Masonic Research Society
of George Washington
By Bro. George W. Baird,
P.G.M., District of Columbia
IN the Grand Lodge Proceedings of South
1915, on page 231, Brother W. S. Seipp, Senior Grand Warden of the
Grand Lodge of
Maryland, is quoted as saying that on a certain occasion the children
of a certain
Grand Master were entertaining some of their schoolmates, when the name
Washington was mentioned and it was said among other things that he was
To the surprise of the good Grand Master, one
guests said "Oh, no! George Washington was a Catholic," and on being
stated further "that the brightest scholars in the world, the holy
had taught them in a parochial school that the immortal George was not
only a Catholic
but that he, as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, had ordered mass to be
day in camp!"
Occasionally the question of the religion of
George Washington has been raised and such claims as the above
asserted, which if
repeated often enough may be believed. If we sanction by silence such
we will only have ourselves to blame.
Of course, if children of parochial school age
such falsehoods, it is no wonder that they should regard the rest of us
all their lives. The mind is more plastic in the primary school age,
than ever after
and if the "holy fathers" get in their work on children at that age it
is not difficult to understand the reason for their superstition and
to sorcery and to fairy tales, and it is also plainly to be seen why
opposed to our American public school system.
Washington was brought up in the Episcopalian
and always attended that church. He was at one time a vestryman of
and was also a vestryman of Christ Church in Alexandria. These are
matters of church
record and evidences of his prominence in the Episcopalian faith.
The grandmother of the writer was thirteen
age when Washington died and we well remember hearing her tell that she
Pohick church on at least one occasion, and she was positive that
was particularly devout in his worship and in his responses during this
History does not record that Washington
mass to be said in the camps every day," but from a Catholic authority
of Liberty, v. II, p. 145) we read of his suppressing the "Pope's Day"
in camp, i.e. the anniversary on which the Pope was burned in effigy in
camps of the Revolutionary Army. This practice of burning the Pope in
these camps is evidence of the esteem in which his holiness was held in
Grief was nation-wide when Washington died. He
in high esteem; almost idolized by the people. All churches, including
held memorial services, but in the last named the services were
would not have been the case had they believed that Washington was of
For example, in the circular of Bishop Carrol to his clergy, on the
the death of General Washington, he advises them "not to form their
on the model of a funeral sermon, but rather to compose an oration such
be delivered at an Academy, and on a plan bearing some resemblance to
that of Saint
Ambrose on the death of the young Emperor Valentine, who was deprived
of life before
his initiation into our church, but who had discovered in his early age
of those extraordinary qualities which expanded themselves in
Washington, and flourished
with so much luster during a life of unremitting exertion and eminent
"If these discourses shall be delivered in
where the holy sacraments are usually kept it would be proper to remove
due honor, to some decent place."
It has been claimed that Bishop Carroll was an
friend of Washington, though none of Washington's historians even
fact. There is no record of an acquaintance between them until
was invited to distribute the premiums at the commencement exercises of
College, in Georgetown, of which Bishop Carrol was president. But it is
that the Bishop would not have caused the holy vessels to be removed
from the churches
during the memorial services, had he not regarded Washington as a
About four years ago there were printed in
stories on the subject from which the American Citizen has quoted. One
is as follows:
Washington, father and first president of our country, was not a
Catholic, yet he
is said to have kept always hanging over his bed a picture of the
which is still to be seen in its old place at Mount Vernon. There is
also a tradition
that on the night of his death, Father Neale, S.J., of the Maryland
hurriedly sent for, and rowed across the Potomac, where he remained for
with the dying Patriot * *."
The Potomac river at Mount Vernon is a good
and the accompanying map, made in 1795, shows no trail nor road
anywhere near that
point of the river on the Maryland side, so the priest did not row
across at that
point. We cannot find record of any Romish church in Maryland nearer
than St. Inigoes
at that time, and from the U. S. Catholic Historic Magazine, v. I, p.
333, we find
Father Neale, S. J., was stationed there.
The map, used as this month's frontispiece, was
from surveys made in 1795, and it shows every road, path and trail in
and St. Marys County, by which his reverence might travel. Port Tobacco
may possibly have been a Romish church) was the nearest town in
Maryland but there
was no road thence to the Potomac except via Matawoman Creek, from
which point there
is a waterway fifteen miles in length, after a ride of about eighteen
From Port Tobacco by water it is thirty-five
and from St. Inigoes by water, it is nearly seventy-five miles to Mount
The assumption is, therefore, that the inventor of the fairy story
name of Father Neale as being in Maryland, and used this fact to fit
into his story.
Alexandria is on the Virginia side of the
only about six miles from Mount Vernon. There was a good bridle-path
Vernon to Alexandria which Washington himself often rode, which must
have been familiar
to the inhabitants of Fairfax County, and as there was a Romish church
it would have been so much more convenient to send there. More than
was but fourteen miles away, with a good bridle-path all the way, and
(who is claimed to have been a friend of Washington) was stationed at
Travel, at that time, was mostly by the river*
horseback. Trails for bridle-paths were cut through the woods, which
the many hills; for it would seem the path-finders found the distance
over a hill
shorter than around it. The river is tortuous and the channel narrow.
no steam-boats in those days and the tides, the fickle winds and the
made river travel slow. Then, let us inquire, how could Father Neale,
sent for in
a hurry, reach Mount Vernon, "spend four hours with the dying Patriot,"
and leave with no one at Mount Vernon knowing anything about it?
This alleged tradition places the remarkable
the night of Washington's death, when Mrs. Washington, private
Lear, Doctor Craik and the servants were in the house and in the room
(for the General
was not left alone for a moment) and if there were any truth in the
story it could
not possibly have been kept secret. We believe that the Romanists, more
other people, are the most ready to announce their acquisitions and
The diary of the private secretary of General
Colonel Tobias Lear, has been in print for many years and has never
It was written at the time, on the spot, and has so often been verified
has never been a doubt of its correctness. Colonel Lear wrote:
"During his whole illness he spoke but seldom
with great difficulty and distress and in so low and broken a voice as
hardly to be understood. His patience, fortitude and resignation never
for a moment. In all his distress he uttered not a sigh nor complaint,
(from a sense of duty) to take what was offered to him and to do what
by his physicians.
"At the time of his decease Doctor Craik and
were in the situation before mentioned. Mrs. Washington and Charlotte
were in the
room, standing near the door; Mrs. Forbes, the housekeeper was
frequently in the
room during the day and the evening.
"As soon as Doctor Craik could speak, after the
distressing scene was closed, he desired one of the servants to ask the
below to come upstairs. When they came to the bedside, I kissed the
head I held
in my bosom, laid it down and went to the other side of the room where
I was for
some time lost in profound grief, until aroused by Christopher desiring
the General's keys and other things which were taken out of his pockets
Mrs. Washington directed him to give to me. I wrapped them in the
and took them with me to my room. "About twelve o'clock the corpse was
down-stairs and laid out in the large room.
"Sunday, Dec. 5, 1799.
"The foregoing statement, so far as I can
is correct. "James Craik."
Thus we have the statement of Colonel Lear
by Doctor Craik, the attending physician. Continuing his diary, Colonel
he "wrote letters to the President, General Hamilton, General Pinkney,
* The writer is
familiar with the river, and is descended from ancestors
who were actively engaged in river traffic at this period. Bushrod
Pell, Captain Hammond and also John Lewis, desiring him to inform his
Robert and Howell * * *." Mrs. Stewart was sent for. In the morning
o'clock Mr. Thomas Peter came down; and about two o'clock Mr. and Mrs.
Craik tarried all day and night. In the evening I consulted with Mr.
and Mrs. Law,
Mr. Peter and Doctor Craik, on fixing the day for depositing the body
in the vault.
I wished the ceremony to be postponed until the last of the week, to
give time for
some of the General's relatives to be here. But Doctor Craik and Mr.
it decidedly as their opinion that considering the disorder of which
died, being of an inflammatory nature, it would not be proper nor
to keep the body so long and therefore Wednesday was fixed upon to
allow a day (Thursday)
in case the weather should be unfavorable on Wednesday."
The diary for Wednesday shows that "about two
the procession began to move."
"The arrangements for the procession were made
by Colonels Little and Simms and Mr. Dencale and Mr. Dick. The
Colonels Little, Simms, Gilpin, Payne, Ramsay and Marstaller. Colonel
preceded the corpse; Colonel Duncale marched with the Militia * * *.
Lodge No. 23,
Corporation of Alexandria and all other persons preceded by Mr.
Anderson and the
overseers. When the body arrived at the vault, the Reverend Mr. Davis
read the service
and pronounced a short extempore speech: the Masons performed their
the body was deposited in the vault."
From among the number of people mentioned and
to by Colonel Lear who were on the Mount Vernon premises at the time of
illness of General Washington, there surely would have been at least
one who would
have known of the alleged visit of a priest if there had been such a
no word nor intimation of such a "presence" is even hinted at by a soul.
Colonel Lear, Doctor Craik and all the
were Masons, but not all of them communicants of the church. I cannot
anyone has claimed that General Washington died a Romanist, but this
has been often
intimated. "It is said" that he kept the picture of the Immaculate
hanging over his bed, but they are careful not to say who said so,
neither can it
be found there nor can anyone be found who has any knowledge of it.
The story of the visit of Father Neale is a
that Colonel Lear, Doctor Craik, Mrs. Washington, the housekeeper and
conspired to conceal that "presence": an accusation which seems to the
writer to be infamous. I would as soon think of accusing the Virgin
Mary as to believe
that Mrs. Washington would be guilty of such deception. Perish the
story that Washington kept a picture of the Immaculate Conception
hanging over his
bed is very doubtful.
The writer has many times visited Mount Vernon
never seen nor heard of any such picture there. Besides this,
Washington died in
1799, and the Immaculate Conception was not decreed by the Church of
1854. It was adopted in the constitution of Pope Piux IX, Ineffabilis
Deus, as follows:
"We define the
doctrine which holds the most blessed Virgin Mary in the first instant
of her conception
to have been preserved from all stain of original sin by the singular
privilege of Almighty God, and through the merits of Jesus Christ," etc.
The artist who is alleged to have made such a
could hardly have anticipated the discovery of the conception
fifty-five years in
advance. Petrograd was called St. Petersburg until 1914, and if a
letter were dated
"Petrograd, 1859," none but the faithful could be induced to believe
A story printed in the National Hiberian in
says that there are more Washingtons in County Roscommon, Ireland, than
in all of
England, and that they all have the same "facial expression" as the
of his Country, the immortal Washington; the intimation being that
Irish. The article was well written and will doubtless be generally
the readers of that paper. Its purpose is evident ‒ keep such a story
in time it may be generally believed, just as was the story taught to
school-girl mentioned at the beginning of this article.
Pohick Church, before referred to, stands on
between Pohick and Accotink creeks a few miles from Mount Vernon. Many
men have worshipped there including Washington, George Mason and John
At the outbreak of the Civil War the congregation of Pohick Church was
the services in the church irregular. The United States Artillery
seized the building,
and used it for a stable; the floors were torn out that the horses
might stand on
soft ground; the windows were broken; the doors unhinged and the holy
away. The place changed hands a number of times during the war and when
captured it they made similar use of it. But when the Civil War was
ended the vestry
of that little church asked Congress for indemnification, but could
The communion service was found in a New York
was redeemed and returned by a New Yorker, but the church was still
The vestry begged for sufficient indemnity to make the building
habitable, but without
Fortunately, however, those noble women who
the Societies of Colonial Dames and Daughters of the American
Revolution, who are
above politics and above sectionalism, placed their dimpled hands in
and produced sufficient funds to rehabilitate the edifice and it is now
for purposes of worship.
I have always believed that when Wolf and
drove the French back across the St. Lawrence river they did more to
and religious liberty on the North American Continent than did our War
Mankind seems to be generally divided between
and the Conservatives; the one is hasty, drastic, aggressive and
other tardy, conciliating, patient and doubting.
Washington was one of the few men who came near
a happy mean between the two. He came of highly respectable and
in Virginia and it is generally believed that his attachment to Masonry
in kindling within him the true spirit of democracy.
I am not certain that he was a communicant of
but it is certain that he was baptized in the Church of England and was
attendant, and it is equally certain that his actions were in accord
with the tenets
By Bro. Alfred S. Eichberg,
33° Hon., Georgia
THE working tools of a Master Mason comprise
tools of the Craft, but more especially the Trowel. The trowel is used
masons to spread the cement which unites the stones of a building into
structure; but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to use it
for the more
noble and glorious purpose of spreading the cement of brotherly love,
us into one close bond of brotherhood, in which no contention can ever
that noble emulation of who can best serve and best agree.
But the trowel has in addition a deeper
Numerical values receive especial attention in Masonry, possibly
was the first of the sciences to help civilize the human race. Geometry
as chief among the seven liberal arts and sciences, ‒ its initial
you. The 47th problem of Euclid is an important symbol in this degree.
The series, three, five and seven, occurs
among the symbols of Masonry, but the number three is most frequent;
the three great
lights, three lesser lights, three degrees in the Blue Lodge, three
the lodge, three stages of human life, three knocks and many other
you will recall. The reason for this prominence is that three is the
symbol of Stability.
Geometry teaches that three points are always
plane and are always in equilibrium.
And this is the philosophic interpretation of
It presents three points. It is the principal working tool of the
not only because it spreads the cement of brotherly love, but also
because the close
bond of brotherhood so constructed must always be in equilibrium and is
But there is yet another reason; the trowel in
of the operative mason is frequently required to remove from the
of the stone, such foreign substances as may have become attached to it
lay among unclean surroundings and which would interfere with its
The irregular block of stone came out of the
‒ that is, the outer world; it entered the Apprentice degree, where by
aid of the
common gavel and the twenty-four inch gauge, it was shaped into a rough
It was then passed to the Fellowcrafts, who, by use of their working
it plumb, square and level and fashioned it into a perfect ashlar.
However perfect an ashlar it may have been,
received the commendation of the Grand Master, through contact with the
superficially acquired vices and faults, which unfit it for a perfect
The trowel in this relation may be regarded as
to the three jewels of the Master degree, Friendship, Morality and
which when worthily worn, so cleanse and purify, that the stone is in
fitted to be raised to its permanent place in the walls of the Temple
The Work – [A Poem]
By Bro John Edmund Barss, Conn.
had passed him; and they cried,
"See how the mists of dawn have kept their rose!
Linger and dream a little." But he said,
"Nay, I must do a man's work in the world,"
And passing, left them.
And the years flowed by,
Bringing him opulence of goods and fame,
Enriched with wife, and children, and success.
Then some besought him: "Rest a little now,
And mark the glory of thy noon-tide sun."
But he, "Not yet: these hours are best for toil,
And I must do a man's work in the world."
Then old age came and walked with him, and one
Whispered, "At last rejoice in thy great deeds;
Take time for satisfaction: Be content."
"And still not yet!" he answered; "all my years
At length have taught me justice, and at length
I know that kindness is man's greatest due
To man: I crave one moment to be kind
To him who was mine enemy long since."
Then out of all the world, in sore distress,
Returned his enemy; and at the last
He gave him succor, and the coals of hate
Died to white ashes, whiter than his hair;
And there sprang up and blossomed for a day
The rose of love between them, like the dawn.
Then death came; and he smiled, "Now may I rest,
For I have done a man's work in the world."
Edited By Bro. George E.
PRESIDENT, THE BOARD OF STEWARDS
Geo. W. Baird, District of Columbia.
Joseph Barnett, California.
John W. Barry, Iowa
Joe L. Carson, Virginia.
Jos. W. Eggleston, Virginia.
Henry R. Evans, District of Columbia.
H. D. Funk, Minnesota.
F. B. Gault, Washington.
Joseph C. Greenfield, Georgia.
Frederick W. Hamilton, Massachusetts.
H. L. Haywood, Iowa.
T. W. Hugo, Minnesota.
M. M. Johnson, Massachusetts.
John G. Keplingel, Illinois.
Harold A. Kingsbury, Connecticut.
Dr. Wm. F. Kuhn, Missouri.
Dr. John Lewin McLeish, Ohio.
Joseph W. Norwood, Kentucky.
Frank E. Noyes, Wisconsin.
John Pickard, Missouri.
C. M. Schenck, Colorado.
Francis W. Shepardson, Illinois.
Silas H. Shepherd, Wisconsin.
Oliver D. Street, Alabama.
H. W. Ticknor, Maryland.
S. W. Williams, Tennessee.
(Contributions to this Monthly
Department of Personal
Opinion are invited from each writer who has contributed one or more
THE BUILDER. Subjects for discussion are selected as being alive in the
of Masonry today. Discussions of politics, religious creeds or personal
are avoided, the purpose of the Department being to afford a vehicle
the personal opinions of leading Masonic students. The contributing
responsibility only for what each writes over his own signature.
Comment from our
Members on the subjects discussed here will be welcomed in the Question
QUESTION NO. 8
Shall Masonic Recreation
Centers or Club Houses Be Established At Each Cantonment
… in the United States and at convenient
in France? If so, shall the Grand Lodges of the United States unite in
of a central committee with power to solicit funds and with power to
centers under the rules and regulations of the War Department? If you
do not favor
the establishment of Masonic Recreation Centers at military camps, what
you favor to aid and relieve the soldiers and sailors in camp?
Favors Masonic Centers.
Most assuredly I do favor Masonic Recreation
in or near the various camps and cantonments of our Army both in this
at the Front. If after the "fuss" we have made we fail to do something
adequate along this line we shall be laughed at and shall deserve to be.
What shall we do and how shall we do it are
problems and call for our best thought. There are some things we should
we should not attempt to duplicate the work of the Y.M.C.A., the Red
Cross and other
instrumentalities. We do not desire merely to add a "fifth wheel to the
We should have a building of our own conveniently located either in or
camp. It should be kept open at all suitable hours with a sufficient
force in charge.
It should be made comfortable and attractive inside and out. Every
Mason in the
camp should be looked up, his name and home address taken, and be
invited to visit
the "Masonic Hall." If he is not in good standing he should be urged to
place himself so. Every son of a Mason should be made welcome; every
sister of a Mason engaged in Red Cross or relief work should be made to
she is surrounded by brothers.
While the movement should be distinctively
it should not be exclusive ‒ those of known good character, though not
sons of Masons, should be welcomed, but it should be understood that
are desired. Cards could be issued to such under proper restrictions.
Good Masonic (and other) literature should be
with reading and writing facilities. A room should be provided where
might, on occasion, assemble for such Masonic refreshment and "labor"
as might be allowed. Here lectures by competent brethren could be given
and kindred subjects ‒ among the things to be made clear and strongly
is the duty of the soldier Masons under war conditions to their
brethren and to
their country. Sick or wounded brethren or those in any distress could
and made to feel the touch of a brother's hand. In many ways the spirit
could make itself felt to the benefit both of the soldier and of the
My view is that this should be done under a
organization for the entire United States. Grand Commander George F.
Moore has been
suggested as a suitable leader and he could not be surpassed. It should
plain that the movement did not pertain peculiarly to any Rite or
System, that it
was "Masonic" in the widest sense and embraced all Bodies of all Rites
as well as all Concordant Orders. The necessary funds should be raised
by a nation-wide
campaign through voluntary donations by Masons and Masonic Bodies. O.
Alabama. Masonic Deputies for Regiments. There is no recognized central
agency through which a unified system can be adopted. This is
unfortunate and is,
in the minds of some, the strongest argument in favor of a General
Grand Lodge which
has been advanced. Many of us who have not yet been converted to the
Lodge, nevertheless would favor the establishment under competent,
management of some central agency of all the Grand Lodges for the
handling of inter-
or pan-jurisdictional matters. As things stand, however, outside of
the Y.M.C.A., etc., the thing for us to do is to raise large funds for
the dependent families of our Brethren who are called to the Colors and
of the Brethren
themselves when returning in mental, physical or financial distress.
Meanwhile if the various Grand Masters will
Special Deputies with different regiments, these Deputies can get
together the Masons
of various Camps for social intercourse and can keep alive and
stimulate, even without
Lodge meetings, our fraternal bond. They can also keep each Masonic
in touch with the needs of its own Brethren who are under arms.
Melvin M. Johnson,
* * *
Constant Calls for
The war is making constant calls for money.
generously responding to the calls, one of which is for the
establishment and maintenance
of the Y.M.C.A. Recreation Centers in Cantonments and Camps in the
While these Centers are in no sense Masonic,
available to Masons for recreation purposes. In a letter received today
from a Masonic
friend, now serving with the U. S. Army in France, he says: "The
a wonderful institution and doing great work." The establishment at the
time of Masonic Recreation Centers in the camps would in a measure
work of the Y.M.C.A. and it seems to me that under the existing
money necessary for such establishment would serve a better purpose if
the disposal of the Y.M.C.A. and the Red Cross organizations which are
things for the aid and relief of soldiers and sailors in camp.
Later it may be wise to seriously consider the
of Masonic Recreation Centers, but not while the present financial
C. M. Schenck,
* * *
Add to Y.M.C.A. Work.
In corresponding with the Grand Masters, one of
made a very good suggestion, as it seemed to me ‒ Brother Fead of
idea is that in addition to providing funds, the Masons should provide
recreation to be put on by Y.M.C.A., or the Red Cross, publicity being
the fact that such entertainment was furnished by the Masons.
At first thought, it is very easy to conclude
Grand Lodge should go ahead and erect buildings, but when one comes to
what this involves and above all that it is a mere duplication, the
wisdom of the
decision of the Grand Lodge of Iowa that it would be unwise to attempt
alone will, I think, be fully borne out.
John W. Barry,
Grand Master, Iowa.
* * *
Give in Business-Like
Every Mason must give ‒ give until it hurts ‒
addition, he must see to it that he gives in the most efficient and
way. The United States cannot win the war unless the efforts of the
people be expended
to the very best advantage; no second best measures will do. Therefore,
Mason forget the aggrandizement and advertisement of Masonry that might
the establishment of Masonic Recreation Centers, and support the
Y.M.C.A. When letters
come to us from our loved ones at the camps, both here and "Somewhere
each letter with the Red Triangle of the Y.M.C.A. in the corner of the
think what that Triangle means ‒ "We, an organization whose business is
men, are doing our bit. Help us!" Masons! Forget this Masonic social
study and get busy!
* * *
The Kentucky Plan.
In answer to the question concerning Masonic
Centers, I am most heartily in favor of them and think that there
should be such
not only at Cantonments in the United States but at Military points
boys are to go in Europe. There is already being a great deal done as
you no doubt
know along this line since the War Department reversed its ruling.
we are getting ready to do here in Kentucky may interest your readers.
already has two Military Lodges now at Hattiesburg, Mississippi, which
be in France. Masons of Louisville are preparing to erect outside of
but near Camp Taylor, a convenient Masonic Hall both for Club purposes
and the conference
of degrees. This will be occupied by one or more Military Lodges from
and Kentucky. At a recent meeting of about two hundred Masons in the
Camp from those
States, embracing both officers and privates, the plan was
We already have the site. I wish some of those who object to Military
have heard the speeches made on that occasion by officers and privates
that they are about to sacrifice all they hold dear, perhaps life
itself, that the
world may be brought to the great ideal of Brotherhood and that all
be made safe for this great principle which Masons profess. They
doubt that Masonic Lodges which they could carry with them to Europe,
would do much
toward cementing friendships among all people. They intend to practice
than to preach it. I am inclined to think that as conditions now are in
World it is best to let each Grand Lodge run its own gait, but if it
to hold a general Masonic Congress in this country such as the Latin
Masons are used to we could accomplish a world of good and perhaps
speed up a day
to half a century when Freemasons would forget their red-tape and
by a few of the "old timers" who have nothing else in life to do but
flaws at somebody else and get reason why we would not be friendly to
this or that
We need more leaders, writers who will find
why Masons should get together than why they should be kept apart. Many
sat down on the General Grand Lodge proposition in every phase or form
over a century. May I suggest however that they are at least united on
the General Relief Board, National Masonic Research Society and the War
Perhaps these three may pave a way for some sort of Annual Advisory
would in effect be such a Central Committee as you suggest.
J. W. Norwood,
* * *
Support the Y.M.C.A.
General Pershing is quoted as saying "I desire
to deal in France with only two non-military relief organizations ‒ the
for the sick and the Y.M.C.A. for the well."
These two organizations are superbly efficient.
to me that it would be a great mistake to attempt to duplicate their
work. I would
rather call upon all Masons everywhere to unite in a great, earnest and
support of these two magnificent organizations. John Pickard, Missouri.
Suggests Letters to Soldiers. It seems to me
establishment of Masonic Recreation Centers or Club Houses at
Cantonments or at
Military points in France is impractical and would lead to endless
Why multiply agencies for doing the work for
Y.M.C.A. and the American Red Cross are so splendidly equipped? To my
mind we cannot
improve upon the work these organizations are doing and if we compete
we weaken them without compensating advantages to the men.
I would favor giving financial assistance to
which are open to all regardless of creed or affiliation in any of the
But, the mere giving of money involves no real
on our part and the benefits to the boys would be mostly material and
Their creature comforts are provided for. As Masons, let us give them
of a spiritual nature ‒ something of ourselves.
For instance. Here is a Lodge of 300 members.
are in the "chosen" army. Why shouldn't the 280 remaining at home get
back of the 20 and let them know that they will always be in our
thoughts. Let a
correspondence committee be appointed to write to the boys regularly.
Let them know
that their letters from the front will be read at the meetings. Then
let us look
up the immediate connections of the twenty and see that none of them
come to want.
In case any should do so let us ease the boys' minds with the assurance
matter what comes, their loved ones are and will be looked after by the
This would be merely a beginning. But I cannot
of anything which would be more helpful to the boys at the Front, which
us all better Masons and bind us closer together in the fraternity than
program such as this. To me this is the heart, soul and work of Masonry.
John G. Keplinger,
* * *
An International Masonry.
"Shall Masonic Recreation Centers or Club
be established at each Cantonment in the United States and at
points in France?"
Unhesitatingly I answer yes, and would add that
sociability they should be free to our unrecognized French Brethren.
These are no
times for red-tape restrictions. I am not one of those who are carried
war hysteria to the point of wanting our whole Army and Navy made
Masons at sight
and free of cost, nor do I advocate any change in our present list of
Grand Lodges, but I do think the opportunity presents to show Europe
Masonry really is.
I would go even further. I would strongly urge
in these Clubs to seek out, when they can. Masons among German
prisoners and go
their utmost length in expending utterly undeserved kindness and
erred, Masonically; let us, if we too err, do so on the other extreme.
2nd. "If so, shall the Grand Lodges of the
States unite in the appointment of a Central Committee?"
Equally unhesitatingly, No. Small differences
would result in discord. We want no central power, great or small, but
action by each Grand Lodge. Already some Grand Lodges are forming
Lodges, while others vehemently object. Let each make its own mistakes
I favor Clubs or Recreation Centers, only,
we can thus freely open them to unrecognized Masons and because I
happen to know,
that in the war of the '60s Military Lodges made serious mistakes and
of high officers who would have been blackballed at home. Secretary of
was right in forbidding all secret meetings. These Clubs should be
social and brotherly
and should illustrate the words of our ritual, "These generous
to extend further. Every human being has a claim upon your kind
offices; do good
unto all; recommend it more especially to the household of the
clubs should illustrate brotherly love and unselfish humanitarianism.
Joseph W. Eggleston,
* * *
Opposes Masonic Centers.
Answering the question of the establishment of
Recreation Centers at Military Cantonments, I wish to say that, as I am
not in favor
of Military Lodges, neither do I think it would be the best policy to
these Centers at Cantonments or at Military points in France. Those
which have already taken steps will, of course, be expected to go ahead
arrangements now that Secretary Baker has modified the order and they
to do so; but it seems to me that as a general rule it would be better
for the Masonic
bodies and Grand Lodges to do their work in co-operation with the
are enough Masons connected with the Y.M.C.A., and enough at the
not immediately connected who could act in organizing, under proper
auxiliary bodies which could carry work for relief of soldiers and
sailors who are
Mans at these centers. Working in this way, I believe much better work
accomplished and at less expense, thereby conserving the moneys donated
relief purposes and enabling them to go farther in the work of relief.
Frank E. Noyes, Wisconsin.
* * *
An Army Precedent.
The Washington (D. C.) papers of December 9th
account of the activities of the Ashlar Club, of that city, which may
bearing on the question. The Ashlar Club is made up mostly, it is said,
employed in the War and Navy Departments, and officers and enlisted men
in the Army
and Navy. On November 24th the Club held a rally in Washington and
began a movement
towards organizing Masonic Clubs in the various instruction camps and
abroad in order to look after the health and morals of the American
Washington Club suggests that these clubs be known as Ashlar Clubs, to
would issue charters, etc., and act as a channel of correspondence,
it is necessary to make known the needs of the men to the fraternity at
Possibly the situation can best be handled in
Here is already a nucleus on which others can form, and the whole will
have a more
or less articulated structure. As needs become apparent, these clubs
could go before
the Fraternity at large, through their mother club, and their wants
be promptly attended to.
On the other hand, it would be worthwhile to
a nation-wide movement and put the matter a larger scale from the start
be possible for any club, as indicated above. It would be, in a way,
the strength of the fraternity that would be beneficial to it. And, if
Grand Lodges could be gotten to work in unity in one matter, they might
to get together in others.
H. W. Ticknor, Maryland.
* * *
Either Lodges or Clubs.
My preference is for Traveling Military Lodges
the different regiments or army corps; but as that does not seem
feasible I think
Masonic Recreation Centers or Clubs should be established at convenient
points in France. We must make our soldier Brethren feel that they are
by the Masonic fraternity. Such centers would supplement the work of
It might be well for the Grand Lodges to appoint a Central Committee
to solicit funds; for such a scheme would not overlap and duplicate the
individual Grand Lodges.
Henry R. Evans,
District of Columbia.
* * *
Masonic Clubs Not Needed.
Question No. 1. It is unnecessary at this time,
the soldiers' needs in this line are being well attended to by the
A number of competing organizations could
to the proper regimental spirit of a common good comradeship.
While it would make Freemasonry prominent in a
estimable way, Freemasonry can and will give liberally without
Question No. 2. Yes, if entered upon at all.
Question No. 3. Through the Y.M.C.A. national
An immense sum, said to be $35,000,000.00, has already been collected
for this purpose.
That institution has special experience in this
direction. It is non-sectarian, and has among its members many of all
confidence in it is well deserved.
Masons, as individuals, have liberally
this Y.M.C.A. movement, and can scarcely do greater service in this
line than by
continuing to support it.
* * *
The Ohio Plan.
In my opinion any opportunity offered Masons to
to the comfort of brethren in active service of the United States
should be gratefully
grasped. Doubtless you are aware of the storm of protest and
indignation that followed
the refusal of the War Department to allow Masons of Atlanta to erect a
house in a southern Cantonment, when similar privileges had already
the Knights of Columbus and Y.M.C.A. at that particular Cantonment. A
seems to have influenced the War Department as a result and it was with
appreciation last month that we Masons of Ohio learned from our Grand
W. Henry M. Hagelbarger, that permission had been accorded to Ohio
Masons to erect
a Rest or Recreation House at Camp Sherman, Chillicothe. The Grand
that Lodges of Ohio contribute twenty-five cents per capita for this
has met with immediate and enthusiastic response in every instance, and
if any is that he did not ask more. The handsome building in purpose of
at Camp Sherman will afford quarters for the relatives of
the Cantonment and many other similar comforts. Either a Committee
working in conjunction
with the Grand Master, or as in Ohio, the Grand Master assuming the
himself, would be serviceable. I am informed that even with the
work heretofore done at the various Cantonments by the Y.M.C.A. and
accommodations are overtaxed and there is abundant room for a rich body
to fall in line and have a hand in this splendid patriotic work. After
our Cantonments here, many of which promise to be many years in use,
our next endeavor
should be to establish similar comfort headquarters abroad, so far as
the War Department
can admit any activities of this nature. It should be our constant
we cannot go across, let us come across," and the next best thing we
after giving the flower of our Order to the Flag is to follow the Flag
with our dollars and make the boys as happy as added comforts can.
By Bro. P. E. Kellett, Grand
Owing to lack of space, we have, with Brother
permission, divided his article into two parts. In the present issue he
for us the attitude and activities of the Grand Orient of France. He
sources, and, while at first blush it may appear that the Grand Orient
upon political preserves, it will be well for us to hear Brother
before rendering ourselves a decision. In the second installment will
the point of cleavage between Anglo-Saxon Masonry and the Masonry of
With meteoric suddenness the present war has
cut off many lines of communication and channels of intercourse between
and peoples. Freemasonry has suffered with the rest. This catastrophe
has so jarred
the mechanism of our daily lives and impaired the development of the
as to make us realize more than ever before the distinct advantage to
from international co-operation. To attain the highest efficiency,
commercially and otherwise, the cooperation of one people with another
We are interdependent one upon the other. The organization of the
men on a universal basis, embracing the whole of the inhabited world,
has been demonstrated
to tend to the greatest good.
When each of the peoples of the earth lived
alone little progress was made, especially along the higher ethical
lines that tend
to the broadest development of a nation. Love of self reigned supreme;
the law of
the jungle prevailed, and might proved right. The evolution of the
these ideas, as peoples came to know one another better through the
of trade. Old prejudices gradually broke down, and civilization took a
International conventions were called to consider the betterment of
people and people. These gave birth to international services, all
tending to unite
the civilized world in common action for general progress, and to
assure to human
activity the fullness of its powers. We had reached the point where we
of a better life, universal peace, harmony and progress. The masses
today are uttering
a cry of hope that the present barbaric struggle may not be in vain,
but may prove
to be but a stepping stone to even better things. May their hopes come
No association exists which more naturally
internationalism than Freemasonry. Anderson's Masonic Constitution,
in 1723, said the following: ‒ "Ye shall cultivate brotherly love,
the foundation and the master stone, the cement and the glory of this
for we as Masons are of all races, nations and languages." An eminent
writer on Freemasonry has said of it: "High above all dogmas that bind,
bigotries that blind, all bitterness that divides, it will write the
of the Fatherhood of God, and the brotherhood of man." Its origin, past
organization and philosophy all lead in that direction, and have no
other goal than
A great deal of good can be accomplished by a
fraternal connection between Freemasons of all countries. Masonry's aim
is the Fraternity
of men and the spread of the principles of Tolerance, Justice and
Peace. How better
can this be accomplished than by mutual understanding? If we continue
to hold ourselves
aloof, will we ever attain the object we seek? Is it not astounding
should still be divided, and so far from being united? Would it not
seem that every
Mason should use his influence to help weld the chain of the
for the accomplishment of universal unity, peace, tolerance and mutual
It is my purpose to point out to what extent
of the world are disunited, and what the main lines of cleavage are. In
I desire to give some information about the Grand Orient of France,
which is a representative
institution of that class of Freemasonry towards which Anglo-Saxon
had particular antipathy.
According to the latest available statistics,
are approximately 2,100,000 adherents to Freemasonry scattered through
in the world. These have been divided into three distinct groups.
they do not differ materially in customs, principles, or traditions. In
can they rightly differ? The divisions are made because of the greater
or less importance
given to religious ideas.
To quote the International Bureau of Masonic
established in Switzerland with the aim of completing an arrangement
of all countries may mingle with one another in the Lodges, visit one
learn to know one another, these divisions may be given as follows:
"(1) The first
group regards as-being of absolute necessity the adoption of what are
'Landmarks,' and in particular these two, viz., a belief in the G.A. of
the U. and
the presence of the Bible on the altar. Some of this group decline to
its Lodges Masons who belong to groups which do not admit these two
of this group also revere the G.A. of the U., and possess the symbol of
but they do not close their doors to any visitor who proves himself to
be a Mason,
even when his obedience admits neither the formula of the G.A. of the
U. nor the
Bible. Our brethren of the Grand Orient of France are welcomed with
"(2) The second
group which comprises part of Latin Masonry, leaves to its adepts the
right to believe
in God, even in the esoteric God of the religions, and imposes on them
no act of
faith, which does not hinder it from admitting to its Lodges all
to whatever obedience they may belong, and without any other proof than
as regular Masons. This group holds the principle of mutual tolerance,
of others and one's self, and absolute liberty of conscience; it does
of any dogmatic affirmation.
"(3) The third
group comprises purely Christian Masonry," Very much of interest could
in giving an account of the effort made by the International Bureau of
to the furtherance of mutual friendship and brotherhood among the
all lands. Considerable progress was made, and particularly on the
Europe, it developed considerable enthusiasm for the fraternal object
The war for the present has brought their peace activities to a close.
In one of
their later official Bulletins they say regarding it:
"If we were pessimists we should once for all
up our plans, our endeavors and our work in behalf of an improvement in
among men. But we know that in spite of everything our cause is the
best, and that
nothing, not even the most overwhelming upheavals, must discourage
us.... It will
behoove the friends of peace and of fraternity to proclaim to the world
ideas of which they are the guardians may be defeated, but that they
never die and
Many times in commenting on the progress of
in their official Bulletin this Bureau has deplored the fact that
exists between certain Masonic bodies because brethren too readily
believe all the
evil that is propagated about the Masonry of another country without
trouble to ascertain facts by making enquiries at a reliable source.
They say credence
is too readily given to hateful affirmations, which are adopted without
and they make the plea that brethren make the necessary enquiries from
source. They add further: "It would suffice to see one another in order
know, to love, and to appreciate one another."
Not wishing to lay myself open to any charge of
acting upon this suggestion I wrote the following letter:
"Winnipeg, July 24, 1916.
"Grand Secretary, Grand Orient of France, "Rue
Cadet 9, Paris.
"Dear Sir and Brother:
"Freemasonry, being a so-called universal
one of whose main tenets is the universal brotherhood of man, occupies
anomalous position today, at least in so far as France and
are concerned. Masonically we do not recognize one another.
"United as we are in the great titanic struggle
now going on in Europe, it would seem that we should also be
At any rate, the present would be a most opportune time for considering
as it would surely get sympathetic consideration.
"The organization which I represent is a
organization, in that its members are Past Masters of regular Lodges in
but it is not affiliated as an organization with the Grand Lodge of
F. and A. M. We purposely have not sought such affiliation because we
freedom of subjects for discussion than organized Masonry here would
of our members are members of the Grand Lodge, so that the thought and
of our Association have a certain indirect effect on the action of the
"I make this explanation to make it clear to
that I am at present making no overtures from the Grand Lodge, and have
to do so. I simply want to find out from you information with regard to
Orient of France, with the view, if possible, through our Association,
down the barriers between Masonry here and Masonry in France. I am
to be perfectly frank in my questions, and trust that you will think
them more pertinent
than impertinent, for impertinence is not intended. I am actuated by a
to secure mutual recognition, if possible.
"It may be said frankly at the outset that the
Grand Orient of France is generally looked upon by the rank and file
here as an
absolutely impossible organization for us to recognize in any way. You
considered to have departed from the ancient traditions of the Order,
to be frankly
atheistic, and to be in a great measure a political organization. I
have heard it
said by some here that you have mixed Lodges of men and women, and that
made numerous innovations in Masonry that are not in accord with the
of the Order.
"These are charges which I can neither endorse
nor deny, not having the necessary knowledge. As your organization is
Masonic organization in France, I can hardly imagine though that it can
be so 'terrible'
as some would have us believe. Will you enlighten me?
"I believe you were at one time in friendly
with the Grand Lodge of England. Why was this cut off? I presume there
argument in connection with it; if so, what was your side of the
the Grand Orient of France control only the first three degrees, or
these and the
higher degrees as well?
"There are other questions I might ask, but I
probably asked enough to lead you to give me complete information as to
for recognition. I hope you can find time to answer this by letter, and
if you have
any printed matter that would give fuller information I would be
pleased to receive
"It would be a great pleasure to me if this
result in the barriers between us being pulled down, so that we can
grasp one another
with fraternal grip and work together for the general good. Yours
P. E. KELLETT, "President Past Masters' Association, A. F. and A. M.,
In due course I received the following reply:
"Paris, October 6, 1916.
"To Very Dear Bro. Kellett, Winnipeg.
"Very Dear Brother, ‒
I have the honor to inform you that your
July 24th last, has been duly received by the Grand Orient of France.
its receipt, and at the request of our Bro. Quartier-le-Tente of
of our Constitution and of our General Regulations were mailed to you.
Today I am
mailing you a copy of the pamphlet, 'The Freemasonry of the Grand
Orient of France.'
The perusal of these two pamphlets will be sufficient to demonstrate to
what the Grand Orient of France really is. I also desire to reply to
which you have asked me.
"It is easy to say that the Grand Orient of
has abandoned the ancient traditions of the Order, but it is very
difficult to prove
it. To state that we are frankly atheistic is to commit the greatest
error. It will
be sufficient that you read the second paragraph of the first article
of our Constitution,
which reads as follows:
"'Freemasonry has for its basic principles
tolerance, respect for others and for oneself, and liberty of
"I can affirm that the Grand Orient of France
neither deist, atheist, nor positivist. All philosophical conceptions
within its body.
"In what manner is the Grand Orient of France a
political organization? It includes among its members (it must not be
that France is a Republic) citizens belonging to all the various phases
opinion. You will thus see that the Grand Orient of France is not bound
to any party,
and cannot in consequence be considered a political organization. All
questions are discussed in our Lodges, including political and social
each member may, during the course of these discussions, express freely
opinions in a fraternal and friendly manner suitable to Masonic
"The Grand Orient of France consists of: Lodges
which confer the first degrees (Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft and
Chapters which work up to the Eighteenth Deg. (Rose Croix),
or Aeropages, which work up to the Thirtieth Deg. (Kadosh); and the
of Rites (Supreme Council of the Grand Orient of France). This confers
Thirty-second and Thirty-third Degrees. The Grand Orient of France,
which was founded
in 1736, includes at present 472 Lodges, 75 Chapters, and 31
or Aeropagei. Contrary to the information that has been given you, we
have not under
our jurisdiction mixed Lodges of men and women, nor Lodges of women
only. We do
not even recognize such Lodges.
"As you may have seen in our Constitution, and
as I have stated previously, the Grand Orient of France, while it
respects all philosophical
beliefs, insists upon absolute liberty of belief. This does not mean
that we banish
from our Lodges the belief in God. The United Grand Lodge of England,
on the contrary,
desires to make a belief in God in some manner compulsory. The Grand
Orient of France
is much more liberal, since in proclaiming the absolute liberty of
belief it permits
to each one of its members the liberty to believe or not to believe in
by so doing desires to respect its members in their convictions, their
and their beliefs.
"This is the reason why- fraternal relations do
not exist between the United Grand Lodge of England and the Grand
Orient of France.
We regret this exceedingly. Is it not painful to contemplate that these
bodies continue to ignore one another, even at the moment when England
are so closely and cordially united for the defense of Right, Justice
Do the English and French soldiers, who are fighting side by side and
of their blood for the triumph of this just cause, trouble themselves
philosophical beliefs of one another? Nevertheless, an intimate
between them, which excites the admiration of the civilized world.
"England has always been considered, rightly in
other respects, a country of liberty. It is difficult to understand,
under the circumstances,
why the Freemasons of this great and noble nation should want to
deprive their brothers
of France this same liberty.
"I ardently desire to see these difficulties,
appear to me to be based upon mutual misunderstanding, removed. As a
as a Frenchman this is my fervent wish. I ask you to accept, very dear
the assurance of my most fraternal sentiments.
"G. CORNEAU, "The President of the Council
of the Order."
The information received may, therefore, be
as authentic, and what I have to say regarding the Grand Orient of
France will not
be based on mere hearsay. A careful reading of the letter quoted above,
and the pamphlet referred to, cannot but impress one with the
earnestness and the
whole souled fraternal spirit of the Grand Orient. Their methods are
ours, but this is due to the circumstances of their environment, which
them quite materially. One cannot help but notice that they have the
same aims and
possess the same aspirations as we have, and that they seem, if
anything, more earnest
than we are in working towards the desired end ‒ the advancement and
good of mankind.
They seem to direct most of their activity along external and social
ideal ever before them seems to be the moral and intellectual
improvement of their
Their whole Lodge life is aimed to train their
for a life of activity in the interests of humanity. It has been said
who live in Protestant countries can hardly realize the privilege they
say the Freemasons of France have been subjected to narrow-minded
prejudice; that they have been excommunicated, persecuted, insulted and
and that their benevolent activities have been met by all the
slanders and active opposition pitiless clericalism could invent. By
the very force
of events Masonry in France became the directing force of the
Lodges became centers where liberal minds could gather for exchange of
there they had to be discreet, for the police were on the watch.
France have been such that it would have been, as one has expressed it,
crime against the Masonic idea for the members to shut themselves up in
This condition existed in the years following
of the third Republic after 1870. For a number of years, though, they
have not been
seriously threatened by their old enemies. The aspect of affairs has
period of intolerance ‒ intolerance from a Clerical source is
responsible for the
stand the French Masons took with regard to "God and Religion" and
But I will say more later on those two topics. They may have committed
in my opinion have done nothing for which they should be punished today.
They regret being separated from the brethren
countries, and, as we have seen from the letter quoted, they would
welcome the fraternal
hand from us. Separation is, I believe, due to misunderstanding.
French Masons seem to regard the institution as
in its infancy, not yet definitely formed, a progressive institution.
They are not
averse to trying out-reforms. They do not consider the institution is
such as they
should be satisfied with and refuse to change in any respect. They
believe it should
be changed, in anything but principle, if it will help to realize the
dream of a
world at peace and civilized in a truly Masonic sense. Their program is
philosophical. Their Lodges are schools, existing to mold independent
free from prejudice and intolerance to take their part in the
citizenship of the
Stated briefly, their principles, etc., as set
in their official pamphlet, "The Freemasonry of the Grand Orient of
are somewhat as follows:
They recognize no truths save those based on
and science, and combat particularly the "superstitions and
of French Clericalism. Their primordial law is Toleration, respect for
all ideas, and all opinions. They impose no dogma on their adherents.
free research for truths ‒ scientific, moral, political and social.
Their work among
members is to develop their faculties and to augment their knowledge by
discussion. Men of all classes are taken into their Lodges to work in
the emancipation of the human spirit, for the independence of the
people, and for
the social welfare of humanity."
Their system of morality is based on the
to be happier one has to be better. The scientific study of the human
for them the fact that social life is the most indispensable weapon in
for existence. Those who live a common life and band themselves
while those who isolate themselves succumb. The association of
love and expands in the heart desire for the welfare of all. They
out that morality can be attained outside of religious superstitions or
French Freemasonry, in addition to striving to
its members and separate morality from religious superstition and
its mission to make citizens free and equal before the law ‒ to develop
of brotherhood and equality. She enunciates the principle that it is
heritage of man, his individual right, to enjoy fully the fruit of his
say and to write that which he thinks; to join himself to his fellows
when he sees
fit; to make that which seems good to him; to associate for common
purposes of any
kind, material or intellectual; to put into practice, his ideas and his
to teach that which he learns in the course of experience and study,
and to demand
from society respect for the liberties for each and all.
This may sound very socialistic, but the
of the country may have required a declaration of that kind from
Masonry. I cannot
help regarding this as simply a distinct protest against the
encroachments of Clericalism.
This pamphlet further declares that Masonry
the assuring of the triumph of democracy, so that citizens can take "a
part, as considerable as possible, in carrying on of public affairs,
and in exercising
the greatest possible part of that national sovereignty towards which
of France have marched for a century without being able to attain."
French Freemasonry interests herself in social
because she believes that through them men will realize the
of the individual, the family and general society. History bears
witness to the
necessity of so molding these laws as to overcome the rivalry of
from whence spring the miseries, the sufferings and hatreds of society.
they, therefore, consider legitimate Masonic problems if Masonry is to
mission in its broadest sense. They believe the things that menace the
of human society should be discussed, so that indirectly they may be
drawn to the
attention of public opinion, and through that laws will be demanded to
Under this heading they cite particularly that they aim at legislation
misery which is the most active cause of degeneracy, bad morals and
to protect the child against moral, intellectual and physical atrophy;
to lighten the burden of the woman in the family and in society;
recognize the dignity of labor, to ensure the safety of the laborer,
and to help
in solving the strifes of labor. They realize fully the vastness of the
set themselves in intellectual, moral and social development, but
a permanent institution, has the time for it, and does not therefore
to be deterred because of the size of the task; a step at a time
They describe their Lodges as being ateliers,
sense of being study classes or schools. Their membership is recruited
impulse, as with us, the only condition of membership being that of
as we Masonically understand it, and of having good morals.
No dogma, religious, political or social, is
on their members. Each member has absolute liberty of thought, which he
is led to
modify or change along the lines of progression as his own sense may
by discussion, more extended knowledge and more numerous facts present
The condition that every free man of good
his ideas may be, can introduce into the discussions of the Lodge
aspirations of the more diverse kind as to political and social
conditions has the
result of educating and molding opinion in the best possible way. As
when one stone
is struck upon another a jet of light is produced, so when ideas clash,
By virtue of a well-balanced scheme, to the
which these incongruous thoughts move from the absolute order
maintained in the
discussion, they understand themselves and criticize themselves. They
refine the one, the other, and evolve a common reflected opinion.
The result is every French Freemason goes from
if not transformed, at least better informed, improved in every way.
The truth which
the Masonic study has created percolates indirectly into profane
society, with manifest
French Freemasonry thus offers its initiates a
of re-union where they can inspect their efforts and their researches.
them in the center of human researches. "By the framework, by the
by the custom, she makes them develop, without knowing it, the best
that is in them,
intellectually and morally, besides realizing the fruitful union of
heart and spirit."
She elevates individuals by inciting them to make themselves strong,
true, just and good. She protects her members at the same time against
maintaining internal discipline.
By conducting these studies the Grand Orient of
keeps before her members, and indirectly before the people generally,
the most practical
model and the most ideal. She has already exerted a powerful influence
on the different
institutions of the people. Her task is to inculcate, more and more;
for the betterment of humanity. In specifying more and more this ideal
to the end of bringing about the most favorable conditions, and at the
the most legitimate conditions, of happiness.
This "elevated school of intellectual and moral
nobility" shines not to lose itself in mere abstraction, but studies
seem to be of practical benefit to humanity. She gives her force,
trained by intelligence,
to the service of Light and of the Spirit. With study and research
on and never interrupted, the Freemasonry of the Grand Orient of France
become dogma. New thought and reason is ever being evolved. Further
is forever upsetting proven theories.
As to their methods of working to these ends,
gives some very interesting information. Their annual Convention,
composed of delegates
from all the Lodges, meets in Paris every year in the month of
September. One of
the most important functions of this Convention is to fix the questions
to be referred, for the consideration of the Lodges during the ensuing
program is discussed, added to and taken from, and finally adopted and
to the Lodges. By this method the General Convention condenses the
thought of Masonry
throughout all the Lodges, and members are kept in touch with all the
in other Lodges than their own. The Masonic thought of the whole
country is systematized
Aside from the Convention program, each Lodge
a teacher to study problems of philosophy, morality, socialism, and
bring before the Lodge what he considers worthy of discussion. The
therefore, largely on their own initiative, and these new discussions
at the next Convention, and may perhaps be put on the general program
for the following
year. To us these discussions might seem to lead on to dangerous ground
bad effects. With reference to this they say:
"The discussions which these problems provoke
always conducted courteously and amicably. Tolerance is the first rule
of the Masonic
Association. It is thus that men belonging to philosophical or
of the most diverse kind, may find harmoniously, without noise and
agitations, the solution of the problems which interest the prosperity
of the nation
and the progress of humanity."
Among the principal questions examined in the
and in the Lodges for some years back are the following, taken from a
The status of women and children in modern
The struggle against alcoholism.
The struggle against crime, more especially juvenile crime.
The means of combating prostitution, vagabondage, and mendicancy.
The reform and simplification of legal
Reform of the Magistracy.
Civil Service administration.
Public instruction, the taking it out of the hands of the clergy.
Betterings of methods of taxation.
Condition of the working man and how it may be
Cheap dwelling houses.
Working men's credits.
Means of encouraging the apprentice system.
Homes for working women.
Study of morality outside of all religious
The finding of a morality, lay and scientific.
Study of the various philosophical systems.
What I have just given is but a brief synopsis
is contained in their pamphlet, "The Freemasonry of the Grand Orient of
which, being an official publication for the purpose of setting forth
aspirations and reasons for being, may be regarded as a fair statement.
What might also be called hereditary objections
hard to overcome, and some of you may now be disposed to think their
and work mere socialism, to be scoffed at and carefully avoided by
Sermon on the Mount was equally, if not more, socialistic, yet you do
of putting it aside on account of that. A great English scholar once
said that Christ's
Sermon on the Mount may be justly regarded as the charter of Christian
Objection may be raised that this kind of
in French Masonic Lodges, would inevitably lead to the Masonic
institution in France
becoming a mere political organization. Such I do not believe to be the
in rebuttal of your thoughts, if they lean that way, I would refer you
the statement in the letter I have quoted, that their membership is
made up of men
from all political parties in France. Along the same line I will quote
15 of their Constitution, which says:
"Lodges have the right of discipline over all
members and over all Masons present at their working.
"They prohibit all debates on the acts of civil
authority, and all Masonic intervention in the struggles of political
"The presiding officer rules the meeting."
The Grand Orient of France has also at various
issued instructions enforcing the above rules. To quote:
"If, as citizens, the members of the Federation
are free in their political actions, as Freemasons they must abstain
the name and the flag of Freemasonry into election conflicts and the
"All political debates at Masonic meetings are
strictly forbidden." ‒ Circular 1885.
If French Masonry has a political influence,
doubt it has, it is an indirect influence which we in this jurisdiction
worse than emulate. The latest political influence they are credited
is that which established secular schools in place of monastic schools.
A few facts
in connection with this will indicate why the French people, non-Masons
as Masons, demanded this separation. In France in 1897 there were
in the Courts against monastic teachers for "outrages on decency." In
1898 there were thirteen more convictions for similar offences. Severe
were imposed in each case by Catholic judges.
Is it any wonder that the monasteries were
and secular schools established? Masonry has been blamed in magazine
bringing this change about. No official action was taken. Some
informers may have
been Masons, but not all of them. Who would not inform? I have not been
find any evidence to substantiate the charge made against Masonry, but
conditions existed in this country I should be sorry if the Masonic
here were not red-blooded enough to exert an influence to right such a
that would condemn us to being called a political institution, I for
one would rejoice
in the name.
The Grand Orient of France is not a political
nor does it aim to be. It does aim to be an influence in molding the
its members, so that when they are called upon to act and vote as
may do so with a view to the general good. We might well copy much from
educational system, to the profit of our Masonic institution, both
and collectively. Our interest in public questions is largely material.
the financial interests are directly affected do we as a people seem to
to the point of investigating, criticizing, and demanding the
correction of faults
in our public government. We overlook altogether the by far greater
government ‒ sociological questions, moral reforms, and other phases of
which French Masons make a study of. If there were the possibility of a
Scandal in connection with these other questions they might be more
of interest with us.
(To be continued)
Opinion and Action on Military
Lodges by Grand Masters
Utah Military Lodges Deemed
ENCOURAGED TO ORGANIZE REGIMENTAL MASONIC CLUB
The subject of the organization of a Military
is an interesting one, and has received our serious consideration,
in connection with the possibility of such a Lodge being attached to
the Utah Regiment
of Artillery which is now stationed in California. After careful
the matter, we are of the opinion that the organization of such a Lodge
and unnecessary, particularly as the Masonic and social relations can
maintained by means of a Masonic Club, which we believe can take care
of the matters
which appear to warrant an organization of our Masonic Brethren, and
of the objectionable features which might partake of the organization
of a Military
Lodge. We have, therefore, encouraged our membership in the Utah
Regiment of Artillery
to associate themselves in the character of a Masonic Club, and we are
to give all proper recognition and encouragement to that organization,
but I am
confident that our Grand Lodge will not sanction the more formal
a Military Lodge would assume.
C. F. Jennings,
* * *
Wisconsin Grand Master Opposed
To Such Lodge
WOU LD REFUSE
TO GRANT DISPENSATIONS
The Grand Lodge of Wisconsin has taken no
the chartering of Military Lodges and I feel sure that if such a
ever be made in the Grand Lodge it would be rejected.
Personally I am opposed to their creation and,
no circumstances, would issue a dispensation to form them.
Existing as they would in the midst of the most
conditions imaginable, they could not be under any effective control of
Lodge or Grand Master, neither would it be possible for their officers
to give adequate
attention to the affairs of their Lodges. The initiation of undesirable
improper conferring of degrees, election to office of Brethren
unqualified for leadership,
are only some of the evils which would be likely to result. Such a
perfectly fit in every way at the time it might be placed under
as an outcome of war activities, easily degenerate into an organization
be a Masonic Lodge in name only and would, of course, bring the honored
Masonry into ill repute.
These and other like considerations would
refusal to grant any dispensations of this kind, should the matter ever
W. S. Griswold,
Our Tenets – [A Poem]
As Masons we are taught,
What higher theme, or nobler creed,
Need anywhere be sought?
Could we but know, and feel the truth,
Each is to each a Brother,
The rich, the poor, the high, the low,
All children of one Father,
Our duty, and our happiness,
Misfortune to relieve,
And share with those less blessed than we,
The good gifts we receive,
To comfort the unfortunate,
The wounded heart to bind,
And by sweet sympathy restore,
Peace, to the troubled mind.
With Truth, that attribute Divine,
Of all the Virtues known,
The fixed and sure foundation,
The very Corner stone,
By which as Masons we are taught,
To guard against deceit,
And with sincere plain dealing,
Life's every duty meet,
To promote each other's welfare.
We join both heart and voice,
And in each other's happiness.
We one and all rejoice.
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
‒ No. 15
DEVOTED TO ORGANIZED MASONIC STUDY
Bro. Robert I. Clegg
THE BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC
STUDY FOR MONTHLY
LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
FOUNDATION OF THE COURSE
THE Course of Study has for its foundation two
of Masonic information: THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. In
is explained how the references to former issues of THE BUILDER and to
Encyclopedia may be worked up as supplemental papers to exactly fit
into each installment
of the Course with the paper by Brother Clegg.
The Course is divided into five principal
which are in turn subdivided, as is shown below:
Division I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. The Work of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First Steps.
D. Second Steps.
E. Third Steps.
Division II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
Division III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
Division IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand Lodge.
Codes of Law.
Grand Lodge Practices.
Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
5. Official Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent Lodge.
Qualifications of Candidates.
Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
Division V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries ‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Study of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
THE MONTHLY INSTALLMENTS
Each month we are presenting a paper written by
Clegg who is following the foregoing outline. We are now in "First
of Ceremonial Masonry. There will be twelve monthly papers under this
subdivision. At the head of each installment will be given a number of
Hints" consisting of questions to be used by the chairman of the
during the study period which will bring out every point touched upon
in the paper.
Whenever possible we shall reprint in the
Circle Bulletin articles from other sources which have a direct bearing
particular subject covered by Brother Clegg in his monthly paper. These
should be used as supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by
from the monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would
possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus
The monthly installments of the Course
the Correspondence Circle Bulletin should be used one month later than
If this is done the Committees will have opportunity to arrange their
weeks in advance of the meetings and the Brethren who are members of
Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to enter into the
they have read over and studied the installment in THE BUILDER.
REFERENCES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS
Immediately preceding each of Brother Clegg's
papers in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a list of
to THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are
pertinent to the
paper and will either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or
new points for reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the
to different Brethren who may compile papers of their own from the
to be found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts
may be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be
the members may not feel able to compile original papers, or when the
be deemed appropriate without any alterations or additions.
HOW TO ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT THE STUDY
The Lodge should select a "Research Committee"
preferably of three "live" members. The study meetings should be held
once a month, either at a special meeting of the Lodge called for the
at a regular meeting at which no business (except the Lodge routine)
should be transacted
‒ all possible time to be given to the study period.
After the Lodge has been opened and all routine
disposed of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the Chairman of
Committee. This Committee should be fully prepared in advance on the
the evening. All members to whom references for supplemental papers
have been assigned
should be prepared with their papers and should also have a
of Brother Clegg's paper.
* * *
PROGRAM FOR STUDY MEETINGS
- Reading of the first section of
Brother Clegg's paper
and the supplemental papers thereto.
(Suggestion: While these papers are being read
of the Lodge should make notes of any points they may wish to discuss
into when the discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper similar to
in elections should be distributed among the members for this purpose
at the opening
of the study period.)
- Discussion of the above.
- The subsequent sections of Brother Clegg's
and the supplemental papers should then be taken up, one at a time, and
of in the same manner.
- Question Box.
Invite questions from any and all Brethren
Let them understand that these meetings are for their particular
benefit and get
them into the habit of asking all the questions they may think of.
Every one of
the papers read will suggest questions as to facts and meanings which
may not perhaps
be actually covered at all in the paper. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US. All the reference material
we have will
be gone through in an endeavor to supply a satisfactory answer. In fact
we are prepared
to make special research when called upon, and will usually be able to
within a day or two. Please remember, too, that the great Library of
the Grand Lodge
of Iowa is only a few miles away, and, by order of the Trustees of the
the Grand Secretary places it at our disposal on any query raised by
of the Society.
The foregoing information should enable local
to conduct their Lodge study meetings with success. However, we shall
inquiries and communications from interested Brethren concerning any
phase of the
plan that is not entirely clear to them, and the services of our Study
are at the command of our members, Lodge and Study Club Committees at
HELPFUL HINTS TO STUDY CLUB LEADERS
From the following questions the Committee
some time prior to the evening of the study meeting, the particular
they may wish to use at their meeting which will bring out the points
in the following
paper which they desire to discuss. Even were but five minutes devoted
to the discussion
of each of the questions given it will be seen that it would be
impossible to discuss
all of them in ten or twelve hours. The wide variety of questions here
afford individual Committees an opportunity to arrange their program to
own fancies and also furnish additional material for a second study
month if desired by the members.
In conducting the study periods the Chairman
endeavor to hold the discussions closely to the text and not permit the
to speak too long at one time or to stray onto another subject.
Whenever it becomes
evident that the discussion is turning from the original subject the
request the speaker to make a note of the particular point or phase of
he wishes to discuss or inquire into, and bring it up when the Question
* * *
Questions on "Prayer"
1. What Is Prayer?
- Is it an
instinct, or an art?
- Is its successful
use governed by laws?
- Does prayer
violate the laws of Nature?
- Is it a
necessary part of the Masonic life? Why?
- How do you
think prayer is answered?
- For what
should we pray?
- Is audible
- Have you
ever tested prayer by actual experiment?
- Is the cry
of an infant a supplication to God?
the object of prayer?
2. What Is The Candidate's
First Voluntary Act In The Lodge?
- Is what
follows a part of the instruction of the Lodge?
- Does the
Lodge set the example? How?
- How did
primitive man pray?
- With what
did he accompany his prayer?
- What sacrifice
did you make, when you became a Mason?
- Has your
service in behalf of Masonry been a sacrifice?
have you really gotten anything out of Masonry?
3. What Is The Candidate's
Part In The Act Of Invocation?
- Why do men
kneel in prayer?
- Why do they
close their eyes?
- What is
meant by "an attitude of prayer"?
- Are there
other attitudes than those mentioned?
the meaning of the several parts of a monitorial prayer.
- What does
- What does
"so mote it be" mean?
may join in prayer, either mentally or audibly; what is the effect upon
you are a part of a congregation thus engaged?
4. What Is Faith?
- Is it the
same as Trust, Confidence?
- What part
does faith play in business?
- in social
- in friendship?
- Is faith
approved by reason?
- What is
meant by "the faith of a Mason"?
- Is a prayerless,
faithless life "atheism" in practice?
- Do savages
- Have we
improved the art of prayer as we have improved other arts?
- Can the
vote of a Lodge be in fact a prayer?
- Is it a
manly thing to pray?
- Do you believe
in the old saying "To Labor is to Pray"?
- Can you
name some great men who used the habit of prayer?
be ashamed to admit that you used it?
References for Supplemental
The articles by Brother Haywood, Newton and
and the additional selections from other sources in this issue of the
Circle Bulletin should afford Study Club leaders an opportunity to make
of the Course one of the most interesting they have yet had. Use as
many of them
as possible, assigning them to your most interested members for reading
meeting. Additional references may be found as follows:
Mackey's Encyclopedia: Prayer, p. 577.
Vol. I ‒ Prayer in Masonry, p. 186.
Vol. II ‒ A Mason's Prayer, p. 180; The Great Prayer, p. 368.
Vol. III ‒ What An Entered Apprentice Ought to Know, April C. C. B., p.
* * *
By Bro Robert I. Clegg
Part III ‒ Prayer
"As Masons we are taught that no man should
upon any great or important undertaking without first invoking the
blessing of Deity."
PRAYER is the voice of hope strengthened by
is the expectant utterance of the elect. Prayer is petition purified,
powerful. Prayer is the appealing speech of subject to sovereign, of
to the Creator.
Aspiration is that ambitious attitude of man
hopefully unto a happy end of effort. That is prayer in action. That is
Bible surely means when speaking of the effectual fervent speech that
"The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much," as is
said in James, v. 16.
A natural act it truly is to implore the aid
of a power greater than our own in a time of difficulty or danger. The
at its mother's gown to steady the faltering footsteps of infancy is
but a prophecy
and a pattern of maturity. Perhaps the inarticulate feeble cry of the
earliest pang of pain or weakness made vocal, is but significant of
seeking for succor by humanity lifting up its voice unto the heavens,
being an epitome of the race.
How natural is the ordinary kneeling posture of
He that prays is himself a symbol of subjection when kneeling in an
supplication; the unseeing eyes show abstraction ‒ inward looking ‒ the
beseech compassion and favor. Then is the candidate nearer to his God.
the Divinity that shapes our ends approach us the closer, our sightless
opened to introspection and we are prompted aright in action and speech.
The Lodge Sets the
Example for the Candidate
There is another prayerful attitude aside from
privacy suggested by darkness and solitude. There is the prayer of a
number, a congregation
interceding for themselves or for others. Therein comes the unity of
many performing the same ceremony simultaneously strengthens in every
the sentiment of his neighbors. To stand with bowed heads and attentive
another prays the words that are in the hearts of all those assembled
of prayer, a common supplication.
The Lodge Instructs
and Supplicates for the Candidate
Consider the Lodge and the candidate solemnly
in a sacrificial
spirit offering contritely their aspirations for the good of all. There
is the confident
expression of belief in a Supreme Being whose blessing is sought for
both the Lodge
and the candidate to the end that both may, in their humble powers,
glory of heaven.
The Candidate's Part
The candidate is ever an active element in all
is done. For him, with him, by him, ‒ everything is done in his behalf.
at the beginning and the end of all Masonic work. Particularly is
in the first steps of the candidate in our mysteries. In it he
attitude and in aspiration he has an active and a typical part. He
fills a place
peculiarly his own. Both in posture and in response he meets all
he fits none. Shut out from the world, the world forgetting, by the
darkness blots away all disturbing factors of sight. Withdrawn from the
are but the reminders of ritualistic instruction penetrating by other
"Amen ‒ So Mote
The word "Amen" and the phrase "So Mote
It Be" are synonymous terms. Their use is familiar to all Masons. The
"Amen" is of Hebrew origin, of which the root meaning is "stability,"
generally adopted in Christian worship as a concluding formula for
prayers and hymns.
Three distinct biblical usages may be noted. (a) Initial Amen,
referring back to
words of another speaker, e. g. I Kings i. 36, "And Benaiah the son of
answered the king, and said, Amen: the Lord God of my lord the king say
(b) Detached Amen, the complimentary sentence being suppressed, e. g.
Neh. v. 13,
"Also I shook my lap, and said, so God shake out every man from his
and from his labor, that performeth not this promise, even thus he be
and emptied. And all the congregation said, Amen, and praise the Lord.
And the people
did according to this promise." Rev. v. 14, "And the four beasts said,
Amen. And the four and twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that
ever and ever." (c) Final Amen, with no change of speaker, as in the
to the first three divisions of the Psalter and in the frequent
doxologies of the
New Testament Epistles. The uses of amen ("verily") in the gospels form
a peculiar class; they are initial but often lack any backward
used the word to affirm his own utterances, not those of another
person, and this
usage was adopted by the church. The liturgical use of the word in
is attested by the passage from I Cor., and Justin Martyr (A.D. 150)
congregation as responding "amen" to the benediction after the
of the Eucharist.
Among certain Gnostic sects Amen became the
an angel, and in post-biblical Jewish works exaggerated statements are
as to the right method and the bliss of pronouncing it. It is still
used in the
service of the synagogue, and the Mohammedans not only add it after
first Sura of the Koran, but also when writing letters, etc., and
repeat it three
times, often with the word Qimtir, as a kind of talisman.
Trust and Faith
The greater the importance and the greater the
of any undertaking, the more essential it is that an implicit trust in
guide our feet and make sure and steadfast our stumbling steps. Do we
help? Then let us fear not but go forward of good courage.
Skepticism is frequent. Cynicism is rife. Among
it is not rare to have the student belittled by the uninformed. Too
often an ideal
is shattered by "What is the use?"
Take heart. Beneath the social veneer is sound
Rough as may be the raw diamond, every rightly directed rub of polish
adds to its
luster and swells its flashing rays of light.
True, honesty and sincerity are elbowed out of
columns by the record of crime. Be not alarmed. An orgy of wrongdoing
is not rampant.
No indeed, the very opposite is true. Only the uncommon is news. What
knows is not news. What is mentioned in the daily papers is the rare,
the curious, the quaint. When you see crime portrayed in print, be
evil is not supreme. It should remind us that good men and women are
Abroad in the land is the spirit of Masonry.
in mighty bulk is transacted upon the mere pledged word. Appeals for
trade are voiced
with the fervor of religious faith. A discussion among men of business,
men, engineers, and others, is usually found in one avenue or another
with lofty ideals, a philosophy of self-sacrifice and personal
is this leaven of mankind, a lever of uplift, a light ever leading unto
To Labor Is To Pray
An old Latin motto, "Labore est Orare," says
in effect, "Work is prayer, to labor is to pray." When the ancient
wrought their structures into the glorious Gothic pinnacles and spires,
and columns, and flung the flying buttresses and beams astride the
of gracious cathedrals, the ornate stone and carved wood expressed
hope and charity, the sumptuous record of their souls. The enduring
wood and stone
perpetuated their prayers.
How far does modern Masonry impress its
the times? Will we as did our forefathers in Freemasonry carve into the
of men something of what the craftsmen of old worked into these
buildings that yet
remain of grandeur and renown?
Let us answer these questions in our own
are worth our careful study.
Consider, too, that Masonry tells us how we may
for ourselves and for others but the prayers of others are not to
our own. We are to pray for ourselves and for others. Is this your idea
Have you not met that Mason whose impression of
is not that of a partnership? His conception of Masonry is that of an
that does something for him, not of an organization that is served by
him and by
all the other members? Do you not think that this is the real
a member and a Mason?
Of course you all know that a Mason is more
than a mere
member, being vaccinated is certainly more than going through the
motions of an
operation. If it does not take, the work is a failure.
More Blessed To Give
Than To Receive
Thus there are two aspects of Masonry,
contributing, taking and giving. He who wears the jewelry and carries
the card and
diploma receives some reward, but he who wears the instruction in his
rewards. Happy is he who does all things Masonically with
discrimination and zeal.
The strength of Masonry is in the unity of its
and in their acceptance of its duties. When they expect more than they
weakens by that drain upon her substance. When Masons expect less than
of their service, that surplus strengthens the common source of energy
and all profit
by the sacrifice.
The element of sacrifice is indeed inseparable
prayer. The Mason may well ponder how aptly in modern days or of old he
made an offering. The supplication to his God was accompanied by a gift
altar. Many are the instances recorded in the Bible of just such
numerous for enumeration.
Well, what is the sacrifice when a man becomes
What then is offered upon the altar of Masonry? Why, nothing less than
the man himself.
God in Fatherhood, man in brotherliness, each
suggests service; the sonship of worship unto the Father, the
fraternity of men
actuated by the lasting lessons of an antique and unique schooling. We
get by giving.
We earn as we truly learn. Our real fame is as we aim.
When the temptation comes to be impatient
institution is not moving as some individual wishes, is not voting as
may vote, then reflect that its greatest glory is in the chastening and
of the individual character.
Masonry is never a mob. Masonry is always
Masons are never to be herded. Masons are to be heeded.
Prayer to the Mason is most natural, a very
of devotion and of adoration, a practical act of worship. In it he but
Divine command, "Ask and ye shall receive." There is in it the very
of faith, for without faith there is neither purpose nor direction nor
end in prayer.
When a vote is used as is a prayer it is used
When the franchise is exercised by freemen in a Masonic fashion it is
the spirit of prayer. Whatever is done Masonically is prayerful.
Watch once more, my brethren, the first contact
candidate with our Craft, his entrance into Masonry. Apply for
yourselves his lessons
of faith. Turn back the pages of your career and see yourselves again
in him as
when you first entered the lodge. Renew with him your pledges,
replenish your trust,
recall the old thrill of your Entered Apprenticeship. It shall not be
in vain. There
is not in all the affairs of life a solitary foothold for you where
will not serve you well. Yes, watch, and pray.
"Invoking the Blessing
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
(By the kindness of Brother H. L.
Haywood, who edits
the Library department of this Journal, we have been privileged to lift
pages of his forthcoming book of interpretation of the three degrees of
Craft Masonry, the following delightful paragraphs relating to Prayer.
so truly interpretative of the subject matter of this month's Bulletin
we would feel our issue incomplete without them.)
It is of the highest import that in the
initiation the candidate's first act is to kneel at the altar of prayer
is nothing other than a symbol of the fact that all right life, inside
of the Lodge, is anchored to the power of prayer. It is of further
that in the early Degree he has another to pray for him while at a
later time he
must pray for himself because this is a recognition of prayer as an art
to be learned
gradually as all other arts are learned.
Brother J. T. Thorp, the veteran English
suggested that the Apprentice prayer has come to us from the old custom
each Old Charge with an Invocation; this is a reasonable, historical
but it does not go deep enough. The prayer is in the Masonic ceremony
must be in the Masonic life, and the important point here is not how we
pray, but why we do pray; and the reason we do pray is that we cannot
help it. Man
is a praying creature because of the way he is made, and not all the
the naturalist or all the sophistries of the skeptic can cure him of
Prayer is more "than the aspiration of the soul
toward the absolute and Infinite Intelligence"; it is more than
it is more than the soul's dialogue with its own higher self; it is
more than soliloquy;
prayer is a force and accomplishes work in its own appropriate realm.
When a forester
wishes to fell a tree he uses an axe; when a farmer desires a crop he
soil and sows the grain; the merchant who seeks money applies himself
to his trade;
by token of the same universal law of cause and effect the soul that
would get spiritual
work done applies the instrument of prayer.
If it be said that God is all-knowing and
and does not need our praying we reply that there are some things which
not do, whether He can or not without the assistance of man. Working by
God produces the wild dog-rose; working with man He produces an
working by Himself He produces the wild wheat, unfruitful and inedible;
with man He carpets the prairies with heavy-headed grain, enough to
feed a nation;
working by Himself He brought forth the first man, half animal, half
in his mildewed cave and killing his prey with his hands, like the wild
in co-operation with man they Two have brought forth this human world
highways and thrumming cities ‒ literature, art, beauty, the temple,
and the home,
the Iliad, the Tempest, the Bible, Homer, Shakespeare, and Christ. Man
with God in transforming Nature by the use of his hands; he cooperates
in transforming the spirit by the use of prayer. Besides, God has not
out of the soul that He has made and prayer itself may well be His own
His Divine hand-clasp with the human heart.
This is not to justify the use of prayer, there
need of that; it is its own justification. After all is said pro and
con, the fact
remains that the great souls have been the great prayers. It is not for
us to twist
this fact about to suit our theories; it is for us to adjust our
theories to the
fact. Prayer widens our horizons; purifies our motives, disciplines the
us from the gravitations of the material, sets a new light in the fact
us to Heaven in an ineffable fellowship. It is a stairway let down by
God into the
inmost chamber-of our heart up and down which the better angels of our
and re-pass in their healing ministries.
Upon this earth there is nothing more eloquent
the silence of a company of men and women bowed in the hush and awe of
a House of
Prayer. Through all the groping generations the soul of man has never
seek a city unseen and eternal. No thoughtful man but at some time has
this great adoring habit of our humanity, and the marvel of it deepens
he ponders it. That instinct for eternity which draws together the
stones of a stately
cathedral, where the shadow of the Infinite is bidden to linger, tells
us more of
what man is than all else besides. So far as we know, man is the only
being on our
planet that pauses to pray, and the wonder of his worship is at once a
and a prophecy.
"Man sits here
shaping wings to fly;
His heart forbodes a mystery;
He names the name of Eternity.
That type of Perfect in his mind
In Nature he can nowhere find,
He sows himself on every wind.
He seems to hear a Heavenly Friend,
And through thick walls to apprehend
A labor working toward an end.
* * *
"Prayer Is Trust"
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
great element of prayer is aspiration ‒ a hunger for better being and
doing, a looking
onward and upward to an ideal which, seen afar off, is yearned after; a
with present attainments and performances, an inability to rest in
things as they
are. When a young man gives up wild or careless habits, begins to save
use his time to good account, brace himself against the lure to
idleness and evil,
he is praying, though he might be abashed if one told him that his
forth toward something higher and better was prayer. Wherever
improvement is being
desired and sought ‒ improvement not only in what we have, but in what
we are and
do ‒ there is prayer, even though no word is uttered. A man in his
or office, who, from morn to eve is striving to realize his ideal of
and service, is praying the livelong day. When an ideal of manhood is
in the light of which our best is never wholly satisfactory, and which
urging us to go beyond it, there is prayer. Such a man, though he kneel
the day, goes prayerfully to his bed a better man, and the hum of his
is the music of a liturgy.
he pray simply for himself alone. All prayer, by its very nature, is
and intercessory. When a man is devoted to the pursuit of knowledge,
for it than for any worldly honor; when he is in search for truth,
ready, if need
be, to suffer that he may find it; when he desires to help forward a
willing to sacrifice for it ‒ when a man lives thus, he is exemplifying
of the best things of which all prayer is the expression. Who can labor
good and not begin to throb with desire for the good of others? What
man, not cursed
with hopeless selfishness, can enter the presence of the Eternal
Goodness and ask
only in his own behalf? When he closes the door of his oratory he
simply his own burdens, but the griefs and woes of others. One who,
like Abou Ben
Adhem, loves his fellow man, need not bow his head and clasp his hands,
to save the day from being prayerless, since it has been full of
prayer. Yet no
one can enter his oratory before falling into the mystery of sleep,
something for the comfort of his heart and the health of his soul.
true prayer has its roots in trust, and he is praying who dares trust
and honor, no matter the cost, though he may not kneel in a temple. Let
in the temple, but when on the day following he obeys the light within
it points, maybe, to a lonely road, where he will no longer walk with
friends ‒ that also is prayer. If prayer is trust, he who trusts the
trusts conscience, trusts duty, trusts principle habitually, fearful
only of unfaithfulness,
and with tranquil courage pursues his way, is a man of prayer. No
matter how loud
he may pray in the temple, if he seeks even a worthy end by unworthy
prayer has no wings. We pray by our desires, our motives, our tears.
and by our
acts ‒ praying without ceasing to the God who is over all, in all, and
* * *
The Dignity of Prayer
By Bro. Denman S. Wagstaff,
P. M., California
The great secret forcing along a final and
consciousness of one's worthiness when asking for anything, either from
Architect or from just a common "Fellow-Craft" along the road, is the
knowledge in advance, of having earned the favor. Hence we have the
right and privilege
to ask for that something which we are convinced belongs to us.
The knowledge of worthiness is the backbone of
In most every instance a request coming from such a source is granted.
Thus we may
say that the request and the answer go hand in hand. The giving and
correlative. The effort means its accomplishment.
These jewels should be among the contents of
of our individual "Temples," which if guided in their building, planned
in their inception by the absolute worthiness of the reason for
building, lead to
the final raising of an edifice wherein there shall be no false gods,
unfilled obligations nor anything which doth not belong within a
We may then pray with a dignity born of Truth.
How many do pray just through the habit of
everything in sight. How many are disappointed, when after meeting with
almost self-inflicted misfortune, prayer brings nothing. Prayer is
if robbed of its dignity. It cannot be heard. The real preparation
receive the object asked for is absent. There has been no effort to
fill the cornerstone
of Life with the records of Truth. We are out of our class. No previous
There is no record of our having even tried to merit an answer to our
it is simply a wheedling, simpering, despairing cry without dignity and
What should constitute previous performance? It
but little absolutely new to start. The obligation of the First Degree
"Apprentice" way: "Be true to yourself." The Second Degree:
"Be faithful to your friends and thus in a greater degree to yourself."
The Third Degree: "Be to all men a brother. Be quick to lend a helping
to all mankind ‒ to all men, no matter of what faith or creed." Be sure
note that all men are equal in the sight of the Creator. Think always
upon an engagement. Let cleanliness of heart and tongue go hand in hand
act. Look well ahead on the trail before you trust your feet upon it.
You may, in
a darkening moment, tread upon a brother fallen by the wayside. He
should be placed
upon his feet again. Then you may pray for more assistance, with all
consistent effort commands. Your prayers will be answered in your good
crowned with accomplishment, even before your eyes. So shall we merit
Life, wherein Truth prevails.
* * *
(Literature contains many
explanations of prayer
‒ explanations which because of their liberal viewpoint might easily
have been made
by Masons well versed in the lore of the Craft. Time and again we have
said in these
pages that Masonry is not a religion, but that it is religion. It is
not a cult,
but its philosophy is the embodiment of all that is fundamental in
therefore found underlying all cults and creeds. To the student who has
this conception of Masonry, the following quotations will bring a quiet
and an illuminating viewpoint of the true concepts of the Fraternity,
in the teachings of its degrees.)
The Power of Prayer
pray must know and understand that prayer is an earnest and familiar
God, to whom we declare our miseries, whose help we implore and desire
in our adversities,
and whom we laud and praise for our benefits received; so that prayer
exposition of our detours (troubles, sorrows), the desire of God's
the praising of His magnificent name, as the Psalms of David clearly
in whose presence we stand, to whom we speak, and what we desire,
us to the greatest reverence in doing this; standing in the presence of
Creator of Heaven and earth, and of all that is therein; whom a
angels assist and serve, giving obedience to His eternal majesty; and
Him who knoweth the secrets of our hearts, before whom dissimulation
and lies are
always odious and hateful; asking those things which may be most to His
the comfort of our conscience. But we should attend diligently that
as may offend His godly presence may be removed to the uttermost of our
first, that worldly cares and fleshy cogitations, such as draw us from
be expelled from us, that we may fully, without interruption, call upon
how difficult and hard this one thing is to perform in prayer, none
than such as, in their prayers, are not content to remain within the
bands of their
own vanity, but are, as it were, enrapt, and do intend to a purity
allowed of God;
asking not such things as the foolish reason of man desires, but that
be acceptable in God's presence.
* * *
What Prayer Accomplishes
a soliloquy; but being a soliloquy expressing need, and being
sacrifice, a desperate expedient which men fly to in their impotence,
it looks for
an effect; to cry aloud, to make vows, to contrast eloquently the given
ideal situation, is certainly as likely a way of bringing about a
change for the
better as it would be to chastise one's self severely, or to destroy
what one loves
best, or to perform acts altogether trivial and arbitrary. Prayer also
and as such it is expected to do work. The answer looked for, or one
which may be
accepted instead, very often ensues; and it is then that mythology
begins to enter
in and seeks to explain by what machinery of divine passions and
purposes that answering
effect was produced.
that pretends to justify prayer by giving it a material efficacy
prayer completely and makes it ridiculous, for it turns away from the
prayer expresses pathetically, to a fabulous cosmos where aspirations
turned into things and have thereby stifled their own voices.
would not be improved if we surrendered that mystical optimism, and
prayer might really attract superhuman forces to our aid by giving them
without which they would not have been able to reach us. If experience
to such a theory there would be nothing in it more impossible than in
prayer would then be an art like conversation, and the exact personages
would be discoverable to which we might appeal. A celestial diplomacy
be established not very unlike primitive religions. Religion would have
to industry and science, to which the grosser spirits that take refuge
have always wished to assimilate it.
religion really should pass into is contemplation, ideality, poetry, in
in which poetry includes all imaginative moral life. That this is what
looks to is very clear in prayer and in the efficacy which prayer
have. In rational prayer the soul may be said to accomplish three
to its welfare; it withdraws within itself and defines its good, it
itself to destiny, and it grows like the ideal which it conceives.
springs from need it will naturally dwell on what would satisfy that
sometimes, indeed, it does nothing else but articulate and eulogize
what is most
wanted and prized. This object will often be particular, and so it
should be, since
Socrates' prayer "for the best" would be perfunctory and vapid indeed
in a man whose life had not been spent, like Socrates', in defining
what the best
Geo. Santayana ‒ "Reason in Religion."
* * *
Putting the Mind in a Receptive
is the highest form of co-operative action required on the part of man.
the mode of effort that is adapted to the nature of the spiritual good
that is sought
by it, as labor and study are modes of effort that are adapted to the
we seek. Labor and study are practical modes of asking for what we seek
a way of putting our minds into a receptive condition. So with prayer."
C. T. Porter, in "Mechanics and Faith."
* * *
Prayer and a Divine Plan
be no difficulty in reconciling prayer with the theory of a divine plan
is remembered that the Author of the plan instructs us to pray, and
plan must include our prayers. But they must be right prayers and in a
They must never be demands. He who has the most of the spirit of prayer
least disposed to press his own wishes. Having laid his petitions
before the all-wise
and all-loving Father, he will rest peacefully in the one desire that
absorbs all others ‒ "Not my will, but Thine, be done."
be trustful prayers. If we ask for guidance in the difficult ways of
our daily life
we must believe that he is so guiding us, however dark the pathway may
seem to us.
There was profound philosophy in the remark of a child in connection
with the sad
fate of President Garfield. The following conversation between two
"I am sure President Garfield will get well,
people are praying for him all over the world."
"I don't feel sure of it."
"What! Don't you believe that God answers
"Oh, yes! I know that God answers prayers. He
answers prayers, but sometimes He answers yes, and sometimes He answers
One of the scriptural injunctions to prayer
feel it hard to take literally is that it shall be continual. "Pray
ceasing." Since we cannot spend all our time upon our knees or in what
as the special religious exercise of prayer, we dismiss this plain
hyperbolical. But it is not. It is a clear instruction that we are to
have a spirit
of prayer in all that we do. There is no act of our lives so trifling
that it does
not come within the scope of God's plan. The spirit of prayer will
us to "pray without ceasing," that God's will may be done in the
particulars of our lives. The desire to do his will is a prayer. It
does not need
expression in words every moment, nor even "the upward lifting of an
The desire to act for God and not for self is a practical expression of
"Thy will be done" in every act that is thus consecrated.
Theo. F. Seward.
* * *
"That prayer which does not succeed in
our wish, in changing the passionate desire into still submission, the
tumultuous expectation into silent surrender, is no true prayer, and
we have not the spirit of true prayer. That life is most holy in which
the least of petition and desire, and most of waiting upon God; that in
most often passes into thanksgiving. Pray till prayer makes you forget
wish, and leave it or merge it in God's will. The divine wisdom has
given us prayer
not as a means whereby to obtain the good things of earth, but as a
we learn to do without them: not as a means whereby we escape evil, but
as a means
whereby we become strong to meet it."
F. W. Robertson.
* * *
A Famous Prayer with a Masonic
(A mechanical device known as a
is used by the Buddhists of Tibet and Central Asia. It is generally
formed of a
pasteboard cylinder, wrapped in long paper bands inscribed with
repetitions of the
prayer "Om mani pad me hum." The efficacy of the devotion is reckoned
by the number of revolutions made by the wheel.)
"Om mani pad me hum!" has become the "prayer"
par excellence of Tibetan Buddhists: "the sum and substance of all the
of all the Buddhas concentrated in one word." With a Sanskrit origin
somewhat obscure, this jumble of six syllables is repeated by deified
princes, vicious priests, and humble laymen from the mountains of India
to the plains
of China. In the Tibetan-English Dictionary of the learned Jaschke
under the syllable
"Om" we have the following explanation: "Om" a mystical interjection
... the symbol of the Hindu triad inasmuch as it consists of three
sounds A. U.
M., or Vishnu, Shiva, and Brahma respectively. This interjection
in the prayers of the Northern Buddhists of Tibet, and especially in
six-syllable prayer "Om mani pad me hum," the literal meaning of which
is: "O thou jewel in the Lotus hum." The person addressed in these
is not Buddha but Spyan Ras Gzigs, and by some he is thought to be the
them. The Tibetans themselves are ignorant of the proper sense of the
if sense at all there be in them.... The simple and popular but also
of these explanations is derived from the purely extrinsic circumstance
Sanskrit words of the prayer consist of six syllables . . . (which),
by a pious Buddhist, convey a blessing upon one of the six classes of
demi-gods, men, animals, hungry giants, and inmates of Hell).
"Om mani pad me hum" seems to be written on
everything, and repeated by everyone everywhere. It is muttered by
bands of lamas
at the picturesque religious ceremonies, accompanied by ringing bells,
cymbals, blaring trumpets, booming drums, and wailing flutes. It is
feverish haste and weird monotony by individuals for the benefit of
health, sickness, death; and it is muttered and garbled by countless
laymen on wild
steppes, dangerous passes, gloomy forests and busy markets, without
from early dawn till late at night. For instance, the traveler may meet
nomad or unwashed woman. The lips are moving rapidly and a droning
sound seems to
be proceeding from the depths of the stomach. You greet them and the
ceases. Out goes a long tongue and it would seem that death from
imminent, but you are soon relieved to hear your salutation returned
and the strange
noise continued as if nothing had happened. With the Tibetan, not to
pray is the
exception. Old and young, at work and at play, it would seem as if men
were not born to mourn but to mutter the everlasting mani. But
is not necessarily associated with morality. The godless lama, the
the abandoned woman, and the sordid Chinaman all pray with a fervency
by the blameless saint of Christendom. And the traveler soon finds that
devotions are interrupted it is generally to curse the patient animal,
in obscene banter with the female drivers.
For many years the writer imagined this strange
had no rival among Tibetan peoples, but found later that this was not
so. The Ponpo
or Black Lamas contemptuously reject "Om mani pad me hum," so dear to
the hearts of the Yellow and Red cults, and would die rather than
repeat it, turn
it, or cause it to be turned. But they have a peculiar form of their
own which is
resolved from left to right with as much ingenuity and assiduity as the
on the "Om mani pad me hum." Jaschke transcribes the phrase as "Man
tri mu tri sa le dzu," while Des Godins, a great authority on Eastern
gives "Ma tchri mou me sa le gou." The writer who has lived among the
Bon in Badi-Bawang would tentatively suggest "Om ma dri mu ye sa le
He has never heard them repeating "Om mani pad me hum" backwards,
the drums, cylinders, and boxes are most religiously reversed by all
good Bons when
in the act of praying. It is sad, but still interesting, to remember
that two important
schools have found these meaningless phrases an opportunity for bitter
and often an excuse for cruel persecution. Some decades ago the Yellow
Lama differences were the cause of a savage civil war.
On two occasions the writer had the ritual of
at his disposal. One evening he and a companion arrived at Chelo in
Kong U after
a sensationally dangerous journey up to the right bank of the T'ong
River. The lamas
in the district were very friendly and belonged to the Bon cult. The
Abbot who was
an alleged "living Buddha" and head of the Bonpo fraternity in Chagla
(?) invited us to see him. His small cell was bare and refreshingly
clean. A plain,
unornamented looking-glass on the table, a pan of glowing embers in a
battered tea service close at hand, were the first signs of comfort to
gaze. Further in was a small enclosure bountifully supplied with rugs
but so small that sleep could only be taken in the sitting posture
required of the
disciples of Gautama. The Buddha received us tremblingly but with much
His face was ascetic, pleasing, and well-proportioned, and as he sat
cross-legged, bolt upright, and posing as a god, one could recognize
that grace and culture which sometimes (rare indeed) characterizes the
lamas. As we went out he accompanied us and knelt as we bade adieu.
Later on our
present of soap and perfumes was refused on the score of poverty, but
on the assurance
being made that we expected no return present the soap was accepted. He
that he would pray for us: "it was all he could do." That night the
of drums, the clang of cymbals, and hurried muttering of charms
indicated that the
good man was spending a night in prayer, and we had every reason to
believe it was
on our account. The next experience was in the independent kingdom of
Somo. My companion
was stricken down suddenly with a mysterious complaint. A deputation of
may have been the authors of the raging fever and excruciating pains,
exorcise the "malignant spirit" which was the cause of the malady.
services were refused, but later the inn-keeper and the lamas both
such ceremony was necessary and the day following was chosen as a
to oust the "spirit." Fortunately, with much difficulty, my sick
was carried out of Somo and their jurisdiction before the time decided
on for what
was intended to be his burial service.
I have no proof of its antiquity, but the
is common enough on stone tablets and temple doorways in China proper.
I have seen
it at Weichow and Siutu, and even so far afield as T'aissing in
Kiangsu. But there
is nothing like it on the T'ang Chao tablets in the Nim valley. It may
be seen in
an ancient Sanskrit form, however, on a small lamasery in Chengtu. ‒ J.
in The Chinese Recorder. Duty does
consist in suffering everything, but in suffering everything for duty.
indeed, it is our duty not to suffer.
"The Sword of America"
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
In response to the
many requests of our members for information as to the kind of sermons
preaches" we are publishing the following as a characteristic example.
sermon was delivered to Brother Newton's English congregation in the
London, Nov. 1, 1917.
"My sword shall be bathed in heaven." ‒ Isaiah
ALL through the Bible the sword is a symbol of
sometimes of a power used for evil ends, sometimes ‒ more often indeed
‒ for noble
ends. The great watchword of the ancient Commonwealth in its trial,
of the Lord and Gideon," might be used as a text for what the Bible has
say about the sword. Now power is neither good nor evil; it is neutral.
for which it is used, the spirit in which it is used, gives it moral
bomb may be used to blow up a building, or to blast a tunnel for a
new lands and inviting to new adventures. There are those who think
that the use
of any kind of force is wrong if it be used in behalf of moral and
Not at all. Force, used righteously in behalf of righteousness, is a
sword of the
So, at least, Americans think of it, and with a
winsome and ardent exceptions, they are quite unanimous in feeling that
in behalf of which America and her allies fight is the cause of simple
decency, and mercy upon the earth. For the beautiful Quaker tradition
great respect, and should have respect. When the Quaker laid aside his
and drab coat and picked up his axe, he laid the foundation of some of
things in American life and literature. But in our wars of former
times, if the
Quaker was not permitted by his scruples actually to fight, he has
always been a
faithful servant of the Republic. Take our good, grey poet, Walt
Whitman, who was
of Quaker origin, as Lincoln was on one side of his family. He could
not enter the
ranks and take a gun and fight, but he entered the hospitals, and his
memorable to this day in our annals. But for the man who will not
render any service
to his country because it is at war and he perchance may be lending
to the existence of war, Americans can have very little respect.
sinks to the level of mere crankery. Such a person is not the object of
of pity. To such conscientious objectors then America objects on
She holds it to be true that no man has a moral right to the enjoyment
of a country whose institutions he will not support, and whose
existence he will
not defend. Let us be as true to Christianity as our sinful nature will
and the grace of God will help us to be, but let us not identify
Why did America hesitate to enter the war? Of
I do not ask you to approve the reason, I only ask you to understand
in his farewell address, told his country to keep clear of all
with Europe. Why? Europe was at that time practically a monarchy from
end to end.
America, as Lincoln stated later, was conceived in liberty and
dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal. Therefore, the first
it wise for the Republic to live aloof for a time until it should be
His advice was wise; it was followed, and became the basis of all our
for more than a century. Now a century of national policy cannot be
it cannot be changed in a moment. But times change, and men change with
is no longer autocratic. Our enemies are trying to hold the last
fortress of autocracy,
and it must go. Europe is democratic, and it will be increasingly so in
come. Therefore the very reason why our country kept clear from
with Europe in other days, for the same reason it has come into the
America, then, has not simply entered the war,
entered the world, reversing her whole national policy and the
tendencies of her
history, and this meant a complete revolution of thought and feeling in
In that connection let me recall the words from a letter of Jefferson
"Great Britain is the nation which can do us
most harm of any one, or all, on earth; and with her on our side we
need not fear
the whole world. With her, then, we should sedulously cherish a cordial
and nothing would tend more to knit our affections than to be fighting
side by side, in the same cause."
Today those words are fulfilled before our
because we fear harm from England, or have reason to suspect any threat
but because at last the policy of national isolation having become
obsolete in America,
and America having entered the world, her nearest neighbor is her
the sons of the great Republic are fighting side by side with the sons
of the great
What this will mean in the future no one may
to predict. Personally, I feel, and I believe it is also the growing
my countrymen, that it is the outstanding fact connected with the whole
of the war, and will have more influence on the future than any other
I should state my own conviction it would be after this manner:
"An alliance of the United States and the
Commonwealth on clearly defined terms of unquestionable explicitness,
made in the
open light of day, so that those planning aggression could realize
clearly the formidable
obstacle in their path, would effectively, though not absolutely,
secure the general
peace of the future world."
Such being the reason why America hesitated to
the war, let me ask, in the second place, why she did enter the war?
She was not
indifferent; she was not incapable of moral indignation, as some of you
felt. Why did we enter the war? Because our citizens had been
assassinated on the
high seas in ruthless barbarity? No, though that were cause enough if
is to have meaning and value. Because we endured one unparalleled
insult after another,
such as perhaps no great and proud people had endured before? No. A
cannot insult a gentleman. Did we go to war, then, because our
hospitality had been
used for every conceivable kind of plot, involving our own people as
well as the
people of other nations ‒ like a huge spider spinning its dark web of
spying all over the earth? No, though the discovery of those plots has
made us very
angry. America kept out of the war until she learned that the
government of Germany
is an organized lie. When she learned that, there was no other appeal
but to the
awful court of war.
Let me read you some words from Edmund Burke,
so that he was a great champion of America, in the House of Commons, at
of the war of the Revolution ‒ and, of course, I need not say that
America now understands
that the reason for that war was that the King of England then was a
made a mess of things, as Germans usually do ‒ those great words from
on the French Revolution," one of the noblest passages in all political
"Society is indeed a contract. It is a
in all science; a partnership in all art; a partnership in all virtue,
and in all
perfection. As the ends of such a partnership cannot be obtained in
it becomes a partnership not only between those who are living, but
who are living and those who are dead, and those who are to be born.
of each particular state is but a clause in the great primeval contract
society, linking the lower with the higher natures, connecting the
the invisible world, according to a fixed compact sanctioned by the
which holds all physical and all moral natures, each in their appointed
Our enemies have violated the primeval contract
society, making a treaty a "scrap of paper." An unwillingness to keep
any national engagement that did not entirely suit their whim, throwing
to the winds
all moral obligation, is a violation of the contract on which all human
rests. Consider what would happen in London if a portion of its
to live according to a law of its own, to keep engagements only when it
for them to do so; to respect obligations only when it was altogether
involved no sacrifice. What kind of community would there be in London?
vanish; business would collapse; anarchy would reign. What is true of
is true the world over, and it was this violation of the primeval
contract of society
which arrayed the moral indignation of the world against Germany and
and drew America into the conflict.
For the same reason there can be no peace, no
looking towards peace, with the present German government. No treaty of
by it is worth the paper on which it is written. It would be treated as
and as carelessly and as indifferently as other treaties have been
that reason America has not only gone into the war solemnly,
but she has gone into the war for profound moral and religious reasons.
the same reasons she will remain in it to the end and beyond, to see
that the fundamental
decencies of life are kept upon the earth, and that civilized society
Now, it is not possible for me in the time that
to tell you what America in war-time is like. It is a grand and solemn
see a great nation mobilize all its forces, industrial, financial,
spiritual ‒ and prepare for a great contest. Never in our whole history
Republic been so united, so cemented as it is today. In no other war
has there been
such a firm faith and clear and fixed conviction, not only of the
of it, but of the necessity for it. I do not even except the war of the
I certainly do not except the Civil War. It means much, then, to have
judgment of a hundred millions of people. Our enemies have ignored
things. That is their greatest shame and their surest defeat. These
things may seem
to be intangible, but they are mighty; if they move slowly they move
history thunders in our ears telling us where they are going. Our
that the British Empire would fall to pieces, but instead the solidity
of the Empire has been revealed as in an apocalypse. They thought that
remain indifferent, or could be frightened, but that was another
it has been said that our enemies will go down in history as a people
everything except what actually happened, and who calculated everything
it cost themselves.
From the Rocky Mountains in the Far West; from
prairies of the Middle West; from the valleys and forests of the South;
of the stony hills of New England; up from the great Central States,
men marching, marching, marching, most of them having volunteered, most
of the States
having filled up their quota by volunteer enlistment before the draft
effect. These young men come from all walks of life, our universities
especially giving their very best, some of them being quite
depopulated. They march
with one step and they sing one song. It is quite different from the
war with Spain
in one particular, there is very little noise; there is a quietness
that is rather
unusual in America, and which is for that reason easily mistaken as to
I should like to speak a word particularly about the Middle West, which
people do not understand at all. It has been quiet; we have made very
out in the Middle West, but the Middle West and the South are the most
parts of America. Out there men do not say: "Let somebody else go and
‒ they go themselves. So when it came to the matter of enlisting, when
it came to
furnishing funds for the great Liberty Loan, the Middle West was in the
led the way. Let me also say something about our fellow citizens of
Perhaps 85 or 90 per cent of them are as loyal and true-hearted in
to the Republic as any other class of citizens. They are not
pro-English, they are
not pro-French, but they are pro-American. They came, or their fathers
them, to America, to get away from the hideous, hateful thing that has
into what it is today. They hate the Kaiser and all his works. They
They were attracted to America by its idealism, its opportunity for
Karl Schurz [Lib 1928] was typical
of this large class. You have read of his flight from Germany, of his
in England, of his journey to America, where he climbed from the bottom
to the top
and became a member of the Senate. A very able and noble man he was.
When he returned
to Germany he took pains to tell Bismarck of the difference between
living in a
Republic and living in an autocracy. You may find it in his
with Bismarck," after this manner: Living in an autocracy is like
a great ocean liner. All the appointments are perfect, but you have
nothing to do
with running the boat. The details are quite satisfactory, but the
is wrong. Living in a democracy is like riding on a raft or a flat
boat. The passengers
get their feet wet, they take cold, and they sneeze. They have an
time, but they run the boat, and they know where it is going.
These people sympathize deeply with the folk of
own blood in the Fatherland, but they have no sympathy with the German
or that for which it stands. There is a small minority, perhaps 10 per
cent of late
comers to America, attracted not by its idealism but by its
opportunities to make
money, who have not yet become American. For I take it that an American
is a man
who holds in his heart as sacred that for which America stands, no
matter what his
race or religion may be. And America is not a new England, it is not a
it is a new world. It is founded upon a principle to which it has been
these years, to build a nation not for the rich, though its resources
may make men
rich, not for the elect, who can make their way anywhere or everywhere;
but a nation
where the plain common man can stand erect, can stretch his arms and
his soul and
be free; own his home; cast his vote and have his voice in the affairs
of the State.
That small minority of Germans who have not yet become American have
made a good
deal of noise, have acted very unwisely, aided by propagandists from
the Home Country,
but Americans know how to deal with them. Either of three things will
all three: they will be interned, their property will be confiscated,
and at the
close of the war they will be deported back to the Germany of which
they are so
Not lightly did America go into the war,
bravest and her best to stand side by side with your bravest and best.
of our common blood in a common sacrifice means the consecration of us
all. We must
renew our vows, our high and holy determination that the Britain for
have fought so valiantly, with such superhuman courage, the America for
Americans are now to fight, shall in the future be a greater, better
greater, purer America. Back across the years come the words of Lincoln
in the hour
of our national crisis, which express today the feeling of his country
in a greater
time of trial ‒ these words:
"Fondly do we
hope, fervently do we pray that this mighty scourge of war may speedily
Yet if God wills that it continue, as was said 3000 years ago, so still
be said, 'The judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.'
toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God
gives us to
see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind
up the nation's
wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his
widow and his
orphan; to do all which many achieve and cherish a just and lasting
ourselves and with all nations."
"My sword shall be bathed in Heaven," in
principles, in a heavenly spirit. So far as we in America are
concerned, it is not
a war of hate. It is not a war of revenge; we have no old scores to
clear off. It
is not a war of conquest, we do not want an inch of land from any
people. But we
realize that Europe cannot be free, America cannot be free, that no
can be safe, until the military autocracy of Prussia is crushed, and to
end we unite with you, heart and hand and soul, that the future may be
nobler for your children and for ours.
Our philosophy of patriotism is that each
by the gift of God, something unique, particular and precious;
something not to
be found anywhere else, and therefore it has a gift to make to
That it may make that gift it should be free to develop what is most
precious in its life. Therefore we say to our enemies: "We will not
our culture upon any other people, and you shall not impose your kultur
other people." Kultur! The very word stinks to the stars. We do not
internationalism that is a mere abstraction, that bleaches out all our
and human heroisms. Not at all; just as in religion, we do not want
unity of the
churchyard, we want the unity of the Church ‒ unity with variety, the
unity of a
flower garden, where there is one soil and one air, and every variety
of color ‒
so we want an international understanding that shall permit each nation
not a narrow bigoted nationalism, but shall give to all what is most
holy in its life. To do that it must be free. For that it is that
America is fighting,
seeking the Excalibur that King Arthur found at last. When he was
beaten and broken
and wounded and his sword was of no further use, in the enchanted lake
he saw the
white arm of a woman holding a sword, the most excellent sword of
right, with which
he had vanquished his foes. The name of that sword was truth, its
sheath was faith.
And so armed with this bright blade, we join with you, this England ‒
heart ‒ in the spirit of these lines from our young poet, Thomas Curtis
are America's men,
Strong, forceful and free;
We are America's men,
Children of Liberty;
Ready to march at the trumpet's call,
Ready to fight, ready to fall ‒
And ready to herald, peace for all!
We are America's men.
We are America's men,
Brave, dauntless and true;
We are Americas men,
Ready to dare and do;
Ready to wield the sword with might;
Ready the tyrant's brow to smite ‒
And ready to sheathe the sword ‒ for Right!
We are America's men.
We are America's men,
Loathing the despot's rod,
We are America's men,
Under the rule of ‒ God:
Ready to battle giants grim,
Ready to fight till day grows dim,
But ready to sheathe the sword ‒ for Him!
We are America's men.
An Echo – [A Poem]
Bro. Denman S. Wagstaff, Calif.
war is rampant,
death a common prize
Upon the bloodstained stretches, far and wide;
When vengeance stalks with dripping sword,
We hear the echo, "Lord, with me abide."
May it be thus, that He who died to save,
Wrest from the wrecks of nations, in this night,
The spirit of the right, and from the fields arise
A Living Thing, triumphant in the fight.
Let then the slumb'ring fires break forth anew,
Let then at last "the Prince of Peace" be king,
Let holly be the crown, and not the thorn
Beside the cross; yea, let the welkin ring
With victory! and not a warrior's boast,
But one great prayer resounding o'er the plain,
Where silent sleeps a countless multitude,
Who died that kings might live to fight again.
Let not the world forget Gethsemane!
The Sword! The Cross! Well hath each served to give
An untold share to gray Golgotha's rising mound;
Yet hope in Life and Death shall always live!
A fool with a good memory is full of ideas and
but he can't draw sound conclusions from them; everything turns upon
Zionism and Its Relation
to the Sacred History of Masonry
By Bro. Denman S. Wagstaff,
P. M., California
NOTE: Such Zionists as may be among our readers
understand at once the spirit in which Bro. Wagstaff has written this
It is a vigorous presentation of one side of the question. THE BUILDER
will be very
glad to publish a reply from some Zionist Brother.
"Zionism aims to obtain a publicly-recognized
legally secured home for the Jewish people in Palestine." ‒ From the
A suit of armor hung
upon a wall,
An ancient sword, beside it;
An empty gauntlet clasped its hilt,
As tho' forsooth, to draw it.
ANTIQUITY paints the glamor of "sacred memory"
upon the face of everything it touches. Zionism grew to its maximum
the same process of "treasuring," that has aided the forward march of
latter-day Masonry! Thus we build and build, until King Solomon's
before us in all entrancing grandeur! We may now see the ancients
the vaulted halls of fame, bearing flickering candles that allow a
glimpse now and
again of their surroundings!
By this symbol of light, the Zionist as well,
embers of what were once fires, upon sacred altars! He sees traces of
and scents in the charged atmosphere, the odor of mystifying incense;
the curtains of his retrospective realization, beholds the Holy of
Holies and the
sacred vessels ‒ the rich Jewels too that adorned the vestments of the
Priests. He heal s the terrible voice of the God of Abraham, Isaac and
observes the light of his countenance envelop the whole scene!
So Masonry and Zionism have found their
or fraternity of origin. They were born in the same bed and nursed by
the same breast,
just as were Romulus and Remus. For years, until now ‒ and the journey
at an end ‒ they have traveled hand in hand. The present is marked by
of a separation. Persisted in, the reason for an actual "parting of the
is because of the well-established fact that Masons are Patriots first,
Masonry will surely continue to rise,
to greater heights than yet attained, while Zionism, because of her
of present and past-proven vital issues of national life, both
spiritual and material,
will estrange her devotees from the parent objective of all advanced
her skeleton alongside the empty suit of armor on the wall. Modernism
has won a
place in life! Between the flickering rays of candlelight only, may we
things! By the full glare of the sun, we see the present, the dawning
days we are
destined to overtake! Left to our own volition, we (Jew or Gentile)
would not trade
a paving stone on Market Street, for the tomb of some Moses in
for speculative purposes, were we obliged, on acquiring the sacred
place to renounce
our allegiance to the country of our birth and take up residence on
By the way, it would be a good place to intern some American citizens,
who are afflicted with "Kaisermania" because of their hatred for
Wonderful reason for a Jew to give, in view of the shades of Disraelli
and the long
line of Jewish Lords Mayor of London. The dream of some day following
up the allied
armies when they have made it safe for German and Turk atrocities, is
This we may see by the flickering candle light.
To meet the point at once, I would say for Jew
Jerusalem is no more sacred to one than the other! To be sure the Jew
of the abundance of his antiquity, a Savior, a Christ. We would very
much like to
come across the stable where he was born. When we succeed in driving
Turk and German out of the sacred place, we may be able to safely bribe
of the real Jehovah to disclose its whereabouts! Now the Jews lived in
during various periods of their national existence, when they were not
(because they could not govern themselves) or elsewhere about the
The Jew thinks more of Palestine now, than the Jew did then. These
facts must console
the "me for the Holy-Land" agitator upon mature contemplation. The Jew
of course has retained his racial characteristics more particularly
than any other
race, by having continually reminded himself that he was a Jew. He has
whole world into the same habit. He has persistently, and ofttimes
declared himself a Jew, when he might just as well have been known as
a Frenchman, or even just an American. Some have escaped confinement,
by not being
outspoken as to nationality, seeming to value religion more than
thinkers nowadays, when times are stirring, often fail to take, time to
that such a man could hardly belong to the forward movement necessary
in the making
of full-fledged citizens.
The world knows that what I have just said is
I would like to see the American of Jewish faith wipe out this new onus
citizenship," by a complete resumption of his prerogatives as a
the taint of religious fanaticism. What is a Jew anyhow? Is he so
different an animal
by nature, that he can, of his own free will and accord, separate
the length and breadth of all lands, from every tie of birth, of
business and social? Does he want anything further of Jerusalem, except
it a safe place for a fellow to visit when so inclined? I should think
are collecting a lot of money for what they call their "cause." Better
call it their "casus belli." The Zionist reveres the same ancient
as does the Mason. He does not think any more of them. The Catholic
Church has made
a great feature of the "Relics" of Jewish Characters and personalities.
Judea ought to be to them, the most sacred place on earth. It is not,
Church has fought and bled for it, as it has about every country on
this. For the sake of what they have excavated in Palestine, they have
the heretically civilized world to mortal combat, from the time of the
until now. However it happens that they were neither Jews nor Masons!
very wise. They visited the tomb of Christ and long ago chipped off a
piece of the
sacred boulder that once closed its entrance ‒ they have disinterred
had a sacred memory, and have taken as much away as would hold
together. They have
in their museum, the original rod of Aaron and some of the holy water
out of his
smitten rock, as well as one of the original slabs of heavenly granite
was written by God the Ten Commandments, and then handed to Moses.
These and more,
they have taken to Rome, where they have sanctified and established a
all their own. They have there the Holy of Holies. They do not consider
place as material to their religious purposes, neither do they wish to
It would be a grand thing for the world and
if they did have such a plan. World interests would just slide ahead
years upon the day these Christian Warriors sailed away.
But we cannot afford to lose the Jew! The
Jewish faith. Let me now plead with him to be American First, not Jew
does not hear public men spoken of as Methodist-Americans, nor even
There would be some measure of truth in such a title as the latter one,
no sane man doubts but that the papacy has a stronger hold upon her
subjects than Woodrow Wilson, perhaps the greatest President since
could possibly expect to wield, as a heretic, destined to pass away and
like an ordinary citizen, in non-consecrated ground. The Jew and the
Mason are of
course consigned to equally inconsequential localities on the map.
All that I have said may not be a just or
of the material body or spiritual conscience of the Zionist movement,
"faddists" may not have conceived, in their enthusiasm, to what lengths
such an "heraus-mit'em" drive could be carried, before meeting with
from even Gentiles, who recognize, in their fellow citizens of the
the great and sterling qualities which make for the highest type of
that America is blessed with. But to the "man up a tree," an American
tree ‒ without prejudice, it would seem that the desire to restore the
could be done in a more quiet and indeed business-like way, as any man
instance, go back to the home place of his father or grandfather, buy
it, fix it
up so that the "rats and mice" would not have undisputed possession,
somewhat over the transition accomplished for his immediate posters and
because no strange unhallowed lands could now caress the old brass door
the floors of the chambers, now made safe, for reflection the glories
of the past.
Jerusalem is safe. The British descendants of
are doing the trick without even casting a shadow upon the actual
the citizenship of any of the Allies. Masonry is satisfied with the
it gives back to her unsullied, the ancient landmarks, in which Jews
have acted so prominent a part, in the glorious past. Unsullied because
remains, that the Creator made foreman to tread, and erect on, from
time to time,
the playhouses he has always seen fit to decorate in his very mortal
which may always pass away, like milestones sink out of sight, on the
the onward centuries.
Lodges in Cuba
F. De P. Rodriguez, Cuba
IT is not the general custom at present for
to authorize the working of Lodges attached to Military Regiments in
but during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries this custom
prevailed to some
extent and, no doubt, to the advantage of the Fraternity in that period
of the development
of the Institution.
We Cubans are proud of the fact that when
first spread its civilizing rays upon this Pearl of the Antilles it
an Irish Army Lodge. It is indeed a fact that between Ireland and
Spain, and consequently
Cuba, the closest ties of sympathy and friendly relations have long
Irish families, perhaps for religious reasons, emigrated to Spain
during the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries. It is not uncommon today to find among the
names of Spain and Cuba, those of O'Reilly, O'Farrill, O'Donnell and
evidence their Irish ancestry.
When England conquered Cuba in 1762, there
Havana with her soldiers, Lodge No. 218 of the Registry of Ireland,
which was attached
to the 48th Regiment, the said Regiment named "De Webb" belonging to
Brigade of General Walsh. This Regimental Lodge remained in Cuba until
departure of the English on July 6th, 1763.
No one knows exactly where the quarters of this
were located, but it is probable that it was in one of the cells of the
convent, near the dock of the Port of Havana.* The convent was fully
officers of the conquering army, being afterward used as the Custom
House for many
years. It is now the City Post Office.
The only record of the existence among us of
is the following, transcribed in full in the Ars Quatuor Coronatorum,
"And the Darkness
Comprehended it Not ‒ In the East A place full of Light where Reigns
peace We the Master wardens and Secretary of the Worship full Lodge of
Accepted Masons Dedicated to St. John No. 218 (Seal) on the Registry of
held in the Forty Eight Regiment of Foot (Ne Varietur) Adornd with all
and Assembled in Due Form Do hereby Declare Certifie and Attest to all
spread on the Face of the Earth that the Bearer hereof Alexander
Cockburn hath been
Received an Entered Apprentice and fellow Craft and after sufficient
proof and Tryall
we have given unto him the sublime Degree of Master and he May Lawfully
without any Demur be Admitted into And Accepted off by any Society to
Presents Come Greeting –
Given under our Hands
and Seal at our Lodge Room at the Havanna this 3d Day of May in the
year of our
Lord 1763 and in the Year of Masonry 5763 ‒ ‒
William Smith, Master
James Lee, Rich'd Coombs [?], Wardens Peter Tobin: Secretary."
* This building
is one of the relics of the city, the big mass of grey stones
constituting it dates from the XVI century and is a dumb witness to all
in our midst.
Nothing is known of the relations between the
of this Lodge and the civil population of the island; probably no
the soldiers knew anything of it and they neither accepted any Cuban
midst nor permitted a native to look inside the Lodge room. I am
informed by the
R. W. Grand Secretary of Ireland that Lodge 218 was in existence from
the year 1750
to 1858, and while in Cuba, in 1763, initiated eleven candidates, none
of whom was
It has been proved that Spanish officers
Masonry into Mexico and South America during the first quarter of the
century, but not into Cuba. It is well-known that we are of Yankee
Keystone State presided at our birth. All of our first Lodges went the
of foundation until, due to the Spanish misapprehensions, Masonry was
in 1829, and although two Lodges continued their labors, they did so
by the utmost secrecy, in the mountainous eastern region of the
province of Santiago.
In 1859 the actual Grand Lodge was started, but
under suspicion of the Spanish government. Masons had to be guarded in
working always in the dark.
When the Ten Year War broke out in 1868,
sympathized with it, they had to keep silence. Grand Master Puente was
of his Masonic position and the Masonic Temple at Havana ransacked. The
of St. Andrew Lodge were surprised during a meeting and sent to jail
for three months.
Under such conditions, could it have been
the Grand Lodge to charter any Military Lodges among the revolutionary
not. Nevertheless, among the patriotic army there existed in separate
Military Lodges. They were not regular, it is true. They had no
warrants; it was
impossible to obtain warrants under the prevailing conditions. Yet both
Lodges were started by regular Masons and did excellent work in the
labors are worthy of record.
Carlos Manuel de Cespedes, the leader of our
for independence, called "The Ten Year War," was a highly educated and
competent man, speaking six languages, a fluent orator and an
When the war broke out he was the Master of Buena Fe Lodge at
Manzanillo, a position
he was compelled to abandon to follow his fellows to the field of war,
soon afterward closing its doors. But Cespedes had taken with him a
number of Masonic
books including Cassard's Manual, the Constitution of the Grand Lodge,
and several other works.
After the first few skirmishes of the war,
Masonic fancies called him and he began a search for Masons in his
meeting many in the persons of his principal officers. He worked so
devoutly, that when the Republic was proclaimed shortly afterward, they
to start a Masonic Lodge at Guaimaro, naming it "Independencia."
was naturally chosen to serve as the first Master and many of the most
Generals of the revolution were initiated in this Lodge. The actual
the Republic of Cuba, M.W. Bro. Fernando Figueredo, P.G.M., Grand
Treasurer of the
Grand Lodge, is one of the few surviving members of Independencia Lodge.
Independencia Lodge possessed all the necessary
for their meetings, carefully made by the members themselves. The two
pillars were of excellent workmanship, made in sections to be finally
needed. All the working tools were regularly packed and carried, when
on the back of a splendid mule especially dedicated to the job and
named, for that
reason, "The Mason." Once, when the camp was surprised by the
"The Mason" was hastily charged with the fraternal load, and as it was
loosely done, when the run was at its height, several tools were
them a section of one of the pillars, the one marked with the letter
The Spaniards, following closely at their heels, picked up the tools,
marked section of the pillar to Spain as a curious souvenir where it is
in the Artillery Museum at Madrid.
A most curious incident is also connected with
Lodge. One of the members was General Donato Marmol, who always
as a religion. A notice was once sent to him, while commanding the
Division of Bayamo,
that a Spanish Lieutenant was to introduce into the city a convoy of
badly needed by the hungry population there sheltered. General Marmol
set to work
and captured the convoy together with the Lieutenant. The Spanish
taken into camp, asked to see the General to whom he gave a Masonic
sign and pleaded
for his deliverance, reminding the General that the provisions were not
soldiers but for the many Cuban refugees. General Marmol was touched,
of the Lieutenant as a Mason and not as a soldier, released the
Lieutenant and handed
him back the convoy. This act was harshly condemned by the General's
officers, who knew nothing of Masonry, and among whom was Maximo Gomez
who was afterward
initiated into Independencia Lodge and in the course of time rose to be
of the Cuban army when we achieved our independence, long afterwards.
General Marmol, that fine specimen of manhood,
shortly after the above incident, and President Cespedes was
the year following at S. Lorenzo, Independencia Lodge dying with him,
after a bright
existence of over three years. That was the only Military Lodge known
to have existed
during our Ten Year War.
When Cuba made her final and successful stroke
in 1894, another opportunity was afforded the Masons on the field of
war to come
together and meet under the Square and Compasses.
The Spanish government was no less suspicious
Masonic Lodges, so it was that when Luz del Sur Lodge, at Trinidad, was
the preparatory meetings had to be held in a cave on the outskirts of
I visited that cave long afterward and could not but admire the love
for the Fraternity
of those enterprising brothers who used to go there at night; a spot
access even in the day time.
It was no longer in the East of Cuba, the
our liberties, but at the center of the island, in the neighborhood of
city of Trinidad already mentioned, at the village of Guinia de
Miranda, that a
permanent camp was kept by the revolutionaries. This camp, due to its
was kept for a long time. It was formed of a series of huts thatched
with palm leaves
and affording a relative comfort, if comfort can ever be found while
The General of the camp, being a Mason, as also
a large number of the officers, conceived the idea of organizing a
This was in June, 1896, and the following month, on July 12th, they
held their first
meeting. The Lodge was named "Agramonte" and General Lino Perez acted
as Master. A hut was reserved exclusively for a Masonic Temple, the
Square and Compasses
marking it on the outside. There the Lodge met for nearly a year; as
long as the
camp lasted. Many, many friends of the writer were initiated there,
being healed in the regular Lodges of the country. The seal of the
Lodge made of
carved wood, is still preserved as a souvenir.
Came a day when Fortune, so variable during war
turned against the Cubans. The Spaniards drove the patriots from their
According to their custom the huts were burned
the exception of the one marked with the Square and Compasses. Why the
No one knew at the time, but later it developed that General Manrique
de Lara, the
commanding officer of the Royal soldiers, was a Mason. He saw the
Temple and ordered
that it be spared.
As this was in 1897 and American intervention
afterward, Agramonte Lodge held but few meetings after their camp was
lost and then
disbanded, never to meet again. During the Spanish-American war two of
Grand Lodges, Kentucky and North Dakota, authorized Military Lodges.
Grand Lodge, California, refused to do so. The Kentucky Grand Lodge
granted a dispensation
for a Lodge attached to the First Kentucky Volunteer Regiment. This
service in Porto Rico, but never in Cuba. The Master of this Lodge was
Brother, John H. Cowles, 33d, the present Grand Secretary General of
Council, Southern Jurisdiction, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
two Lieutenants were the Wardens. As the Dispensation was only for
members of the
Regiment, no others were admitted except as visitors. In a kind letter
which I have
just received from Brother Cowles, he refers to the pleasant times they
in Porto Rico and how they were fraternally welcomed by the natives and
to attend their Lodges at Ponce, Yauco, San German and Mayaguez. The
mustered out in 1899, the Lodge surrendered its Dispensation and the
The Military Lodge under the authority of North
never came to Cuba, but went to the Philippine Islands and met at
Manila for a time.
California, although denying a dispensation for a Military Lodge,
granted one for
a permanent Lodge in the Philippine Islands, and for two more Lodges
which three lodges became the nucleus for the actual Grand Lodge of
already powerful and generally recognized by sister Grand Lodges.
With the American Army of Occupation came to
distinguished Masons; two among them deserve to be recorded: Generals
Geo. M. Moulton
and Edgar S. Dudley. The first of these was at the time Colonel of an
quartered at Camp Columbia near Havana. Being a most enthusiastic Mason
tried to communicate with the brethren of the city. Unhappily only one
of our lodges
was able to meet him, since after the closing of the Masonic Lodges by
Government no lodge could meet for nearly three years, Padilla Lodge
entirely of Spaniards being the only exception. They met occasionally
in an attic
room of a Spanish club house, waiting for better times, which very soon
them, moving to new quarters where Gen. Moulton found them, and
provided with a
letter from his lodge in Illinois took with him his son, a Lieutenant
in his Regiment,
who was by courtesy initiated by Padilla Lodge. The Lodge thereafter
to Camp Columbia, the headquarters of the then Col. Moulton. Affection
grew on both
sides and when Bro. Moulton left Cuba he was so well endeared that he
and accepted as our Grand Representative to the Grand Lodge of
Illinois, a position
he still holds with great satisfaction to all.
The other prominent Mason who came here was at
time a Judge Advocate, with the rank of Major, and as he remained among
us for three
years, until the Republic was proclaimed, we had many occasions to
great heart. Although he was the Delegate of the Supreme Council of the
Jurisdiction for the Army and Navy of the United States he never, while
a single degree to anyone. He frequented the Masonic societies, joined
advised us, did all he could to encourage us, helped us, through his
with Grand Secretary White, of Nebraska, to obtain the recognition of
Lodge by that of the said State. At that time there were only three
Lodges not in relation with Cuba: Nebraska, Mississippi and North
all are our friends. Bro. Dudley left us with the American Army in
with him the love of all Cuban Masons as shown by the nominations of
both in the Supreme Council and the Association of Masonic Veterans.
Two years afterwards
he came back to Cuba as a visitor and was welcomed by his former
friends and presented
with a beautiful gold jewel by the Veterans. His nomination to West
Point as Professor
of Military Jurisprudence was a cause of satisfaction for us and when,
retirement from the Army as Brigadier General, the notice of his
reached us, mourning was general. We miss him! His personality remains
engraved in our hearts. Oh, if all Masons were like him!
Law abiding citizens, as Americans generally
as among the Army of Occupation that remained in Cuba, under the
command of Gen.
Brooke first, and of Gen. Leonard Wood afterwards, there were many
Masons, the question
arose of a new Lodge, exclusively English-speaking. Coming from many
brethren could not ask any Grand Lodge to warrant a Military Lodge, so
in the most proper way possible: they obtained their dimits from their
lodges and applied to Cuba for a Dispensation. As the petitioners had
Cuba more than six months, their request was granted on the 9th of
June, 1899, and
the first English-speaking Lodge in Cuba came forth. It was named
Havana and the
members were nearly all non-commissioned Army Officers and petty
The stations of the lodge were occupied by E. W. King, Master, W. B.
Warden and B. B. Evans, Junior Warden. Many of them coming from Texas,
adopted was the one used in that State.
Havana Lodge had a good career; they
actions to their peers and, when dissolved just after the Republic was
her record was most gratifying to us.
An event happened during the existence of this
hardly understood by them but most satisfactory to Cuban Masons. The
to Gen. Wood was Major Hugh L. Scott, now the ranking General of the
Army. Major Scott, whenever General Wood left Havana, was Acting
The Major was not a Mason, but as he was a close friend of Gen. E. S.
desired to become one, and so matters stood when he applied to Cuba
Lodge for initiation.
This Lodge, although composed of Cubans, was almost an English-speaking
its members had been nearly all of them former residents of the United
Master, who still wields the gavel, Bro. Figueredo, is a former Mayor
Florida. Major Scott was accepted, his initiation occurring while he
as Governor General. I had the honor to be present at the ceremony, as
also at his
passing and raising, most conspicuous affairs indeed in our island
Lodge resented this, but without reason, as the idea of both Generals
Scott was to give Cubans a proof of their friendship and good will.
After the Republic was started and finally
Havana Lodge was by-and-by being deprived of her members, few remaining
dissolution came in the year 1902. But the need for an American Lodge
and it was then that a new figure came forth, Dr. Orlando Ducker, who
came to Cuba
as an Army Surgeon, later entering the life insurance business. It was
he undertook to form the new lodge, dispensation being granted for
in February, 1903. For many years this was the only English-speaking
lodge in Cuba.
Even after Dr. Ducker's departure they have continued to this day their
march. It is true that they keep their hall apart and do not mingle
much with native
Masons, but whenever any of us visit them we are warmly received and
it has been during the visits paid by the Association of Veterans and
on other occasions.
Some of them have applied to the Scottish Rite bodies and been
in the meetings and have acquired the 32d and probably one of them will
the coveted 33d from our Supreme Council.
For a number of years Island Lodge held the
standard in Cuba until several years ago (1912) two new competitors
came to dispute
it. One in the Isle of Pines and the other at Camaguey, both being
centers of American
population. The Lodge at Pines named Santa Fe Lodge is located at the
town of that
name, in a beautiful neighborhood. The guiding spirits of this Lodge
(one of them
now dead) were two brothers by the name of Simmons, and as they hailed
the ritual of that Grand Lodge was the one adopted at Santa Fe. It is
for that reason
that when our Grand Lodge went to Santa Fe to consecrate and install
the Lodge (I
was then Grand Director of Ceremonies for our Grand Lodge) we were
struck by the
custom of locating the lesser lights in a group of three on a side
table, but were
informed that such was the practice in Illinois and some other places
in the United
States, and our Grand Master acceded to the change.
the lodge is named Landmark and is under the able guidance of its
Master, the conscientious
Brother George Allen, who conducts it finely, doing untold good and
This is the record, not only of the Military
of Cuba but also of the behavior of American citizens and Masons toward
brothers. One thing is patent ‒ the respect evinced for our Grand
Lodge. That is
the way of powerful and honest nations. Treaties and agreements between
and the low ought always to be taken into account, otherwise the
descends, not to the level of her weak opponent, but to the depth of
the abyss where
the arrogant and defiant will bury themselves in the course of time.
Was, Is, Shall Be – [A Poem]
Rev. Bro. J. G. Gibson
sun was scorching
hot, and as I lay
Neath clustered palm trees in the Eastern land
I slept. Yet as I slept I heard one say
"The work is done. Ah! See it stately stand,
The Pyramid of Life, twixt earth and heaven
To hidden Leven from a hidden Throne
The Line of Life insistent, urgent, falls,
That Earth may serve her Master, God alone.
The toil of ages now in crumbled dust
Doth rise, to symbol forth the heavenly will;
A mighty memoir of a mightier Past
That calls the worshiper to labor still.
Around the Pyramid I saw men build.
Then swept before me hateful fires of War,
Destroying all that former builders raised
And left the Level as it was before.
Yet men did build, and round the ancient pile
Were schools, and churches, ‒ palaces of Peace;
And hospitals where sick men healing lay,
And found from heavy toil a sweet release;
And homes where children struggled back to life
And parks with trees about each sheltered way,
Where women hid them from the world's mad strife
And all was one unending wondrous day.
Then to my dreaming eyes there did appear,
As far as eye could reach a verdant plain.
And soldiers tilled the soil where they of old
Did slay their brethren, scatter seeds of pain,
Did reap wild curses, burning as they slew,
Destroying all the strength of every age.
They tilled the soil, and builded temples new,
And writ yet better deeds for History's page.
And all the land did blossom as the rose.
The wilderness did laugh, and joyful sing.
Around the Pyramid assembled all
And made the heavens above with praises ring.
We can find no better words to express our
than those of the immortal Goethe, and wish our readers:
enough to make
work a pleasure.
Wealth enough to support your needs.
Strength enough to battle with difficulties and overcome them.
Grace enough to confess your sins and forsake them.
Patience enough to toil until some good is accomplished.
Charity enough that shall see some good in your neighbor.
Cheerfulness enough that shall make others glad.
Love enough that shall move you to be useful and helpful to others.
Faith that shall make real the things of God.
And hope that shall remove all anxious fears concerning the future.
Origin and Purpose of the
By Bro. H. G. Rosedale,
P. G. Chaplain, England
IT is obvious that from time immemorial
have been two workmen at the same trade they have always united
together for mutual
assistance and protection against all others. On the arrival of a third
only be admitted to friendship on promising to obey the decision of the
This is the spirit underlying all trade combinations. It is well known
that at a
very remote period trade organizations, allied to our Gild system, were
in a very
high state of development both in China and India. In India the caste
maintain their power, and there the trader has his own organizations of
similar, though more political, nature than our own early Gilds. No
was a far earlier civilization than the Arian; a civilization which may
from south to north, and which had died possibly more than a thousand
the Arian emigration began to sweep from east to west ‒ but we cannot
do more than
trace to some slight extent the Gild idea as affected by this later
form of human
Whilst it cannot be disputed that the Far
possess the primitive forms of our craft Gild, but it was not until
ideas reached the shores of the Mediterranean and felt the force of the
civilization upon them, that Gild life attained to anything like its
The First Records
The first records of European Gild life are
Greece, where, at least 700 B. C., the Gilds called Eranoi flourished
to such an
extent that men of the greatest distinction, such, for instance, as
the son of Aristides, and Milesius, the son of Thucydides, were proud
to claim membership
Amongst these Eranoi, which, at the same time,
many of our older Gilds, were burial clubs, numerous trades were
Gild of Thracian wine merchants, who took Apollo for their patron and
Keremperoi, mining companies, lessees of theatres, farmers of taxes,
and even privateering
companies, all these formed part of the great social life of
the rules of these Societies were strangely similar to the laws which
controlled our English mercantile fraternities.
From Greece the spirit of the Eranoi passed to
and produced the world-renowned "Collegia Opificum." At what date these
took their beginning it is now impossible to say, but it is a matter of
knowledge that the workmen of Rome, almost from the first days of
in Italy, were associated together in trade groups. Plutarch, indeed,
origin of the "Collegia" to Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome,
B. C., and mentions among the various Trade Gilds of the time
dyers, shoemakers, carriers, coppersmiths and porters, all the
of this time being united into one Gild.
Whatever may be the degree of truth as to the
of dates, it is interesting to note that the regulations both of the
called "Thaiasoi"), as well as those of the "Collegia," were
based on the same underlying principles. They were governed by a
president, an elder,
a secretary, a treasurer, and a council. All these officials, with the
of the president, being elected annually, and it is interesting in
days to note that, like the early English Gilds, they sometimes
admitted women to
their circle, in spite of the fact that there were other communities
for women only.
The "Collegia" went a step further. They were
generally established by some act of the ruling power, either a decree
of the Emperor,
or a "senatus consultum," representing the Charter of which the City
today are so proud. They, too, were governed by a president and master,
a steward, sometimes a clerk, but always associated with "decuriones,"
a body akin to the Court of Assistants, so important in the fifteenth
In Greece, and particularly in Italy, these
communities of traders and workmen met the new forces of developing
At first Religion was monotheistic, then polytheistic, and afterwards,
Gilds became most closely associated with religious ideas, Christian.
At a very early date each Collegium had its
and common sacrifices or services at stated times. It employed priests
officers, and was generally associated with some particular temple. It
had its "curia"
or meeting-house, where its business was transacted and where all the
both for periodic feasts and for general meetings. There was an "arca"
or chest containing the revenues, contributions, and fines accruing to
Each college had its archives, banners, and, above all, exercised the
or power over its archives in the same way that our Craft Gilds did
during the fourteenth,
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Every candidate on his admission to
was obliged to take a special oath and to pay the regular tributum or
towards the expenses of the "collegium."
Fraternal and Religious
On the death of a member, the Gild gave a
to the deceased, when every brother was expected to attend. The secular
marked by the "cara cognitio," the analogue of election days in our
Gilds. To mark the fraternal and religious aspects of Gild life, great
was laid on the half-yearly visits to the tombs of departed members of
on whose graves they scattered roses in the summer and violets in the
an offering pleasing to the spirits of the departed; this practice
found its successor
in the "masses for the dead," provided so lavishly by the Gilds at a
Space prevents us from giving a summary of the
but we are the fortunate possessors of the laws governing such a Gild
Lanuvium in the time of Adrian and dedicated to Antinous and Diana. It
highly developed product of Oriental fraternities, molded and developed
and Latin influence, that came to England with the Roman invasion. Of
is just one piece of interesting evidence left to us in the fact that a
fabrorum," or Gild of Smiths, was established and flourished in this
as early as the reign of Claudius Caesar. This, like all other Roman
received a rude shock when, after a long period of relatively luxurious
it was forced into the background if not out of existence altogether by
invasion of this country.
Influence of the Saxons
As might have been expected, the Saxon warriors
with them their own fraternities, different in many respects to those
origin, less orderly, less beneficent, but probably more political and
than those of the Roman settlers. They were the product of the old
which is now so well recognised a part of the social life in early
Saxon and Scandinavian
countries. The Saxon conquerors tried to adapt their own conceptions of
and government largely intermixed with the idea of family and blood
blood-feuds and blood-money (wergeld), to the conditions they found in
and as a result produced what are known as Frith Gilds, all of which
may be clearly
traced in the laws of Kings Alfred and Athelstan, but, as might be
inherent strength of the Latin system prevented the over-bearing and
from ingrafting his own cruder ideas very deeply on the relatively more
people of this country. There were, however, three highly important
points in which
the Romano-British burgess and the Saxon warrior were agreed. In both
public feast was of a semi-sacred nature. Secondly, the recognition of
of providing religious offerings for the dead was deeply ingrained in
whilst the "Gildhalla" of the Teuton and the Curia or Temple of the
were to all intents and purposes equally sacred.
Amongst the many interesting matters connected
the development of the early Gild-life, none are more interesting than
which the rising wave of Christianity had upon these two currents of
gradually blended into one great stream. Long before the time of
Augustine of Canterbury,
Britain had known many a Christian martyr, and it is evident both from
of Bede and Gildas that Christianity must have been intensely powerful
islands at a period shortly after the end of the first century of our
era. The Saxon
warriors, with religious conceptions mostly derived from nature
worship, had no
place in their scheme for Christianity. Hence, for a time all Christian
had to hide amongst the hills of Wales, in the fastnesses of Cornwall
and the West
of England. After Augustine had arrived in England and obtained so
strong a "footing,"
a warm welcome was accorded him by the native inhabitants, deeply
imbued with early
Christian ideals. The bishops and clergy of the British Church in the
from their hiding in the West, and Christianity became once more the
in the land. Saxon superstition, like the Roman Emperors, was compelled
to bow before
the more spiritual forces of Christian teaching.
A New Life Among the People
From that day forward a new life sprang up
people of Britain. Troubled by much internal strife, the Saxon rulers
found it politic
to call to their aid the powerful influence of Christianity in order to
in governing their subjects. The Gilds, on the other hand, would hasten
themselves under the protection of the Church, which had now become
the most powerful combination within the land. This intimate connection
marked by the fact that from the time of Athelstan until the reign of
all suits connected with Gilds or Trading Companies had to be brought
Ecclesiastical Courts. Thus the conversion of the Gild to Christianity,
conversion of the State, was an easy and natural consequence. The
forthwith replaced the heathen sacrificial officer in the Gild, whilst
Rosae" and the "Dies Violae" became masses for the dead and offerings
to the Church.
In those days religion was paramount. No Gild
exist without its Priest or Chaplain, who represented alike State and
strongly did religion affect national life that after A. D. 600, Gilds
ecclesiastical purposes were not uncommon. There is every reason to
under the fostering influence of the clergy, by the middle of the
Gilds had become recognized and popular combinations both for secular
purposes. After the Norman Conquest the English Gilds gradually
reverted to the
type of the Roman "Collegium" with this one difference that the
priest occupied a very prominent place in its economy. At the same time
influences were not absent, the payments demanded from the members
and "lot" were derived from the "scat" of the Teutonic Gilds,
whilst the old Saxon ideal of blood-brotherhood clearly underlies the
demanding "frank pledge" of the burgesses, and was a principle of Saxon
government which remained up to a comparatively late date.
(To be continued.)
Talk about those subjects you have had long in
mind, and listen to what others say about subjects you have studied but
O. W. Holmes.
A merry smile, a short mile.
The Contract with the Candidate
FROM conversation with the average member of
one may be in doubt as to the claims of the candidate upon the Lodge.
gets too often less consideration than is due him. Is the work
interesting to the
spectators? Does the rendition of the ritual cause a thrill of pride in
Then all is well. And yet ‒
These are indeed of much moment. They are
points to be diligently sought. When attained, these are advantages of
consequence in the progress of the Lodge and the edification of its
they are not all.
When the candidate has presented his petition
necessary preliminaries have been completed and he submits himself for
he has complied with the conditions laid down for his acceptance.
Thereupon an equally
weighty responsibility rests with the Lodge. Thus far they have been
his fulfilling in every particular, to the last iota of technical
lawful demands of the fraternity upon the applicant. Thus far, also,
they have been
insistent upon the candidate and the examining brethren enduring and
rigid investigation to the end that no unworthy person may pass the
Now we will assume that the scrutiny is
From now on the candidate may advance, step by step, to the goal of his
desire in the Masonic Lodge.
Having gained admission by merit and
is entitled to what sort of treatment? Surely in a democratic
no man for his purely worldly wealth or honors, nothing less would be
to give him just what was offered under the best circumstances. Has the
been rendered in that Lodge with such excellence as to arouse warmest
from the most critical? Then why is not every candidate there justly
due the same
Of course we can readily understand how
favorable circumstances may prevail at an initiation. It may be that
there are present
a corps of expert ritualists seldom assembled. Perhaps the visit of
of the Craft has also had an effect upon the attendance of the
and has also spurred the officers to special efforts.
All this is plausible enough. It explains much
nothing. Rather than give an applicant an inferior reception it is
to consider whether the candidate's claims do not justify a
postponement until the
ceremonial can be performed in the most creditable manner.
If we hold that the candidate has no just
the best that the Lodge can do for him, then we need not ponder over
‒ it solves itself. But fair-minded brethren will not rest content with
There is a strong temptation for the presiding
to fill the one chair or another with an ambitious brother seeking an
to show what he can do. If the responsible officer knows what the
amateur is capable
of doing and if he is also convinced that the quality of the work will
then there is the less room for objection. But suppose the presiding
not know these conditions but is willing to take a chance. If he does
he loses sight of the candidate's claim upon the Lodge.
To permit an untried member to undertake a
duty with the ritual is an experiment to be shunned. There is nothing
that so spoils
the work as the blundering of a well-meaning but incompetent or unruly
on the team. He signally fails to pull his share of the load. What then
There is only the one answer. Every candidate
a perfect reception.
From a long study of the conditions, there are
simple rules that present themselves for our consideration.
Have sufficient and regular rehearsals of the
These perfect the officers and enable the presiding officer to make use
of and improve
the other available supply of ritualists.
Do not overload the willing brother. A really
is liable to be overlooked. He may already be in the line of officers
and is then
moved from place to place even in a single session. One Worshipful
Master has a
practice of moving his officers from their stations so that with every
candidate upon any given date there is not in any instance a repetition
in the line-up. On the second candidate, the Senior Warden succeeds to
Master's station, and so on all the way down the line to the door. With
candidate, the Junior Warden is in the East. Here and there are
members from the side-lines to give a charge or lecture or something
A likely result of this intermittent and
of the official material is that everybody has a smattering of the
but few if any have specialized. A better plan is to see that each
officer is equipped
to do the work of the brother ahead of him in the line. Then cases of
be remedied with ease as it is unlikely that two of the brethren
and competent to fill any particular place would be absent at the same
plan would therefore provide for a corps of officers fully in touch
with the requirements
and in position to acquit themselves with great credit to their lodge.
Is not the
candidate deserving of this attention? It is by no means rare for a
to call anyone to the East. This is a compliment always in order where
so welcomed is by service worthy the honor. Cases are found where the
has not such qualifications and sometimes is not even a Warden. Then
is an experiment hardly to be encouraged.
The English practice of preserving the seat in
only for those who have by election sometime qualified for the Oriental
one that rather appeals to us. Branding as it does the occupant as of
at least a
certain seasoned rank it gives dignity and honor to the opportunity
one placed therein. He so chosen of his brethren, even for a temporary
will appreciate the place all the more when the position is restricted
in that manner.
Customs change and on many matters of Masonic
there is much scope for interchange of ideas. Some of the thoughts here
will not apply to such jurisdictions as do not allow the practices
in each Lodge as in every family there are usages permitting of
betterment to the
end that the candidate may be the more highly and permanently impressed
By all means is it worth our while to
ourselves these questions during the work: In what way can we make
Masonry the more
stimulating and instructive, a force for service and for righteousness?
Masonic education be best communicated? Is our system and our method in
the most nearly what it was planned to be by the Grand Lodge to which
will be in
due course accredited this candidate?
Edited By Bro. H. L. Haywood
(The object of this Department is to acquaint
with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; with the best
now being published; and with such non-Masonic books as may especially
Masons. The Library editor will be very glad to render any possible
studious individuals or to study clubs and lodges, either through this
or by personal correspondence; if you wish to learn something
concerning any book
- what is its nature, what is its value or how it may be obtained - be
free to ask
him. If you have read a book which you think is worth a review write us
if you desire to purchase a book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get it,
with no charge
for the service. Make this your Department of Literary Consultation.)
"Honest John Morley"
JOHN MORLEY was born in Blackburn, England, in
week of 1838, the year following Queen Victoria's accession to the
still alive and in full possession of his faculties, his career is
that it covers not only the span of the "Victorian Era" but also
the present very different world period. Beginning as a journalist he
his way into politics in which he soon rose to become a commanding
figure. In 1883
he was elected to parliament where he remained for a full quarter of a
After the outbreak of the war he retired, "weary of public life and
to secure some leisure for literary recollection."
This leisure has proved more fruitful than his
political activity could have been, full of possibilities as that was,
has given us his two volume work, "Recollections," [Lib 1917; Vol 1, Vol 2] (published by Macmillans
at $7.50) in which he has stored for us, in his austere but beautiful
the best riches of his career. This work is a history of the epoch as
the trained eyes of an observer who was also a participant. "It has
fortune," he notes in his introduction, "to write some pages that have
found and affected their share of readers; to know and work on close
many men wonderfully worth knowing; to hold responsible offices in the
say things in popular assemblages that made a difference." This gives
key to the spirit and tone of the work; Morley was too honest with
himself to affect
a spurious humility, he was too sincerely aware of his own limitations
to do any
boasting; he told his story with unaffected straightforwardness in a
enables us to understand why his compatriots have been fond to call him
To Morley the secret of his period was its
to Liberalism in thought and life, and by Liberalism he means a desire
the common human lot as well as to free the intellect from incrusting
authoritarianism. "Respect for the dignity and worth of the individual
its root. It stands for the pursuit of social good against class
interest or dynastic
interest. It stands for the subjection to human judgment of all claims
authority, whether in an organized church or in more loosely gathered
of believers or in books held sacred." In short, he says, it is the
application of the Golden Rule.
"Recollections" is a cyclorama of friendships.
Meredith, Mill, Carlyle, Gladstone, Carnegie, Mazzini, Roosevelt,
names give one but a brief glimpse of the almost numberless personages
before the reader, each one made alive, each one revealed, by a
paragraph of clairvoyant
sentences. When one considers that the closely printed index alone
a fair-sized book, and that a majority of the entrances therein refer
to some noted
man or woman he can understand what a living encyclopedia of table talk
reminiscence these volumes are.
In faith, Morley was also a Liberal.
we may read in one of the very few references made to it, "has many
many diverse complexions, but it has one true voice, the voice of human
mercy, of patient justice," and he declares that to that voice he has
tried to listen. As one moves on from page to page of these human and
recollections he can well believe that Morley has listened to that
voice more intently
than most of his contemporaries, even those who were more claimant in
As we gaze upon the last quarter of the
through his eyes we are made aware that it was moving toward the larger
brotherhood, which is another way of saying, democracy. The spirit
which so clearly
manifested itself in the first Grand Lodge of Morley's native land had
at last worked
its way into the halls of parliament and into the streets. May we not
spite of the present war, that it will continue to grow from more to
in all politicians, in all statesmen, in all writers, speakers and
doers on the
stage of public life, it will have its way as completely as in the
* * *
"A History of Penal
This book, written by George Ives, and
Stanley Paul & Co., was placed in our hands by a thoughtful
brother Mason who
suggested that its 400 pages of the history of crime and punishment
some light on our famous "penalties" problem; but a diligent search
its dizzy mass of facts and citations has failed to elicit a single
gleam. Nor can
it be said that the reading has given the reviewer any pleasure. This,
cannot be charged against the toilful author who has done his work so
well; it arises
from the nature of his subject matter. The night side of human nature
is not an
agreeable object of thought even when dressed in the glamor of an Edgar
magic, least of all when set forth in the naked manner demanded by a
Those who feel an interest in moral dereliction
in society's manner of dealing with it will find a mountain of facts in
work. Penal methods of the Middle Ages [Lib 1914], witchcraft, insanity,
penitentiary methods, all these,
and many cognate topics, are set forth with such a wealth of detail
that the treatise
must take a place among the serious works on criminology. Besides, the
that "dismal science" will secure far more than his money's worth
from the lists of authorities which are scattered through the volume.
It is almost
an encyclopedia of crime, and of society's blundering methods of
The Masonic student will find little value in it save that it helps to
vivid to him the social conditions of England in the early days of our
The Question Box
(The Builder is an open forum for free
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a
of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one
school of Masonic
thought as over against another; but offers to all alike a medium for
and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.)
The brethren of my Lodge have asked me to give
a talk on the subject of "Landmarks." I have access to Mackey's
also MacBride's "Speculative Masonry," but they do not agree as to
If you have any data at hand on this
kindly advise me or send it along.
There is nothing more difficult than defining a
Their existence is undeniable but no two thinkers will agree as to what
You will find this subject very ably handled by
Roscoe Pound in the July, 1917, issue of THE BUILDER.
Brother Silas H. Shepherd has also covered the
in the August and September, 1916, issues of THE BUILDER.
Further references may be found in THE BUILDER
Volume I, pages 38, 40; volume
II, pages 7, 17, 28, 47, 92, 1S5, 191, 207, 217, 274, 302, 368; volume
39, 211, 221, March C. C. B. pages 2, 4.
* * *
Some few weeks ago a young brother asked the
question of me and I am sorry to say that I was unable to give him a
answer ‒ one that was satisfactory both to the questioner and myself.
Can you give
me any information concerning the matter?
"How did the penalties of the obligations of
three degrees originate, and has the Craft at any time attempted to
penalties so promulgated?”
Concerning the origin of the penalties of the
obligations you will find information in this regard on page 347,
volume II, of
THE BUILDER. On pages 550, 551 and 552 of Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914] the matter is gone
into at length. Dr. Mackey says that they refer in no case to any kind
punishment; that is to say, to any kind of punishment which is to be
human hand or instrumentality. The true punishments of Masonry affect
nor limb. They are suspension and expulsion only.
* * *
I am unable to find the word "cable-tow" in
any English Dictionary, including the Century.
What is the origin of the word and has it any
use or application outside of Freemasonry?
Brother H.T.S. has asked the same question and
to on page 215 of volume I of THE BUILDER. Other interesting references
found as follows: Volume I, pages 215, 276, 278; volume II, page 155;
page 341, April C.C.B. page 6, Dec. C.C.B. pages 4, 5.
* * *
A Mohammedan Master of an
At the last meeting of our Lodge a member told
he had recently received a letter from a relative in England in which
it was stated
that a Mohammedan, a native of India, had been elected Master of an
Can you verify this statement?
On the 16th of October, (Mohammedan New Year's
Brother Abdeali Shaikh Mahomedali Anik, an Indian, member of the Bohra
was installed as Master of Wantage Lodge, No. 3178, located in London,
Brother Anik was born in India in 1860 and removed to England in 1901.
He had been
a Mason but five years when he was elected to serve as Master of his
been initiated in Wantage Lodge in 1912. He was exalted in St. Thomas
142, London, a year later. He is also a Mark Master Mason, a Royal Ark
a member of the Order of the Secret Monitor. Brethren of Christian,
Hindoo and Parsee
faiths were present at his installation.
* * *
H.G. Wells' Conception of
Deity in His "God the Invisible King"
I have just been reading "God The Invisible
[Lib 1917] by H.
G. Wells, and although I am not a religious man, the book has greatly
me. I have been wondering if the conception of Deity found in this book
can be made
to square with the Masonic conception of T.G.A.O.T.U. What is your
You are not the only one who has been
this remarkable book to ask questions; on both sides of the Atlantic it
much attention, as well it might, for it is written in Mr. Wells'
eager and virile fashion and deals with the subject which has always
men. There is one sense in which his finite struggling God can be made
with Masonry, for, though our Fraternity exacts of every candidate a
faith in Deity,
it does not define this Deity and consequently the individual Mason can
to believe in such a God as his mind and conscience require him.
However, the majority
of Masonic thinkers, writers and scholars would not be in accord with
If we Masons believe that the Grand Architect
truth the Architect of the Universe, the Grand Geometrician of the
cosmos who holds
the world in his hand and will one day have his way with it, we are
to believe in his omnipotence and omniscience. The blind, struggling
God who is
little more than a magnified man, can hardly be expected to fulfill the
of Masonic thought.
* * *
Jewel of the Thirty-Second
I take the liberty of writing to ask what is
emblem of the Thirty-Second Degree, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite
Is it the double-headed eagle, triangle either on its body or above the
in the triangle, and "Spes Mea In Deo Est" written underneath, or is it
the Teutonic Cross with "32" above it?
According to the Statutes of the Supreme
the Southern Jurisdiction the jewel of the Thirty-Second Degree is a
of gold, one inch and three-quarters square with raised or beaded
edges, and the
surface within frosted, having in the center a wreath of green enamel,
with a gold
tie at bottom, and within the wreath the numerals XXXII in gold.
* * *
The Patron Saints of Masonry
How did Masonry come to have its patron saints?
In ancient days every organization was
some god or goddess, the members hoping thereby to win the approval and
of such a deity. After Christianity had made it impossible for men to
the Pagan gods, these societies and organizations made use of the
saints for similar
purposes; consequently in medieval times every order or fraternity,
union even, had its own patron saint.
As Freemasonry was among these organizations,
was dedicated to one or two saints and this custom, so deeply
ingrained, was carried
over into modern times.
Why a society of architects, operative and
should ever have chosen the Saints John for their patrons instead of
who had always been the saint of architecture, is still a mystery. Many
numerous articles have been written to elucidate the question, but as
yet it cannot
be said that we have solved it.
If you care to go into this matter we shall be
to give you references to much interesting material.
Masonry in Russia
With reference to the question of D.F.B.,
in the October issue of THE BUILDER as to Masonry in Russia, I wish to
the brother's edification that there was a book published some ten
years ago at
Berne on "Freemasonry in Russia and Poland." I do not remember the
A good many valuable hints on this subject can
in "Traces of a Hidden Tradition in Masonry," [Lib 1900] by I. Cooper-Oakley,
published in 1900. This writer lived for several years in Buda-Pest and
reason of a scholarly knowledge of European languages, many facilities
this subject through Continental libraries.
I would like, with all due respect, to question
definition of "Entered Apprentice," in the November BUILDER. But I
another reading shows me that we are in agreement.
* * *
"The Orphans Friend
and Masonic Journal" Of North Carolina
On page 382 of THE BUILDER for December I
notice a list
of Masonic publications, to which I would suggest you add the name of
Orphans Friend and Masonic Journal” published at Oxford, N. C. It is
The subscription price is $1.00 per year and it has a circulation of
A. A. Andrews,
P. G. M., North Carolina.
* * *
The October issue of THE BUILDER which reached
the day before yesterday, contains a review of Bro. Vibert's book on
Before the Existence of Grand Lodges." [Lib 2010]
In the course of your remarks you quote some
by Bro. Vibert on my book "The Comacines," [Lib 1910] and with your permission,
I desire to give a short reply to what he says.
Since my book was published, seven years ago, I
kept before me its subject as one of my principal studies and have
Italy ‒ made a considerable number of notes and sketches, and have just
a paper ready for publication as the outcome.
The result of my investigations during these
has been a general and almost unvaried confirmation of what I have
although I have not lost sight of the possibilities of refutation of
some of the
points on which I wrote with a little diffidence as expressed in the
Bro. Vibert says: "In the first place there is
absolutely no ground for attributing to any Collegia traditions of King
My reply to that is I have very good ground for such as regards the
and for the Roman (pagan) Collegia, I do not claim it.
Further he says: "The exodus of a Collegium to
Como is a hypothesis only and Ravenscroft's authority is Findel whose
are unsupported." To which I reply, although I have quoted Findel I
reliance on him where unsupported and indeed have as good as said so in
My authority is personal consultations with Professor Santo Monti and
Sig. H. Guissani,
both well-known antiquarians in Como; Sig. Monneret de Villard, the
appointed by the Italian Government to explore the Island of Comacina
and its neighborhood
and who as the result of careful work and the investigation of numerous
has published a valuable work only three years since; Sig. A.G.
Caproni, the owner
of Isola Comacina; the late Professor Carter of the American School in
of these are at agreement with me, at any rate in my main arguments.
And I have
consulted also Merzario and Riviora and paid two visits of some length
to the district
of the Comacines. So much for my authority.
Bro. Vibert says thirdly: "Even assuming that
Masons imported to Saxon England were in fact Comacines this merely
means that their
knowledge of building was derived from Ancient Rome (exactly what I
claim for them)
not that they brought us any esotericism." My reply is simply that they
Lastly, Bro. Vibert says the legend of our
us not with Rome but with Euclid and Egypt. My pursuit is not of legend
and legend in this direction is useful only as sometimes giving clues
I have not troubled you with proofs (nor for
of that, so far as I read in your article, has Bro. Vibert) but I shall
show when my further notes are published that I have exceedingly good
making the foregoing replies.
– W. Ravenscroft, England.
* * *
Grand Orient of France
My compliments to Brother Ramsey ‒ his article
Grand Orient of France and the Three Great Lights" is excellent. There
one thing in it that I can scare up to take issue with. He assumes that
Orient took the Bible off the Altar when the famous change was made in
But he says nothing as to his authority. My impression, and I am sorry
that I cannot
now cite direct proof, is that the lodges were long permitted to use
any book they
wanted to, Bible or otherwise. In fact, as I recall, this was cited as
one of the
reasons for the latest governing body, the National Independent Grand
started; that the Grand Orient had at last decided to make the bodies
of its obedience
use the same ritual and be uniform in the "book" practice. Perhaps
Ramsey can give us his authority.
Is it not the case that the Rite Rectifié
Rite) and the old English "work," like ours, and the Bible were in use
by some Lodges long after the change in the Constitution? By the way,
in the Constitution says nothing about the Bible. For that matter, the
has been, everywhere (?), to allow the alternative use of the Koran, or
etc., as a concession to a candidate.
* * *
The Master is to the Lodge all in all. His will
pleasure is law supreme. It's the law and the gospel. His orders are
and obeyed implicitly, carried out to the letter. He rules and governs
with equal regularity of the sun and moon. He points you to the Great
Light of Masonry,
the Lamb's book of life. He it is that places you in the northeast
corner of the
Lodge a just and upright Mason and admonishes you to ever walk and act
He raises you to walk in a newness of life and teaches you of the
the soul ‒ that we shall all rise again ‒ that light shineth in
darkness and the
darkness comprehendeth it not.
The Master represents a noted bible character ‒
that never took the life blood of his fellow man and a man that
dedicated the Temple
to the service of God ‒ King Solomon. We dedicate our temples ‒ our
bodies ‒ to
the service of God. He gave us life and being and our bodies are the
for the spirit. He offers us eternal life beyond the grave if we are
of His will and pleasure while moving about on this earth He created
for our well-being.
As the Master is directly responsible to the
the ruling and conduct of his Lodge, so are we likewise held
responsible to our
Master for the use we make of our bodies, the indwelling of the spirit.
important it is that we should with consecrated spirit dedicate our
lives and our
services to Him who made us, from the rugged paths to save us, that
when time with
us is no longer and when we have been summoned before the great white
to give an account of the things done on earth while in the body, may
it be our
pleasure to hear from Him who sitteth on the throne, "Well done thou
faithful servant, enter thou into the joys prepared for you from the
of the world. Thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make
Looking to the East is an order that must be
an edict, yielding obedience to which make of us good subjects.
and obeying make of us subjects of that immortal kingdom and celestial
we may drink of the waters of eternal life and never grow old,
sickness, sorrow and death never enter and where farewells are never
said and where
we can bask in the sunshine of God's love through the ceaseless ages of
with the Supreme Grand Master of the Universe.
The Lodge Master should be a God fearing man, a
man, a man that his Lodge has implicit confidence in, a man capable of
and imparting the essentials that make for the best of his Lodge at all
all seasons. He should be constant in season and out of season,
visiting the sick
and afflicted, the fatherless and the widow, giving to charity and
distressed, pointing all to the God of love who is able to care for all
and to save
all who put their trust in Him and obey His commands. So mote it be
with us all
at all times.
Robert A. Turner,
* * *
Grades of the Stone Age
Relative to the query of Brother A.P.O., of
in regard to obtaining Masonic information about the different grades
of the Stone
Age permit me to say that I believe and sincerely trust that his quest
will be in
vain. The subject matter is not at all a Masonic, but purely a
scientific one and
even the most imaginative Masonic writer (and there are legions) can
trace the history,
not to mention the principles of Masonry, to the stone age when every
was against the other and might was right.
If our brother wishes to study the subject from
scientific standpoint I can refer him to Ridpath's "Great Races of
[Lib 1896; Vol 1, (for remaining
Volumes see Bibliography)] volume I, a work not usually sold in book
and hard to procure. However, if our brother wishes "further light" in
this matter, not Masonic but scientific, I shall be very glad to assist
And, my dear brother, while we are on the
the Stone Age will you permit me to digress somewhat from the subject?
to draw three pictures. The first is of a man of the primitive world,
clad in the
skin of beasts he has slain, armed with a club, wild-eyed and haggard
first to keep from being devoured by his superiors in might and force,
to devour those that were inferior to him. The next picture shall be of
appearing to the shepherds on Bethlehem's field to deliver the message
of the first
Christmas day, "Glory to God on High, Peace on Earth and to Men Good
The third picture shall be a scene from the war now raging in which
civilized nation in both the Old and New World are engaged.
Picture two lines of trenches, opposing one
each line bent on destroying the other. Shot after shot is poured in on
one by the
other, thousands are slain and yet thousands, and so the war goes on
from day to
day and from year to year.
Or picture a vessel laden with men, women and
afloat on the deep; civilians who have no connection with the war,
by an explosion beneath the body of the vessel and within a few moments
is sunk with nearly all on board.
Your thinking readers can form their own
as to whether we have advanced or receded in civilization since the men
of the Stone
Wishing the fraternity in general and the
in particular a happy and prosperous New Year, and above all hoping
that this devastating
war shall be ended soon.
Henry F. Jox.
History of Penal Methods
Ive14 / auth. Ives George. - London : Stanley Paul & Co, 1914.
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An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
AQC Transactions Vol 014 - 1901
Ars01 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Rylands W. H.. - London : AQC,
1901. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 22.3 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH01 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Company, 1896. - Vol. 1 : 16 : p. 432. - Illustrated - 49.4 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH02 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Company, 1896. - Vol. 2 : 16 : p. 349. - Illustrated - 45.5 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH03 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Company, 1896. - Vol. 3 : 16 : p. 415. - Illustrated - 53.2 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH04 / auth. Ridpath John C. - New York : Merill & Baker,
1896. - Vol. 4 : 16 : p. 374. - Illustrated - 39.8 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH05 / auth. Ridpath John C. - New York : Merill & Baker,
1896. - Vol. 5 : 16 : p. 396. - Illustrated - 39.6 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH06 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Company, 1896. - Vol. 6 : 16 : p. 429. - Illustrated - 60.0 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH07 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Company, 1896. - Vol. 7 : 16 : p. 443. - Illustrated - 64.5 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH08 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Company, 1896. - Vol. 8 : 16 : p. 366. - Illustrated - 52.1 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH09 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Company, 1896. - Vol. 9 : 16 : p. 397. - Illustrated - 39.0 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH10 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Company, 1896. - Vol. 10 : 16 : p. 307. - Illustrated - 32.3 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH11 / auth. Ridpath John C. - New York : Merill & Baker,
1896. - Vol. 11 : 16 : p. 380. - Illustrated - 29.7 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH12 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Cincinnatti : The Jones Brothers,
1896. - Vol. 12 : 16 : p. 411. - Illustrated - 42.8 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH13 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Company, 1896. - Vol. 13 : 16 : p. 370. - Illustrated - 46.0 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH14 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Compnay, 1896. - Vol. 14 : 16 : p. 408. - Illustrated - 56.1 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH15 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Cincinnatti : The Jones Brothers,
1896. - Vol. 15 : 16 : p. 451. - Illustrated - 44.2 MB.
Cyclopedia of Universal History
Rid96UH16 / auth. Ridpath John C. - Boston : Balch Brothers &
Company, 1896. - Vol. 16 : 16 : p. 445. - Illustrated - 61.2 MB.
Freemasonry Before the
Existence of Grand Lodges
Vib10 / auth. Vibert Lionel. - London : Spencer & Co., 2010. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 0.5 MB.
God the Invisible King
Wel171 / auth. Wells Herbert G. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 202. - 7.5 MB.
Sch281 / auth. Schurz Carl / trans. Schafer Joseph. - Madison : State
Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1928. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 520. - 24.4 MB.
Recollections Vol 1
Mor17RE1 / auth. Morley John. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1917.
- Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 398. - 20.1 MB.
Recollections Vol 2
Mor17RE2 / auth. Morley John. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1917.
- Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 441. - 30.6 MB.
The Comacines Their
Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 94. - 3.4 MB.
Traces of a Hidden Tradition
Coo001 / auth. Cooper-Oakley Isabel. - London : The Theosophical
Publishing Society, 1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 194. - 5.2 MB.