand Bodies but in many
their supply has become exhausted.
Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of North
for 1898 and the years prior to 1896.
Proceedings of the Grand Chapter of North Carolina prior to 1903.
Proceedings of the Grand Council of North Carolina prior to 1915.
Proceedings of the Grand Commandery of North Carolina prior to 1906.
Proceedings of the Grand Encampment for 1874.
Early history of North Carolina and Tennessee Masonry.
Chandler, Secretary and Recorder,
Southern Pines, N. C.
(If any of our members can be of assistance in
locating any of the above publications for Brother Chandler it is
that they communicate with him direct.)
* * *
Brother Sachse has made a valuable contribution
the June number of THE BUILDER concerning Lafayette. One might gain the
impression, however, from his article that practically all of
Masonic affiliations were with Pennsylvania. Such, however, is not the
Lafayette visited Masonic bodies in many places. A few of them to which
been able to make instant reference follow:
On March 16, 1825, he visited South Carolina
Encampment, No. 1, Knights Templar. ‒ V Mackey's History 1374.
On October 30, 1824, he and his son visited
Richmond-Randolph Lodge, No. 19, at Richmond, Virginia. They were
Honorary Members and signed the register. ‒ Callahan's Washington 262.
On October 16, 1824, he received and responded
an address from the Lodges in Alexandria, Virginia, and on February 21,
visited them by appointment. ‒ Callahan's Washington 305-308.
Alexandria-Washington Lodge possesses a
painting of him in Masonic regalia painted by Hurdle of Alexandria in ‒
Callahan's Washington 316.
On June 8, 1824, the Grand Lodge of New
made Lafayette an Honorary Past Grand Master and made preparations for
reception. I have not at hand information as to the actual date of the
One of the most magnificent affairs in his
during his visit to this country was the Masonic dinner given by the
Lodge of New York at Washington Hall. The full account of this gala
reprinted in I Nickerson's N.E. Freemason 476-480, including the
toasts and General Lafayette's reply.
On December 8, 1824, the Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts appointed a committee of seven, five of whom were then
future Grand Masters of Massachusetts, "to make arrangements for
expression of gratitude and affection to our III. Bro. Lafayette."
On June 17, 1825, the officers of the Grand
of Massachusetts assembled for the purpose of laying the corner stone
Hill Monument, M. W. John Abbott, Grand Master. At 8:15 a.m. the
the Grand Lodge presented Bro. Lafayette in Grand Lodge, at which there
present delegations from the Grand Lodges of Connecticut, New
Island, Vermont and New Jersey, the Grand Encampment of Rhode Island
Massachusetts and the Grand Royal Arch Chapters of Massachusetts and
After addresses and introductions, Bro. Lafayette retired to join the
The events of this day have an interest not
because of the visit of Bro. Lafayette but because of the magnificent
ceremonies of laying the corner stone of Bunker Hill Monument. The
record of this event is as follows:
At 9 o'clock the M. W. Grand Master made known
request of the Bunker Hill Monument Association, that he would lay the
stone of the contemplated Monument in Ancient Masonic form. That in
thereof he had caused the Officers of the Grand Lodge to be called
assist him in performing that duty; and that he had invited the
Officers of the Grand Institutions in New England, to be present with
Officers. The Grand Master directed the Grand Marshal to form a
repair to the Common, there to join the civil procession, and proceed
Hill in Charlestown.
The Master Masons having assembled at Faneuil
the Royal Arch Masons at Concert Hall, and the Knights Templars at the
and refreshment Hall, the Grand Marshal assisted by R. W. Bro. William
and Samuel L. Knapp, on horseback with twelve other Deputy Marshals on
formed a grand Masonic procession, in the following order:
Two Grand Pursuivants
Junior and Senior Wardens
(Past Masters Banner)
Grand Royal Arch Chapters of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire,
Connecticut and Rhode Island
Grand Encampment of Vermont, Rhode Island & Massachusetts
(Presiding Masters Banner)
Revd. Clergy of Fraternity
Grand Lodges of Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island, New Hampshire and
Two Grand Stewards with White Rods
Banner of the order of Architecture/Silver Vessel with Wine/ Globe
Grand Lodge Banner/ Golden Vessel with Corn/Principal Architect with
Banner of the Implements of the Craft/Silver Vessel with Oil/ Globe
Square Level & Plumb
District Deputy Grand Masters
Grand Rec. Secretary, Grand Treasurer, Grand Cor. Secretary
Grand Chaplain, Bible, Square and Compasses, Grand Chaplain Past Grand
Past Grand Masters
Three Burning Tapers
Sen. G. Warden Deputy G. Master Jun. G. Warden
Sen. G. Deacon Grand Master Jun. G. Deacon
Grand Sword Bearer
Two Grand Stewards
A number of Master Mason Lodges having provided
themselves with appropriate banners, the Master Masons were arranged in
Divisions corresponding with the number of banners which were placed in
intervals. A large proportion of Master Masons were clothed with plain
aprons, white gloves, and blue sashes.
The Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Maine appeared
full costume with elegant banners. The Grand Royal Arch Chapter of
Massachusetts was organized in ample form, and appeared with their
banner and flanking banners. A number of Chapters under the Grand
Massachusetts several of which were provided with appropriate banners
arranged under the Grand Chapter. All of the Royal Arch Masons were
procession under R. W. Bro. Roulstone their Marshal. The Knights
appeared under the command of R. W. Bro. Henry Fowle, Dep. Grand Master
Knights Templars. They were in full dress and displayed the banners of
Templars, and Knights of the Red Cross.
Sir Knights with lances preceded being on the
points of their lances white pennants, on which were painted the names
six New England States. A front and rear guard, and also guards to the
were armed with lances. All the Knights Templars were arranged in
under R. W. Bro. William J. Whipple their Marshal. The Masonic
formed in the foregoing order proceeded to the Common, where a general
procession was formed as follows:
The Grand Lodge of Massachusetts
Survivors of Bunker Hill Battle in Open Carriages
The President of Bunker Hill Monument Association Chaplains
Directors and Officers of the Bunker Hill Monument Association
The President of the United States in a Carriage
General LaFayette in a Carriage
Officers of the Revolutionary Army
His Excellency the Governor of Massachusetts
Lieutenant Governor and Council
The Hon. the Senate, and the House of Representatives
Secretary and Treasurer
Governors of Other States in the Union
Heads of Departments of the United States
Senators and Representatives of the United States
Judges of Supreme Court of U. S. and State Courts
Presidents of Colleges and Clergy
Officers of U. S. Army
Officers of U. S. Navy
Officers of Militia
Members of the Association
The procession then moved to Charlestown, and
having arrived at the Square, on which it was intended to erect the
the whole was enclosed by the troops. Near the place intended for the
Stone was erected by the Fraternity a lofty triumphal arch on which was
inscribed the following, "The Arts pay homage to Valor." Through this
Arch the whole body of Masons passed and took up a position on the
right of the
Square, the Grand Lodge in front. The President of the Bunker Hill
then requested the Grand Master to proceed and lay the corner stone.
Master accompanied by the Deputy Grand Master, Grand Wardens, Grand
and Secretaries, Grand Chaplain, and Past Grand Masters, and attended
Grand Marshal, advanced to the place intended where the President of
Association, and R. W. Bro. LaFayette met them.
The Grand Marshal by direction of the Grand
commanded silence to be observed during the ceremonies. The working
presented to the Grand Master who applied them to the stone, and passed
R. W. Bro. LaFayette, and the President of the Association who
applied them, and then the Grand Master declared it to be "well-formed
true & trusty." The Stone was then raised, and the Grand
repeated the following: "May the Grand Architect of the Universe grant
blessing on this foundation stone which we have laid, and by his
enable us to finish this and all our works with skill and success.
Glory be to
God in the highest."
(Response by the Brethren.)
As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever
The Grand Treasurer then placed under the Stone
silver plate on which was engraved the name of the Grand Master, the
the Officers of the Association, the time and occasion of laying stone,
The three vessels containing Corn, Wine, and Oil, were presented to the
Master who poured their contents in succession on the stone and said
the all bounteous Author of nature bless the inhabitants of this place
the necessaries, conveniences, and comforts of life, assist in the
completing of this building, protect the workmen against every
long preserve this structure from decay. And grant to us all in needful
the Corn of nourishment, the Wine of refreshment, and the Oil of joy."
He then struck the Stone thrice with his mallet
the Honors of Masonry were given. The Grand Master delivered the
to Bro. Alexander Parris the Master Workman, instructing him with the
superintendence and direction of the work.
The fraternity then moved to seats prepared on
North side of the Hill in front of which was erected an Extensive
building open in front, in the center of which the Grand Master, the
of the Association, and its Officers were accommodated. An Oration was
pronounced by the President of the Association. A procession was then
which proceeded to an Extensive range of tables, where refreshments
The Grand Lodge was closed without form.
On June 9, 1875, Bro. Francis C. Whiston of
presented to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts the Masonic Apron worn by
Lafayette on the above occasion June 17, 1825, accompanied by the
remarks made by Daniel Webster and Lafayette at the banquet which
Bro. Whiston acted as toastmaster.
Bro. Whiston's remarks upon this occasion were
Most Worshipful Grand Master:-
By your kind indulgence I am here to-day to
a most grateful duty. Fifty years ago it was my privilege and very
pleasure to be numbered with that countless throng assembled on Bunker
witness the laying of the cornerstone of that noble monument erected to
commemorate the brave deeds of that invincible band of heroes and
who, upon that very hill fifty years before, made the first formidable
to British oppression, and by their valor and indomitable courage
arrogant and insolent foe a lesson more lasting than the granite column
transmits to posterity the remembrance of a day never to be forgotten
history of our beloved country; and always certainly to be remembered
good Masons, for there our most worthy Grand Master, the illustrious
patriot, and soldier, Joseph Warren, offered his precious young fife, a
sacrifice upon the altar of his country's liberties. Assembled there
occasion were the surviving heroes of our Revolution, conspicuous among
stood the dignified form of the Marquis de Lafayette, the early and
friend of Washington. At the close of the ceremony and after the
the magnificent oration by Daniel Webster, the Masonic portion of the
unclothed, preparatory to proceeding to what was more properly known as
Hill, where a sumptuous dinner was partaken of by several thousand
my position, as one of the marshals of the day, gave me the opportunity
being near the person of General Lafayette, I received from him, in
graceful, bland, and affable manner so peculiar to himself, the Masonic
he had worn during the ceremonies of the day, and which I have
preserved as a valuable memento of that great man, and the interesting
important event it serves to call to remembrance. But, as I shall, in
probability, soon reach the end of my mortal journey, and be compelled
the care of this precious relic in other hands, it occurred to me that
find no safer, or more appropriate place of deposit than the archives
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, and will, therefore, Most Worshipful
Master, with your permission, commit it to your custody, that it may be
with your other valuable mementos and records. And I have thought it
appropriate, and that it might be acceptable to the Grand Lodge, were I
associate with the apron worn by Lafayette, and commit to the same
depository, the toasts and the remarks connected therewith, offered at
dinner table, by the President and orator of the day, Daniel Webster,
General Lafayette, the most distinguished guest of the occasion, each
handwriting of their respective authors, and which were handed me, as
toastmaster, on that occasion, at the time of their delivery, by these
The following are copies of the toasts referred
by Brother Whiston:-
BY THE PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION
The President said he rose to propose a toast
behalf of the Directors of the Association. Probably he was already
in the name which he should mention. It was well known that the
personage near him, from the time when he first became acquainted with
object of the Association, had taken much interest in it, and had
intention to be present at the ceremony of laying the cornerstone. This
he had kindly remembered through the long course of his visits to the
States. It was not at all necessary to say ‒ indeed it could not be
said ‒ how
much his presence had added to the interest and pleasure of the
should proceed at once to the grateful duty which the Directors had
him, and propose to the company "Health and long life to General
General Lafayette rose and expressed himself in
Gentlemen: ‒ I will not longer trespass on your
time than to thank you, in the name of my revolutionary companions in
myself, for the testimonies of esteem and affection, I may say, of
affection, which have been bestowed upon us on the memorable
this anniversary day; and to offer our fervent prayers for the
that republican freedom equality, and self-government, that blessed
between the States of the Confederacy for which we have fought and bled
which rest the hopes of mankind. Permit me to propose the following
"Bunker Hill, and the holy resistance to
oppression which has already enfranchised the American hemisphere, the
half century jubilee's toast shall be: to enfranchised Europe."
R.W. Past Grand Master, John T. Heard, moved
acceptance of the apron and papers, with the thanks of the Grand Lodge
Brother Whiston, in the words following:,
REMARKS OF R. W. JOHN T. HEARD, ON THE
OF THE LAFAYETTE APRON
I claim the pleasure of moving that this
gift be heartily received by us, and our warmest thanks be presented to
donor of it.
Though a school-boy, I remember vividly the two
visits of Lafayette to Boston, one in 1824, the other in 1825. The
occurred on a beautiful morning in August. The enthusiasm of the people
reception on Boston Neck knew no bounds. The entire avenue from Boston
Roxbury was lined with an excited multitude. The roar of cannon from
Common from "Dorchester Heights" and from other points, added to the
excitement of the occasion. His person, as I recollect it, is
represented by the portrait in the south-west corner of this hall. On
of procession from Roxbury to the State House in Boston were displayed,
decorations, flags of every country, and triumphal arches were erected
point to point bearing appropriate mottoes. One of them I remember
"We bow not
the neck, we bend not the knee
But our hearts, Lafayette, we surrender to thee."
During the succeeding ten months, the
"Nation's Guest ' as Lafayette was warmly characterized, visited nearly
every important city in what was then the United States. His reception
everywhere was a spontaneous outbreak of gratitude for one who had been
nation's helper in the time of a nation's need. It must be remembered
those days the facilities we enjoy of traveling by railroad did not
hence it will appear that his extended journey required much time, and
have been toilsome, to one of his age, in no small degree.
In June, 1825, he returned to Boston for the
purpose of assisting at the laying of the corner-stone of the Bunker
Monument. On the morning of the 17th June he visited the Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts, and was received by that Body in a manner becoming his
distinguished character as a Mason and public man.
Of course, I shall never forget the occasion of
laying the cornerstone of that memorial. The day was warm and pleasant
thousands upon thousands to witness the ceremonies. To me, the Masonic
of the pageant won my admiration though, perhaps, I felt a little of
awe as I
The toast of Lafayette, which has been read, I
remember distinctly. It made at the time an impression upon my mind
never been effaced. At one time, in 1848, I thought that the prediction
was to be fully realized. Politics in Europe then seemed to point to
"enfranchised Europe"; but the half century has passed without its
realization. Doubtless there has been a preparation within the last
among the masses for republican forms of government, but the form is,
exception, still wanting.
Again, Most Worshipful, I move the thanks of
Grand Lodge, as I have proposed.
The motion was seconded by R.W. William S.
and passed by unanimous vote.
At the same meeting there was presented the
of our Ill. Past Grand Master, Major General Joseph Warren, which was
our late Bro. Captain Josiah Sturgis at the laying of the cornerstone
Washington Monument at the National Capital. This is another story, but
Aprons may be seen by any Brother who desires, on exhibition in the
the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts in Boston.
On October 9, 1834, the Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts paid elaborate funeral honors to the memory of Bro.
Johnson, P.G.M., Mass.
Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
Book of Constitutions
And38 / auth. Anderson James. - London : J. Robinson, 1738. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 249. - 16.2 MB.
Early Hebrew Story
Pun04 / auth. Punnett John P. - New York : G P Putnam's Sons, 1904. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 321. - 7.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
Family Memoirs Vol 1
Stu82FM1 / auth. Stukeley William. - London : Whittaker & Co,
1882. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 572. - 23,6 MB.
Family Memoirs Vol 2
Stu83FM2 / auth. Stukeley William. - London : Whittaker & Co,
1883. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 435. - 18.3 MB.
Family Memoirs Vol 3
Stu87FM3 / auth. Stukeley William. - London : Whittaker & Co,
1887. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 576. - 21.4 MB.
From Schola to Cathedral
Bro86 / auth. Brown G Baldwin. - Edinburgh : David Douglas, 1886. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 276. - 15.1 MB.
History and Life of John Tauler
Tau00 / auth. Tauler John / trans. Winkworth Susanna. - London :
Allenson & Co, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 424. - 15.1 MB.
Leaves of Grass
Whi55 / auth. Whitman Walt. - Brooklyn : W Whitman, 1855. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 99. - 0.5 MB.
Cou15 / auth. Coulton George G / trans. 1. - London : Simpkin,
Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, & Co Ltd, 1915. - 1 : p. 140. - 8.1
Fun16 / auth. Funke Odilia. - Washington DC : National Capital Press
Inc, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 123. - 4.7 MB.
Dud46 / auth. Dudley John. - London : F and J Rivington, 1846. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 658. - 19.5 MB.
Bun85 / auth. Bunyan John. - Chicago : Belfort, Clarke & Co.,
1885. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 427. - 15.1 MB.
Schutzschrift für die Aechtheit
Flu82 / auth. Fludd
Robert. - Leipzig : Adam Friederich Bohme, 1782. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330.
- German - 15.9 MB.
The Book of the Dead
Tir10 / auth. Tirard Helen M. - London : Society of Promoting Christian
Knowledge, 1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 194. - 15.8 MB.
The Complete Works of Plato
Pla07 / auth. Plato / trans. Jowett Benjamin. - Adelaide : Feed Books,
2007. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1578. - 7.4 MB.