Masonic Research Society
Ceremony and Rite
By Bro. A. S. Macbride,
AUTHOR'S NOTE: It has been suggested to me by
Joseph Fort Newton, whose wish is to me a command, that I should write
on this subject for THE BUILDER. I am not aware of having any special
for such a task, unless it be that, on last St. John's day (27th
December), it was
fifty years since I was first installed as Master of a Lodge; and that
I had the
good fortune to receive instruction, for two or three years, from a
who had then an experience as a Mason of upwards of fifty years. If, in
out this suggestion, I appear egotistic to the reader, I hope he will
keep in view
the difficulty I would otherwise have of conveying to him my somewhat
in connection with this subject. For the sake of simplicity, allow me
my remarks under two parts, first, my experience and information of
and Rite, and second, the Form of Installation.
My Experience and Information
of this Ceremony and Rite
MY first acquaintance with what is now known as
Installed Master's Rite was in 1867, when first installed as Master in
Leven Saint John, Renton. It was in a somewhat peculiar and mysterious,
common manner in Scotland at that time, that I received this honor. To
the circumstances properly, please present this picture to your mind's
We are in a dimly lighted room in a small
some 24 by 16 feet in size and of somewhat plain and simple aspect.
center of the room runs a plain deal table to within 4 or 5 feet of the
the east. The forms ranged on each side are filled, or rather packed,
sixty or more Masons, among whom are six or seven past-masters. There
is more than
the usual number of grey heads present, for it is Saint John's night,
associations of "Auld Lang Syne" have drawn them, some from a distance
of five or six miles, to spend a few hours together; and then to wend
homeward through the mirk and storm of a dark December night. These old
range from thirty to fifty years standing and they love their
the real "Perfervidum ingenium Scotorum." As usual on Saint John's
the meeting for Installation has been preceded by a torch-light
the village. In an upper window of the inn a transparent picture of the
saint, with his long flowing beard, has been placed; with sufficient
behind it to make clear and life-like his striking figure and features,
to the delight
and wonderment of the villagers, old and young, who are congregated
din and bustle of the entrance of the processionists having subsided,
is "opened" on the first degree. The Minutes of the Election are read
and the Installing Master, who is also the Retiring Master, briefly
meeting and calls on the Master-elect to come forward to the east. The
Master is a man above fifty years, of average stature, dark, stout, and
round shouldered. He is not blest with a great store of knowledge and
with the gift of expression; yet he has a rough dignity of manner, and
of giving to certain parts of the ceremony an impression of mystery and
which, to the general audience, is perhaps all the more impressive in
of the very nebulosity of his phrases. The Master-elect is twenty-two
years of age,
fair, of medium height and, through exercise, spare in figure. By
he has been unanimously elected into the chair. He feels as if he was a
being crowned, without the smallest right to the throne. His only claim
is a popularity
that attributes gifts and virtues to him which he devoutly wishes he
By force of circumstances and not by choice he is in a position for
which he has
not had the requisite training and experience; and, consequently, feels
disquietful and perplexed. The Installing Master reads the Charge from
of the Laws and Constitution of the Grand Lodge, administers the "oath
invests the Master-elect with his apron and jewel; and then, forming a
of past-masters in front of the chair (thus screening himself and the
from the brethren generally) he seizes the latter by the arm, in the
same way as
is now done in a Board of Installed Masters, places him in the chair
in his ear the word of an Installed Master.
Such was the manner of my installation in 1867.
Lodge was all the time on the first degree, and I have often thought
Murray Lyon nor Gould would have suspected, from the minutes of that
a secret word and grip, not belonging to any of the ordinary Craft
been then and there imparted to the new Master without any of those
the past-master) being in any way aware of the fact. Both of these
Masonic writers, it seems to me, have insisted too much on written
acknowledging anything contrary to their preconceptions. Hence Gould in
vol. II, page 358, on this subject, quotes as follows from the "General
and the manner of constituting anew Lodge": "The candidate . . . being
yet among the Fellow Craft . . . having signified his submission to the
of a Master, the Grand Master shall, by certain significant ceremonies
usages, install him." To this Gould adds the remark: "It is in the
degree improbable – not to say impossible ‒ that any secrets were
such an occasion."
With the highest respect for the opinion of
Masonic historian, I submit that my experience establishes the fact
that it was
neither "improbable" nor "impossible" to communicate secrets
on such an occasion. In the old days, when the places of meeting were
not so commodious
and not so well provided with adjacent rooms as they now are, Masons
adopt methods to suit their circumstances and to overcome their
Murray Lyon and Gould, at times, deny the existence of things outside
of their ken, and the lack of a little imagination has caused them to
on the unknown ‒ a dangerous thing for historians at any time to do.
all this, when we consider the fables that passed as Masonic history
appeared in the field, we can well excuse any little slip that may
on the pages of their magnificent works. Their careful studies ushered
in a new
and better era in Masonic literature, and we can never be too grateful
to them for
the work they so well and so persevering accomplished.
The other parts of the Ceremony of Installation
were substantially the same in form as those now usual under the
At that time, however, a great deal of information was imparted in
Entered Apprentice had his instructors, or intenders as they were
called in the
old times. These were appointed immediately after his initiation, and
to the Lodge that he should show "suitable progress" in a knowledge of
the Craft when "tried" in open Lodge, before being "passed as a
The apprentice and his instructors met frequently, and his instruction
until he was "raised" a Master Mason, and in most cases for some time
afterwards. These meetings were a great help to me and I continued them
years, even after my installation into the Chair of Lodge Leven St.
John. My principal
instructor was a Past Master who had one of the most retentive memories
in my experience,
and who had been a Mason for upwards of fifty years. From him, as well
as from others,
I learned all they knew of the various degrees and of the Chair Rite,
but, so far
as my recollection goes, there was nothing beyond the single grip and
tradition of the visit to the Temple at Jerusalem by the Queen of Sheba
at these private meetings, with a number of other stories; but not with
reference to the installing of a Master. Numerous tales floated about
were the common property of the Craft, irrespective of degree. The
the Queen of Sheba may, by some clever brother, have been made the
basis of a pretty
little rite, just as the tradition of the death of Hiram was, I
and molded into the ceremony of the third degree by Dr. Desaguliers;
but, when that
was done, or by whom it was done, there does not exist, so far as I
know, any evidence
Turning to our historians for information on
we find very little real information. Gould in his History (vol. II,
page 239) says:
"There is no evidence to show that the degree of Installed Master was
before the second half of the eighteenth century. Murray Lyon in his
185) remarks: "Previous to the introduction into Scotland of Symbolical
advancement to the chief office in Lodges was unmarked by any
than the exaction of an oath of fealty from the newly elected brother.
the operative element had been eliminated from Lodges, the form of
or "chairing" that was at first adopted was exceedingly simple. On his
election the Master was shown to the chair by the old Master, who
invested him with
the jewel of office, and gave the salute in which the brethren joined.
introduction of "high Masonry" came the dogma that no brother could
preside in a Lodge until his reception of the Chair degree. This step
bore some resemblance to the chairing which is clandestinely practiced
in many Scotch
Lodges of the present day (1873) ‒ a ceremony in which order and
misrule are made
alternately to predominate, in order the more impressively to inspire
with a sense of the dignity and responsibility that pertains to the
a Lodge of Freemasons. This mock installation will now disappear before
Master's ritual recently adopted by Grand Lodge."
It was in 1872, at the February communication,
the Grand Lodge of Scotland first recognized the Past Master's
ceremonial of Installation.
Previous to that date, it was generally conducted in Scotland in the
manner I have
here tried to describe as my experience in 1867. The reference of
Murray Lyon to
"order and misrule" I never had any knowledge of, although such a thing
may have been common in some parts of the country. It should be noted
that the whole
ceremony of Installation in 1867 was conducted while the Lodge was on
degree, in accordance with the Grand Lodge law then existing. In a copy
of the Laws
and Constitutions of the Grand Lodge dated 1852 this law is stated
installation of the whole of the office-bearers of a Lodge including
shall be held in a just and perfect Lodge, opened in the Apprentice
Preston in his "Illustration of Masonry,"
published in 1762 (edition 1801, page 86), [Lib 1812 (page 55)] says: "The new Master is then
to an adjacent room where he is regularly installed, and bound to his
trust in antient
form, by his predecessor in office, in the presence of three installed
From this and the context of Preston's version of the ceremony it is
in his day the "oath de fideli" was not administered in the Lodge, as
the above remark follows immediately after the reading of the charges.
Scotland, the Lodge must be opened in the first degree, in which the
read and the oath is administered. The new Master and the installed
retire to another room where the Chair Rite is performed. In England
the Lodge is
opened on the second degree, and this is the only practical difference
in this ceremony as practised under the respective constitutions.
In an admirable little work by Br. R. E.
Edinburgh, entitled "Digest of Scottish Masonic Jurisprudence," [Lib*]
there are various interesting items on this and other subjects. It is
"An account of the early Irish practice in Caementaria Hibernica [Lib 1726] (vol. 1, p. 21) disclosed
why in Anderson's time it was not necessary to exclude those who were
Masters: In Ireland they retired behind the chair of the S. W. and
faced the west.
There are, indeed, good reasons for supposing that this secret ceremony
is a survival
of the ceremony practised before the Grand Lodge era, when a Fellow and
his craft was elevated above his fellows and authorised to become
Master of the
Work and Lodge."
From all this it seems to me apparent that the
Master's Rite, in connection with the ceremony of Installation, has
certainly from the middle of the eighteenth century and probably before
the old operative Lodges; and that, like many of our ceremonies, it has
from a rudimentary into its present more complex form a few years after
speculative evolution in 1717.
In Scotland it is not recognized as a degree.
sometimes called a "ceremony" and sometimes a "rite," for the
Grand Lodge has always maintained that there are only three degrees in
Apprentice, Fellowcraft, and Master ‒ and it holds that the "Mark
forms a part of the Fellow-craft degree, and that the Installed
Master's Rite is
a part of the Installation ceremony.
The Form of Installation
From a comparison of Preston's "Ceremony of
with the ceremony as carried out today, it is evident that they are in
practically the same. We may safely take it as certain, also, that the
given with a fair amount of detail by Preston, was that which was in
in England from 1717, or shortly afterwards. The differences between
the 1717 and
1917 versions are purely verbal, and even in these insignificant; and
it may safely
be said that during this two hundred years not one single ceremony of
has suffered less change so far as the exoteric part is concerned.
esoteric part, we have no data to guide us; and we can only assume,
from the fact
given by Preston of the new Master being conducted to an adjacent room
obligated, that secrets were then imparted and that, practically, these
same as are now given to all Installed Masters in what is now known as
From an early part of my Masonic career I have
accustomed to lay out the work in which I was engaged in the form of a
plans gave the various sections and details of the work and, to my
a coherence, clear and strong throughout, as well as affording help to
The Plan of Installation work which I have used for upwards of thirty
years is as
(Note the following abbreviations: A.I.M. Assistant Installing Master
I. M. Installing
N. M. New Master
R. M. Retiring
Section A. Preliminaries.
Section B. Charges and Oath de fideli.
Section C. Installed Master's Rite.
Section D. Installation of Minor Officers.
Section E. Chairing of N. M.
Section F. Address by I. M.
Details ‒ Section A, Preliminaries.
1. Lodge opened 1st degree by
2. Minutes of election read.
3. R. M. hands over mallet to I. M. requesting him to take the chair.
4. I. M. and A. I. M. take their places ‒ I. M. in chair; A. I. M. on
R; M. on his right.
5. Introductory remarks by I. M.
6. Praise. 100th Psalm. R. M. leads N. M. to altar facing E.
Details ‒ Section B, Charges and Oath de fideli.
1. R. M. presents N. M. to I. M.
2. I. M. addresses N. M. in re the ancient custom of election and the
of a Master; and asks if he conscientiously accepts of the position.
3. I. M. asks A. I. M. to read Charges; receives N. M. assent to same.
A. I. M.
calls brethren to "order."
4. Music. I. M. takes place at altar, facing W. opposite N. M. Oath de
5. I. M. raises N. M. to the plumb. Music. I. M. returns to dais.
6. I. M. intimates retirement with N. M. to confer honours of an
and requests company and assistance of Installed Masters present; asks
A. I. M.
to occupy the chair, install minor officers, raise Lodge to the third
intimate when ready to receive N. M. A. I. M. calls brethren to
Music. Installed Masters retire in procession.
Details ‒ Section C, Installed Master's Rite.
1. Form the Board.
2. Prayer and Obligation.
7. Dissolve the Board.
(Note - A Board of Installed Masters
is not permanent
in its character and is therefore not "opened" and "closed"
like a Lodge. It is transient and is formed for a special purpose. When
been accomplished it is naturally dissolved. Hence, I object to the
and "closing," and prefer the words "forming" and "dissolving,"
in connection with a board of Installed Masters.)
Details ‒ Section D, Installation of minor
1. Names of office bearers,
except Master, read from
minutes of election. As name is read out each one takes position at
altar ‒ highest
office to the south.
2. Oath de fideli administered.
3. A. I. M. in front of dais, invests with jewel, etc. Each office
forward as called on. Duties and symbolic meaning of his jewel briefly
placed in his position in the Lodge; music interluded judiciously.
4. Lodge raised to 3d degree.
Details ‒ Section E, Chairing of the N. M.
Music. Procession of Installed Masters enters.
I. M. leads N. M. to north-east, southeast, south-west, and north-west
corners, and finally to the east and places him in chair.
3. I. M. calls on
brethren to acknowledge N. M. by salute on 3rd degree. Salute
given. A. I. M. in the east, makes proclamation. Lodge lowered to 2d
admitted. Salutation of N. M. called for and given. A. I. M. in the
proclamation. Lodge lowered to 1st degree. Apprentices admitted.
Salutation of N.
M. called for and given. A. I. M. in the south, makes proclamation.
4. I. M. hands
Lodge charter to N. M. for his personal custody.
5. I. M. places
before N. M. books of Laws and Constitutions of Grand Lodge and
By-laws of the Lodge, with counsel and admonition.
6. I. M. hands
Mallet to N. M. Invokes T. G. A. O. T. U. to direct him in its use.
A. I. M. calls for "Grand Honours" brethren rise and respond.
Details ‒ Section F, Address by the I. M.
1. Advice to N. M.
2. Counsel to new office bearers.
3. Encouragement to brethren of the Lodge.
4. Inspiration to all in the great work of Masonry.
The following is one of many addresses which it
been my privilege to deliver at Installations. It was given recently in
RIGHT WORSHIPFUL BROTHER:
He is the true king who enthrones himself in
of his people; he is the true Master who installs himself in the hearts
of his brethren.
He who loves most serves best, and he who would rule wisely must serve
service is the foundation of all real government.
In serving others we also do the best service
The higher law of our being is: we must bless, if we are to be blest;
we must forgive,
if we are to be forgiven; we must lose, if we are to gain; we must
serve, if we
are to rule. We have it on the highest authority, that he who is the
us is the servant of all.
The true master serves as a teacher, and his
is to teach his Lodge how to be independent of him. His function, like
that of a
window, is to transmit the light; the less the glass is seen the more
light it lets
through. The more a master loses himself in his work the greater will
be, and his influence will be greatest when he has taught his craftsmen
to be influenced,
least by him and most by truth. Do you wish to rule as a true master?
master and rule thyself. With the sharp chisel of discipline, cut and
heart and character into the form of the perfect ashlar; and every true
will work to your pattern. Be good, and you shall do good. Be true, and
teach truth. The noblest service you can render the brethren who have
there, is to set them a good example.
Press on then, my brother, and through all the
and disappointments, the toil and trial, and seeming chaos of human
life, let the
firm faith in a Divine Plan working in and through all, sustain and
effort is not lost;
Each wavelet on the ocean tossed
Aids in the ebb-tide, or the flow;
Each raindrop makes some flow'ret blow;
Each struggle lessens human woe."
WORSHIPFUL WARDENS AND OTHER OFFICE BEARERS:
In your respective offices, you will each find
for being useful, and for doing good. Remember that while there must
needs be diversity,
there can be no disparity of office, in the true Mason Lodge. The real
a man is not the place he fills, but how he fills his place. There is
in the universe too small for God, the Almighty. In the tiniest dewdrop
room for the exercise of His infinite skill, and the microscope reveals
perhaps even more than the telescope. Is there not room then, my
brothers, in the
humblest office of a Lodge, for the exercise of all the powers which we
"Honour and shame from no condition rise;
Act well your part; there all the honour lies."
MEMBERS OF LODGE "PROGRESS":
We are apt sometimes to confound prominence
and to imagine that that which bulks largest on our eye is of greatest
The cornice of a building is prominent, but is it more important than
that lies unseen in the earth? Is not the peasant that raises corn for
of more importance to us than the prince in his palace? The people of a
of greater consequence than their governors; the members of a Lodge are
than their officers. We all stand together, and our duty is to fill our
and well, like stones in a building, true and square to those below,
above us. In the perspective of the universe, in the measurements of
is no distinction between the position of the monarch with his scepter
and the beggar
with his staff; between the master with his mallet and the apprentice
with his gavel.
The only difference recognized is in the use they make of their
privileges and powers.
"There is no height
nor depth in the eternal space;
Not humble work, but work ill-done, will bring disgrace."
RIGHT WORSHIPFUL MASTER, WORSHIPFUL WARDENS,
It is a little over three years since men were
boasting of the wealth and science, the culture and civilization, of
what they proudly
called this enlightened twentieth century. The civilizations of Egypt
"the glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome." had grown
and flourished, faded and disappeared; but ours would go down the ages,
and progressing. Today, what do we see? Death and destruction
in the darkest and most savage period of human history. Over the
and fertile plain, through the burning sands of the barren desert, down
in the depths
of the sea, up in the clouds of the air, the messengers of hate speed,
ruin and desolation in their track. The lusts and furies of hell have
bounds, and the devil overruns the earth to work his will. Why?
Brethren, it needs
no angelic vision to see why. Our boasted civilization was not built on
The tie that held human society together was that of self-interest
backed by force.
The moment our interests diverged the bond was broken, and war ‒
ruthless war ‒
resulted. The ideal of a selfish world-dominance; the culture of force;
of the brute, that obsessed and possessed the minds of men for the last
have had their inevitable sequence; and now we see our culture and
cracking like thin veneer under the iron heel of militarism, and the
wealth we worshipped
disappearing in the seething, melting pot of this terrible war.
This is not the place nor is it the time ‒ even
I capable of the task ‒ to assign the blame for this awful crime to
this man, or
to that people; what I want to emphasize is the broad, ugly fact that,
years, the civilized nations have been like armed bandits watching each
jealous eyes; and that, within each nation, the people have been
divided into hostile
camps ‒ political, religious, social, and industrial. Strife and unrest
everywhere, and, alas! unrest and strife still exist everywhere today.
this the human heart, sick and weary, for years has been longing and
now, more than ever, longs and cries for some neutral ground on which
men may meet
together in unity and peace. Brethren, there is only one spot I know of
warring world that answers to this cry, and that is here in the Mason
race, creed, sect and party are not recognized, and where men may be
by the one, simple, grand Faith in the Fatherhood of God and the
man. This unique position of our institution places on us Masons a
great and grave
responsibility. The highest interests of humanity demand that this
shall be jealously preserved and sacredly conserved, for brotherhood
But, you may ask, how can this be when our imperfections and often our
convictions, separate and divide us? Brethren, if we be true Masons
will be readily solved. If we are true to the teachings of our Craft,
we will agree
to acknowledge our differences without contention; when we "tyle" the
door of our Lodge, we will also "tyle" our hearts to all the
of the outer world; when we put on our bodies this emblem of innocence
of brotherhood, we will also clothe our souls with the spirit of
when we engage in the labors of our Craft, we will work in accordance
with its Three
Grand Principles of Love, Benevolence, and Truth; and will thus hand
down to posterity
our ancient heritage, "hele and unimpaired," to be a hallowed haven of
peace, amid the storms and tumults of human life. Thus, if Masons be
true to Masonry,
each Lodge will be a center from whence the influences of good-will and
will radiate through human society. The silent Forces of the Universe
are the mightiest.
The volcano may hurl its fiery bolts into the clouds, but the quiet
power of gravitation
brings them back to earth. The destructive forces are temporal and
the constructive are eternal and inexhaustible. Before the Temple was
built at Jerusalem
there was a period of din, discord, and destruction. Rocks were rent
and hills were
removed, to provide a broad, level foundation for the building. Then,
silence, the great structure was reared, and "there was neither hammer
axe nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while it was in building."
so, at last, will the mighty plans of The Great Architect of All be
and the glorious Temple of Human Brotherhood be established. Then shall
of the ancient Prophet of Israel be realized: "And they shall beat
into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not
lift up a
sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore; but they
shall sit every
man under his vine and under his fig tree, and none shall make them
the mouth of the Lord of hosts hath spoken it."
The Noble Nature – [A Poem]
Ben Jonson, 1674-1637
is not growing like
In bulk, doth make Man better be;
Or standing long an oak, three hundred year,
To fall a log at last, dry, bald and sere:
A lily of a day
Is fairer in May,
Although it fall and die that night ‒
It was the plant and flower of light.
In small proportions we just beauties see;
And in short measures life may perfect be.
By Bro Roscoe Pound, Dean
Harvard Law School
III. Masonic Common Law
AS I said in
the last lecture, (1) there is much to be said for a Landmark of
the other hand, four points may be urged against such a Landmark: (1)
differences among Masonic writers of authority as to the existence of
right of visitation; (2) The pronouncements of important Grand Lodges
to the contrary;
(3) The obvious necessity of restraints upon visitation under the
today, which give great force in this connection to what lawyers call
ab inconvenienti; (4) The difficulties growing out of legislation in
with respect to membership in clandestine bodies conferring higher
degrees and the
effect thereof upon one's rights as a Craft Mason.
Let us look
at these in order.
- While Mackey lays down the right of
visitation as a Landmark and says in his Principles of Masonic Law:
Master Mason who is an affiliated member of a Lodge has the right to
visit any other
Lodge as often as he may desire to do so," Doctor Morris lays down the
with equal positiveness, saying: "There is no question in our mind but
a Lodge has the right to prohibit intrusion from visitors at any and
all times at
its own discretion." Likewise Brother Moore, whose excellent papers on
Landmarks have been referred to heretofore says: "The very custom of
permission to visit implies the power to refuse the visitor admission."
concludes, therefore, that there is a duty of hospitality, but not a
right of visitation,
that the duty is moral rather than legal, and hence that there is no
Landmark. In other words, visitation is an old institution of Masonic
But, since it falls short of a Landmark, the subject is open to
the circumstances of today call urgently for the regulation which has
through Masonic legislation.
Masonic decision and legislation have
not regarded the right of visitation as a Landmark. Thus, in 1857, the
of England decided that "the Master and Wardens may refuse admission to
visitor of known bad character." According to Mackey's view the sole
would be whether he was in good standing in a regular Lodge. Brother
why he remains a Mason if he is of known bad character? No doubt a
arises from his good standing in another Lodge. Still a Lodge may not
do its duty
and such persons may remain unchallenged. If so, when we are told that
may refuse to receive them, the result is to deny Mackey's Landmark. In
and in Kentucky visitation has been held not to be an absolute right,
but to be
a favor which the Master may grant or may refuse in his discretion.
rests the whole matter on discretion, holding that a Lodge may admit or
visitors as it sees fit. These holdings are wholly incompatible with
Landmark and amount to a recognition of the proposition for which
contends, namely, that there is no more than a moral duty of
- This view of the so-called right of
visitation becomes almost imperative under the conditions of visitation
the best of intention toward the honest Masonic traveler, we are
in view of the enormous increase in the number of Masons, to restrict
more and more
the hospitality we extend to the visiting brother. Imposters and Masons
only, traveling about the country, have not only required us to adopt
precautions in the way of boards of relief, extending even to an
relief association, but have also driven our Grand Lodges to enact
rules as to visitation. Moreover, nearly everywhere, with the great
growth of the
Order, clandestine Masonry has grown also. And this growth of
rendered inevitable by the prosperity of legitimate American Masonry,
has been aggravated
by controversies as to the legitimacy of Scottish Rite bodies and by
Masonic charlatans to peddle high degrees of other rites, with which
our Grand Lodges
in many jurisdictions have felt it necessary to deal by legislation.
Thus in one
of the great states of the union ‒ a state which took an honorable part
in the spreading
of Masonry over the country ‒ there is a so-called Grand Lodge made up
of clandestine and irregular particular Lodges, having for their sole
raison d'être a claim that the legitimate
Grand Lodge had violated the ancient Landmarks by declaring the
Scottish Rite bodies
of Cerneau origin to be clandestine. The propriety of such legislation
much controverted and is not relevant in the present connection. It is
say here that the competency of Grand Lodges to enact it seems
with any degree of pretension to be a Landmark is violated and the
question is simply
one of expediency. Hence such schisms have no legitimate basis. None
the less they
do exist, and elsewhere clandestine so-called Grand Lodges exist with
justification. Obviously some barriers beyond the ordinary examination
by a committee
become necessary under such conditions.
But the Grand
Lodge legislation last referred to leads to greater difficulties in
that as a result
a Mason may be in good standing in one of two jurisdictions, each
other, and yet, if he were a member in the jurisdiction where he seeks
he would not be eligible to sit in Lodge. For example, in Iowa, if a
a Cerneau Scottish Rite body, the law of his Grand Lodge pronounces him
Mason. Also in Pennsylvania an adherent of the Cerneau Scottish Rite is
to visit a Craft Lodge. Many other states have like legislation. In
view of such
legislation, Brother George F. Moore puts this case: "There is, we will
for example, a symbolic Lodge in session in the District of Columbia,
is no law forbidding a regular Mason to sit with a Cerneau Scottish
Seated in this Lodge are two or three 'Cerneauites' and Brethren are
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Iowa, and other states which have declared Cerneaus
to be clandestine
Master Masons. The visiting brethren from Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Iowa
by the Masonic laws of their own states from sitting in a Lodge with
They are not aware of the presence of the clandestine Masons in the
Lodge, and sit with them. Afterwards one of the Cerneaus meets one of
the Iowa Brethren
who had sat with him in the Washington Lodge, and the latter vouches
for the Cerneau
who is admitted because of this voucher in a Lodge in another state.
Has not the
vouching brother violated his obligation and the laws of his Grand
Iowa brother has violated his obligation, and the laws of Masonry in
his own state
by vouching for a "clandestine Mason."
a situation may arise innocently and may very easily arise is
unfortunate. It puts
the Masonic visitor in a most awkward position, and seems to require
to be offensively discourteous, or to know thoroughly the Masonic
of his own jurisdiction and of that in which he seeks to visit, or else
from visiting. As Brother Moore justly observes in the paper already
we can hardly expect the visitor from a state where a Cerneau Scottish
is deemed clandestine also in the Craft Lodges, to say publicly, if he
a jurisdiction without such legislation: "If there are any Cerneaus
I must not sit here with you because I make myself liable to Masonic
laws of my
own state." Very likely those who deny the concern of the Craft Lodge
the higher degrees would suggest to him that he inform himself at his
he visits. But what becomes of the right of visitation under such
What shall we say of the Cerneau in good standing as a Master Mason at
claims by virtue of Mackey's alleged Landmark an absolute right to
visit a Craft
Lodge in a jurisdiction which pronounces him clandestine?
We have here
a question similar to the class of questions now very common in the law
of the state
to which we give the name of Conflict of Laws. Some explanation is
most of the cases which come before the courts in Massachusetts, for
parties are American citizens residing in Massachusetts and the
transaction or occurrence
out of which the controversy arises took place in this commonwealth.
But an increasing
number of cases are coming before tribunals which involve a foreign
or both of the parties may be foreign; the transaction or some part of
it may have
taken place abroad; or one or both of the parties may reside in another
the union or the transaction may have taken place in another state or
to the laws of another state. In such cases the court must ask whether
and how far
it is to apply the law of the foreign country or of the other state,
and the principles
by which it answers these questions are said to belong to the subject
of Laws. When the law was substantially the same in our several states
business was not extensive the subject was of no great importance.
in view of the great volume of interstate business and of foreign
trade, and in
view of the increasing divergence in the laws of the several states due
to the huge
output of legislation and judicial decision in recent years; the
subject has become
one of great consequence as well as one of much difficulty. A like
arisen in Masonry. When Masonic law and custom was simple and alike in
details in each of our states conflict of laws was not an item in
Today Masons are so numerous and so peripatetic and the law in most of
is becoming so minute, so detailed, and hence often so diverse, that
of what the lawyer would term Conflict of Laws arise continually.
far as the lawyer's theories of Conflict of Laws are grounded on
and not merely upon historical accident, they are available to the
where not in conflict with the Landmarks or with Masonic common law.
the lawyer holds that a man's status, opposition before the law, is
the law of his home. Yet if his home law puts him in a position unknown
to the local
law, it may not recognize the status, and even if the local law does
status it does not follow that effect will be given to the legal
results which it
involves at home. If we may apply this analogy ‒ on the theory that it
natural reason and formulates human experience of the just way of
solving a difficult
problem ‒ we may say that in the case put the Mason's standing as a
is determined by the law of his home jurisdiction, and yet the
he seeks to visit, recognizing this standing, is not bound to give
effect to the
legal result involved at home, namely, the right to visit. He is in
by the law of his home jurisdiction, whose Masonic competency is
admitted. But the
policy of the local law requires that we refuse to give to that
standing all the
results which it involves at home. If such a solution is admissible
law, it is surely expedient, and the practical necessity of some such
a strong argument against an absolute right of visitation.
fifteenth Landmark is thus stated: "No visitor unknown to the Brethren
or to some one of them as a Mason can enter a Lodge without first
passing an examination
according to ancient usage." In commenting upon this supposed Landmark
that it "refers only to the cases of strangers who are not to be
unless after strict trial, due examination, or lawful information."
visitor may be vouched for and the examination may be dispensed with.
There is some
warrant for the claim of a Landmark here in the pronouncement of the
of England that the Landmarks are contained in the Master Mason's
after all the requirement of voucher or examination is a necessary
the fundamental principle of secrecy. If we put secrecy as the
or examination are but common-law or customary modes of giving it
effect. It is
important to recognize this not only because the practice of American
varies, but because the great increase in the number of clandestine
in recent times and the ever-growing tribe of imposters render
legislation on the
subject expedient if not imperative, and it would be unfortunate if we
by a Landmark. As to the first point, it may be enough to say that some
take the phrase "lawful information" to mean that he who vouches for
must have sat with the other in a regular Lodge, while in other
evidence will suffice although the brothers vouching and vouched for
sat together in Lodge. This divergence is not inconsistent with
Mackey's claim of
a Landmark. But the continually increasing reliance upon cards,
receipts for dues,
or diplomas is not unlikely to encroach upon it very materially and
desirability of confining the absolute and unalterable requirement to
principle of secrecy. Nevertheless, examination or voucher are the
practice and, as in other matters of Masonic common law, legislative
ought to proceed cautiously and with assurance of sound reason for any
states his sixteenth Landmark in these words: "No Lodge can interfere
business of any other Lodge nor give degrees to Brethren who are
members of other
Lodges." As in so many other cases, Mackey seeks to make a case for
analytically. "It is," he says, "undoubtedly an ancient Landmark
founded on the great principles of courtesy and fraternal kindness
which are at
the very foundation of our institution." But Landmarks cannot be
general principles in this way. Philosophy and logic may confirm
history, but they
cannot demonstrate a Landmark in the face of history. The conclusive
this supposed Landmark is that it assumes the established system of
with local jurisdiction which dates only from the eighteenth century.
argument which Mackey brings forward is universal recognition in
He says: "It has been repeatedly recognized by subsequent statutory
of all Grand Lodges." The remarks of Brother Moore in this connection
pertinent: "It is the 'statutory enactments' which have made the
Landmark, and not the Landmark which has produced the statutes." In
the legislation of our Grand Lodges on this subject is not declaratory
of a Landmark,
but Doctor Mackey after studying the legislation was able to deduce a
underlying it, which he sought to set up as a Landmark. Together with
rules that presuppose our modern Lodge system, it can only be a rule of
We have here,
however, a very important and difficult series of questions of Masonic
of Laws. Although courtesy and fraternal spirit obviate many
difficulties that might
else arise, it is evident that they may not be relied upon entirely.
has dealt with the matter everywhere as between the particular Lodges
of the same
jurisdiction. But as men move about so frequently and in such large
as the volume and detail of Masonic legislation increases conflict
between the legislation
or usage of different Grand Lodges becomes inevitable. Such
controversies as those
which have raged over the question of perpetual jurisdiction illustrate
involved. There must be some general principles by which we may be
governed in the
absence of legislation and by which we may be guided in shaping,
applying legislation. The nature of the case calls for something more
and comity, and Mackey's principle of non-interference and of keeping
of those who are members of other Lodges while giving us some guidance
is not sufficiently
definite. No doubt it is dangerous to turn to the law of the land for
If this is done too much an alien element may creep into Masonry which
undesirable. But the problems of law are often the same, whether we
look to the
law of the state, the law of the church, or the law of a fraternal
order. And, so
far as the answers proceed on natural reason and not on history, so far
are universal and not the results of special circumstance of the
society in which
they originated, the solutions arrived at in the one society, embodying
in the attainment of justice in the elimination of waste and
conservation of values
by means of a rule ‒ these solutions, I say, arrived at in one type of
well afford valuable suggestions for the law giver in another type.
Thus we may
well supplement the principle of Masonic common law contained in
Landmark with the further principles of exclusive competence of a
sovereign to determine
the status or legal position of those subject to its authority, of the
of legal control from without involved in the very idea of sovereignty,
and of recognition
of rights duly acquired under the law of other sovereigns as a matter
which human experience has established in connection with the legal
the everyday affairs of life. But we must not be dogmatic. These are
by the light of which independent Masonic sovereignties may co-exist,
political sovereignties co-exist. Details are subject to legislation in
jurisdiction ultimately must decide what it deems expedient.
Landmark in Mackey's system is thus stated: "Every Freemason is
the laws and regulations of the Masonic jurisdiction in which he
resides, and this
although he may not be a member of any Lodge." In other words, it is
be a Landmark that all Masonic bodies have jurisdiction over all Masons
within their territorial limits, whether affiliated or unaffiliated,
and if affiliated,
no matter where they hold their Masonic membership. This alleged
Landmark, as a
Landmark, is open to the conclusive objection that it presupposes a
jurisdiction in Lodges, something which did not come into existence
till well along
in the eighteenth century. Brother Moore goes further and denies that
jurisdiction over foreign and unaffiliated Masons is Masonic law at
all. He says:
"If a Mason in good standing in a Lodge chartered by one of our
Lodges were guilty of a Masonic offense in France made so by the French
would not and could not be tried by a Lodge under the Grand Orient of
the offense. Nor would a member of a Lodge under the Grand Orient of
has been guilty of a Masonic offense made so by our law, here be tried
in one of
our Lodges, and much more so is it the case where unaffiliated Masons
The status of the Mason is determined not alone by the fact of his
having been a
Mason and becoming unaffiliated, but also by the relations between the
under which he became a Mason, and that where he resides and has
Masonic offense. Some years ago nearly all the Grand Lodges in the
broke off fraternal relations with the Grand Lodge of the State of
the latter had recognized certain Negro Lodges. While that condition
anyone for a moment suppose that an unaffiliated Mason made in
but residing in Massachusetts, who had committed a Masonic offense in
state, would have been tried for it in a Bay State Lodge?"
follower of Mackey might answer the last question by saying that it
on whether, after the severance of relations, the Washington made Mason
as a Mason at all. As the point was that the Washington Masons were
Masonically with clandestine Masons, such an answer might well be
in any event Brother Moore's next observation must be conceded: "This
Landmark," he says, "illustrates very forcibly the danger of
without noticing all the facts which go to make up the problem."
As a matter
of common law, how far is there such a territorial jurisdiction over
regardless of where made?
Mackey's position and the position of Brother Moore, who criticizes
Mackey and not
only rejects the alleged Landmark ‒ which undoubtedly we must do ‒ but
that there is any such jurisdiction by virtue of territory at all ‒ to
the two positions, I say, we must turn to a burning question in
as to jurisdiction over crimes.
four theories of criminal jurisdiction in the modern world. The first
is the territorial
theory, the theory of the forum delicti commissi, the theory that
offenses are punishable
and only punishable by the sovereign of the place where the offense is
without regard to the allegiance of the offender. This is the theory of
law, and it is one to which our law has thus far adhered very
obstinately so that
it has given rise to some curious cases.
of the territorial theory of criminal jurisdiction as applied in
law may be of interest in the present connection. In one well known
case, an American
editor in Texas wrote a libelous article concerning a Mexican.
into Mexico, where his paper circulated, the editor was taken under
a Mexican court and required to go before a Court of Conciliation and
a settlement with the person he had libeled. Thereafter he again
libeled the Mexican
in his paper and going once more into Mexico was prosecuted criminally
for the libel.
The American government insisted upon his release, asserting the
principle of English
and American law that crimes are only to be prosecuted in the
in which they are committed as a principle of universal law. In another
case, one person, standing upon the North Carolina side of the line
Carolina and Tennessee, shot and killed another, who stood in
Tennessee. The crime
being complete in Tennessee according to the common law could only be
in that state. There could be no prosecution in North Carolina because
the act did
not take effect there. On the other hand, as the murderer was never in
he could not be regarded as a fugitive from Tennessee justice and
not be taken from North Carolina to Tennessee on extradition. This case
the type of difficulties involved in the Anglo-American theory,
indeed are compelling our several states by legislation to adopt more
of criminal jurisdiction.
theory grows out of our conception that there must be a trial by a jury
of the vicinage
where the crime was committed. Historically it is a feudal theory.
took it without question that the doctrine he found in our American law
a principle of universal justice and so erected it as a Landmark.
theory is the personal theory, the theory of the forum ligeantiae or
theory of the
forum of allegiance. According to this theory, the sovereign to which
owes political allegiance has jurisdiction to deal with him for
offenses done anywhere
in the world. This is the Roman theory, and it is held very strongly in
world by France. Hence Brother Moore, whose studies in the Scottish
Rite have led
him to read the French authors, sees this principle of jurisdiction and
criticizes Mackey for overlooking it. But I think, with submission,
is equally wrong in laying down that there is no territorial
jurisdiction over Masonic
offenses. The basis of my view that there is such a jurisdiction ‒ not
as a Landmark
indeed, but as a matter of Masonic common law ‒ will appear from the
other two theories
of criminal jurisdiction, which I am about to explain.
A third theory
is the theory of self-preservation, the theory of the forum laesae
theory of the forum of the injured state. According to this theory, if
wherever committed, is an injury to any particular sovereign, if that
can reach the offender, he may deal with him. For example, in a leading
case a Frenchman
in Switzerland forged German government securities. He then went from
into Germany. He could not be dealt with by the French on the theory of
of allegiance because he was not in France, and could not be dealt with
on the theory of the forum where the crime was committed because he was
in Switzerland. The German authorities, however, dealt with his case on
of the forum of the injured state, and this solution has generally been
as proper in Continental Europe. I will speak of possible Masonic
this theory in a moment.
is the theory of cosmopolitan justice, the theory of the forum
forum of capture, the theory that when an offense has been committed
the world, by any person, no matter what his allegiance, any sovereign
in the world
who happens to be able to reach him, may deal with him in order to
of justice. The Italians insist in this theory. The English and
adopt it because of our requirement of jury trial and producing of
court. Our mode of trial is in the way of proof by deposition. But as
no such difficulties
are in the way of Masonry, there would seem no reason why territorial
should not be admitted, so far as the self-preservation theory or the
a cosmopolitan Masonic justice may require. In other words, we may
agree with Brother
Moore in rejecting Mackey's alleged Landmark of a territorial
jurisdiction and yet
may claim that there is such a jurisdiction as a matter of Masonic
common law, along
with the personal jurisdiction for which Brother Moore contends.
for example, a Mason made abroad or made in another state whether
retaining his old membership, advertised his Masonic membership
generally and thereupon
so conducted himself as to bring scandal upon Masonry. Here there is an
the local Masonic sovereignty. There is good ground for it to
interfere, and the
person is before it where he can be reached. Masonic discipline can be
same publicity which he has given his membership. Are we to say this
cannot be done?
Again, why should we not hold here to a doctrine of cosmopolitan
justice? In such
a case the Masonic sovereignty on the spot may be far the best able to
try the case
and to apply the remedy. Are we to take so narrow a view of Masonic
justice as to
deny this jurisdiction? It seems to me that, if nothing prevents, the
view is perfectly open in Masonic jurisprudence and hence that Masonic
admits of both territorial and personal jurisdiction over Masonic
mark you, the territorial jurisdiction ought to be over general Masonic
over offenses which injure Masonry generally and hence are either a
danger to the
local Masonic sovereign or are within a principle of cosmopolitan
justice, and not
offenses against mere local regulations. As the lawyer would say, they
be mala in se ‒ not mala prohibita.
generally very sound as to Masonic common law, where his wide
experience of what
actually obtained in practice, his keen sense of justice, and his sound
were safe guides.
But how about
Mackey's proposition as to territorial jurisdiction to try for
Brother Moore rejects this idea wholly. His argument is "If
is a Masonic offense as is asserted by Mackey, every Mason wherever he
may be, is
liable to be tried by any Lodge in whose territorial jurisdiction he
would, indeed, be a strange and, it would seem, unbrotherly proceeding.
It is quite
true that the duty of the Mason to remain a working member may be
traced to the
ancient Gilds, but to raise to the dignity of a Landmark the
proposition that every
man once initiated must keep his dues paid and thereby keep up his
he may be on the surface of the earth or if he does not or becomes
by dimit, he is guilty of a Masonic offense for which he may be tried
like a criminal
wherever he may be found, seems quite unmasonic. The unaffiliated
to that principle, bears on him the mark of Cain and everyone who finds
slay him! There is nothing to show this is a Landmark, and against such
is the conclusive argument that the permanent local Lodge is an
Mackey's idea that non-affiliation is necessarily, inevitably, and
Masonic offense is not merely uncharitable, it is very unseemly. While
ourselves to collect dues to meet the expenses of the Lodge, we are apt
some things of much more importance than the merely financial side of
organization, no matter how high its purposes, encounters this obstacle
to the attainment
of its ideals as it becomes prosperous. Unhappily we cannot attain
spiritually without a certain material foundation. And it is very easy,
in our zeal
for the former, to forget that the latter is but a means and to make it
or subconsciously an end. At the end of the Middle Ages the church,
with its wonderful
spiritual heritage, very nearly forgot its essential character as
of this world in the press of temporal interests which were but the
its true activities. The Reformation was the result. Let us not make
the same mistake.
For in our proper zeal to punish wilful evasion of the duties of
membership in a
Lodge, we may easily fall into the grave error of measuring too much by
standard and may easily commercialize the Fraternity. We may grant that
are not exempt from Masonic discipline to the extent that their
by the world at large to Masons, may endanger the good report of the
yet we may not be bound to regard non-affiliation in and of itself as
Mackenzie's language on this subject is noteworthy. He says: "That a
by non-affiliation, does not relax his fealty to the Craft at large or
from censure for Masonic offenses from the Grand Lodge whence his
been derived." I think we may well add that the Masonic jurisdiction
he resides may deal with him, at least in case his Masonic offenses
that jurisdiction are injurious in their effects to Masonry in that
it is quite a different proposition to lay down that he must absolutely
at all events, and that his failure to keep up the payment of dues so
long as he
lives is in and of itself to be branded as an offense.
eighteenth Landmark has to do with the qualifications of a candidate.
these qualifications thus: - "He must be a free-born man, and of full
. . . he must not be mutilated, a woman, an idiot, or a slave." This
Landmark was considered in part in a former lecture. (2) So far as it
candidate to be a man, free, free-born, and of the age of discretion by
or custom of the place, we may accept it. But the requirement that the
be whole or unmutilated is not so clear. There is, indeed, more to be
said for Mackey's
position than some have perceived. It is not to be denied that
looked upon the man who was not whole very differently from the way in
now regard him. In civilized society there is a place for him. Serious
injuries or physical defects will not prevent him from being a useful
and a happy
member of society. Very likely they may involve little more than
the afflicted person. In primitive society the situation was very
man who was not physically whole was at least of no use to society and
likely to be a serious incumbrance. If he was congenitally defective
self-defense simply put him out of the way. If the defect was acquired
defective man, if he was able to drag out a miserable existence, very
to associate with the women and children through inability to take a
in the community. He had no place in the men's house and hence
primitive rites and
secret societies were not favorably inclined toward him. Thus there was
prejudice against the physically defective which left traces even in so
an institution as the Roman law and even in so unworldly an institution
as the canon
law. This immemorial prejudice against the mutilated or defective gains
support in Masonry from the requirements of the operative art and from
based on the requirements of our ritual. Immemorial prejudice, growing
out of the
circumstances of primitive society, the practice of ancient rites, the
of the operative art, logical deduction from our ceremonies, and a
of Masonic usage combine to make a formidable case. Most jurisdictions
in the United
States have accepted or assumed some requirement of wholeness, and our
Grand Lodge proceedings are full of discussions as to just what degree
will disqualify. Few things have been more debated in Masonic common
law. But much
as may be said for some such requirement as an ancient custom of the
practice in England is conclusive that the doctrine as to wholeness is
universal Masonic common law. So far from admitting or regarding it as
the English Masons have never insisted on physical perfection as so
do in America and our American distinctions and discussions are quite
them. At most, therefore, this is but common law, and any jurisdiction
disposed to take a liberal view of the subject in the light of the
modern civilized society and of the purposes and ideals of Masonry is
so to do.
of Mackey's list of twenty-five Landmarks were considered in a prior
and require nothing further.
be unjust to close this view of the leading principles of Masonic
common law without
a tribute to Doctor Mackey. It has been necessary to criticize his
theories at many
points. But this necessity of criticism should not blind us to the
of his work in formulating the main ideas that underlie Masonic law.
Where he erred
chiefly was in assuming too rigid a body of fundamental law. But this
was a natural
error for an American in the nineteenth century. American lawyers of
that time believed
that an ideal version of our traditional Anglo-American legal system
was, as it
were, ordained by nature; they believed that the sections of our
of rights simply declared universal and eternal principles inherent in
idea of free government. Hence it was not unnatural for an American
Mason of that
time to assume that an ideal development of the generally received
customs of the
Craft in America was the eternal jural order in Freemasonry. We may
idea and yet recognize the invaluable service which Mackey performed
for us by working
out and formulating the leading principles of our customary law.
Common Law ‒ Part I," THE BUILDER, April, 1917, p.
(2) "The Landmarks," vol. III, p. 211.
By Bro. H. A. Kingsbury,
Many a Mason fails to realize that the Acacia,
in its occurrence as the Sprig of Acacia and its occurrence as the
of the Horns of the Masonic Altar, is a symbol ‒ an example of the
natural objects and, more specifically, an example of the symbolism of
two suggestions for interesting study offered by Masonry are neglected
often than they are heeded. This is hardly the place for the making of
a full investigation
of either of these two fields of research, and no investigation will be
The most that will be endeavored is a brief review of certain phases of
of some few plants, with particular reference to the Acacia.
The practice of assigning certain symbolic
and peculiar significances to plants has come down to us from a time so
"that memory of man runneth not to the contrary" and, although so far
as present-day usage is concerned much has been lost, we moderns yet
practice to no inconsiderable extent. To cite but a few examples: the
olive is recognized
by us as the symbol of peace, the laurel of victory, the rosemary of
and the oak of sturdiness and strength.
The symbolistic systems of nearly all the
included examples of the symbolism of plants. Among the Egyptians the
names of women,
except those of Egyptian queens, were, in the hieroglyphics,
terminated, or accompanied
by, a representation of a bouquet of the flowers of the papyrus. The
bunch of papyrus
was also the generic determination of the names of all plants, herbs
The bean symbolized unclean things ‒ a conception adopted by the
therefore, of particular interest to the Mason ‒ the apparent reason
this significance to the bean being that the name of that vegetable, in
is the same, except for a difference in gender, as that of the nomadic
people were an abomination to the Egyptians.
Referring further to the conceptions of the
the fig tree was, Portal in his "Egyptian Symbols" supposes, the symbol
of marriage. The lily or lotus was the symbol of initiation or the
birth of celestial
light, indeed, on some of the monuments of Egypt the god Phree, the
sun, is pictured
as rising from the cup of a lotus; this symbolical meaning ‒ that the
lotus is the
symbol of the birth of celestial light ‒ was probably assigned to the
plant by the
Egyptians because of the fact that the flower opens at the rising of
the sun and
closes at the close of day.
In the legend taught in the Adonisian
placed the body of the dead Adonis on a bed of lettuce. In the
the mistletoe was a sacred plant. In the Grecian Mysteries the myrtle
was of peculiar
significance. In the Mysteries of Dionysus the ivy was a sacred emblem.
And in the
Egyptian Mysteries of Osiris and Isis the heath was held in veneration,
due to the following circumstance:
It is related, in a certain legend taught in
of Osiris and Isis, that Isis, after a long search for the body of her
the god Osiris murdered by Typhoon, discovered the body buried on the
brow of a
hill; there was a heath plant growing nearby. Hence, in the mysteries
established to commemorate the death and resurrection of Osiris, the
was adopted as sacred on the strength of the fact that it had pointed
out to Isis,
in her search, the spot where the body of Osiris lay concealed. Let us
Among the Hebrews, in early biblical times, the
or, as it is rendered in the Scriptures, the Shittah, was set apart
from the other
trees of the forest as the one from whose wood various objects having a
religious significance should be constructed. So that, as told in the
Acacia was the wood from which were made the sanctuary of the temple,
the Ark of
the Covenant, the table for the shewbread, and all the articles of the
that ought properly to be constructed from wood, including the Horns of
So, this tree comes to the Mason endowed with a special and peculiar
and with a history that well qualifies it for that important place
which it occupies
in the symbolistic system of Masonry.
To the Mason the symbolic significance of the
has a double aspect, as the tree is the symbol Both of Innocence and of
of the Soul. Its character as a symbol of Innocence is dependent upon
meaning of the Greek word for Acacia as that word signifies both the
the moral quality of innocence or purity of life. It must be confessed
not this conception ‒ depending as it does merely upon the double
meaning of a word
‒ the sanction of Brother Albert Mackey, it might seem to some a
the symbolical hardly necessary or called for, in a symbolistic system
so rich in
clear and straightforward conceptions as is Masonry.
But, however it may be with the assigning to
the character of a symbol of Innocence, the preeminent symbolic
the Acacia ‒ that it is the symbol of Immortality of the Soul ‒ is both
and beautiful, being based upon and derived from the fact that the
Acacia is an
As the evergreen never yields to the Changing
or gives up its hold on Life under the attacks of Winter, so the Soul
to the Vicissitudes of Mortal Life or surrenders its existence under
The Acacia, then, presents to the Mason's
an example of the symbolism of natural objects and so points the way to
fields of investigation; reiterates that lesson taught by every
Masonic symbolism ‒ that practically everything in Masonry has a veiled
not apparent at first glance, and not intended to be so apparent, but
so veiled in order that the Mason, to arrive at a basic knowledge of
must exert himself ‒ and, finally, it presents symbolically one of the
of Masonry ‒ Immortality of the Soul.
A Mason's Prayer – [A Poem]
By Linda Germond Baker
Lodge, Pleasantville, New York on the occasion of the public
installation of officers,
by Linda Germond Baker, the daughter of a former member of Gavel, Bro.
Germond, who lived as he should and has gone to the Higher Temple.
the Father of brothers,
the Giver of good,
To the Master of nations, the Worker in wood,
To the great elder Brother who lived as he should ‒
For power to be stewards to earn a "well-done,"
For love to be brothers and follow that One,
The Man among fishers, the carpenter's Son ‒
For help to be Masons in heart and in deed,
For will to be craftsmen through life, quick to heed
The Grand Master's bidding, where'er it may lead ‒
Till, when Masons ever, with honors so high
That man's sweetest thinking can them but espy,
We bring to the altar, with Hosanna cry, Our lives.
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 18
DEVOTED TO ORGANIZED MASONIC STUDY
Bro. Robert I. Clegg
THE BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC
FOR MONTHLY LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
FOUNDATION OF THE COURSE
THE Course of Study has for its foundation two
of Masonic information: THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In
is explained how the references to former issues of THE BUILDER and to
Encyclopedia may be worked up as supplemental papers to exactly fit
into each installment
of the Course with the paper by Brother Clegg.
The Course is divided into five principal
which are in turn subdivided, as is shown below:
Division I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
Division II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
Division III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
Division IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand Lodge.
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent Lodge.
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
Division V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries ‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Studies of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
THE MONTHLY INSTALLMENTS
Each month we are presenting a paper written by
Clegg, who is following the foregoing outline. We are now in "First
of Ceremonial Masonry. There will be twelve monthly papers under this
subdivision. On page two, preceding each installment, will be given a
"Helpful Hints" and a list of questions to be used by the chairman of
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
Whenever possible we shall reprint in the
Circle Bulletin articles from other sources which have a direct bearing
particular subject covered by Brother Clegg in his monthly paper. These
should be used as supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by
from the monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would
possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus
The monthly installments of the Course
the Correspondence Circle Bulletin should be used one month later than
If this is done the Committee will have opportunity to arrange their
weeks in advance of the meetings and the Brethren who are members of
Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to enter into the
they have read over and studied the installment in THE BUILDER.
REFERENCES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
Immediately preceding each of Brother Clegg's
papers in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a list of
to THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are
pertinent to the
paper and will either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or
new points for reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the
to different Brethren who may compile papers of their own from the
to be found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts
may be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be
the members may not feel able to compile original papers, or when the
be deemed appropriate without any alterations or additions.
HOW TO ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY
The Lodge should select a "Research Committee"
preferably of three "live" members. The study meetings should be held
once a month, either at a special meeting of the Lodge called for the
at a regular meeting at which no business (except the Lodge routine)
should be transacted
‒ all possible time to be given to the study period.
After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
disposed of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of
Committee. This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the
the evening. All members to whom references for supplemental papers
have been assigned
should be prepared with their papers and should also have a
of Brother Clegg's paper.
PROGRAM FOR STUDY MEETINGS
1. Reading of the first section of Brother
and- the supplemental papers thereto.
(Suggestion: While these papers are being read
of the Lodge should make notes of any points they may wish to discuss
into when the discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper similar to
in elections should be distributed among the members for this purpose
at the opening
of the study period.)
2. Discussion of the above.
3. The subsequent sections of Brother Clegg's
and the supplemental papers should then be taken up, one at a time, and
of in the same manner.
4. Question Box.
MAKE THE "QUESTION BOX" THE FEATURE OF YOUR
Invite questions from any and all Brethren
Let them understand that these meetings are for their particular
benefit and get
them into the habit of asking all the questions they may think of.
Every one of
the papers read will suggest questions as to facts and meanings which
may not perhaps
be actually covered at all in the paper. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US. All the reference material
we have will
be gone through in an endeavor to supply a satisfactory answer. In fact
we are prepared
to make special research when called upon, and will usually be able to
within a day or two. Please remember, too, that the great Library of
the Grand Lodge
of Iowa is only a few miles away, and, by order of the Trustees of the
the Grand Secretary places it at our disposal on any query raised by
of the Society.
The foregoing information should enable local
to conduct their Lodge study meetings with success. However, we shall
inquiries and communications from interested Brethren concerning any
phase of the
plan that is not entirely clear to them, and the services of our Study
are at the command of our members, Lodge and Study Club Committees at
HELPFUL HINTS TO STUDY CLUB LEADERS
From the following questions the Committee
some time prior to the evening of the study meeting, the particular
they may wish to use at their meeting which will bring out the points
in the following
paper which they desire to discuss. Even were but five minutes devoted
to the discussion
of each of the questions given it will be seen that it would be
impossible to discuss
all of them in ten or twelve hours. The wide variety of questions here
afford individual Committees an opportunity to arrange their program to
own fancies and also furnish additional material for a second study
month if desired by the members. In conducting the study periods the
endeavor to hold the discussions closely to the text and not permit the
to speak too long at one time or to stray onto another subject.
Whenever it becomes
evident that the discussion is turning from the original subject the
request the speaker to make a note of the particular point or phase of
he wishes to discuss or inquire into, and bring it up when the Question
* * *
Questions on "The Altar"
- What is
the derivation of the word "altar"?
- What is
- What was
the shape and the material of the altars found in the ruins of ancient
- Of those
found in Assyria?
- Were the
Assyrian altars plain or ornamented?
some of these.
- In what
way did ancient Egyptian altars differ from those above mentioned?
- What sort
of altars have been discovered in recent excavations in Palestine?
one found at Gezer.
- How was
the presence of divinity indicated to the primitive Semites?
- What was
the theory of the later Hebrew worship?
- How many
kinds of altars were recognized by the priestly regulations?
- What were
- Where was
the burnt-offering altar situated?
- Of what
material was it composed?
- What were
- In what
respect did the altar of the Temple of Solomon differ from this?
- What was
the purpose of the "horns" on the altar?
- What custom
developed from this purpose?
- Is there
a sanctuary in Masonry? Why?
the altar in Herod's Temple.
- Where was
altar of incense situated?
- How did
the altar of incense differ from the altar of burnt-offering?
the altar at Parion.
- What is
the proper shape and measurement of the Masonic altar?
- Is the altar
in your Lodge the proper shape?
- How should
the Lesser Lights be situated?
- How are
they situated in your Lodge?
from the manner described in the paper, why?
- Where is
the Masonic altar situated in American Lodges?
- In the French
and Scottish Rites and European countries?
- What does
the position of the altar in American Lodges symbolize?
- Of what
should the altar remind us?
to us a place of sacrifice? Of prayer? Why?
- Are all
Masonic obligations voluntary?
times before taking the obligation is opportunity to withdraw afforded
* * *
Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914]:
Altar, p. 50.
THE BUILDER: Vol. II. ‒ Situation of the
The Altar, p. 277. Vol. III. ‒ American form of the altar unknown in
* * *
By Bro. H L. Haywood, Iowa
Part VI ‒ The Altar
THE word altar has its derivation from the
meaning high, and may be strictly defined as a base or pedestal used
and sacrifice to gods or deified heroes. The altar is found from the
in the remains of Babylonian cities. The oldest of these were square
sun-dried bricks. The chief material of those found in Assyrian mounds
and limestone. They were of many different forms ‒ one from Khorsabad,
now in the British Museum, was circular in shape at the top, the base
being of triangular
form with pilasters ornamented with animal's paws at the angles.
Another shown in
a relief at Khorsabad was ornamented with stepped battlements, the
the familiar "altar-horns" in Hebrew ritual.
Ancient Egyptian altars were in the form of
cones, or cubical blocks of basalt or polished granite. These had one,
several, hollowed out depressions in their upper surfaces which were
used as receptacles
for fluids used in offerings.
It is shown in recent excavations in Palestine
the earliest altars, or sacrificial hearths as they may be called, were
spaces marked out by small stones set on end. At Gezer a pre-Semitic
place of worship
was found in which three such hearths stood together, and drained into
a cave which
may be supposed to have been regarded as the residence of the divinity.
hearths were later superseded by the Semitic developments.
To the primitive nomadic Semite the presence of
divinity was indicated by shady trees, rocks, springs and other
landmarks and from
this grew the theory that a numen might be induced to take up an abode
in an artificial
heap of stones, or a pillar set upright for the purpose.
The priestly regulations affecting altars are
of a very
elaborate nature and designed to the theory of later Hebrew worship ‒
of all worship at one shrine. These recognize two altars ‒ one for
and one for incense.
The first of these was situated in the center
of the Tabernacle, made of acacia wood, five cubits square and three
It was covered with copper and was provided with "horns" at each
hollow in the middle, and with rings on the sides through which staves
run to enable it to be carried. The altar of the Temple of Solomon was
shape though much larger.
In the early days of our era, before the
of common law, the hunted criminal, fleeing from his pursuers, would
escape to a
church and there lay hold of the horns of the altar; in that he found
an opportunity to prove his innocence, if innocent he was. Out of this
beautiful customs of "sanctuary," the chivalrous unselfish harboring of
the weak, the sorrowful and the afflicted. Is there not a sanctuary in
Certainly there is, for in the Fraternity itself, in the privacy of its
a brother will often find rest for his heart and protection from the
the world, while a man is no true Mason in whose nature there is not at
inner chamber in which the weary may find rest and the weak may have
Josephus describes the altar in Herod's Temple
cubits high and fifty cubits square, with angle horns, and an
leading up to it. It was made without any use of iron, and no iron tool
allowed to touch it.
The second altar was the altar of incense,
in the holy place of the Tabernacle. It was of similar construction to
of burnt-offering, but smaller, being only two cubits high and one
and was overlaid with gold. On this altar, an offering of incense was
The altar at Parion, where hecatombs were
was of colossal proportions, each side measuring six hundred feet.
The Masonic altar should be cubical in shape,
three feet in height, and should properly have horns at each corner to
in the light of a hoary usage, that it is a place of refuge.
On the East, the South and the West should be
one of the representatives of the three Lesser Lights, but never on the
that is the place of darkness. On its top, in due arrangement, should
lie the three
Great Lights. Thus equipped it may well be considered "the most
of furniture in a Lodge room," and the ground whereon it stands as "the
most holy place."
Its situation, in the French and Scottish
in European countries, is in front of the Worshipful Master, and,
the East. But in American Blue Lodges it is placed in the center of the
rather, a little to the East of the center.
With reference to the ideas embodied in the
us remember, here and everywhere, that the Masonic life is not that
in the Lodge room alone, for that is but its allegorical picture, its
but it is that which a Mason should do and be in all circumstances,
under the inspiration
of the Fraternity and its teachings. Thus understood, the altar
standing in the
center of the Masonic Lodge is the symbol of something that must
operate at the
center of the Masonic life.
Often serving as a table whereon the worshipper
lay his gifts to God, the altar may well remind us of the necessity of
gratitude which leads us to return to Him the gifts He has showered
upon us. This
is that teaching of stewardship found in all religions to remind us
that our very
lives are not our own, having been bought with a price, and that our
held in trusteeship to be rendered again to Him to whom they belong.
I know, the matter may sound bold and even unappealing, but once we
man who lives his life as a stewardship held in the frail tenure of the
see to what high issues the character of man may ascend; such
an atmosphere about with them as of another world, and radiate
influences that are
light and fragrance. Surely, a man who denies this in his practice, can
as a living building stone in Masonry's Temple!
More than a place for gifts and a place of
the altar has of old served as the place of sacrifice, and this usage
is also recognized
in our symbolism, for therein we are taught that the human in us, our
our passions, yea our life itself if need be, must be laid down in the
man and the glory of God. How otherwise could Masonry remain Masonry if
it is "the
subjugation of the human that is in man, by the Divine"?
Of the altar as a place of prayer, let us
following paragraph of Brother Joseph Fort Newton, composed of those
of which he is so incomparable a master:
"Thus by a necessity of his nature man is ever
a seeker after God, touched at times with a strange sadness and
longing, and laying
aside his tools to look out over the far horizon. Whatever else he may
‒ vile, tyrannous, vindictive the story of his long search after God is
prove that he is not wholly base. Rites horrible, and even cruel, may
a part of his early ritual, but if the history of past ages had left us
but the memory of a race at prayer, they would have left us rich. And
the good custom of the great ones of our-former ages, we gather at this
up our hands in prayer, moved thereto by the ancient need and
inspiration of our
humanity. Like the men who walked in the grey years of old, our need is
the living God, whose presence hallows all our mortal life, even to its
homeward sigh which men call death."
The obligations of Masonry are never forced
novitiates. He who so desires is given the opportunity at many stages
of his initiation
to withdraw and proceed no further. Numerous times before reaching the
privilege of withdrawal is accorded him and his further advancement is
his own free will and accord.
Privileges of a Lodge Under Dispensation
By Bro. Charles R. Smith,
P.G.M. Nova Scotia
FROM a perusal of Mackey's Jurisprudence [Lib 1872], as also of Preston
and some sketches of early Freemasonry, it is apparent that
dispensations, as we
understand them, for the formation of new lodges were neither necessary
practice in ancient times. Mackey, generally recognized as a good
"the old charges of 1722 define a lodge to be a place where Masons
and work;" and this definition is extended by his describing a lodge as
assembly or duly organized society of Masons." And, by way of
as it were, he goes on to say "this organization was originally very
in its character, for previous to the year 1717, a sufficient number of
meet, open a lodge and make Masons with the consent of the Sheriff or
of the place." Apparently, according to Mackey, one, at least, of the
requirements in those early days was to satisfy those in civil
authority that the
proposed society was not dangerous to the Commonwealth or in any way
to the peace and welfare of the places in which they were to be located.
This statement, the latter part of which is
supposition on my part is, to a certain extent, borne out by Preston
who says "That
prior to 1718 lodges were empowered by inherent privileges vested in
at large to meet and act occasionally under the direction of some able
and the acting magistrate of the county."
A short time after this a new regulation was
it was provided "that the privilege of assembling as Masons should no
be unlimited, but that they should be vested in certain lodges convened
places and legally authorized by the warrant of the Grand Master, and
of Grand Lodge." And just here it will be noted that the word "warrant"
and not the term "dispensation" is used, and further, outside of the
Landmarks which we are bound to assume were respected in those early
days, no special
authority was presumed to exist in the Grand Master alone for the
for "the consent of Grand Lodge" as well. It cannot, therefore, be
that the warrant here mentioned is the same as dispensation, as we
or as taking its place but rather as being issued or granted solely for
of giving the lodges some status and presumably to regulate them in
Assuming then that what I have stated is
would appear that in early times dispensations for the formation of new
not issued or granted at all. In support of this it may be stated that
in many of
the Grand Lodges of the United States, at that time being Provincial
holding principally under England and Ireland, as late as 1763 and even
were permitted to meet and work without any dispensations whatever so
far as the
records show, but to whom warrants were afterwards granted by the Grand
In ancient times, and even up to about fifty
in the jurisdictions of Massachusetts and New York and I understand in
and Virginia as well, dispensations were not issued nor even charters
to the present meaning of the term. A number of brethren simply applied
to the Grand
Master to be constituted into a lodge and he endorsed the application
with his consent
which was accepted as a sufficient warrant and thereupon the lodge was
in Grand Lodge. Again, in some instances a warrant was issued to a
Master Mason empowering him to be the first Master of a lodge and at
such time and
place as might be designated to gather and organize the brethren into a
confer the degrees, and upon this being done the Grand Master issued
of acceptance with recognition by Grand Lodge following as above stated.
I have made diligent search and enquiry both in
and other jurisdictions to ascertain with certainty the exact time when
of granting dispensations for the formation of new lodges was first
outside of what I have mentioned, my efforts have been in vain. Under
and without knowing the early custom of the Mother of Grand Lodges ‒
the Grand Lodge
of England ‒ the only conclusion arrived at is that in the early
history of this
ancient and truly historic organization members of the Craft
as already stated; that subsequently they received a paper, called a
the Grand Master which was recognized by Grand Lodge; that as the years
and more care was taken the truly bright and splendid idea suggested
itself of granting
dispensations instead of warrants in the first instance; that the
adopted and carried into effect, and in that way the practice of
as we now have them, has been handed down to us to the present time. I
however, that so far as I can learn, from a very early period in the
Freemasonry in Nova Scotia, if not always, it was the practice here, as
in the other Canadian jurisdictions, to first grant dispensations as we
them, these later on being followed by charters if the facts and
the Grand Master recommended and Grand Lodge approved. And this, I
believe, is the
universal practice in all regular Grand jurisdictions at the present
What Is A Lodge Under Dispensation?
It appears to me, and Masonic law and authority
it out, that a lodge U. D. is simply a group of Master Masons who are
authorized by the Grand Master, whose creature it is, to initiate,
craft and raise
candidates, and their authority does not extend beyond this specified
and such other things as may be necessary to carry same into effect,
and in addition
the powers to conduct and carry on the business of the lodge. This
group of Masons
is entirely under the control of the Grand Master and the authority
they meet and work may be suspended by him at any time until his action
the dispensation is reported to and dealt with by Grand Lodge. They
have none of
the general powers of a chartered lodge until they have been granted a
duly enrolled as one of the constituent lodges of Grand Lodge.
Preliminaries to Procuring
Although Part I, Chapter XV of the Constitution
Grand Lodge deals pretty fully with what is necessary to be done in
order to obtain
a dispensation a few additional remarks may not be out of place. If
may be more but never less than seven) Master Masons sign a properly
which may be obtained, if required, from the Grand Secretary, and
submit same through
the same official to the Grand Master, it is then for him to act upon
it. And just
here it might be noted that as the petition requires seven signers so,
by the same
token, the same number of important requirements must be set out
therein or appear
thereby. First, as already stated, there must be seven signers with the
number of the lodge to which each belongs, and Masonic rank; Second,
all be Master Masons; Third, they must all be in good Masonic standing;
good reasons must appear in the petition for the formation of the new
the proposed place of meeting must be designated; Sixth, the names of
officers, the Master, Senior and Junior Wardens, must be given; and
petition must be recommended by the nearest lodge. And just here it may
to pause a moment and consider some of these requirements.
Good Reasons for the
There is nothing wrong or unmasonic in the
stating at length the grounds upon which they base their application,
but at the
same time the Grand Master is the only judge of the sufficiency
thereof. A lodge
U. D. being solely the creature of the Grand Master and brought into
if at all, by his act alone upon him rests the responsibility as to
whether a dispensation
should be granted or withheld. Sometimes, (not very often, it is true),
refuse these dispensations, as they have an undoubted right to do, even
preliminaries have been complied with and the necessary recommendations
And while this is purely a matter for the Grand Master the question may
be asked ‒ assuming everything is regular and in order, upon what
he be justified in refusing? Now, recognizing that the M.W. the Grand
Masons of Nova Scotia, by virtue of his office, is the Master of Nova
of Research, it is with some degree of diffidence that I attempt to
question. However, with all due respect, it would appear to me that
time not opportune;
material not sufficient; locality not desirable; outlook not favorable;
advantageous to the best interests of the Fraternity; too near an
and the possible, if not probable, effect of granting the dispensation
two weak lodges where otherwise one strong one might exist, should be
for refusing the dispensation. But, after all, it comes back to the
who, after obtaining the best information possible, will decide
according to his
best judgment, and for the best interests of the Order.
And should the Grand Master, in the exercise of
authority, refuse a dispensation his decision is final. There is no
The Names of the Principal
There are unquestionably a number of reasons
names of the three principal officers of the lodge, the Master, Senior
Wardens, should be stated. In the first place as these officers, and
the Master, represent the Grand Master in the work of the lodge it is
not only natural
but most requisite that he should know into whose hands he is placing
thereof. Again, very frequently Grand Masters, in addition to the
make independent inquiry as to the efficiency and capability of these
and in order to do so they must of necessity know who they are. And
lastly, as a
lodge U. D. cannot elect officers it is Masonically requisite that
these three principal
officers be named in the dispensation.
Recommendation by Nearest
To obtain and present to the Grand Master the
of the "nearest lodge" before any consideration will be given to the
or dispensation will be issued is not only necessary but in this, like
jurisdictions, is compulsory. One of the very few exceptions to this
rule is the
Grand Lodge of England which does not require the recommendation of the
lodge," a recommendation from any lodge in good standing in the
being sufficient. And with all due respect to England, for many and
I like our own custom, the custom practiced in, I think all the Grand
the United States and Canada, far better and trust it never will be
recommendation, as I take it, must come from the "nearest lodge" or in
the case of a city where there are a number of lodges, from all these
good standing and holding their charter or charters from the same Grand
my mind, at least, it would be just as absurd to obtain the
recommendation of a
lodge whose charter had been temporarily arrested, or was at the time
as to obtain the signatures of brethren as petitioners who were
It is submitted that the recommendation of such a lodge would neither
or accepted by the Grand Master who would require the recommendation of
lodge in good Masonic standing when the same was given.
Proceedings after Dispensation
At the place designated in the dispensation,
a time arranged by the petitioners, they assemble, when the
dispensation is read
by the Grand Master if personally present, if not then by the District
some other brother deputed by the Grand Master, and delivered into the
the Master. The Master and Wardens named therein immediately take their
when the Master appoints the other officers of the lodge from among the
for, until a charter is granted, in reality there are no members except
Of course it is generally understood who these officers are to be, but
as a lodge
U. D. cannot elect officers there is no formal election. Once the
Master and Wardens
assume their respective stations and the Master fills such other
offices as are
necessary the lodge is ready to proceed with the work it is authorized
to do, following
as nearly as may be the order of business of a chartered lodge. And
just here I
might remark that an installation ceremony is not only unnecessary but
highly improper and unmasonic. The installation is a ceremony belonging
lodges only, and while it is true the Master acts in that capacity in
U. D. he is not installed as a Past Master until regularly elected as a
a chartered or warranted lodge. As a matter of course it is customary
and the proper
thing to do to elect the Master named in the dispensation as the first
the lodge when chartered, thereby advancing him to the rank of Past
if not a Past Master already the mere fact of his being Master of a
lodge U. D.
carries no such rank with it and neither does it entitle him to a seat
Lodge nor, while under dispensation, is the lodge recognized by nor has
it any representation
in that Grand Body. And should the Master or Wardens, during the time
is U. D., die, remove from the district, or otherwise become
acting, the Grand Master fills their positions. Being the founder of
the lodge he
is its sponsor as well, and while U. D. he holds full and absolute
control not only
as before indicated but even to the removal of the Master and Wardens,
or any of
them, should he so decide.
Powers of a Lodge Under
As already stated a lodge U. D. has the power
Masons but not members. By this I mean that candidates who are here
do not receive Grand Lodge certificates of membership nor are they
enrolled as members
of the fraternity until the lodge is chartered. Again, not only under
but also under the constitutions of many other Grand Lodges, signing of
is necessary to membership. Lodges U. D. have no power to make by-laws
so this is
another reason why candidates initiated, passed and raised in these
Masons are not members. And here it might be asked: what would become
of these Masons
suppose the lodge ceased to exist or was never chartered? My reply is
in the position of unaffiliated Masons to whom the Grand Secretary
shall, upon the
authority of the Grand Master, furnish certificates entitling them to
with other regular lodges.
Now, while these lodges have no power to pass
until chartered they do have the right to pass necessary resolutions
fixing or changing
the time and place for holding their meetings and other such like
matters, and these
resolutions, as far as they go, have the effect of by-laws until a
charter is granted.
But if any change is going to be made in these resolutions, or any of
thereof should be given at least at the previous meeting as also on the
to the members for the meeting at which the changes are to be
considered and dealt
As a matter of course, and as already
lodges can receive and act upon petitions for membership upon which the
Wardens have the right to vote, the other petitioners being allowed to
do so as
an act of courtesy only. I understand that in this, like some other
once a brother has received his third degree, he is allowed to vote on
for membership. But from the very best information I have been able to
is wrong and irregular. Only the members have that right and as the
are really the only members, until charter is granted, that privilege
to them as above stated. This, to a certain extent at least, is borne
out by Section
18, Chapter XV of our constitution which provides "for all members
It is an unsettled question whether lodges U.
the right to receive applications for affiliation. I do not know what
is in England but in Pennsylvania, where they have a very old and most
Grand Lodge, and in Massachusetts and Maryland these applications
cannot be received.
On the other hand in New York and Virginia, and probably in some other
the opposite practice prevails, so it is rather hard to lay down any
hard and fast
rule in the premises. At the same time, considering the very limited
prerogatives of such lodges, I would rather agree with the Grand Lodges
Maryland and Virginia that applications for affiliation should not be
This question however is settled for us in Nova Scotia by the language
3, of Chapter XV of the Constitution, which permits lodges U. D. to
A lodge U. D. has no seal, cannot have one
and has no power to grant dimits for that is a right which belongs to
lodges alone, and then only subject to the regulations of Grand Lodge.
In one jurisdiction,
the name of which I will not now mention, they allow members to resign
U. D., but that I consider is not only irregular but contrary to
Masonic law as
we understand it.
In conducting the business of the lodge,
three principal officers before mentioned, it is necessary to have, at
Secretary whose duties are the same as in a chartered lodge, two
Deacons and a Tyler.
These officers are not elected but appointed by the Master and
presumably are selected
from the list of petitioners, but after the lodge gets to work and new
is being brought in I know of no law, Masonic or otherwise, which would
the Master filling up the other vacancies from among the new Masons
for, after all,
they are simply assisting in the work of the lodge. But let me say
again that even
if these new Masons are appointed to hold office that does not make
of the lodge U. D. nor if they did not have the right before does it
give them the
right to vote on petitions for membership.
The lodge has also the right to an
which, like all other committees, is appointed by the Master from among
for the lodge. The Master may appoint the same committee to hold office
dispensation is outstanding or he may select a new committee on every
or group of applications received at any one meeting. And taking into
that it is never known for how long or how short a time the
dispensation may run
I would favor the appointment of new committees as above suggested.
Again it will be noted that the lodge being the
of the Grand Master, and with very limited powers, has no power to
another lodge; for to do so would be to exercise powers it did not
neither under any circumstances can it give a recommendation for the
a new lodge and, if my view be correct, only those in good standing can
The lodge has the right to receive visitors,
greatest care should be exercised in seeing that none are allowed to
pass the portals
except those properly vouched for by a member of the lodge, or by
documentary evidence and after passing a thorough examination.
The duty of guarding the lodge, as well as
the work is carried on "decently and in order" and in accordance with
Masonic law and usage devolves, almost entirely, on the Master of the
may be called upon for a strict account of his stewardship. In his
absence the Senior
Warden, and in the absence of both the Master and Senior Warden, the
presides and the procedure, whoever is presiding, is about the same as
in a chartered
But while the Master, by virtue of his office
authority in him vested, although not a Past Master, can confer the
Senior and Junior Wardens, unless they are Past Masters, possess no
And should degree work have to be done they must call upon a Past
Master, and under
no circumstances can they do it themselves, for that would not only be
and unmasonic but contrary to the very words of our Constitution and
In case the lodge ceases to exist, and it does
to exist if the membership falls below seven, or if the dispensation is
or if Grand Lodge refuses a charter the regalia, funds and effects pass
to the Grand
Master who in turn hands same over to Grand Lodge whose property they
Standing of Petitioners
after Charter Granted
While it is perfectly regular for any Master
good standing to sign a petition for the formation of a new lodge the
appears to be that the Master or present officers of a chartered lodge
be petitioners. This view is held in many large jurisdictions and I
think is in
conformity with our practice in Nova Scotia. Under our Constitution an
dimit during his term of office, and if he signed a petition for a new
charter were granted while he was holding office he could not complete
therein as, in my opinion, he should do if one of the original
petitioners for the
new lodge. The fact of a Master Mason signing a petition does not
affect his standing
in the mother lodge while the dispensation is outstanding for he does
become a member of another lodge. For, although a lodge U. D. is called
it does not become such until regularly chartered. But, inasmuch as
under our constitution,
unlike that of England, Scotland, Massachusetts and some other
membership is not permitted once a charter is granted the petitioners
for dimits to their mother lodges and enter into full membership in the
which they assisted in bringing into existence and of which they will
members. Bear in mind, however, that I express no opinion as to this
compulsory for it may just be possible, and Masonic authorities differ
on the question,
that after charter is granted the petitioners may return to their
Should they fail to become full members of the new lodge and do not
return to their
mother lodges (if they can do so) they may render themselves subject to
pains and penalties might be involved in membership of some kind in two
the same time.
I want to add just a few additional words about
recommending petitions for the formation of new lodges. Our
4, Part I, Chapter XV, provides that such recommendations shall be
given only where
"by examination or in some other satisfactory manner the recommending
is in a position to, and does vouch that the proposed Master and
Wardens are capable
of conferring the degrees, etc." This is good as far as it goes, but
as a large amount of responsibility rests upon these officers in
knowledge to the uninitiated, in some jurisdictions, Grand Masters will
these petitions unless and until the recommending lodge certifies that
Master and Wardens have exemplified the work of the three degrees in
in a satisfactory manner and have also shown efficiency in conducting
business of the lodge. This, certainly, does away with any guess-work
and affords a guarantee which any Grand Master would like to have.
When asked to prepare a paper upon "new lodges
under dispensation," with my somewhat lengthy experience as Grand
said to myself "that is easy"; but upon reading more fully and delving
into the matter more carefully, probably more carefully than I ever did
Master, I found that there was a lot more in the subject than I had
or anticipated. And in endeavoring to do something like justice to the
I do not claim to have done full justice, I have corresponded with and
from a large number of Grand Secretaries as well as from eminent Past
of other jurisdictions with whom I was personally acquainted. And I
wish to acknowledge
the kindness, fraternal spirit and promptness of these well-informed
brethren in not only coming to my assistance with information they
also in forwarding books and Masonic literature bearing on the
question, so if there
is any merit in this paper, and it is not for me to say there is, it is
due to this information and assistance so willingly and cheerfully
And now, brethren, while fully realizing that
is much more lengthy and has involved more work than I anticipated,
still if it
will be of any benefit to the Craft, as my hope is it may be, I will be
repaid for the time and trouble spent in its preparation.
There Is No Spot On Our Flag – [A Poem]
By Bro. A. W. Armstrong
Is no spot on
Look to it well.
Spare not a star set in its blue,
Nor a stripe, neither red nor white.
Look it carefully through.
Every thread carefully scan.
Keep down pride that will rise,
With voice of praise to the skies
As the emblem of Freedom floats into view.
There is no spot on our flag.
Look to it long.
Take much time to think and pray,
Keep our flag in view night and day.
Our country is strong.
Its honor we'll prolong.
Let not burning tears flow,
Though the heart be all aglow,
Blinding the eyes to duty, nor search delay.
There is no spot on our flag.
No stain, thank God!
Our plaint ascends to the Throne,
For Liberty, and that alone,
No stain shall mark the sod,
To bring disgrace to God.
Our flag beneath the Cross,
Kept pure from every dross,
Is what all hell would hate, all heaven see.
There SHALL BE NO SPOT on our flag
Our cause is just;
Where'er across the sea,
Our flag shall chance to be,
In God be our trust,
Our swords and scepters rust;
And, when the war shall cease
Then, then will triumph peace,
Emblem of Liberty, flag of the true and free.
Memorials to Great Men Who
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.G.M.,
District of Columbia
THERE are few more interesting characters than
Sullivan, and few who have been less honored. John Sullivan was the
Master of the Grand Lodge of New Hampshire. He was born in the State of
1740, of Irish parentage, and died in New Hampshire in 1795. A
compatriot of the
Society of the Sons of the American Revolution recently wrote the
writer from Elmira
"It is true that the Government has never
even at the time or subsequently, its sense of gratitude to John
Sullivan. A careful
study of the history of the times convinces me that the Congress at
that time had
deteriorated in its personnel – that politics of the opprobrious
variety had begun
to assert itself, and that Sullivan was not given a square deal."
At Elmira, New York, there was a memorial
the State to commemorate the final victory of John Sullivan over the
from poor construction, neglect and vandalism, was badly mutilated and
replaced by the obelisk shown in the accompanying cut; but the general
has never memorialized the great Sullivan.
During the convention of the Ancient Order of
in Denver, in 1902, Chairman Dunleavy, in his address of welcome, said:
"The roll of honor in the War of the Revolution
shows such names as General Moylan and General O'Sullivan who led the
across Long Island, and in whose honor today the National Congress is
a memorial in New Hampshire."
This appeared following the editorial in the
Hibernian (the official Organ of the Society) which quoted the address
Ireland which originated the movement for a memorial to an Irishman in
"At a recent banquet given to the French
in New York by the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, Archbishop Ireland
to the following noble sentiments:
" 'I charge you, Sons of St. Patrick, to see to
it that in Washington City, near the statues of Lafayette and
be erected a monument to some Irish soldier to commemorate the part
in the Revolutionary War.' "
As Sullivan was the only general officer in
who was Irish and famous there was hope that this soi
disant Irish Society would determine on a memorial for him.
for some reason not disclosed, they asked an appropriation of $50,000
for a memorial
to John Barry instead. While Barry (who was the eleventh captain
appointed in the
Colonial Navy) was a creditable officer, he was not a soldier nor the
peer of Sullivan,
which gave us the impression that it was not Ireland they wanted to
The records of the War Department do not show
was ever a general officer named O'Sullivan, as Mr. Dunleavy called it,
is a full record of John Sullivan whom he no doubt referred to.
John Sullivan practiced law in Durham, N. H.,
in the first General Congress where he was regarded as a man of
and without a vice.
He and his brother led a force against Fort
and Mary, near Portsmouth, and captured 100 barrels of powder, (which
used at the battle of Bunker Hill,) 15 cannon, a lot of small arms and
which was the first armed hostility committed in the Colonies.
John Sullivan was appointed a Brigadier in 1775
commanded at Winter Hill, in the siege of Boston; served in Canada, and
the retreat from that Colony, after the death of General Thomas. He was
to Major General in 1776 and was credited with the preservation of the
Army on Long
Island. He was taken prisoner, but exchanged for General Prescott.
On Christmas, 1776, he commanded a division on
he commanded the right at Brandywine, and defeated the enemy at
Germantown. He repulsed
the enemy at "Butts Hill" and defeated the Indians under Brant, and the
Tories under Sir John Johnson at Newtown near the present site of the
city of Elmira.
Sullivan resigned from the Army because of
and again took his seat in Congress. Later he was Attorney General of
of New Hampshire and was President of the Senate.
In the trouble of 1786 he saved the State from
by his intrepidity, good management and tact, and secured the
ratification of the
Federal Constitution. Later he was a Federal Judge in New Hampshire,
he held at the time of his death.
Brother Sullivan was initiated in St. John's
1767 and became the first Grand Master of Masons in New Hampshire. He
with Masonic honors at Berwiek, but his body was afterward reinterred
in the Congregational
Cemetery near Portsmouth.
The memorial was erected to his memory at
the centenary of the battle at that place, but, as we have said, it was
and mutilated by vandals, and later gave place to the present obelisk.
A letter from Elmira says:
"It might be of interest to make a comment on
vandalism. A boy of supposedly good family in Elmira was openly accused
mutilated the original tablet years ago. This contemptuous attitude and
veneration for those who founded our country has continued into
manhood. The same
individual today is among our prominent pacifists and is one of the
editors of a
New York publication now under the ban of the Post Office Department
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
What are landmarks? We find ourselves
a problem of such complexity that we might fill up a volume with our
but space and the further demands of our studies compel us to a brief
treatment of the theme.
You may divide and sub-divide a drop of water
ever so microscopic but at last you will reach a point where a further
of your particle will give you, not a speck of water but a gas, oxygen
This smallest particle in which matter may be thus divided without
losing its identity
the scientists call a "molecule." Suppose we use this as an analogy of
the analysis of Masonry. We may divide Masonry into elements, stripping
thing after another, but our elements will still be "Masonry"; but if
we go far enough in our "stripping away" process we shall come at last
to a point where any further division will destroy the identity of the
Masonry will cease to be Masonry. We shall have reached the
These Masonic molecules are the landmarks.
One might use another analogy, suggested by the
itself, which literally means a "land marker," one of the most lucid
which I have ever seen is that furnished by MacBride in his
[Lib 1914] a beautiful
and wise book which I hope you will sometime read. He says: "In all
pillars or other things have been erected to show the boundary lines
countries, between the territories of different tribes, and the
possessions of different
individuals. These stones (and other objects, natural or artificial ‒
H. L. H.)
were called landmarks and, as their preservation was of importance,
were attached to their illegal removal and alteration.
"In Speculative Masonry, landmarks are certain
established usages and customs, occupying the position which usage and
in a community. Politically, they are termed 'common law'; Masonically,
termed 'landmarks.' "
But it does not follow, as MacBride himself
that because a landmark is an established use or custom, therefore an
use or custom is a landmark. "It must, in addition, perform the
a landmark; that is, to mark out, more or less clearly, a boundary or
between two territories or possessions . . . It has doubtless been a
Masons, from the time of Moses, to blow their noses, but that custom
does not make
the blowing of the nose a landmark.
"From these observations, the landmark in
may be defined as certain established usages and customs that mark out
lines of the Masonic world, in its internal divisions and in its
to the outer world."
In the last analysis MacBride's analogy with
and my own analogy with the "molecules" mean the same thing at bottom,
like "the vital organs of the body," are absolutely essential to the
of Masonry as Masonry. If our Masonic writers have disagreed widely on
it is not so much because they attach different meanings to the word as
differ among themselves as to just what these "vital elements" are.
"The first use of the term (landmark) appears
have been in Payne's 'General Regulations' published with Anderson's
of office in 1718, first term, and again in 1720, Preston's
'Illustrations of Masonry'
‒ a standard work these many years, clearly uses the word landmarks as
with established usages and customs of the Craft ‒ in other words what
I have called
Masonic common law." (I am quoting Roscoe Pound here, our present
of the Harvard Law School and American authority on Masonic
jurisprudence. See his
article in THE BUILDER, July, 1917.)
In 1819 the Duke of Suffolk, Grand Master of
at the time, defined landmarks as the authorized ritual. Dr. George
the term without defining it in 1820. In his "Historical Landmarks of
[Lib 1846; Vol 1, Vol 2] published in 1846,
he uses the word in a figurative sense "as the phrase 'beacon light'
is used in Lord's 'Beacon Lights of History.' " Four years afterwards,
"Symbol of Glory," [Lib 1850] he attacks the problem
without much success, coming
to the conclusion that what landmarks are and what are landmarks has
clearly defined. But in 1863 he makes bold to name at least forty
into twelve classes, even though, in this book, "The Freemason's
[Lib 1863] he still contends
that "we have no actual criterion by which we may determine what is a
and what is not." But this attempt to make out a list is itself
for it proves that Oliver had come under the influence of Mackey's
Mackey's great "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry," [Lib 1914] a reference work
that you should keep on hand, was originally modelled on Lenning's
[Lib*] published in 1824. Neither Lenning nor the French "Dictionary of
published in Paris the following year, attempts a list of landmarks,
himself, in the earlier editions of his Encyclopedia, devoted but
to the subject. But in the 1856 edition he comes forth with his list of
which "obtained for a time a universal acceptance." Inasmuch as this
may be readily found in the easily accessible Encyclopedia there is no
need to reprint
them here, but the theory on which he based his classification is of
to our study:
are those ancient and universal customs of the order, which either
into operation as rules of action, or if at once enacted by any
were enacted at a period so remote that no account of their origin is
to be found
in the records of history. Both the enactors and the time of enactment
away from the records, and the landmarks are therefore of higher
memory or history can reach."
Mackey's list, as I have already said, was
accepted for a time, but various authorities have never tired of
his definition and list, Pike, for example, demolishing the whole
outfit in his
most Pikeish manner. And there is no question that both his criteria
and his table
are open to criticism; nevertheless it will be well to remember that
for whom Roscoe Pound may speak, contend that, "all defects to the
his list may still stand in its main lines as an exposition of our
Of all the lists proposed by various writers
neither room nor need to speak but it may well be worth our while to
cite a few
examples, grouping them according to the three general points of
by Pound ‒ the Historical, the Legal and the Philosophical.
A. The Historical.
From this point of view the scholar attacks the problem by undertaking
to show what
are the essentials of custom, usage, law, principles, etc., that have
grown up in
Masonry's historical development, and what have been considered
landmarks in the
past by constituted authorities, such as Grand Lodges, Codes,
Writing from this point of view, Vibert [Lib 2010] ("Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges,"
p. 4,) gives in a rough classification ten points, all of which he
to Masonry, and which he uses as touchstones to determine what Masonry
from other societies, and what it has originated itself.
Pike seems to approach the problem from the
as we may read in an article published in the Iowa Proceedings for
no more can be said with certainty in regard to them than that they
were those essential
principles on which the old simple Freemasonry was builded and without
not have been Freemasonry ‒ the organization of the craft into lodges,
for admission into the fellowship and the methods of government
established at the
beginning… There is no common agreement as to what are and what are not
Hextall goes further by saying that the original landmarks were the
of the operative Masons, while Hughan agrees in the main, saying that
must be a regulation, or custom, which cannot be abrogated (cancelled)
offenders outside the pale of the Craft; and all landmarks should
the Grand Lodge era (1717)." He mentions belief in God, secrecy, and
as belonging to this category.
B. The Legal
point of departure. Those who set out from this angle undertake to
body of universal unalterable fundamental principles which are at the
of all Masonic law." Josiah Drummond takes this position: "If landmarks
are anything else than the laws of the Craft, either originally
or growing out of immemorial usage, the term is a misnomer." With this
Hawkins, editor of an Encyclopedia, is in accord. After quoting
of an unwritten law as "what usage has approved" he writes: "Now
the Old Lectures of the Craft are its unwritten laws, either sanctioned
custom, or, if enacted, at a period so remote that no trace of their
now be found." It will be seen that Hawkins somewhat combines the Legal
the Historical points of view, as indeed, others also do, for law
cannot well be
divorced from history.
C. The Philosophical.
The point of view here has never been better expressed than by Crawley:
ancient landmarks of Freemasonry, like all other landmarks material or
can only preserve their stability when they reach down to sure
the philosophical student unearths the underlying rock on which our
rest, he finds one sure foundation in the triple dogma (fixed teaching)
of the Fatherhood
of God, the Brotherhood of Man, and the Life to come. All laws,
customs, and methods
that obtain amongst us and do not ultimately find footholds on this
basis, are thereby
earmarked as conventions and conveniences, no way partaking of the
nature of Ancient
landmarks." Of the same opinion is Dr. J. F. Newton: "Manifestly, by a
Landmark we must mean, if it is to have any meaning at all, a limit set
Masonry cannot go, some boundary within which it must labor.... So, and
so, the landmarks of Masonry are its great fundamental principles." Of
he names four: universality; a Mason's organized fellowship and right
to that fellowship
anywhere; qualifications; secrecy.
Roscoe Pound, approaching the subject from all
points of view, at once offers a list of seven:
- belief in
- belief in
the persistence of personality;
- a "book
of law" as an indispensable part of the furniture of every lodge;
- the legend
of the third degree;
of the operative art (of building);
- that a Mason
must be a man, free born, and of age.
Other students differ, as do also the Grand
have legislated the matter. Horsely names five; Woodford, eighteen; J.
five; Findel, four; Crawley (as we have seen) three; John W. Simons,
Morris, seventeen; the Grand Lodge of West Virginia, seven; of New
New York, thirty-one; Nevada, thirty-nine; Kentucky, fifty-four. T. S.
mean authority, will not risk one. (Josiah Drummond took him to task
This list might be indefinitely extended but
I am afraid, if you are the "plain man" I take you to be, you will have
begun to feel confusion over the whole subject, a feeling with which I
for I do not believe that anybody, however learned, can produce a list
to satisfy all. Even so, however, whether we can define it or not,
there does exist
that which is essentially Masonry, and with that all agree, for, as
"a nation of unalterable, fundamental principles and groundwork and a
of Masonry' beyond the reach of innovation can be traced from the
the first Grand Lodge was organized) to the present." If your own Grand
has decided the matter for your state you are obliged to accept its
landmarks; if not, you may make up a list to suit yourself. Meanwhile
it must be
remembered that other societies, even society as a whole, have been no
in discovering the "fundamentals" than Masonry itself. For example, how
many theologians can agree on a list of essential Christian doctrines?
moralists can agree on a code of ethics? How many jurists can agree on
of the common law? We can feel the landmarks, even as we can "feel" the
bones present in our bodies; and just as bones can perform their
when we cannot see them, so with landmarks, the bony frame-work of our
we can roughly approximate to the landmarks, and that is usually
practical purposes just as we make shift with our poorly defined body
The motive behind the search for the landmarks
the attempt to discover that which is peculiar to Masonry, that which
is its own
unique possession, and which may be described as its "individuality."
Can we discover this "unique" element in our Fraternity and thus get at
the root of all the landmarks? Our teachings may be found in other
church for instance; ceremonies, rites, allegories are used by other
our very symbols are not all our own, for many of them have been used
My own theory, offered for what it is worth, is that the thing
to us is the manner in which we have combined and assembled these
and symbols, and the manner in which we have organized ourselves to
on the minds of men. However, many things we hold in common with other
our method of presenting these things is all our own; and that is a
matter of very
The Refusal of the Grand
Lodge of Illinois to Recognize the Grand Lodge of Panama
return of the Secretary, Brother Schoonover, from his visit to the
Grand Lodge of
Illinois on the occasion of the recent Annual Communication of that
he handed in to the Editorial office a report of the Committee on
of the Grand Lodge of Illinois on the recognition of the Grand Lodge of
This report was published on pages 31 and 32 of the January number of
and called forth a reply from Brothers Melvin M. Johnson, P.G.M., and
P.D.G.M., of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, in defense of the
legitimacy of the
Grand Lodge of Panama, which was published in the March number of THE
to Brother Charles H. Martin, Chairman of the Committee on
Correspondence in 1917
of the Grand Lodge of Illinois, we wish to inform our readers that the
in the January BUILDER was not the report on the Grand Lodge of Panama
adopted by the Grand Lodge of Illinois, but one of two such reports
which were prepared
by the Illinois Committee and submitted to the Grand Master and his
some days prior to the convening of the Grand Lodge, and was rejected
by the advisory
board for the following:
"To the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge Ancient
and Accepted Masons of the State of Illinois:
"Your Committee on Foreign Correspondence, to
was referred the application of the Grand Lodge of Panama for fraternal
and an exchange of representatives, would fraternally and respectfully
there is nothing in, nor accompanying said application tending to show
not the said Grand Lodge of Panama possesses the qualifications
essential to a Sovereign
Grand Lodge of Ancient Craft Masons, as heretofore uniformly insisted
upon by this
Grand Lodge as a condition precedent in order to recognition. From
however, it is learned that the first essential in order to regularity
is entirely wanting, to-wit: 'Legitimacy of origin of constituent
to form a Grand Lodge.' It appears that six Lodges, (possibly seven),
from the Grand Lodge of Venezuela, (or the Supreme Council of
in the organization of this Grand Lodge of Panama, and that possibly
one Lodge has
since its organization been chartered by it. If those Lodges
contributing to form
the Grand Lodge of Panama were in fact chartered by the Grand Lodge of
which as above intimated does not clearly appear from the evidence at
hand, it is
to be observed that the Lodges contributing to form the Grand Lodge of
originally were chartered by the Grand Orient of Spain. The Grand
Orient of Spain
was formed from and by Lodges of the planting of a Supreme Council.
"Neither the Grand Orient of Spain nor the
Lodge of Venezuela has ever been recognized by this Grand Lodge and the
of Panama, of necessity can be no more regular than the Mother,
Grand-mother, (Grand Orient of Spain), of the Lodges of which it was
"On the other hand, if the Lodges contributing
to form the Grand Lodge of Panama, were in fact chartered by the
of Venezuela, the irregularity is still more glaringly apparent, as
this Grand Lodge
has time and again given approval to the doctrine that there is on
earth no tribunal
nor power competent to form or warrant a Lodge of the original plan
except a regular,
sovereign Grand Lodge. In one report, so approved, the following
language was used:
" 'We utterly deny that any body save a
Grand Lodge can by warrant or charter create a Lodge that has any claim
to the name of Masonry, or that can administer its rites.'
"According to this rule, repeatedly announced,
and uniformly adhered to by this Grand Lodge, neither the Supreme
Council, the Grand
Orient of Spain, nor the Grand Lodge of Venezuela are, or ever were,
form or bring into being a Lodge of the original plan, and hence not a
contributing to form the Grand Lodge of Panama can be regarded as a
of Ancient Craft Masons.
"Your committee therefore recommends that the
of the Grand Lodge of Panama for recognition and an exchange of
be respectfully denied.
"Charles H. Martin,
"Committee on Correspondence.
Through a misunderstanding between Brother
and the Editor, the second report above mentioned was published in our
and we take pleasure in calling the attention of our reader to the
matter at this
Women and Freemasonry
By Bro. Hal Riviere, Georgia
To a certain extent, a Masonic lodge is a
that it endeavors to teach men how to build upright characters. This
done through the medium of symbols and allegories, employing in a
the working tools of Operative Masons and the customs and practices of
art, in order to impress important lessons vividly upon the minds of
We have good authority for so teaching because we read in the Holy
Jesus taught by parables and allegories. Indeed, it is said that
without a parable
spoke he not unto them. That is the reason why so few understood his
why he had to explain his sayings even to his disciples. Just as so
to understand him, so many men who have been made Masons do not
understand its lessons
and failing to understand, do not live up to its teachings. Such men
discredit to our Order. Whenever anything deserving of censure is found
in the conduct
of Masons, lay it to human frailty, and not to the fault of this great
Upon a few occasions I have heard of women who
prejudiced against Masonry on account of the inconsistent actions of
saying that if that man were a Mason they had a poor opinion of the
Order. I know
a young lady who will not attend church saying she does not believe in
because there are hypocrites in the church and persons in active church
are not so good as she is. That young lady is a stenographer but I have
of her giving up her position although she knows that some
stenographers are improper
in conduct. We do not judge all stenographers by the standard of the
should we judge the church or Masonry by the low standards set by some
Some women have expressed an objection to
account of its secrecy. Perhaps that prejudice comes from the fact that
been told that women are not admitted as Masons because they cannot
keep a secret.
That assertion is absolutely untrue. Whether or not women can keep a
nothing to do with their exclusion from our lodges. Membership is
limited to men
because it was the ancient practice. Present day Speculative Masonry is
upon the customs of the ancient stone masons and we faithfully carry
out their practices.
They were the men who built the famous edifices of olden times,
including the magnificent
cathedrals that the invading armies of Germany have damaged so greatly.
of a stone mason were very arduous and exacting and it took a man in
of all his strength and members to do such work. These men traveled
about from place
to place as need required and were forced to undergo many hardships; so
only men were so employed. Even men with fingers, hands or feet missing
accepted as apprentices to learn the business; hence the exclusion of
women at that
time and also today, because we follow the ancient customs.
One intelligent women said to me, "I don't
Masons have any secrets. It's all a bluff. Besides if those secrets are
in helping men to be better, why don't you tell them to everybody so
may be helped?" Christ said, "Cast not your pearls before swine,"
meaning that we should not set valuable truths before people unable to
or unwilling to make the proper use of them. Ability to understand a
truth is a
matter of education and training and it is only to those who come
seeking that these
lessons are taught step by step. Scatter our secrets broadcast and they
commonplace and carry no weight even with those capable of
Masonry keeps secret no knowledge not possessed
outside world but the methods of teaching that knowledge and presenting
it in graphic,
impressive form are secret as are also the various signs, grips and
Possession of these secrets is a tie that binds the brethren together
and the beautiful
ceremonies of the lodge keep before them the principles which the Order
The prejudice which some women have had is
as the beneficial effects of the Fraternity are seen. That some
I must admit; but that the various reasons given for such prejudice are
must deny. There is more to this business than pique because someone
says a woman
cannot keep a secret; neither can one charge it entirely to "sour
because women are not made Masons. The real reason is deeper; it is
the female nature and is the result of thousands of years of training,
practice. I discovered it myself and after I have revealed it to you I
will say that I am right. In order that you may be able to judge
shall present the evidence in detail and then announce my conclusion.
In doing so
I must make a hasty review of the progress of the human race from
savagery to civilization.
Did you ever see children playing on the floor
building blocks? Have you noticed their delight when some figure is
is no mother who has not run at the excited, delighted call of her babe
as he balanced
one piece upon another and made various figures in his play. His
delight was on
account of his having accomplished something that he did not know was
That little scene typifies the beginning of architecture in the very
dawn of civilization.
Architecture has probably had a greater
directing the progress of the race than any one thing. We are so used
buildings of every shape and size that we probably think they always
so; but the art has grown slowly and each new process has been worked
out with toil
and difficulty. Imagine the delight of the primitive man as he produced
architectural figures! Can't you picture the first man who ever made a
See him in his delight calling to a friend and showing him that each
side of his
house is exactly as long as every other side. No doubt this friend
listened and learned as he was taught how the thing was done. Later
other men were
taken into their confidence and bound to secrecy, thus forming the
society and possibly the first labor union.
As knowledge increased, primitive men, being
to write, gave permanence to their thoughts and poetic and artistic
the medium of architecture, building pyramids, temples, obelisks and
that are veritable poems in stone. Can you doubt that the tools with
fashioned those works of art came to have a high value in their eyes
and that they
early attached symbolic meaning to them? The square, level, plumb,
line, etc., seem very simple and ordinary to modern people but who can
time and study spent in perfecting them?
Although the origin of these tools is lost in
antiquity the discovery of the square was certainly as important as the
of wireless telegraphy. The men who first intelligently employed the
plumb and level,
could we but know their names, deserve mention along with the inventors
of the telephone
and telegraph. Though we know nothing of those individuals we do know
secret societies were formed, guarding the knowledge possessed by
Each tribe and nation had its secret society among its men who came
the Men's House to discuss all their tribal affairs and to teach their
and practices to the boys as they came to the proper age. The
were the most important event in the life of every boy, who from the
time the ceremonies
began, forsook the company of his mother, sisters and-other women of
the tribe and
thenceforth associated only with the men.
It is a peculiar fact that almost every nation,
ancient and modern, contains more women than men, and all have had to
face the problem
of dealing with the surplus women. We call women the weaker sex but few
of us believe
that weaker sex business; though it took a modern Kipling to express
in words man has always known, that "The female of the species is more
than the male." In dealing with the problem of surplus women various
have been employed. In his day and time King Solomon tried to solve the
by marrying all of them.
In ancient times, as among primitive peoples
the men met the suffragette question by strategy. They conspired in the
against the women, inventing plans to play upon their superstition and
to keep them
within due bounds. The time of the tribal initiations was a favorite
time for such
practices and when the boys came to the proper age, solemn warning was
women to keep within doors while the ceremonies took place. Processions
by the priests and medicine men, and the women were terrified by
mysterious noises and ghostly stories. They were required to prepare
and set out
food as an offering to the spirits which the men took and served later
lodges. These ceremonies sometimes lasted several days and as the women
that time, like Tam O'Shanter's wife, were "Nursing their wrath to keep
warm," is it any wonder that they came to be violently antagonistic
secret societies? In addition to those practices, among some nations
the men spent
practically all of their time at the Men's House, sleeping and eating
was only a disgraced man who would sleep at home and eat with the women.
So you now understand why some women are
to Masonry. Present day civilization has not succeeded in stamping out
the old antagonism
engendered in them by thousands of years of superstitious awe fostered
by the men
to maintain control of the women. But in our enlightened day such
cease. It is an atavism, a reversion to type that is not complimentary
to the one
who feels it. So, if there be one among our women readers who has
attendance, when lodge night comes again and friend husband begins to
and look furtively toward the door and his hat, let her take the said
hat and say
sweetly, "Now dear, (or Tom or Daddy, or whatever may be his official
this is lodge night; go on down there and learn to attend to your
like a true Mason." And if he wants to attend a called communication
and stay out until midnight, let her comfort herself by thinking of the
women whose husbands stay out at the Men's House all night, every night.
Yes, you can send your men to the lodge in full
that they will return none the worse. No institution has ever done more
moral and mental improvement of men than Masonic lodges, and if you
your men to cultivate an interest in their lodge, enter actively upon
study its history and philosophy, the practice of the virtues which it
will impress those virtues upon their characters, and being better
will become better husbands, fathers and brothers. If women could
realize to what
an extent Masonry has made for their safety and the betterment of their
would encourage the men in lodge attendance and work. Working in secret
desire for publicity, the Order has thrown a protection about the women
nation that has done much for their safety. Little as they may think of
a woman owes the fact that she is living in a happy home surrounded by
to the delicate ministry of this great Order which, when a man becomes
throws the whole protecting force of a great membership about the
of his home.
For your own protection, encourage your men to
good, active Masons. It will help them to be better men by holding
before them the
highest of ideals. If a man be studiously and philosophically inclined
it will open
up for him a new world and lend an; added interest to the study of
and religions. Our Order invites no man but welcomes every worthy man
earnestly seeking to help and be helped. But remember that Freemasonry
is no reformatory,
nor house of correction. Brethren, pay particular attention to the
quality of the
material that petitions for membership. Investigate thoroughly. Be sure
of the character
of him whom you elect to receive the degrees in your lodge. In doubtful
the lodge the benefit for it is better that an occasional worthy man
exclusion than that unworthy men should creep in to hinder our work and
no account that which we have so carefully builded.
Furnishings of a Lodge
Albert Pike was one of the most profound
Masonry the world has ever known. His chosen work was in perfecting and
the degrees of the Scottish Rite. It is not generally known that he
from oblivion the Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason
Degrees as practiced
by that Rite, which is the standard used in most Latin countries today,
York Rite has not obtained. His studies demonstrated to him the
necessity for exactness
in the form of physical furniture to be used, in order to crystalize
teaching of the Craft, and avoid permitting the whims and vagaries of
from engrafting onto the Fraternity modern "conveniences" which would,
in a short time, detract from ‒ if not entirely destroy its teachings.
It affords a Colorado Mason considerable
note that great ritualist, in 1886, confirmed the ritual compiled from
sources by him in 1872, showing, among other regulations, the
following, which have
been restored in Colorado.
The Altar shall be
square (a cube). The Pedestals at the stations of the three principal
be of the three principal Orders of Architecture. The Lesser Lights to
candles" (not electric lights); the Candlesticks to be three feet in
That the apron should be square, of white lambskin, the flap cut to a
point in the
center, and entirely plain, without emblem or device; the width and
depth of the
apron to be fourteen inches. The officers to wear "scarfs" of light
silk. The jewels of officers to be of silver. In balloting, the box to
upon the Altar and each brother to salute the Master as he approaches
A curious reason is noted concerning the shape
apron ‒ in addition to the outline of the 47th Problem; lying in the
fact that a
line drawn from the point of the flap when raised, to each of the lower
of the square; and the lines of the flap, when lowered, extended to the
produces the outline of the five pointed star, known as the "Seal of
or sign of health and life, upon which we are raised; and which in old
are told, was always depicted "on the center."
This is very interesting, particularly in view
fact that the Colorado Regulations have been called radical, and
In our humble opinion, Albert Pike is a pretty good authority to tie
to, and Colorado
Masons should be proud to be in the front rank by adhering to the work
in its primitive simplicity, and as such, is rich in imagery and
A Mason who does not know the reason for such things is a good deal
like a good
blacksmith writing a physician's prescription. The blacksmith may be
but we prefer to decline taking the prescription. There is a library on
floor of the "Temple," and when one-half of the books contained in it
have been read, the student may assume to know something. The old story
of the party
masquerading in the lion's skin is amusing as well as instructive.
Mocked By Those They Love – [A Poem]
James Russell Lowell
God! When I read
o'er the bitter lives
Of men whose eager hearts were quite too great
To beat beneath the cramped mode of the day,
And see them mocked at by the world they love,
Haggling with prejudice for pennyworth
Of that reform which their hard toil will make
The common birthright of the age to come ‒
When I see this, spite of my faith in God
I marvel how their hearts bear up so long.
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
UNFORTUNATELY I have had to neglect my duties
of late, or at least to omit my reports, for which I beg forgiveness.
The fact is
that I have been spending every odd hour in the great military camps,
the men, visiting with them, and seeing something of their life. My
work has been
chiefly among Canadians and Americans, our New World men who are the
finest in the
world, such erect, upstanding fellows they are, too, clear-cut,
something of the large, free and liberal air of the fogless spaces of
In one thing the Canadians are ahead of us.
organized camp colleges, where their men, many of them, like our own,
continue their studies ‒ for which they receive due credit in the
colleges and universities
at home. They are real colleges, too. I have visited two of them, to
at the close of a term, and I find them doing thorough work, especially
and agriculture and the more practical branches. Naturally the literary
not so much emphasized, but it is by no means neglected. These
colleges, of course,
have the approval of the authorities ‒ not only approval, but
I see no reason why our people should not wake up to the possibilities
of such a
Two days ago I went to speak to the great
the name and location of which I must not give too accurately. It was a
to see those boys, who are so responsive to all high things. I spoke in
moving-picture theatre, which was packed and jammed; then it was
emptied, only to
be filled again, and I talked another hour. They actually did it a
third time, and
by the end of the third hour I was "all in," as you can imagine.
crowd was waiting, but I was not equal to the task. They are from all
over the Union,
from Texas to New York, and a more wholesome set of boys I never saw in
Not only physically, but morally ‒ which is quite as important in war ‒
admirably cared for by those in command.
Among those in the camp I visited were the
of the Tuscania, and it was good to see men who had gone through that
funny, too, for they were togged out in every kind of rig ‒ by the
kindness of a
camp of English Tommies nearby ‒ because those who did not lose their
had it ruined by the sea-water. Hence their plight, awaiting the
arrival of a new
outfit. But they were in fine spirits. As one of them put it, they lost
except their nerve, their courage, and their determination to get the
the Huns. Indeed, the attack has put new iron into their blood and made
anxious to have a "go" at the enemy.
* * *
Please do not be upset by the silly and
published on that side as to what I recently said about American
soldiers in London.
It was twisted out of all likeness to what I had in mind. What I did
say was, seeing
the conditions here, to ask of British friends to give our boys the
from liquor and evil women which our own government and people give
them at home.
In America, even in those places where liquor is sold, it is a criminal
to sell it to any one wearing the uniform of the Army or Navy. Of
course we cannot
enforce such a regulation on this side. And so I asked our friends here
us in the matter. Most of our boys are proof against such things ‒
thank God ‒ but
not all of them; and at a time when every man is needed, we must not
through wine, women and disease.
For, to say no more, if the Government has a
conscript a man, take his time, his strength, and his life if need be,
to do a great
work, it has a right to conscript his conduct ‒ and in other matters
so ‒ to keep him fit to do the work he is sent to do. Hence our
regulation as to
selling liquor to men in uniform. Surely it is a sound principle, both
point of view of morals and of military efficiency. It is folly to
train a man,
equip him, and send him five thousand miles, and then have him rendered
of doing his bit. Such was the first point of my protest, which the
And the second was equally practical, namely,
the food situation as it is, it is not fair to allow a twenty per cent
in the output of brewery supplies on this side. In ordinary times such
an item would
be insignificant, but just now it is as large as a tourist elephant
It does not set well with our people to have wheatless days, sugarless
days, to save food for the Allies, only to have a part of the food thus
their plates made into liquor. Of course our English friends do not
feeling in America in regard to the matter, else they would not do such
and I wanted them to know the facts in the case-how, in a country
which is dry, our people would not think kind thoughts about England
And, as you well know, it is a part of my work
kind of unofficial, fraternal Ambassador to help these two peoples to
each other, and to thing kindly one of another. Indeed, I can see no
the future peace of the world unless England and America do stand
that depends not upon what diplomats do, but upon what the people think
If you can find in these lines an ambassadorial report, well and good ‒
I am so
hard pressed that I cannot write more at the moment.
* * *
By this time you will have received Brother
article on the Comacines, also Brother MacBride's article on the
Lodges. I have the promise of two other articles at once, one by
who wrote the history of the Grand Lodge of England, and an article on
in the War -that is, what the English Lodges are doing in war service,
and so forth.
I shall try to get an article from someone who knows, as to Freemasonry
‒ but I fear we cannot learn much about it. I wish I could do more, but
I am still
unwell and have a hard time to keep going.
How About This?
AS these words are written there is the urge
the stress and strain of the greatest mortal conflict in all history.
France, a torrent of Hun hatred is stemmed but not yet stopped in
savagery by a
slowly stiffening sturdy array of perhaps weary though unwilted and
They are our Allies. Are we theirs?
Well, are we? Yes, I mean you and me, we
of the acknowledged Excelsior among the nations. What are we doing?
Where are we
at? Isn't it our move? Say, here's a thing or two we can get under way
think out some method or agreement on other matters on which we may not
We will say nothing to anybody about peace. We
to win. We will win. Victory, nothing less. First of all, victory! And
want the British or anybody else to hand it to us on a platter. We
don't ask them,
we should not expect them, to pull everything or anything out of the
fire for us.
We can do our share. Nothing less shall be done by us. When we are not
take our own part we don't deserve help from our friends. We must be
more than willing
to help. We have the will power and we will set it to work.
We can do more than buy bonds and stamps. We
others to do likewise. Those of us as ritualists or after-dinner
speakers have now
the chance for which we have long been in training. Lesser lights can
illumination. Let it be known that we are all very willing to serve on
any or all
A real Mason should do a lot more than acquire
and stamps. These are excellent investments. We are mighty poor Masons
if our patriotism
does not get by the purchasing point. Can't we be patriots unless we
Well, that is what it amounts to if we are content to stop at the stage
a mere profitable investment. Figure it out for yourself, and then get
Look over your stock of books. Pick out all
can spare and then hand them to the nearest library for shipment to the
abroad. Many a book you and I can spare easily. Cull them out. They
will do a wonderful
amount of good in cheering those on their road to risk their lives for
you and me.
Having picked out all the books for which you
further use, now select a few more from your collection. There is of
course no especial
merit in giving away only the books that are useless to you. A true
Mason will do
more. Give some books of special worth for you may be sure that someone
them for the reasons that gave them worth to you. If honest to goodness
find in your heart to give away a certain book, then buy another one
for the purpose
of giving it away. You can then retain your copy and you will enrich
reads your gift and you will enjoy your own copy so much the more.
Of all the splendid enterprises that are under
your neighborhood we need not undertake to mention them in detail. All
relief work is in progress. Do your bit. Do it good naturedly. Do it
Above all, be of good cheer. Be a booster,
hinder. Hustle, don't handicap. Clear the way, don't litter it up. We
are a big
nation. We are gaining momentum. We cannot afford to meddle or tinker
in a fussy or frivolous or fault-finding fashion. This is no time to
heave a wrench
into the machinery or pour acid or emery into the bearings. When a
friend is carrying
our basket of eggs we won't scare him into dropping them. We must wish
We must hope all kinds of good luck for him. Yes, we must earnestly and
for him and all who act on our behalf.
For the President of the United States we pray.
him we pray the stalwart and stately statesmanship of Brother George
We pray for him the governmental genius of Brother Thomas Jefferson. We
him the philosophical serenity of Brother Benjamin Franklin. We pray
for him the
judicial prudence of Brother William Howard Taft, and we do pray for
him the intrepid
manly courage of Brother Theodore Roosevelt. Amen.
Solace – [A Poem]
is a balm for
bitterness, there is a cure for pain,
There is a solace for the heart whatever hurt it feels,
There is an altar where a man can build his faith again
And feel the very hand of God upon him when he kneels.
The woodland way, the woodland world, is waiting heavy hearts,
God's hospital among the trees beneath the sky and stars;
And in that hospice in the woods the hurt of old departs
And leaves no mark upon the man but badge of honest scars.
When doubt assassinates your faith, when hope shall hope no more,
When with the load of little things or larger things accurst,
Get out beneath the evergreen beside the singing shore
And find the world still the world it has been from the first.
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
The object of this Department is to acquaint
with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the best
now being published; and with such non-Masonic books as may especially
Masons. The Library Editor will be very glad to render any possible
studious individuals or to Study Clubs and Lodges, either through this
or by personal correspondence; if you wish to learn something
concerning any book
‒ what is its nature, what is its value, or how it may be obtained ‒ be
ask him. If you have read a book which you think is worth a review
write us about
it; if you desire to purchase a book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get
no charge for the service. Make this your Department of Literary
"Freemasonry in America
Prior To 1750"
BEFORE a building can be erected materials must
by the same token it is facts that compose a history and often is it
that the gathering
of facts is the larger half of the task. Brother Melvin Johnson's book,
[Lib 1916] recently published
under the above title by the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, of which he
Master at time of writing, is not a history, but it contains materials
Prior to 1717 there were no "duly-constituted"
Lodges of Freemasons; with very few exceptions, all were Freemasons "at
Not being under the jurisdiction of any Grand Lodges most of the bodies
before 1717 were very careless in keeping records for which reason the
through which the historian must make his way are enough to drive one
mad. But there
were some records, scattered miscellaneously through old books,
and through all these dismembered materials Brother Johnson has made
his way, gathering
together with loving care all such data as may be of permanent value.
are now put into permanent form and made ready for nation-wide
better for students who are to come; and it is a book which such
students will do
well to get, for it will save them from a deal of labor and innumerable
fact and theory.
There is here, needless to say, no room for any
review of the contents of a book in which the contents are so
as in the present case, but the reader will be interested to know that
researches have led him to grant the palm of priority to Massachusetts
to Pennsylvania. The author is himself a citizen of Boston, and "no
of no mean city," and it may be that the Philadelphians will hope to
some bias in his arguments; if so they must make good their contention
the facts on which Brother Johnson has built his argument. Those facts,
by him, are as follows:
Freemason definitely known to be in the Western Hemisphere was Governor
Belcher of Massachusetts Bay Colony, in 1705.
- The earliest
use in America, in writing or in print, of the word "Freemason," so far
as is now known, was in the "Boston News Letter" for January 5, 1718-9.
- The first
Lodge meetings in America of which we may speak with any degree of
were held in King's Chapel, Boston, in 1720.
- The first
known American newspaper account relating to Freemasonry was published
May 25, 1727.
- The first
known Warrant, Deputation, Commission, or other authority, issuing from
Lodge of England or its Grand Master (or from any other Masonic
officer, for that matter) to be exercised in America was that (April
13, 1733) by
virtue of which Hemy Price founded a Provincial Grand Lodge in Boston,
- The first
particular Lodge in America to be duly constituted was the First Lodge
July 30, 1733.
- The first
Lodge in America to be registered by the Grand Lodge of England in the
list of Lodge was the First Lodge in Boston.
- The first
Masonic officer in the Western World to have jurisdiction over the
whole of North
America was Henry Price, whose authority was extended thus broadly in
- The first
exercise of any Masonic authority in America of the right to grant
powers was the appointment of Benjamin Franklin as "Provincial Grand
of the Province of Pennsylvania," February 21, 1734-5, by Henry Price,
Master of His Majesty's Dominions in North America.”
first independent Grand Lodge in America was Massachusetts
Grand Lodge, which organized and declared its independence on March 8,
Prior to 1733, there had been meetings of
Boston, Philadelphia, and elsewhere in the Colonies. Before 1721 such
been regular. After 1721 they were neither regular nor duly-constituted
of July 30,1733. Therefore, in studying organized, duly-constituted
in America, it more than ever seems certain that Henry Price was, as he
the founder of duly-constituted Masonry in America and that the Grand
Lodge of Massachusetts
is the first among her equals of the Western Hemisphere.
If some advocate for the priority of
to make a reply we shall be glad to place the columns of THE BUILDER at
(Editor's Note: "Freemasonry in
to 1750, [Lib 1917]” in substantial
blue buckram binding, 225 pages, may be obtained through the
Price $1.36, postpaid.)
The Question Box
THE BUILDER is an open forum for free and
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a
of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one
school of Masonic
thought as over against another; but offers to all alike a medium for
and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits. The
and Correspondence Column are open to all members of the Society at all
of any nature on Masonic subjects are earnestly invited from our
those connected with Lodges or Study Clubs which are following our
Course of Masonic Study." When requested, questions will be answered
by mail before publication in this department.
The French Lodge "Les
Neuf Soeurs" (The Nine Sisters)
In Gould's "Recollections of My Life," he
refers to the French Lodge "Les Neuf Soeurs" at some length.
It seems to have been a cradle of Liberty and the means by which
was enabled to secure the influence of France in behalf of the American
in their struggle for Liberty. As it was, as the name implies, a Lodge
brilliant men, I thought perhaps a short history of the Lodge and its
members might have been published and it was to ascertain this and, if
to secure an English edition of the book, that I wrote you.
There was an ancient Lodge in Paris by the name
Neuf Soeurs " (The Nine Sisters.)
In 1897 Louis Amiable [Lib 1897 (French)] published at Paris "Une Loge
Maconnique d'Avant 1789. La R.L. Les Neuf
Soeurs." The book contains 399 pages.
In December, 1904, there was published in the
Magazine, an article by S.H. Amo (George F. Moore, then editor of the
now Grand Commander of the Supreme Council) entitled "Les Neuf Soeurs
Nine Sisters) An Old-Time French Lodge."
It was in this Lodge that Voltaire was
Franklin taking a prominent part in the ceremony. Franklin affiliated
Lodge and for two years was "Venerable ' (Master) of the same. On the
of Voltaire he acted as Senior Warden of the Lodge of Sorrow held in
This Lodge held Franklin in such esteem that it
a medal in his honor, of which a copy, supposed to be the only one now
belongs to the Provincial Grand Lodge of Mecklenburg. John Paul Jones
was also a
member of this celebrated Lodge. The Library of the Supreme Council
a copy of the book by Louis Amiable.
Wm. L. Boyden,
District of Columbia.
For its peculiar interest to our members at
we reprint the article mentioned by Brother Boyden, from the December,
of the New Age Magazine:
On the day before his death Louis Amiable
work entitled Une Loge Maconnique d'Avant 1789. La R. L. Les Neuf
He died at Aix on January 23, 1897. Formerly
the Fifth District of the City of Paris, Councillor of the Court of
Appeal at Aix-en-Provence,
he was a distinguished lawyer, scholar, author, and Freemason.
Among his writings are L'Egypte
Ancienne et la Franc-Maçonnerie [Lib*], Le Mission de la
He published other works about Freemasonry, and
from his history of the "Nine
Sisters" we derive the facts given in this paper. It appeared in 1897,
has not been translated into English.
The Lodge, Neuf Soeurs, was founded in 1776 by
astrotomer Jerome de la Lalande (Lelande) and nine other Masons. The nine brethren were:
1. Abbe Cordier de Saint Firmin.
2. La Changeux.
3. Abbe Robin, Canon.
4. Chevalier de Cubieres.
5. Fallet, Secretary of the Gazette of France.
6. De Cailhava.
8. Chauvet, of the Bordeaux Aeademy of Sciences.
9. De Parny, Equerry of the Queen.
The Abbe Cordier de Saint Firmin was born at
in 1730 and died at Paris in 1816. He was one of its most zealous
members, and was
connected with the Lodge during the whole of his long life. He was an
but was described as a "man of letters" in 1806 on the Tableau of the
officers and members.
In 1762 he published a tragedy entitled
in 1793 a comedy La Jeune Esclave ou Les Français a Tunis (The Young
Slave, or the
French in Tunis). He wrote, and read in the Lodge, numerous historical
Voltaire was initiated as a Freemason on the
of March 7, 1778, in the Lodge Neuf Soeurs. Lalande presided, assisted
by the Count
de Strogonoff (Privy Councillor and Chamberlain of the Empress of
Russia), as Senior
The Abbe Cordier de Saint Firmin having
to speak, declared that he presented Voltaire for initiation, saying
that such an
assembly of literary men and Freemasons should be flattered by the wish
by the most celebrated man in France to be admitted into the bosom of
He also expressed his hope that the great age and the feeble health of
Neophyte would be carefully regarded during his reception. Lalande, the
Master, appointed a committee of nine members to receive and prepare
This committee consisted of the Count de Strogonoff, Chairman, de
of Meslay, Mercier, Marquis de l'Ort, Abbe Brignon, Abbe Remy, Fabroni
and de Fresne.
The candidate was introduced by the Chevalier de Villars, Master of
and entered the hall accompanied by Benjamin Franklin and Court de
The candidate's answers to the questions on
and morality put to him by Lalande were of such a character that the
could scarcely restrain an outburst of applause.
King Louis XVI was a Freemason. On the first of
1775, the Lodge le Militaire-des-Trois-Freres-Unis was founded "at the
of the court," for the king and his two brothers, the Count of Provence
the Count d'Artois.
The king disliked Voltaire, and was greatly
because of his initiation and the respect shown him by the Lodge of the
and for the imposing funeral ceremonies which were celebrated on
November 28, 1778,
in honor of his memory.
It was on this occasion that the Abbe Cordier
Firmin, who had proposed Voltaire for initiation, announced that Madame
the Marchioness de Villette wished to be admitted and to witness the
Their request was granted.
Before the Lodge closed the annual request for
to assist the poor students of the university was made, and the Abbe
Firmin proposed that five hundred books should be deposited with a
notary to be
used in promoting the education of the first poor child born afterwards
in the parish
of Saint Sulpice.
At the banquet which followed the ceremonies,
Franklin was present, and represented "the Thirteen States of North
Louis XVI was, as we have said, a Mason, and
not wish to set the Civil Law in motion against the Lodge. But through
tried to strike it a heavy blow.
The Chamber of Administration of the Grand
that the Lodge had permitted women in the hall of the Grand Orient at
the time of
a ceremony for which all the brethren present had put on their Masonic
Complaint was also made of the publicity given to a Masonic festival at
and of the publication in the national and foreign doings of the Lodge.
however, was the alleged reading during Masonic labor of literary works
said to be non-Masonic, and so bad that complaints had reached the
religion and the police.
The reasons given for disciplining the Lodge
these things might serve as a pretext for a general persecution of all
in France, which, though very unjust, might have the appearance of
being well founded.
Lalande demanded the right to answer the
writing. Then the antagonists of the Lodge hesitated and wavered. By a
vote of 10
to 1 the affair was ordered terminated.
Still the Lodge was vexed and annoyed by petty
for several months. It held a Lodge of Adoption, and the Abbe Cordier
de Saint Firmin,
prominent and zealous as usual, secured some candidates ‒ two ladies ‒
initiated on that occasion.
The charter of the Lodge was about to be
suspended as Master for six months, and the Abbe for a like period for
in the affair, and all the other members for twenty-four days. The
decree was actually
made arresting the charter and suspending the members for various
periods. The Grand
Lodge, however, reversed this action as to all the Brethren except the
de Saint Firmin, who was made the scapegoat. Finally "the good Abbe
unhurt from this judicial test."
There were twenty-one "Ecclesiastics" who
were members of the Lodge which initiated Voltaire and which honored
him by the
funeral ceremonies six months after his death.
Cordier de Saint Firmin, who participated in
of the Atelier, was not only zealous, but was considered as the
of the Lodge.
Long before that time (1778) the Bulls of Pope
XII [Lib 1738] (1738)
and of Pope Benedict XIV [Lib 1751] had been issued. In these
fraternity of Freemasons had been formally and solemnly condemned.
Says Amiable: "But then there existed in our
a Gallican Church which did not receive orders from the Jesuits, nor
was it the
slave of the Roman court.
"'Our Abbes were better Gallicans than to feel
themselves smitten by the Papal Anathemas which had not been
in France, and were devoid of all legal effect."
Pierre Nicholas Le Changeux was born at Orleans
26th, 1740, and died in Paris October 3,1800. He was a man of letters
and a savant.
At the age of twenty-two he published an important work, Traite des
Elements de la Science de la Realite [Lib 1767; Vol 1, Vol 2; (French)] (Treatise
Concerning Extremes or Elements of the Science of Reality.) It was
original thought and philosophical ideas. In 1773 he published his
Grammaticale ou Nouveaux Memoires Sur La Parole et Sur l’Ecriture [Lib 1773 (French)] (Grammatical
Library or New Memoirs on Speech and Writing.) Le Changeux was a
physician, a physiologist,
and a botanist. He published the results of his investigations from
1778 to 1782
in the Journal of Physics of the Abbe Rozier, another very zealous
was, from its origin, one of the principal members of the Grand Orient.
Science owes to Le Changeux the apparatus for
meteorological variations. He announced this invention in his two works
in 1781, La Barometographie et autres Machines Meteorologiques and
l'Art d'Observer d'Une Maniere Commode et Utile les Phenomenes de
[Lib*] He appears as Junior Warden (Second Surveillant,) in the Tableau
and is described as "of the Academy of Arts of London."
The Abbe Robin, who is third on the list of the
was, to use our American phrase, also a charter member of the Lodge.
several ecclesiastics who bore the name of Robin, and hence their
been confused by many authors. We do not know where he was born, nor
when he was
initiated, but we know that in 1779 he published a work with the title
sur les Initiations Anciennes et Modernes [Lib 1779 (French)] (Investigations
of Ancient and Modern Initiations.) This book evinces great zeal for
is not strong in its learning, especially in that which relates to the
of Ancient Egypt. The author also worked on the hypothesis that
its origin in Chivalry.
There is reason to believe that the Masonic
between the Abbe Robin and Benjamin Franklin caused the Abbe to be
to the French Exposition which was sent to America.
In 1782 the Abbe published his
Voyage dans l'Amerique Septentrional en 1781 et Campagne de l'Armee de
M. Le Comte
Rochambeau (Voyage in North America), and in 1807 published a (
work with the title Voyage dans l'Interieur de la Louisiana, de la
et dans les iles de la Martinique et de Saint Dominigue pendant les
1802, 1804, 1805, and 1806. [Lib 1810/11, Vol 1, Vol 2 (German)] After
his return to France he resumed his place in the Lodge of which he had
of the founders. His name appears as an honorary member on the Tableau
* * *
Papish Bulls Against Freemasonry
I would like to know when the Catholic church
its edict against the Masonic Fraternity. A Past Master of a local
Lodge has stated
that "his reverence," James Cardinal Gibbons, was a member of the
and became a Knight Templar, before such an edict was passed. From what
I have read
the Roman church fought the Fraternity long before Gibbons was born.
In Brother Albert Pike's famous reply [Lib 1884] to the letter of
Pope Leo XIII, called "Humanum Genus," [Lib 1884] we find the following:
"The Bull in eminenti of Clement XII dated 27th
April, 1738, [Lib 1738] confirmed
and renewed by that beginning Providas [Lib 1751] of Benedict
XIV, 17th May, 1751;
"The edict of Pius VII, in 1821 [Lib 1821], and the Apostolic
edict Quo Graviora of Leo XII in 1826 [Lib 1826]; with those of Pius VII in
1829 [Lib 1829]; Gregory the XVI
in 1832 [Lib 1832], and Pius
IX in 1846 [Lib 1846], 1864
[Lib 1864], 1928
[Lib 1928]. (See also Leo
1881 [Lib 1881] and 1882 [Lib
1882] - rhm)
"The title of Bull in Eminenti by Clement XII
'condemnatio Societatis seu Conventiculorum de Libre Muratori, seu the
under the penalty ipso facto incurred, of ex-communication; absolution
except in articulo mortis, being reserved to the Supreme Pontiff."
You are quite right about these Bulls being old
Cardinal Gibbons was born. We think, however, that your informant is
to the Cardinal having taken the Masonic degrees. He was born of Irish
Baltimore, in 1834, but shortly afterward removed to Ireland where he
about seventeen years of age. He was a clerk before he became a Romish
and took his first orders of priesthood in 1861.
Pike says that by a Papal brief, issued in
1760, the Father Joseph Torrubia, pro-censor and revisor of the
authorized to procure initiation into Masonry, to take all the oaths
be required of him, and to use every means possible to acquire the most
knowledge of the membership of the Freemasonry of Spain.
In March, 1751, Torrubia, having taken,
sinfulness," the oaths required and having been initiated, put into the
of the great Inquisitor the ninety-seven lists of membership of Lodges
at that time
in existence in Spain, and in consequence of this, the King of Spain,
VI decreed, on July 2, 1751, the complete suppression of the Masonic
and prescribed the punishment of death without any form of preliminary
against all who should be convicted of belonging to it.
The anti-Masonic Congress at Trent, in 1896,
years ago,) was convened with the approval of the Pope, and was
attended by two
hundred or more Bishops. A report of this meeting may be found in
article on "Freemasonry in France," in the April number of THE BUILDER.
Masonry in the Philippines
We are taught that all Masons are brothers and
Masonry binds all nations together into one common family. The black
and white squares
can be seen upon the floors in the Lodge rooms of all Lodges working
under the jurisdiction
of Spain, Portugal and Scotland, but I am sorry to say we only see them
canvas in America. These black and white squares signify that Masonry
all Nations whether black or white, brown or yellow, and I used to
was universally recognized the world over but I have found out by
that I was mistaken.
Masonry was founded upon the best laws the
ever known and we teach them to our candidates but, Brothers, do we
we teach? No, I must say we do not. In November, 1916, when I left
were six Lodges there working under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge
of the Philippine
Islands. There is one Lodge in Manila working under the jurisdiction of
Lodge of Scotland, another one working under the jurisdiction of the
of Portugal and a large number of Spanish Lodges. There are two
or Grand Lodges in Spain, one is recognized by England and Scotland and
is considered clandestine. The Grand Lodges of Spain and Portugal are
by any of the Grand Lodges of the United States,* and of course when
first went over to the Philippines they were forbidden to visit or hold
intercourse with either of these Lodges. One can hear all kinds of
rumors why we
do not recognize these Lodges, but the only one that I heard that may
have had any
grounds for its utterance was that they did not have the Bible in the
Under the Spanish law it was worth a man's life to try to bring the
Bible to the
Islands. Missionaries tried several times to do so but they were
the Custom House, the men were imprisoned, and death would have been
to the treatment they received.
When General Aguinaldo was captured, one of his
was given a Bible. He was very much delighted over it, he said he had
a Bible, but had never seen one before. The Lodges had to meet in
first in one place and then in another and often going out of the city
behind haystacks. They were hunted down like criminals because they
to meet as a Masonic body and learn some of the blessed truths that our
Under these circumstances would you condemn them if they did not always
Bible with them?
Since the Americans entered the Islands in
is no excuse for not having the Bible and I want to say that they
always do have
one. It was no farther back than 1914 that one of the Padres in the
of Luzon gave a picture show and the price of admission was a copy of
the New Testament
which the American Bible Society had distributed to the people and
after the show
he called all the people to an open space and made a big bonfire and
the Testaments. These people are just as true Masons as we are and it
is only some
petty technicalities of Masonic rules that keep our Grand Lodges from
them. The Grand Lodges of the United States recognize the Grand Lodges
(*According to the List of the Masonic
of the World, issued by the Masonic Relief Association of the United
Canada, the Grand Lodge of Portugal, "Grand Orient Lusitania Unido
Council," is recognized by the Grand Lodges of Arkansas, Canada and
and the Grand Spanish Orient is recognized by the Grand Lodge of the
Columbia. ‒ EDITOR.)
The Grand Lodges of England and Scotland
Grand Lodges of Spain and Portugal and I know of no logical reason why
not recognize them.
A great many Officials in the Philippines,
the Supreme Court and many of the other Judges and Officials including
warrior General Aguinaldo are numbered among the Masons. I have sat in
Lodge and in the Chapter with Vice Governor Martin and I had the
pleasure of being
present and seeing Gov. Gen. Harrison raised a short time before I left
was present that night in the East, Masters and Past Masters and
leading men of
the Islands, of all the prominent Lodges in the Islands working under
of the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands, the Grand Lodge of
Scotland, the Grand
Lodge of Spain, and the Grand Lodge of Portugal. This kind of a
have been impossible a few years ago. It was through the untiring
efforts of Judge
Hervey and a few more broad-minded men of his type that the Grand Lodge
of the Philippine
Islands was organized and this gathering made possible.
The fourth Lodge organized under the
the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands was organized for and
composed of Filipinos,
except three or four Americans who organized it. They open their Lodge
and do all
their work in English and they are doing remarkably well.
It was hard to make the Filipino people
the Grand Lodge was organized for them because they were not asked to
it. Owing to the Masonic Laws the Americans could not hold Masonic
the Spanish or Portuguese Lodges so the only way to effect a union was
a Grand Lodge and then invite them to come in and join it, and this is
did. They did not recognize them officially but they tolerated them,
that is, they
visited them and invited them to visit our Lodges. The leading members
Portuguese Lodge and a good many of the leading men of the Spanish
Lodges were in
favor of coming into our Grand Lodge but there were a good many that
were not. They
were so long under the Spanish law where there was nothing but greed,
and oppression that their first thought was some kind of a trick to get
become subject to our Grand Lodge, but when they were told there were
only six Lodges
under our jurisdiction and they could easily get twenty Lodges to come
each Lodge having the same power, they did not know what to say.
Masonry is doing more today to teach the
American ideals of Democracy than any other organization. By its
motives it is aiding our Government more than you have any idea in
molding and guiding
the thoughts and lives of that little body of leading men who are
working out the
destiny of the Islands.
In behalf of Masonry at large and especially in
Philippine Islands, I earnestly hope that every Grand Lodge in the
will encourage the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands by recognizing
do everything possible to encourage them in their broad views of
Masonry and thus
help our weaker Brothers.
* * *
Degree Work by Military
I have reviewed with much interest the position
by the various Grand Masters in relation to granting dispensations for
the Army and particularly authorizing such Lodges to initiate
Personally I do not favor such dispensations,
view of the fact that in some cases the same are being granted, it
occurs to me
that where initiation is permitted it should be only after the petition
submitted to the home Lodge of the soldier for determination. That is
to say, his
home Lodge should pass upon his qualifications and if found to be a
for the mysteries of Freemasonry it should then request the Army Lodge
the degrees. This would, I believe, be a very important safeguard
against the admission
of undesirable material.
A. M. Jackley,
* * *
The First Degree
The first degree is essentially a degree or
of purification. It is the first step the candidate must take if he
the mystic ladder that Jacob saw in his dream.
If we believe in evolution, and most of us do,
recognize that the path of our evolution is along the lines of our
the evolution of our latent goodness. There is a germ of goodness, of
in the breast of every human being, which by cultivation and education
can be developed
into light and power.
Just as the oak is in the acorn, so is the
in the average man of today. And as culture is necessary to develop the
the oak, so is education and cultivation necessary to unfold the
goodness that is
latent in every man.
The three degrees in Blue Lodge Masonry
ascent of man from the unregenerate and materialistic being to a
‒ the master-builder of character and manhood. It is Jacob's ladder or
path of man.
But for man to rise into a higher and nobler
he must needs make the first step, or take the First Degree, which is
that of purification.
It is through purification only that man can come or grow into
To become a master-man, master over our
and acts, we must cultivate the latent faculties within ourselves and
base, the mean and evil within us.
That is why we are taught, first of all, to
ourselves of all metallic substances." The metallic substances" or base
metals are the base passions, vices and degrading habits that have
become part of
us. If man is to be refined, to become better, he must give up, get rid
divest himself of his baser self, which is not his real self, but the
rubbish within his temple.
Just as much as it is necessary to remove the
in order to uncover the gold, so is it absolutely essential for man to
of his dross to uncover the gold or goodness within himself.
We are also taught "not to daub with untempered
mortar." Masonry abounds in symbolic emblems of the builders art to
on the mind wise and serious truths" and illustrate moral and practical
Just as in the construction of a temporal building the use of
would endanger its stability, so are we admonished that, in the
building of our
temple of manhood and character leading to a successful life, we "do
with untempered mortar," or base and degrading thoughts and acts. Every
and deed enters into the construction of our manhood, like so many
bricks in the
construction of a structure. Then how careful we as builders or Masons
in the construction of our manhood. Shall we choose well-tempered
mortar of love,
kindness, forgiveness, or shall it be the selection of "untempered
of hate, anger, and would pull our structure down?
The common gavel teaches us to "divest our
and consciences of all the vices and superfluities of life, thereby
minds as living stones, for that spiritual building, that house not
made with hands,
eternal in the heavens." The "gavel" is our will-power, directed
by our minds. It is through our will-power directed by our enlightened
we can free ourselves from undesirable conditions.
Man is dual, being both good and bad. There is
struggle between the good and the bad in man. The evil in him does not
give up without
a struggle. If he is a slave to some passion, it takes strength of
the repeated exercise of it for that man to free himself of his vice.
that we exercise our will-power, our "common gavel," for good, for our
upbuilding, do we further increase this will-power, obtain strength of
develop manhood and character. This will enable us to be successful in
walk of life. Remember, therefore, that the "gavel" is your free-will,
and it is a "common gavel," for it is "common" to all. Every
man is endowed with this inestimable gift by God.
How careful we must be in our living, if we are
worthy to wear the lamb-skin or white leathern apron, as an emblem of
"The lamb has in all ages been deemed an emblem of innocence; he,
who wears the lambskin is constantly reminded of that purity of life
which is so essentially necessary to his gaining admission into the
above where the Supreme Architect of the universe presides." Let the
leathern apron always remind us that our lives must be blameless,
spotless and free
from sin and wrong-doing.
Power or force is in itself unmoral; but it
moral or immoral depending on the direction of its application. Our
acts are moral or immoral depending upon what uses we put them to.
Thus we see that the First Degree abounds in
language which is positive in its instruction. It teaches a positive
a positive living of a life. The symbolic language in its literal sense
has no meaning,
and it never was intended for the craft to stop short at its literal
Those who originated the institution of Freemasonry used this symbolic
to hide from the profane and yet reveal to the initiated profound
truths and practical
instruction for our rule and guide in our daily living. The lessons in
are eminently practical. It is practical to be good, to be free from
vices and passion;
for it lead to power, to health, to a long and successful life. And it
to be a slave to vices, to degrading habits; for they sap our strength,
leading to disease, failure and untimely death.
Therefore we see that the First Degree is the
step a candidate should take, and that is Purification. Have you taken
step? If not, why not?
Bro. A. W.
Witt, in the Kansas City Freemason
Textbook of Masonic Jurisprudence
Mac721 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : Clark, Maynard,
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An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
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Bibliotheque Grammaticale Abrégée
Cha73 / auth. Changeux Pierre N. - Paris : Lacombe, 1773. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 346. - French - 16.7 MB.
Bull - Auspicato Concessum
Pop82 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1882. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 10. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Diuturnum
Pop81 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1881. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 14. - 0.3 MB.
Bull - Ecclesiam
Pop21 / auth. Pope Pius VII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1821. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 6. - 0.3 MB.
Bull - Humanum Genus
Pop84 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1884. - Vol. 1
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Bull - In Eminenti
Pop38 / auth. Pope Clement XII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1738. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 4. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Mirari Vos
Pop32 / auth. Pope
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Bull - Mortalium Animos
Pop28 / auth. Pope Pius XI. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1928. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 9. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Providas Romanorum
Pop51 / auth. Pope Benedict XIV. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1751. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 6. - 0.3 MB.
Bull - Quanta Cura
Pop64 / auth. Pope
Pius IX. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1864. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 10. - 0.2
Bull - Qui Pluribus
Pop46 / auth. Pope
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Bull - Quo Graviora
Pop26 / auth. Pope Leo XII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1826. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 22. - 0.2 MB.
Bull - Traditi Humiliati
Pop29 / auth. Pope Pius VIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1829. - Vol. 1
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Cra26 / auth. Crawley Chetwode. - 1726. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 20. - 2.0 MB.
Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
Freemasonry In America Prior To
Joh16 / auth. Johnson Melvin M. - Cambridge : Caustic-Claflin Co.,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 242. - 4.7 MB.
Historical Landmarks Vol 1
Oli46 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1846. - Vol. 1
: 2 : p. 573. - 26.2 MB.
Historical Landmarks Vol 2
Oli461 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1846. - Vol.
2 : 2 : p. 780. - 44.1 MB.
Humanum Genus Reply
Pik84 / auth. Pike Albert. - [s.l.] : AASR, 1884. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 40.
- 37.1 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre12 / auth. Preston William. - Unknown : [s.n.], 1812. - 12th Edition
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Recherches sur les Initiations
Rob79 / auth. Robin Charles C. - Paris : Vallaire l'aine, 1779. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 174. - French - 6.5 MB.
Reisen nach dem Innern von
Louisiana Vol 1
Rob11RL1 / auth. Robin Charles C. - Wien : B Ph Bauer, 1811. - Vol. 1 :
2 : p. 352. - German - 12.9 MB.
Reisen nach dem Innern von
Louisiana Vol 2
Rob10RL2 / auth. Robin Charles C. - Wien : B Ph Bauer, 1810. - Vol. 2 :
2 : p. 443. - German - 18.7 MB.
Mac141 / auth. Macbride A S. - Glasgow : D. Gilfillan & Co.,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 283. - 18.6 MB.
The Freemason's Treasury
Oli63 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Bro. R. Spencer, 1863. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 393. - 12.4 MB.
The Symbol of Glory
Oli50 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1850. - Vol. 1
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Traité des Extrêmes Vol 1
Cha67TE1 / auth. Changeux Pierre N. - Amsterdam : Darkstee &
Merkus, 1767. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 547. - 20.4 MB.
Traité des Extrêmes Vol 2
Cha67TE2 / auth. Changeux Pierre N. - Amsterdam : Darkstee &
Merkus, 1767. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 446. - 12.2 MB.
Loge Maçonnique d'avant 1789; La R.L. Les Neuf Soeurs
Ami97 / auth. Amiable Louis / ed. Alcan Felix. - Paris : Ancienne
Librairie Germer Bailliere & Cie., 1897. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 416.
- 22.8 MB - French.