Masonic Research Society
By Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Text: Proverbs 8:27, "he set a compass upon the
face of the deep."
had shown Ptolemy his treatise on geometry the king inquired, somewhat
"Cannot the problems be made easier?" to which the geometer replied,
is no royal road to geometry." True enough, but geometry itself is a
road, and one that will lead us to Divine things if we will but follow
it, as I
now ask you to do.
It is difficult, if not impossible, for us to
our steps into the ancient day when men had not yet learned the
orderliness of nature.
Before the calendar was discovered or clocks invented the navigator
ship by the landmarks on the coast, and the farmer planted his crops by
for it was not known that the seasons repeat their regular ritual or
that the heavens
are ruled by order. "They saw things come and saw them go, but whence
they could not know." Everything changed or passed away and all things
to be in an eternal flux. In the midst of that everlasting stream of
that wildering maze of vicissitude, the early people felt helpless, if
for it always seemed that Nature was making sport of them. Even Renan,
so far removed
from them in time, recognized the pathos of this, for he said that
is so painful as the universal flow of things," while Tennyson set the
to his music of accustomed sweetness:
The hills are shadows,
and they flow
From form to form, and nothing stands;
They melt like mist, the solid lands,
Like clouds they shape themselves, and go.
If the mutability of all things was so
the recent thinkers, having at their hand science's unveiling of the
of the universe, how much more painful must it have seemed to human
science came! "We are strangers before thee," they cried in their
"and sojourners, as all our fathers were: our days on the earth are as
and there is no abiding."
Little wonder that the discovery of the North
one fixed body among all the others that moved perpetually, was an
event of such
importance that the simple folk worshipped it as a god and hung its
the altars of their temples! Little wonder that Heraclitus, the first
state the fact with the thoroughness and system of philosophy, was
Weeping Philosopher!" Where there is no stability the mind hangs in the
and grows weary like a land bird at sea that finds no solid ground for
It was for this reason that the discovery of
and especially of geometry, which is the application of numbers to
form, was hailed
as a visitation from on high. This discovery was not made in a day but
came so gradually
that men could hardly discern the lifting of the changing mists. And it
this wise it came, if we have rightly pieced together the fragments of
The Egyptians lived along the Nile, their fields lying adjacent to its
order to profit from the rich deposits of its overflow. But this very
source as it was of all fertility, gave rise to great difficulties, for
waters obliterated all landmarks each season and thus caused confusion
owners of the fields. It was in their efforts to discover some method
their boundaries that the Egyptians learned how to trace out the
of the heavens, the periodicity of the seasons, and the properties of
much the race is indebted to those sun-browned workers in the
nobody can compute!
Inasmuch as numbers had won them order from
their first impressions these early peoples exalted mathematics to the
divinity, seeing in it, and rightly we may believe, a revelation, an
of the Creative Mind. Triangles and squares were engraved on their
hung in their temples. The numbers three, five and seven were held
for in them were many qualities not possessed by other numerals. The
cult of numbers
arose at last and men formed secret societies for studying and teaching
of geometry. It was among these secret societies that there came at a
Pythagoras, one of the noblest of all thinkers, and the first to raise
to the level of an exact science. From his hidden schools in Greece he
initiates the mystery of arithmetic, calling God "the Great
and telling his pupils that "All things are in numbers; crystals are
Plato, also, the most opulent thinker of
found in geometry a revelation of the Infinite Mind, looking upon it as
essence of religion, the knowledge of God. "What does Deity do all the
one of his pupils asked him. "God is always geometrizing," was the
"Geometry must ever tend to draw the soul towards truth." Over the
of his school he inscribed the legend: "Let no one who is ignorant of
enter my doors."
What science is to all modern thinking the one
of mathematics, "the sacred mathematics," was to early thinking; and
first teachers felt it a sacred duty to transmit so valuable a
knowledge to their
descendants. Therefore was it that, three hundred years before Christ,
the treatise in which he embodied all that was known of the science at
Indeed, the work of Euclid is still the standard treatise on the
used as the basis of every textbook in our schools. Better methods for
problems have been worked out, and new propositions have been
discovered, but the
fundamentals stand like adamant, and always will stand. After the
breakup of the
ancient world and the general inundation of culture under the Barbarian
geometry was lost. For hundreds of years the people of Europe wandered
mazes of chance and caprice, as primitive men had done before them.
Then at last
along came Simon Grynaeus, a contemporary of Luther, who rediscovered
gave his science to the new peoples. How much this influenced the
historian has yet undertaken to estimate but it is certain that it had
consequences and paved the way for modern science, which is itself a
built on mathematics.
If the earlier peoples were overjoyed to make
few discoveries of the hidden but fixed order of Nature how delighted
now be to learn that all the endeavors of science have only served to
and more universal the reign of number and form throughout the
universe. For through
a prophetic inspiration of the geometers we have had uncurtained to us
of mathematical order throughout the universe which is as revealing as
it is beautiful.
Matter itself, immobile as it may appear to the
is in reality a composite of atoms that move through the mazes of an
dance, every evolution of which seems timed to some exact pattern. Even
elements, which so long baffled the system makers, were proved by
Newlands to lie
in a regular order of periodicity strangely grouped around the number
is the first law of the elements. Crystallization is a solid geometry.
If one observes
ice crystals forming across a window pane he will see them grouping
into symmetrical forms, intricate, involved, beautiful, as if some
were at work depicting a scene from an arctic fairyland.
Even when life gathers matter up about itself
organisms the same rhythm is preserved. Vitality is free and flowing,
erratic, and moving by the law of its own, yet it will always be found
at last to
keep step with the geometrical motions of the world. If one would
expect the eternal
harmony absent from any field surely it would be in that little known
the insects inhabit; yet John Henri Fabre was so impressed by the reign
among these insignificant creatures that he was moved to write this
"He will admire as much as we do geometry the
balancer of space. There is a severe beauty, belonging to the domain of
the same in every world, the same under every sun, whether the suns be
many, white or red, blue or yellow. This universal beauty is order.
done by weight and measure, a great statement whose truth breaks upon
us all the
more vividly as we probe more deeply into the mystery of things. Is
upon which the equilibrium of the universe is based, the predestined
result of a
blind mechanism? Does it enter into the plans of an eternal Geometer,
as Plato had
it? Is it the ideal of a supreme lover of beauty, which would explain
Why all this regularity in the curve of the petals of a flower, why all
in the chasings on a beetle's wing-cases? Is that infinite grace, even
in the tiniest
details compatible with the brutality of uncontrolled forces? One might
attribute the artist's exquisite medallion to the steam-hammer which
makes the slag
sweat in the melting!"
The "regularity in the curve of the petals of
flower" has attracted the attention of others as well as Fabre.
who learned so much from the veteran French naturalist, made a
prolonged study of
the Mind that is at work in plants with what result anyone can read in
a book of
lovely pages, "The Intelligence of the Flowers." Why are leaves set
the stem in such mathematical regularity? Why do flowers seem to love
the trilium is partial to three, and the rose to five? Surely it must
there is that in them which responds to the universal order. Like
they are always geometrizing.
An animal is a plant that has taken to moving
and just because it is so often apparently ungoverned in its movements,
sight of the regular laws which rule among animals as much as among
plants and minerals.
But those laws are there as many a scientist has proved. In the
days, before the evolution theory was so well understood, men fell to
as if the universe had happened into existence through chance. Life
itself was defined
as the result of a "fortuitous concourse of atoms." The absurdity of
"thinking" ‒ it was really an abdication of thought ‒ was never more
revealed than by the Duke of Argyll, whose work on "The Reign of Law"
[Lib 1872] is almost classical.
The learned Duke took the wing of a common bird and showed that the
flight is so unimaginably complicated, so perfect, and solves so many
problems, many of them beyond the ken of a Lord Kelvin, that it tasks
too much to be asked to believe that this exquisite machinery could
come through "chance." In a more recent time, Sir Oliver Lodge [Lib 1907] has made the same
use of the human eye, an organ so intricate and nice in its adjustments
that a Swiss watch is simple by comparison.
What is true of the things we find on the earth
good in equal measure of the great bodies that sail round us through
the sky. The
astronomer's charts are strangely like a page of Euclid. He has found
is the first law of the heavens as it is of Heaven. The wildest comet,
irresponsibly through space, moves in an orbit as rigidly fixed as the
the hands about the clock. Surely it must be that an Infinite Mind has
set His compasses
upon the face of the deeps of space, else how explain the periodicity,
of the sidereal universe, the movement of any one body of which may be
for thousands of years in advance!
This law of geometric harmony holds as true
arts of man as in those realms which are the art of God. Every building
demonstration. As we may read in the pages of a learned student of
language (geometry) spoke in the sloping wall and massive pillar and
flat roof of
Egypt, or in the mighty piles of Chaldea, or in the Corinthian grace,
or in Roman
boldness; the heart was that of the geometrician who spoke as he
dreamed, in anger,
in epic, in poetry of stone and graceful curve ‒ who planned by the
plumb and the
square, by the secret of the arch and the balance of accurate measure."
Even painting, when lightly understood,
the ancient patterns, being based on the principle described by one of
magisterial exponents: "All nature is modelled either like a cone, a
or a cylinder. Painting is a colored mathematics of things." As for
that is geometry that has taken to wings, its freedom evermore being
law. It is the child of rhythm which is the purest manifestation of the
law of numbers.
From of old it has been dreamed that the morning stars sang together,
that the rafters
and beams of creation were laid deep in melody, that the spheres make
music as they
move, that all "deep things are song." Of this truth every musician is
the priest as every poet is its apostle. As Dryden sings:
from heavenly Harmony
This universal frame began;
When Nature underneath a heap
Of jarring atoms lay And could not heave her head,
The tuneful voice was heard from high,
Arise, ye more than dead!
Then cold, and hot, and moist, and dry
In order to their stations leap,
And music's power obey.
From Harmony, from heavenly Harmony
This universal frame began:
From harmony to harmony
Through all the compass of the notes it ran,
The diapason closing full in Man."
Yes, in Man, truly, for order holds in the soul
as in the heavens where the astronomer thinks God's thoughts after Him.
is no chance product but builds according to laws as immutable and as
as any to be found in the builder's art. For the freedom of the soul is
least of all lawlessness, but voluntary co-operation with the fixed
rules of the
spirit. He who will build according to that principle will erect a
stable as that house which the wise architect builded on the rock.
be the day when men learn the geometry of the heart and square their
the fixed rules of moral life.
The significance of this geometry of the cosmos
our faith has been know ever since men discovered it. At bottom there
are but two
philosophies: that which holds that this universe is a heap of dirt
chance; and that which finds in it a reasoned reign of order resting in
Mind. As between dirt and deity a man may make his choice, but surely
who sees everywhere the beautiful sweep of order will not for a moment
this mighty music could have come to us out of the falling atoms of
might as well throw a handful of type into the air and expect them to
write a poem
in their fall!
Twenty-five centuries ago Socrates labored to
little atheist, Aristodemus, that as a statue by Polytectetus could not
have emerged from the quarries through mere chance, so is it impossible
that the cosmos, infinitely greater in complexity as well as in beauty,
have come into existence through mere fortuitousness. In the same wise,
who may typify the modern thinker, exposed the fallacy of an atheist
friend of his. The astronomer was showing him an orrery, which is a
of the solar system, when Franklin said, "It is strange that such a
build itself by chance." "Chance!" exclaimed the astronomer, "I
made that myself. How could so complicated a device have come by
said the philosopher, turning upon him, "how can you believe that the
system itself, of which this is a mere model, could have come by
Surely, when we have our minds with us, it must
that the everywhere present order of things is the revelation of a
Where there is so much intelligence there must be an Intelligence!
Where there is
so much harmony there must stand near a great Musician! The poetry of
earth is the
song of an Infinite Poet! The beauty of all creation is the outshining,
of an Eternal Artist!
Long ago a psalmist cried, "Whither shall I
from Thy presence?" We cannot flee from His presence. While we dig in
He is there, present in the dance of the atoms that compose the soil:
while we walk
through the snow He draws His pictures about us in the traceries of the
the bird that wings above us is His angel, making hieroglyphics in the
very tides move along the circle which His compasses draw upon the
He is. We live imbedded in His mind. To escape from Him is as
impossible as to climb
out of the atmosphere!
Where there is so much order all must be
Alphonso of Castile, looking out over the general muddle of affairs
into which Spain
had fallen, doubted that a Mind ruled all. "If God had called me to His
he sighed, "things would have been in better order." In these days when
it seems that the bottom has gone out of the world and chaos has come
may fall into the mood of the old king. But let us despair not. The
plain is there;
we have lost the perspective, or the key. It is said that the frescoes
on the ceiling
of St. Peter's look like an inartistic jumble to the man who climbs
close to them;
but from a station three hundred feet below they spring up into a
They are wrought on too large a plan for a close view. We humans, with
our myopic eyes, are standing too close to the program of creation; it
all jumble to us now. Let us wait with patience. Some morning, soon or
find us on a mountain of vision where we can see things as they are and
Divine Geometer draw His circles across the deep.
Where the Rainbow Never
George D. Prentice
It can not be that the earth is man's only
It can not be that our life is a mere bubble cast up by eternity to
float a moment
on its waves and then sink into nothingness. Else why is it that the
which leap like angels from the temple of our hearts are forever
Why is it that all the stars that hold their
around the midnight throne are set above the grasp of our limited
mocking us with their unapproachable glory?
And, finally, why is it that bright forms of
presented to our view are taken from us, leaving the thousand streams
of our affections
to flow back in Alpine torrents upon our hearts?
There is a realm where the rainbow never fades;
the stars will be spread out before us like islands that slumber in the
where the beautiful beings which now pass before us like shadows will
stay in our
Boyhood Home Of Albert Pike
By Bro. Harold L. Bailey.
Having noticed in a back issue of THE BUILDER a
to the effect that you would like material relating to Albert Pike, I
you a photograph of the house in which he spent his boyhood. I made
several years ago to illustrate a short write-up of the subject for the
A painted sign with its characters nearly
time proclaims a deserted, weatherbeaten house in the parish of
as the "Home of Gen. Albert Pike." Although not his birthplace it
for all those things generally connected with a man's first days and
years in the
General Pike was born in Boston, Dec. 29, 1809,
was brought to this house when but a few days old. His boyhood days
were spent in
Byfield, and a letter from which Mr. John Ewell quotes in his "Story of
[Lib 1904] (George E. Littlefield,
Boston, 1904, publisher) expresses General Pike's affection for his
"Many, many long years ago I gathered walnuts
shot squirrels on Long Hill. It saddens me to look back along the
departed years, and to remember how long the Future then seemed and how
Past is. I wish I could be a boy for one single day again and ramble
over Long Hill
in the frosty air of October, and at night sleep the sound sleep of
youth. . ."
Byfield is the name of an old-time church
territory of which embraced several towns. General Pike's home was in a
of the parish now included in the town of Georgetown, Essex County,
miles north of Boston.
is best to take
life gladly as we strive,
And best to face toil bravely day by day.
We are companioned in this busy hive
With other strugglers in this clay.
No fate selects us solely for its mark,
And no misfortune that can e'er befall
But what find other strugglers in the dark,
For care is common unto one and all.
Lafayette's Fraternal Connections
By Bro. Julius F. Sachse,
Grand Librarian, Pennsylvania
Since the entry of America into the World War
have come to us many requests for information concerning that notable
of America during the War of the American Revolution, Brother General
We were unable to learn but little concerning the Masonic connections
Lafayette until we discovered, in the report of the Committee on
Library of the
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania for 1916, notice of the proposed
publication in pamphlet
form of the following article by Brother Sachse. By permission of this
we are enabled to herewith present to our readers the result of Brother
It is very unfortunate that the name of Brother
Mother Lodge is not known. Possibly some of our members may be able to
us on this subject.
NO original documentary evidence is known to be
which records the initiation of General Lafayette in the Masonic
in what Lodge or when this took place. It has always been a tradition
circles that General Lafayette was made a Mason in one of the Military
Morristown, New Jersey, where a Festal Lodge was held December 27,
1779, for which
occasion the jewels and furniture and clothing of St. John's Lodge, No.
1, of Newark,
New Jersey, was borrowed. The meeting proved a great success, sixty
being present, one of whom was General Washington.
There is another tradition that General
made a Mason in a Military Lodge, which met at Valley Forge during the
1777-78, hut no official records of such action have thus far been
It was this uncertainty as to the Masonic
General Lafayette, which led to the resolution of September 6, 1824, in
Lodge of Pennsylvania and the appointment of a Committee to satisfy
General Lafayette was an Ancient York Mason. That the Committee was
their investigation is evinced by their report and the subsequent
action of the
Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, which resulted in enrolling Brother
an Honorary Member of the R.W. Grand Lodge, F. & A. M. of
Brother General Marie Jean Paul Joseph Roche
du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, revisited America in the year 1784,
New York August 5 of that year. After remaining a short time in New
York he hastened
forward to visit General Washington at Mount Vernon, reaching
Philadelphia on August
10, where he was presented with an address by Brothers A. St. Clair,
and General Anthony Wayne. It is not known whether General Lafayette
Masonic Lodges in Philadelphia during this visit, nor whether there was
with the Grand Lodge. One of the chief objects of this visit with
was to present him with a beautiful white satin apron bearing the
red, white and blue and embroidered elaborately with Masonic emblems,
being the handiwork of Madam the Marquise de Lafayette.
This apron was enclosed in a handsome rosewood
presented to Washington. This apron was worn by Washington, September
when he laid the corner stone of the capitol at the Federal City
C.), and is now in the Museum of the Grand Lodge, F. & A. M.,
After the death of Washington this Masonic relic was presented by the
the Washington Benevolent Society, who received it October 26, 1816.
They in turn
presented it July 3, 1829, to the Right Worshipful Grand Lodge, F.
& A. M. of
Pennsylvania, and bears the following inscription:
"To the "WASHINGTON BENEVOLENT SOCIETY.
"The Legatees of Gen. Washington, impressed
the most profound Sentiments of respect for the Institution which they
honor to address, beg leave to present to them the enclosed relic of
& lamented 'Father of His Country.' They are persuaded that the
was once possessed by the man, whom the Philadelphians always delighted
will be considered most precious to the Society distinguished by his
name, and by
the benevolent, and grateful feelings to which it owes its foundations.
perishable memento of a Hero whose Fame is 'more durable than Brass'
as much pleasure upon those to whom it is presented, as is experienced
by the Donors.
"October 26th, 1816, "Is the sincere wish
of the "Legatees."
Forty years later Brother Lafayette revisited
States, landing at New York as the nation's guest, August 15, 1824. He
by his son George Washington Lafayette, and M. La Vasseur, his
secretary, both members
of the fraternity. Tuesday, September 29, the party reached
At the Grand Quarterly Communication of the
of Pennsylvania held September 6, 1824, just ninety-four years ago, the
motion was made, seconded, and adopted:
"Resolved, that a Committee consisting of the
Officers and Past Grand Masters be appointed to enquire whether General
be an Ancient York Master Mason, and if he be, to adopt such measures,
as in their
opinion will best evince the affection and gratitude of his Masonic
this friend and benefactor of the United States."
At an adjourned Quarterly Grand Communication
September 26, 1824, the committee made the following report:
"The Committee appointed on the 6 Septr. to
whether Gen. La Fayette be an Antient York Mason presented the
and Resolution which as amended were severally adopted: ‒
"The Committee appointed by the Grand Lodge to
ascertain and Report whether General La Fayette be an Antient York
Mason, and if
so to report such measures it would be proper for the Grand Lodge to
adopt in relation
to this Brother, respectfully Report,
"That they have been led to believe that this
man, for whose attachment and services to this Country our fellow
evinced the warmest feelings of affection and gratitude has long been
York Master Mason and has honored the institution by his patronage and
its usefulness and respectability by a devoted attention to its
all classes are zealous to display their good feelings upon his arrival
us, it would seem to your Committee that in a City where the Masonic
deservedly stand high, some testimony of respect is due from them to so
"They have been anxious to avoid unnecessary
and expense, but at the same time to treat this guest as becomes the
and his character.
"The Committee recommended for adoption the
Resolutions:- "Resolved, that a Committee of seven be appointed whose
it shall be as soon as they have received Masonic information that Gen.
is an Antient York Master Mason, to invite him to partake with his
of a Dinner to be prepared for the occasion.
"Resolved, that the same Committee shall be
to procure the Dinner, receive Subscriptions and make all necessary
for the same at the price of five dollars for each subscriber.
"Resolved, that the use of the Grand Salon
be appropriated on the evening on which the Dinner is to take place to
to the same.
"Resolved, that the Grand Lodge Room shall also
be appropriated to the use of the subscribers on that day, with the
consent of the
Lodge whose day of meeting it may be and that an address suitable to
J. K. Kane, Committee."
The R.W.D.G.M. was pleased to appoint Brothers
J. S. Lewis, J. M. Pettit, D. E. Wilson, Robt. Toland, D. F. Gordon and
on said committee.
On motion made and seconded,
"Resolved, that the Grand Secretary transmit a
copy of the Report and Resolutions to the R. W. Grand Master (Bro. John
being absent from the City on official Duties as Judge of the Supreme
respectfully invite his attendance in the City on the day when the
Dinner to Gen.
La Fayette shall take place."
Saturday, October 2, 1824, Brother Lafayette
the navy yard, then on the Delaware River at the foot of Federal
by the governor and citizens of the first distinction, escorted by the
Marines, a regiment of militia, several independent companies, and a
After leaving the Philadelphia navy yard in the
Brother Lafayette was escorted by a committee of the Grand Lodge from
at the house of Mrs. Nicholas Biddle, to the Masonic Hall on Chestnut
side between Seventh and Eighth Streets, where he attended an Extra
of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, as stated in the minutes, viz.:
"Philadelphia, Saturday, 2 Oct., A. D. 1824, A.
"Extra Grand Communication.
"This being the day appointed for a Dinner to
Distinguished Brother General La Fayette, in pursuance of a Resolution
of the Grand
Lodge adopted on the 20 September ulto., about three hundred of the
a large proportion of the resident members of the Grand Lodge,
assembled in the
Hall at an early hour in the afternoon.
"The R. W. Deputy Grand Master and Grand
and members, being seated in the Grand Lodge Room, the door was tyled,
Lodge opened in form at four o'clock P. M.
"Bro. James Harper, R. W. Deputy G. M., in the
"Bro. Thomas Kittera, R. W. Senior G. Warden.
"Bro. Saml. Badger, R. W. Junior Warden.
"Bro. John K. Kane, Acting Grand Secretary.
"Bro. Joseph S. Lewis, Grand Treasurer.
"Saml. A. Thomas, Depy. Acting Grand Secy.
"Bro. Randall Hutchinson, Senior Grand Deacon.
"Bro. George C. Potts, Grand Chaplain.
"Bro. Jas. McAlpin, Grand Sword Bearer.
"Bro. William Wray, Grand Steward.
"Bro. S. F. Bradford, R. W. Past Grand Master.
"Bro. Walter Kerr, R. W. Past Grand Master.
"Bro. Bayse Newcomb, R. W. Past Grand Master.
"Bro. Josiah Randall, R. W. Past Grand Master."
Representatives and Past Masters from nearly
the Lodges in the City and County of Philadelphia, and a large number
brethren among whom were the following: by special invitation ‒
Washington La Fayette; M. La Vasseur and Colonel Victor Dupont, of
aid to Brother La Fayette.
Bro. Jones, P. G. M., Grand Lodge of Georgia.
" E. Hicks, R. W. Grand Secy. Gd. Lodge N. York.
" Geo. B. Porter, Lodge No. 43.
" M. C. Rogers,
" " "
" Charles Stewart, Bro. Wm. Gamble,
" I. M. Gamble, " T. delaPomerage.
On motion made and seconded, the following
was unanimously adopted:
"The Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania glorying in
honor thus conferred on her by the visit of Brother Gilbert Motier de
and anxious to enroll among her members an individual so much
distinguished by all
the Virtues which ennoble the Masonic Character, has Resolved, that all
dignities and privileges of a member of this Grand Lodge be, and the
same are hereby
conferred on Bro. Gilbert Motier de la Fayette."
A committee was appointed to wait upon La
his lodgings and conduct him to the Hall. Here he was met at the door
by the Grand
Marshal and Grand Sword Bearer and received into the Grand Lodge with
The R. W. Depy. Grand Master then rose and
Fayette as follows:
"Bro. La Fayette.
of Pennsylvania welcome you to their home with sincere and universal
in the sentiments which have everywhere spontaneously burst from our
in the lively gratitude for the services you have rendered our Country,
of your high and various virtues, and in cordially reciprocating the
you have uniformly evinced for our liberties and for our happiness, we
owe in addition
the pride and sympathy of Masonic Brotherhood. Your meritorious life
justly illustrated our principles; and those who now surround you, feel
Washington, and Warren and Franklin, you have won their most
by shedding honor on their beloved fraternity. Always contending
General, in the
great cause of human rights, your success has equaled the
perseverance of your devotion. In America, as the companion and friend
of the wisest
and best of mankind, you will ever be regarded as one of the founders
of the greatest,
purest and happiest of republics; while, in your native land it cannot
that amidst the storms of political revolution, and through every
personal fortune, you have stood an inflexible example of consistency,
and firmness. These impressions common to the people of the United
States, but most
dear to us, are now indelibly inscribed upon the records of history and
to our latest posterity with the sanction of national unanimity.
Receive then most
valued Brother, the most heartfelt benedictions of our sacred
the homage of free and upright men, who love you as an early benefactor
affection must remain as secure as your own virtues and as permanent as
"I have also the
honor of presenting you with a Resolution passed unanimously by the
during its present session constituting you one of its members: I hope
accept this as an additional evidence of the high sense they entertain
of your virtues
and of the services you have rendered to mankind in general and to
Masonry in particular."
To which Bro. La Fayette made the following
Grand Master and Brethren: ‒
"I have often
thought that we owe as much to our enemies as to our friends, and if
is true, it is most true, when applied to us as Masons. It is to the
the persecutions of a Francis the 2d and Ferdinand the 7th that the
Masons of Europe
in Modern times have been indebted for opportunities of proving through
and peril, that our principles are pure, and that their devotion to
them is unchangeable.
The Lodges of Spain in particular have been the victims of Royal fears
dispersed, their members still are Masons, and though much oppressed,
has not been extinguished.
"You R. W. Sir,
and Brethren, reposing under the cover of your own peaceful
institutions, hear of
these things only by the report of those who come to admire your
to share by your hospitality, the fruit of your labors.
"I thank you for
the honor you have just conferred on me, and assure you that I shall
this mark of your kind distinction, by which I am made the member of a
body of which
Franklin was the father and Washington the associate."
The Brethren were now severally presented to
Fayette, when Grand Lodge closed in harmony at half past five o'clock.
A sumptuous banquet prepared by Bro. Daniel
being ready in the grand salon and adjoining banqueting room, the
in the following order:
"The following report was received from the
appointed on the claim of William Christie for furniture supplied to
Grand Secretary, Grand Treasurer,
Brother La Fayette, supported by the R. W. Acting G.M. and D.G.M.P.T.
The decorations of the room were prepared under
direction of Bro. Haviland, to whose refined taste and superior skill
were under great obligation; the beautiful salon and banqueting room
to so great an advantage.
The brethren sat down at six o'clock in the
feelings of hilarity, mirth and Masonic brotherhood prevailed at the
After the removal of the cloth a number of excellent toasts were given,
by appropriate music from the Marine Band attached to the navy yard,
for whose services
the fraternity were indebted to the politeness of Bro. I. M. Gamble,
the Marine Corps on this station.
The company adjourned at a proper hour, much
with the events of the day.
The session of the Grand Lodge was held in the
Lodge Room on the second floor; the dinner was given in the large room
on the east side of the lower floor; this room was not used for Masonic
but was rented out for social functions and exhibition purposes.
was experienced by the committee to get the use of this room for the
appears from the final report of the committee presented to the Grand
Lodge at the
Grand Quarterly Communication held Monday, March 5, 1827, viz.:
for the dinner to Bro. Genl. La Fayette-in
on all similar demands.
"On motion and seconded, the same was adopted.
"To the Grand Lodge of Penna.
"The Comme. to which was referred the accounts
of William Christie and others, against the Committee of arrangements
by the Grand Lodge on the occasion of General La Fayette's visit.
"That it appears to the Committee that the
bills contracted by the Committee of arrangements remain unpaid, viz.:
| William Christie for Upholstery
| Clark, for Carpentry
| Myers and Jones, for Painting
| Russell, Oil
| Porterage and Advertising
That there remains in the hands of said
unexpended balance of $88.86
Leaving a deficit of monies to amount of $266.09
which deficit this committee is of opinion is
and equitably chargeable upon the Grand Lodge."
To elucidate the opinion of the committee, it
to recur to some of the circumstances which preceded, as well as those
the reception of Genl. La Fayette. As soon as it was understood that
Mason intended to visit the Grand Lodge a committee was directed to
worthy of the occasion and among the resolutions reported by them was
one for the
arrangement of a festival of welcome. It was proposed that the task of
this part of the arrangement into effect should be confided to a
and that the members of the fraternity should be generally invited;
proposed that the price of tickets should be fixed at seven dollars.
The Grand Lodge
approved of the plan which its committee submitted, but probably not
aware of the
increased expenses attendant on all entertainments which were given at
of general festivity, it reduced the price of tickets to the sum of
and in part compensation for this reduction, it determined that the
should he appropriated to the purposes of the festival.
It was not until the special committee, which
appointed, had made the more expensive part of their arrangements, that
it was discovered
that the Grand Lodge had no right to the salon without the consent of
in possession. To obtain that consent it was necessary to pay fifty
dollars to dislodge
an Italian artist from the banqueting room, and a further sum of $67.75
another room for a concert which had been announced for the evening at
The sum of $117.75 was thus required to procure accommodations which
the Grand Lodge
had stipulated it would furnish gratuitously. The obligation of the
to reimburse this sum, if necessary, has not been at any time
questioned and needs
The great number of the brethren who came
subscribers, gratifying as the fact was to the committee, had the
effect of increasing
disproportionately the expenses of the banquet. The furniture and
to the Grand Lodge were found altogether insufficient for the suite of
which it became necessary to open. New furniture and additional
purchased by the committee and these have since been sold by the Grand
the proceeds carried into its treasury, or they still remain in its
The committee of arrangements, while mindful
was their duty to welcome their patriarchal guest in a style which
the Lodge of which "Franklin was the founder and Washington a member,"
yet anxiously avoided every application of the sinking fund to purposes
within its specified objects.
All their proceedings were characterized by as
economy as was consistent with the occasion. All the expenses of making
arrangements were borne by themselves individually and when the moneys
had received were found to be inadequate, they at once, with the aid of
a few friends,
applied a considerable sum of their own to meet the deficiency.
The state of their accounts, strictly audited,
"They receive from subscribers in all $1,358,
appropriated from the private funds exclusive of the amt. expended in
They paid bill amounting to $1,349.65
They yet owe $354.94 $1,704.59
Balance due from committee $266.09
"On a full view of the circumstances which have
occasioned this balance against the committee of arrangements, first,
that no discretion
was permitted them in fixing the terms of subscription, the grand Lodge
defined the price on views of the subject which the result has proved
to be incorrect;
second, that a large portion of the balance was applied to procure
the Grand Lodge had, from an erroneous idea of its rights, declared
should be given
without cost; third, that the Grand Lodge has received a full
equivalent for the
residue in the property which it has sold or still retains, and fourth,
doings of the committee were wisely and satisfactorily ordered and that
has been entirely occasioned by causes over which they had no possible
the committee to which the accounts were referred have agreed to
present the following
"Resolved, that the R. W. G. M. be requested to
draw his order on the grand treasurer for the sum of $266.09 in favor
of Br. James
McAlpin, treasurer of the La Fayette Comme. of arrangements.
"All of which is respectfully submitted.
"Philad., 5th, March, 1827." "(signed.)
"Saml. F. Bradford,
John K. Kane,
Saml. H. Thomas."
Among other relics of Brother Lafayette, we
our Archives the "Golden Book of The Supreme Council for the Western
This contains a copy of the patent conferring the 33d degree upon
by this Supreme Council; it also contains the following note written
by Brother Lafayette, May 10, 1834, just ten days before his death,
"It is the extreme indulgence of the Supreme
of the United States, that elevated to the 33d degree in spite of the
in knowledge and in services of many of my brothers, I owe to-day the
which I am not worthy, with which the great Council of the Occidental
has deigned to overwhelm me, I accept them with a deep gratitude and
will seek to
merit them by my zeal. "May our ancient institution propagate
Liberty, the Equality, the Philanthropy, and contribute to the great
social civilization which ought to emancipate the two Hemispheres.
" (signed) Lafayette."
Brother Lafayette died in Paris May 20, 1834.
Extra Grand Communication of the Grand Lodge held Tuesday, June 24,
1834, his decease
was announced to the Grand Lodge whereupon:
"On Motion made and seconded, The following
and Resolutions were unanimously adopted:
"Whereas, the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania have
learned with the deepest emotions of sorrow, the decease of their
and Member, General Lafayette, 'an individual so much distinguished by
all the virtues
which ennoble the Masonic character,' and
Whereas the Grand Lodge
of Pennsylvania feel it a mournful duty to pay the last tribute of
to the memory of a Brother, the last Major General of the Revolutionary
disciple of Washington, the companion of Franklin, and the steadfast
friend of civil
and religious liberty.
That the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania deeply deplore the loss of their
beloved Brother and Member, General Lafayette, whose labors in the
cause of American
Independence and of rational liberty and ardent devotion to the
endeared his memory to every Member of this venerable order.
the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania sympathize most sincerely with the
of their deceased Brother, in the irreparable bereavement they have
the death of their excellent father.
as an humble testimonial of our respect for the memory of our deceased
the Jewels, Hangings, and other Furniture of the Grand Lodge of
placed in mourning for the space of twelve months.
a correct Portrait of our deceased brother be procured, and placed in a
part of the Grand Lodge Room.
Brothers George M. Dallas, Thomas Kittera, Robert Toland, Cornelius
John M. Read, be a Committee to communicate the foregoing Resolutions
to the family
of Brother General Lafayette.
the foregoing Preamble and Resolutions be published in the public
journals of the
day." The Grand Lodge having closed, the Fraternity proceeded to the
where they were gratified by hearing a very beautiful and instructive
from Bro. George M. Dallas, R. W. Dep. Grand Master.
The Grand Lodge was again opened, when upon
and seconded it was unanimously resolved:
"That the thanks
of this Grand Lodge be presented to Bro. Dallas for his truly Masonic
address delivered this day and that he be requested to furnish a copy
of it for
The following is an extract from the very
delivered before the Fraternity, on this day, by Brother George M.
Dallas, R. W.
Deputy Grand Master.
"I would close here, did I not feel that the
purpose of the day may for a moment, be with propriety interrupted by a
to the recent departure of our illustrious friend and brother, Gilbert
Lafayette. This truly good and eminently great man died suddenly, at
of his European Country, and in the bosom of his family, on the morning
of the 20th
of May last, and in the seventy-seventh year of his age.
"It will be recollected by some whom I address,
that on the 2d of October, 1824, General Lafayette, then the Guest of a
whose service he had dedicated his early enthusiasm, fortune and blood,
that chamber, invested with all the rights, dignities and privileges of
of this Grand Lodge 'a body,' to use his own emphatic words, 'of which
was the father and Washington the associate.'
"Both hemispheres were alike the theatre of the
virtues and exploits of this exalted Mason. In both he passed,
unscathed in honor,
through the ordeal of sanguinary revolution, in both he shone the firm,
and fearless champion of human liberties and rights, in both he riveted
by the loftiest and the gentlest qualities, in universal respect and
and in both his death is now sincerely mourned as a common calamity. In
as in the life of their joint citizen and soldier, America and France
have a lasting
bond of sympathy and union. In this respect, as the moral link to
connect two distant
and powerful nations in mutual good will, his position on the records
is without parallel.
"While we join in the sad and solemn rites
performing by our countrymen, in melancholy attestation of their deep
and undying gratitude for an early and indefatigable public benefactor,
but own one added pang, though accompanied by one peculiar pride as
suggests that he also was a Mason."
On July 21, 1834, commemorative exercises were
at Zion Lutheran Church, southeast corner of Fourth and Cherry Streets,
the Grand Lodge participated.
Other mementos of Brother Lafayette in the
the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania, beside the Washington Apron, are the
of Brother Lafayette's visit to Philadelphia in 1824.
of candle and holder used to illuminate one of the window panes of
Hall during the procession, September 28, 1824.
cotton handkerchief upon which is printed his portrait, scene of his
New York on the ship Cadmus, and the memorial arch erected in front of
Hall, through which General Lafayette and the procession passed at his
September 28, 1824.
full length oil portrait of Brother General Lafayette in the upper
in oil said to be from life in the library.
Houdan's marble bust of Brother General Lafayette in the Library.
badges worn at the funeral procession and commemorative service of Zion
Church July 21, 1838.
French portraits in Washington alcove in museum.
of Lafayette medals in the museum collection.
Silver Dollar coined by the United States in the year 1900
Four Masonic Lodges in Pennsylvania are named
this distinguished brother, viz.:
199, Lock Haven,
No. 652, Carnegie.
In conclusion to illustrate how the memory of
Lafayette is honored in both Masonic and civil life in the United
States, as a matter
of fact, there are no less than thirty Masonic Lodges named after
in twenty-six states in the Union.
In the United States, there are fourteen
towns, five counties, one parish and one city which bear the name of
brother, the Marquis General Lafayette.
As above stated, it was resolved at the Extra
Communication held June 24, 1834, that a correct portrait of Brother
be procured and placed in a conspicuous part of the Lodge room.
It appears that after this resolution was
sum of eighty dollars ($80) was collected towards obtaining this
At the Annual Grand Communication held Monday,
28, 1835, when Washington Hall in South Third Street above Spruce
Street was dedicated
and consecrated to Masonic uses, on motion of Brother F. Cooper and
was resolved that a committee of five be appointed to receive the
June 24, 1834, with further authority to solicit donations from Lodges
within this Masonic jurisdiction, and as soon as a sufficient sum shall
collected, to have a likeness of Lafayette painted by an eminent
artist, and to
have the same put up in a conspicuous place in the Grand Lodge Room.
The R. W. Grand Master was pleased to appoint
committee Bros. F. Cooper, Geo. Fox, W. Mayweg, S. Wonderly and A.
appeared to have been done in this matter until four months later, when
amendment was offered at an adjourned Extra Grand Lodge held April 18,
"On motion of Bro. Geo. Fox and seconded, the
adopted on the 28th December last, relative to a Painting of Bro.
reconsidered and the following offered as an Amendment thereof and
"Resolved, that the Committee appointed on the
28th Decr. 1835, be authorized to solicit donations from Lodges and
the jurisdiction and when a sufficient sum shall have been Collected to
a full length painting of Benjamin Franklin, and a portrait of
Lafayette, and have
said paintings placed in a conspicuous situation in the Grand Lodge
After this the matter slumbered for six years,
it was revived at the Quarterly Grand Communication held Monday, March
by the following minute:
"On motion duly made and seconded, the Grand
was directed to endeavor to procure information respecting collections
Likeness of Benjm. Franklin and Lafayette and report at next quarterly
No action was taken in reference to the
the next six years, when the matter was again brought to the notice of
Lodge at the Grand Quarterly Communication held Monday, March 6, 1848,
by a communication
on the subject from Phoenix Lodge, No. 130, viz.:
"The following was received and referred to
Grand Masters Bros. Newcomb, Barger and Page.
Phil., Feby. 21, 1848. To Wm. H. Adams,
Rt.W.G.Secy. of G.L. of Pa. Dr. Sir &
"The following Resolution was on motion
unanimously Adopted at a meeting of Phoenix Lodge No. 130, held at
South 3rd St., Wednesday evening, February 16th, A. L. 5848.
"Resolved, That the representatives of this
be directed to call the attention of the Grand Lodge to the fact that
been for a number of Years in the hands of Past Grand Master Bro. Jno.
a sum of money, raised by Subscription for the purpose of procuring a
Bros. Franklin & Lafayette, that the said Portrait has never
and request the Grand Lodge to appoint a Committee to examine into the
ask P. G. Mastel Jno. M. Read to account for the same.
"Extract from the Minutes. "Signed. Wm. S.
Schultz, "Secy. Lodge No. 130."
This was referred to Past Grand Masters Bro.
Barger and Page, who at the Quarterly Communication September 4, 1848,
following report, which was received and the resolution adopted, viz.:
"To the R.W. Grand Lodge of Penna.
"The Committee appointed in relation to the
subscribed and paid for the purpose of procuring a portrait of
Lafayette and Franklin.
"Respectfully report, That a Sum of money for
purpose subscribed was paid into the hands of Bro. John M. Read who
cannot at present
find the subscription paper containing the precise amount, but believes
it to be
about Eighty Dollars which Sum he is ready to pay over as the Grand
Lodge may direct
and when the amt. can be ascertained to correct the same.
"Your Committee respectfully offer the
Resolution. Resolved, that the Grand Treasurer call upon Bro. Read
from him the above mentioned Sum of Eighty Dollars.
"Phil., Sept. 4, 1848.
"Signed. B. Newcomb,
Jas. Page, Committee."
At the Grand Quarterly Communication held March
the following was offered by Brother John Thomson, R. W. G. Treasurer,
"Whereas, there is in the hands of the Grand
the sum of Eighty dollars contributed some years since by certain
members of the
Grand Lodge for the purpose of a likeness of Bro. La Fayette and as
said sum is
insufficient to accomplish the object intended therefore Resolved, That
Treasurer be instructed to add from the funds of the Grand Lodge $20 to
contributed and with the sum purchase one share Masonic loan for the
furthering the object intended."
It appears that the portrait of Lafayette which
formerly in the Grand Lodge room and now in the second story corridor
of the New
Temple was not procured until after the New Chestnut Street Hall was
No record has been found as to who the artist
what was the amount paid for same.
The New Patriotism – [A Poem]
the flag at half-mast
For the life that has been split,
For the wealth that has been built
On the bones of men;
Fly the flag at half-mast
Till the day breaks again.
Fly the flag at half-mast
For the greed that would not die,
For the hate that scorched the sky
With envenenomed fire;
Fly the flag at half-mast
For the deeds of men’s ire.
Fly the flag at half-mast
For the love that has been slain,
For the conflict’s bloody stain
On the hopes of men;
Fly the flag at half-mast
Till the day breaks again.
Science is the great antidote to the poison of
George Franklin Fort, Masonic
By John Henry Fort, New
The following biographical
sketch of Brother George Franklin Fort, author of "The Early History
of Freemasonry," [Lib 1881]
written at our request by his brother, Mr.
John Henry Fort of New Jersey, is intended as an introduction to an
article to appear
in the next issue of THE BUILDER, The Masonic Writings of George
by Brother Oliver D. Street of Alabama.
GEORGE FRANKLIN FORT was born at Absecon,
New Jersey, on November 20th, 1843. His father was Rev. John Fort, a
member of the
New Jersey Methodist Episcopal Conference, who entered the ministry in
the old days
of the itinerancy and whose father was one of the founders of the faith
in New Jersey.
George Franklin Fort was named after his uncle, Dr. George Franklin
Fort, who was
Governor of New Jersey from 1851 to 1855. In later years the State
the uncle with the authorship of the work by confusing the names.
George F. Fort
was descended from an old Norman French-Anglo-Saxon ancestry. The
or "Le Fort," was the Captain of the Body Guard of William the
at Hastings in 1066 and his descendants remained in England till 1695,
Fort settled at Hampton-Hanover, afterwards New Mills and now
County, New Jersey, upon a plantation which has remained in the family
His family settled in New Jersey when the population was probably not
thousand, as against nearly two million now. The period was an epochal
one in the
State and the Fort family were distinctly active in the development of
His great-great grandfather on his mother's side, William Emley, was a
to the Crown and acted as Colonial Governor of New Jersey and helped to
lines dividing East and West Jersey. He was quite a linguist and of
descent, coming from Yorkshire.
George F. Fort's family were not only very
in New Jersey, in having contributed two governors to the State, both
born in the
old homestead at Pemberton, but also were honored by having two
one State Senator in the Legislature, and one Judge of the Supreme
Court, and two
of the Court of Errors and Appeals. The family had several ministers
all prominent, and in the Revolutionary days contributed ten members to
Army, both the Line and Militia. With an ancestry dating back to the
in which several languages had been spoken, it is not surprising that
Fort easily acquired a knowledge of and mastered seventeen languages
He read Latin, French, Spanish and Italian with as much ease as
English, and amused
himself with reading the works of noted writers in these languages. He
spoke German as fluently as English and his several trips to Europe
knowledge and perfection. He attended lectures at Heidelberg University
Anglo-Saxon and several dialects for historical purposes. The acquiring
of a language
with him was a sort of heredity and if no glossary was available he
would dig out
certain roots from dictionaries and in a short time would construct a
glossary and soon be reading the language as readily as English. It was
Mr. Fort studied law with Abraham Browning of
then the leading attorney of the State and at one time Attorney
General, when family
prestige and ability made the appointment instead of political
influence as in modern
times. While he was successful in his practice his tastes were of a
and he regularly pursued a literary course. There is no question but
that he was
one of the most learned men of the century and his knowledge was not
archaic research and antiquities, but was universal. Science,
mathematics, astronomy and ancient history, all alike claimed his
was a modest and retiring man and any attempt to draw him out or into a
was fruitless, but if something happened whereby he expressed an
opinion, his erudition
was apparent at once and in a few moments extemporaneously a
was delivered upon any subject he spoke upon. It was like a prophet
when finished evidenced the depth of learning and greatness of thought.
In early life he became prominent in Masonic
and with several friends and an older brother established Trimble Lodge
A. F. & A. M., at Camden, New Jersey, his residence. The new
lodge aimed at
a higher personality than the other lodges and did not meet with
Mr. Fort in order to infuse life into the lodge of which he was first
and had then become Worshipful Master, inaugurated a series of lectures
others spoke, his great knowledge upon the antiquities of Freemasonry
so much attention and comment that he was urged to pursue his
researches and write
a work upon the subject, which he afterwards did, first visiting the
Europe and many of the old Cathedrals, the British Museum, Library at
and the Bodleian at Oxford. This work was named the Early History and
of Freemasonry. It was immediately recognized by the literally world as
and the Encyclopedia Britannica in all succeeding editions recognized
it as autoritative
and quoted it on the subject of Freemasonry. Immediately the literary
men of the
world began to write him for opinions upon other Masonic subjects and
him to write "A Historical Treatise on Early Builders' Marks," [Lib*]
and a monograph entitled "Medieval Builders." [Lib 1884] Later he wrote the
Medical Economy of the Middle Ages. [Lib 1883] The latter was written after,
as associate editor
of his brother's newspaper, he criticised the statement of a prominent
at the 100th Anniversary of the New Jersey Medical Society "that
no history beyond Galen and Hippocrates," and a committee from the
requested him to write a history of the ancient cult.
Mr. Fort was a regular contributor to the
owned by his youngest brother, John H. Fort, upon Masonic subjects.
Some of them
were fugitive and others in series. They were copied in the Masonic
France, England, Australia, and the leading magazines, and often
created a learned
controversy, but his knowledge of languages always enabled him to give
data. Some of the critics thought he should literally translate his
as but few could read the original. This he always refrained from doing
as he claimed
the quotation was the authority. Among his correspondents were such men
Gould, Woodford and other Masonic writers and antiquarians. His books
by all the great newspapers of the world such as the New York Herald,
World, the London Times, Globe, Blackwoods Magazine and Masonic
Journals, the Chaine
d'Union of Paris, the Melbourne Australian, all the Philadelphia
the Ledger, Press, Record, Bulletin, Telegraph and the Keystone. Gould,
writer, said of him "Fort has succeeded where all others failed in
study of our antiquities an interesting task." Other writers said "his
history of Freemasonry is as interesting as a Romance of the Middle
The Golden Age of New York characterizes it as "a work of which members
the craft may well be proud." The Encyclopedia Britannica says of it,
book is instructive as throwing light on certain phases of Middle Age
In fact the newspaper criticisms are all highly eulogistic and place
as the highest contribution to Masonic literature. All his other works
as favorably received by the press of the world. The criticisms are in
and would fill a volume in themselves. In a scrap book of Mr. Fort's
are not only
the notices of the press but letters in many languages from the
literati of the
world and most of his fugitive articles which are well worth publishing
in book form. All his other works were equally as well received. Mr.
Fort has been
compared to such writers as Hallam, Draper, Lecky, Macaulay, and other
historic and antiquarian writers, and all refer to his writings as
erudition and research.
George F. Fort was primarily educated in the
Schools of New Jersey in the various towns his father was stationed at
as a pastor,
and afterwards graduated from Pennington Seminary, a Methodist
Institution of learning,
under the direction of the New Jersey Annual Conference. His after
studies of the
various languages and literature were by his own effort and attendance
abroad and by visits to European Institutions of Learning. Mr. Fort has
America the credit of being the standard writer upon Masonic and
Mr. Fort was a member of Trimble Lodge No. 117,
& A. M., of which he was practically the founder. He was the
first Senior Warden
and Second Worshipful Master. He lived to see the lodge become the
largest in membership
in New Jersey. He was a Knight Templar, belonging to Cyrene Commandery
7) of Camden, Vanhook Council No. 8, Royal and Select Masters, Siloam
Arch Masons, Excelsior Consistory 32nd Degree, and all the intermediate
Accepted Scottish Rite degrees. It has been stated that he was also a
Mason, it having been conferred upon him in Europe.
In December, 1877, York Lodge of England in
of his great services to Freemasonry, conferred upon him Honorary Life
and sent him a specially engraved certificate bearing a picture of the
York Minster where the lodge anciently met. The original certificate
from York Lodge
is now in possession of Trimble Lodge No. 117 of Camden.
Mr. Fort spent a long time in Europe on
and was well acquainted there in Masonic circles. He was made the Grand
of the Grand Lodge of England to the Grand Lodge of New Jersey by the
of Wales, Grand Master of Masons of England, who afterwards became the
King of England
as Edward VII.
George F. Fort died at the home of his nephew
on a visit at Atlantic City, a few miles from where he was born, on
1909. Mr. Fort was practically a recluse the latter years of his life.
was poor and his literary tastes naturally caused him to avoid society.
he was editor of the Keystone, a Masonic Journal published in
a contributor to the America Notes and Queries and several newspapers
by his brother John H. Fort. Sometime before his death he told a friend
he had finished
a History of Norse Mythology and claimed he had in the destruction of
the God Baldur
by the other Mythological Norse Gods discovered the origin of the story
Abif. He stated the work was ready for the printer but he was holding
it back as
he had been unable to secure a font of Norse type and was afraid he
would have to
have it cast to give the data exact. Since his death no trace has so
far been found
of the manuscript. In all probability this valuable history may be lost
researches of a master mind for nearly a half century gone to waste.
His scrap book
would be a most interesting publication if edited by someone skilled in
lore. There are many articles of rare interest that never got beyond
Mr. Fort's works are on the shelves of most all
prominent libraries of the world, such as the East India Library,
Congressional Library at Washington, and Institutions of learning
thousands of private libraries. His own library was entirely filled
with works in
foreign languages and were upon historic, antiquarian and archaic
subjects. He was
at one time Judge Advocate of the Sixth Regiment National Guard of New
rank of Captain.
FOR THE MONTHLY LODGE MEETING
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 19
DEVOTED TO ORGANIZED MASONIC STUDY
Edited By Bro. Robert I.
THE BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY FOR
MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS FOUNDATION OF THE COURSE
THE Course of Study has for its foundation two
of Masonic information: THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In
is explained how the references to former issues of THE BUILDER and to
Encyclopedia may be worked up as supplemental papers to exactly fit
into each installment
of the Course with the paper by Brother Clegg.
The Course is divided into five principal
which are in turn subdivided, as is shown below:
A. The Work of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
Division II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
Division III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
Division IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand Lodge.
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent Lodge.
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
Division V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries ‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
THE MONTHLY INSTALLMENTS
Each month we are presenting a paper written by
Clegg, who is following the foregoing outline. We are now in "First
of Ceremonial Masonry. There will be twelve monthly papers under this
subdivision. On page two, preceding each installment, will be given a
"Helpful Hints" and a list of questions to be used by the chairman of
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
Whenever possible we shall reprint in the
Circle Bulletin articles from other sources which have a direct bearing
particular subject covered by Brother Clegg in his monthly paper. These
should be used as supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by
from the monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would
possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus
The monthly installments of the Course
the Correspondence Circle Bulletin should be used one month later than
If this is done the Committee will have opportunity to arrange their
weeks in advance of the meetings and the Brethren who are members of
Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to enter into the
they have read over and studied the installment in THE BUILDER.
REFERENCES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
Immediately preceding each of Brother Clegg's
papers in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a list of
to THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are
pertinent to the
paper and will either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or
new points for reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the
to different Brethren who may compile papers of their own from the
to be found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts
may be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be
the members may not feel able to compile original papers, or when the
be deemed appropriate without any alterations or additions.
HOW TO ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY
The Lodge should select a "Research Committee"
preferably of three "live" members. The study meetings should be held
once a month, either at a special meeting of the Lodge called for the
at a regular meeting at which no business (except the Lodge routine)
should be transacted
‒ all possible time to be given to the study period.
After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
disposed of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of
Committee. This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the
the evening. All members to whom references for supplemental papers
have been assigned
should be prepared with their papers and should also have a
of Brother Clegg's paper.
* * *
PROGRAM FOR STUDY MEETINGS
1. Reading of the first section of Brother
and the supplemental papers thereto.
(Suggestion: While these papers are being read
of the Lodge should make notes of any points they may wish to discuss
into when the discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper similar to
in elections should be distributed among the members for this purpose
at the opening
of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of Brother Clegg's
and the supplemental papers should then be taken up, one at a time, and
of in the same manner.
4. Question Box.
MAKE THE "QUESTION BOX" THE FEATURE OF YOUR
Invite questions from any and all Brethren
Let them understand that these meetings are for their particular
benefit and get
them into the habit of asking all the questions they may think of.
Every one of
the papers read will suggest questions as to facts and meanings which
may not perhaps
be actually covered at all in the paper. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US. All the reference material
we have will
be gone through in an endeavor to supply a satisfactory answer. In fact
we are prepared
to make special research when called upon, and will usually be able to
within a day or two. Please remember, too, that the great Library of
the Grand Lodge
of Iowa is only a few miles away, and, by order of the Trustees of the
the Grand Secretary places it at our disposal on any query raised by
of the Society.
The foregoing information should enable local
to conduct their Lodge study meetings with success. However we shall
inquiries and communications from interested Brethren concerning any
phase of the
plan that is not entirely clear to them, and the services of our Study
are at the command of our members, Lodge and Study Club Committees at
Questions on "The Obligation"
- Define the
- Have oaths
and obligations been in universal practice? Why?
- Can you
name oaths administered outside the Fraternity with which the Masonic
may be compared?
- Are the
marriage oath, the President's oath, etc., such forms?
- Why is a
religious sanction thrown about an oath?
- Does the
taking of an obligation imply that the candidate cannot be trusted?
- Does it
make his obligation or does it define it?
- What does
Tyler say about the universality of oaths?
- How do Philo
and Cicero define an oath?
give a better definition of an obligation than any herewith offered? If
you send it in to the Society?
- What does
Gould believe to have been the original of the Masonic oath?
- Why was
the oath taken by the freemen adopted into the forms of the Masonic
- Do we see
today any institutions copying the forms of oaths employed by some
- Were the
earliest Masonic obligations short or long?
- How did
the obligation evolve into such length? Is this legitimate?
- Have any
other parts of the ceremonies evolved similarly?
- Are Masonic
ceremonies still changing and growing? If so, why? If not, why not?
- What was
the substance of the earliest obligations?
- Why were
the building secrets so jealously guarded?
- How did
these secrets come to be public property?
did such publicity have upon the Freemasons?
- What is
the whole point of the present obligation?
- Have we
any trade secrets?
- If you believe
that a simpler, more effective obligation might be written, will you
- Why should
Masonic secrets be still so jealously guarded?
- What is
the function of secrecy in Masonry?
- Does friendship
have its secrets? Business? Diplomacy?
- What would
happen to the Fraternity if it should abandon its policy of secrecy?
attract men to it? Why?
- What is
the meaning of "due form"?
- Whence came
- What is
the difference between form and formality?
- When two
friends meet do they shake hands in "due form"?
- Does the
form in which the obligation is given add to its dignity and
any flippancy in your own lodge's ceremony of initiation? Why not?
- Why are
the penalties kept so secret?
- How much
can you talk about Masonry without violating your obligation to secrecy?
- Did the
earliest obligations have any penalties attached? If not why not?
- What is
the "Harleian Manuscript"?
- What is
meant by "Old Charges"?
- Why did
the Semites fear drowning so?
- What do
Old Testament writers seem to feel concerning the sea?
- When the
sailors cast Jonah overboard did they suppose they were putting him out
of the God he had offended?
- Would you
as soon be buried in the sea as on the land?
- What is
meant by "consecrated ground"?
- What churches
still bury their dead in consecrated ground? Why?
- Does the
custom of setting apart a special tract of ground for burial add
dignity to the
thought of death?
- Would you
as soon think yourself dead as lying in the sea as lying in a grave?
- Who added
the present penalties to our obligations? When?
- What hint
do you get from Brother Clegg's suggestions?
- Why have
anti-Masons so rabidly attacked the obligation?
- Is a man
scared by penalties which he knows will never be inflicted?
- Who was
John Quincy Adams?
- Why did
he fight the Fraternity?
- Do you agree
with what Brother MacBride says about the obligation? If not, why not?
If you do,
- Is there
any way in which the obligation could be recast?
- Who would
have the authority to do so?
be of any advantage to have a General Grand Lodge of America to take
care of such
- Why is the
cable tow removed when it is?
- What does
- Is the obligation
an appeal to a man's sense of honor?
- Or is it
a slam against his sense of honor?
- Does the
wedding oath add to or detract from the stability and dignity of
- If marriages
were left to private wills could the law have any control over them?
- How could
Masonic law be brought to bear upon a man who had never taken an
- What is
the real "Masonic Tie"?
- Does that
tie draw you to other Masons?
ever restrain you from doing a wrong to a brother Mason? Why?
* * *
Mackey's Encyclopedia: Oath, p. 622; Oath,
p. 524; Oath of the Gild, p. 624. Obligation, p. 525.
THE BUILDER: Vol. I. ‒ Oath, The Freeman's, p.
Obligations not political, p. 88. Vol. II. ‒ Oaths, p. 272; Dec. C. C.
B. 2; Cor.
190; Q. B. 94, 348 Obligations, Q. B. 348. Vol. III. ‒ Oaths, p. 345;
Jan. C. C.
B. 2; Apr. C. C. B. 1; June C. C. B. 2 ‒ Penalty of Violation, p. 36.
p. 334; Dec. C. C. B. 4 Vol. IV. ‒ A Hint as to Penalties, p. 178; this
* * *
Bro. H.L. Haywood, Iowa
Part VII – The Obligation
"obligation" means, according to its derivation, a "binding to."
It is more than an oath and more than a vow, for it combines both, and
it has been
used, in one form or another, ever since the earliest times. Cicero
defined it as
"an affirmation under the sanction of religion," while Philo called it
"the most sure symbol of good faith." Some obligations have had
attached, others have not. Obligations have been in such universal
J.E. Tyler was justified in saying that "through all the diversified
of society ‒ from the lowest barbarism to the highest cultivation of
‒ where the true religion has been professed, no less than where
paganism has retained
its hold, recourse has been had to oaths as affording the nearest
to certainty in evidence, and the surest pledge of the performance of a
This last phrase furnishes us with a good working definition of an
is the solemn pledge to perform a promise.
In old England,
when Masonry was still purely operative, obligations were in use in all
of society, but the most solemn of all was the obligation which a free
to remain faithful to the king; that oath ran as follows: "You shall be
and faithful to our Sovereign Lord the King." Brother R. F. Gould is of
opinion that this oath was the original of the Masonic obligation
because the earliest
obligations found in the Old Charges are very similar to it.
may be, we are certain that the first obligations were short and simple
is proved from the written records. This does not mean that later forms
less validity, because, as the Institution grew in numbers and power,
would arise, new conditions would have to be met, and the candidate
would be required
to obligate himself accordingly. If the Fraternity were now to be
called upon to
perform some new duty to the world it could lawfully require of each
pledge to do his share therein. The Masonic obligation has evolved in
it may continue to evolve in the future.
been much controversy among our authorities as to the substance of the
Masonic obligations; they have not yet arrived at unanimity but it is
safe to say
that a majority of them agree that they had to do chiefly with building
At a time when architectural methods were the chief stock in trade of
when it made its living by the practice of them, and before handbooks
were dreamed of, it seems reasonable to suppose that the candidate
would have been
chiefly called upon to keep these invaluable secrets to himself.
the Institution was transformed from a craft of Masons doing operative
a Fraternity of Masons banded together for speculative work, it was
change the substance of the obligation. Trade secrets had become public
any man could find them in printed manuals. Moreover, building came to
be done by
men outside the Fraternity, and it was no longer a matter of life and
death to preserve
building secrets. Accordingly, the obligation has changed in substance.
At the present
time it has no other purpose than to bind the candidate to absolute
secrecy as to
what goes on inside the lodge and what is done during the ceremonies of
Some Masonic leaders believe that if the obligations were recast so as
the candidate to nothing except the vow of secrecy that the ceremony
in reality and impressiveness. On that every Mason is entitled to hold
his own opinion.
importance the Fraternity attaches to the obligation itself is shown by
precautions which are thrown about it and by the careful method whereby
is put in position to take it. "Due form" simply means that he is in a
posture which is a fitting form in which to make such a vow; the term
of comparatively recent American origin but the ceremony represented by
it is probably
as old as the Craft itself. One touch of flippancy or carelessness in
in taking the obligation would rob it of much of its impressiveness.
be thrown about the penalties of the obligation for there is nothing in
ceremonies more secret than these; nevertheless it may be possible to
say a word
or two concerning them without violation of our own oath of secrecy.
It is certain
that the earliest obligations had no penalties attached to them at all,
as is evidenced
by the following specimen, which has been taken from the Harleian
2054, dating from the seventeenth century:
"There are several words and signs of a
to be revealed to you which as you will answer before God at the great
Day of Judgment, you keep secret and not reveal the same to any in the
any person but to the Masters and Fellows of the said society of
help me God." (Spelling modernized.)
There is in possession of the Grand Lodge
Iowa a very old ritual in which the obligation has no penalties at all.
Among many ancient peoples (more especially the
it was believed that death in the sea was a fate too terrible to be
because it was supposed that those lying on the floor of the sea would
on the Resurrection Day. The land belonged to God; the sea to some
it was feared that this alien deity would refuse to surrender up his
dead. To perish
in the sea was the most awful of fates.
During medieval times it was universally
only those would be raised to a happy future life who had been buried
ground. The criminal burned at the stake, the felon drowned in the sea,
buried at the cross-roads with a stake through his breast ‒ it was
feared that these
would have no part in the Resurrection.
When and by whom the present penalties were
to the Masonic obligation remains a mystery, albeit many suggestions
have been offered
which throw some light on the matter. One of the most valuable of these
that offered by Brother Robert I. Clegg, who says:
"Death by slow drowning was once by legal
established as a proper punishment. . . Consider the following: In the
of Henry VI for the proper conduct of the Court of Admiralty of the
enumerated various offenses of a maritime connection and their due
adhere closely to the character of the Court, and be within proper
of the Admiralty, the punishments were generally inflicted at low
This court, he continues, being composed of "Masters, merchants and
with all others that do enjoy the King's stream with hook, net or any
was addressed, when assembled, as follows:
of the Quest, if you or any of you discover or disclose anything of the
counsel or of the counsel of your fellows (for the present you are
admitted to be
the King's counsellors) you are to be, and shall be, had down to the
where must be made three times, 'O Yes!' for the King, and then and
there this punishment,
by the law prescribed, shall be inflicted upon them; that is, their
hands and feet
bound, their throats cut, their tongues pulled out and their bodies
the sea.' "
The penalties, it need not be said, have ever
of the chief points attacked by the enemies of the Fraternity. Thus,
the rabid attack on Freemasonry which disfigured the early half of the
John Quincy Adams said that "the whole case between Masonry and
now on trial before the tribunal of public opinion, is consecrated in a
and that act, he goes on to explain, is the obligation, more especially
Masons have no need to feel ashamed of any part
ceremonies, least of all the obligations; yet it may be said, within
that if the present penalties, with their obsolete language and their
punishments, were to be revised, and brought into harmony with modern
usages, the initiatory ceremony would gain in simplicity and
MacBride has said a weighty word on this matter which I am glad to
since the utterance of such a scholar and authority would have much
than any word of ours:
"It seems to us,
with these obligations before us, there is only one course open to all
the welfare of our ancient Institution, and that is to insist that a
sensible, and consequently, more solemn and binding form shall be
the corrupt form now prevails. The latter has neither the sanction of
age, or law,
nor of good taste."
The removal of the cable tow after the
of the obligation is a most significant act; it means that heretofore
has been bound to the lodge by means of physical force and that
hereafter he is
bound by the invisible cord of his own honor. The removal of the cable
does not mean that he is less bound; it means that his tie henceforth
is one that
can never be removed or broken because it is in the heart. Before the
the candidate is held by compulsion; afterwards it is the Mystic Tie
him to his fellows with bonds unbreakable.
* * *
NOTICE TO STUDY COMMITTEES
Owing to the fact that Masonic work of all
generally dispensed with during the months of July and August we are
the Correspondence Circle Bulletin section of THE BUILDER after this
issue and shall
resume its publication with the issue for September. By so doing we
shall not get
ahead of the lodges and study clubs using these installments.
The Dreamland of Youth – [A Poem]
By Bro. A. W. Armstrong
days are passing
Their sandaled tread falls heedless on the ear,
Yet here and there some landmarks do appear
To catch the casual eye.
Life looks so bright and fair
To young hearts in its amaranthine bowers;
A summer day with birds and bees and flowers,
And sunshine everywhere.
The streamlet in the vale,
Whose dewey lips caress the lily's cheek,
Seems in soft cadences to speak,
Soothing the wind's low wail.
The pale white cloud that smiles
Along its pathway in the upper deeps,
Is but a fairie barque within which sleeps
Some queen of heavenly isles.
Night holds her grand levee,
And sends us messages upon the dew;
The stars that glisten in the vault of blue,
Sweet angel-eyes may be.
O! brilliant youthful dreams!
O! world of beauty to unpracticed eyes!
Thou art more lovely than the starlit skies,
With all their silvery beams.
Let Hope still linger bright
Amidst the tempest on life's stormy sea;
Our boat shall weigh its anchor soon, and we
Bid last adieu to Night.
Memorials to Great Men Who
By Bro. Frederick W. Eiart,
James A. Garfield
OUR late Brother and President, James A.
a man whom the Masonic Fraternity ever held in profound esteem and
regard ‒ for
he was ever a worthy and loyal member and seriously accepted the
he, as a "just and upright" Craftsman, should "ever walk and act
as such." His history and record is as an open book and needs no
here, except as to his record as a Mason which will he of special
interest to the
James A. Garfield was in training as a soldier
Union Army in Camp Chase, just west of Columbus, Ohio, when he first
tiled threshold. On November 29th, 1861, his thirtieth birthday, he was
an Entered Apprentice and on December 3rd was passed to the degree of a
in Magnolia Lodge No. 20, at Columbus, Ohio. He immediately left for
the front and
went through the Civil War as a Fellowcraft.
This Fellowcraft had wrought so valiantly in
service that he returned as a Major General of Volunteers, and with a
as a soldier. General Garfield was raised to the Master's degree on
Nov. 22nd, 1864,
in Columbus Lodge No. 30, Columbus, Ohio, at the request of Magnolia
In 1865 Brother Garfield dimitted from his
and affiliated with Garrettsville Lodge No. 246, at Garrettsville,
Ohio, which was
near his home and work at Hiram College, four miles distant. In 1868-69
as Chaplain of this lodge. On May 4, 1869, he became a charter member
Lodge No. 23, at Washington, D.C., of which lodge he remained a member
During the year 1866 Garfield received the
and Chivalric degrees in Washington, becoming a member of Columbia
Chapter No. 15,
R.A.M., (now No. 7), and of Columbia Commandery No. 2, K. T., in the
In 1871 he received the degrees of Select Architect and Most Excellent
and received the fourth and fifth degrees of the Scottish Rite in
of Perfection, and the fourteenth degree on January 2nd, 1872, the
having been communicated to him during the year 1871 by a no less
and competent instructor than Brother Albert Pike, then Sovereign Grand
of the Southern Masonic Jurisdiction, A. and A. S. R., at Washington.
Brother Garfield was buried in September, 1881,
Masonic honors, with an escort of Knights Templar. The Craft laid the
of his memorial at Cleveland and contributed largely to its
construction and maintenance.
Soon after his death steps were taken to erect a suitable memorial
also be his tomb, and a Memorial Association was appointed consisting
of the following
distinguished citizens: Governor Foster, ex-President Hayes, Hon. J. H.
H. B. Payne, Joseph Perkins, T. P. Handy, Daniel P. Eels, W. S.
Streator, J. H.
Devereaux, Selah Chamberlain, John D. Rockefeller, H. B. Perkins, Hon.
and J. H. Rhodes. This Association finally chose the design for the
a competitive contest of designs, selecting the design submitted by Mr.
of Hartford, Connecticut. Excavation for the foundation was begun in
1885 and the
structure was dedicated with much ceremony on Decoration Day, May
Templars were much in evidence on that occasion, as the writer well
the paraders were drenched with rain on their return from the
The memorial to Garfield, when completed, cost
$225,000, and stands on a high terrace in Lake View Cemetery,
Cleveland, Ohio, a
city where many of Garfield's interests settled and near to his
birthplace and his
Mentor home. The memorial is of stone, rising 180 feet above the ground
base is 200 feet above the level of Lake Erie. From its tower there may
a beautiful panoramic view of the city, and of the lake which it faces.
A volume could be written describing the many
of the beautiful memorial. It is composed of a pointed tower, 180 feet
by a square "porch," very much resembling a triumphal arch of ancient
Rome. The break between the porch and the main tower is neutralized by
of two smaller, shorter towers which contain stairways. The porch is
a series of five friezes in high relief representing events in the life
of the man.
One of these friezes contains that which probably no other national
a Masonic picture ‒ a Knight Templar in uniform.
The first frieze at the left in the view shows
as a country school-teacher; the second shows him bearing dispatches
to General Thomas at Chickamaugua; the third, the central one over the
shows him as an orator addressing a crowd of his fellow-citizens, while
pictures him as taking the oath of office as President of the Republic
besides the President, a number of portraits that are now historic but
omits the beloved mother of Garfield, who sat near and received his
kiss after he
had "kissed the book." The fifth frieze is an ideal representation of
the dead President lying in state and is of peculiar interest. The
shown indicates the stream of men and women, boys and girls, who viewed
of the martyred President and the very styles of men's and women's
dress are preserved
for our study. The stream of hushed people passes on, a young boy with
looks back at the bier, a sailor looks down into the face of his late
and the mother lifts her babe to see the dead President. Then come an
aged man and
a young man, others tarry in front of the bier, and in the line is a
‒ perhaps a former slave. A girl adds another wreath to the heap beside
and two soldiers in the full dress uniform of the Eighties, with spiked
and fixed, angular bayonets, stand guard over the remains. At the left
of one soldier
stands a Knight Templar at parade rest, in chapeau, baldric and
gauntlets ‒ a tribute
to the Masonic character of the dead President. The Sir Knight is a
with features like that of General John A. Logan, and the artist's idea
of a Capitular
Mason is worthy of study. There is no mean style of man delineated here.
This is probably the only monument or memorial
character in all America that bears a Masonic figure or picture, and
yet none can
doubt the fitness and appropriateness of it, for the man here entombed
was a lover of Masonry and it had a large part in his life ‒ a worthy
Knights Templar guarded his remains.
Within the memorial is a gorgeous "shrine"
inlaid with stucco-mosaic work in gold and colors, with another line of
friezes, and memorial windows or panels for fourteen States, (the
and Ohio), as well as panels representing "War" and "Peace,"
in both of which Garfield was distinguished. The rotunda is brilliant
and in the center of the shrine stands a life-size marble statue of the
rising from his chair to make an address. Alexander Doyle, a native of
the sculptor of this meritorious marble portrait.
Beneath the statue, in a crypt, is the casket
and visitors may approach and view it. Here lie the remains of our
down in the discharge of his duty ‒ and here many people visit and
the lesson of memento mori, "remembering our dead."
Large and small amounts for the erection of the
were contributed from citizens all over our land. About $89,000 of the
was given by Ohioans and $75,000 of this was contributed by citizens of
The Ohio Knights Templar contributed $4,328.91. Cleveland people have
much more than is shown by the figures, in care and landscape effects,
in many contributions that were never listed; for Cleveland loved and
He was their friend and neighbor and loved the city as if it were his
Banks, parks and streets are named for him in this city.
No attempt has been made in this article to do
to the many beautiful details of the Garfield memorial in stone,
glass and surrounding landscape. Such details would fill a volume and
memorable a personal visit.
The relatives of Garfield have no knowledge of
Masonic relics and there are no relics of any sort exhibited in the
for valuable data in connection with Brother Garfield and the memorial
are due Mr.
A. N. Stowell, the genial custodian of the memorial, and also Brothers
R. I. Clegg,
of Cleveland, and George N. Cole, of New York, the latter a personal
friend of our
late Brother Garfield.
In The Good Old Town – [A Poem]
and then we walk
In the good old town ‒
Footbeats ‒ heartbeats ‒
Passing up and down.
Though we wander far away
We go making merry play,
We go making holiday,
In the good old town.
Now and then we meet old friends
In the good old town ‒
Old friends ‒ good friends ‒
Walking up and down.
Tho those friends are sleeping now
Time has turned them with his plow,
Still we meet them anyhow
In the good old town.
There are many memories
In the good old town ‒
Night thoughts ‒ long thoughts ‒
Passing up and down.
In our wider world concerns
Nothing new the spirit learns,
Every hour of freedom turns
To the good old town.
Take me back when I am done
To the good old town ‒
Life done ‒ work done ‒
Let me settle down;
And I know when you are free,
Then, I know, wherever you be,
You will come and walk with me
In the good old town.
What a Fellow
Craft Ought to Know
By Bro. Hal Riviere, Georgia
AS we look about this world in which we live
the various forms of life with which we are familiar, we find a
sameness in the
general plan that would be monotonous if it were not so beautiful in
variety of the details. The life of a world, the life of a race, of a
man, an animal, a flower, an insect ‒ each of these goes through the
processes, a progress from beginning to end and as they pass beyond it
that those processes are repeated. First there is the period of
the birth, the growth, the fruiting time, the decline and finally the
For countless ages a fragment clings to its sun
world in preparation; eventually it is thrown whirling into space to
begin a separate
existence ‒ the birth of a world; the gases solidify, land and water
appear ‒ the
period of development; vegetable and animal life are brought forth, the
fruitfulness; then come the decline and dissolution.
A tiny seed lies in the ground; it bursts and
makes its way to the top of the soil and a plant is born; it grows and
sheds a sweetness abroad and perhaps gives useful fruit; but its work
done, it too,
fades and dies. Whence came the plant and whither has it gone? It knows
From a tiny egg in the waxen cell within the
larva is hatched, passes through the various stages of development
the bee comes forth to perform its amazing, complicated series of
with flayed wings worn out in gathering the nectar from a myriad of
crawls away to die alone. Whence came the bee and whither has it gone?
not, nor cares.
After a suitable period of preparation a babe
grows to manhood, does his work whether of good or ill, declines and
came the man and whither has he gone? Man knows not, but cares and the
that he has ever asked himself from the time when the first gleams of
were developed in him is, "whence come you?" and later, "whither
are you traveling?" Perhaps the first question a child will ask upon
a new born infant is, "where did he come from?" Later, as he comes to
realize the meaning of death he will ask, "where do the dead go?" For
there is in mankind a feeling that death does not end it all and he has
to concede to death the victory, feeling rather that human life is a
for a greater life to come beyond the grave.
Two stages of human life have ever been awe
Infancy and Old Age; the infant, a candidate for the mysteries of this
the old man, a candidate for the mysteries beyond the grave. Whence
comes the infant,
from the everywhere, or nowhere? Who can stand beside the cradle of a
a few days old and see it smile in its sleep, without feeling that it
has had an
experience? It has no consciousness of the present world; then whence
Can there be still memories of the everywhere it has left before the
of this world crowd them out? What possibilities lie before it during
the few years
it is to spend in this life! Who knows the consequences that may hang
upon the use
it makes of the opportunities of human existence! And so it is that Old
facing the end of human existence, facing a journey into undiscovered
fills the contemplative mind with serious thoughts. If there be
sleeping and dreaming
in that undiscovered country from whose bourne no traveler returns,
will the dreams
that shall come to him newly born to the heavenly life, cause sweet
smiles to play
across his radiant face and bear witness to the beauty and happiness of
It is only by realizing that human life is a
for a greater life beyond, that he has lived before and shall live
again after death
ends mortal existence, it is only by so realizing that one can
understand the significance
of Freemasonry because it is an epitome of human life and each degree
duties of certain stages of life using the customs of the Ancient
as a foundation and teaching great moral and intellectual lessons by
means of allegories
When we speak of our Ancient Operative brethren
to those men who composed the lodges of stone masons who built the
temples and national and civic edifices prior to the seventeenth
century. But those
men were not merely stone masons; their leaders were architects and
and possessed that secret knowledge of the building arts which they
themselves and taught only to those proven worthy.
Operative Masons have plied their art in the
of many famous structures from the dawn of civilization in Egypt and we
of many distinguished Master builders; The first architect to erect a
stone was Imhotep the Wise, who completed his initial work about the
year 3000 B.C.
A few years later, in 2900 B.C., the architects of King Khufu built the
of Gizeh, an undertaking which demonstrates upon the part of those men,
of arithmetic, geometry and astronomy marvelous to contemplate.
Egypt became the fountain head of knowledge and
secrets of the builders' arts were jealously guarded by those learned
and the correlated arts and sciences, men of other nations journeyed
be initiated into the mysteries. Those found worthy were so initiated,
to ply their trade and became the teachers and builders of other
Assyria, Phoenicia, Crete and later Greece and Rome, felt the influence
Next to the Pyramids, the most famous structure
times was the Temple of Solomon at Jerusalem. This was built by men of
headed by Hiram the Architect whom Hiram, King of Tyre, sent to
supervise the work
for his friend and ally, Solomon, King of Israel.
It is comparatively easy to trace the progress
Art of Architecture from that day until modern times. In company with
went oathbound secret societies guarding the knowledge of the builders'
today we find Speculative Masonry as the direct descendant of those old
of builders. The knowledge of Architecture once so closely guarded in
fraternities has become the common property of all who care to learn
of Operative Masons have ceased to exist but Speculative Masonry has
symbolic meaning to the various working tools and to many words, terms
used by the Ancient brethren.
As the lessons of Speculative Masonry are
largely in terms of the practices of the Ancient Operative Masons a few
to their customs will make it easier to draw a parallel between those
and the ceremonies of this degree.
In ancient times, when a person desired to
Mason he made application to some Master who, if he was pleased with
appearance, took him on trial. The trial satisfactory, he was formally
an Apprentice, that being his Masonic birth. Entered Apprentices were
serve for seven years, that being a period of growth or development and
time they learned the fundamental principles of the Craft; obedience,
truthfulness, industry and consideration for and charity toward the
learned to adjust themselves to their surroundings and to work in
harmony with those
about them, meanwhile catching a vision of the seriousness of life and
and dignity of their calling. Each was expected to become fixed in the
right living, skillful in the handling of his tools, familiar with the
a stone mason and ambitious to advance. The time of apprenticeship
drawing to a
close he worked upon and perfected a masterpiece as an evidence of his
he carried before the Annual Assembly where he was required to stand an
to demonstrate to his superiors his ability and his worth; upon the
result of the
examination depended his advancement.
In our time, my brother, Free and Accepted
out many of the ancient customs. You were initiated as an Entered
a suitable time as such, passed a satisfactory examination before the
elected to advance and have been passed to the degree of Fellow Craft.
But I wonder
if during the days of your apprenticeship, you became proficient in the
use of the
working tools of an Entered Apprentice. You remember that they are the
inch gauge, or rule, and the gavel, or mallet.
Our Ancient Operative brethren used the gauge
or lay out their work. You, my brother, should use your mind or reason
your work as you labor in the building of a beautiful character. During
have you used your reason to measure yourself, your conduct, your
capacity for service? Do you measure up to the high standard of upright
Masonic manhood? We are not enough in the habit of so measuring
ourselves but it
is only by so doing that we can keep our characters straight.
But it is not enough for one to measure
himself; a man
may measure and measure yet accomplish nothing.
Shakespeare says "Sure, he that made us with
large discourse, looking before and after, gave us not that capability
reason to fust in us unused." That is the great point ‒ to use our
As our Ancient Operative brethren used the gavel to knock off the
corners of rough
stones, so we are to use our will power to divest ourselves of the
vices and imperfections
of our characters. Have you so used your will power? Is there any
fault, any imperfection,
any vice that you have resolved to forsake since you became a laborer
"You will be what
you will to be;
Let failure find its false content
In that poor word environment,
But spirit scorns it and is free.
"It masters time,
it conquers space,
It cowes that boastful trickster, chance,
And bids the tyrant circumstance
Uncrown and fill a servant's place.
"The human will,
that force unseen,
The offspring of a deathless soul,
Can hew a way to any goal
Though walls of granite intervene.
"Be not impatient
But wait as one who understands,
When spirit rises and commands,
The gods are ready to obey."
My brother, it is a deplorable fact that this
Fellow Craft degree is neither understood nor appreciated by the vast
Masons. Its purpose is not discerned and there seems to be no
it and the other two degrees of the Blue Lodge. In reality, the three
Freemasonry form a beautiful system and the Fellow Craft is the only
link between the other two; but it is only when a view of the whole is
one comes to see the necessary place in the scheme that each degree
must bear in mind that Masonic Light is the object of a Mason's search
Masonic Light is a symbol for Truth; we must know that in trying to
answer the question
of his origin and destiny man has come to realize that there are
certain laws that
govern him. These he has specified as Divine Truth and it is to know
and to bring
himself into conscious harmony with them that he labors.
One of our beautiful charges opens with these
"The ways of Virtue are beautiful; Knowledge is attained by degrees;
dwells with contemplation; there must we seek her." In those words we
expressed the degree plan of Freemasonry. Man has found that in
striving to attain
Divine Truth a foundation of good habits is necessary ‒ a training in
the ways of
virtue; these good habits are used in the acquisition of knowledge or
of the intellect; a combination of good habits and high intellectual
produces a lofty train of thought whence result keen judgment,
‒ all those qualities which go to make a wise man.
"Wisdom," said Solomon, "is the principal
thing; therefore get wisdom." Wisdom might be defined as Virtue plus
multiplied by Contemplation. Its attainment is a slow process, a matter
Wisdom is the border-land from whose heights a man beholds Truth while
the land of Canaan which a Moses may behold yet never fully attain.
The foundation of Wisdom is Character. It is in
building of character that every Fellow Craft is employed and this
particularly with the training of the body in right habits and the
the mind. The legend of this degree presents the matter in beautiful,
and should leave no doubt in the mind of the candidate that the ways of
beautiful and that knowledge is attained by degrees.
Let us ever remember that it is not the purpose
to enter into scientific dissertations upon Hearing, Seeing, Feeling,
Tasting; by entering such a maze the lessons of the degree are lost.
and delvers into antiquity care to enter minutely into the history of
Orders of Architecture or to learn with mathematical exactitude the
the several columns. Nor is it the purpose of the Order to define
Logic, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music and Astronomy. Such learned
the Senses, Orders of Architecture and the Liberal Arts and Sciences
are a relic
of the bygone days of Operative Masonry when the lodge was workshop,
home and school
‒ in fact, the whole life of the brethren; such practices were then
necessary but in our time the object in view is to learn practical
a symbolical presentation of those subjects.
The proper development and use of the five
enables us to support and protect ourselves, to enjoy the blessings and
of life that surround us and to contribute to the happiness of others.
use may lead to animalism on the one hand or asceticism on the other;
case it will tend to limit the capabilities. Overindulgence and
excesses tend to
blunt and asceticism to dwarf the bodily powers while the reward for
and simplicity in the employment of the senses is certain and sure.
From the Orders
of Architecture we should learn that an absolute mastery of the details
to his particular line of work is necessary for a man's success; and as
are used to beautify and adorn as well as to be of service, we should
not be satisfied
with building merely an upright character but should cultivate those
are so pleasing when naturally and sincerely displayed. As the Ionic
of Wisdom, bears a mean proportion between the ornamental and solid
orders, so our
characters should preserve the mean between a sordid, mechanical
existence and artistic
The acquisition of knowledge and the training
mind into habits of logical thought is no less a part of character
the training of the body. The study of the Seven Liberal Arts and
Sciences is typical
of that intellectual development that is necessary before wisdom can be
and the blending of the beautiful and pleasing arts with the useful
us that something more than utility is required in the well rounded
may reason logically in ungrammatical language but if his speech be
the use of correct grammatical constructions and adorned by the use of
figures, his reasoning and personality are given an added force. While
of the mind to a high degree in the mathematical sciences is desirable
it is not
sufficient in a well-developed character for one so trained may become
unless a love for the beautiful enters in to temper his exactitude. If
astronomy, a man becomes so engrossed with the lines, angles, circles
of the heavenly bodies that he perceives none of the beauty of the
the Great Architect nor hears the "music of the stars," he is one of
who having eyes to see, see not and having ears to hear, hear not.
One of the purposes of this degree is to teach
in practice and accuracy in information. Science is systematic thought;
it is organized
knowledge, while art is skill in the employment of the principles of a
One should cultivate a due regard for all phases of intellectual
that perfection in any art or calling will come in the degree that
it is systematic and orderly. A Fellow Craft should not be content to
duty in a mechanical way but should learn the underlying scientific
which it is based, thus becoming an artist instead of a laborer; his
a joy instead of a task and his life a blessing and inspiration to
those who come
in contact with him.
Realizing that man is a builder engaged in the
of a temple of character fit for the indwelling of the living God,
the Temple of Solomon as a type to visualize the processes of building
and to illustrate
the end in view. Now that you have been passed to the degree of Fellow
account of the building of this Temple as recorded in the Bible will be
interest to you. Many traditions in regard to the Temple have been
handed down to
us, one of the most beautiful being the legend of the Fellow Craft
legend is founded upon a verse in the sixth chapter of I Kings, which
is in these
words: "The door for the Middle Chamber was in the right side of the
and they went up by winding stairs into the Middle Chamber and out of
into the Third." We must not confuse history and tradition. Eighty
men would find it impossible to ascend to the second story of a
building in one
afternoon and receive their wages nor would the room contain the wages
This incident is of value to us as Masons only insofar as we see the
to be taught and make practical use of them in the development of our
After faithfully performing his duty the
Craft was invested with certain words, signs and tokens that secured
into the Middle Chamber where he received the wages due him. A shirker
or an impostor
might ascend the stairs but only he who was duly prepared by being in
of these words, signs and tokens could gain admission.
So in life. Every man is invested with certain
signs and tokens that determine the circle to which he shall be
honest effort put forth and every faithful performance of duty bring
A man may enter any circle or attain any desired height if he shall
work until his
labor brings as a reward the words, signs and tokens necessary to gain
into the coveted place. The passwords must be unequivocal and no
impostor by dissimulation
can escape the vigilance that eternally rewards a man according to his
There must be evidence in plenty that the preparation is not
superficial nor assumed
as a cloak to gain unworthy ends. It is not until a sign or token is
the required qualities have become established as part and parcel of
his very being
that a man is accepted with confidence into the innermost circle of his
He cannot hope to enter the circle of those who have labored and earned
due who displays no token that by earnest effort he has earned his
reward. Man must
give equal value for what he receives. He must pay the price.
So also, the laborer is worthy of his hire.
gave the workers upon the Temple a wage of Corn, Wine and Oil. These,
of nourishment, refreshment and joy, indicate that the honest, earnest
not only a material wage but that there should be a wage of
satisfaction and joy
in the performance of duty without which a man labors in vain and
spends his strength
for naught. He who finds no joy in his work has not received the full
wages of a
There are three things that a Fellow Craft
highly and treasure as precious jewels; an attentive ear, an
and a faithful breast. The attentive ear symbolizes that earnest desire
that openness of mind, that willingness to learn that keeps a man young
of his years. No quality is more valuable than that of finding the
in all the experiences of life, hearing its message and treasuring that
within the repository of a faithful breast. He who earnestly seeks
value every source of information and if the instructive tongue be
sharp and wound
the pride or tear the heart yet will he receive its message humbly,
know thyself," is a goal gained sooner through experience in the ways
than by resting on flowery beds of ease or through the lying tongue of
And now, my brother, that you have attained the
Chamber and stand in the strength of manhood to receive the reward of a
workman, remember that it is not by your own strength alone that you
this position but by the assistance and guidance of the Great Architect
of the Universe.
"Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the Lord." All the
labor you have expended and all the efforts you have put forth in the
of your character have been to the end that you might attain the Wisdom
the will of God concerning you and to make of yourself a temple fit for
of the Most High.
The true Mason is essentially a religious man,
God and keeping his laws and reverence for his name should be a
of all who have gone this way. Let no profanity or irreverence for his
bring discredit upon your profession as a Mason.
A Hint as to Penalties
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
Shakespeare borrowed many of his plots from
and from old books, but the materials wherewith he filled in the
taken, almost all of it, from observation and experience. The dramatist
was a man
with wide-opened eyes who was quick to catch up contemporaneous ideas,
customs in order to establish a basis of contact with his hearers and
is this that gives some value to the reference made in The Tempest to a
execution that is not without a mite of interest to students of the
origins of our
ritual. The Tempest was written, according to a consensus of expert
near 1611. At this time, as the reader will know, the ritual had not
yet been cast
into its present form; the inference may be made that the method of
to by Shakespeare was well known in the beginnings of the seventeenth
that the men who wrote the penalties may have borrowed a hint from it.
This is a
reasonable conjecture not to be lightly thrown aside when research is
for light on such a foggy problem as the origin of the penalties.
The reference above mentioned occurs in the
of the ship-wreck in the first scene of the first act of The Tempest.
who has been laboring breathlessly to make his ship storm-safe and to
keep his men
toiling toward safety, has been interrupted by the nobles who have come
up on deck.
He upbraids them for their interference, whereupon Antonio, the Duke of
cheated out of our lives by drunkards. This wide-chopped (wide-mouthed)
wouldst thou might lie drowning the washing of ten tides!"
On this Professor Hudson makes the following
"Pirates were hanged on the shore at low water-mark, and left till
had overwashed them. 'Ten' is substituted for 'three,' either for the
sake of alliteration
or to intensify the guilt of 'the widechopped rascal.' "
Unification in the Philippines
By Bro. Charles S. Lobingier,
March 15, 1917.
To the Sovereign Grand Commander and the
Illustrious and Very Dear Brethren:
IN closing his memorable Allocution (1) of 1915
Grand Commander said: "Let us above all else be united! Discord and
are destructive forces engendered by causes which should not be
Masons. It is only when 'unified' that our Scottish Freemasonry can
that influence in the World which its power should enable it to do."
It is with a gratification second only to that
I know you will all feel as a result of it, that I am able to report
for my jurisdiction
a practical observance of this admonition, and a complete realization
of the ideal.
Within the past year a divided house has been joined together. Where
there was diversity
there is now unity; where there was weakness there is potential
strength. In short
it is my privilege to announce the unification of our rite in the
that there has ever been dissension among the bodies of our obedience
as you will note from previous reports of mine, Scottish Rite bodies,
allegiance to other Supreme Councils, have continued to exist there
own. The reasons for this were mainly historical and call for a brief
In the Philippines, Masonry considerably
American occupation. As long ago as 1856 the Spanish Admiral Malcampo,
General, organized a lodge at Cavite under the Grand Orient of
Portugal. (2) For
some years, however, Masonic membership in the Philippines was
restricted to Spaniards.
Finally in the later eighties a movement was inaugurated in Spain
itself (3) by
Miguel Morayta, recently deceased, and then head of the Spanish Grand
Marcelo H. del Pilar, a Filipino residing in Spain, which resulted in
some leading natives of the Philippines into the ranks of Masonry; and
then it began
to exert a real influence upon the affairs of the archipelago. It was
of the Scottish Rite which largely furnished the inspiration for the
the Spanish government in 1896. All Masons were then under suspicion;
and others died for their allegiance to the craft and its principles.
the Spanish Masons were practically the only Spaniards who sympathized
Filipinos in their struggles for a more liberal form of government. It
was not strange,
therefore, that, in the hearts of the latter, Spanish Freemasonry won a
and that those who had allied themselves therewith were loath to leave
changed conditions. Indeed I sometimes wonder if we, ourselves, have
high the character and achievements of our Spanish Brethren and if we
have not been
too prone to judge them by adventurers, parading under their name, in
our own country.
We must remember that to be a Mason in Spain involves a great personal
and that few but the tried and true are found in their ranks. Perhaps
for that reason
they are extremely careful whom they receive and require a long period
(4) such as formerly prevailed in our own jurisdiction. (5)
American Masonry, coming into the Philippines
army, followed for a time the course of its predecessor in admitting
just as the Spanish lodges at first received only Europeans, but in
the Scottish Rite there I insisted that there should be no invidious
of nationality and the first class upon which I conferred the 32˚, in
a well-known Filipino, now a Judge, who has been very helpful to us
Other Filipinos, not inconsiderable in number, have joined the Manila
time to time, and, so far as I have been able to prevent it, there has
been no deviation
from the principle upon which those bodies were started. Meanwhile, not
some of the lodges and other bodies claiming authority from the Grand
Spain continued to work. The transfer of sovereignty had severed that
as completely as it had the political tie (6) but it was difficult to
clear to Masons who knew little of the Anglo-Saxon doctrine of
jurisdiction; who felt a sentimental attachment to the Spanish Grand
the reasons already mentioned; and who, as yet, saw little
manifestation of a similar
attitude among American Masons. It seemed like asking much of our
to require them to surrender an affiliation which had cost them so dear
was offered in its place, and when they were not responsible for the
which the requirement was based. While, therefore, our Scottish Rite
bodies in the
Philippines could hold no official intercourse with those claiming
Spain, it was quite possible to get their viewpoint and to prepare the
a solution of the most important problem which confronted us ‒ the
union under one
head of all Scottish Rite Masons in the Archipelago. If you will refer
to my previous
reports upon our status here you will note that while I have repeatedly
to the existence of a Scottish Rite Chapter of Rose Croix, claiming
Spain, I have never recommended drastic action toward it, believing
that a solution
of the difficulty could be found which would be just and honorable to
Fortunately my belief has proven to have been well founded.
The Grand Commander will recall that, during a
with him in October, 1915, I brought up the question of establishing a
of bodies in the Philippines and he stated that the granting of Letters
was entirely within my discretion. Among the purposes which I had in
view in this
project was unification and the placing of the Rite on a basis which
it a real force in the country.
Upon my return I took the matter up with two of
members, Bros. Austin Craig, 32d, and Manuel Camus, 32d, who were in
with Masons of Spanish allegiance, and by February of 1916 conditions
for opening a new Lodge of Perfection. The petitioners for Letters
all members of the Manila bodies but the new lodge was soon exercising
authority to receive new members by initiating and affiliation.
On August 14, 1916, I opened under Letters
Burgos Chapter of Rose Croix; on December 22, Malcampo Preceptory was
finally on February 14, 1917, I enjoyed the extreme satisfaction of
group at an occasion marked by imposing ceremonies, including the
Letters Temporary to Rizal Consistory.
Meanwhile the work of winning over our brethren
allegiance had been actively proceeding and in this Brothers Craig and
found an active ally in Bro. Manuel L. Quezon, 32d, then of the Spanish
Toward the close of prolonged negotiations and innumerable conferences
of the last named bodies I addressed to them the following letter:
Manila, P.I., Feb. 5, 1917. To the Scottish
residing in the Philippines, but belonging to Bodies Chartered by Other
Very Dear Brethren:
In the name of Universal Masonry, for whose
we all hope and strive, and in behalf of the Mother Supreme Council of
whose Deputy I have the honor to be, I take pleasure in extending to
you a cordial
and fraternal invitation to present applications for affiliation with
of the Rite now working in this Valley under the authority of said last
It is of the utmost importance to the interests
Craft in these Islands that Masonry in all its forms be united. In
union there is
strength; in division weakness.
The growth of the Bodies referred to has been
and rapid, but the Mother Council long to bring under its protecting
aegis all Scottish
Rite Masons residing within its territorial jurisdiction, and to enlist
a common banner.
Come with us Brethren, and make the union
Charles S. Lobingier, 33d Hon.,
Deputy of the Supreme Council.
The members of the Spanish Bodies finally
dissolve their organizations, return their charters and petition for
with the new Philippine bodies. They did this without exacting any
return. They surrendered a status which was to them cherished and
even paid the fees of "newly created" members under Statutes, Art. VI,
Sec. 6, and they did not reserve the small privilege of continuing
bodies under new charters.
Their petitions were acted upon favorably by
the bodies addressed as were then organized and they were ready for
in the highest degree which they had received in the Spanish bodies.
Not many of
them, however, had passed beyond the 30d; for in Spain, as elsewhere in
the 31d and 32d are not conferred generally but are confined to a
much like our 33d Honorary; and, as I have already shown, the
Regulations of the
Spanish Supreme Council require a much longer interval to elapse
between the reception
of degrees than do our own.
To complete the affiliation of the petitioners
necessary that each "take all the pledges and vows of all the Degrees
Body with which he affiliates." (7) For this purpose they were
large numbers on the evenings of February 12 and 14. Our obligations
had all been
translated into Spanish by Bro. Leo Fischer, 32d, Secretary of the
for the benefit of those petitioners who understand that language
better than English,
and were administered in full after the body to which they corresponded
duly opened. The new Philippine bodies will need to work in Spanish as
well as English
and it will save them a tremendous and unnecessary burden if they can
have the benefit
of what has been done in Porto Rico.
Thus, through the organization of the new
bodies, the unification of the Scottish Rite in the Archipelago has
I trust that the Charters for these new bodies will be issued in due
I cannot but regard this result as one of the most important and far
which has yet been consummated within the jurisdiction of our Supreme
Transactions, (1915) 148.
(2) This was known as Logia Primera Luz Filipina. See The Far Eastern
(3) See Derbyshire, Introduction to Translation of Rizal's "Noli Me
(4) Bro. C. A. Tansilll, K.C.C.H., of the Manila Bodies has been
interesting topic and reports as follows: "The minimum time for
in the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry as practiced
by the Spanish
Grand Orient requires that an Entered Apprentice must serve to the
of his brethren, not less than five months before being passed to the
Fellow Craft, and the Fellow Craft must serve to the satisfaction of
not less than seven months before being raised to the sublime degree of
Thus, an Entered Apprentice is under the careful scrutiny of his
brethren for at
least one year before being raised to the sublime degree of Master
"Subjoined is the minimum time for progression and advancement in the
Council of Spain, under which Supreme Council the 4th, 9th, 13th, 18th,
31st, 32nd and 33rd degrees are considered essentially necessary to be
in full form:
"Master Mason ‒ 1 year to receive the 4°
4° " ‒ 1 year to receive the 9°
9° " ‒ 1 year to receive the 13°
13° Mason ‒ 1 year to receive the 18°
18° " ‒ 2 years to receive the 24°
24° " ‒ 2 years to receive the 30°
30° " ‒ 1 year to receive the 31°
31° " ‒ 1 year to receive the 32°
32° " ‒ 1 year to receive the 33°
"It will be noticed that an Entered Apprentice may not attain the 32d
after at least eleven years' service, and that it requires ten years'
a Master Mason before receiving the 32d."
(5) See the observations of Ill. Bro. Hugo in the New Age (XXV 40 et
that eighty-one months were once required for taking twenty-five
(6) Allocution, 1905, p. 47; Cf. Id. 1903, p. 45.
(7) Statutes, sec. 32, Art. VIII.
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
Linking England and America
PRESIDENT WILSON'S desire is to make the world
for democracy," to abolish the nightmare fear of sudden war, and with
necessity for maintaining huge armies and navies. It is no selfish
motive, for he
wishes for the people whom he rules what they would eagerly and
share with all mankind.
At present that high purpose is not only
but actually menaced with final disappointment. So far from hard-won
institutions being safe they are at this moment in dire peril. They are
so great and urgent that a peace-loving people, separated from Europe
by a thousand
leagues of ocean, still cherishing a tradition inherited from
Washington and Franklin
of non-intervention in the quarrels of the Old World, feel that duty,
honor, and humanity bid them take up arms and wage war with all their
a soulless autocracy which threatens to enslave the world.
This seems to me the greatest event of modern
because, if it be crowned with success, as we believe it will be, it
may well inaugurate
a new era, the Era of Settled Peace. And not only or chiefly because
that delight in war" have been subdued, but because the association of
and America in this great and holy cause is likely to eradicate, to
uproot the last
vestige of remembrance of the quarrel which separated them.
That quarrel has long ago been virtually
Britain. But American history begins not with Julius Caesar, but with
not with the Battle of Hastings, but with a revolution, which resulted
British colonies, hitherto passionately loyal, taking the style and
title of the
United States of America; not with Magna Charta, but with that
Declaration of Independence
the signing of which is the chief landmark in the American citizen's
The boys and girls read of these things in the
pages of their school-books. Bunker Hill and Lexington become magical
names to them.
First impressions being lasting, grown-up Americans have been apt to
forget it was
a German king, George the Third, opposed by the best and noblest of his
and contrary to the wishes of the people of Britain, whose blind
obstinacy and congenital
insanity drove the American colonies into revolt.
Yes, and they are also apt to forget, whilst
speeches of Franklin, Webster and Lincoln by heart, the words thundered
in the British House of Commons: "I rejoice that America has resisted.
millions of people so dead to all the feelings of liberty as
voluntarily to submit
to be slaves, would have been fit instruments to make slaves of the
Today those three millions have become one
Yet, mark the miracle, America is still but a larger Britain across the
Atlantic to Pacific she speaks the tongue of Shakespeare and Bunyan;
and private life is based on English custom; her traditions and
literature are one
with the Motherland; her ideals of civilization those of the isle from
Pilgrim Fathers sailed.
Furthermore, America's greatest church was
Wesley, an Oxford clergyman; her two leading universities, Yale and
Englishmen; every president she has elected, except two, has borne a
Her laws are confessedly founded on English law, and the usages and
the courts in the two countries are almost identical. Her ideas of
and freedom, for conscience, for the individual, for the Press, are the
by the great Puritans, Cromwell, Hampden, Milton, and Bunyan.
In short, the influence upon the fundamental
America of all other nations combined is negligible compared with the
ineradicable influence of Britain.
Then how greatly desirable is a sympathetic and
understanding between these two kindred peoples. Neither nation has
pains to understand the other. Superficial differences have been able
But in the furnace of this world war, upon the
of a common and noble purpose, under the hammer, kindred peoples will
and then in their keeping chiefly will be the future of mankind.
And who can doubt that the heart-union of the
Empire and the United States of America means for the world an era of
in which service and not enslavement, enlightenment and not
exploitation, arts ‒
ay, hearts ‒ and not arms will be the watchword of statesmen and
all whe help forward this great friendship are thereby laboring for the
Fraternizing In France
FRATERNIZING with the French Masons progresses
one Grand Lodge after another having stepped in that direction. It is
note that while we are showing such a tendency to cross the frontier of
creation against the Freemasonry of France, the British whom we first
from the land of Lafayette are not nearly so ready to return though
for that nation has been proven by the greatest sacrifices and the
of loyalty and devotion.
While British are formally far from the
of France they are close to the French Freemasons. There has been
nor subjection. The one and the other retain their individual dogmas,
doctrines endure, yet their entwining friendliness calls a truce to the
of the past.
Frigidity between French and British is melted
fraternity by the sunlight of a common cause. Righteousness enriches
with the warmer treasures of a joint purpose for humanity. Each with
proves to the other how adequate indeed to the end is their resource
for good, that
perhaps the difference after all is rather in name and phrases than in
We shall sympathetically watch the fine old
Masonry of Greater Britain ‒ of the United Kingdom and its overseas
mother country and her colonies ‒ and that stalwart French Freemasonry
sociological and philosophic excellencies, as the two go forward in the
gigantic battles. Out from all these gory struggles there will be a
rebirth of the
ancient faiths, not throwing them upon the scrap heap, but the old less
renewed less raw.
Our hearts are with them. When dawns the sun of
there will be many a tale told of the place Freemasonry has filled for
united in the family of fraternity though having their birthrights from
* * *
Perhaps the Committee on History will this year
a final report to the Imperial Council at Atlantic City. Maybe this is
not to be
Death has been busy with the older members
held the facts of the Shrine's origin. Every year this reservoir
we can do to get the particulars into perfect consonance and into
should be done while our pioneer brethren remain available for checking
up the information
advanced by others, and being themselves in turn subjected to the same
sort of checks
against any and every inaccuracy.
Not unlikely there has also been an inclination
the true story of the Shrine from what some may deem excessive
publicity. Why blaze
with bright sunlight what has thrived without it? Where there was no
are no regrets remaining. And what a joke will endure while there is an
of surprise about it is one thing. Turning the light upon it brings
about an entirely
But have we not arrived at the stage when the
of the Shrine's origin may be disclosed? Has the old account of its
any life? How much is worth repetition as fact or as joke?
Writing as one who dearly loves the Shrine for
and cheer, who richly enjoys both its boys and noise, sympathy and
cymbals, I beg
of the historians candor. For to me the Shrine will be as attractive if
ritual were fashioned by Fleming, flourished with Florence, and
by Briggs, these noblest of the nobility. Lower Broadway, or the
or Moquin's old quarters, suit me just as well for a place of origin as
hut near the pyramids. All may not think so. Tradition dies hard among
those there will ever be jewels such as the sad passing of our late
the Khedive of Egypt as reported and adorned by a whimsically diverting
at Malta! But the truth will out, even in an affidavit.
Rain – [A Poem]
always rains when
I go out
And clears when I come in,
Until I very often doubt
The theory of sin.
They tell me that it rains upon
The unjust and the just;
It doesn't rain on ev'ryone
The way they say it must.
Some sinners never get a bath
When they go out to stroll;
The weather always pours its wrath
On me, unlucky soul.
There is no justice in the strife
Of living, that is plain;
I've had to take, all thru my life.
Somebody else's rain.
Edited By Bro. H.L. Haywood
The object of this Department is to acquaint
with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the best
now being published; and with such non-Masonic books as may especially
Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to render any possible
studious individuals or to Study Clubs and Lodges, either through this
or by personal correspondence; if you wish to learn something
concerning any book
‒ what is its nature, what is its value, or how it may be obtained ‒ be
ask him. If you have read a book which you think is worth a renew write
it; if you desire to purchase a book ‒ any book ‒ we null help you get
no charge for the service. Make this your Department of Literary
HALF the charm of Burns lies in the fact that
dare to call him "Bobbie!" Mark Twain once attempted to call Emerson
and Longfellow "Henry" (or was it "Hen!"), but he met such a
rebuff that the memory of it smarted all his life. Browning bore the
name as Burns, but who has ever dreamed of speaking of "Bob" Browning?
Or who would ever refer to Browning's great colleague as "Alf"
The very mention of such familiarities makes us shiver! But it seems
far more fitting
to speak of "Bobbie" Burns than it would of "Robert" Burns.
This, I say, is half the charm of the Scottish
he comes so close home to us, he seems so like a personal friend, that
think of him as one of our intimate chums. So was it with those who
knew him in
the flesh; to them also he was just "Bobbie," and to Scotchmen he ever
will be nothing else. Burns was one of the most democratic of men. It
is easy to
be democratic in theory; it is often difficult to play the part; Burns
part. He was himself that which he sang, and never did a man sing so
much of the
joy of friendship, the glow of fellowship, or of the appeal of average,
human nature. Many of his love affairs were with peasant girls and many
of his friendships
were with peasant men.
Yet, in spite of this, it has become somewhat
for a twentieth century American to know Burns, and this for at least
For one thing, most of his poetry sprang up out of actual experiences,
and it is
often necessary to know the story of those experiences in order to have
a clew to
the poetry. For another thing, he wrote his best songs and poems in the
and this is now almost as hard to read as Chaucer's English. How many,
would know offhand that "ilka green shaw" means "a wooded dell,"
or that a "laverock" is a "thrush"? Burns' poems are strewn
with these Scotticisms, most of which are as so much Greek to the
majority of us.
It is for these reasons that one may take
recommending to one's friends ‒ all of whom may be presumed to be
lovers of Burns'
poetry ‒ such a work as W. A. Neilson's "Burns: How to Know Him" [Lib
1917] (published by Bobbs-Merrill
of Indianapolis, at $1.50). Mr. Neilson tells the story of the poet's
life in such
manner as to cast in relief the biographical experiences which throw
on his work; and he also writes into the margin the English equivalent
of all the
Scotch expressions. Furthermore, he quotes nearly all the old favorites
poems in such order as to place each one in its appropriate
This biographical context is of great
understanding most of the songs, for Burns was truly one who "wrote
heart." Some poets are deliberate artists; they sit down cold-bloodedly
build up a burnished column of verse, as Gray did in his "Elegy";
are children of inspiration; they can never write anything worthwhile
the mood is upon them; Burns was such an one. The poems which he wrote
occasions, or because he chanced to consider it his duty to write
almost invariably artificial and lifeless, as one may learn from the
of the same displayed by Mr. Neilson; but when it was a genuine passion
him to take his pen in hand he could compose such songs as never a poet
him. Carlyle declared "My Nannie, O" to be the greatest song ever
Carlyle was Scotch himself, and may therefore have had his bias, but
Scotch, have agreed with him.
Many of the finest flowers of Burns' song grew
may be confessed, from a rather rank soil. The poet was possessed of a
nature. His blood was usually at the boiling point, and all too
frequently it boiled
over. Even in his own circles he was called "a wild one," and the Burns
worshipper is never permitted to forget that his idol had feet of clay.
poet himself surpassed everybody in regret for his wildness and never
of truer penitence been penned than are certain of his verses; he had a
to hoe both domestically and financially and allowances must be made
even by the most puritan.
But it may be said without exaggeration, and
making light of any of the great moral sanctions, that the very
darkness of much
of the background of Burns' poetry only serves to bring out in stronger
amazing qualities of his genius. Shakespeare would take over an old
play and transfigure it; in his genius an Italian tale or an old Danish
suffer a sea change into something rich and strange. The genius of
Burns had the
same magical power when dealing with his own raw experiences or
as an example, that song entitled "Ae Fond Kiss" which contains the
"Had we never
loved sae kindly,
Had we never loved sae blindly,
Never met ‒ or never parted,
We had ne'er been broken-hearted."
This song, and the companion song, entitled "My
Nannie's Awa," sprang from a love affair of which Burns himself came to
very much ashamed; nevertheless, his genius transformed it into a
melody which will
sing itself around the world while men continue to love poetry.
No other singer can ever have quite the same
the affection of Masons because Burns was the first great poet laureate
of our Fraternity;
every lodge should keep a volume of his poems at hand to serve as a
on the teachings of the Fraternity. Those lodges which desire to build
up a Burns
library will receive a full list of Burnsiana from the Grand Lodge
Library of Iowa,
situated at Cedar Rapids; this library now possesses one of the largest
of books on Burns and by Burns that can be found anywhere.
* * *
Dreams unroll their evanescent dramas within
of sleep which are nearer to us than breathing and closer than hands
and feet, yet
are they often so eerie, so fantastic, that we wonder whether they may
to an order of being very remote from our own. They are ours, they are
they borrow such substance as they have from our waking hours, their
our language, their colors are such as we have seen, yet their figures
motions are so fantastic that when we awaken from them into the actual
feel that we have returned from some aerial voyage into a land that
lies over the
abysses of the inane. Is it any cause for wonder that men who dream
of their lives are quick to forget the insubstantial phantoms? that
attributed them to gods or demons? that credulous medieval folk feigned
them as prophecies from the unseen? or that the more pragmatic men of
them as having no significance at all?
This indifference with which most of us are
consider our dreams is not shared, however, by the men of science; how
be, when it is the dearest dogma of science that every slightest thing,
of dust, the faintest nuance of feeling, has its value, its ray of
light to throw
on the ineluctable mystery of existence? Dreams are normal functions of
mind; as much a part of ourselves as our own brains; how can we
continue to imagine
that they play no part in the real business of our lives?
Of the scores of men of science who have
to translate the Rosetta stone of dreams, Professor Sigmund Freud is
Assisted by a band of workers he has analyzed thousands of dreams, and
whose visions he has studied have come from both sexes, from all ages,
many walks of life. After years of such research he and his colleagues
to tell us about the least understood of all our common experiences,
and it must
be worth our while to listen to these savants, though we cannot always
them nor always agree with them. The story of these explorations into
lands will be found, unhampered by many of the technicalities of the
in Professor Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams," [Lib 1913] (Macmillan Co., New
Professor Freud tells us that our dreams are
of our own experiences albeit these are usually, and for a good reason,
beyond recognition. The larger part of these materials are borrowed
from the day
immediately preceding; next in order come the recollections of
childhood, many of
which have seldomly lifted themselves into the waking consciousness;
are those memories which drift, like flotsam and jetsam, over the
These may be memories of thoughts, of feelings, or of events.
Oftentimes the dream will make use of some
sensation arising from the body during the very moment of the fantasy.
of this, so it seems, is to protect us against awakening. If, for
instance, a member
of the body is exposed to the cold the unpleasant sensation would
arouse the sleeper
did not the genius of the dream dress it up in some exciting drama to
hold the attention
and to prevent it returning to the actual surroundings. "In a certain
writes our author, “all dreams are dreams of convenience: they serve
of continuing sleep instead of awakening. The dream is the guardian of
the disturber of it."
But this guardianship of sleep is not, so
Freud believes, the principal function of the dream; he believes that
in a majority
of cases the dream "may be recognized as the fulfillment of a wish." In
this simple statement the savant has presented an hypothesis which has
the whole subject and has caused many psychologists to recast their
his own exposition of this idea runs through almost 500 pages I cannot
hope to explain
it in as many words, but I may be able, if due caution is employed, to
slight hint of the matter. It is the nature of the mind to be
it is the nature of our surroundings to thwart the larger number of
when a desire is thwarted it creates a tension in the mind which causes
of uneasiness or pain; these thwarted desires, always pressing toward
resort to the device of dreaming and therein find the satisfaction
denied them in
the actual world. Were our unfulfilled wishes always accumulating their
the nervous system would at last be shattered by the strain; dreaming
other than the mechanism whereby the mind finds relief, illusory but
and thereby frees itself of its otherwise intolerable tension.
Some may object to this by saying that their
are the last things that they would wish, so terrible are they,
Freud's explanation of this is one of the most ingenius features of his
He says that many of our wishes are such as we would not even
acknowledge to ourselves
and that therefore to present themselves before the mind they must
When John of Patmos wrote his Revelation, the last book in our bible,
he had a few
simple things to say, but these things were distasteful to the Roman
to get his book past the censors he composed it in allegorical fashion;
Roman could not discern behind the phantasmagoria of the book the
it carried to the initiated. Professor Freud contends that a similar
on in our dreaming, and the mental process which throws its strange
a dream he calls "the censor complexes," thereby using the very
of our illustration. A very terrible dream may thus prove after all to
be the disguised
fulfillment of a wish.
In its habits of disguise the dream faculty
symbolisms and these are employed many times over, by all persons, just
repeat the same figures of speech; by studying and comparing thousands
Professor Freud and his helpers have placed in our hands a key to the
our visions. Equipped with this, and with a modicum of patience and
can learn to interpret our own dreams. He who undertakes this will be
to learn how simple are many of the most gigantic grotesqueries; he
will learn nothing
of any world outside the real world; he will receive no messages from
gods or ghosts;
but he will learn many things about himself which may prove a surprise.
permit I might describe such instances of self-revelation, and I might
certain practical uses of dream analysis, especially in way of the
the cure of a few diseases; as it is I must refer the reader to the
pages of Sigmund Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams."
This book is of considerable interest to Masons
it tends to throw light on the origin of ancient and universal symbols.
that, as the sex impulse is one of the strongest in human nature, a
great many dreams
are disguised sex wishes or resumes of secret sex experiences. Also, he
that the dream faculty makes uses of the same sex symbols over and over
these symbols, so he holds, are identical with many of the symbols used
societies and religions from the dawn of history. Many of our Masonic
and they the sanest, have always held that certain of our emblems and
pillars for example, originally had a sex origin; to those who care to
studies Professor Freud's work will be most illuminating.
The Question Box
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a
of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one
school of Masonic
thought as over against another; but offers to all alike a medium for
and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.
The Question Box and Correspondence Column are
to all members of the Society at all times. Questions of any nature on
are earnestly invited from our members, particularly those connected
or Study Clubs which are following our "Bulletin Course of Masonic
When requested, questions will be answered promptly by mail before
"Remember Now Thy Creator"
Can you put me on the track of some reliable
of Ecclesiastes 12:1-7? It sounds beautiful in recitation, but largely
As chaplain of Norwood Lodge, No. 119, in the Grand Registry of
Manitoba I am especially
interested as it falls to me to recite the passage in "raising." "Let
there be light."
Good for you, Brother Fraser! The bane of
the constant repetition of the ritual by men who never make an attempt
the meaning of what they are saying.
The sacred sentences which fall on the ears of
as he makes his mystic round are so heavy with poignant beauty that one
to intrude the harsh language of prose upon such strains of poetry,
We may well believe that the men who introduced the reading here had no
than that the words might the better create an atmosphere in which the
of hate and doom might all the more impressively come home to the heart
of the participants.
If such was their purpose neither Shakespeare nor Dante could have
found words or
sentiments more appropriate to the hour. There is a music and majesty
in the twelfth
chapter of Ecclesiastes which leaves us dumb with awe and wonder and
open to the impressions of a tragedy alongside which the doom of Lear
For generations the commentators of Holy Writ
in the allegory of this chapter a reference to the decay of the body
and the coming
of death; to them, the golden bowl was the skull, the silver cord was
nerve, "the keepers of the house" were the hands, the "strong men"
the limbs; the whole picture is made to symbolize the body's falling
into ruin and
the approach of death. * One hesitates to differ from an interpretation
in its application and so dignified by its associations. But it must be
whether the sad and disillusioned man who penned the lines possessed
knowledge of human anatomy implied by the old interpretation or the
make his poem into a medical description of senility. A more thorough
has come to see in the allegory a picture of the horror of death set
forth by metaphors
drawn from an Oriental thunderstorm.
It had been a day of wind and cloud and rain;
clouds did not, as was usual, disperse after the shower. They returned
covered the heavens with their blackness. Thunderstorms were so
uncommon in Palestine
that they always inspired fear and dread, as many a paragraph in the
will testify. As the storm broke the strong men guarding the gates of
houses began to tremble; the hum of the little mills where the women
grinding at even time suddenly ceased because the grinders were
their toil; the women, imprisoned in the harems, who had been gazing
out of the
lattice to watch the activities of the streets, drew back into their
even the revelers, who had been sitting about their tables through the
eating dainties and sipping wine, lost their appetites, and many were
made so nervous
that the sudden twitting of a bird would cause them to start with
As the terror of the storm, the poet goes on to
so is the coming of death, when man "goes to his home of everlasting
go about the streets." Whatever men may have been, good or bad, death
equal terror to all. A man may have been rich, like the golden lamp
hung on a silver
chain in the palace of a king; he may have been as poor as the earthen
which maidens carried water from the public well, or even as crude as
wooden wheel wherewith they drew the water; what his state was matters
is as dread a calamity to the one as to the other. When that dark
the fine possessions in which men had sought security will be vain to
stay the awful
passing into night. "Vanity of vanities; all is vanity." The one
against the common calamity, the Preacher urges, is to remember the
to remember Him from youth to old age; to believe that one goes to
Him is the one and only solace in an hour when everything falls to ruin
very desire to live has been quenched by the ravages of age and the
coming of death.
* For this version see the article by Bro. Wm.
"When the Almond Tree Blossoms," THE BUILDER, vol. I, p. 138.
* * *
Solomon's Temple and Early
History of Masonry
Will you kindly enlighten me on the following
any Masonic history before the establishment of the first Grand Lodge
on June 24, 1717?
- If there
is not, whom is the Widow's Son supposed to represent?
- What connection
is there between Masonry as we know it today, and the building of King
Temple? In other words, was the Temple built by the Freemasons?
of Solomon described in Jewish history as a very common building, 124
by 65 feet wide, and 52 feet high, built of square blocks of stone,
be the same as the one described in the lecture of the Entered
If so, why such a difference?
1. Yes, June 24, 1717, is not the beginning of
history; it is hard to tell where the legend ceases and history begins.
no means of knowing how old Masonry is, but we do know that it existed
the formation of the Grand Lodge in 1717. For instance, Elias Ashmole
in his diary,
[Lib 1927 (page 26)] under
date of October 16, 1646, says that he was made a Freemason at
Warrington. He also
gives the names of those "who were at the lodge," and his mention of
institution is in the casual manner in which you would speak of it at
date, as though it were so well known that it was not necessary to
the Society of Freemasons is.
In a churchyard in London an old tombstone
inscription: "Here lieth the body of Wm. Kerwin, of this city of
Freemason who departed this life the 26th day of December Ano 1594."
There are lodge records and also other evidence
that Freemasonry existed prior to 1717. These are but samples of
similar in nature which indicate that Masonry existed long before 1717.
2. All the history we have in regard to Hiram
in the Bible (see I Kings 7:13-14) and the works of Josephus. Most of
what we are
told about him means that we have no way of proving that it is
3. Whether or not Solomon's Temple was built by
we have no way of determining. We know that there were societies of
Tyre, and that Hiram, King of Tyre, sent workmen to King Solomon. There
is no doubt
that the Society of Dionysiac Architects resembled the Society of
closely, but we have no positive proof of an identity between them.
4. Yes, the Temple of King Solomon is the one
our Masonic symbolism is based, but I must remind you that neither
secular history speaks of King Solomon's Temple as a common building.
It is always
referred to as a very magnificent structure. In calling it a very
we presume that you refer only to the size, and that you are
contrasting that with
the reference to its stupendous magnitude in the Entered Apprentice
same size applies only to the main body of the Temple. The outer court
and magnificent terraces, spacious courts, and the whole structure was
one-half mile in circumference. The Temple itself was but a very small
part of the
* * *
Who Will Help This Lodge
To Build Up A Library?
As we are starting a library in connection with
lodge and study club, I have been wondering whether some of our
have any Masonic literature to spare. If so, it would be very
by the brethren in these distant parts. I would personally acknowledge
that may be sent.
Robert W. Stiles,
Sec'y Victory Lodge No. 40, Nelson, New Zealand.
This is the kind of query we like to receive;
that the New Zealand brethren are alive; when a lodge has both a
library and study
club that lodge is in good health. We are leaving our readers to answer
if you have any volumes or papers or journals that aren't doing
business with you,
send them over to Brother Stiles.
* * *
Aid and Assistance from
Enemy Masons in the War
Can you give or refer me to any incidents in
war where enemy Masons have aided each other when found in difficult
(and I hesitate to ask the question) have you heard of instances where
have forgotten their obligations? The term "enemy" is used to imply
Masons are in opposing armies.
We cannot refer to any such instances though
doubtless been many such cases, as was true of the Civil War, when the
the Gray sometimes forgot their enmities and met fraternally beneath
and compass. Can any reader cite such instances from his observation,
Your second question doesn't quite "get across
to us"; do you mean their Masonic obligations, using the word in its
sense; or do you mean the obligation taken at the altar; or do you mean
obligations to society at large? It is a temptation to charge the
with violation of their obligations in all senses, especially in
with the English Grand Lodge at a time when the latter was willing, and
to maintain relations, and in the invasion of Belgium ‒ one of the most
acts in history ‒ but it must be remembered that the German overlords
of everything in their empire, lodges as well as all else, and that the
been as much robbed of their rights of "self-direction" as any other
in Germany. If German autocracy were to turn out victorious in this
the world over would be placed under a system of espionage as they have
the Fatherland: how would Masons enjoy that? Yet there are Masons here
who say that Masonry has no stake in the war and that we are not under
as Masons, to help whip the Kaiser! Water and fire are not more
opposite than Masonry
* * *
No Proof of the Existence
of Masonry in Rhode Island in the 17th Century
The following is the first paragraph of an
"The Jew in Masonry," appearing in the December number of the "Masonic
Journal of South Africa," and there quoted as taken from the "Masonic
"Mr. Madison C. Peters, of New York, quotes
the Rev. Edward Peterson's History of Rhode Island to show that in 1658
from Holland established a Masonic lodge in Newport which continued to
meet in the
house of Brother Campanall until 1842.
"Peterson quotes Past Grand Master Gould, of
who asserted that in 1839 certain papers found among the effects of a
who was a great-great-grand-daughter of Gov. John Wanton of Rhode
one of which contained this item:
" 'That ye (day and month obliterated) 165 ‒
6 or 8) wee (sic) met at y house of Mordecai Campunall and after
Synagog we gave
Abm Moses the degree of Maconrie.' "
The remainder of the article goes on to later
which give rise to no question, but the last three lines quoted prompt
a query as
to whether you or any of your readers can say whether any investigation
made concerning a seventeenth century meeting in America, founded on
in Holland, where Masonry has hitherto been supposed to have made its
some years after the foundation of the Grand Lodge of England.
We asked Brother Melvin M. Johnson, Past Grand
of Massachusetts, if he could throw any light on the foregoing subject
the following reply:
I can throw all the light on the subject that
is to throw on it. The fact is that the assertions made with regard to
Island document in question will not bear having any light thrown on
On page 111 of THE BUILDER for May, 1915, you
a comment on this same subject matter and you will find the evidence
in the Printed Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts for
1870, pages 357
to 361, inclusive. See also my "Freemasonry in America Prior to 1750,"
published by the National Masonic Research Society, page 20.
The fairy tale that certain Hebrews were given
of Masonry at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1656 and 1658, grew out of a
in 1853 by Rev. Edward Peterson, on page 101 of his "History of Rhode
and Newport in the Past," and quoted by J. L. Gould, of Connecticut, in
in a manual entitled "Guide to the Chapter." Mr. Peterson says that his
statement was "taken from documents now in possession of N.H. Gould,
Brother N. H. Gould was a 33d Mason. In 1870 he
a letter in which he says that in January, 1839, Hannah Hull, a distant
of his, died leaving some papers. She was a great-great-grand-daughter
John Wanton who was Governor of the Colony from 1734 to 1740. Brother
says that his father settled her estate and in looking over her effects
in an old trunk some letters. Among them, he says, was a memorandum
"Ths ye (day and month obliterated) 1656 or 8
certain which, as the place was stained and broken: the first three
plain) wee mett att y House off Mordecai Campunnall and affter Synagog
Abm Moses the degree of Maconrie."
Brother Gould added that the document was
enveloped and packed away, with some of my papers in my house,
securely, but not
where I can at present put my hand upon it."
The document has never been seen since,
Gould, while he lived, was applied to time and time again by historians
M.W. William Sewall Gardner, Grand Master of Massachusetts, and Wor.
James Hughan, but he never produced it or permitted any one to see it
if he ever
had such a document at all.
Unless and until the document is produced or
for, no credit whatever can be given it. Indeed, no credit is given it
M.W. Thomas A. Doyle, who was then Grand Master
in Rhode Island, in December, 1870, wrote to the Grand Master of Masons
a letter reading as follows:
"Providence, December, 1870.
"Dear Sir and M. W. Brother:
"As to the statement, in Peterson's History of
Rhode Island, that Masonry was worked in this State from 1658 to 1742,
I can only
say that, from the best information I can obtain in regard to that
statement is not to be taken as a fact, unless supported by other
What he has said about Masonry is, I understand, asserted upon the
documents in the possession of W. Br. N.H. Gould. I have made many
these documents of brethren in Newport, members of the Grand Lodge and
do not find that any one has ever seen them; neither do the brethren
any proof exists of the truth of Peterson's statement.
"From Brother Gould's letter to you, it would
that the only authority in his possession, for the assertion of
Peterson, is a document
showing that, in 1656 or 1658, somebody met some other persons at some
Newport, and gave 'Abm. Moses the degrees of Maconrie.'
"This may have occurred * then and there just
it is stated; but, if so, it is no authority for the statement that a
lodge of Masons
existed then in Newport, or that there was any legal Masonic authority
for the work
done, or that any other person was ever legally made a Mason in
1658 and 1742.
"My own opinion is, that the first lawful lodge
of Masons ever convened in this jurisdiction, was the one which met in
in 1749, under the authority of R. W. Thomas Oxnard, Provincial Grand
Massachusetts, which lodge has existed since that time, and is now
known as Saint
"Yours truly and fraternally,
Thomas A. Doyle,
Grand Master of Masons in Rhode Island.
"M.W. William S. Gardner,
Grand Master of Masons in Massachusetts."
One of the hardest animals to kill is a snake.
even harder to kill a false statement which is made as real historical
canard with regard to 1656 has been copied by one writer after another.
those who have given it any credit whatever have been the kind of
are doing the Masonry the most harm ‒ historians who are willing to
give the credit
of their names to wild and unreliable statements so long as they have
The late Brother Robert Freke Gould founded a
in the writing of Masonic history and it will be much to our advantage
if we follow
his lead and do not assert facts as historical until the evidence
therefor has been
examined and found worthy of approval.
* Impossible. There were no degrees in Masonry
1719. Whoever concocted the story about this document forgot that.
Exploration of the Holy
I want to make a suggestion, but perhaps the
has already had consideration. Doubtless when the present war is over
be some geographical changes made in the earth's surface; possibly we
all have ideas
of what they should be. I should like to see Armenia given to the
Jerusalem given to the Jews. There is much to be found out concerning
the Holy Land
and Jerusalem of historic value to the world. The exploring and
examination of ancient
and venerable places should be done by our Research Society, possibly
the National Geographic Society and institutions of like kind in
England and France,
but under license of a Jewish government. There are many Jews in both
of our Societies,
and no doubt a happy combination could easily be formed.
There are at present in the world sufficient
bones, parts of the true cross, and what not, without any more being
It is my opinion that whatever may be found in that land should be
found by honest
people, and if put anywhere for exhibition, should be placed in public
on exhibition at all times and not to be worshipped and expected to
B. F. Bache,
* * *
Names of Candidates in Lodge
Permit me this attempt to answer Brother C.H.S.
For several years my own lodge has followed the practice of reporting
to our membership
the names and addresses of all applicants for the degrees and for
being no prohibition in this Grand Jurisdiction.
We do it because it adds nothing to the expense
notices which are sent out for each meeting and because it is
for every resident member to attend every meeting, much as we should
like to have
them do so, and we believe they are entitled to the protection afforded
notice. It is not possible for one man, or two, to know all there is to
about another. Even our investigating committees of three, newly
appointed for each
applicant, do not get all the facts the lodge should have upon which to
base a judgment
as to the qualifications of the applicant to be made a Mason. Instances
numerous of favorable reports by such committees following the
of two brothers, which comes with the application, and all followed by
which is "dark."
In his address before the last Annual
of the Grand Lodge of Minnesota, our Grand Master cited one instance
which I commend
to Brother C.H.S. for his careful perusal and if he declares it an
and not to be relied on for a rule, I would remind him that he also has
a single case and it is even less of a "precedent" or reason for a rule
barring the giving of these notices than the one which our Grand Master
point out his plea for still more care in the investigating of
applicants. In our
Grand Master's case the facts were within the knowledge of only one
man, and if
he had been unavoidably absent, and so unable to stop the applicant,
what a dreadful
situation would have resulted!
I think there are therefore two reasons why
should be published in advance to all the members. First, that if any
it must be resolved in favor of the lodge, and not the applicant, and
every brother now in the lodge must be made to feel that he is to be
the possibility of having to assume Masonic responsibility for one he
knows to be
Doubt does exist as to every applicant. If not,
investigate? And if we do investigate, why not be thorough and use
channel of investigation? No man goes about spreading his knowledge of
character, but if that other is to be made his Masonic brother he must
be made acquainted
with that fact. If not, then we have failed in our responsibility to
It is unfortunately true that one may not
upon the fact that another is a Mason. It is needless to say that this
be so. The reason is in the lack of thorough investigation, it will be
I reply that none can read the mind of another if he choose to hide it,
and I know
at least one instance where three investigations (two of which followed
rejection) failed to disclose any reason and yet some one knew, because
If the applicant is worthy, he will be
he is not, within the knowledge of even one unknown brother, the lodge
want him so badly as to prefer that one unknown brother shall not have
chance to express his opinion at the ballot-box, and remain unknown.
I insist upon assuming the good faith of the
who is "in" rather than relying upon the qualifications of the
whom I may not know.
* * *
Origin of the Grand Lodge
May I obtain from you the insertion in THE
the following correction to Brother Johnson's and Odell's article on
of the Grand Lodge of Panama? I have corresponded with M. W. Brother
he accepts my correction and indicated that it could be published. I
still congratulate the Society for the excellence of the article. The
It is said in the article that the Grand Lodge
was started by the Supreme Council, A. and A.S.R. This is an error, as
it was constituted
on the fifth of December, 1859, and the Supreme Council was constituted
on the twenty-seventh
of the same month. The Grand Lodge was composed of three lodges, two of
original charters from Pennsylvania and one from South Carolina,
for that end.
It is true that sometime afterward some
between the Grand Lodge and the Supreme Council, but these relations
had no restraint
upon the independence of the Grand Lodge, and lasted but a short time.
F. de P. Rodriguez,
Chairman Committee on Foreign Correspondence
of the Grand Lodge of Cuba.
* * *
Virginia Military Masonic
Brother C. F. Bushman, Virginia, sends us the
item written for the Virginia Masonic Journal which should prove
the readers of THE BUILDER:
At a meeting composed of officers and enlisted
the 315th Field Artillery, National Army, at Camp Lee, Va., February
all of whom were Master Masons, it was suggester by Lieutenant Colonel
Reeder, the Commander of the Regiment, that we form a Masonic Club, and
attend the Grand Lodge the following week at Richmond, Va., for the
purpose of gaining
recognition from that august body.
On February 12th, the Master Masons of this
attended in a body the Grand Lodge of Virginia, then in session at
we were welcomed with much feeling and pleasure, and were granted
organize a Masonic Club, for social purposes only.
This having been accomplished, the Club was
and the following officers elected:
Sergeant Major C. F. Bushman
Senior Warden Sergeant
B. F. Hatton
Junior Warden Sergeant
R. A. Lampton
R. H. Counts
Senior Deacon Sergeant
James H. Petty
Junior Deacon Private
H. J. Lilly
William E. Kirk
The Club, at present, has a membership of fifty
At a meeting held on March 6th, the Club was
by the presence of Dr. Joseph W. Eggleston, Past Grand Master of
Virginia, and Major
W. McK. Evans, both of whom served as artillerymen in the Civil War,
and who were
elected Honorary members. During his visit, Dr. Eggleston delivered a
and interesting talk, choosing as his subject "Masonry and the War,"
proved very beneficial to us and was much appreciated by all.
The name of our club was selected in honor of
Commander, Lieutenant Colonel Russell P. Reeder, and Dr. Joseph W.
for whose kind interest and co-operation it would have been impossible
for the club
to have attained its present well established condition.
The club was organized for social and
only, and as a means whereby the Masons of this, as well as other
Regiments in the
cantonment, may assemble together and get better acquainted. At the
it is the only organization of its kind in the Division.
* * *
Deputy for China ‒ A Correction
In the March issue we gave the title of Brother
S. Lobingier, who wrote the interesting article "Freemasons in the
Revolution," as "Deputy for China." While Brother Lobingier is a
resident of Shanghai, China, he is not the Supreme Council Deputy for
but for the Philippines. The Deputy for China is Brother John R. Hykes.
ever I cherish thee still
My home and the land of
Each mountain, valley,
river and plain
Rises to view, the
fairest on earth.
I ever will serve and
Country whose name, by
the letters you
Are first in each line,
the home of the
Economy During the Middle Ages
For83 / auth. Fort George F. - New York : J W Bouton, 1883. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 502. - 30.0 MB.
Medieval Conventual Builders
For84 / auth. Fort George F. - New York : J W Bouton, 1884. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 43. - 1.6 MB.
Reign of Law
Arg72 / auth. Argyll Duke of. - New York : George Routledge &
Sons, 1872. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 492. - 19.1 MB.
Robert Burns How To Know Him
Nei17 / auth. Neilson William A. - Indianapolis : The Bobbs-Merrill
Company, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 342. - 7.8 MB.
The Diary and Will of Elias
Ash27 / auth. Ashmole Elias / ed. Gunther R. T.. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1927. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 98. - 23.6 MB.
The Early History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry
For81 / auth. Fort George F.. - Philadelphia : Bradley & Co.,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 514. - 21.2 MB.
The Interpretation of Dreams
Fre13 / auth. Freud Sigmund. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1913.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 522. - 47.8 MB.
The Story of Byfield
Ewe04 / auth. Ewell John L. - Boston : Georg E Littlefield, 1904. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 394. - 13.0 MB.
The Substance of Faith
Lod07 / auth. Lodge Sir Oliver. - London : Methuen & Co., 1907.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 185. - 5.5 MB.