Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
and American Brotherhood a League of Masons
By Bro. Sir Alfred
President of the Board of General Purposes,
Grand Lodge of England
spell of this wonderful article is still upon me ‒ I doubt whether it
disappear. With consummate grace, with all the niceties of expression
our common tongue lends itself, this eminent English brother speaks
ought to ring in the ears of every American Mason. Not content merely
to say he
yearns for the intimate fellowship of his American brethren, he extends
hand across the sea. Can we do less than grasp it? With no professions
understands America, and no protestations that he sympathizes with our
separation from the British Empire, disclaiming in fact any Masonic
responsibility for that separation, he boldly and frankly says that in
Revolutionary days England, under the leadership of a king with German
his veins took a position which Masonry did not then countenance, any
it does so now; that English Masonry of today, even as the English
this day, loses its regrets for that unhappy separation in its joy over
reunion of the present in our common cause; rejoices, indeed, in this
consummation of the liberties then won; and pledges, himself to the
the future in behalf of Masonic ideals, inviting us to join him at the
Altar, renew our vows to Masonry, and then, hand in hand, keeping step
another, go forward to accomplish the destiny of our ONE Fraternity,
prayerfully consider the fraternal alliance which his words
if you will ‒ but dream not too long ‒ over the wonderful possibilities
joint effort in behalf of a war-torn and suffering Humanity. Starting
true to LEVEL, what cannot Masonry accomplish? Let us not dream, let us
Representatives? Ambassadors of Good Will? Yes, let us have them, and
USE them! Let our acts, not less than our words, prove to Sir Alfred
and the Grand Lodge of England that we are as free and as fervent in
"And may the day soon dawn, when all the earth
shall be ONE HOLY LAND, and all mankind ONE GREAT LODGE OF BRETHREN,
all religions of hate and fear shall have vanished away, and wars and
persecutions be known no more, forever!"
ON the evening of September 2nd, 1914, the
Grand Lodge of England held its first Quarterly Communication after the
outbreak of war. It was a moment fraught with fate, not only for the
Empire, not alone for her Allies, but, as every Mason present felt in
heart, for liberty, for humanity, for civilization itself. The armies
France, of Britain, and of Belgium alike had been forced back in the
overwhelming onrush of the invading hosts; the enemy were sweeping on
gates of Paris; the crowning mercy of the Marne was yet to come and was
dared hope for; and darkness had descended on many a soul. It was Sedan
the date fixed in the long-devised time-table of the enemy High Command
triumphal entry into the French capital; and the grim anniversary
omen of evil out of the news that sobered all. In the Grand Temple of
Freemasons' Hall in that awe-inspiring hour, not a word of gloom, not a
despondency, was to be heard. The Right Worshipful, the truly Right
Deputy Grand Master of the English Craft ‒ a legislator of prolonged
experience, an administrator of proved skill, and a member of His
Most Honourable Privy Council ‒ struck on the instant a clear note. He
proposed, in eloquent and moving terms, a resolution deeply
loyal and devoted service to their country rendered by brothers of all
and offering an earnest prayer for their continued well-being. It was
privilege, as President of the Board of General Purposes of Grand Lodge
second this; and my closing words I echo today: "Those of us who are
compelled to stay at home are prepared to make what sacrifices they can
present emergency. There is probably not one of us who has not someone
him concerned in this struggle. They go forth knowing that they possess
confidence and our hope. We know our confidence will be justified. We
pray our hope will be fulfilled. Grand Lodge sends forth this message
fighting for their country, feeling confident it will cheer them in the
battle to know that with them are their brethren's hearts."
At this moment, and speaking, as I hope to do,
American Freemasons, especial interest attaches to the words of our
Grand Master in submitting the resolution: "We have all come together
the hour of danger. We are gratified to have with us a Past Grand
South Carolina. Although I cannot, perhaps, allude to him as being
committed to this motion, because he belongs to the Grand Lodge of
Jurisdiction and to a neutral country, yet we feel that he is of a
are bone of our bone and flesh of our flesh. America is a neutral
country but I
believe that our American brethren must appreciate, as we do, the
which our brethren and countrymen have risen and flocked to the service
and Country in the hour of need." This proved a fitting prelude to the
most impressive demonstration of Anglo-American Masonic fraternity ever
up to that time in the whole of the two-century annals of our Grand
At the desire of the Grand Master ‒ H.R.H. The
of Connaught, at that moment serving the Empire as Governor-General of
Dominion of Canada, there was read by our revered but now departed
Secretary, Sir Edward Letchworth, this communication from the Grand
eldest child in the Western hemisphere, the Grand Lodge of
officially avoiding partisanship in the civil conflict, nevertheless
this hour pass without advising your Grand Lodge of its deep concern
of your brethren and their dependents who are suffering in body or
we wish to offer all the Masonic succor within our power consistent
citizenship in a neutral nation. I beg that you, not in any military or
capacity, but solely as Grand Master, will cause me to be informed of
aid or comfort to afflicted brethren or their families within our power
Promptly Grand Lodge adopted with enthusiasm a
second resolution, thus associating itself with the Grand Master in
Bro. Melvin Johnson, Grand Master of the Masons of the Commonwealth of
Massachusetts, and in deep appreciation of his message as voicing a
of Masonic feeling especially welcome to the Grand Lodge of England.
are not insensible," exclaimed the Deputy Grand Master in making the
motion, "to the sympathy and love of our brother Masons in foreign
jurisdictions in this time of trouble and stress." "Grand
Lodge," added the Provincial Grand Master of Norfolk (the late Bro.
le Strange) in seconding, "must be deeply gratified by this mark of
interest and sympathy shown by our eldest child across the Atlantic. We
appreciate the truly Masonic spirit shown by the Masons of
their willingness to succor the old country, from which they came, in
of need." A striking and even dramatic episode immediately followed the
resolution's unanimous acceptance. The very first visitor of
America ever known to have attended a Quarterly Communication of the
Lodge of England was, as his name appears on our records, "John
Esq., P.G.M. of S. Carolina." As in April, 1738, so in September, 1914,
that State had a distinguished representative in Grand Lodge; and on
latter occasion it was Bro. J. Adger Smyth, Past Grand Master of South
Carolina, who thus addressed the assembled brethren:
"I am the
representative of the United Grand Lodge of England for the State of
Carolina, and have served you in that capacity for thirty years. My
an Englishman, my grandfather was an Englishman, and my grandmother was
Scotch woman. If my sympathies do not flow out to you, my brethren, in
hour of distress and national anxiety, I am no living man. I wish you
that I represent the feelings and sentiment of the Grand Lodge of South
Carolina when I say to you, and the brethren in this country, that we
endorse and say word for word what has been so well said by our
brethren of the
Grand Lodge of Massachusetts."
The thrill experienced in that earliest moment
the tremendous struggle still proceeding can never be forgotten. Every
in Grand Lodge that night ‒ from the venerable and venerated Deputy
Master of the English Jurisdiction to the youngest Junior Warden of a
Lodge ‒ had passed on his way into Grand Lodge a fine portrait of
first President, Masonically clothed, which stands prominently forth,
as a most
honored possession on the great staircase of Freemasons' Hall. Entering
Lodge under the serenely smiling shade of Washington, hearing, in Grand
united voices of cheer and hope from North and South, typified by
and South Carolina, the English Masons felt, in Grand Lodge, an
the spirit of true Brotherhood which since has deepened and at no time
failed. As from Grand Temple they went forth to their homes, and
and Sedan Day, threatening so foul, passed with gleam of hope, there
of us who from our hearts echoed Lincoln's immortal words. For we
day had highly resolved that our dead should not have died in vain;
nation, under God, should have a new birth of freedom; and that
the people, by the people and for the people should not perish from the
One further war-time association between
and English Masons ‒ and this even more intimate, for they now had
Allies ‒ is to be recalled. At the Bi-centenary commemoration in June,
the first Assembly of the Grand Lodge of England, eight thousand
learned with deep satisfaction that messages of congratulation had come
the Grand Lodges of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania, of Rhode Island and
Jersey, as well as of South Dakota, which I have the honorable
represent at Freemasons' Hall. In his opening address to that vast
Masons, the Grand Master accorded hearty greeting to all the
brethren from other Jurisdictions, emphasizing, amid loudly approving
his welcome to those from the United States. "They well know," said
His Royal Highness, "that we hold fast to our immemorial and immovable
principles, and that, even in this time of very great difficulty to
among us, we, through the agency of our Masonic Institutions, are ever
broadening the avenues of benevolence towards those who fall by the
with the fear of the Great Architect of the Universe ever before our
today dedicate ourselves anew to the supreme task of so maintaining
its fullest splendor, that the result of our counsels and our acts
shall be the
dispensing of justice to all men, the maintaining of the honor and
the Realm, and the uniting and knitting-together of the hearts of all
brethren in Love, Charity and Masonic Truth." Later, the Duke of
added these words of special welcome: "To our American brethren, we say
how sincerely we recognize that love of truth and loyalty to freedom
led their Nation to join with our own and with our Allies in the
struggle. From its beginning we have felt that the cause which we
that of Masonic Brotherhood in its noblest aspects, and that the
victory of our
cause will ensure the spread throughout all lands of the Three Grand
on which our Order is founded, and the triumph of which was never more
necessary, and, we trust, never more assured, than it is at this hour."
And the loud acclaim which arose from every part of the great
testified the instant effect of the appeal.
I have dealt thus in detail with these
circumstances because they are the most recent illustration ‒ and
the present war-time ‒ of the bond of unity which throughout our
history has existed between British and American Freemasonry.
whether of nature or nationality have never, as such, served to sever
our brethren, wherever dispersed over the face of earth or water.
"Masonry", it is laid down in the very first of the Antient Charges
of a Freemason, prefaced to the Book of Constitutions, a copy of which
placed in the hands of every English Initiate "is the center of union
between good men and true, and the happy means of conciliating
amongst those who must otherwise have remained at a perpetual
"It has ever flourished in times of peace," says the second,
"and . . . Craftsmen are bound by peculiar ties to promote peace,
cultivate harmony, and live in concord and brotherly love." No one, and
especially today, will dispute these verities from of old; and in no
have they been more persistently testified than in the relations of
It is no exaggeration to say that, if the
the English States had displayed the same breadth of wisdom and
towards her children and kinsmen in America as from the very outset was
by the rulers of the English Craft, there would have been no War of
Independence. The fullest liberty of self-government would, from the
have existed, and would have been sweetened by the strongest yet
of fraternal relationship, regard, and trust. Let us take of this the
test ‒ that not of theory or of tradition but of recorded fact. In
1730, and on
the Fifth of June ‒ American Masonry's Independence Day ‒ the Duke of
as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, signed in London a
"Deputation to Daniel Cox, Esq., to be Provincial Grand Master of the
Provinces of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania in America." In this
instrument, the one who was proud to describe himself therein as "Earl
Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England, after the Princes of the
Blood, first Duke, Earl and Baron of England, Chief of the Illustrious
of the Howards," sent greeting "To all and every our Right Worshipful,
Worshipful and loving Brethren now residing, or who may hereinafter
the Provinces of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania." He declared
that, in response to the desire and application of the Freemasons in
parts, Daniel Cox of New Jersey should be ordained, constituted and
Provincial Grand Master of the three Provinces "with full Power and
Authority to nominate and appoint his Deputy Grand Master and Grand
the space of two years from the Feast of St. John the Baptist now next
after which time it is our Will and Pleasure and We do hereby ordain
Brethren who so now reside or may hereafter reside in all or any of the
Provinces, shall and they are hereby I powered every other year on the
St. John the Baptist to elect a Provincial Grand Master, who shall have
power of nominating and appointing his Deputy Grand Master and Grand
American Freemasons, therefore, possessed the
choice of their immediate rulers in the Craft from the earliest moment
existence. They had virtually selected their first chief; they were
empowered to elect every successor; and, in return, all that was
that they should observe the Book of Constitutions, and forward to
central home an annual account of their lodges and membership "together
with such other matters and things as they shall think fit to be
for the Prosperity of the Craft." There was no question of "Taxation
without Representation." The American lodges from the beginning
their own finance, without either remittance or reference to England.
was suggested in this direction was that their ruler at each annual
"at that time more particularly and at all Quarterly Communications do
recommend a General Charity to be established for the Reliefe of poor
of the said Provinces," this being the usual course adopted at home.
Freedom to choose their own chiefs; freedom to work in order and
under those chiefs; freedom from overseas interference with their
these were the cornerstones of the Charter of Independence sent from
American Masonry on June 5, 1730. They were not fully asked from
American citizenship until July 4, 1776.
From the outset, the relations thus happily and
spontaneously established worked with smoothness. American Provincial
Masters, on the rare occasion of a stay in England, visited Grand Lodge
were placed in the official records with the rulers of the Craft.
lodges occasionally communicated with the central authority; but so
there any idea of interference that the records of Grand Lodge during
of Independence may be searched in vain for trace of intervention in
struggle or of intent to impose English ideas on American Masons. Grand
at the very beginning had accorded liberty of thought and action, and
departed from that original standpoint. Brethren remained brethren
constitutional dispute and civil discord; and even today in some of our
lodges, closely allied by circumstance with Atlantic voyage, each
the Craft has the universality of Masonry forcibly impressed upon him
allusions plainly dating from Continental times. "Wherever it shall
the will of Providence to cast your lot," he is told, "whether you
traverse the banks of the Mississippi, whether you dwell amid the
wilds of the scattered Indian tribes across the mighty Atlantic, aye,
even on the
battle-field itself, you will everywhere find a brother who will greet
you ‒ in
every nation a brother, in every clime a home."
A profound cause exists for this abiding
in spirit between American and British Freemasons. They alike hold in
regard honorable obligation, moral responsibility, and human freedom.
"all men are created equal" of the Declaration of Independence is but
to emphasize the demonstration by the Level that we have all sprung
same stock, are partakers of the same nature, and sharers in the same
First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, directing
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or
prohibiting its free exercise, is in absolute accord with the First
the Antient Charges, which enjoins: "Let a man's religion be what it
he is not excluded from the Order, provided he believes in the Glorious
Architect of Heaven and Earth, and practice the sacred duties of
morality." And nothing more completely could consort with the theory
practice of American citizenship than the declaration of our Fourth
"All preferment among Masons is grounded upon real worth and personal
merit only; that so the lords may be well served, the brethren not put
shame, or the Craft despised."
These are of the fundamentals of Freemasonry as
known and practiced by American and British brethren alike; and they
better deserved remembrance than in this hour of allied nationhood amid
external strife. It is a time for the ideal to be a beacon-light to the
not to discover divergence but to cement union. "In things essential,
unity; in things non-essential, diversity; in all things, charity." For
two centuries, English and American Freemasons, standing side by side,
worked hand in hand. Rendering services not of the lip but of the life
immortal truths ‒ embodied in the principles of the Craft ‒ not wasting
in mystical speculation, but bending strength to practical endeavor ‒
of hearts existing throughout our common Masonic history should now
lead to a
union of hands. It is given to us of today to dissipate the belief of
bygone that "Masonry has been always injured by war, bloodshed and
confusion." The nominal official relationships long established between
the majority of the Grand Lodges of the United States and the United
Lodge of England should be extended to all, and in every case made more
Let the distinguished brethren thus accredited on both sides of the
act as ambassadors, keeping each other in constant comradeship. Let
there be organized
a system enabling representative English Masons visiting the United
representative American Masons coming to this country ‒ for, when the
stress ends, there will be even increased inter-visitation compared
pre-war times ‒ to attend lodge meetings at their desire during their
means be devised for making us better acquainted with each other's
other's ways, for the first condition of true friendship is full
Even now there exists the nucleus of such a system in the two London
under the English Constitution in special kinship with the United
one composed of Americans by birth or association, the other of
alone. Development of the idea would demand time, entail trouble,
thought. But the time, trouble, and thought alike would be well
bring the Craft in both countries into closer communion and surer touch.
If we adopted this as our ideal, means would be
found to make it real. While Statesmen strive to establish a League of
let us set up, for ourselves and the brethren with whom we always in
and practice have been allied, a League of Masons. Reverent recognition
Eternal, resolute renouncement of the political ‒ these are the
corner stone of our Masonic system. On so sure a base, a superstructure
raised embracing, as in a house of many mansions, the vast Masonic
independent as units, united as a whole. Britain and America, Australia
Zealand, Canada and the Cape, India and the Isles beyond seas can dwell
together under that roof. It may be but a vision, and yet even as a
inspires. That first Grand Original who stood upon Mount Pisgah could
could never enter, the Promised Land. Yet even the sight gladdened his
eyes after his long toilings to lead his people into the light.
In the pursuit of so high an endeavor,
exist only to be dispersed; and never was it more true that where there
will, there is a way. Bound to each other by ties of common origin,
ideals, and never broken friendship, American and British Freemasonry
render inestimable service, not only to the Brotherhood, but to
more intimacy of association and intensity of aim. What we have to do
once to put ourselves to work and discover whether, by making the best
Masonry, lasting good may not be gained from the present world-welter
It is a task worthy of the devotion of us all, and Masons on both sides
Atlantic should worthily rise to so supreme an occasion. Then, even war
have its compensations. Out of the eater shall come forth meat, and out
strong shall come forth sweetness. The far-flung battle-line shall give
to the far-flung brother-line; and, great though will be our labor, our
shall be sure.
Notes on the Comacine Masters
By Bro. W. Ravenscroft,
In presenting this article we wish again to
emphasize that Brother Newton says of Brother Ravenscroft's work on
Page 88 of
the March issue of THE BUILDER. We have no hesitation in saying that
presentation of the latest researches of our noted English brother is
judgment the most important contribution to the subject of the sources
Freemasonry as it now exists which has been given to the Masonic world
the organization of this Society. While perhaps not all Masonic
agreed with the conclusions of Brother Ravenscroft in his small but
book, "The Comacines," it must be admitted that the new material
herewith presented is of great value in supporting his former
Members of our Society will find cause for gratification in the choice
BUILDER as the medium through which Brother Ravenscroft gives us this
light, and we welcome the opportunity to still further acknowledge our
gratitude to our English brother for his continuing interest in our
"You have often heard it said that Scotto was
the founder of Art in Italy. He was not: neither he, nor Cianta Pisano,
Niccolo Pisano. They all laid strong hands to the work, and brought it
into aspect above ground; but the foundation had been laid for them by
builders of the Lombardic churches in the valleys of the Adda and the
"It is in the sculpture of the round-arched churches of North Italy
bearing disputable dates, ranging from the eighth to the twelfth
you will find the lowest struck roots of the Art of Titian and
From John Ruskin's "Two Paths."
SEVEN years ago I wrote a little book,
Elliot Stock, London, with the title, "The Comacines, Their
and Their Successors." [Lib 1910] It closed with the following
summary of the
points I wished to emphasize:
before Christ and the foundation of Rome a race of Hametic descent
the Mediterranean shores and afterward became known in Syria and Asia
Hittites, in Greece as Pelasgoi, and in Italy as Etruscans.
were engaged in building the Temple at Jerusalem, the fame of which
Romans learned their arts of building, decoration and pottery, etc.,
Etruscans, who were the same race as the Hittites, and carried with
at least of their traditions.
- In Rome
developed Collegia of Artificers, and in early Christian days these had
traditions of King Solomon.
- At the
downfall of Rome the Gild of Artificers left and settled in the
Como, holding as their center the Island of Comacina.
thence they spread their influence over all Western Europe and even to
they merged into the great Masonic Gilds of the Middle Ages.
these Gilds died out their forms and ceremonies were preserved to a
extent in our Masonic lodges; at any rate those under the English and
Since my book was published I have continued to
make its subject one of my principal studies and through the courtesy
influence of Cav. A. G. Caprani, the owner of the island of Comacina, I
obtained interviews with several Italian archaeologists who gave me
help in my investigations. This resulted in the collection of notes and
drawings which, together with what I have been able to obtain by
inspection in many Italian towns and especially in the Como district,
basis of what I have written in the present paper.
Of what I previously wrote on this subject I
had scarcely any adverse criticism, but I have seen the Comacines
one writer as an "obscure association," while another refers to their
story as a myth. One is reminded thus of the traveler who stated that
he knew the
Lake of Como from end to end and could positively assert that there was
island in it whatever.
It is not my intention here to recapitulate
have already written, but rather by added evidence to substantiate the
important points therein. At the same time by keeping before the reader
eight points listed at the beginning of this article I hope as far as
to make this paper self-contained.
One would not lay too much stress on the first
three of these statements, especially on the first, which one has, of
always regarded as more or less hypothetical. The statements numbered
three have been repeatedly confirmed by American as well as English
but far as one could find, nowhere traversed.
The late J. Tavenor Perry, F.R.I.B.A., in an
article communicated to the "Architect" of July 24th, 1914, entitled
"The Origin of Lion Bases," traces direct Hittite influence on the
lion bases found throughout Italy, and so intimately associated with
Comacine work, his argument being that the use of beasts in connection
architecture especially as supporting the columns of porches, doorways,
was popular from the tenth century throughout Italy and parts of
France. These beasts, although by no means exclusively so, took
form of lions and were certainly much in vogue for a considerable time.
Mr. Tavenor Perry [Lib 1910] traces a striking likeness
between Hittite lions,
as revealed in sculptured remains, supporting pillars and doorposts,
of Italy, and, differing from Riviora, who claims Etruscan source for
latter, concludes that the idea was brought home by returning Crusaders
they passed through the Hittite country, saw and carried home the
of the beasts in question.
This suggestion that the lion inspiration was
originally Hittite, makes intelligible the associations of lions with
Solomon's throne, as also the Etruscan development of guardian lions.
connection it is worthy of mention that during recent excavations at
Corstopitum, near Corbridge on Tyne and Hexham, a lion, remarkably like
of the Comacine type, was discovered, of which the report of the
"The lion, though in some respects a familiar
Roman type, embodies artistic tendencies which break loose from Roman
anticipate the Middle Ages."
The discovery of this lion in English soil
suggests the enquiry as to how far it is associated with Comacine work
England to which a further reference in these pages will be made. A few
relating to the Collegia of Artificers will help to confirm point four.
Pliny in a letter to the Emperor Trajan at the
of the first century refers to a college of workmen. This is confirmed
Professor Baldwin Brown in "From Schola to Cathedral" [Lib 1886] (Douglas,
Edinburgh, 1886), while Villari in "The Barbarian Invasion of Italy"
1902; Vol 1, Vol 2] (Fisher Unwin,
London, 1902), refers to there being found after the sack of Rome no
skilled to design buildings there.
Professor Merzario in his "Maestri
Comacini," [Lib 1893; Vol 1, Vol 2 (Italian)] vol.
I, p. 54, (Milan, 1893), tells us that when Constantine went to
D. 328, he was accompanied by artificers who worked in Roman style. He
says there is reason to believe that unions of architects, workers in
painters, wall builders, joiners and other workmen existed in Rome to
year 400 A. D. and that down to the fall of Imperial Rome there were
unions in other important cities of Italy, particularly in Ravenna and
which for many years were seats of Empire (vol. I, p. 36).
With regard to point five that "At the
downfall of Rome the Gild of Artificers left and settled in the
Como, holding as their center the island of Comacina," there are to
many items of interest.
It is to be presumed that no one questions the
association of a Gild of Artificers with the Lake of Como from
A.D. 500 to the time when they were finally driven from the Island of
by the men of Como, A. D. 1169. Two charters granted the Gild by
that of Rotharis, A.D. 643, and that of Liutprand, nearly one hundred
later, beside many other documental references, give evidence of this.
it be denied that these artificers developed a style of their own which
probably underwent modifications according to the extent to which it
subjected, from time to time, to external influences.
But what may not be thought conclusive is that
these were the men who, for five centuries at least, made their mark
were the chief factors in the development of architecture in Italy and
Europe. In other words, that the Comacine Gild practically fills the
which has been supposed to exist between the downfall of Rome and the
of what is generally understood as medieval architecture in Italy and
The point then is to establish that the Comacine influence was as
is claimed for it.
But first as regards their connection with the
Roman Collegia, and examination of some of their plans and of the
their ornament together with the general use of the semi-circular arch
render assistance. Wherever else the Comacine Masters may or may not
worked, they are clearly responsible for the buildings of their period
district of Como, and indeed of the Lombardy plain generally, for the
were no builders, and hence needed skilled assistance in the
Now whether we take the ground-plan of a
Oratory, Church or Cathedral, we shall find its prototype chiefly at
There is a small building of the eleventh century in the Comacine
known as the Oratory of S. Benedetto in Civate, and its plan, as well
shaping of its roofs, shows striking similarity to one of the oldest
buildings in Rome, "The Memorial Cella" in the Cemetery of S.
Callisto, each plan consisting of a rectangle with three semicircular
placed so as to form a kind of chancel with transepts; the "Cella"
dating from the end of the third century. The plan of the Comacine
Sta. Maria del Tiglio, at Gravedona on Lake Como, is also similar. And
connection it is noteworthy that in one of the oldest but most recently
discovered of the Catacombs at Rome, that of Priscilla, there is a
century chapel called, because of some of the inscriptions it contains,
Greek chapel, almost identical in plan with these. (Figs. 1, 2 and 3.)
In this district also are the Churches of S.
at Monte (Fig. 3a), S. Andrea at Lenno, S. Giacomo at Spurano, the
the Ospedaletto between Campo and Sala, and the Church at Piona, with
others, all consisting of rectangular aisleless naves and semicircular
following the plan of the larger Scholae at Rome. Then there are
such as that at Lenno, to all appearance modeled on the plan of early
ones in Rome, some dating from the establishment of Christianity by
Constantine. And there are the larger churches, such as S. Benedetto di
Oltirone, (Fig. 3b), S. Giovanni at Bellagio, S. Eufemia on the Island
Comacina, S. Abbondio at Como, and hosts of others all following, with
modifications, the general type of plan used for a Christian basilica
in the early centuries of Christianity. Clearly so far as the general
plan are concerned the Comacines, at any rate in their churches close
drew their inspiration from Rome.
In the development of the capitals of columns
get distinct traces of Roman influence both on the Island of Comacina
district around. Three instances will suffice to explain this.
In the ninth century Crypt of S. Stefano at
with some variations, occurs the later type of Roman volute ‒ the
even the aloe leaves of debased Roman capitals (Fig. 4). The capitals
of the columns in the Church of S. Abbondio, Como, are obviously
Roman corinthian capitals and in the Baptistery at Gravedona the
the acanthus is unmistakable.
In this connection the association of the
Masters with the Quatuor Coronati perhaps does not count for much,
four martyrs were probably not only the patron saints of the Comacines,
also of other Gilds of Artificers, as certainly they were in subsequent
but it is interesting to record the dedication of Comacine Churches to
memory as four as well as to individual members of them such as that of
Carpoforo, just outside Como.
The antiquary, Sig. Ugo
Monneret de Villard, [Lib*] who has been for a considerable time
Comacine district and has recently published the result (1) of his
on the Island of Comacina, and of research in the Archives of Milan and
etc., relating thereto, all carried out under the authority of the
Government, regards the Comacine Masters as the descendants of the
Collegia, but doubts the correctness of the statement that they fled
contending that they had before its fall established Collegia
Lombardy and elsewhere in the Roman Empire, and that from Rome's
than directly from Rome, they fled to Comacina.
He also thinks that the Gild, as such, ended
the twelfth century, and this would synchronize with the fall of
albeit at the dissolution of the Gild the individual members carried
traditions in many directions.
In this connection it may be desirable to
the Greek name given to the Island of Comacina by one Abbot Floriano,
"Christopolis," by reason of its having become a place of refuge for
the many peaceful Romans who fled for security from the Lombard
from the strife, turmoil, bloodshed and devastation of which the
and its surrounding districts was the unhappy scene. Not only would the
be some little security against the Lombards, but also against Teutonic
invasion from the Northeast, and from the valleys round the lakes; for
progress of Christianity in this district was but slow and the
formation of the
Episcopal see of Como was comparatively late
Fortified very strongly, the crowded little
would thus become as fitting a home as could be found for the Magistri
it their centre and marvelously contrived to carry on their craft in
surrounding district through ages of turmoil and internecine war.
their conquerors, they were in course of time called back when
builders were needed by the Lombards, and these Craftsmen would bring
stone, marble and wood, since the Lombardy plain could not supply such
Thus much for the relation between the
and the Roman Collegia, but it is not suggested that the Comacines
their style and worked out their buildings unaffected from without by
On the contrary it is evident that a Byzantine
character was given to a good deal of their work, especially as it
Eastward; and while asserting the claim for individual character in it
the criticism which complains that they are credited with what does not
to them, it cannot be denied that, in the development of their style,
had some part. Indeed the suggestion of the following notes is that it
was to a
considerable extent through the Comacines that Byzantine art found
in the West.
Up to the commencement of the great schism in
eighth century, it would be natural to expect Eastern influence to be
and easy; but from that time onward it would be equally natural to look
cessation, or at least diminution. And yet it seems to have been
right through the centuries, even to the twelfth, in which it is
discernable. How was this?
For the following reasons one would venture to
believe that it was through the Comacines largely and in spite of the
of the Churches, that its flow was more or less maintained. First, the
district proper may be said to have extended from the plain of Lombardy
least as far as Istria. Secondly, this district was under the
jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Aquileja, and hence looked to
rather than Rome. Thirdly, Sig. Caprani says:
"The badge of
the former inhabitants of the Island Comacina was most likely at the
the town was destroyed (A. D. 1169) a Byzantine Cross, as they depended
Ecclesiastical matters from the Patriarch of Constantinople. Their
the people of Varenna, are still called 'Patriarchini,' by way-of
their Ecclesiastical allegiance to Byzantium instead of Rome. (2)
supposed that this continued after the fatal year 1169, and the fact
the parish of Varenna the Ambrosian Rite is observed instead of the
is observed in all the parishes of the province of Como, may be in
of their political lien with Milan as their former adherence to
was probably the reason for not depending from Rome in religious
As a postscript to the above, Sig. Caprani adds:
what I have already brought to your notice of what is related in the
Archaeologia of Como, 1908, I observe that the Byzantine Cross precedes
inscription found on a capital of the cloister of Voltorre (on Lake
which includes the assumption that it was built under the direction of
Lanfrancus, one member of the Comacine Gild.
Magister Lanfrancus was perhaps the same who, in 1099, with increased
acknowledged architect, began the renovation of the Cathedral of Modena
directed those works, at least until the end of 1106, called 'Mirabilis
mirificus edificator,' and who, in a tablet placed on the back of the
Modena, is remembered with the following epitaph:
Lanfrancus Doctus et aptus est operis Princepo Hujus Rectorque Magister.
Fourthly. It is a matter of history that in
553 an Aecumenical Council was held in Constantinople (the fifth
by the Christian Church) and condemned as heresy the writings of three
Bishops known as the "Three Chapters," two of which, however, had
been previously, at the Council of Chalcedon (A. D. 451), acquitted.
It appears that in A. D. 557 the Archbishop of
Aquileja called together his suffragans and rejected the act of this
553, thereby estranging themselves in this particular matter from the
accepted view, both Eastern and Western. At the same time they
their Archbishop "Patriarch of Aquileja." At the close of the sixth
century Pope Gregory the Great sought to bring them into line but they
to obey his summons to Rome. In connection with these events there
the scene a Bishop of Como, Agrippinus, who died about 620 A.D., or
some say, a little earlier, and whose seventh century epitaph is still
seen in the Church at Isola on the mainland close to Comacina whence
epitaph was brought, Agrippinus having been buried on the Island. In
epitaph testimony is given to the part Agrippinus played in the
the side of Aquileja. Since that time repeated efforts have been made
the district under the authority of Rome, but until the eighteenth
but small, and that intermittent success.
S. Carlo Borromeo tried it, as many of his
predecessors had done, and yet it remained Eastern in its obedience
Aquileia, in a re-distribution of authority, lost its importance and
have its jurisdiction. The point of all this for our purpose is
geographically as well as through religious attitude of its hierarchy
district could not be other than a direct and easy channel for the flow
Eastern ideas in matters of art as well as religion.
Lastly, the Church of S. Pietro al Monte di
(eleventh century Comacine work, Fig. 3a) had its altar three-quarters
length of the church toward the West, in such a manner as that the
faced the East and the people, according to the more ancient and
This in the West at so late a date is very exceptional and a clear
of the association. Taking together then these five points and
connection between the Church and Gilds in the Middle Ages it is surely
justifiable to suggest that its was to a great extent through the
that Byzantine art owes largely such acceptance as it found in the West.
(To be continued)
(2) In an article on Varenna recently published in an Italian journal
the following: Nel 1169 gli abitanti di Cristopoli (another name for
dai Comaschi cacciatidale Isola Comacina si refugiarono a Varenna
loro rito patriarchino dicui non sono del tutto estinte le traccie.
In our study paper
"Approaching the East," by Brother Haywood, which appeared in the
April Correspondence Circle Bulletin, was discussed the meaning of the
expression "Gone West." Our members, especially those who belong to
lodges or study clubs where our "Bulletin Course of Masonic Study" is
being used, will find the following item which recently appeared in
Christian Commonwealth" of much interest:
In his "First Expedition to Africa,"
Livingstone tells of his encounter with a lion, in which he reveals a
interesting fact. Once the-beast had him by the shoulder, and had
like a rat, all sense of terror and pain vanished. The shock produced,
naturally, a condition of anesthesia. This seemed to the explorer a
provision of Nature to lessen the pain of death.
A similar, less intense, though more prolonged
condition of anesthesia seems to supervene where men spend days and
the presence of imminent death. The presence of death itself seems to
an anesthetic effect. In pre-war days death, viewed at a distance by
average healthy man, had, to say the least, a very sinister aspect.
is changed. Men poke fun and talk slang in the dread presence.
propensity for humor will not stop short even here. Cartoons from the
show how true this is. To hob-nob with death seems to deprive it of the
it assumed when we knew it only as a nodding acquaintance. Anesthesia
produced by the very thing we feared.
The soldier refers to it in phrases which may
be classed under the heading of verbal anesthetics. Take, for example,
phrase as "Gone West." Here is a verbal charm before which grimness
and ghastliness disappear. Instead, the mind is filled with suggestions
golden romance, sunset splendor, and a new world of distant mysteries.
These, at least, if nothing more definite, are
suggested, and these do draw the sting and sweeten the bitterness a
is surprising what effect even a beautiful phrase may produce. And this
one of many verbal anesthetics which we gladly use today.
It may surprise some of us to be told that
"Going West" was a phrase well known to the old Egyptians, to the men
of the Torres Straits, Fiji, Brazil and India. And they used the phrase
more definite conceptions than our soldiers do today. Let us see what
those conceptions were.
The belief in an under-world, to which the
men journeyed, was common, of course, to the Hebrews, Greeks and
Certain tribes as far apart as South Africa and Mexico had a similar
such a place existed it was only natural that it should have an
speculation, of course, was rife as to where the entrance was. The
believed it to be in the Comitium. In Ireland there is an old legend,
tells how Sir Oswain and a monk, Gilbert, discovered the entrance in an
of Lough Derg, in Donegal.
These, however, were purely local, and there
the suggestion of an entrance obvious to all. The sun, it was thought,
into the under-world at his setting and emerged from it at dawn.
then, the sunset was the real entrance to the spirit abodes.
A conception arose, therefore, in some races
it was essential to journey with the sun, and under his charge to pass
clashing gates that guarded the entrance to the land of spirits. Such
"Going West" of primitive man in Australia, Polynesia, India and
Brazil. Among the Aryan races such a picture did not, however, prevail
‒ to the
Romans, e. g., it was unknown.
Amid the more primitive peoples it did exist,
was by some extended to embrace the idea of two worlds. To the idea of
gloomy underworld was added that of islands of the blessed which lay in
sunset, and to which went only the virtuous and the brave. The
for bad men only. The nether world thus assumed a gloomier aspect. But
islands of the blessed were happy and fruitful abodes of joy and peace.
No such conceptions as these are present to the
modern soldier; and whether his phrase "Gone West" can be traced back
to any such origin or not, the fact remains that we have here a phrase
provides an esthetic, hides the terror of death, and suggests instead
distant glory of a new romance.
The Meaning of our Red
The red in our cross stands for sacrifice, for
giving life, as the warm, crimson blood gives life to the body. The
the same length on all four sides of its arms, to signify that it gives
equally to all, high or low, east or west. It stands alone always, no
markings on it, to show that the Red Cross workers have only one
thought ‒ to
serve. They ask no questions, they care not whether the wounded be ours
another people ‒ their duty is to give, and to give quickly.
The Red Cross stands on a white ground, because
real sacrifice can come only from pure hearts. Service must come, not
hate, but from love; from the noblest thoughts and wishes of the heart,
will fail. That is why children love this flag. It is drawing them by
in the schools of our land, in a wonderful army of rescue under the
to make, to save, to give for others. And some day the children of all
under the Red Cross, will teach the grown people the ways of
of friendship; the beautiful meaning of the Red Cross which is echoed
The First Degree
The first degree in Masonry inculcates a
of himself, and rightly understood, teaches the Initiate how he may "in
the beginning" re-create himself. Man becomes king of the brutes by
subduing or taming them. Brutes are fit types of our passions and are
instinctive forces of nature. Physical laws are millstones; if you are
miller, you must be the grain. To attain the sanctum sanctorum, you
possess four indispensable capacities: an intelligence illuminated by
intrepidity which nothing can check; a will which nothing can break;
discretion which nothing can corrupt and nothing intoxicate. "To know,
dare, to will, and to keep silence" were the four indispensable
for gaining admission into the ancient mysteries and are true today for
initiates. Have you really studied yourself? Are you insensible to
Have you overcome the vortices of vague thoughts? Are you without
Do you consent to pleasure when you will or when you should? To be able
forbear is to be twice able. To learn self-conquest is to learn life.
intelligence and will of man are instruments of incalculable power and
capacity. Properly directed imagination is a helpmeet, coupled with
intelligence and will, that will make man almost omnipotent. Who would
slave to his senses when he may be a king and reign with power and
All our wants, beyond those which a very
income can supply, are purely imaginary.
If a man makes me keep my distance, the comfort
he keeps his at the same time.
The Faith that is in
Them ‒ A Fraternal Forum
Edited By Bro. George
PRESIDENT, THE BOARD OF STEWARDS
Wildey E. Atchison, Iowa.
Geo. W. Baird, District of Columbia.
Joseph Barnett, California.
John W. Barry, Iowa.
Joe L. Carson, Virginia.
Jos. W. Eggleston, Virginia.
Henry R. Evans, District of Columbia.
H. D. Funk, Minnesota.
Joseph C. Greenfield, Georgia.
Frederick W. Hamilton, Massachusetts.
H. L. Haywood, Iowa.
T. W. Hugo, Minnesota.
M. M. Johnson, Massachusetts.
John G. Keplinger, Illinois.
Harold A. Kingsbury, Connecticut.
Dr. Wm. F. Kuhn, Missouri.
Julius H. McCollum, Connecticut.
Dr. John Lewin McLeish, Ohio.
Joseph W. Norwood, Kentucky.
Frank E. Noyes, Wisconsin.
John Pickard, Missouri.
C. M. Schenck, Colorado.
Francis W. Shepardson, Illinois.
Silas H. Shepherd, Wisconsin.
Oliver D. Street, Alabama.
H. W. Ticknor, Maryland.
Denman S. Wagstaff, California.
S. W. Williams, Tennessee.
(Contributions to this
of Personal Opinion are invited from each writer who has contributed
more articles to THE BUILDER. Subjects for discussion are selected as
alive in the administration of Masonry today. Discussions of politics,
religious creeds or personal prejudices are avoided, the purpose of the
being to afford a vehicle for comparing the personal opinions of
Masonic students. The contributing editors assume responsibility only
each writes over his own signature. Comment from our Members on the
discussed here will be welcomed in the Question Box and Correspondence
QUESTION NO. 11 ‒
Shall Each American Lodge
Appoint One of Its Members as a Personal Representative
… in the lodge and in the home community of and
each member of the lodge who is on War duty in France?
"If so, shall each such personal
representative be made responsible for furnishing personal letters,
books, gifts, etc., to his Masonic brother in France?
"What other systematic scheme do you propose
that will as effectually remind Masons in France of their Masonic
home, as the K. of C. buildings remind Catholic soldiers of their
brothers at home?"
* * *
Rotate The Work.
In the ritual of an ancient organization, one
undergoing trials says, "My brother, my brother, hast thou forgotten
Our enlisted Masonic brethren must not be
neglected, even though they are well looked after by those in National
authority, and even though we have subscribed liberally to the Y.M.C.A.
that particular purpose. All material needs are doubtless well cared
Masonry should do is to supply the personal friendly and sympathetic
appreciative element. Each of the boys in France should receive a
the lodge from time to time. And the boys should be encouraged to write
lodge, so that those less fortunate than themselves may be cheered up
learning that the lodge is not forgotten amid new and interesting
in foreign lands.
It would be an unreasonable burden on
of lodges to ask them to write to all the members in camp. Nor is it
that any individual or group of individuals appointed permanently would
such duty. It would probably be more fruitful if men were appointed for
such service, to be succeeded by others from time to time. And one man
write a letter to each of three or four men once or so in a year,
either in his
own name or in the name of the lodge. Most members would probably
their share, and would take special pleasure in writing to those with
were intimately acquainted.
As regards books and packages, it would be
easier to interest members. Everyone would make some sacrifice in that
it is not at all certain that such things would reach our boys. Every
ship space is urgently needed for other purposes. Even if packages
France, there is no probability of immediate transportation to the
the present it would probably be wasted effort to send anything but
* * *
The Plan Works.
I am strongly in favor of having every American
lodge assign to an individual member the pleasing duty and
keeping another member, absent on service, informed of affairs at home.
Those who have had opportunity to visit the
front state that nothing is more helpful to the soldiers than a cheery
from home. I can see how a brother, who caught the idea, might make of
assignment an opportunity for real service, not only encouraging his
the trenches, but also finding his own patriotism strengthened by
constant thoughtfulness about things that might be of interest to the
College fraternities are making much of a
plan. Each brother in service, whether known to the correspondent or
kept posted on affairs in the college, current events, and every
which might be of interest to one remote from the ordinary source of
There is no reason for thinking that a work which has found abundant
among college boys should not also commend itself in actual experience
of maturer years.
Francis W. Shepardson, Illinois.
* * *
Let The Secretary Write.
It seems to me that the Secretary of a lodge is
proper person to furnish personal letters, magazines, books, gifts,
members serving in the army in France. Such work would add to his
he is the proper channel for all lodge activities, such as the getting
notices, bulletins, etc. He is familiar with the personnel of the
transfer such activities to another? He might be given clerical
however. The members of a lodge are better acquainted with the
with any individual member thereof. The members drop out, leave for
etc., but the Secretary remains.
It seems to me that the combined Grand Lodges
the United States should take up the matter of establishing Masonic
with our army in France; appointing a general committee and asking for
from each jurisdiction to maintain such centers. We do not want to
the Y.M.C.A. in its particular line of work, but we could have centers
the brethren might meet and exchange views and obtain assistance when
Evans, District of Columbia.
* * *
I think the positive suggestions contained in
question are both of them admirable.
I do not think that our brethren at the front
the same kind of mental treatment as is administered to the Catholics
the K. C. buildings. I think there is some confusion of thought
us with regard to this particular matter.
The K. C. work is not primarily fraternal in
sense that ours is, but it is the Catholic substitute for the Y.M.C.A.
increased emphasis on the religion side.
The method of Masonic communication adopted by
Grand Lodge is the appointment of a special deputy with each military
unit in which there is any considerable number of Massachusetts men.
special deputies interest themselves in the promotion of Masonic clubs
are intended to organize Master Masons, and serve generally as a center
which the Masonic interests of the command may gather and as the means
regular communication between the brethren and the Grand Master and
W. Hamilton, Massachusetts.
* * *
A Committee of Earnest
I do not approve of appointing one member of a
lodge to look after the comforts and interests of each soldier member.
a lodge matter; every brother thereof should have the same burden on
and conscience. It is unfair, although easy, to put onto the other
duties one should assume for oneself. On an average, only about ten per
a lodge roster is in the service. It would be manifestly unjust to put
on one-tenth of the membership and let the other nine-tenths drift into
slacker class. Furthermore, it would be better for the nine-tenths
if they had a personal interest in the matter. It would keep war needs
constantly before them, stimulate the fires of patriotism, and make
realize they are an important, integral unit in the fight.
If anything is done, it should be by a
realize that committees are too often unsatisfactory and that one
thereof generally does the work. But this committee should be carefully
selected, not named haphazard, as is too often done in Masonic lodges.
should demand and receive active support and assistance from every
should insist on each one doing his part. Community effort is more
of results than individual effort when wisely and tactfully handled. A
earnest men acting as a unit can accomplish much, while the individual
limited by his ability or his inclination.
I note your question seems to refer to our
while in France. I believe the time to look after them is before they
after they come back. This man's army is going to France for strenuous
may be the last stand for freedom of thought and pure democracy of
While overseas there will be little time to read books and magazines,
soldier with a sixty pound pack on his back will not care to increase
matter how sweet the spirit of the giver. But, before he leaves
America, he is
ofttimes home-sick; many times anxious about those he is leaving
ignorant largely of what is on the other side. And when he comes back,
be confronted with lost years of effort for himself and with questions
regarding the future.
* * *
Teach Masonry At The Cantonments.
The idea does not appeal to me. I would want no
to represent me or to feel that he was in any way responsible for my
wants or needs.
As a member of the Masonic fraternity I would
to feel that my entire home organization took an interest in me but I
want that interest focused in any one individual outside of my family.
"What would remind me of my brethren at home
as the K. of C. buildings remind Catholic soldiers of their Catholic
I would want no gifts, but I would welcome
and cheerful letters ‒ many of them ‒ and the privilege and ability to
Masonic intercourse with Masons of my own and of all other
nationalities on and
behind the firing line. But how many of us are equipped for such
Let me illustrate. Thousands of young men are
drafted into the service. Before going to France they are intensively
for six to nine months or a year. Then they are in a fair way to care
themselves. Now consider what we Ancient Free and Accepted Masons do
recruits. We take them in today and tomorrow they are Master Masons,
to all the rights and privileges of the fraternity. Most of them learn
but the catechism. True, a lot of brethren do assemble and enjoy
with the constant repetition of the ritual but let us give Masonic
"meat" to the serious minded men who are going abroad. This will, in
time, leaven the whole body of the Craft. How would I accomplish this?
establishing Masonic schools at each cantonment in the United States
France and putting them in charge of such a man as Frank C. Higgins,
teach us something worthwhile of Masonry so that we would not appear as
poor Masonic relations when we come into contact with English, French
brethren. Then let our Grand Lodges rescind their decrees relative to
non-intercourse with other nations so that we can fraternize with
every land and nation whom we are likely to meet. That's what I would
have you do for me if I were going to France. I'd take chances with my
‒ Masons and non-Masons ‒ on getting the material things in life.
* * *
"The Junior Warden."
I absorb this inquiry as I would a timely
admonition, as I think it needed. The question "Am I my brother's
keeper?" thus comes home to us as men and Masons. Why do I say "men
and Masons"? By the ceremony of Masonic transubstantiation we have
to ourselves a real heritage, separating us throughout our conscious
the common grovelling serfdom of ignorance, wherein we would say for
do live the beasts of the field who weave not, neither do they lay up
for the winter's day, but die with the grass. So when we call upon
call upon men, made Masons, who, by vow and practice have risen to the
of Masters, not slaves. This mastery is of self alone. When we have
to our feet upon this great battlefield we become like those heroes
fields of France. We become then, mindful of the other fellow first. So
charge with bayonet and sword, through ringing, singing, screeching
shot and shell, and when the fight has lulled, go back again to seek
sodden field some brother who has fallen wounded sore, that this
brother may by
his side hobble back to life. This is the spirit of the field and
humanity of a Christ, above the self that was once first ‒ the Masonry
the ego of the world.
My lodge has sixty-five Masons in the war. We
four hundred at home. We have a large "field committee" constantly in
touch with the absent ones. We publish a lodge paper, "The Junior
Warden," that goes each month with its chats and home news to each boy
the army. The mail, too, is well loaded with these publications from
I am not seeking argument, but I would say that
copy of "The Junior Warden" would look as big as the Vatican
buildings and farm, to a soldier in the field because we as Masons have
asked him to divide his fealty. The "Junior Warden" means more to
such a man than club houses could mean to a man not sufficiently free
an intelligent idea of anything. We sow the seed in prolific soil. It
nothing above Country. A man gets pretty close to God when he fights
Flag. Masonry means Country first and in that service we find heaven
grasp with all its realization, beatitude and glory. Masonry holds the
every barrier that ofttimes seems to obstruct and nearly bar our
* * *
Have Postal Cards In
The Lodge Room.
I firmly believe in any plan which will cause
lodges to give proper care and attention to the brethren at the front.
suggestion of appointing a member as a personal representative of each
is good. Some Michigan lodges are appointing committees of various size
that each brother gets a letter at least once a month and a present of
kind once a month.
Some lodges have adopted the circular letter
the letter being specially written and containing not only lodge doings
also information about the families of the boys. One lodge has adopted
admirable plan of having cards at its lodge room and each brother
meeting is requested to then and there write a card to a brother in
It appears to me that each lodge must determine
most effective course for itself. The principal thing is to see that
are reminded of their brethren back home and feel that the lodges have
interest in them.
By the way, one of the Canadian brethren,
returned wounded from the trenches, told me that the most valuable
that could be sent to the boys in France are those containing tobacco,
soap and a bath towel. These articles are practically unobtainable at
front, and a good smoke and a real bath and rub-down constitute the
luxury for the soldiers when they return from the front trenches.
* * *
Help The Y.M.C.A.
I think it would be well for the brethren to
to the Secretary (the only paid officer of the lodge) excerpts from
letters received from brethren at the front from which the Master
formulate and disseminate information to the members in open lodge.
increase the work of the Master and Secretary, but it would also make
interesting personages to the members.
The best scheme that presents itself to me at
moment by which to keep the soldier brethren mindful of their lodges at
is to help, aid and assist the Y.M.C.A. units at the front, and
with the fraternity; to keep our soldier boys provided with Christian,
Patriotic and Americanized literature; to make it possible for them to
fraternize with Masons in Europe, and to encourage them to kill the
The adherents to the food administration scheme
believe the best way to win the war is to consume less food; the fuel
administration adherents believe it may be done by burning less fuel,
girl who sells Liberty Bonds believes it may be won by purchasing the
own belief is that the best way to end the war is to kill Huns.
While the soldier in the cantonment has leisure
play ball, write letters, attend dances and receive the coddling of
maidens, he will not find these conditions when he reaches the firing
fact the boys on that line are harassed, hungry, in momentary danger of
spending sleepless nights, plagued by vermin, suffering from sores and
and their thoughts are probably more concerned with the making and
transportation of the munitions which they need for defense, than of
or love letters from lodges. They probably deplore a strike in a
factory at home and regret that they have relatives engaged in that
Baird, District of Columbia.
* * *
A Sympathetic and Effective
I think it would be an excellent idea to have a
personal representative or Masonic god-father in each lodge and home
for the member who is on war duty in France. It would surely be
their families, and by the boys. However, I think the best service
obtained by calling for volunteers instead of having them officially
It seems to me the most sympathetic and effective plan for keeping in
with the Masonic brother in France would be through personal
with the brother and letting it be known to his friends on this side
gifts could be sent through him. This would help the Post Office as
well as the
New York is not waiting for the co-operation of
other Grand Lodges but is going to establish Masonic centers of its
best scheme to effectively remind brothers in France of the brothers at
seems to me to be through a National Council of Defense. I am a warm
Brother Schoonover's plan.
* * *
Georgia Lodge Sends "The Builder" to Each
Member in the Army in Addition to a Letter Every Week. I suggest that
lodge that has members now serving in the National Army, either at home
abroad, subscribe for THE BUILDER for each member so employed. The
Columbia Lodge No. 7 has been instructed to prepare a list of those of
members now in the Army, order THE BUILDER sent to them and to write
letter telling him of the action of the lodge and requesting him to
magazine, when read, upon the table in the Y.M.C.A. By this we hope to
boys have a monthly reminder that we are interested in them but we hope
to put good Masonic literature where it will be effective in educating
manhood and leading them to a lofty conception of Masonry.
Our Secretary has been instructed further to
lists of our Army boys in groups of four, making four lists each
same four names, but the names so arranged that No. 1 on list No. 1
No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4 on the other lists. Each of these lists will be
some brother who agrees to write one letter a week. He will in this way
to four men in four weeks, and as each name appears on four lists, it
insure each man a letter every week. It will be more interesting to
letters regularly from foul men at home than from only one as would be
if only one man were appointed as correspondent for each soldier.
The word "craft" is a very ancient one,
signifying an art, mystery or science, which we as Masons claim to
impart in the "work." It meant the knowledge and skill, together with
the practical application of the same, by which an artisan carried on
which constituted a system of knowledge of a distinctive or peculiar
The "arts, parts and points" of Masonry consist of a system of
science, philosophy and morals, veiled in allegory and illustrated by
It is so far interwoven with religion as to lay us under obligation to
rational homage to the Deity which is due from a creature to its
foundations lie in teaching man how to live a higher and more perfect
nearer the conception of a Christ.
Well-meaning, but improperly instructed
for many generations, have endeavored to turn the Craft aside from its
God-given message, and-to make of it an institutional organization
homes, asylums, endowments and schools have too frequently proven
envy, discord and confusion among the Craft. The lesson of the degrees
teach the individual the benefits of Friendship, charity and brotherly
that by his own Self-denial, he may be purified. Institutions are good
proper sphere, and as society is constituted today, are a necessity. As
individuals and as taxpayers, We should support them by every means in
power. When we take up such work as craftsmen, there is a grave danger
may thereby make them the keepers of our masonic conscience; washing
of our personal responsibility thereby losing the "rights, lights and
benefits," which is the real value of the "work" and which we
have so earnestly asked for. We must guard the "Craft" against
pharisaical and smug respectability, which our crosses, double eagles
crescents tend to foster, and see that the Degree mills turn out
highly polished and Ornamental than gate-posts. It should be impressed
mind of every Initiate, that Masonry is not a mutual benefit
that by becoming a craftsman he receives nothing of a "metallic" or
value. Too often the eastern skies at dawn are murky with clouds and
darkening eve brings a sense of relief. Let no Initiate come within our
with an untruth upon his lips or in his heart, that so Masonry may not
him an apple of Sodom.
Spirit’s House – [A Poem]
By Sara Teasdale
naked stones of agony
I will build a house for me;
As a mason all alone
I will raise it, stone by stone,
And every stone where I have bled
Will show a sign of dusky red.
I have not gone the way in vain,
For I have good of all my pain;
My spirit’s quiet house will be
Built of naked stones I trod
On roads where I lost sight of God.
“Love Songs,” published by Macmillans
to Great Men Who Were Masons
By Bro. George W.
Baird, P.G.M., District Of Columbia
Brother Robert Morris
A signer of the Declaration of Independence,
Masonic history is given in Volume IV, Library of Masonic History, was
Lancashire, England, in 1731. His father came to the colonies and
Talbot County, Maryland, and Robert came to join his father at the age
thirteen. He received his early education in Philadelphia and began
the counting house of Charles Willing. He entered into business in
with the younger Willing in 1764, and the business, "merchandising,"
He was a member of the Protestant Episcopal
was a delegate to the Second Continental Congress and chairman of the
committee to procure arms and ammunition, and served on the Committee
and Means and on the Committee on Naval Affairs. He came into the
through his forceful speeches on the regulations and restrictions of
borrowed large sums of money on his own responsibility to send to
Washington which enabled the initiation of active movements resulting
battle at Trenton. Owing to the effects of gun-shot wounds received in
boyhood, he was not a participant in this battle.
Brother Morris was reelected to Congress and
member of the Conference Committee which visited Army Headquarters,
1778, having been continuously the "financial manager" of Congress,
was made Chief of the Committee on Finance.
He established the Bank of Pennsylvania in
which was the first extensive monied institution in the United States.
"gave the first vehement impulse toward the consolidation of the
Unions by the creation of the Bank of North America which soon after
to loan the Nation $400,000 and also released it from its subscription
$200,000. In February, 1771, he was elected Superintendent of Finance
most critical period of the War. In accepting the office he said "The
United States may command everything I have except my integrity."
He personally supplied the troops with
barrels of flour, as well as lead for their bullets. He supplied
Greene's army with funds, when Greene was in the last extremity, and he
the equipping and provisioning of Washington's army, with which
entered the campaign against Cornwallis. To this end Morris issued his
notes to the amount of $1,400,000.
Not only was his entire estate pledged but he
many additional pledges in borrowing from his friends. We have given
but a part
of his financing of the War of the Revolution, but enough to remind the
brethren of today what aid was rendered by a de facto brother in that
Morris married Mary White, daughter of Thomas
and sister of the second Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in
United States. He was elected in 1778 a member of the convention which
the Federal Constitution, and elected to the first United States
1784 he sent the first American vessel that ever appeared in the Port
Canton, China. He died in Philadelphia in the eighth of May, 1806, and
buried in the cemetery of Christ Church (P.E.) at Philadelphia. The
shows the modest memorial placed over the grave of this great patriot
brother. That part of the inscription on the tablet referring to
Wm. White & Robt. Morris
The latter who was financier
of the United States
during the Revolution,
died the 8th May 1806
aged 75 years."
Certain Point Within A Circle"
By Bro. William F.
Bowe, Past Grand Commander, Georgia
William Fairbanks Bowe was born August 9th,
at Augusta, Georgia, his present home. During his boyhood he attended
private schools in that city of educational advantages and culture,
age of fourteen years, when on account of his superabundant energy and
eagerness of youth he chose to enter the work-a-day world rather than
further his academic studies. He started his career as a true operative
He served his time as a brick-layer and became a finished workman in
the kindred crafts; was active during youth and early manhood in the
organization that flourished in that day and time in his city and
was initiated as an Entered Apprentice, March 11, 1885, in Zerubbabel
Savannah and was raised in the same Lodge, June 11th, 1885.
He was always active in the local affairs of
Masonry, passing through the chairs in both the Blue Lodge, Chapter,
Commandery, at the same time being an active member of Adoniram
Council, R. and
S. M., and also taking sympathetic interest in the affairs of the
he was a Trustee of the Masonic Hall in the city of Augusta for a
fourteen years, serving as Chairman of the Building Committee of that
during the period of the erection of the present Masonic Hall. But his
activities were not by any means confined to the local field. He was
organizer and founder, as well as the first elected Master of Richmond
No. 412 F. & A. M. He served as local secretary of the State of
the Correspondence Circle of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2,057, in
1897, and has served with distinction and success as the Georgia head
of two of
the Grand Bodies, the Grand Commandery and the Grand Chapter.
PERMIT me to endeavor to present to your minds
historical view and the physical attributes of an ancient and important
symbol, for the facts of which I am mainly indebted to the researches
Brother Sydney Klein. "A Certain Point within a Circle" is our
subject. It is not even designated as the central point of the circle,
simply "A Certain Point within a Circle."
Dr. Anderson, in the Grand Lodge Constitutions
1723, declares that "Pythagoras instituted a lodge of good
and communicated to them as a secret" "That amazing proposition which
is the foundation of all Masonry." This announcement of very few words
contains a number of assertions of very great import. Note them again,
"Pythagoras instituted a lodge of good Geometricians and communicated
them as a secret," "That amazing proposition which is the foundation
of all Masonry."
The history of those ancient days leads us to
believe this to be true and it probably occurred at the time he settled
Dorian Colony at Cretona, Italy, where the Pythagorians are said to
coined and used the word "Mathematics."
Like many unhistorical verities the symbol of
"A Point within a Circle" comes to us from a past so remote that all
knowledge of its origin is lost; and during its sojourning, its meaning
intention had been forgotten, and its real symbolism has been so
the interpretation now given to it by our Masonic Monitors is strained
and does not receive the approval of students of Masonry. Mackey does
any historical reference to "The Point within a Circle," although he
recites that, according to Higgins, "Circular Temples were in the very
earliest ages universally erected in Cyclar Numbers to do honor to
and that Oliver relates that the Druids erected a circle of about forty
perpendicular stones, and in the center one stone of greater height
others. To my mind there is no connection between these examples and
of "A Point within a Circle."
McClenachen says there are found on ancient
Egyptian monuments the figure of the point within the circle, and on
of the circle an erect serpent. This figure is interpreted to mean:
Alpha and Omega or the Egyptian omnipotent God surrounded by his
bounded by his limitless wisdom and power"; whether this interpretation
satisfactory or not to the ancient Egyptian I do not know.
It cannot be affirmed that this figure is or is
connected with our emblem, but in either event it does not affect the
historical fact, which is confidently believed to furnish the true
of our great Masonic symbol, "A Certain Point within a Circle."
In its travels down the corridors of time, the
of the emblem has been only slightly modified or added to; so the grave
difficulty before us is to discover the teachings of the symbol, and I
state my belief that any present day symbol of Masonry that is not
no matter how incongruous it may now appear, carries or conceals from
distant past some distinguishing element of Masonry.
I shall only present one historical view of
symbol: "A Certain Point within a Circle." In order that you may
easily conceive the ideas which I will attempt to convey, I must ask
believe a proposition upon which this view is largely predicated:
the great secret of the ancient Mason was the knowledge of how to make
perfect square without the possibility of error.
Time will not permit the giving of reasons
calculated to establish the probability of this foundation, and many
Masonic students do not believe that the reasons given are sufficient
establish it as a fact; but I assure you that a strong argument can be
support of the contention that the Great Secret of ancient Masonry was
knowledge of how to make a perfect square without the possibility of
which I shall hereafter designate as the "Knowledge of the Square."
Brother Sydney Klein, in his wonderful
of "The Great Symbol," expresses his belief that this "Knowledge
of the Square" was referred to by Dr. Anderson in the Grand Lodge
constitution of 1723 as that "Amazing proposition which is the
of all Masonry."
So, for the purpose of this discussion, it is
assumed that all of my readers believe (temporarily at least) that the
knowledge of how to make a perfect square without the possibility of
a great Masonic secret known only to Masters of lodges and handed down
to their successors with scrupulous secrecy, and it is worthy of
whether or not this knowledge was the secret intrusted to a new elected
before he was inducted into the chair of K. S.
This knowledge of making perfect squares was
to the ancients; for Pamphalia, a female historian of the time of Nero,
that, "Thales, the Tutor of Pythagoras, learned in Egypt how to
right angled triangle in a Circle." Appolodorus says the same of
Plato, Proclus and many other ancient Greek writers refer to the right
triangle as being Divine. The right angle of the square symbolizing the
perfection of Deity. Your imagination may revel in the thought how
the common Masonic saying, "To act by the square" ‒ it means now, as
foreshadowed by Plato, to live according to Divine Law.
It is important that during this exposition you
should remember the fact that our ancient brethren probably approached
proposition of constructing a perfect square, with feelings of awe,
their belief that the process was a sacred mystery, or a sort of
In Europe during the Dark Ages, say from A. D.
to 1300, the art of Geometry was entirely lost; but the knowledge of
make a perfect square within a circle was not lost.
This Truth is worthy of an essay as to whether
not the "Knowledge of the Square" was preserved by Freemasonry during
those dark days when the intellect of men had become depressed almost
I say advisedly that the knowledge was not
because there is preserved to us a doggerel rhyme called the Stone
speech. The oldest copy is of date about A. D. 1500, but it is
copy of an older original. With this long prelude I am now ready to
prove to you "that the point within a circle" was a significant
symbol at a period at least previous to the year A. D. 1500.
"The Stone Mason's Speech" is, literally
translated, as follows: What in stone-craft to see is
Which no error nor
But straight as a line; a line
Through drawn the Circle, overall
Thus findest thou three in four stand.
And thus through one in the center go
Also again out of the center in three
Through the four in the Circle quite free
The stone-craft and all the things
To investigate makes the learning easy
A point which in the Circle goes
Which in the Square and three angles stand
Hit ye the point then have ye done
And come out of Need, Fear and Danger
Herewith have ye the whole science
Understand ye it not: so is it in vain
All which ye learnt have;
Of that bewail yourselves soon, therewith depart.
Now this speech almost certainly refers to the
"Point within a Circle," because every direction given in it is
applicable to that symbol, and the result together with every fact in
speech is in exact accord with the demonstration which I will now give.
First, I establish the point (Figure 1) and
as a center I describe the circumference and we have the symbol of the
"Point within a Circle."
The speech directs: "A line through drawn the
circle," draw line A-C through the center. "Overall thus findest thou
three in four stand."
That is to say you must draw lines on three out
four sides; each line the length of the diameter, or three lines equal
on three sides (draw lines number one, two and three), "And thus
One in the center go."
That is to say, from the center of line No. 1
a line (draw a line from the center of side No. 1 as A-B). "Also again
of the center which is in three," that is to say from the center of
three draw a line (draw a line from the center of side three as C-B).
"Through the Four in the circle quite free."
That is to say the lines should be drawn to the
circumference of the circle towards the side four which is quite free.
"The stonework-craft and all the things
To investigate makes the learning easy."
That is to say, any investigation into the
pertaining to stone-craft are made easy by this "Knowledge of the
"Now observe the result according to the
"A point which in the circle goes, which in the square and three angles
stands, gives you the whole science and you cannot go wrong." That is
say the point within the circle is within the square of the two
and also within the triangle formed by the three angles, and you have
accomplished the whole science, and therefore cannot go wrong.
This is an evident fact because no matter in
direction you draw the lines from A and C, provided they are exactly
the circumference of the circle, they will form a right angle or a
square, (see lines A-E and C-E) and, therefore, you can form an
of right angles within the circle, every one of which will be a perfect
and thus is accomplished the "Knowledge of the Square."
First a straight line, Second a square, Third a
perfect knowledge of the square. As the speech further sums up the
"Hit ye the point then have ye done
And come out of Need, Fear and Danger."
Perpendicular, square and center.
A right angled triangle invested with
our ancient brethren as containing within its perfect angle the
Deity formed not on the center, but by the aid of the "Point within a
Now if this explanation of our subject is
or even possible, let us endeavor to find a reason why the meaning of
important a symbol could be lost.
We have assumed that this "Knowledge of the
Square" was confined to the Masters of lodges and whilst this knowledge
was of great importance to the Operative Mason it would be of little
use to a speculative Mason. In time the explanation would be disused
meaning of the ritual be lost ‒ the same as the stone mason's speech is
preserved, but its teachings disused and its intention forgotten.
Notwithstanding our loss of the symbolism of
square, we preserve the square as one of the Great Lights and as an
peculiarly belonging to the Master.
Our ritual says:
The Bible is dedicated to God (for a very good
The compasses to the Craft (for a very good
reason). And the square to the Master for the totally inadequate
"That it is the emblem of his office."
After this demonstration we surely are
believe that the square is dedicated to the Master for a far more noble
important purpose; and as a suggestive thought, in this connection, I
with you a question: Is it not likely that the square may have
the emblem suspended over the Master's chair and because it is the
of the Greek letter "Gamma" or "G," that in the evolution
of time the emblem finally became changed from the square to the letter
In the early days Masonry was patronized by the
controlling minds of the monasteries and they attached a religious
their principal emblems, and they would be certain to do so to their
whose meaning was lost; and the concept would be natural to them that
within the circle represented the G.A.O.T.U. whose horizon of operative
is a circle of infinite extent, and likewise we derive from this
that "amazing proposition" the speculative theory that the infinite
number of perfect squares generated by the power of "A certain Point
within a Circle" must be emblematic of the infinite number of perfect
attributes of Deity, whose all-pervading power is symbolized by the
within the Circle."
Now in this representation, according to this
method, we have the point within a circle, but instead of the Holy
Bible on top
we have the illustration of that "Amazing proposition which is the
foundation of all Masonry"; but can we give any reason at all why these
two perpendicular lines are characterized by us as representing the two
As a thought that may induce some brother to
an investigation intended at least to disprove it, I suggest that in
the ancient Mason to demonstrate "The Knowledge of the Square" he
needed to use two straight edges, and in the sorcery of the operation
possibly were stood one on each side of the circle the same as these
perpendicular lines would be drawn.
And likewise, as has long been the custom of
operative craftsmen to give names to certain implements of the craft,
possible that during the construction of the Cathedrals by the building
of Masons, that these two straight edges may have been named by them
John," especially so, since the operation of making perfect squares was
hidden mystery, it naturally would be accomplished with some element of
Among present day geometricians the solution of
this knowledge of the square is very simple, but even to this day few
craftsmen are familiar with the process, although the reverse of the
proposition is readily known to all pattern makers, and yet, strange as
seem, when the pattern maker's task is submitted to the geometrician it
equally incomprehensible to him as the knowledge of the square is to
The Pattern Maker's
In order to demonstrate this I will make a
exhibit. We have here a wheel six inches in diameter. It is desired to
mortise in a block of wood or stone or metal so that one-half of the
perfectly fit the mortise. The problem is how to cut out the material
perfect certainty that the wheel will accurately fit. I have here for
convenience a piece of wood in which is a mortise six inches wide and
inches deep. I will fill this mortise with plastic modellers' clay,
course, if we accurately cut out the clay we could do the same with
metal, wood or stone.
The distance A-B is six inches, being the same
the diameter of the wheel.
By placing the two outside edges of a square on
extremities of the proposed mortise, say points A and B, with the
outside angle of the square "C" as a pointer to guide the cutting,
let the square slide around its sides resting continuously on the two
and B, and it will be found that the point or outside angle of the
perform a true semi-circumference belonging to a diameter of six
Figure 3), and by testing our mortise with the six inch wheel we find
fit is perfect. Having made a perfect semi-circle by the use of the
is readily apparent that the same operation will make the remaining
semi-circle, and by this means we can construct a perfect circle. For
convenience I have already prepared the remaining semi-circle, and by
them together we have the perfect figure as shown in Figure 4.
But the point within the circle is not seen for
circumference was made by the square and not by the compasses; and
point is invisible, the Truth is self-evident that it is there within
circle absolute and perfect on the center.
Now it has been demonstrated by the "Knowledge
of the Square" that an infinite number of right angles or perfect
can be drawn within the circle, bounded by two parallel lines, and
And we now also know from the explanation of
pattern maker's problem that if the edges of a perfect square are kept
with the two parallel lines and caused to occupy an infinite number of
locations, that the extreme angle of the square originally thought to
the perfection of Deity, and (in this proposition) always under control
power of the center will describe the line of a true circle, which will
be the circumference of the "Point within a Circle," and both of
these propositions are true no matter how great the distance between
Therefore, it is obvious that if the distance
the two parallel lines is infinite then the circumference is also
the point within the circle is always on the center.
The existence of Deity has been beautifully
by Hermes Trismegistus, [Lib 1906; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] an Egyptian of the period 15
B.C., who says:
"God is a circle whose center is everywhere, but whose circumference is
nowhere to be found." This abstruse thought can be analyzed and proven
be conformable to our present exposition of "A Certain Point within a
I will not invade the vast field of speculative
thought borne upon our minds by the demonstration of that "Amazing
although, a contemplation of the process of creating a perfect circle
of the square alone, naturally leads our minds to inquire into the
properties of the square. I will be content merely to continue the
or principle to its logical conclusion.
We have proven that if the edges of the square
operated as described against any two points that the right angle of
will describe a circumference line belonging to a diameter, at the
of which those two points are located.
Now, if during the process of making this
circumference the right angle of the square is caused to rotate into an
infinite number of planes, that is to say if the square is caused to
against the points and is also at the same time rotated in such manner
perfect angle will pass-through every point possible for it to do, then
such point will be in a circumference line belonging to a diameter
length to the distance between these two points.
It will be observed that in whatever direction
right angle of the square is moved even if during its rotations the
the square are continually moved against the two points A and B, that
distance from the angle of the square to the center of the
always the same.
It is therefore obvious that the perfect angle
the square defining similar circumferences in infinite planes will
produce the surface of a sphere.
Which is to say, that it is proven by this
operation that while the edges of the square are moved against the two
and the right angle of the square at the same time is rotated into
possible place every such place will be exactly the same distance from
center, therefore the right angle or extreme point of the square during
operation will necessarily produce the surface of a perfect sphere.
Hence we derive the geometric fact that any two
lines drawn from the extremities of every diameter of a sphere and
joined at the surface of the sphere will form a right angle or perfect
(Fig. 5) and we learn again the "Knowledge of the Square."
A ‒ A Extremities B ‒ B of C ‒ C Diameters
A ‒ D ‒ A Right angles B ‒ A ‒ B of C ‒ F ‒ C
These Truths impress upon our minds the concept
that if the central points of the parallel lines are an infinite
apart, then every right angled triangle or square formed within the
within the sphere, by the demonstration of that "Amazing
proposition," will be infinite.
Also that the circumference line generated by
right angle of the square whose edges are in touch with those distant
as demonstrated by the pattern maker's problem, will be infinite. But
wonder is yet more astoundingly excited when we conceive the great
That the sphere designed and created by the
evolutions of the perfect square constantly in touch with those two
infinite distance, directed by the power of the center will be infinity
and the invisible point within this sphere will be absolute and perfect.
Masonic Writings of George Franklin Fort
By Bro. Oliver Day
WHEN some years ago we sought to learn
Brother George F. Fort and his writings, we found that printed
concerning him was not to be found. He is not so much as mentioned in
Mackey's, Macoy's, or Kenning's Cyclopedia of Freemasonry. Little more
incidental mention of him or of his work is made in the writings of
then generally to disagree with him. Some of our writers pay high
the grace and elegance of his style, but make no attempt to fix his
Masonic literature or to estimate the historical value of his writings.
years we sought in vain for an account of him that would even afford
information as to when or where he was born, where he lived, or when or
he died. We appealed to the learned librarian of the Grand Lodge of
Pennsylvania, Brother Julius F. Sachse, who could only refer us to
Cyclopedia of American Biography, where Brother Fort and his uncle of
name are hopelessly confused and commingled in a single sketch. Finally
addressed a query to Miscellanea Latomorum, London, which may be found
69 in the January, 1914, issue of that excellent little journal. Its
intelligent editor, the late lamented Brother F. W. Levander, became at
interested and made such search that he was able to present a brief
Brother Fort in the August, 1915, issue of his paper, from the pen of
E. Bear, of Camden, N. J. Meanwhile we had also located Mr. John H.
brother of George F. Fort, from whom we obtained much information and
furnished the readers of THE BUILDER an entertaining and instructive
his distinguished brother. It is indeed strange that one of the most
and scholarly writers on the subject of Freemasonry should have
long virtually unknown to the Craft and we take personal, satisfaction
having been to some extent instrumental in reviving interest in our
George Franklin Fort was born at Absecon,
county, New Jersey, November 20, 1843. His father, John Fort, was a
the Methodist Episcopal Church, and his uncle, George F. Fort, for whom
named, was governor of New Jersey from 1851 to 1854. Another
member of the family, John Franklin Fort, was also governor of New
1908 to 1911. The family is an old and prominent one and has resided in
neighborhood of Pemberton, New Jersey, since colonial times.
George F. Fort, the subject of this sketch,
received a liberal education which he improved by extensive travels in
and by a course of lectures at Heidelburg University. It is said of him
was able to read and write seventeen languages besides his mother
that some of these he could speak with fluency and ease. He was also
for the bar, was admitted in 1866, and practiced his profession with
But the study of history and antiquities was his passion. Upon these
he was a frequent contributor to the press and wrote among other things
"Medical Economy in the Middle Ages" [Lib 1883] and an exhaustive treatise
Mythology," [Lib*] the latter of which, however, was never published.
collected an extensive library in foreign languages relating to many
of knowledge, but particularly to mythology, literature and art.
Substantial as were Brother Fort's
the field of knowledge in general, his enduring fame must lest upon his
labors. He was made a Mason in Camden Lodge No. 15, Camden, N. J., from
he dimitted in 1870 to become a charter member of Trimble Lodge No.
Camden. He became Master of this last named lodge in 1871. He was a
Cyrene Commandery No. 7, Knights Templar; of Van Hook Council No. 8, R.
S. M.; and of Excelsior Consistory 32d, Ancient and Accepted Scottish
of Camden. He was an Honorary Life member of York Lodge No. 236, of
and was the Representative of the United Grand Lodge of England near
Lodge of New Jersey.
He wrote a number of articles which from time
time appeared in the Masonic press and was the author of "A Historical
Treatise on Early Builders' Marks" and of "Medieval Builders,"
both important contributions to Masonic literature. But his chief work
upon which his fame as a writer depends is "The Early History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry." [Lib 1881] It is no exaggeration to say
that this is one of
the most remarkable books that has ever been written concerning
In order to assign to Brother Fort his proper
position among Masonic historians it will be necessary briefly to
historians of the Fraternity who preceded as well as those who have
him. Chief among his predecessors were Dr. James Anderson, William
George Oliver, Alexander Lawrie (or rather as is generally supposed,
Brewster), J. G. Findel, and W. J. Hughan. Perhaps we should not omit
list Mr. J. O. Halliwell-Phillips, though a non-Mason. His most notable
successors have been Robert Freke Gould, D. Murray Lyon, George William
all of Great Britain, and Wilhelm Begemann, of Germany.
Masonic historians may be divided in a general
into the Idealistic and the Realistic schools. With the first of these
classed the Rev. James Anderson, who wrote the first "Book of
Constitutions," [Lib 1723] published
in 1723; William Preston, who wrote what has been called the first
"The Illustrations of Masonry," published in 1772 [Lib 1772]; and the Rev.
George Oliver, a voluminous writer of the middle of the last century.
Realistic school may be assigned Robert Freke Gould and William J.
England; D. Murray Lyon, of Scotland; J. G. Findel and W. Begemann of
Each of these schools boasts a multitude of less conspicuous followers.
The Idealists do not feel themselves restrained
the limitations applied to the history of other subjects. They
least impliedly, that they are warranted in accepting fully all the
of the Craft, as well as all that may be legitimately inferred from
Guided by this rule, or rather absence of rule, they have furnished the
fraternity with numerous fanciful and highly improbable accounts of
Freemasonry. It cannot be denied that in recent years they have been
thoroughly discredited as historians.
On the other hand the Realistic school insists,
least impliedly, that nothing is to be accepted as fact unless it is
by contemporaneous documentary evidence of unquestioned genuineness.
reject tradition in toto, deny that any play is to be allowed to the
imagination, and concede small scope to reasonable inference and
forgetful that, if these rigid rules were applied, the early history of
subject could be written.
It is inevitable that between two such diverse
schools there could be slight common ground of agreement. Hence, Dr.
wrote that without doubt Freemasonry had existed from before the
the world; Anderson that it dated from the days of Adam. Preston is
less offender in this regard than Anderson. According to these authors
their imitators, nearly every distinguished man of ancient or medieval
was a Grand Master, or a patron of the Craft.
The Realists generally, on the contrary,
that the earliest possible historical date which can be assigned to
Freemasonry is A. D. 1600, or thereabout, though they admit that prior
period and as far back as A. D. 1390, and probably much earlier, there
operative society of Masons from which the Speculative is a
hardheaded brethren, who so completely reject tradition of all kinds,
surely in recent years had their skepticism rudely shaken by the
which they have seen given to Biblical stories, long regarded by some
fables, through the excavations of scholars in Egypt, Greece,
Palestine and other countries. The lesson of it all is that it is
unwise either to accept or to reject tradition by the wholesale and
It has thus happened that during the period
D. 1722 to a time well after the middle of last century much foolish
put forth by Masonic writers under the denomination of Masonic History.
foremost writers were our worst offenders. No tale, it has been said,
idle or too absurd to be narrated or too marvelous to be believed
it was related concerning the Society of Freemasons. But the pendulum
swung to the other extreme. Most of our leading historians as above
laugh at tradition; they reject out of hand as absurd the idea that
any connection with our fraternity or that the Temple was built by
They declare that Hiram Abif's death is a myth and that there is no
the existence of Speculative Freemasonry prior to A. D. 1600. They
fables the traditions recorded in our "Old Charges," that Naymus
Graecus introduced Freemasonry into France, that Charles Martel there
patronized and became a member of the Craft, and that St. Alban
into England in the third century. They regard it as a waste of effort
attempt to solve the meanings of these traditions among us. These
and perhaps overcautious brethren, it appears to us, have gone as far
extreme as did our historians of the past go to the other. The truth is
doubt between the two.
Another large class, therefore, of our Masonic
scholars have recognized that there is something of the extreme in the
contentions of both of these schools. They have accordingly taken a
ground and hold that Masonic tradition, though to be received with
caution is nevertheless entitled to consideration in even a sober
the Craft; that it usually possesses a grain of truth, and is not to be
rejected; that it should be tested by the known facts of history and if
consistent with them and with reason, may be accepted in its broad
that to subject our traditions to this process is one of the chief
the Masonic historian. They further hold that from the established
Masonic history they are justified in drawing such further inferences
deductions as may appear reasonable. This is the rule applied to the
all other subjects and they cannot see why it should not apply to
history. The fact that the rule is one difficult of application and
the hand of a master does not render it any less sound. Histories of
thus written will be only of greater or less value, as have been
all other subjects, according to the several abilities of their authors.
Perhaps the most distinguished representative
this intermediate school is the late Brother George William Speth, of
certainly one of the sanest and most luminous minds that has ever
written on the
vexed subject of Masonic history. To this school we assign Brother Fort
but it would be a mistake to class him as the follower or imitator of
Indeed his most notable contributions to the literature of the Craft
those of Brother Speth and others of this school.
The only general historians of the Craft who
antedated Brother Fort, whose works are accessible in English and who
said to have possessed the true historical spirit, were Sir David
understood to have been the author of Lawrie's "History") and J. G.
Findel, of Germany. Lawrie's "History" is greatly marred, if not
rendered worthless, by the bias of its author in favor of the Essenean
Findel's history [Lib 1866] betrays the strong Germanic
prejudice of its
author. With all the zeal of racial and national pride he set himself
of proving that British Freemasonry was derived directly and solely
Steinmetzen of Germany. This, of course, involved a denial that it
from the Medieval and ancient building corporations of Gaul, Italy,
Greece, to say nothing of those that may have existed in Asia Minor,
or Egypt. Findel's idea seems further to be that the German Steinmetzen
borrowed little or nothing from the older societies of Europe; that in
was an indigenous product of German soil. It is needless to say that
Masonic scholars have vigorously taken issue with his theory. At the
it must be admitted that he brought scholarship and a fluent pen to the
of his cause. His book is plainly not to be classed with such effusions
those of Anderson, Preston and Oliver. While strongly biased, it
places Brother Findel among the critical school of Masonic historians.
now generally conceded that the most that can be claimed for the
a remote common ancestry with Freemasonry.
Now in order to get a better appreciation of
Fort and the place of his work in the literature of the Craft, it is
to state somewhat fully his line of argument as developed in his magnum
"The Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry." This is really as
its title indicates two separate and distinct works. The author has
properly discriminated both in substance and method of treatment
is historical and what is only traditional. The "Early History"
occupies the first half of the book and in it the author endeavors to
to use his own words, "a narrative of the state of fine arts at the
decline of the Roman Empire and also of the propagation of architecture
kindred sciences by bodies of builders, who developed into the
Freemasons, whose history is carried down to the formal extinction of
society as an operative brotherhood in the year 1717."
Brother Fort's view is that, in accordance with
oral and written traditions, the Speculative Craft is directly
the operative societies of past ages. These societies he conceives to
in full development before the fall of the Roman Empire. With the fall
Western Empire, arts and the artists removed to Byzantium, the capital
Eastern Empire. In the fifth century, when Theodoric and the Longobards
undertook the re-adornment of Italy, artists came from Byzantium and
parts of Greece and formed themselves into corporations which, under
doctrine known as profession of law, enjoyed the right of living under
of the country whence they came instead of those of the country in
were sojourning. The native building societies of Italy which had
fall were thus brought in contact with and subjected to the influence
Greek artists, with the result that in Northern Italy particularly
a school of architects known as the Magistri Comacini, or Comacine
They were organized into societies quite similar to our lodges. These
at a very early date entered into close contact and association with
ecclesiastical authorities. He points for evidence of this to the
our present day Craft of a symbolism familiar to the church in its
Architecture received renewed impetus under the Carolingian kings in
the middle of the eighth century the building societies had become
religio-artistic from their close and long association with the
institutions of Western Europe and in them architecture and its kindred
were particularly cultivated. Through Greek and Oriental artisans all
useful rules and technicalities in possession of the East were
Western Europe and thus transmitted to the monastic artificers and
them in turn abandoned to the lay corporations of the Medieval
This union of the religious and the building
resulted in a system of symbolism combining both Oriental and Teutonic
This mingling of the Eastern and the Northern, Brother Fort thinks,
occurred in Northern Italy under the Gothic and Lombardic rulers. With
eleventh century began an unprecedented era of church building
numbers of the most skilled artists. By the end of the twelfth century
had grown into a very powerful and widespread building society of a
quasi-religious nature, combining the church symbolism of the East with
the pagan mythology of the North. Thus is explained the strange mixture
Hebrew and Norse ideas found in Freemasonry. From the monasteries, this
society appropriated the three grades of apprentice, fellow and master.
the decline of church building the control of architecture gradually
from the church to the lay societies, carrying into them the old system
By the twelfth century, Brother Fort evidently
regards Freemasonry and the building corporations as identical.
of A. D. 1254, he thinks, proves the Fraternity of Masons then fully
in France with presumptively a long history already to its credit.
His view is that the history of British
begins in A. D. 1136 with the building of Melrose Abbey, but that it
regularly organized in England till the thirteenth century. He regards
Assembly of A.D. 926 as fabulous.
Before the twelfth century England depended on
Gallic Masons and thus she derived her Freemasonry directly from
influence, however, of German Masonry on that of England is recognized.
Long prior to the middle of the fourteenth
numerous so-called "statutes of laborers" had been passed by the
British Parliament regulating prices to be charged by the various
By A. D. 1350, the societies of Masons were so well organized that they
strong enough to resist these statutes. In A. D. 1451, those employed
constructing Windsor Castle "struck" for higher wages. A statute was
passed providing for their branding upon refusal to return to work
notice. Other legislation followed which was in turn broken by the
in A. D. 1424, in the reign of Henry VI, they were forbidden to
their "chapters and congregations." Thus they were deprived of the
power of regulating the craft of Masons or of determining who should
such labors. Nevertheless, they continued to meet in their lodges and
practice their ancient rites and ceremonies of initiation. But by these
measures they were reduced from the dignity of a craft to the position
chiefly employed in works of benevolence. At this period perhaps must
the point of departure of Speculative Freemasonry from the operative
Masons. The rites and ceremonies and moral instructions hitherto in
the lodges were however continued under the new regime. Gradually the
speculative features encroached upon and finally almost effaced the
Even before A. D. 1424, "from a very early age," non-operatives of
high standing had been occasionally admitted to the lodges. In Italy
custom prevailed from the time the gilds obtained a legal corporate
recognition. In like manner, Edward III became a member of the gild of
Armorers. The change from the operative to the Speculative continued to
during the remainder of the fifteenth and the whole of the sixteenth
seventeenth centuries. This change became complete with the
organization of the
Grand Lodge of England in A. D. 1717.
Brother Fort habitually refers to the German
Steinmetzen as the "German Freemasons." In thus apparently assuming
the identity of the Steinmetzen with the Freemasonry of England, it
admitted Brother Fort departs from sound historical methods. While the
is very strong of their kinship and of their development from a remote
source, evidence is lacking of their identity, notwithstanding Brother
as above stated and other loyal German brothers have insisted earnestly
Freemasonry is merely a direct derivative from the Steinmetzen. It is
clear, however, that Brother Fort did not mean identity in this sense.
This completes the review of the first portion
Brother Fort's history, the portion which alone professes to be an
sketch an outline of the real history of the Society of Freemasons. It
also be observed that this sketch does not attempt to go further back
"later Roman Emperors." By this expression he apparently means Marcus
Aurelius and his immediate predecessors, or from about the beginning of
second century A. D.
The strength of Brother Fort's theory lies
in three things: (1) that it accords with our oral and written
that it is not inconsistent at any point with the known facts of
that it is throughout a reasonable hypothesis. He wisely refrains in
historical portion of his book from any attempt to trace the history or
of the Society back of historic times.
No one would pretend that Brother Fort has
certainly hit the solution of the development of Freemasonry during the
fifteen hundred years. If it cannot be said of him, neither can it be
any other writer. Notwithstanding recent researches and much that has
written on this subject since Brother Fort's day, the probabilities
remain about as strong in favor of the truth of his theory as of any
Indeed our opinion is that it has the balance of probability in its
The crux of Brother Fort's theory may be said
that the Magistri Comacini of Northern Italy afforded the connecting
between the ancient building societies of Rome and Greece on the one
modern Freemasonry on the other. In propounding this theory he may be
regarded as the pioneer. It must be conceded that his conclusions are
the result of inference and deduction. Many facts now known to Masonic
were not known to those of Brother Fort's day. Recent studies and
have lent more or less corroboration to his views.
In 1899, there appeared a remarkable book
by a woman and therefore a non-Mason, (The Cathedral Builders, by
Leader Scott [Lib
1899]), in which many
proofs are adduced tending strongly to corroborate Brother Fort.
in his Masonic Curriculum, thus comments upon the support received from
"It (The Cathedral Builders) supplies the
evidence which was lacking in Fort's work and is a brilliant
vindication of our
brother's intuition, which I trust he has been spared to enjoy."
In this same connection Brother Speth refers to
Brother Fort as "the first Masonic writer to show the possibility of
reintroduction of the usages and traditions of the Roman Collegia into
Masonry." He also says that when Brother Fort advanced this theory he
looked upon as an "ingenious visionary" and that his surmises
"evoked little comment."
Still later another learned brother, Mr. W.
Ravenscroft, of England, published a book, The Comacines [Lib 1910], in which he
strongly supports the view so long ago expressed by Brother Fort.
Joseph Fort Newton, whose studies entitle his opinion to great weight,
his voice in favor of a like conclusion.
The remaining portion of Brother Fort's history
scarcely be called history, he himself denominates it "Antiquities."
It is a discussion of our traditions, customs and symbols. The purpose,
state it in his own words, is "to note with care such portions of
Freemasonry as have descended unimpaired and unchanged from Gothic ‒
and at what probable epoch Judaistic rites began to be introduced into
It would be tedious even to enumerate the
of topics touched upon in the second portion of his book. Only a
reading can give any idea of its store of learning.
He supports his argument with such a wealth of
illustrations and authorities that it would be presumptuous for any but
profound scholar in the mythology of the Northern races of Europe even
attempt a criticism of this portion of the book. Nor would such a thing
possible within the limits of an article suitable for the pages of THE
Suffice it to say of this part of Brother Fort's work that for elegance
diction and sustained interest of narrative no Masonic writer certainly
ever achieved a greater success.
We have been promised at an early date a volume
embracing an adequate biographical sketch of Brother Fort and reprints
most important fugitive contributions to the Masonic press. We trust
publication of this book will not be long delayed.
"A League of
IN my office as Ambassador I have the honor to
transmit herewith, through the Research Society, to the Masons of
message truly memorable in Masonic annals, and which will command the
of brethren of every jurisdiction. The distinction of its author,
Brother Sir Alfred Robbins, the high office of President of the Board
General Purposes of the Grand Lodge of England which he has held for so
years, its vision of "English and American Brotherhood," its gracious
spirit, its lofty tone ‒ all these set it apart as a document unique in
literature, and prophetic of a closer fellowship in the days to be. It
pleasure to have suggested such an article; it is an honor to spread it
the Masons of America, who will not fail to respond to its brotherly
its historic meaning.
Surely, in a world torn by strife, and divided
so many feuds of race, religion and nationality we have a right to
rejoice in a
fellowship, at once free, gentle and refining, which spans all
space and all differences of speech, and brings men together by a
and inspiration in mutual respect and brotherly regard. It needs no
discern that such a fraternity, the very existence of which is a fact
beyond words, is an influence for good to which we can set pro limit,
prophecy for the future the meaning of which no one can measure; doubly
because, by its genius, Masonry is international, and therefore ought
responsive to the ideal of world-fellowship which will surely emerge
welter of the world-war.
For that reason, in the reunion of
peoples, upon which the future freedom and peace of the world so much
among the many ties of language, literature, love of liberty, respect
social institutions and historic inheritance, that unite us, must be
common and great Freemasonry. By the same token, upon our Fraternity
obligation only equaled by the opportunity, to have a far reaching part
promoting fellowship, interpretation and sympathetic and intelligent
understanding between two peoples in whose history it is so deeply
and of whose unity it is itself a tie, a token, and a prophecy. Our
are superficial; our unities fundamental. Such variations as exist
English and American Masonry ‒ like the differences between the two
are interesting, albeit insignificant, no more important than the
accent and inflection, of dialect and brogue; its basic truths and
are alike, and its spirit is the same in its breadth, beauty, and
If there is to be a League of Nations following
war, such a federation of free peoples as shall make the repetition of
disaster impossible, it should begin with a league of English-speaking
who have one historic faith, one conception of civilization, and one
ideal. Looking toward that consummation so devoutly to be wished, how
can we begin than by seeking to realize a League of Masons, such as Sir
Robbins suggests; the more so because it is the declared purpose of our
to labor for a league of mankind, which it seeks even now to exhibit on
scale. Freemasonry, by virtue of its exalted purpose, its high
quality, its noble morality, and its wise spirituality, ought to lead
toward that City of Equity which poets and prophets have seen afar off
For, to say no more, our English-speaking race,
its spirit, its genius, its history, no less than by its great
committed to the ideal of a Commonwealth, the application to the field
government and social policy of the law of human brotherhood, the duty
to his neighbor, near and far, wherein lies our only hope of a world
free men to live in, where maternity can flourish and the spirit of
can grow and be glorified.
City Temple, London.
* See "English
and American Brotherhood," beginning on title
page of this issue.
Sunny Corners – [A Poem]
corners if you only look around;
Lots of sunny corners that are always to be found
When the heart with sun is shining and the love of sunny things,
And the spirit of the sunshine in the voice of beauty sings.
Lots of sunny corners,
And they make the world so sweet
When we strew its path with blossoms
For the sake of other feet.
Lots of sunny corners if you try to make them so
With the gladness you inherit and the beauty that you know;
With the blossoms you have gathered from the gardens of your life
Just to scatter in those gardens that are deep with weeds of strife.
Lots of sunny corners
If you only look around
Through the love that leads us onward
Where the sunshine may be found.
I am dead,
Carve no words in marble for epitaph,
Nor raise for me a splendid tomb,
For at such things time shall laugh,
But hold me in your faithful thought,
While briefly thought and life are lent;
Your tears shall be my ample praise,
Your love my monument.
Back of the Firing Line
WE Masons back of the firing line must do our
What shall it be? A very obvious answer will be: Appoint a Committee.
lodge establish a Committee, and let them begin work at once. A long
with Committees leads to the conclusion that an excellent one may be of
members where the most self-sacrificing and efficiently adept of them
protected from any interference or discouragement from the other two.
arrangement insures such a high degree of effectiveness that there
to be some way of increasing the popularity of the plan. It does
scheme that in order to be successful you must render the two
members absolutely harmless. As a rule you cannot expect that luck will
for one member of the Committee being called out of town and the other
back in time to trip up any of the good work done by the laboring
member on the
True, it can happen that the third member is
willing to wait for the other two and then that spoils everything.
Seeing that the one member can be so effective
he has the ability, the capability, and the responsibility, the rest of
article will be directed to him. And to him only. For be it understood
are he, all of us being that brother when all of us are what we should
Two things are imperative, others may be chosen
perhaps worthwhile in addition to these two but these twain are
One-manned Committees completely competent and thoroughly active, and
the means whereby the energies of these Committees shall be
and abroad, contagious and infectious and inflammatory. Granted these
and the rest follows. Therefore note the rest:
Let each of us do the Masonic act that is
to his hand. Do that first.
Then keep your ear to the ground for the next
and answer it promptly.
If you are on the job, alert and resourceful,
are in position to advise the other brethren and to do so powerfully.
be all the more powerful if you put all possible kindliness and prayer
proposal. A suggestion need not carry the punishment of the spur nor
of the whip. Appeal and persuade, reclaim and recall; that's the idea
Across the Atlantic Masons find companions.
together by the mystic tie of brotherhood the Masons of many lands are
about that international bond of fraternal fellowship we have long
search has not been in vain. The end is not yet, but in sight.
This goodly companionship of the faithful,
continuously increasing and deepening as it flows and swells, depending
the walls of any mere building of mortar-bound brick, needs to be
every sympathetic manner and by every appropriate means. Brethren will
for places to meet. Be it in shell-scarred city or Hun-swept desert
there is a
meeting place wherever is found the grip of Master Mason.
So then there is for those of us who stay, the
primarily of taking the place of those who go.
Those who go should bear from us every evidence
that they are of us. Army and navy regulations do not permit as free
badges as some civilians employ. However, a ring may be distinctive yet
unobjectionable, and a diploma also is an excellent possession by the
large in other countries. More than these is the equipment of a
the letter and the spirit of Masonry. With this information in the head
brotherhood in the heart, Masons will meet on the level and they will
to make use of their meetings to the fullest extent if they are worthy
* * *
Why Is A Candidate?
You have heard, we doubt not, that on some
there will be big doings in the lodge. There will be, of course, a
That is so regular a feature of all special nights that it may be taken
granted as the ever ordinary part of the extraordinary. Then comes the
which is usually and maybe not inaptly the cause or the excuse for the
Perhaps the oldest Past Master and the younger
dittos as satellites revolving about him will confer a degree. Maybe he
done it or seen it done in years. What of that? The others will prompt
whenever his memory slips a cog. Sure they will.
It has happened that the one least expected to
down has been the very person to slip up. Sometimes that has been
and has even been known to be hilarious in the extreme, according to
When the same ceremonial is performed, as it
sometimes is, by persons who have never done it before, there is also
for things to happen that never were expected to occur. A spectator
enjoyed what he recently reported to us as a scene that the candidate
laughed about merrily as soon as he felt that the affair had gone far
that he could safely do more than smile.
What everybody may deem proper and what anybody
find funny is fairly well founded as an institution, but ‒
Mark you, my brethren, we have an ancient
ceremonial valuable only as a means of impression. We take a man of
and put the stamp of Masonry upon him; thenceforward he is as a coin of
sterling metal, pure gold mint-marked, legal tender among all good men
true. We are not makers of counterfeit money. Surely not. Yet false
count. They last, and may blast efforts most arduous and painstaking to
Did any candidate ever resent the lofty quality
his initiation? Was he deserving of anything else? What was due him?
Did he get
what was due? If not, why not?
Certainly, the officers of a lodge may need a
rehearsal but why give that to the candidate? He does not need it if
Give him the best for that is what an initiate today and in all the
yesterdays of centuries has expected of Masonry.
Cut out the jesting, festering, blistering,
appendix. Give the candidate THE WORK.
Edited By Bro. H. L.
The object of this Department is to acquaint
readers with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the
Masonic literature now being published; and with such non-Masonic books
especially appeal to Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to
possible assistance to studious individuals or to Study Clubs and
either through this Department or by personal correspondence; if you
learn something concerning any book ‒ what is its nature, what is its
how it may be obtained ‒ be free to ask him. If you have read a book
think is worth a review write us about it; you desire to purchase a
book ‒ any
book ‒ we will help you get it, with no charge for the service. Make
Department of Literary Consultation.
IT is now pretty generally known that there
lived such an individual as Mark Twain: indeed it is doubtful if there
many now living in the world who don't know that. Mark Twain, as
Howells once said of him, belongs to the solar system; he was one of
system's greatest masterpieces; the man who hasn't read "Tom Sawyer,"
or "Huckleberry Finn," or "Innocents Abroad," or
"Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc" is as much to be pitied as
the man without a country. And now comes Albert Bigelow Paine to add to
gaiety of the nations by telling us the complete and authentic story of
amazing career [Lib 1912; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3]. His story is
published by Harpers, in three volumes, and the price is $4.50.
The reader may be warned against undertaking
book during a busy season; if he once gets into it he won't get out of
he has read the last page; he will forget to eat, he won't want to
will be ready to go to bed for a week after he has read it. It is about
most entertaining book that ever was written; moreover, it is a kind of
cyclorama of this nation's history from the 1850's on down, for Mark
always in the thick of events; if there were no events he would make
Mark lived through everything of which he
Tom Sawyer [Lib 1876] is a
composite portrait of himself and two other boys; Huck Finn was, in
a lovable little roustabout in Hannibal, Missouri, named Tom
"Roughing It” [Lib 1872] is
photographic of Mark's career in Nevada; except for a few exaggerations
legitimate history. "Innocents Abroad" [Lib 1869] is the history of a real
journey, and the people
described were real people.
Mark was a river pilot, a Rebel soldier on a
spavined old mule, a gold seeker, a newspaper man, a printer, a
lecturer, a writer, an inventor, an investor (what he earned by writing
by investing), and, altogether, a kind of epitome of Yankeedom in
great, elemental, unspoiled, large-hearted human being.
While on the famous tour through the Holy Land
young man showed him the miniature portrait of Olivia Langdon, of
York; Mark fell in love with the portrait, and afterwards fell in love
original, even more violently; after a courtship full of hardships and
he finally succeeded in marrying Olivia and never was a married life
albeit the slender little woman had her hands full civilizing her half
husband. She called him "Youth” to the end of her days. He was always a
boy, full of mischief.
During his courtship he carefully concealed his
profanity from her; but he couldn't conceal it for long; there was too
it. One morning she amazed him by reciting some choice specimens of it
to his astonished
ears but even that didn't cure him. Steve Gillis says that after Mark
cursed a dog the owner sold the animal for a Hairless Mexican! He was a
constant smoker. William Dean Howells, while entertaining him, used to
into his room after he had fallen asleep in order to remove the lighted
stubs which were endangering the house. Although a writer he was never
literary and entertained a frank and outspoken contempt for most of the
standard authors, Scott for example. In a speech to a group of ladies
Hartford he unburdened himself concerning the woes of spelling:
"I don't see
any use in spelling a word right ‒ and never did. I mean I don't see
any use in
having a uniform and arbitrary way of spelling words. We might as well
clothes alike and cook all dishes alike. Sameness is tiresome; variety
pleasing. I have a correspondent whose letters are always a refreshment
there is such a breezy, unfettered originality about his orthography.
spells 'kow' with a large 'K.' Now that is just as good as to spell it
small one. It is better. It gives the imagination a broader field, a
scope. It suggests to the mind a grand, vague, impressive new kind of
Mark was not a church man himself, albeit he
of preachers, certain of them; he used to call the church to which his
belonged, "The Church of the Holy Speculators." But he had pious
aspirations; when asked to furnish a golden saying which might always
he gave this:
all live so that when we come to die even the undertaker will be sorry."
Under his Joker's exterior Mark was one of the
human men that ever lived; he would share his last penny with the
needy, and he
would spend himself without stint to defend the unjustly abused. When
remarked in a sermon that he didn't care to have laboring men come into
church because they carried disagreeable odors Mark wrote one of the
scathing replies that was ever put on paper: it completely destroyed
of sanctity about T. DeWitt Talmage. So was it with his defense of
Shelley, with his loyalty to Grant in bitter times; with his caring for
foolish brother Orion, and in a hundred other cases. Moreover, he was a
profoundly serious man at bottom and it may be safely said that in the
his books will be even more read for the historical, sociological and
philosophical value in them than for the humor; that is saying much but
be safely said.
* * *
A Word as to Masonic
One would naturally expect a fraternity
almost two million members in this country alone, to be prolific in
In one sense American Masonry is prolific in literature; there are
journals and papers published, and hundreds of articles and pamphlets;
Masonic books, strictly so-called, are all too few. The present writer
discovered this in his attempt to conduct the Library Department.
Hardly once a
month is it possible to find one new book on Masonry.
In consequence of this the policy was adopted
reviewing old books in such a manner that the readers of THE BUILDER
some knowledge of their contents even if they never find opportunity to
them; this was deemed of value because it was felt that every Mason
something of the Masonic classics. At the time this was undertaken it
possible to secure books from England where most of the older works are
published; but at the present time it is next to impossible to get a
book across the Atlantic, for obvious and justifiable reasons. Hence is
we have been unable to secure some of the books reviewed for such
have desired the same. After the war has passed we will once again be
secure any of the books thus far reviewed, and we shall be very glad to
albeit the Research Society has no desire to make any money out of this
For this same reason it is often necessary to
the Craft's attention to some work not dealing exclusively with
which may have an angle of interest for Masons. For the same reasons we
asking that any brother who knows of a book, Masonic or semi-Masonic,
would be worth reviewing, he will either send us a copy or notify us of
same. The Library Department is intended to be of service to you; we
you to help make it more serviceable.
* * *
This is the title of a slender little volume
[Lib 1918] bound in blue
boards, written by Winward Prescott, and published by the Four Seas
Boston, price not quoted. It is the third publication issued by the
Bookplate Bibliophiles, and contains twenty-nine pages. Masons who take
pleasure, as many do, in the study of Masonic Bookplates will find this
useful little hand-book, albeit it is not all that could be desired.
is evidently not a Masonic scholar, as his reference to the Knights
a "divisional body," would seem to indicate. One may also wish that
he had consulted the various volumes of the Proceedings of the Lodge
Coronati, in which are photographs and drawings of hundreds of
explanations and history. Those who have access to the Coronati
will find a far larger collection than in the present book; but for
have not such access, "Masonic Bookplates," with its long list of
plates and its dozen or so of illustrations, will prove of value. The
is by no means an idle one; our historians have been enabled to untie
one riddle by a diligent study of Masonic Bookplates.
* * *
The old, old things are the poetic things. The
objects, the acts which have been steeped in human emotions through
after generation inevitably tend toward poetry. Therefore is it, and
reasons, too, that Masonry, especially the ritual of Masonry, has ever
the singers. Many are the volumes, from Robert Burns and Robert Morris
own day, in which Masonry has been set to music, the better to evoke
haunting rhythms and its ancient meaning.
To this list of the poetic interpretation of
lore must now be added a tiny, paper-covered volume from the pen of
Slane, 32d, of Peoria, Illinois, entitled "Story of the Ancient Craft;
Lessons in Verse," [Lib*] and published by the author at twenty-five
cents. The author's songs are as modest as his price; he attempts no
flights but prefers to stay in the minor key, as is fitting.
"Opening," "From Night to Light," "More Light,"
"Long Lost ‒ Now Found," and "Closing" ‒ such are his
titles. Exemplifiers of the ritual who seek to add the touch of music
renditions will find this a useful little book.
A generous and free-minded confession doth
a reproach and disarm an injury.
Riches are the baggage of virtue; they cannot
spared nor left behind, but they hinder the march.
The Question Box
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
responsible for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is
than a uniformity of opinion, the Research Society as such, does not
any one school of Masonic thought as over against another; but offers
alike a medium for fellowship and instruction, leaving each to stand or
its own merits. The Question Box and Correspondence Column are open to
members of the Society at all times. Questions of any nature on Masonic
are earnestly invited from our members, particularly those connected
Lodges or Study Clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of
Study." When requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail
publication in this department.
Masonry In Greece
I have just received my first copy of THE
and wish to say that it is just what I needed and something which every
should have. It has given me my first light to the meaning of Masonic
and I am happy to be a member of the N.M.R.S. and entitled to such a
and enterprising journal as THE BUILDER.
I am of Greek origin and would like very much
know something about Masonry in Greece (if there is any there) and will
appreciate any information given me on the subject.
From Vol. IV of Gould's History of Freemasonry
learn that Freemasonry was late in obtaining a footing on the mainland
kingdom, but somewhat earlier accounts come to us from what is now an
part of the territory of Greece, the Ionian Islands. These islands, in
days the prey of Naples, Genoa and Venice, were ceded to France in
were next successively taken possession of by Russia and Turkey in
France in 1807, and by England in 1809 The Grand Orient of France
lodge at Corfu ‒ St. Napoleon ‒ in 1809, and a second in 1810. In 1815
islands were formed into the Ionian Republic under the protection of
and a lodge, No. 654, "Pythagoras” (to which a Royal Arch Chapter was
subsequently attached), was erected at Corfu in 1837. About 1840 we
of a Grand Lodge of Greece at Corfu, with Angelo Calichiopulo as Grand
He died November 13, 1812, and further information respecting this
is altogether wanting Another English lodge ‒ No. 1182, Star of the
East ‒ was
established in Zante in 1861. This and Lodge Pythagoras are still
(1889). The lodges under the Grand Orient of France (1809-10) are
two others were constituted by the same authority at Corfu ‒ Phoenix,
and at Zante ‒ Star, 1859 ‒ the former of which still survives.
On the mainland there was in existence in 1866
Provincial Grand Lodge or Directory under the Grand Orient of Italy,
subordinate lodges ‒ at Syra, Athens, Piroeus, Chalkis, Corfu, Patras,
and Argos ‒ dating from 1860-1866. In 1867 these eight lodges, with the
of the Grand Orient of Italy, formed themselves into an independent
of Greece. A council of nine members to direct the Grand Lodge was
the representatives of the lodges, July 9, 1872. By this council ‒ July
Prince Rhodocanakis of Scio was elected Grand Master and retained the
until 1881, when he was succeeded by Nicholas Damaschino. The Grand
off the fetters of the high degrees, but otherwise retains much of an
impress. A Supreme Council 33d was, however, formed at a later period
degrees of the A. and A.S.R., with the same individuals as
the Grand Lodge, but without any control over or influence in the
Demosthenes Depos, Master of Lodge Patria,
writing in the Bulletin of the International Bureau of Masonic Affairs,
that in that country which, ever since antiquity has always shown
favorable to progress and which gave birth to the grandest ideas of
civilization, it was impossible that the sublime ideal of Masonry
find ardent partisans. At the outset, however, Masonry met with a
opposition on account of a certain bishop who aroused public opinion
it. Several brethren were persecuted and one lodge, that of Patras, was
dissolved about fifteen years ago. Its members had to flee in order to
from personal danger, as did in the olden times the disciples of the
cosmopolitan school of Pythagoras, the great Greek philosopher. But at
present time Masonry enjoys great liberty in Greece, for neither the
the church forgets the great services rendered to the country by the
of 1821, the instigators of which were members of the "Hetaireia."
This society had been founded by Freemasons and its organization was
than that of Masonry, it is claimed.
Two Masonic papers of considerable importance
published at Athens: one "Pythagoras," edited by the celebrated
Brother Eminent Galanis, and the other, "Ypsylanti," by Brother
Kiriasopoulos, a man of great knowledge and a celebrated doctor of
According to the latest figures obtainable
are given by the Masonic Relief Association of the United States and
there are eighteen lodges under the registry of the Grand Orient of
having a combined membership of 950 members.
The Grand Orient of Greece is recognized by the
Grand Lodges of Arizona, Arkansas, Canada, Maryland, Montana, North
Nova Scotia. However, since you are a member of a Missouri lodge it is
whether or not your own Grand Lodge would knowingly concede to you the
visitation to Greek lodges such as is accorded the members of the
W. E. A.
* * *
Objections to the Advancement
of a Candidate
Will you please explain to me how a candidate
be kept from advancing, and if possible, dropped entirely after taking
Entered Apprentice degree?
Suppose objections are found after a candidate
taken the Fellow Craft degree; what can be done to prevent him from
Section 96 of the Constitution of the Grand
of New York reads in part as follows:
"No written or verbal objection shall have the
effect to reject the petition of a candidate or the advancement of a
An objections however, must be respected, and will defer the initiation
candidate or the advancement of a brother until a subsequent
To stop the advancement of an Entered
your State (the laws on this subject are different in some other
a complaint in writing must be filed with the proper authorities and a
trial must be had. If found guilty the penalties which may be inflicted
the individual are:
1. Reprimand or fine, or both. 2. Suspension
all the rights of Masonry for a definite time. 3. Expulsion. 4. In case
penalty of a fine be imposed, an alternative penalty of suspension from
rights and privileges of Masonry may also be imposed until the fine is
A Mason has the right to appeal to the Grand
or the Grand Lodge.
The laws governing the advancement of an
Apprentice are equally applicable to the advancement of a Fellow Craft.
A digest of the laws of all the Grand Lodges of
United States covering the following subjects will be found in volume
THE BUILDER (issues for 1917):
Affiliation, p. 9 (January number);
50 (February number): Ballot for the Degrees, p. 70 (March number);
134 (May number); Physical Qualifications for initiation, p. 278
W. E. A.
* * *
The Oblong Square
I have derived much pleasure and profit from
study of each copy of THE BUILDER as it comes to me. I have tried to
real significance of the right and left angle of an oblong square. Upon
thought the term would seem to be misleading and yet there is probably
significance than appears on the surface.
A. C. M.,
Right and left as applied to the oblong square
probably refers to the foot which first advances to form one side of
of the square. As the left is regarded as the weaker part of man, we
that it signifies the entering upon the weaker part or beginning of
explanation, however, is only partial. Oliver, Mackey, and the early
and rituals define the oblong square as "a rectangle, having two sides
longer than the others." An old catechism of the year 1760 is as
"Of what form is your lodge?" "An oblong Square." "How
long Brother?" "From East to West." "How wide
Brother?" "Between North and South." "How high,
Brother?" "From the earth to the heavens." "How deep,
Brother?" "From the surface of the earth to the center."
"Why?" "Because that Masonry is universal."
The oblong square, therefore, represents the
in which we live and in which we are to do our work. It is situated
West, with the Master, who represents the source of light in the East,
sides being in the North and the South. "As we face the East to catch
first glimmer of the dawn of a new day, so the E. A. must face the East
he can be brought to light. In this position the north side of the
lodge is on
his left and the south upon his right. Thus the left angle of the
is the northeast corner of the lodge and the right angle is the
placed in the northeast corner to lay the corner stone of his Masonic
the E. A. must face the South and in this position the left angle is
he faces the Master. In some jurisdictions he is placed in the
in the Second Degree and informed that as in the First Degree he was
the northeast corner to show that he was newly admitted and had laid
foundation, he is now placed in the southeast to mark his progress in
science; and as in the First Degree he had an opportunity of making
acquainted with the principles of moral truth and virtue, he is now
to extend his researches into the hidden mysteries of Nature and
There is much which cannot here be revealed,
briefly, we would say that as the left is regarded as the weaker part
of man so
the left angle represents the weaker part or beginnings of Masonry. It
weaker, however, only in the sense that it is the beginning, less
less conspicuous. The child is weaker than the man, but the character
by the child becomes the foundation of the character of the man. So
left is regarded as the weaker part we must not forget that it is in
the N. E.
corner that the foundation stone is laid and that upon the foundation
the Mason is to raise a superstructure perfect in its parts and
the Builder. As the right side of man represents the active working
the right angle represents the part of the building which is most used.
just as important as the other. As the foundation supports the
so the left supports the right and "all the building fitly framed
groweth into a holy temple in the Lord."
C. C. H.
* * *
Visit to Richmond, Virginia
Complying with your request on the inside back
cover of the March number of THE BUILDER, I am sending you a history of
Richmond Randolph Lodge No. 19, A. F. and A. M., of Richmond, Va.,
and occupies the first building erected in America for Masonic
showing that in 1824 General Lafayette; his nephew, George Washington
Lafayette, and General Lavasseur, of his staff, visited this lodge and
elected honorary members. You will find the account on pages 15 and 16
trust it will prove of interest to the members of the Society.
The account follows:
The following is a copy from the lodge records:
October 6, 1824, at a stated meeting of No. 19, held this evening at
Hall, a communication was received from Richmond Lodge No. 10, through
Worshipful Brother John Dove, concerning suitable arrangements for the
reception of Illustrious Worshipful Brother Lafayette. A preamble
adopted appointing a committee to confer with committees of sister
to carry into effect such measures as may be deemed by them proper for
due respect to our illustrious brother, General Lafayette, when he
arrived in this city and directed the Tiler to draw upon the Treasurer
expenses attending the illumination of Masons' Hall.
Reception, etc., to Worshipful General
Saturday, October 30, 1824. At a called meeting of Richmond Randolph
19, held at Masons' Hall in the city of Richmond, the lodge was opened
first degree of Masonry in due form. On motion of Wor. Bro. Cabell,
Bro. Ives, Wor. Bro. Lafayette was unanimously elected an Honorary
this lodge. On motion of Brother Ives, Brother George Washington
nephew of Genl. Lafayette) was unanimously elected an Honorary Member
lodge. On motion of Bro. Anderson, Brother Lavasseur was unanimously
Honorary Member of this lodge. The lodge was then called from labor to
The lodge, after having joined in a procession,
proceeded to the Union Hotel (corner Main and Nineteenth streets) to
a dinner provided in compliment to Brother General Lafayette. The lodge
escorted that brother to his lodgings at the Eagle Hotel (corner
Main streets) and returned to the Masons' Hall and resumed labors. Wor.
R.A. Carrington was Master at this time.
The signatures of all the foregoing Honorary
Members appear on the recorded By-Laws of No. 19 preceding the record
meeting and reception and have been inspected by thousands of Masons
parts of the world.
At the November 3, 1824, meeting it was
that the Master and Wardens of No. 19 procure appropriate certificates
membership, written on parchment, and present them to the brethren
elected Honorary Members.
Wor. Bro. Genl. Lafayette died on 20th of May,
1834, and this lodge held suitable memorial exercises to pay the last
tribute of respect to our deceased brother, June 23, 1834.
* * *
Visit to Nashville, Tennessee
In the March issue of THE BUILDER I notice that
information with regard to the Masonic connections of General Lafayette
perhaps be of some service to the Society and interest to the members.
From a reprint of the Proceedings of the Grand
Lodge of Tennessee for 1826 the following facts are gleaned:
At a called meeting of the Grand Lodge of
Tennessee, at the Masonic Hall in the town of Nashville, on Monday,
1825, the M. W. Grand Master informed the Grand Lodge that the object
Convention was the reception of our illustrious brother, General
lodge then adjourned until 7 o'clock P. M., April 26th, when it met
to adjournment and the committee previously appointed by the Grand
make the necessary arrangements for the reception of our illustrious
Lafayette, made the following report, which was concurred in by the
Lodge: Resolved, That the following general arrangement be made: As
soon as it
is ascertained at what time Lafayette will probably arrive, the Grand
shall be convened, by order of the Grand Master, and shall assemble at
Masonic Hall, in Nashville.
The Masonic Fraternity, as such, shall take no
in the reception of Lafayette on his arrival in Nashville, but
after he reaches his lodgings a committee, appointed by the Grand
wait on him and inform him that his brethren of the Grand Lodge of
will expect his company at the Masonic Hall the same evening, at 7
on such other evening as may conform with the general arrangements),
arrangements have been made for a Masonic dinner and public parade to
place on the next day. The Grand Master, and other principal Grand
the Grand Lodge, shall then wait upon him at his lodgings, and be
In the evening, at 6 o'clock, the Grand Lodge shall assemble in the
and after opening, shall adjourn to the hall below, which shall be
fitted up for the occasion. A committee shall then be dispatched in a
or carriages for Lafayette, and such of his suite as are Masons, who,
arrival at the hall, shall be received by the Grand Marshal, and he
conduct them to the lodge-room upstairs, where they may partake of
refreshments. The Grand Lodge, still in session, shall then be notified
their arrival, and the Grand Marshal and committees shall conduct them
separately into the hall, and be received with appropriate honors, and
seated on the right of the Most Worshipful Grand Master. The Grand
then deliver to Lafayette an appropriate address, in the name of the
Fraternity of the State of Tennessee, greeting him with a hearty
The Grand Lodge shall then be called off, and
adjourn to the next day, at 1 o'clock P. M.
The brethren and their guests shall repair
successively, as may be convenient, to the chapter-room above, where a
shall be previously spread, and partake of a supper provided for the
Lafayette and his suite shall then be conducted to their lodgings by
The next day, at 1 o'clock, the Grand Lodge
again convene, in conjunction with the subordinate lodges and Royal
chapters, and march to the lodgings of Lafayette, where he and his
such other persons as may be invited, shall join, and all shall
direction of the Grand and Deputy Marshals, through the Public Square
principal streets to the Presbyterian Church, where an oration, suited
occasion, shall be delivered by some brother previously selected for
The procession shall then march to the hall,
a Grand Masonic dinner shall have been provided, and after the
appropriate festivity, shall again escort Lafayette and his suite to
lodgings, and return to the hall and separate. The Grand Lodge shall
Resolved, That Brother W. G. Hunt be requested
deliver the oration.
Signed by the Committee.
On motion of brother W. G. Hunt it was resolved
that a committee be appointed to attend to the illumination of the
on the evening of General Lafayette's arrival, and that they use the
precaution to prevent any accident by fire or otherwise. A committee
appointed by the Grand Master for this purpose.
The Grand Lodge then adjourned during the
of the M. W. Grand Master.
The Grand Lodge met again on Wednesday, May
and at this meeting Brother Lafayette was unanimously elected an
Member. The Grand Lodge was then called from labor to refreshment, and
procession in conjunction with Cumberland R.A. Chapter No. 1, Franklin
Chapter No. 2 and Clarksville R.A. Chapter No. 3, and Lodges No. 8 and
proceeded to the Nashville Inn, where they were joined by Brother
suite and returned to the hall.
The Grand Lodge was then called from
labor, when Brother George W. Lafayette and Brother Lavasseur were
and introduced. Brother General Lafayette was introduced by Brothers
Jackson and G.W. Campbell, received with the Grand Honors, and seated
right of the Grand Master, who then rose and addressed him on the part
Masonic Fraternity of Tennessee.
After being informed that he had been
elected an Honorary Member of the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, Brother
made a feeling and appropriate reply, in substance as follows:
He felt himself highly gratified at being so
welcomed by the Grand Lodge of Tennessee, and at being made an Honorary
of that body, in which he had been introduced by the distinguished
Mason who had erected the lines of New Orleans, and, in technical
the Craft, had made them "well-formed, true and trusty." He had, he
said, been long a member of the Order, having been initiated, young as
even before he entered the service of our country in the Revolutionary
had never for a moment ceased to love and venerate the institution, and
therefore, peculiarly delighted to see that it had spread its genial
thus far to the West, and that his brethren here were not only
brilliantly accommodated. He considered the Order as peculiarly
this country, where it not only fostered the principles of civil and
liberty, but was eminently calculated to link the extremities of this
republic together, and to perpetuate, by its fraternizing influence,
of the States.
* * *
A Roman Catholic and
I wish to call your attention to an incident
occurred here on Sunday, April 7th, 1918. An incident that is unique
that is very seldom met with in Masonry.
Brother Clem Hodes had been a member of Eugene
Lodge No. 11, A.F. & A.M., for forty years. He esteemed Masonry
and appreciated its teachings. Until failing health prevented, he was a
frequent attendant at the regular and special communications of the
was also a member of the Roman Catholic Church.
On April 3rd, Bro. Hodes passed to that realm
whose bourne no traveler ever returns, and his funeral was held on
April 7th. He left a request for a Masonic burial, to be conducted by
M. Yoran. Eugene Lodge met in special communication Sunday afternoon,
repaired to the chapel of the undertaker where the first service was
service was conducted by the Roman Catholic Priest, who gave a short
which was highly appreciated by our members ‒ an address to which not
person present could have taken the least exception. He then offered up
for the repose of the soul of the dead to which there was a very
response from the members of the Roman Catholic Church present. The
ended by the singing of "Nearer My God to Thee" by a choir composed
of members of the fraternity.
Eugene Lodge then took charge of the remains
conveyed them to the Masonic Cemetery where they were interred in a
the mausoleum with full Masonic burial service conducted by Bro. S. M.
There was a large attendance of Roman Catholics at this service.
I will not comment on this incident, but will
say: May we have more such incidents.
* * *
Solomon's Temple and
Early History of Masonry ‒ A Correction
Under the above heading in the June Question
the latter part of the answer to the second question should read "most
what we are told about him, however, is purely legendary, which means
have no way of proving that it is historical," and in that part of the
answer to the fourth question reading "the same size applies only to
main body of the temple" the word "same" should read
Passion and prejudice govern the world; only
the name of reason.
of Tom Sawyer
Twa76 / auth. Twain Mark. - Hartford : The American Publishing Company,
1876. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 276. - Illustrated - 19.0 MB.
Barbarian Invasion of Italy Vol
Vil02BI1 / auth. Villari Pasquale. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1902. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 248. - 13.5 MB.
Barbarian Invasion of Italy Vol
Vil02BI2 / auth. Villari
Pasquale. - London : T Fisher Unwin, 1902. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 263. - 5.9
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Per10 / auth. Perry J Tavenor. - London : George Allen & Sons,
1910. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 296. - Illustrated - 17.9 MB.
From Schola to Cathedral
Bro86 / auth. Brown G Baldwin. - Edinburgh : David Douglas, 1886. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 276. - 15.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry
Fin66 / auth. Findel Joseph G. - London : Asher & Co., 1866. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 742. - Translated from the German - 17.8 MB.
I Maestri Comacini Vol 1
Mer93MC1 / auth. Merzario Giuseppe. - Milano : Casa Tip. Libr., Ditta
Giacomo Agnelli, 1893. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 707. - Italian - 45.0 MB.
I Maestri Comacini Vol 2
Mer93MC2 / auth. Merzario Giuseppe. - Milano : Casa Tip. Libr., Ditta Giacomo Agnelli,
1893. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 633. - Italian - 41.0 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre72 / auth. Preston William. - London : Eidographic Reproduction
Publishing Co. 1887, 1772. - First Edition Facsimile : Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
295. - 5.2 MB.
Twa69 / auth. Twain Mark. - Hartford : The American Publishing Company,
1869. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 672. - Illustrated - 53.3 MB.
Mark Twain Biography Vol 1
Pai12MT1 / auth. Paine Albert B. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishing, 1912. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 591. - Illustrated - 23.3 MB.
Mark Twain Biography Vol 2
Pai12MT2 / auth. Paine Albert B. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishing, 1912. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 579. - Illustrated - 26.1 MB.
Mark Twain Biography Vol 3
Pai12MT3 / auth. Paine Albert B. - New York : Harper & Brothers
Publishing, 1912. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 634. - Illustrated - 23.3 MB.
Pre18 / auth. Prescott Winward. - Boston : The Four Seas Company, 1918.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 34. - 1.2 MB.
Medical Economy During the
For83 / auth. Fort George F. - New York : J W Bouton, 1883. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 502. - 30.0 MB.
Twa72 / auth. Twain Mark. - Hartford : The American Publishing Company,
1872. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 607. - Illustrated - 23.5 MB.
The Cathedral Builders
Sco99 / auth. Scott Leader. - London : Sampson Low, Marston &
Co., 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 520. - 16.1 MB.
The Comacines Their
Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 94. - 3.4 MB.
The Early History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry
For81 / auth. Fort George F.. - Philadelphia : Bradley & Co.,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 514. - 21.2 MB.
The History of Free Masonry
Bre04 / auth. Brewster Sir David. - Edinburgh : Alex Lawrie, 1804. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 363. - 13.7 MB.
Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 1
Mea061 / auth. Mead George S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 497. - 15.8 MB.
Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 2
Mea062 / auth. Mead George S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 411. - 16.5 MB.
Thrice-Greatest Hermes Vol 3
Mea063 / auth. Mead George S. - London : The Theosophicl Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 390. - 16.4 MB.