Masonic Research Society
By Bro. Thomas Riley Marshall,
Vice President, U.S.A.
Before the Supreme Council,
THESE are days when he who is uncertain as to
what he is about to say will help or harm his country's cause would
silent. These are hours when the ordinarily thoughtful man is looking
looking forward, looking around, and looking within.
He wants to know the history of his country; to
present conditions; to determine, if possible, the future, and his part
world tragedy. He beholds in retrospect almost a century and a half of
progress and prosperity, and reverently lifting his eyes to the God of
exclaims with the Psalmist of old, "He hath not dealt so with any
He searches his dictionary for a word that will
the dominant feature of these glorious years. He reaches the conclusion
in all these decades has spelt, at home and abroad, more clearly than
the word "Opportunity."
He observes that America has not been
land where only men thoroughly imbued with the principles upon which it
might build for themselves homes. Isolated from the beginning by
of sea, it was never dreamed that it could become involved in the
politics and policies
of Europe. This isolation led the rulers to throw its gates open to all
care to enter. These came in unnumbered thousands and for reasons,
remote from those purely of government ‒ some to advance their fortune
their social standing; others to divorce themselves from distressful
‒ social, economic, political, or religious.
It was not thought necessary to require the use
official language in family and social life. We rather discouraged than
the use of English. In many States we provided for the teaching of the
in the public schools.
So thoughtless and indifferent were we to the
of the ocean by steam and electricity that we rejoiced to observe
being conducted and social energies evinced under the hyphenations of
Irish-American, German American, Franco-American, and Italo-American.
We took no trouble to protest against dual
We permitted foreign-born citizens to vote, with full knowledge of
their right -
which meant our consent - that whenever they chose to do so they could
their American citizenship by appearing before a consul of their native
become alien enemies.
All this and more because we never dreamed of
complications. We had but few whom we were pleased to denominate just
American citizens. Within my knowledge, learned and patriotic Senators
with zeal whether it was American or Irish or German citizens who won
for us our
freedom in the Revolution.
Now, no one ever doubted the loyalty to the
all these people whether foreign-born or the sons of foreign-born. Our
made it immaterial to us whether there was any difference between
loyalty and patriotism,
and true to a thousand years of tradition, we did not face the question
became of moment. The years drew us closer and closer to Europe in the
ties of commerce
and the friendly relations of travel. More and more we became a part of
and suddenly a mad monarch, drunk with military power and crazed with
the idea that
he was divinely ordained to rule the world, plunged Europe into a war
so awful that
all wars which had preceded it paled into insignificance.
Still we stood by our ancient ideas of
in two years and a half we discovered that there was a vast difference
and patriotism. The hearts of men flamed up very largely in response to
that flowed in their veins. Patriotism showed itself as dependent, not
of residence nor political ideas, but rather upon heredity.
Patience at last was exhausted, and there was
for a self-respecting people to do, if their Republic was to be true to
save to engage in the war on the side of democracy. I do not care to
engage in any
hair-splitting, although there seems to be much discussion as to
whether this war
is being waged "to make the world safe for democracy" or "to make
democracy safe for the world." Of course, it was meant by the
he spoke of making "the world safe for democracy," of making it safe
We all know that liberty is not license, nor
demagogy. We all know that the world cannot be made safe for murder and
pillage and anarchy and everything for which the syndicalist and the I.
may stand; and we also know that such things as these cannot be made
safe for the
I do not stop to speak of the tradition, the
and the duties of our own fraternity. There are three great forces,
aside from arms
and armament, which are molding the future as they have shaped the
past. These are
the teachings of the Nazarene, the tenets of our fraternity, and the
democracy as disclosed in the ideas and ideals of the Republic.
When rulers and people are willing to do as
be done by, when they are willing to meet upon the level, act by the
part upon the square; and when governments derive their just powers
from the consent
of the governed, then there will be a large assurance of permanent
peace. This can
be brought about only by an appeal to the conscience. To do so,
discussion is needful.
Free thought must never be hampered. But because a man thinks a thing
to be true,
and has a right to utter his belief under a democracy, he is not
justified, if he
believes in God, in brotherhood, and in the Republic, in voicing his
There are many of us who should accept Paul's
to the Corinthians: "All things are lawful unto me, but all things are
Democracy means the rule of the people under
form of government they may choose to express it, but when once the
rule of the
people has been expressed, through their chosen representatives, then ‒
in the hour of war ‒ however much any of us may think that certain of
are mistaken policies, free speech, free press, and liberty of
conscience do not
justify criticism, for criticism, however unintentional, invariably
gives aid and
comfort to the enemy.
Conscription as a principle may be a subject of
but not now. This Democracy has adopted it for the purposes of this
war, and discussion
of it ought to be held in abeyance. This Government, by its chosen
has declared this war. If there be any who think it is not justified,
let him not
be of aid and comfort to the enemy by voicing his sentiments. If laws
in the midst of arms, let all discussion as to the rightfulness or
of the war, and as to the methods by which it is being prosecuted
by discussion the cause of the Republic and of human liberty can be
Democracy is constructive, not destructive; it
not critical. I would not have it understood that it is our duty to
walk over the
dead bodies of out convictions even to attain success. I admit that
honor is preferable to success with disgrace; but, believing as I do in
and necessity of our cause, I beg my brothers of this most loyal order
speak, to speak whole-heartedly for the cause in which we are engaged,
and not to
criticize until mature thought and consideration have convinced them
that by criticism
they can advance the cause of our country and of universal democracy.
I do not speak of your duty to the Flag, nor of
at all. I know duty is with us always; that it rises with us in the
down with us at the breakfast table, goes with us to shop and field and
that it is the very shadow of ourselves, and the governor which keeps
of life moving smoothly.
I would have all men with us in this cause from
of duty, if for no other reason, but I would preferably have all enter
into it from
a higher sense, that of living sacrifice for generations yet unborn.
And now, in the wilderness of thought and of
in the darkness and desolation of this hour, eyes are being turned to
of a new day, and we are asking ourselves, "What of the morrow?" "Is
America to continue to be the land of opportunity?" To this we all
"Yes," but to the question, "Is America to be exclusively the land
of opportunity?" many of us answer, "No." America must be more than
the land of opportunity. It must also be the land of obligation, for if
break above the cloud tempest and the battle din of this war upon a
of opportunity, then we shall have a people who may be loyal to the
of the Republic, but whose inner sentiments may be disloyal to its
Common gratitude to the fathers and savers of
demand that we pour out the last drop of blood and expend the last
dollar of money
in the cause in which we have engaged. This, loyalty demands; but
crucial hours assume new forms. Martin Luther thought he died a loyal
instead he died the founder of a new church. Abraham Lincoln thought he
to the presidency to preserve the Union; instead he died the
emancipator of the
Whatever the original causes of this war and
the motives in its earlier prosecution may have been, they have now
into a conflict between the two great systems of government ‒ autocracy
If, therefore, America is to remain just the
opportunity, then nothing of any moment will have been accomplished by
so far as we are concerned. What, therefore, is the lesson of the hour
to a body
of men whose obligation is to the flag of their country? I dare not
speak for you.
I speak only for myself, and yet I would that it might be for you also.
is, that this war shall furnish a new definition of patriotism. The
word shall no
longer mean the land of a man's birth, or the land of his adoption, the
he speaks, or the place where those he loves reside. It shall have
a different meaning. It will demand of everyone who owes allegiance to
or potentate, or autocratic power on earth, that he renounce that
renounce also allegiance to every purely selfish pursuit and aim; that
the material interests of this Government to its ideals; that he take
an oath of
allegiance to an invisible government which believes, which teaches.
that all men are born free and equal, that governments derive their
from the consent of the governed, that none is fit to rule save of the
untrammeled consent of the majority of those over whom he rules, that
good and honor is better, but above all, that democracy is best.
these things is worthy to be an American; whoever does not, is unworthy.
The world around, a free expression of opinion
show a majority of the people to be for the right and not for the
wrong; for justice,
not for injustice; for honesty, not for dishonesty; for peace, not for
that given the opportunity, the people will speak for the arbitration
rather than for the arbitrement of arms.
To these old ideas, reborn in the travail of
pledge my fealty. I want this war to end, but not to end until the
people in every
land shall possess the right to make peace and declare war, either
directly or through
their chosen representatives. I want blood, and birth, and social
educational qualifications, and religious trend all to be forgotten in
parliament of new men, this federation of the world. I want those in
this our land
who do not thus believe to become fewer and fewer as the days go by.
I do not want entangling alliances with
It is not necessary to have them. When we sit at the council table of
I trust we may do so as the representative of a newer and better
isolation ‒ an
isolation of the spirit, free to say to the Germanic people, "Have what
you please, but let us know that it is yours ;" free to say to the
constitutional governments, the British Empire, "We have made this
you as our ally in the cause of democracy, but we are not willing to
system. The Windsor tie does not harmonize with the cut of our
In other words, I want to be in the world to
view, to uphold a theory, but never to be compelled to do a wrong
it be for my own country.
This seems to me but to express lamely the view
President of the United States. If this were a Democratic war, I should
if it were a Republican war, I probably should say unjustifiable
things. It is neither.
It is an American war, for only a coward, a poltroon, a trickster, or a
charlatan, seeking personal advantage, would have dared to evade it.
The flag cannot wave with terror to its enemies
in the hands of a standard bearer. What you and I may think of the
of the standard bearer can afford to wait. Forgetting blood and
are now, as always, just two grades of citizens in the Republic ‒ the
man who asks
himself, "What can I do for my country?" and the man who asks, "What
can my country do for me?"
So long as America was simply the land of
I had much to say about these two classes and the unjustifiable
were afforded to the latter. But now that we have become the land of
my voice is silent for the present. I await the conduct of my
fellowmen, as I trust
they will await mine, if mine be of any moment. So far as mere partisan
concerned, I have declared a moratorium until the war ends.
Rich and poor, high and low, labor and capital,
and unprotected, all are forgotten. What they have, what they do, is of
if they be willing to sacrifice for the Republic and for democracy.
I am hoping to see revised one of Macauley's
ancient Rome, in which it can truly be said that none is for the party,
for the state. I have already seen so much splendid self-sacrifice upon
of men whom I have freely criticized heretofore that I stand dumb and
in the presence of mere partisan politics, and dare to lift my voice
only in the
hope that there may be in it one clear call of loyalty and devotion to
in which we pretend to believe, and to the man who is our spokesman.
It was the custom, upon the crowning of a Roman
for the legions to pass in review before him. As each-legion appeared
and the commander took a solemn obligation to be loyal to the emperor
and to the
gods of Rome. As he concluded, each man in the legion lifted his good
to Heaven, crying out "This for me," This solemn ceremonial was enacted
alike at the crowning of Marcus Aurelius, seeker after God, and of
of the devil. The man was nothing, the office all.
Democracy in its partisan sense, Republicanism,
are just now in abeyance. The chosen representatives of the American
of their partisan views upon internal matters, have taken their oath of
and devotion to the principles of the Republic, and to the President of
States. Is it not possible to have until the conclusion of this war all
America lifted to the God of our fathers, and all voices proclaiming,
Wilson. America, democracy, for me?"
By Bro. J. H. Ramsey, Iowa
The grouping of England,
America and France as "Allies" in the present war has furnished
with many peculiar situations, in which Masonry shares. Believing that
will be deeply interested in knowing the facts surrounding the
English-speaking branches of the Fraternity with the French, we
announce a series
of articles, of which this is the first, dealing with various aspects
of the situation.
The first, distinctly
historical in its scope, is a paper which was prepared by Brother
Ramsey in response
to a question proposed at a Study Club meeting of Anamosa Lodge No. 46,
the sole effort was to present the reasons why the Grand Orient took
it did regarding the use of the Bible, and the subsequent action of
Lodges. At the Lodge discussion when this paper was read, two ministers
of the Gospel
were present. One of them had travelled in France, and was familiar
with the subject,
which caused him to take a most sympathetic attitude toward the French
The second contribution
on this subject comes from the pen of Brother R.E. Kellett, Grand
Master of Manitoba,
and though it bears the title "Internationalism and Freemasonry," its
dominant theme is the position which the Grand Orient of France
occupies in the
Masonic category. The essay was written before the entrance of America
war. It has been read before the Masters' and Past Masters' Lodge of
New Zealand, bringing out a discussion which we hope to be able to
digest for our
readers in due time. This discussion, occurring in a Lodge most
with the Mother Grand Lodge, revealed a wide diversity of opinion on
as it will undoubtedly do among our own members. We mention this
only because it reveals the broadmindedness and temperate spirit of our
brethren, but because the very fact that a whole session of the
Masters' and Past
Masters' Lodge was devoted to it is in itself significant of the
of the paper.
The third essay, "Freemasonry
in France," has been written at our request by Brother Geo. W. Baird,
P.G.M., of the District of Columbia, whose name is already a familiar
one to our
readers, and who was made a Mason in Portugal in a French Lodge.
Through his position
as Fraternal Correspondent of his Grand Lodge, Brother Baird has had an
opportunity to keep himself in touch with world movements. This article
in an early number of THE BUILDER.
All of these contributions
evidence an eagerness on the part of the writers that some way shall be
which the non-intercourse of nearly forty years shall be eliminated.
for a careful research of the facts, if needed, may be found in the
of the Grand Lodges of New York, California and Kentucky, permitting
members to visit Lodges in France.
The Question Box and
Correspondence columns of THE BUILDER are open to you, Brethren. We
wish to hear
both sides, and know that there are many who will not be slow to take
up the cudgels
in support of the historic position heretofore taken by our Grand
Lodges. If this
discussion shall be the means of ultimately acquainting our members
with the facts,
it may also give French members of the Society an up-to-date expression
of the American
position ‒ a result which may perhaps be of influence to both sides, in
JUST forty years ago,
or to be exact, on September 14th, 1877, the Grand Orient of France
voted to eliminate
from its ancient constitution the following article: "Freemasonry has
principles the existence of God, the immortality of the soul and the
of mankind." It adopted in lieu thereof, the following:
is not a religion and has therefore no doctrine or dogma to affirm in
this Assembly has decided and decreed that the second paragraph of
Article 1, of
the Constitution (above quoted) shall be erased, and that for the words
of the said
article the following shall be substituted:
an Institution essentially philanthropic, philosophic, and progressive,
has for its object, search after truth, study of universal morality,
arts, and the practice of benevolence. It has for its principles
of conscience and human solidarity. It excludes no person on account of
and its motto is 'Liberty, Equality and Fraternity."'
At the next annual
session of the Grand Body in 1878 a move was made to conform the ritual
to the change
of the constitution and a committee directed to make report and
consideration at the following session.
Accordingly in September,
1879, upon report of the committee, a new ritual was adopted wherein
to the name and idea of God was eliminated, but liberty was given to
to adopt the new or old rituals as they should see fit. We are told,
and can easily
believe, that this action was taken in the Grand Lodge session amidst
and in spite of a vigorous and determined opposition of the minority.
and as a matter of course, the change in the Constitution and ritual
removal of the Bible from the Altar.
It is not too much
to say that the Masonic world stood shocked and astounded at this
taken by the French Masons. Probably nothing in Masonic affairs with
of the Morgan episode ever excited such widespread interest and
Masonic press in every country was filled with vigorous discussion and
that it foreshadowed the division of the Craft into two great sections
‒ one believers
in Deity and non-political, and the other atheistic and democratic.
Grand Lodges especially
in all English-speaking countries lost no time in condemning in
the action of the Grand Orient and in severing fraternal relations. In
our own State
(Iowa) in the Grand Lodge session of 1878, the Grand Master said:
Grand Orient of France having obliterated from its constitution the
asserted a belief in the existence of Deity, and by such action placed
antagonism to the traditions, practice and feelings of all true and
in this jurisdiction and the world, deserves no longer a recognition as
body from this Grand Lodge. Some years ago that Grand Orient persisted
in an invasion
of the American doctrine of Grand Lodge sovereignty, to the extent of
lodges in the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Louisiana and other
then cut loose for a time from all fraternal intercourse with French
obedience to that Grand Orient. Having not only set at naught the
of American Grand Lodges over their respective jurisdictions, but that
of God over
men and Masons, we should wipe our hands of all such bogus Masonry."
The deep concern with
which the Grand Lodge of Iowa viewed this matter was but an indication
of the sentiment
prevailing in Grand Lodges of all English speaking countries at that
time and in
order that we may realize something of this let us read the resolution
of our Grand
Lodge in 1878:
To the M. W. Grand
Lodge of Iowa: "The special committee to whom the committee on the M.
Master's address referred so much of the same as relates to the Grand
France, submit the following report: "While we cordially agree with and
all of the views of our M.W. Grand Master and the Committee on this
we consider that its importance requires more than a mere resolution.
If the course
of the Grand Orient of France is allowed to go unrebuked and become the
law, we may well say farewell to Masonry. It is the glory of our
we do not interfere with any man's religious or political opinions. At
time we discountenance atheism and doubt, disloyalty and rebellion. No
be made a Mason; and the first inquiry made of a candidate, after
entering the lodge
is, in whom does he put his trust? These are the essential requisites,
and the cornerstone
on which our Masonic edifice is erected. Remove them, and the structure
is the course that the Grand Orient of France takes? They have entirely
out this necessary qualification, and leave it to the "ipse dixit" of
each initiate to decide as he prefers, thus entirely ignoring the
in God and His attributes, as understood in all enlightened countries.
Masons will not submit to such a monstrous proposition, and the mere
it is well calculated to arouse our indignation and dissent. We protest
such an innovation, and "wipe our hands" of it. Let such sentiments
and our enemies will desire no better argument with which to destroy
us. The Grand
Lodges of Ireland and England have set noble examples to the Masonic
world, by remonstrating,
and breaking off all intercourse with these iconoclasts. Several of our
have followed their example, and others will doubtless soon join their
feel that we speak the sentiments of the Masons of Iowa when we say
that we disapprove
and condemn the course of the Grand Orient of France, and we desire to
opinions still more emphatically by the resolution hereunto appended:
That the Grand Lodge of Iowa, having learned with surprise and regret
that the Grand
Orient of France has departed from the ancient landmarks, by blotting
from the constitution
and ignoring the name of God, and not making a belief in Deity a
initiates, does hereby express its indignation at the course she has
herewith severs all relations heretofore existing between us.
That a copy of this resolution be sent to the Grand Orient of France,
and to each
of the Masonic jurisdictions with which we are in amicable relation."
With both friends and
enemies of Masonry unreservedly condemning the action of the French
would seem that there must be little justification or defense. But as
the case there were two sides to the issue. There were some peculiar
including such a radical departure, and the most interesting part of
will be to learn the motives and objects which actuated those
responsible for it.
Do not forget, that if allowed to exist at all in Catholic countries,
they could not, Masonic Lodges necessarily had to be much different in
than are ours in this "land of the free and home of the brave." France
and the French people had been under the dominion of the Catholic
Church from time
immemorial and at that period a large majority of the population were
The Church controlled all affairs of the State. Of course Masons were
for liberty, justice and equality in order to accomplish the separation
of the Church
and State and to loosen the hold of the Church on the school system and
it was essential that the reformers should be united and that none
should be excluded
by reason of his belief. Thus the Grand Orient stood as the logical
which an organization might be effected. They needed the support of all
men of every
shade of religious belief, hence the declaration of absolute freedom of
and the elimination of all dogma, always, ‒ as they expressed it ‒ "the
point of narrowness and persecution." This was in 1877. In 1907 ‒
later ‒ France accomplished the division of the Church and State and
no longer remained "The Religion of France."
There was another factor
in the controversy ‒ The Scottish Rite body of Masonry, with which the
had been in continual controversy for many years over matters of
the right to confer certain degrees. The Grand Orient Masons have
the accusation that they promulgated unbelief and atheism. In fact, and
of an opposite contention, they cite the circumstance, that when the
change the constitution was proposed, at a meeting of the Council,
the Grand Session, a Protestant minister, M. Desmons, drew the report
of the resolution in which he argued that the disappearance of the
of belief would not imply a profession of atheism, but merely an
the Craft of men of all opinions, and that Masonry should welcome men
of all doctrines
and every shade of thought.
Here is the idea of
a member of the Grand Orient, expressed only a few weeks since:
Grand Orient of France, while it respects all philosophical beliefs,
absolute liberty of belief. This does not mean that we banish from our
belief in God. The United Grand Lodge of England on the contrary
desires to make
a belief in God in some manner compulsory. The Grand Orient of France
is much more
liberal, since in proclaiming the absolute liberty of belief it permits
one of its members the liberty to believe or not to believe in God, and
by so doing
desires to respect its members in their convictions, their doctrines
and their beliefs.
is the reason why fraternal relations do not exist between the United
of England and the Grand Orient of France. We regret this exceedingly.
always been considered, rightly in other respects, a country of
liberty. It is difficult
to understand under the circumstances why the Freemasons of this great
nation should want to deprive their brothers of France of this same
Brother J. G. Findel,
the well-known scholar, historian and journalist, in writing to the
in 1878, ably stated the contentions of the French body in these words:
it is not my intention to give such general declarations on the true
the Royal Art, as it seems more necessary to help to a right
understanding of the
resolution of the Grand Orient of France. Our French brethren have not
the belief in the existence of God and immortality of the human soul,
out the discussed words of the first article of the constitutions, but
only declared that such a profession of faith does not belong to
Masonic law. The
Grand Orient has only voted for liberty of conscience, not against any
faith. Therefore, the true meaning of the French constitution is now
each brother Mason may believe in God or not, and that each French
Lodge may judge
for itself which candidate shall be initiated or not. The French vote
is only an
affirmative of liberty of conscience, and not a negation of faith.
excommunication of the Grand Orient of France by the Masonic Grand
Lodges, is therefore
an intolerant act of Popery, the negation of the true principles of the
beginning of the end of cosmopolitan Freemasonry. The excommunication
of the Grand
Orient of France only proves the sectarian mind of the excommunicating
which have forgotten that Masonry has for its purpose to unite all good
men of all
denominations and professions: they profess the separating element, and
the Craft, and waste the heritage of our more liberal and more tolerant
The Masonic union will in future be a mere illusion, if the Anglo-Saxon
the French, German, Italian Masons, &c., and vice versa."
The great questions
of recognition, invasion of jurisdiction, establishment of irregular
many other matters which grew out of this movement can hardly be
They are worthy of further discussion.
What we started to
tell was "Why the French Grand Orient removed the Bible from its
It has been noted in a very brief way how they did it and under the
the situation "got by with it" with a good conscience. That they were
actuated by high purposes few will deny, but most Grand Lodges then
held and still
aver that Masonry cannot be Masonry without strict adherence to the
of a belief in God. Few of the Grand Lodges severing relations have
them. Such action is still within the range of future possibilities.
Who can tell?
and Action on Military Lodges by Grand Masters
In the December issue of THE BUILDER we
an article of five pages, a number of replies from Grand Masters of the
and Canada concerning the action taken or contemplated in regard to the
of Dispensations to Military Lodges in their respective Grand
personal opinion of the Grand Masters was given where no action had
Many of these replies were crowded out of that issue for lack of space
are here presented.
Alberta Request for Dispensation
At our Annual Communication in May, 1916, M.W.
S.Y. Taylor, Grand Master, in his annual address stated that he had
from several brethren who were members of the 56th Overseas Battalion,
a Dispensation to them to form a Masonic Lodge. After careful
investigation by him
the request was not acceded to, and the Grand Lodge approved of his
discussing the matter in Grand Lodge, the three principal objections
the Battalions leaving Canada would doubtless be broken up and drafted
Battalions it would be difficult for the Lodge to hold its identity.
an infringement of jurisdiction to grant a charter to hold Lodges
sufficient Lodges in England, France and elsewhere to amply look after
Without going further in the matter, I
in complete accord with the decision of our Grand Lodge. W.M.
Connacher, Grand Master.
* * *
Arizona Grand Master Doubts
Propriety of Such Lodges
I have given some consideration to the question
present and, in my judgment, the establishment of these Lodges would be
unquestionable propriety, for several obvious reasons. First, it would
difficult to exercise the same degree of care in the choice of
materials, as well
as in the actual operation of the Lodges, in conformity with the
precepts of Masonry. Second, it seems to me that, with the great
now resting on our Government and the Nation, it is the duty of us all
to the least possible degree, every activity not calculated to
to the energetic prosecution of the war. Our soldiers, and many of them
will have an immense amount of work to perform that they will have but
if any, to devote to outside interests. It seems to me that the whole
energy, not only of our Army and Navy, but to a very large degree of
our whole people,
should be devoted, for the present at least, to this one great
can serve not only their country but our Institution better in this way
their energies are divided or in any way directed to the organization
of anything not calculated to contribute directly to the successful
of the one enterprise.
Woolf, Grand Master.
* * *
Florida Grand Master Not
Inclined To Military Lodge Idea but thinks his Grand Lodge ready to assist other
Grand Lodges in any advantageous arrangement
In the main I do not approve of the idea of
Lodges for history shows there is great difficulty in keeping records,
to my mind is highly important.
However, I am sure it is the desire of the
of Florida to assist the American Grand Lodges in this matter as fully
will permit, and to make any arrangement that will be advantageous to
Forces in Europe which will enable Army Lodges to confer degrees upon
Florida who may be serving in the Army at that time and place, taking
it for granted
that the fact of the applicant being regularly in the service and on
it would be considered a waiver of jurisdiction sufficient to enable
or sailor to receive the degrees in a Lodge chartered by any of the
York, Grand Master.
* * *
Kansas Deputy Grand Master
Stuart Follows Precedent of former Grand Masters and declines to
formation of military lodge.
I was called upon to take action on such
the following is a copy of my decision.
Wm. I. Stuart,
Deputy Grand Master.
(Copy) Colonel Frank L. Travis, Ammunition
Division, Garden City, Long Island, New York.
My dear Sir and Brother:
The petition of yourself and other brethren
to the Most Worshipful Grand Master, Charles E. Lobdell, asking for
letter of Dispensation,
to form a military Lodge U. D., under authority of the Grand Lodge of
in the absence of Brother Lobdell from the state, been referred to me.
the matter careful and due consideration, I have come to the conclusion
is neither expedient nor desirable to grant such a letter of
Dispensation. To do
so would be to act contrary to the rulings already laid down on this
previous Grand Masters. In the proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Kansas
page 15, it is said in relation to Military Lodges:
"Now when these lodges have ceased to exist,
indeed, it is said that the 'questions raised' are of the most grave
import. The Grand Lodge of Kansas has cause to rejoice that she
to give the sanction of her Masonic authority to a single military
lodge, and may
congratulate herself that none of those Masonic Ishmaelites can trace
to her indiscretion."
The history of military lodges in other Grand
has proven most unsatisfactory. Most Worshipful Thomas J. Turner, Grand
Illinois, in his address to the Grand Lodge of Illinois in 1865,
lodges, had this to say:
"Previous to my installation, several
had been granted by my predecessor to open military lodges in the army
then in the
field. I have never been fully informed as to the extent of the powers
these dispensations, but I suppose they did not confer any authority to
jurisdictions and make Masons from the citizen soldiery of other
States. In all
the dispensations for military lodges granted by me, jurisdiction was
a single regiment of Illinois troops to which the dispensation was
granted. I am
led to believe that some of the military lodges working under
our jurisdiction have greatly abused their privileges, and brought
our Order. Instead of confining their operation to Illinois regiments
exclusively, as they ought to have done, they made Masons
soldiers and citizens of other States, with very little regard for the
kind of material
used. Wisconsin, Minnesota Iowa, and Missouri, have especial cause to
"M.'. W.'. Brethren Geo. W. Washburne, Grand
of Wisconsin, A.T.C. Pierson, Grand Master of Minnesota, and E. A.
Master of Iowa, in the most fraternal manner, called my attention to
the fact that
these military lodges were in the habit of making Masons of citizens
their respective jurisdictions, and that candidates had been admitted
wholly disqualified them from becoming Masons. As soon as these facts
to me, I at once addressed letters to the Masters of all the military
under dispensations from our jurisdiction, instructing them not to
receive or act
upon the petition of any one who was not known to be a citizen of the
State of Illinois.
About that time most of our military lodges suspended work, and, the
war being closed,
they ceased to exist, having done some good and much mischief. I would
ask our sister Grand Lodges to overlook errors which were not designed
by the Grand Master or the Grand Lodge of Illinois.
"There is one question connected with our
lodges to which I invite your careful attention. What is to be the
status of Masons
who were made in those lodges? The lodges ceased to exist when the war
of them had been broken up through the long marches and hard fighting
preceded the cessation of hostilities; the brethren have no dimits, and
cases cannot procure even certificates of having been made Masons; some
only one and others only two degrees. They are all Masons, and will
affiliation with Masons when they return to their homes. How that
be accomplished, and how those who seek advancement shall be disposed
of, are questions
of grave importance, and of sufficient magnitude to demand your prompt
"In behalf of the brethren who have been made
in our military lodges from citizens of other States than Illinois, I
ask that our sister Grand Lodges adopt some plan by which they may, if
become affiliated with lodges in their respective jurisdictions."
That part of his address above quoted, was
to a Committee on Grand Masters' addresses, who submitted the following
"Very grave and serious questions are raised by
so much of the address as relates to military lodges and their action.
direct authority of the Grand Lodge in dispensations conferred, or by
of power in those to whom the dispensations were committed, it is clear
rights of sister Grand Lodges have been repeatedly invaded. Masons have
not only of citizen soldiers of Illinois in the field, but also of
both of loyal and disloyal states, under apparent authority from this
For those who were thus made Masons, and who reside in this
jurisdiction, this Grand
Lodge should provide by recognizing them as such, and a resolution to
is appended. For those who have been made Masons, and who of right
belong to other
jurisdictions, this Grand Lodge can do no more than to request the
Bodies where they may permanently reside to adopt them into the general
if in other respects found worthy, and thus to heal the breach which
has been made
in the walls.
"It is to be hoped that this experience will
close the question of traveling lodges operating within regular foreign
I desire also, to call your attention to an
of the Grand Lodge of California on this subject. It says:
"An army lodge is an anomaly in Masonry. Its
are held at any place where the exigencies of the military service may
cause a temporary
encampment. If held in our own country, such meetings are necessarily
of the jurisdiction of other regularly constituted lodges. During the
clash of battle
in our late Civil War, it sometimes happened that army lodges, with
and records, were swept from existence, and the unfortunate members of
were thus deprived of membership, without dimits or other records to
show that they
had received the degrees of Masonry in a regularly chartered Masonic
There are many other authorities holding to the same effect, but it
would seem unnecessary
to quote them further. For the good of the Fraternity generally,
only the Grand Jurisdiction of Kansas, but throughout the world, I am
to deny your petition for letter of Dispensation for such military
I. Stuart, Deputy Grand Master.
* * *
Louisiana Opposed To Military
Lodges ‒ Favors Recognition of French Masons
the matter very careful consideration I must state that personally I am
to the establishment of Military Lodges in this country for various
First, I do not believe there
is any power vested
in the Grand Master to issue Dispensations for so-called Travelling
Second, I do not believe that
one could avoid
intrusion upon the jurisdiction of other Grand Lodges.
Third, The proper safe-guards
could not be provided
in the way of suitable Lodge rooms so that work could be done by the
Lodges in a
Fourth, A Travelling Lodge
cannot have the facilities
of a Regular Lodge, as to tracing the genealogy of the profane, and
upon this score
it would cause confusion upon the disbanding of the Travelling Lodge
and the members
made therein might not be such as would be acceptable in a Regular
Lodge. And if
such were the case, those who had attained the Master Mason Degree in a
Lodge and who would make application for affiliation to a regular Lodge
more or less humiliated should they be unable to obtain membership in a
Lodge after their Travelling Lodge had disbanded.
I take the
stand that in this country all cantonments are located near cities that
Lodges and in my jurisdiction, where I find that there are not
I recommend the establishment of another Regular Lodge.
I am also
taking steps to provide proper rest-rooms, reading-rooms, etc., under
of the Masonic Lodges located in cities near the cantonments. So far,
we are utilizing
the lower floors of the Masonic Temples for the purpose and committees
to look after the welfare of visiting soldier-Masons.
however, that some arrangement should be made to look after the
while in France, because of our not being in fraternal intercourse with
brethren, and I believe there should be a concerted action by all Grand
I, for one,
am strongly in favor of putting into practice that which we teach ‒
of Freemasonry," and stretching forth our-hands to our French brother
him "Brother" in every sense of the word. And why not do it?
John W. Armstrong, Grand Master.
* * *
Maine No Action Taken ‒
Grand Master Unfavorable to the Idea
No action has been taken by the Grand Lodge of
on the question of Military Lodges, neither have I taken any action in
Personally I am not in favor of granting such permission.
* * *
Massachusetts Present Conditions
Do Not Warrant Granting Such Dispensations ‒ Recommends Army and Navy Masonic
Under existing conditions I do not feel that it
be wise to grant Dispensations for Army or Travelling Lodges during the
the war. Indeed there is perhaps some doubt as to whether or not,
without an amendment
to the Grand Constitutions, the Grand Master has the right to grant
It may be that conditions will change so that it will seem best at some
to authorize the forming of Army Lodges under the jurisdiction of our
as was done during the period of the Revolutionary and Civil Wars. I do
that such a time will come.
Masonic intercourse can be sustained and
through the forming and maintaining of Masonic Clubs both in the Army
branches of the service. With Masonic Lodges in almost every village
in this country there will certainly be no lack of opportunity to
attend Lodge meetings
so long as our military forces remain in the country.
Should the war be long continued and large
our Massachusetts enlisted brethren be sent abroad the question of
may assume a different aspect. For the present I do not think we should
such Lodges. Leon M. Abbott, Grand Master.
* * *
Nevada Grand Master Opposed
To Military Lodges
… BUT FAVORS MEETINGS OF BRETBREN FOR
OF FRATERNAL GREETINGS AND FOR MASONIC FUNERAL SERVICES
On the subject of Military Lodges our Grand
taken no action whatever. There are no cantonments within this State,
there any Regiments or other military organizations formed in, or
coming from this
State. Therefore my opinion will be personal and from a Masonic
and as follows:
The several Grand Lodges should not issue
for Travelling Military Lodges during the period of this war for the
The jurisdiction of a Grand Lodge of any State
entirely to the territory within the boundaries of that State, and
therefore a Lodge
receiving its charter from one jurisdiction could not hold its meetings
State and do so without there being an invasion of Masonic rights.
I believe it would be unwise, irrespective of
barrier, to grant a Dispensation to a Lodge in a training camp, with
to perform Masonic work. It would have a tendency to place our
Institution on a
plane beneath the one it has always held and to which it rightfully
Proper investigation on the part of committees
might not be made, for reasons which must be apparent and need no
at this time. Even in stable communities we all know the black ball is
one of our
pillars of protection and regret to admit that perhaps it is not used
as often as
it should be.
In the event of removal to France, let us say,
Regiment holding a Dispensation from a certain jurisdiction which does
the Grand Orient of France, what then? These brethren would not have
the right of
visitation and again it would be worse than an invasion on the rights
of the French
Masons; not recognizing them, yet establishing a Lodge in their midst,
or in other
words, "flaunting a red flag."
The real Mason or Builder of the craft will not
an opportunity to visit a nearby Lodge or to mingle with the brethren
as often as
possible, even if he be confined to a military camp. Nor will he forget
should he have a proper understanding of what Masonry tries to impart
to its votaries.
I feel that permission should be given, on
and after due investigation, to our brethren to assemble in safe places
if necessary, for the exchange of fraternal greetings and to hold
over a deceased brother.
* * *
North Dakota Matter under
MADE WILL PROBABLY BE GRANTED
We have had no request for a dispensation for a
Lodge. However, this matter has been under consideration by us for some
we are inclined to feel that should such request come to this office
that it will
be granted. North Dakota has gone squarely on record as backing the
we wish to show every consideration to the members of the Masonic
have responded to their country's call. William J. Reynolds, Grand
Nova Scotia Grand Master
Favorable to the Idea
… BUT REFUSES TO GRANT DISPENSATION FOR
TO BE COMPOSED ONLY OF OFFICERS
Perhaps I can best convey my views on the
Military Lodges, by the following extract from my address to the Grand
Nova Scotia, delivered at the last annual communication, held in June,
While the Brigade of Nova Scotia Highlanders
at Aldershot undergoing training, I received a request from some fifty
our Lodges who were officers praying for permission to establish a
Lodge in connection
with the Brigade, which they would take with them Overseas. Previously
I had discussed
the idea with some of our Brethren in the service there and who were
this Grand Lodge, and had expressed myself as favourable to the idea. I
that it would not be establishing a precedent, that dispensations had
in other Grand Jurisdictions for similar reasons, and I knew that we
could not do
too much to brighten the time while absent from us of our many brothers
valiant Brigade. When the application, which was in perfect form,
reached me, there
was an accompanying number of resolutions, which had been adopted by
at an informal meeting held some days previously. One of these
resolutions was in
effect that the membership of the Lodge would be restricted to the
whom some eighty, I was told, were Masons. At the same time I was aware
were in the ranks, among the non-commissioned officers and men also a
of our Brethren. The reason advanced for the restricted membership was
that a Lodge open to all classes in the Brigade would be unwieldy.
While I had much
sympathy with this view, the petition was denied on the grounds that
owing to the
governing resolution it might be construed as the establishment of a
The special committee appointed to report on
did not deal specifically with this portion, but generally treated of
acts in these terms:
"Regarding his official acts, we feel assured
dispensations were not granted unless the Grand Master was satisfied
that it was
in the best interest of the Craft that they should be. Your Committee
the decisions he has given anrl recommend they receive your approval."
The report was unanimously adopted by Grand
A close perusal of the annals of British
with regard to naval and military adventure will establish that Masonry
followed the flag. An instance is recorded in connection with the
wresting of Canada
from the French in 1759. The expedition was under command of General
Wolfe and captured
the strongholds of Louisburg and Quebec. A part of the "furniture" of
the expedition was a Masonic Lodge, which held meetings on board the
ships of the
Don F. Fraser,
* * *
Ohio Dispensation Granted
To Ohio Brethren in Alabama
DEGREES ONLY IN FRANCE ON OHIO MATERIAL
Answering yours of the 18th relative to
will say that I made a recommendation against such Lodges in my annual
but of course based upon the hypothesis that these Lodges would be
in various Jurisdictions of this Country.
At the meeting of our Grand Lodge a resolution
to grant a dispensation to a number of Ohio Brethren at Camp Sheridan,
Alabama, to organize an Army Lodge, which, however, would not have
power to confer
any degrees anywhere in the United States, but only in France, and then
applicants as would be eligible to petition Ohio Lodges for the
degrees. These and
a number of other safeguards were provided in the regulations. After
was no opposition whatever to the granting of the dispensation, and it
and unanimously granted by the Grand Lodge.
The Grand Master, Brother Henry M. Hagelbarger,
Ohio, has also been given power to grant dispensations to other Army
Lodges in Ohio
under the same restrictions and regulations.
Joel C. Clore,
Past Grand Master.
* * *
Oklahoma Grand Master Has
… FOR CONFERRING DEGREES OUT OF TIME BUT IS
TO ORGANIZATION OF MILITARY LODGES
Personally I am not in favor of chartering a
any of the military or cantonment stations.
It is my opinion that the lodges near are
to carry on the work of the fraternity in a wholesome manner. I do not
too much fraternal agitation when we have to make a display of it as
of a lodge would certainly do.
Personally, as Grand Master, I have given
special dispensations to confer the degrees out of time on worthy young
petitions for the degrees had been regularly received and had remained
lodge a constitutional number of days for ballot, and who have been
In my judgment this is the best way to handle
situation as far as military force is concerned. Any man who desires to
Mason has the opportunity of being made one under such regulations as
this and at
the same time each individual lodge has the constitutional length of
time to study
the character of each applicant before he is elected.
If they petition for the degrees and have to
they can be elected, a special dispensation, together with a request,
the applicant the work at whatever cantonment or fort at which he
happens to be
In my judgment this is not the time to argue,
the question of the patriotic duty of the President or those associated
in granting or refusing secret orders privileges on military grounds.
In other words, I am with the Government of the
States and intend to sustain our President, at least until the close of
This battle is in the interests of democracy
is in the interests of Masonry.
Samuel W. Hogan,
* * *
Ontario Grand Lodge and
Grand Master Opposed
… TO GRANTING OF SUCH DISPENSATIONS ‒ REFUSED
SO IN 1914 AND 1915
The question of granting dispensations to Naval
Military Lodges was, in 1914 and 1915, suggested by some of the members
in our jurisdiction,
but the weight of opinion was, and I think still is, that it would be
grant Military and Naval warrants in these days when Grand Lodges are
distributed in such numbers over the civilized world. It was felt that
be great difficulty in regulating the powers of such lodges,
controlling the conduct
of the members thereof and preventing encroachments in jurisdictions
brethren might be offended by unwarranted trespassing on their rights.
how praiseworthy our conduct might be and how pure our motives, we felt
too much to be lost and too little to be gained by warranting Military
Lodges. We, therefore, decided to take no action.
I do not intend this as any reflection on any
that has granted or intends to grant warrants for Military and Naval
Lodges. I wish
these courageous brethren all success.
W. H. Wardrope,
* * *
Pennsylvania Military Lodges
Would Detract From the Building Of Character
No occasion has arisen for the official action
Grand Lodge upon the subject of Military Lodges.
As Grand Master I have discouraged applications
made for warrants of "Regimental" or "Army Lodges." As I view
it, there are several objections to the granting of such warrants ‒
among them might
be mentioned the difficulty and almost impossibility of keeping proper
Then, too, Freemasonry is a solemn and serious business. One of its
is the building of character. This requires deliberate and careful
study of the
genuine principles of our Fraternity. The conditions which would
warrant a peripatetic
Lodge would be unfavorable to this result. In all probability neither
of our work, nor the spirit of Freemasonry would be maintained to the
to which it is entitled, by the establishing of Military Lodges.
Louis A. Watres,
* * *
Quebec No Demand for Such
Action in This Jurisdiction in Many Years
I presume your inquiry has been prompted by the
large number of soldiers going overseas but so far as this jurisdiction
neither myself nor this Grand Lodge has taken any action in connection
matter seeing that there has never been any demand for same for many
My personal opinion is that the necessity for
has long since passed away seeing that the common practice existing
from 75 to 150
years ago of sending regiments to far off countries and keeping them
there for long
periods has to a large extent ceased and the rapid growth of Masonry in
of the world has placed within easy reach of Military forces Masonic
which did not previously exist.
This country has four hundred thousand men on
service 3,000 miles from their homes, but no question of this nature
indeed under present conditions of warfare such Lodges would be of
or benefit. At the present time a Mason may easily be fighting at the
and tomorrow night he may be in London attending his Lodge meeting.
What a change
in conditions from the time the battle of Waterloo, for instance, was
W. W. Williamson,
* * *
Rhode Island Objections
to Such Lodges Outweigh Resultant Good Sought For
The Grand Lodge of Rhode Island has taken no
with reference to the establishment of Military Lodges. The Semi-Annual
of the Grand Lodge will be held in November, but so far as I am advised
no intention to take favorable action upon this question at that time.
In my opinion
the objections to the advisability of granting permission for the
such Lodges far outweigh the resultant good that is sought to be
may be ample precedents for the establishment of Military Lodges, such
are founded more upon the old than the new conception of Masonic
be impossible to exercise over Military Lodges that direct supervision
which now ensures harmony and uniformity among subordinate Lodges.
of the environment and the vicissitudes of military life would
the exercise of such prudence as should always safeguard Masonic
difficulty and impossibility at times of complying with constitutional
regulations and the consequent hasty, incomplete and ineffective
of the work resulting therefrom.
and transitory character of the authorization of such Lodges, the
of powers under dispensations from so many grand jurisdictions, and the
imperfect connection and attachment to a supreme body.
of there being such a large number of unaffiliated Masons throughout
after the termination of the war upon the revocation of the
the establishment of such Lodges would not tend toward the maintenance
of the present
high standard of Masonic qualification that is now exacted, but would
tend to the
impairment of the authority, regularity, conservative reputation and
of the Fraternity.
Rice, Grand Master.
* * *
South Carolina No Action
Taken ‒ Would Be Unwise Under Present Conditions
I have your two letters requesting me to give
views as to the advisability of getting permission for the organization
Our Grand Lodge has not taken any action with
to this matter and I do not personally favor any such action at this
time. So far
as I know, all of the cantonments are located near regularly
and the Masons in this State are extending every privilege and courtesy
to the brethren
in camps. So long as this condition exists, I do not think it would be
wise to authorize
the organization of Military Lodges. In addition to this, it is very
the War Department would permit such organizations.
R. A. Cooper,
* * *
South Dakota Military Lodges
CANDIDATES SHOULD BE ELECTED BY THEIR HOME LODGES ‒ MILITARY LODGE TO
AND PROPERLY INSTRUCT CANDIDATES
The young manhood of our country is called upon
through an experience the far-reaching consequences of which they do
It is to be theirs to assist in the
the future of nations: to change the course of history.
They are going out to unknown perils ‒ physical
Their physical welfare will be provided for as
Can we, believing as we do in the elevating
of Masonry, do better than to make it easier for those eligible to
obtain entrance into our Order and receive the benefit of its influence
as a moral
I believe Army Lodges should be established;
should not have power to receive and act on petitions; that prospective
should apply to their home lodges and, if elected, the lodge electing
army lodge, which should be empowered to confer the degrees and
the candidate, who would become a member of the electing lodge upon
M. M. degree.
Fred H. Rugg,
* * *
Texas No Provision in Texas
Law Authorizing Military Lodges
Our Grand Lodge meets in Annual Communication
week in December, when this matter will probably come up for action. At
there is no provision under our law for army lodges, and I do not
believe that our
Grand Lodge will establish them. ‒ Frank C. Jones, Grand Master
* * *
Virginia Would Grant Dispensation
to Military Lodge for Social and Benevolent Purposes
Your letter addressed to Brother Field has been
on to me. Brother Field died on July 31st, and I have succeeded to the
of Grand Master.
I am opposed to the organizing of Military
the present time. In 1864, Grand Master Harmon, who was in the
refused to grant dispensations for the organization of Military Lodges
When a soldier, who would of all men know of the needs of such Lodges,
organize same, I am constrained to believe that it would not be for the
of Masonry in Virginia for me to issue dispensations at this time to
Lodges. I would strongly resent any Military Lodges coming into this
and conferring degrees either on a man from Virginia or not. The
obtaining the degrees are so great now that no worthy man need be kept
out. In addition
to this, no Grand Master would refuse to grant dispensations to those
who are either
in, or ready to go in, the Military service of the Country, that would
the conferring of the degrees upon them. I would, however, not object
was a sufficient number of Masons in a Company or a Regiment from this
granting them a dispensation to open a Masonic Lodge, provided that
they would not
be permitted to receive the petitions of anyone or confer degrees. In
if they wanted a Lodge for purely social and benevolent purposes, I
would not be
adverse to granting dispensation for same.
Cunningham, Grand Master.
* * *
Wisconsin Grand Lodge Has
Taken No Action
The Grand Lodge has taken no action on the
I have given it no consideration as yet. I will be glad to write you at
time concerning this.
W. S. Griswold,
* * *
Wyoming Field Lodges Not
You have asked me what, if any, action has been
by the Grand Lodge, A. F. & A. M., of this jurisdiction or
myself as Grand Master,
upon the question of Military Lodges and in reply I beg to state that
along this line has been taken either by the Grand Lodge or by myself.
Communication of the Grand Lodge was held in September and the matter
was not discussed;
neither has any request or suggestion along the line been made to me in
My first impressions, after reading your letter
that Military Lodges might be considered somewhat in the nature of a
the present stress of circumstances and that their creation would
therefore be for
the good of the craft. Upon more mature reflection, however, I am about
that no permanent and lasting good could come from this free and easy,
manner of dispensing Masonic authority. In the first place, a Military
in no sense of the word be stable or permanent; its officers and
necessarily be continuously changing with the demands of military
necessity. A Lodge
cannot give best results except under a Master and Wardens, as well as
officers, who are in a sense, permanent for at least a period of time,
the welfare of the Lodge and the brethren. One of the Landmarks of the
is that only men of character and of good report before the world
should be admitted
to membership. The only method by which society may arrive at its
to these characteristics in a man is by observation of the deportment
of an individual
living in a community for a period of time. In a Military Lodge this
would be entirely
dispensed with and while it might be handled with sufficient care in
the case of
permanent Lodges in admitting military men without the required length
to afford security, yet where the entire membership is of this class,
more or less
slipshod methods would necessarily obtain. The bar naturally created by
discipline between officers and enlisted men would not serve to a good
in a Lodge composed strictly of these classes, while the same bar would
effect in the ordinary civilian Lodge where officers and men mingle
The naturally floating character of a Military Lodge, the difficulty of
its records and keeping track of its membership, together with the very
against Masonic tradition and law of a Lodge under one Grand
as a Lodge within a sister Grand Jurisdiction, throws a realm of doubt
proposition which leads me to believe that it would not be the part of
to constitute strictly Military Lodges, unless, perhaps, it might be at
military posts under the Grand Jurisdiction in which they are located.
The demand in our jurisdiction has been taken
to a considerable extent by special dispensation to confer the degrees
who have been called to the colors.
T. Blake Kennedy,
[Sic] of the Scottish Rite
By Bro. Frederick W. Hamilton,
33d Active, Grand Secy., Mass.
THIS momentous event was far more than a union
of bodies which had unfortunately fallen into separation and discord.
Had it been
only that, it would well deserve our rejoicings. Its inner
was so much greater that, so far as the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction
of the United
States is concerned, the title which I have chosen for this paper does
not go beyond
Only the briefest historical resume is
this time. We all remember how two movements purporting to be
beginnings of the
Scottish Rite were started in New York at nearly the same time, one by
other by Cerneau. Judged by modern standards the Bideau movement was of
regularity, the Cerneau movement undoubtedly irregular. We know how any
which may have attached to the Bideau movement were healed by the
action of the
Southern Supreme Council, and we know how the Cerneau movement, again
dying and as often revived, managed to maintain a precarious existence.
the story of the unfortunate break in the ranks of the body descending
when the majority of the members of the Supreme Council repudiated the
of Raymond and chose Van Rensellaer for their head. We know also how
body combined with the Cerneau body and in turn reunited fifty years
ago with the
followers of Van Rensellaer.
We can never fully understand what occurred
realize where the real root of the trouble is to be found. It lay in
and sometimes reckless use of the unquestionably great powers belonging
to a Sovereign
Grand Inspector General. A man who had attained to this rank was and is
monarch. Excepting so far as his powers were limited by the
Constitutions of Frederick
the Great, he was a Masonic autocrat. Even the Constitutional
limitations were not
always observed. The Sovereign Grand Inspectors General not only
great powers, but they possessed the right of conferring them upon
diminution. Unfortunately, these powers carried with them the
opportunity for personal
emolument, as it was entirely within the right of a Sovereign Grand
to take fees for degrees and deputations, and to convert those fees to
his own use.
Theoretically, these powers still belong to the office of a Sovereign
General. In practice, as I need not remind you, they are generally held
at least so far as their exercise by individuals is concerned. In the
of the Scottish Rite in America, however, the Sovereign Grand
took themselves and their powers very seriously indeed. We find them
bodies by their own authority and without conference with other Masons
of like grade:
We find them admitting others by patent to their own exalted rank, and
in turn, extending the Rite and passing on their powers by deputation.
We find any
Sovereign Grand Inspector General, without always exercising much care
as to the
letter of his authority and jurisdiction, conferring degrees on
whomsoever he chose.
The powers of a Sovereign Grand Inspector
ad vitam, and he could confer powers ad vitam upon others by
deputation. All the
officers of Supreme Councils, whether elected or appointed, served ad
is only necessary to recall these conditions to see how practically
was that confusion should occur, that acts of doubtful regularity
should be done,
that questions of authority should arise practically impossible of
that arbitrary and improper use should be made of power.
Indeed under those circumstances it would be
to decide how far the powers of an individual Sovereign Grand Inspector
or of a Sovereign Grand Commander did really extend, or to pass
upon the regularity of many acts which might be seriously questioned
with the best of intentions. In fact the schism in the Northern Supreme
arose out of just such a condition.
Fortunately we are not called upon to sit in
today upon the men of the period before 1867 or upon their acts. We are
only with the facts and we are happily able to say that the most
involve constitutional questions about which equally good men might
questions which, indeed, have not been settled to this day. No one can
the absolute sincerity and entire conscientiousness of Edward A.
Raymond. His distinguished
career as a Mason in Massachusetts, leading through many honors and
in the great office of Grand Master of that ancient jurisdiction, is
testimony to the quality of the man. Acting with a high sense of
he interpreted in the largest sense the powers which he held not only
as a Sovereign
Grand Inspector General but as Sovereign Grand Commander. He
undoubtedly felt that
this last position gave him a measure of authority over the other
Inspectors General which was in some respects even greater than the
of a Grand Master. The majority of the other Sovereign Grand Inspectors
whom we should today consider as his peers, took a different view. They
whose sincerity and conscientiousness are no more open to question than
Among them were some of the wisest and most accomplished Masons of
their day. Moved
by the same high sense of duty and responsibility they not only refused
the powers which Raymond claimed and exercised, but they went farther
the right to depose him, a right which he in turn refused to recognize.
There was here an irreconcilable difference of
upon a grave question of Constitutional Law concerning which equally
men with equal knowledge of the Constitutions and equal Masonic vision
might and did differ irreconcilably. We are not called upon today to
say that either
party was wrong or that either was right. As we shall presently see,
was removed from the region of practical importance by the conditions
of the reunion.
The schism once created, the inevitable evil consequences ensued. It is
to go into the details of mutual attack and defense, of competition and
or of desperate plans laid to meet desperate conditions. It is enough
to say that
in the storm and stress of the struggle between the rival councils,
both were led
to do things which neither would have thought of doing under normal
It is significant that after the reunion the brethren were unwilling to
those days which seemed like nightmares in their recollections.
Our Ill. Brother Gallagher made earnest and
efforts to induce Ill. Brother Samuel C. Lawrence to record his memory
days, offering to send a stenographer to whom General Lawrence could
and to do the work of editing these informal notes, submitting them to
for his final approval, but in vain! Even to this day Ill. Brother
Daniel W. Lawrence,
the Nestor of Massachusetts Freemasonry, is unwilling to go into these
But after all these occurrences did not
real nature of the brethren of those days. Most, if not all, of the
members of both
Supreme Councils were clear of head and sound of heart. Consider for a
and what they were. All men have a right to have their words and deeds,
alleged, judged in the light of their personality and of their entire
certain man said, "I came not to bring peace, but a sword." The words
themselves might well have fallen from the lips of the arch enemy of
true value appears when we consider them in the light of the life and
of the man who uttered them, the man who has been called for nineteen
the Prince of Peace. The members of the Rival Supreme Councils were
picked and chosen
from the body of Masonry, that is to say, from a body of men already
care. They had been tried and tested by many years of experience and of
They had won the love and respect of their Brethren. Many of them stood
in the esteem of their fellow citizens generally. They were outstanding
in the splendid body of American manhood and citizenship. Such men
could not fail
to perceive and to deplore the conditions which existed, nor could they
to desire their amendment.
It was only necessary that they should be
face to face and kept together long enough to wear away the first
asperities and to bring their real natures to the surface, to bring
about an amicable
adjustment. Fortunately there were those among them who were ready to
assist such a conference, and who had the tact, the persistency, and
the sweet reasonableness
which would enable them to do away with surface difficulties and to
keep at their
task of peacemaking until the heart of the matter was reached. These
set about their task with a patience and a devotion worthy of their
a trace of selfish ambition or desire for personal aggrandizement they
wholeheartedly to the noble and glorious world of saving our beloved
from the condition into which it had fallen and making possible the
of the splendid ideals of Scottish Rite Masonry. How gloriously
were, we know. How they labored and what sacrifices they made, we can
know. How full and free the mutual surrender and renunciation was which
took place we have many times been told. It is no wonder that these
men, not weaklings
or callow youths, but strong men, mature, distinguished, flung
themselves into each
other's arms with shouts of joy, that they wept and sang, and danced
like a group of school boys. They did not rejoice with the calm
the statesmen who sees the fruition of plans long cherished. They
with the exuberant satisfaction of those who throw off an intolerable
escape from thralldom and who feel that at last they can be themselves.
Had they stopped to think about it as statesmen
could hardly have adequately estimated the importance of what they had
had done more than bring together two rival bodies. They had brought
a harmonious and effective whole two widely different temperaments and
sets of ideals.
The old Scottish Rite Masonry was deeply imbued with the political and
of Continental Europe before the French Revolution, the age of the
It was deeply tinctured with the philosophical universalism and
thinking of a time when these intellectual qualities had to be
cherished in secret.
In spirit it was thoroughly monarchical. All power was inherent in and
from the Sovereign Grand Inspectors General. Authority devolved
downward from the
head. It was not derived from the members. It was no accident that
Prussia was its great patron and organizer. The complex character of
the most autocratic of monarchs who yet considered himself the first
of the state, the military genius who found his greatest pleasure in
and playing the flute, the widely read philosopher who regarded all
toleration not quite free from disdain, and who spent his life in the
his fellow men as he understood it, but without ever learning to love
many a reflection in the temper and spirit of the older Scottish Rite
Blue Lodge Masonry, however, was of different
and of a different spirit. In its organized form it came from England
with it the traditions of English liberty and democracy. Descended from
a long line
of organizations of intelligent workingmen, it was full of sturdy
of democratic self-reliance, of the wholesome scorn of artificial
native to those who have learned in the school of breadwinning that
restores efficiency and service.
While free from the narrow limitations of sect
it was in fact mainly Christian and not a little disposed to be
Puritan. In spirit
it was thoroughly democratic. Its Grand Masters possessed great
and prerogatives. They were monarchs, it is true, but they were
monarchs, serving for but a short time and returning into the body of
by whom they had been chosen and from whom they had derived their
powers. The distinguishing
characteristic of Blue Lodge Masonry of British origin is that the seat
is not in a monarch or in a House of Peers; it is in the great body of
The happy blending of these widely differing
and methods gave the newly organized Supreme Council union, stability,
The old lawless fashion of exercising the great powers of the Sovereign
General without regulation and without responsibility to his peers was
ended. The introduction of the system of the election and appointment
of the officers
of the Supreme Council, including the Sovereign Grand Commander, for
terms of short
duration settled the question of the responsibility of the Sovereign
to the Supreme Council. The question of the power of the Council to
depose its Commander
is hardly more than an academic one when that officer is elected for a
term of only
three years. He may well serve so long as health and strength may
permit, but his
peers by their triennial exercise of the suffrage pass judgment upon
The powers of a Sovereign Grand Inspector
today in no wise really diminished or impaired, but his use of them is
regulated and remedies are provided for their abuse. More important
than all the
Constitutional regulations is the new spirit of solemn responsibility
in the exercise
of a great trust. The Sovereign Grand Inspector General no longer
a ruler over his brethren, but a servant among them, recognizing in the
to which he has been called, not a personal honor, a gift of power, or
for enrichment, but seeing in it only the call to a great service which
deem him better fitted than another to render.
The powers of the Supreme Council are
is still the source of all power and authority in the Rite. There is
nor authority anywhere in the Rite which does not devolve from it, but
as a body feels a solemn sense of responsibility in the exercise of
It does not work for itself or for its members, it works for the good
of the brethren.
The philosophy of the Rite is as broad and
as ever. It knows no distinction among men who strive to find and serve
does not inquire into their philosophy or their theology. It does not
ask in what
sacred book they find their instruction and inspiration, it does not
the form or substance of their prayers or even ask the name by which
the one God when offering to him their petitions. It believes that God
is God, no
matter what men name Him, no matter how they pray to Him, no matter how
about Him, for, after all, these matters depend largely on the accident
The Christian Bishop might well be a Brahmin, if he had been born in
the Jewish Rabbi might well be a Protestant minister, if he were born
in New England
of Mayflower ancestry, but the new sense of responsibility extends here
and the Scottish Rite Masonry of today, though not less tolerant, is
It is to these inner qualities more than to the
union that we owe the prosperity of the present and the splendid
prospects for the
future. Union, stability, and power have been realized. Like all of the
in the world, they are in their essence spiritual and not material. We
are not strong
because divisions have been banished from among us or because we are
in numbers and wealth, although the Rite enjoys a growth of prosperity
of, indeed undesired, fifty years ago, but because we have learned
better the Royal
Secret, because into the new body created by the union of 1867 there
has come a
new soul. It is like the old stories which tell us how by some
experience a being
strong, beautiful, but mortal, became endowed with immortality through
or the awakening of a soul. The future of our beloved Rite through the
of the years is safe because it has found its soul.
Of Masonry: An Ode
By John Bancks of Sunning
In mystic Numbers while We sing:
Enlarge Our Souls; the Craft defend;
And hither all Thy Influence bring.
With social Thoughts Our Bosoms fill,
And give Thy Turn to ev'ry Will!
While gross BATAVIA, wall'd with Mud,
Thy purer Joys delight no more;
And winding SEINE, a captive Flood,
Laments Thee wand'ring from his Shore;
Here spread Thy Wings, and glad these Isles,
Where ARTS reside, and FREEDOM smiles.
Behold the LODGE rife into View!
The Work of INDUSTRY and ART.
Tis grand, and regular, and true:
For fo is each good MASON'S Heart.
FRIENDSHIP cements it from the Ground,
And SECRESY shall sense it round.
A STATELY DOME o'erlooks Our East,
Like Orient PROEBUS in the Morn:
And TWO TALL PILLARS in the Weft
At once support Us, and adorn.
Upholden thus, the Structure stands,
Untouch'd by sacrilegious Hands.
For Concord form's, Our Souls agree;
Nor Fate this Union shall destroy:
Our Toils and Sports alike are free;
And all is Harmony and Joy.
So SALEM'S Temple rose by Rule,
Without the Noise of noxious Tool.
As when AMPHION tun'd his Song,
Ev'n rugged Rocks the Musick knew;
Smooth'd into Form they glide along,
And to a THEBES the Desert grew.
So at the Sound of HIRAM'S Voice,
We rife, We join, and We rejoice.
Then may Our Vows to Virtue move!
To VIRTUE, own'd in all her Parts:
Come CANDOUR, INNOCENCE, and LOVE;
Come, and possess Our faithful Hearts!
MERCY, who feeds the hungry Poor,
And SILENCE, Guardian of the Door!
And Thou ASTRAEA, (tho' from Earth,
When Men on Men began to prey,
Thou fled'st, to claim celestial Birth;)
Down from OLYMPUS wing Thy Way!
And, mindful of Thy antient Seat,
Be present still where MASONS meet!
Immortal SCIENCE, too, be near!
(We own Thy Empire o'er the Mind)
Dress'd in Thy radiant Robes appear,
With all Thy beauteous Train behind:
INVENTION, young and blooming, there;
Here GEOMETRY, with Rule and Square.
In EGYPT'S Fabrick Learning dwelt,
And ROMAN Breasts could Virtue hide:
And VULCAN'S Rage the Building felt,
And BRUTUS, last of ROMANS, dy'd:
Since when, dispers’s the Sifters rove,
Or fill paternal Thrones above.
But, loft to half the human Race,
With Us the VIRTUES shall revive;
And, driv'n no more from Place to Place,
Here SCIENCE shall be kept alive:
And MANLY TASTE, the Child of SENSE,
Shall banish VICE and DULNESS hence.
United thus, and for these Ends,
Let SCORN deride, and ENVY rail:
From Age to Age the CRAFT descends;
And what We build shall never fail:
Nor fhall the World Our Works survey;
But ev'ry BROTHER keens the KEY.
Miscellaneous Works in Prose and Verse of John Bancks [Lib*], (of
England), vol. 1, pages 33-39. London, 1738.
DEVOTED TO ORGANIZED MASONIC STUDY
Edited By Bro. Robert I. Clegg
THE BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC
STUDY FOR MONTHLY
LODGE MEETINGS AND STUDY CLUBS
FOUNDATION OF THE COURSE
THE Course of Study has for its
sources of Masonic information: THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia.
paragraph is explained how the references to former issues of THE
BUILDER and to
Mackey's Encyclopedia may be worked up as supplemental papers to
exactly fit into
each installment of the Course with the paper by Brother Clegg.
The Course is divided into five
which are in turn subdivided, as is shown below:
A. The Work of a Lodge.
B. The Lodge and
C. First Steps. D.
E. Third Steps.
B. Working Tools.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
The Grand Lodge.
Codes of Law.
3. Grand Lodge Practices.
4. Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
Official Duties and Prerogatives.
The Constituent Lodge.
Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising
Change of Membership.
The Mysteries ‒ Earliest Masonic Light.
B. Study of Rites ‒ Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
Philological Masonry ‒ Study of Significant Words.
* * *
THE MONTHLY INSTALLMENTS
Each month we are presenting a
by Brother Clegg who is following the foregoing outline. We are now in
Steps" of Ceremonial Masonry. There will be twelve monthly papers under
particular subdivision. At the head of each installment will be given a
"Helpful Hints" consisting of questions to be used by the chairman of
the Committee during the study period which will bring out every point
in the paper.
Whenever possible we shall
reprint in the Correspondence
Circle Bulletin articles from other sources which have a direct bearing
particular subject covered by Brother Clegg in his monthly paper. These
should be used as supplemental papers in addition to those prepared by
from the monthly list of references. Much valuable material that would
possibly never come to the attention of many of our members will thus
The monthly installments of the
in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin should be used one month later
appearance. If this is done the Committees will have opportunity to
programs several weeks in advance of the meetings and the Brethren who
of the National Masonic Research Society will be better enabled to
enter into the
discussions after they have read over and studied the installment in
REFERENCES FOR SUPPLEMENTAL
Immediately following each of
monthly papers in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin will be found a
list of references
to THE BUILDER and Mackey's Encyclopedia. These references are
pertinent to the
paper and will either enlarge upon many of the points touched upon or
new points for reading and discussion. They should be assigned by the
to different Brethren who may compile papers of their own from the
to be found, or in many instances the articles themselves or extracts
may be read directly from the originals. The latter method may be
the members may not feel able to compile original papers, or when the
be deemed appropriate without any alterations or additions.
HOW TO ORGANIZE FOR AND CONDUCT
THE STUDY MEETINGS
The Lodge should select a
preferably of three "live" members. The study meetings should be held
once a month, either at a special meeting of the Lodge called for the
at a regular meeting at which no business (except the Lodge routine)
should be transacted
‒ all possible time to be given to the study period.
After the Lodge has been opened
and all routine
business disposed of, the Master should turn the Lodge over to the
Chairman of the
Research Committee. This Committee should be fully prepared in advance
on the subject
for the evening. All members to whom references for supplemental papers
assigned should be prepared with their papers and should also have a
grasp of Brother Clegg's paper.
PROGRAM FOR STUDY MEETINGS
of the first section of Brother Clegg's
paper and the supplemental papers thereto.
While these papers are being read
the members of the Lodge should make notes of any points they may wish
or inquire into when the discussion is opened. Tabs or slips of paper
those used in elections should be distributed among the members for
at the opening of the study period.)
- Discussion of the above.
- 3The subsequent sections of
paper and the supplemental papers should then be taken up, one at a
time, and disposed
of in the same manner.
Invite questions from any and
all Brethren present.
Let them understand that these meetings are for their particular
benefit and get
them into the habit of asking all the questions they may think of.
Every one of
the papers read will suggest questions as to facts and meanings which
may not perhaps
be actually covered at all in the paper. If at the time these questions
no one can answer them, SEND THEM IN TO US. All the reference material
we have will
be gone through in an endeavor to supply a satisfactory answer. In fact
we are prepared
to make special research when called upon, and will usually be able to
within a day or two. Please remember, too, that the great Library of
the Grand Lodge
of Iowa is only a few miles away, and, by order of the Trustees of the
the Grand Secretary places it at our disposal on any query raised by
of the Society.
The foregoing information
should enable local
Committees to conduct their Lodge study meetings with success. However,
welcome all inquiries and communications from interested Brethren
phase of the plan that is not entirely clear to them, and the services
of our Study
Club Department are at the command of our members, Lodge and Study Club
at all times.
HELPFUL HINTS TO STUDY CLUB
From the following questions
the Committee should
select, some time prior to the evening of the study meeting, the
that they may wish to use at their meeting which will bring out the
points in the
following paper which they desire to discuss. Even were but five
to the discussion of each of the questions given it will be seen that
it would be
impossible to discuss all of them in ten or twelve hours. The wide
variety of questions
here given will afford individual Committees an opportunity to arrange
to suit their own fancies and also furnish additional material for a
meeting each month if desired by the members.
In conducting the study periods
should endeavor to hold the discussions closely to the text and not
permit the members
to speak too long at one time or to stray onto another subject.
Whenever it becomes
evident that the discussion is turning from the original subject the
request the speaker to make a note of the particular point or phase of
he wishes to discuss or inquire into, and bring it up when the Question
Questions on "Entrance and
- How many phases of
initiation does Brother Clegg speak of? What are they?
- What is the Lodge's part in
granting admission to a candidate? What is the
- Can a man become a Mason who
does not declare his motives for seeking admission?
What were your motives?
- Do you have to be vouched for
in order to get a job? Why? How could the Senior
Steward vouch for you when he was, perhaps, a stranger to you? Has your
career justified his confidence in you? Can you give a history of the
- Why did you await permission to
enter? Why did you not walk right in? Is
Masonry a right or a privilege? Do you treat it as such? Who granted
to enter? Why could not another officer have granted that privilege?
Are you able
to "wait with patience" until you are promoted in your business or your
trade? Did the laws governing your entrance into Masonry signify or
you the laws governing entrance into all the great experiences and
of life? How do you gain entrance into business knowledge, trade skill,
or fame? Into art, knowledge, character?
- Can you give a definition of
Masonry in your own language? Do you find it
difficult to do so? Can you define the following: Home, religion,
happiness? Do you know Albert Pike's definition of Masonry?
- Did the brethren "meet you half
way" when you sought admission?
Why were they glad to receive you? Has your Masonic career disappointed
you equally willing to admit a brother Mason to your friendship?
- What do the pillars symbolize
- What are the real penalties of
Masonry? Are they similar to the penalties
of dishonor and disloyalty in other fields? Does friendship die when
you are false
to it? Does your body grow ill when you abuse it? Does truth die in the
many kinds of death are there? Does manhood die in the man who breaks
Does patriotism die in the traitor? Are the worst penalties physical
Have you ever felt as if an instrument of torture had been plunged into
you think that Entrance and Reception symbolize re-birth? Why? How were
you born into education? Into citizenship? Into mastery of your trade?
Is a man
born into religion? What is meant by "new birth"? Does Masonry ever
a man to be born again? Can you give instances?
* * *
By Bro. Robert I. Clegg
Part II ‒ Entrance and Reception
Phases of Initiation
LET us consider the two-fold
aspect of initiation.
It is sought by the candidate, and if he is found worthy, it is granted
by the Lodge.
He personally demonstrates his needs, the Lodge grants him relief. When
the latch of the door, the Lodge releases the bolts.
Lodge and Candidate
It will be seen at once that
the relative positions
of the Lodge and the candidate are quite different though closely
related. In fact
the common phrase from the Scriptures is deeply significant to the
The seventh chapter of St. Matthew says: Ask, and it shall be given
you; seek, and
ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you: For every one
seeketh; and he that seeketh, findeth; and to him that knocketh it
shall be opened.
The Lodge does not seek the candidate. He himself must seek entrance
into the Lodge
and this must be of his own initiative.
None may be received into our
midst who does
not first give satisfactory reasons as to why he is applying for
the coincidence of the initial letters of the three important words in
passage, Ask, Seek, Knock ‒ the word ask being suggestive of the
voluntary act of
the candidate in speech. His will power is shown in the search, his
quest for the
promised reward, and his earnestness is evidenced by an alarm. The
tidings of the
applicant's desire and his devotion are made known to others by his
speech and action.
Be Vouched For
Yet not of himself can the
to the inner mysteries. Prepared as he is in mind, body and reputation,
more is essential ‒ competent Masonic witnesses must vouch for him at
any and all
stages of his progress. We stand not alone in Masonry. None are apart
fellows. Neither as lonely monument nor as solitary rock stands any
he is perfected for a place among the many others, supporting his share
of the common
load and bearing his part in upholding the social and moral structure
men upright and true.
Asking for acceptance, seeking
signalizing his readiness, the applicant awaits the pleasure of the one
by the Lodge
Let us now turn to the part
played by the Lodge
in the reception of the candidate. He is not received as are the
His admission is by other doors and by different paths than theirs;
there is nothing
similar at any stage.
The candidate is analyzed, the
is recognized. The Lodge meets the one with welcome while the other is
put on probation. The Lodge is represented at all points by an officer
it is to make the proper investigations that all present may be fully
So thorough are the inquiries that none in attendance may doubt the
possessed by the applicant. Consider for yourself the nature of the
the manner of its administration and its aptness to the occasion. The
its completeness and accuracy is the standard of official competency in
Defined to the
Granted that the candidate has
Lodge of his worthiness, he is then in turn enlightened as to what a
be, what he should know and what he should do. These are the essence of
Freemasonry is a system of
moral knowledge in
action. Other definitions are to be found but the one that is most
and workable will receive preference.
With this word of suggestion
the student of Masonry
may not unprofitably employ a few moments in defining Masonry for
himself. He will
gain much thereby. For a definite statement of what it means to him
will give him
a better grip on the foundation of the institution and what it means to
him in personal
value will enable him to take a Masonic inventory of his fraternity
rewards, his duties and his desires.
Let us not forget at this stage
the good old
definition which runs as follows:
a peculiar system of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by
Mackey deemed it more
comprehensive and exact to define Freemasonry as a science engaged in
after Divine Truth, and which employs symbolism as its method of
But still keeping in
mind the attitude of the Lodge toward the candidate and in the light of
that we first submitted, let us briefly suggest the means employed for
of Masonic truths.
Masonry is rehearsed
to the candidate by the rendition of ritual, imparted to his mind by
impressed upon the memory by symbols. By drama, story and symbol in
the eye and the ear and the recollection co-operate and continually
tend to enrich
and train the mind and quicken the consciousness and conscience of the
members of the Craft.
Candidate Among Friends
That friendliness is
of the very salt of the earth when it is true and trusty. Life's
sweetness is in
the friends of proven quality. To walk with such as these is security
and difficulties fade away in their presence and we go forward
fearlessly in that
an Establishment of Strength
He that enters the
Temple of the faithful walks between landmarks at right and left, the
symbols of strength and stability. Such is our institution to the
initiate, a structure
of permanence and of power made up of persons buttressed by benevolent
and cemented by faith.
It is well for this
building of ours that at the very entrance the candidate be reminded of
stands and what is to be expected. Reminders may be acute or weak,
strong or slight,
gentle or vigorous, temporary or permanent, yet friendly. Truly it is
the act of
a friend that the lesson should be long of life. To chastise the body
may be but
to chasten the character; rather bodily anguish than starvation of soul.
Entrance and Reception Symbolic of Re-Birth
Three steps we have
now taken in our study, Preparation, Entrance and Reception. Have we
their significance? To have done so we must have first realized what we
behind. We have been divested of much which the outside world has to
offer us, of
power, wealth and honors. We have been reminded of the necessity of
minds of the ignorance and prejudice of every-day life. We have been
necessity for new ties and new restraints which remind us of the days
of the school-room.
"Preparation" has assumed a new meaning to us, yet a meaning which can
be demonstrated in daily life as sane and wholesome.
likewise, has for us hidden meanings. The period of preparation ended,
toward new and unknown experiences. Not by our strength alone may we
Aided and assisted by those who may as yet have no vital, personal
interest in our
progress, but who are moved by impulses born of a fellowship and a
they know and would share with us, we make this first Masonic venture.
For us it
is in fact a birth into a new world ‒ a birth more clearly symbolized
by the steps
we take than we may have realized.
Are we to be "accepted"
into this new world? Will we be received? Will those who have received
yet further Light be willing to take us into the bosom of their
with our misunderstandings, our awkward conformity to their customs,
standards but partly cast off?
Not until we have been
tried and tested. Not until we have shown our disposition to learn as
learned. Not until our steps have grown steady, our ability to hold
is proven. Not until we shall have proven ourselves worthy of the
Yet withal we are met
by a love very much like the love of a mother for her child, by an
of our weaknesses and frailties; the while Masonry tenders us, in a
spirit of fraternity
and forbearance, that wholesome nourishment for the mind and soul which
for us means
growth, development and stature.
So are the pangs of
birth. In travail and in labor are brought forth great good. Education
Character as a word shows its origin in that it means something cut or
by chisel or graver. The rod of the school-master is a symbol of the
life. Fear is relieved by experience, and cast out by love made
perfect. The glowing
years of youth with every added light increases the vision, the steps
likewise broaden the outlook, enlarge the sympathies, illumine the
and strengthen the convictions of the soul.
for Supplemental Papers
The following references
to Mackey's Encyclopedia and THE BUILDER all have a bearing upon the
in the foregoing paper by Brother Clegg. Lodge and Study Club
decide upon those which they may wish to use and then assign to some of
members the task of preparing and presenting them as supplemental
papers at the
same meeting at which Brother Clegg's paper is used.
The article, "What
An Entered Apprentice Ought to Know," by Brother Hal Riviere, which
in the April, 1917, Correspondence Circle Bulletin, will be found
in connection with the current installment of the Course.
Declaration of Candidates;
Birth, vol. II, p.
205. Candidate's Motives for Making Application, vol. II, p. 377; vol.
III, p. 311;
Oct. 1917 C. C. B. p. 5
Definitions of Masonry,
vol. I, pp. 9, 54, 74, 263, Lib. 27, Q.B. 93 Cor. 245: vol. III, pp.
17, 44, 102,
Apr. 1917 C.C.B. p. 5
Definition of Masonry
by Ball, J. O., vol. I, p. 285. Kuhn, Wm. F., vol. I, p. 87. Mackey,
vol. I, p. 67. Pike, Albert, vol. I, p. 37. Penalty, vol. III, Apr.
1917 C. C. B.
What An Entered Apprentice
Ought to Know, vol. III, Apr. 1917 C. C. B. p. 5.
MACKEY REFERENCES [Lib
(NOTE ‒ In order
to give our readers who do not have access to a copy of Mackey's
idea of the wealth of suggestive material to be found in those volumes,
them why we have adopted this work in connection with our own previous
as a basis for the Bulletin Course of Masonic Study, we shall from time
publish a few pertinent references, instead of merely citing them. This
Study Club leaders a better opportunity, perhaps, to appreciate the
manner in which
we believe the study hour can be made more interesting and more
The verb "to alarm"
signifies, in Freemasonry, "to give notice of the approach of someone
admission." Thus, "to alarm the Lodge" is to inform the Lodge that
there is someone without who is seeking entrance. As a noun, the word
has two significations. 1. An alarm is a warning given by the Tiler, or
officer, by which he seeks to communicate with the interior of the
Lodge or Chapter.
In this sense the expression so often used, "an alarm at the door,
that the officer outside has given notice of his desire to communicate
Lodge. 2. An alarm is also the peculiar mode in which this notice is to
In modern Masonic works, the number of knocks given in an alarm is
by musical notes. The word comes from the French "alarme," which in
comes from the Italian "all arme," literally a cry "to arms,"
uttered by sentinels surprised by the enemy. The legal meaning of to
alarm is not
to frighten, but to make one aware of the necessity of defense or
And this is precisely
the Masonic signification of the word.
In every Symbolic Lodge,
there are two officers who are called the Senior and Junior Deacons. In
the former is appointed by the Master and the latter by the Senior
Warden; in England
both are appointed by the Master. It is to the Deacons that the
visitors should be properly entrusted. Their duties comprehend, also, a
surveillance over the security of the Lodge, and they are the proxies
of the officers
by whom they are appointed. Hence their jewel, in allusion to the
necessity of circumspection
and justice is a square and compasses. In the center, the Senior Deacon
sun, and the Junior Deacon a moon, which serve to distinguish their
In the English system, the jewel of the Deacons is a dove, in allusion
to the dove
sent forth by Noah. In the Rite of Mizraim the Deacons are called
The office of Deacons
in Masonry appears to have been derived from the usages of the
In the Greek church, the Deacons were always the pylori or doorkeepers,
and in the
Apostolical Constitutions the Deacon was ordered to stand at the men's
the Subdeacon at the women's, to see that none came in or went out
during the oblation.
In the earliest rituals
of the last century, there is no mention of Deacons, and the duties of
were discharged partly by the Junior Warden and partly by the Senior
Entered Apprentices, and they were not generally adopted in England
until the Union
The emblematic use
of a "sharp instrument" as indicated in the ritual of the First Degree,
is intended to be represented by a warlike weapon (the old rituals call
warlike instrument"), such as a dagger or sword. The use of the point
pair of compasses, as is sometimes improperly done, is an erroneous
of the symbol, which should not be tolerated in a properly conducted
compasses are, besides, a symbol peculiar to Third Degree.
Every candidate for
initiation is required to make, "upon honor," the following declaration
before an appropriate officer or committee. That, unbiased by the
of friends and uninfluenced by mercenary motives, he freely and
himself as a candidate for the Mysteries of Masonry; that he is
prompted to solicit
the privileges of Masonry by a favorable opinion conceived of the
a desire of knowledge; and that he will cheerfully conform to all the
and established customs of the Fraternity. This form is very old. It is
to be found
in precisely the same words in the earliest edition of Preston. It is
the English Constitution, that the candidate should subscribe his name
to this declaration.
But in America the declaration is made orally, and usually before the
Secretary of War Rescinds
Order Barring Fraternities from Army Camps
Brother James W. Witten,
Grand Master of the District of Columbia
Through the courtesy of Brother James W.
Master of the District of Columbia, we are furnished a complete report
of the meeting
of representatives of various fraternal organizations called in
conference on October
29 last, by the Secretary of War, "to take up the matter of a
program that will secure co-operation in the work that is being done by
on training camp activities." The minutes of this meeting, made by E.
Thompson, Special Deputy of Edward W. Wellington, G.G.M. of the General
R. & S. M. of the United States, are so complete and well
written that we reproduce
them here in full.
It is a matter of sincere congratulation to the
that Masonry was so ably represented, and that throughout the
spirit of tolerance was uppermost. We cannot refrain from expressing
our own gratification
that this conference has eliminated an apparent attitude of friction
which has occasionally
been present in the Masonic Press, as we read the text of the splendid
presented by Sovereign Grand Commander Moore and his confreres of the
They breathe a spirit of loyalty of which Masonry may well be proud.
They form a
platform upon which every Branch of Freemasonry may stand shoulder to
every other Branch. It remains but to carry into effect the letter and
the Resolutions ‒ as has been pledged by the Brethren present at the
- a task which should command the united effort and unselfish
co-operation of every
one of us, no matter what his degree or rank or title.
Brother Witten's letter to the Grand Masters of
Grand Jurisdictions of America, in which he briefly explains the
up to this conference, inviting their co-operation in a spirit as
sympathetic as his own, follows:
To the Grand Masters of Masons of the Several
Jurisdictions of the United States. M. W. and Dear Brothers: Soon after
of War excluded Freemasons and other fraternities and associations from
in welfare work within military camps and accorded that privilege
the Young Men's Christian Association and the Knights of Columbus, I
Grand Chaplain, Rev. Hugh T. Stevenson, of this City, who is
experienced and deeply
interested in work of that kind, and who, as I well knew, was otherwise
qualified and particularly available for that purpose, to undertake to
modification of the Secretary's order. Through his able, earnest and
efforts, supplemented and greatly aided by Brother George Fleming
Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the Thirty-third and Last
Degree of the
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry for the Southern
of the United States of America, the Secretary's original action was
an order, a copy of which is herewith enclosed, under which our Craft,
or in conjunction with other fraternities, will be permitted to engage
work within cantonments where local conditions will permit its doing so.
I was satisfied from the beginning that the
did not either desire or intend to make any invidious distinction
between the Knights
of Columbus and Freemasonry or other fraternities, and that that
admitted only as the representative of one branch of the Christian
adherents were not admitted to all the privileges and prerogatives
accorded by the
Young Men's Christian Association to the followers of the Protestant
was for that reason that I refrained from criticizing or censuring his
believing as I did that far more harm than good would result from doing
that the de sired results could be much more easily secured by other
am, with assurances of my highest esteem,
JAS. W. WITTEN,
Grand Master of Masons for the District of Columbia.
* * *
Pursuant to request of the Secretary of War, a
was held between the Secretary and a number of gentlemen representing
organizations, in the office of the Secretary, War Department,
at 3 P.M., Monday, October 29, A.D. 1917, for the purpose above stated.
Present: Newton D. Baker, Secretary of War,
B. Fosdick, in charge of training camp activities, and the following:
John J. Brown, Supreme Chancellor, Knights of
Joseph A. Burkhart, representing the Grand Exalted Ruler, Benevolent
Order of Elks. Col. P.H. Callahan, representative of the Supreme
of Columbus; George E. Corson, General Grand High Priest of the General
of Royal Arch Masons of the United States; Joseph A. Flaherty, Supreme
of Columbus; J. W. Ford, Supreme Dictator, Loyal Order of Moose; L. S.
representing the B'rith Abraham Order; Frank C. Goudy, Grand Sire,
of Odd Fellows, accompanied by E. W. Bradford, representative of the
Adolph Kraus, president of the Independent Order of B'nai B'rith; Max
grand secretary, B'nai Abraham; W. W. Mansfield, representing the
Order of United Commercial Travelers of America; Hon. Jos. McLaughlin,
of the Ancient Order of Hibernians of America; Hon. George Fleming
Grand Commander, Supreme Council 33d, of the A. & A. S. R.,
U. S. A.; Charles E. Ovenshire, Imperial Potentate, Ancient Arabic
of the Mystic Shrine; Dr. J. G. Pace, representing the Society of
of America; Wm. S. Parks, representing Lee S. Smith, Grand Master of
of the United States; Solomon Schelinsky, Grand Master of Independent
Order of B'rith
Abraham; Edwin S. Schmid, Grand Monarch, Mystic Order of Veiled
Prophets of the
Enchanted Realm; Hon. Morris Sheppard, representing the Sovereign
Woodmen of the World; Lewis E. Sisler, representing the Supreme
Commander of the
Maccabees; Hon. Barton Smith, Sovereign Grand Commander, Supreme
Council 33d, A.
& A. S. R., Northern Jurisdiction, U. S. A.; E. St. Clair
Edward W. Wellington, General Thrice Illustrious Master of the Royal
Masters of the United States.
The meeting was called to order by the
The Secretary called attention to the fact that
Government is in the business of raising and training a large army made
up of young
men taken from time to time from the usual environment of young men
to church, social and fraternal affiliations; that these men are being
in camps of unusual size, which are in fact cities of 40,000 or more
that both because of the different method of selection as well as the
more unique organizations of troops and the problems to be met and
solved in connection
with their handling, we are face to face with questions never before
The Secretary alluded to the statutory
for caring for the religious side of camp life, in the legal provision
chaplains, but said it was found that this did not meet the situation
in all its
social, fraternal and moral aspects.
After commenting on a large number of
this line since the mobilization began, the Secretary stated that the
shaped itself in his thought under two heads:
First: What shall we do for the soldier in camp?
Second: What can we do for the soldier in
adjacent to the camp?
Nearly all the men have some traditional
The law provides for that in the appointment of chaplains. The function
of a chaplain
is entirely religious. In addition to that, is what we know as the
The Knights of Columbus and the Y.M.C.A. are built around that idea. We
chaplains, the Y.M.C.A. and the Knights of Columbus, and lately the
undertaken to help in the communities on the girls' side in providing
places and surroundings where the men may meet women.
The committee on training camp activities has
work on these problems and in considering what had been accomplished,
made in the course of the work and the suggestions which come from
the Secretary stated he felt if there could be a way in which members
of the same
society could meet in camp, he felt sure it would be a helpful thing
but that considering
the necessities of discipline and the various questions involved, he
was also of
the opinion that the major help to be rendered by fraternal societies
is in the
communities outside rather than in the camp itself, from which the
to go whenever he has an opportunity.
The Secretary declared himself as being without
and that what he sought was the best way: the way which will produce
the most efficient
use of co-operation.
The Secretary alluded to the fact that some of
are temporary; that the purpose of training these men is to send them
that it would be a serious financial burden to encourage the erection
in the camps, if there were no other objections; that the Government
has had to
purchase or rent most of the land on which these camps are located and
demand for more land is constantly increasing. He therefore suggested
that the men
present in the meeting work out some plan by which a single building
could be erected
which would be available for all the societies so that by a committee
manage access to the building and have these places as central points
of literature, etc.
The thought of the Secretary, as developed,
be to leave intact, matters so far as they now exist in connection with
camp activities but that the societies represented in the meeting
should get together
in some additional campaign.
He was asked if that was his thought, and if it
that he give some suggestions of how a movement independent of the
training camp activities could result in co-operation in the work Or
in which the various societies represented in the meeting would have no
This led to the development of the thought that
Y.M.C.A. does not represent all the Protestant affiliations or social
or view points and that the Knights of Columbus is wholly sectarian;
that none of
the societies represented desire the establishment of units of their
organizations for the purpose of conferring degrees, etc., having Lodge
or the like, but that they felt that neither the Y.M.C.A. or the
Knights of Columbus
nor the Jewish Welfare Society adequately covered the field and that so
the present order continues, it will be difficult, if not impossible,
whole-hearted enlistment, in the work to be done, on the part of those
fraternal organizations which are now barred from privileges such as
the Y.M.C.A. and the Knights of Columbus; that what is demanded is that
all be treated
alike and all be subordinated to the exigencies of necessary discipline
of the camps;
that they were perfectly willing to work outside of the camps and were
but that they thought they should have a "look-in" on the inside as
as those now particularly favored; that the motive and desire of every
to be of service to the country. It seemed to be a consensus of opinion
lodge work of any kind should be permitted in the camps or any other
which would interfere with discipline or arouse controversy among the
men in the
camps or those outside of the camps who might be interested. The
Secretary was again
told that there had been much dissatisfaction because of the order that
except the Y.M.C.A. and the Knights of Columbus would be allowed inside
but the Secretary was assured that if he would outline a plan which
would meet with
the approbation of the representatives there assembled, they would put
A vote was then taken expressing the sentiment
present that it would be unwise to have buildings erected in the camps
meetings of lodges of fraternal organizations, for conferring degrees,
The Secretary then said: Every society or order
desires to erect a building for social use in a camp is free to apply
to the commanding
officer and he is free to grant permission if the land is available but
it is understood
that they must, of course, take and abide by the judgment of the
as to that and that the Secretary of War would be available for
any injustice which might arise or be thought to have arisen so far as
on the part of the Secretary would not be an overruling of the
discretion of the
The Secretary stated that the Government cannot
to erect buildings for common use of organizations.
The Secretary here called Mr. Raymond B.
the chair and retired for consultation with Mr. Thomas A. Edison. A
was the entrance of Mr. Edison into the room where he was greeted with
and then retired.
Mr. Fosdick took the chair and the discussion
Various attempts were made to frame a
would meet the voice of those present and finally a motion was adopted
chair appoint a committee of seven from this meeting to draft a set of
concerning the participation of fraternal organizations in social work
endeavor in the various camps and cantonments; that this committee
report to the
conference at 9 A.M. tomorrow, the 30th of October, in the War
the resolution so drafted by the committee may be considered by the
adoption and that the conference meet with the Secretary of War at 10
A. M. for
presentation of the action of the conference on these resolutions. The
George Fleming Moore, Sovereign Grand Commander, S. R. S. J., Chairman.
Goudy, Grand Sire, Odd Fellows. John J. Brown, Supreme Chancellor, K.
Sheppard, Banker, W. O. W. Dr. J. G. Pace, M. W. A. Col. P. H.
of Columbus. Adolf Kraus, President, B'nai B'rith.
The discussion was participated in by Messrs.
Brown, Smith, Moore, Pace, Sheppard, Goudy, Kraus, Hollander, Callahan
Tuesday, October 30, 1917, 9 A.M.
The conference of representatives of fraternal
on training camp activities of the United States army reassembled in
the War Department
at this office for the purpose of hearing and acting on report of the
appointed on the 29th instant by a meeting of these representatives to
expressive of its desire in this behalf.
Present: E. W. Bradford, John J. Brown, Joseph
P. H. Callahan, George E. Corson, Raymond B. Fosdick, Frank C. Goudy,
Dr. J. G. Pace, W. W. Mansfield, Joseph McLaughlin, George F. Moore, W.
Morris Sheppard, Rev. Hugh T. Stevenson, E. St. Clair Thompson.
The meeting was called to order by Judge George
E. St. Clair Thompson acting as Secretary.
The resolutions as prepared by the committee
by the Chairman of the Committee, Judge George F. Moore. Upon
after general discussion the resolutions were perfected and unanimously
Your Committee appointed to consider and report
conclusions, suggest the adoption of the following Resolution:
Resolved, That we earnestly thank the Secretary
for his clear, frank and able statement of the reasons on which the
of the War Department was based, relating to the erection of buildings
camps and cantonments of the armies of the United States: we thank him
for the patient
and courteous hearing which he has accorded us and we especially thank
him for his
wise, patriotic and timely announcement that hereafter all the camps
of the armies will be open for the erection, occupation or use of
them or for other desirable activities in such camps and cantonments by
benevolent or similar society of recognized and well established
members in such camps or cantonments, which shall have first obtained
from the General of the Army or other officer commanding the particular
cantonment, under rules prescribed by the Secretary of War, and that
after the erection
or arrangement for use of a building or buildings within the camps and
or the beginning of desirable activities therein by such fraternities
of fraternities, all of them would be accorded equal facilities and
doing social, fraternal and benevolent work and service.
Resolved further, That since it is necessary to
the means to erect or arrange for use of buildings and carry on the
work which these
orders desire to undertake and to determine the modes in which our
be rendered effective to secure the voluntary support of the orders
which we directly
represent, as well as the constituent and associated Bodies, we request
be given each order to formulate and report to the War Department the
details of the work or service in which each society or combination of
desires to engage.
Resolved further, That it is the opinion of
that no order or society should be permitted to confer degrees or
engage in any
of its secret work within the camps or cantonments.
Resolved further, That we pledge to the
War and our Government our best efforts to help and assist in the work
of securing and maintaining the comfort, entertainment and well-being,
well as physical, of our soldiers without the camps and cantonments, as
within them. (Signed) George F. Moore, Chairman. Morris Sheppard. John
J. G. Pace. Frank C. Goudy. P. H. Callahazl. Adolf Kraus.
During the discussion of the resolutions it
that fraternal societies represented in this Conference but not
included in the
previous order of the War Department have already taken steps and have
large sums of money for the erection and equipment on the outside of
camps and cantonments
of gymnasiums, clubs and other means of caring for the needs, comfort
of soldiers in camps and cantonments in various parts of the country,
mention being made of Camp Devon, Mass., Battle Creek, Mich., Yaphank,
N. Y., Des
At this point Mr. Fosdick was requested to
advise the Secretary of War that the meeting was ready to present
The Secretary of War entered the meeting and
the chair. The resolutions as adopted by the meeting were presented by
as the unanimous voice of those assembled.
THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
Except as to the first three paragraphs which
the Secretary of War, the resolution seems most happily conceived. This
as I understand it, that the several societies here represented, or
with such affiliated
bodies as are in their judgment more or less cognate, will work out
to their own theory as to how they can best be satisfied and those
plans will come
to me and my end of it is to draw orders to make those plans effective
limits of possibility and opportunity. It is understood that all this
to be along helpful, social and fraternal lines making for clean lives,
and effective service to the Government and that in carrying on these
lines of activities
no secret work of any organization is to be conducted inside of the
camps or cantonments
and that is not desired.
Second: To the extent of available ground at
authority is to be given, in the discretion of the commanding officer,
for the erection
of any building or buildings of any fraternal society or group of
Third: To the extent that there exist available
in a camp or cantonment the commanding officer is to lend his
assistance in securing
their use for social and fellowship purposes of these societies.
Attention was called to the fact that much work
already been done by these societies on the outside of camps and that
it was desired
that duly accredited representatives of these societies having members
camps should be accorded the privilege of going into the camps and
greeting the boys and inviting them to places of provision for then
camps. This was assented to by the Secretary of War who stated that
this would be
a matter of detail within the discretion of the commanding officer.
The meeting adjourned with the understanding
Secretary of War would be furnished a complete copy of the Minutes of
including the Resolutions adopted at this session; that the Secretary
of War would
issue orders in conformity with the determination had at this
Conference and that
the various representatives in the Conference would be furnished copies
Rosicrucians and Freemasons
By Bro. John G. Keplinger,
THERE is, perhaps, no more interesting theory
origin of Freemasonry than that given by DeQuincey, in his essay on
and Freemasons." [Lib 1886] This account
is an expansion of a Latin dissertation prepared by Prof. J. G. Buhle,
in a great German university and read by him before the Gottingen
Society in the year 1803.
In this paper Prof. Buhle endeavors to do two
First ‒ to show that the Rosicrucian cult was the miscarriage of a
society by means of which a young Lutheran theologian hoped to correct
evils of his time, and ‒
Second ‒ that Freemasonry was an outgrowth of
I will briefly review the essay and leave it for you to decide whether
or not DeQuincey
and the professor establish their case.
Towards the close of the sixteenth century the
of Germany were said to be enormous and the necessity for some great
universally admitted. That the desire to institute such a reform was in
of at least one writer of the period is evident from three books of
he produced and published in or about the year 1610.
The first of these books is worthy of notice
it serves as an introduction to the others. This book, entitled
Reformation of the Whole Wide World," [Lib*] is a tale of no
wit and humor. According to it the Seven Wise Men of Greece, together
with M. Cato
and Seneca, were summoned to Delphi by Apollo to deliberate on the best
way of redressing
All sorts of strange schemes were proposed by
wise men. Thales advised that a hole be cut in every man's breast, and
window placed in it so that vice and hypocrisy in the heart could be
extinguished. Solon proposed an equal partition of all possessions and
thought the best way to the end in view was to banish from the world
those two infamous
and rascally metals ‒ gold and silver.
Kleobulus came forward as the apologist
of gold and silver. He thought that if the use of iron was prohibited
be discontinued among men. Pittacus insisted on the passing of more
which would make virtue and merit the sole passports to honor.
to the suggestion of Pittacus because he thought there never had been a
of such laws, nor of princes to execute them, but scarcity enough of
to good laws.
Bias thought that the nations should be kept
To confine each to its own territory he advocated that bridges be
rendered insurmountable and navigation totally forbidden.
Cato, said to be the wisest of the party,
God, in his mercy, would wash all women from the earth by another
deluge and at
the same time introduce a new arrangement for the continuance of the
sex without female help.
The whole assembly, however, deemed this
abominable that they unanimously prostrated themselves on the ground
God that he would graciously vouchsafe to preserve the lovely race of
save the world from a second deluge.
After a long debate the counsel of Seneca
His proposal was "that out of all ranks a society should be composed
would have for its object the general welfare of mankind and that this
be pursued in secret."
In the second book the writer took advantage of
fact that Cabbalism, Theosophy and Alchemy had overspread the whole of
and hinged his plot on the tenets of these cults. The title of this
book was "Fama
Fraternitatis of the meritorius order of the Rosy Cross, addressed to
in general, and the governors of Europe." [Lib 1614] Its object was to correct the
evils of the time by
giving an account of a society such as Seneca proposed as if it were
By the publication of this book the author hoped to draw about him a
body of enlightened
and forward looking men who would co-operate with him in his plans to
moral order of mankind.
According to this book, Christian Rosycross, a
noble descent, and living two centuries before this time, had traveled
in the East and Africa. There he had learned great mysteries from the
Chaldeans. Upon his return to Germany he founded a secret society whose
were in a building called the House of The Holy Ghost.
This building was erected by Rosycross but its
was a mystery to all but members of the order. Here, under a vow of
communicated his mysteries to his followers and then sent them forth
into the world.
Their mission can be gathered from a few rules
order: The members were to cure the sick without fee or reward. None
was to wear
a peculiar habit but was to dress after the fashion of the country in
which he lived
or traveled. On a certain day in every year all the brethren were to
the House of The Holy Ghost or to account for their absence. The word
was to be their seal, watchword and characteristic mark. The
association was to
be kept unrevealed for a hundred years. To perpetuate it during this
time each member,
at his death, was to select some individual with proper qualifications
to be his
successor in the order.
Christian Rosycross died at the age of one
six years and, while his death was known to the society, the location
of his grave
was unknown to the members. One hundred and twenty years after the
death of Rosycross
the brethren discovered a secret door in the House of The Holy Ghost
was this inscription: "One hundred and twenty years hence I shall
Opening the door they found it to be the entrance to a sepulchral vault
illuminated by an artificial sun. This vault was in the shape of a
every side was five feet broad and eight feet high. In the center was a
altar on which was an engraved brass plate with this inscription: "This
an abstract of the whole world, I made for myself while yet living."
the margin of the plate an inscription read, "To me Jesus is all in
In the center of the altar were four figures enclosed in a circle by
legend: "The empty yoke of the law is made void. The liberty of the
The unsullied glory of God."
Having observed these things with wonder the
next discovered that each of the seven sides of the vault had a door
a chest. In this chest they found secret books of the order and, chief
the Vocabularium of Paracelsus. In addition they found an assortment of
lamps, little bells and marvelous musical mechanisms, all so arranged
after the lapse of many centuries the whole order could be
re-established even though
all the members had perished.
Under the altar the brethren found the body of
It was without taint or corruption. In the right hand he held a vellum
with letters of gold. This book the brethren called T, and after the
Bible it became
the most precious jewel of the society. In two separate circles near
the end of
the book were found the names of the eight initiates who had been the
followers of Rosycross. Then follows a declaration of the principles of
which was addressed to the society of the whole world. According to
the followers of Rosycross professed to be of the Protestant faith ‒
that they honored
the emperor and observed the laws of the empire ‒ and that the art of
was but a slight object with them. The whole declaration ended with
"Our House of The Holy Ghost, though a hundred thousand men should have
upon it, is yet destined to remain untouched, imperturbable, out of
sight and unrevealed
to the godless world forever."
The third book appeared in Latin and contained
explanations upon the object and spirit of the order of Rosycross. It
that the order had different degrees; that not only princes, men of
rank, rich men
and learned men, but also mean and inconsiderable persons were admitted
to its communion
provided they had pure and disinterested motives and were able and
willing to exert
themselves for the ends of the institution. It was claimed that the
order had a
peculiar language; that it possessed more gold and silver than the
whole world but
that it was not this but rather true philosophy which was the object of
Who was the author of these books?
Although there has been considerable discussion
and con on this subject, both DeQuincey and Prof. Buhle maintain that
he was none
other than John Valentine Andrea, a celebrated theologian of
Wurttemberg and known
as a satirist and a poet. Andrea was born at Herrenberg in 1586. His
was the Chancellor Jacob Andrea who was celebrated for his services to
of Wurtemberg. Andrea's father was the Abbot of Königsbronn and from
him he received
an excellent education. Besides, Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, Italian
Andrea was well versed in mathematics, natural and civil history,
historical genealogy without in the least neglecting his professional
study of divinity.
Very early in life he seems to have had a deep
of the evils and abuses of his time ‒ not so much in the realm of
politics as in
the realms of philosophy, morals and religion. These, we learn from
found among his papers, he sought to correct by means of societies
acting in secret.
DeQuincey made a close review of his life and
of Andrea and as a result of it writes: "I am not only satisfied that
wrote the three works which laid the foundation of Rosicrucianism, but
see why he wrote them." This he ascribes to the great evils existing in
and to Andrea's overwhelming desire to redress them.
As a young man without experience Andrea
this would be easy of accomplishment. Had he not the example of Luther
and was not a similar effort necessary in the existing generation? It
was to the
mind of Andrea and to organize these efforts and direct them to the
he projected a society composed of the noble, the intellectual, the
and the learned ‒ which he hoped to see moving as under the influence
of one soul
towards the end he had in view. Young as he was, Andrea knew that men
tempers and characters could be brought to co-operate steadily for an
purely disinterested as the elevation of human nature. In an age, then,
Cabbalism and Alchemy he knew the popular ear would be quickly caught
by an account,
issuing nobody knew whence, of a secret society which professed to be a
of Oriental mysteries and to have lasted two centuries. Many,
naturally, would seek
to connect themselves with such a society and from these he hoped he
select the members of the real society which he had in mind. The
the society as projected were indeed illusions; but, he hoped that
were detected as such by the proselytes, they would become connected
and be moulded to his nobler aspirations. On this view of Andrea's real
we understand his contradictory statements regarding astrology and the
From his satirical works we see that he looked
the follies of his age with a penetrating eye ‒ that he tolerated these
as an exoteric concession to the age in which he lived while he
condemned them in
his own esoteric character of a religious philosopher. Wishing to
he does not forbear to bait his scheme with these delusions; but in
doing so he
was careful to let us know that they were mere collateral pursuits with
‒ the direct and main one being true philosophy and religion.
That Andrea was the formulator of the foregoing
and the producer of the three books, DeQuincey conclusively proves to
the further fact that, "The armorial bearings of Andrea's family were a
Andrew's cross and four roses. By the order of Rosy Cross, Andrea
an order founded by himself."
DeQuincey, in a foot-note, refers to Bishop
translation of the third "boke of the Kynges," the eighth chapter, part
of section C and all of D, which I quote in full.
"And Kynge Salomon sent to fetch one Hiram of
a wedowes sonne, of the trybe of Nephtali, and his father had bene a
man of Tyre,
which was a connynge man in metall, full of wyszdome, vnderstondinge
to worke all manner of metall worke. When he came to Kynge Salomon, he
his worke, and made two brasen pilers, ether of them eightene cubites
hye; and a
threde of xij cubites was the measure aboute both of ye pilers; and he
knoppes of brasse molten, to set above vpon the pilers: and every
knoppe was fyve
cubytes hye; and on every knoppe above vpon ye pilers seue wrythen
ropes like cheynes.
And vpon every knoppe he made two rowes of pomgranates rounde aboute on
wherwith ye knoppe was covered. And the knoppes were like roses before
foure cubites greate. And the pomgranates in the rowes rounde aboute
were two hudreth
aboue and beneth vpon the rope, which wete rounde aboute the thickness
of the knoppe,
on euery knoppe vpon both the pilers. And set vp the pilers before the
the temple. And that which he set on the right hande, called he Iachin:
which he set on the lefte hande, called he Boos. And so stode it aboue
pilers euen like roses. Thus was the worke of ye pilers fynished."
A comparison of this translation with part of
Craft lecture should prove interesting.
The sensation which was produced throughout
by the works in question is not only evidenced by the repeated editions
which appeared between 1614 and 1617, but still more by the prodigious
which followed in the literary world. In the library at Gottingen there
is a collection
of letters written between these dates and addressed to the imaginary
order of Father
Rosycross by persons offering themselves as members. These letters are
complimentary expressions of the highest respect and are all printed ‒
alleging that, being unacquainted with the address of the society, they
send them through any other than the public channel.
Other literary persons forebore to write
the society but threw out small pamphlets containing their opinions of
and its place of residence. Each successive writer pretended to be
on that point than all his predecessors. Quarrels arose; partisans
started up on
all sides; the uproar and confusion became indescribable; cries of
heresy and atheism
resounded from every side; some were calling for the secular power; and
coyly the invisible society retreated from the public advances, so much
eager and amorous were its admirers ‒ and so much the more bloodthirsty
Meantime there were some who, from the
escaped the general delusion, and there were many who had gradually
it. It was also generally observed, that of the many printed letters to
none had been answered, and all attempts to penetrate the darkness in
order was shrouded by its unknown memorialist were successfully
a suspicion arose that some bad designs lurked under the ostensible
these mysterious publications. These suspicions were strengthened by
the many impostors
who arose and advertised themselves as Rosicrucians.
Upon the credit which they obtained by their
knowledge of Alchemy they cheated great numbers of their money and
others of their
health by panaceas. Three, in particular, made a great noise at
Wetzlar, at Nuremberg
and at Augsburg. All were punished by the magistracy, one lost his ears
the gantlet and one was hanged.
At this crisis a powerful writer came forward
the supposed order with much scorn and homely good sense. This man was
He exposed the impracticability of the meditated reformation, the
of the legend of Father Rosycross, and the hollowness of the pretended
they professed. These writings might have led to the suppression of the
books and pretensions; but this termination of the mania was defeated
by two circumstances:
The first was the conduct of the Paracelsists who, after vainly trying
into the order, proclaimed themselves the Rosicrucians. This distracted
and the uproar became greater than ever. The other circumstance was the
of Andrea and his friends.
It is clear that Andrea enjoyed the confusion
he became sensible that he had called up an apparition he could not
lay. Well knowing
that in all the great crowd of aspirants, who were clamorously knocking
into the airy college of Father Rosycross ‒ though one and all
pretended to be enamoured
of that – mystic wisdom he had promised, yet by far the majority were
of that gold he had hinted at ‒ it is evident that his satirical
violently tickled. He, therefore, kept up the hubbub of delusion by
a couple of pamphlets amongst the hungry crowd, which he thought
ten(led to amuse
But in a few years Andrea was shocked to find
further delusion had taken root in the public mind.
There were other writers, too, who wrote with a
design to countenance the notion of a pretended Rosicrucian society. Of
were four notables, namely: Julianas a Campis, Julius Sperber, Radlich
and most important of all ‒ Michael Maier. It was Maier who first
into England, where its effects were more lasting than in Germany. This
an extensive traveler and on his return to Germany became acquainted
with the fierce
controversy on the Rosicrucian sect. Unable to introduce himself into
he set himself to establish such an order by his own efforts and to do
a work in which DeQuincey claims to find the first traces of
Freemasonry. In the
same year Maier published another book written by Robert Fludd, a
in England. These books convinced Andrea that his romance had succeeded
in a way
which he had never designed. The public had accredited the
charlatanerie of his
books, but gave no welcome to that for the sake of which the
charlatanerie was adopted
as a vehicle. The alchemy had been approved, the moral and religious
And societies were forming even amongst the learned upon the basis of
all that was
false in the system to the exclusion of all that was true. This was a
which he could no longer view in the light of a joke. The folly was
serious and Andrea set himself to counteract it with all his powers.
For this purpose he published his Chemical
of Christian Rosycross. [Lib 1459] This was
a comic romance of extraordinary talent in which the Paracelsists were
with cap and bells. Unfortunately for the purpose of Andrea this
romance, too, was
swallowed by the public as a true and serious history. Upon this he
series of satirical dialogues in which he more openly unveiled his true
In this his efforts were seconded by those of his friends, especially
Agnostus and John Val. Alberti under the name of Menapius.
Soon after this a learned foreigner placed the
in a still more ludicrous light by showing that the first of the
(the Universal Reformation) was nothing more than a literal
translation, word for
word, of the Parnasso of Boccalini [Lib 1706]. As a result of this ridicule
and satire, no regular
lodge of Rosicrucians was ever believed to have been established in
DeQuincey claims to have traced Rosicrucianism from its birth in
Germany and then
undertakes to prove that it was transplanted to England where, in a
it has since flourished under the name of Freemasonry.
At the beginning of the seventeenth century
heads in England were occupied with Theosophy, Cabbalism and Alchemy.
was Robert Fludd. [Lib 1782 (German)] It was
he, no doubt, who in 1629 wrote "Summum Bonum" and must be considered
as the immediate father of Freemasonry as Andrea was its remote father.
It is not recorded how Fludd secured his first
with Rosicrucianism but it is probable that he acquired it from his
with whom he corresponded after the latter left England. At all events
he must have
been interested in Rosicrucianism at an early period for he published
for it in 1617.
The first question which naturally arises is
dropped the name of Rosicrucian. The reason in brief was this. His
apology for the
Rosicrucians was attacked by the celebrated Father Mersenne. To this
in two witty but coarse books entitled "Summum Bonum" and "Sophiae
cum Moria certamen." In answer to the question, "Where the Rosicrucians
resided," Fludd replied: "In the house of God, where Christ is the
stone." Then he explained the symbols of the Rose and the Cross in a
as meaning the cross sprinkled with the rosy blood of Christ.
Mersenne, being no match for Fludd, Gassendi,
published a rejoinder in which he analyzed and ridiculed Fludd's
principles in general
and in particular reproached him for his belief in the highly romantic
Fludd was hard pressed under his conscious
to assign their place of abode and in 1633, in his answer to Gassendi,
question by formally withdrawing the name Rosicrucian.
Here, then, we have the negative question
why and when they ceased to be called Rosicrucians. But now comes the
affirmative question ‒ why and when did they become known as
Freemasons? We have
seen how in 1633 the old name was abolished, but as yet no new name was
In default of such a name they were known under the general term of
wise men. This,
however, was too vague and the immediate hint for the name "Masons" was
derived from the legend contained in the Fama Fraternitatis, of the
House of The
"Where and what was that house?" This had
been a subject of much speculation in Germany; and many had been simple
understand the expression to mean a literal house and had inquired of
it up and
down the empire. Andrea, however, had made it impossible to understand
it in any
other than an allegorical sense by describing it as a building which
invisible to the godless world forever. This building, in fact,
purpose or object of the Rosicrucians. And what was that?
To know the secret wisdom, or, in their
‒ that is: first, Philosophy of nature or occult knowledge of the works
second, Theology, or the occult knowledge of God himself; third,
Religion, or God's
occult intercourse with the spirit of man, which they imagined to have
down from Adam through the Cabbalists to themselves. The Rosicrucians
between a carnal and a spiritual knowledge of this magic. The spiritual
was the business of Christianity and was symbolized by Christ himself
as a rock
and as a building of which he is the head and foundation. What rock and
"A spiritual rock, and a building of human
in which men are the stones and Christ the corner stone."
"But how shall stones move and arrange
into a building?"
"They must become living stones," says Fludd.
"But what is a living stone?"
"A living stone is a Mason who builds himself
into the wall as a part of the temple of human nature."
In these passages we see the rise of the
name of Masons. The society was, therefore, a Masonic society in order
typically that temple of the Holy Ghost which it was their business to
the spirit of man.
This temple was the abstract of the doctrine of
who was the Grand Master ‒ hence the light from the East, of which so
much is said
in Rosicrucian and Masonic books. St. John was the beloved disciple of
hence the solemn celebration of his festival.
Having, moreover, adopted the attributes of
as the figurative expression of their objects the Freemasons were led
more minutely to the legends and history of the building art. In these
found an occult analogy with their own relations to the Christian
The first great event in the art of Masonry was
building of the Tower of Babel. This figuratively expressed the attempt
unknown Mason to build the temple of the Holy Ghost in anticipation of
This attempt, however, had been confounded by the vanity of the
The building of King Solomon's Temple was the
great incident in the art and this had an obvious meaning as a
Hiram ‒ which name was understood by the elder
as an anagram: H.I.R.A.M., meant Homo Jesus Redemptor Animarum ‒ was
architect of this building to the real professors of the art of
building. To the
English Rosicrucians or Freemasons he was a type of Christ, and the
legend of the
Masons, which represented this Hiram as having been murdered by his
made the type still more striking.
The two pillars, Jachin and Boaz (strength and
also, which were among the memorable singularities of Solomon's temple,
had a symbolic
interest to the English Rosicrucians in the attributes, incidents and
the art exercised by the literal Masons and enabled them to realize the
of their own allegories. Then, too, the same building which
accommodated the gild
of builders in their professional meetings, offered a desirable means
the secret assemblies of the early Freemasons. An assortment of
implements and utensils
such as were presented in the fabulous sepulcher of Father Rosycross
were here actually
Accordingly it is upon record that the first
and solemn lodge of Freemasons on occasion of which the name of
Freemasons was first
publicly made known, was held in Mason's Hall, Mason's Alley,
in London in the year 1646. Into this lodge it was that Ashmole, the
was admitted, and Ashmole, from his writings, appears to have been a
DeQuincey then sums up the results of his
the origin and nature of Freemasonry, as follows:
First: The original
Freemasons were a society that arose out of the Rosicrucian mania,
the thirteen years from 1633 to 1646 and probably between 1633 and
1640. Their object
was magic in the cabbalistic sense ‒ that is ‒ the occult wisdom
the beginning of the world and matured in Christ; to communicate this
had it ‒ to search for it when they had it not; and both under an oath
Second: This object
of Freemasonry was represented under the form of Solomon's Temple ‒ as
a type of
the true church whose cornerstone was Christ.
This temple was to be built of men, or living
and the true method and art of building with men it is the province of
Hence it is that all the Masonic symbols either
to Solomon's Temple, or are figurative modes of expressing the ideas
of magic in the sense of the Rosicrucians and their mystical
predecessors in general.
Third: The Freemasons having once adopted
from the art of masonry, to which they were led by the language of
on to connect themselves in a certain degree with the order of
and adopted their distribution of members into apprentices, journeymen
Christ, to them, was the Grand Master who was put to death whilst
laying the foundation
of the temple of human nature.
If All the World Were Smiling – [A Poem]
all the world were
smiling, wouldn't everything be fine?
Wouldn't you and I just drop that frown and try to get in line?
Hate, envy, fear and trouble would have to go away,
Because if everyone were smiling, they simply couldn't stay.
The next time you walk down the street, just simply wear a smile,
For frowns are bad, they make you sad,
And smiles are good, they make you glad,
The only thing worthwhile.
Whenever you have a thing to do, do it with a smile,
For after all we're only here for just a little while.
And while we're here let's make the world just look at us and say:
"If everyone would work that way, wouldn't this old world be gay,
And everyone be satisfied, and trouble pass away?"
If all the world were smiling, and trying to be gay,
It would get to be a fashion, and a fashion that would stay.
When you whistle and smile trouble moves along,
For it simply can't remain where everything's a song.
So everything you have to do, just do it with a smile.
Just make this world a pleasure park, a place to live worthwhile..
Capitular Masonry in Shanghai
By Bro. Charles Sumner Lobingier,
A Memorable Convocation
of Keystone Chapter No. 1
PROBABLY the most unique situation existing
as regards Capitular Masonry, is found at Shanghai, China, where three
each of a distinct grand jurisdiction, differing not only in the ritual
but in the degrees worked, meet in the same building and labor side by
fraternal harmony. Zion Chapter, chartered by the Grand Chapter of
only the Royal Arch degree, the Mark being conferred, as in England, in
body which, in Shanghai, is Orient Mark Masters' Lodge. Rising Sun
the Grand Chapter of Scotland works the Mark, Most Excellent and Royal
while Keystone Chapter No. 1, organized in 1871 under the General Grand
of the United States (and still its farthest eastern ‒ or western ‒
the usual four degrees of American Capitular Masonry. Two lodges
chartered by the
Grand Lodge of Scotland, also meet in the same building and work the
in connection with the Fellow Craft which appears to have been the
original as it
is the normal arrangement.
The unusual opportunities thus presented for a
of the different forms of Capitular Masonry led the High Priest of this
plan a comparative exemplification at which different bodies, each
working the same
degree in its own way, should meet on the same night in the same hall.
The degree selected was the Mark which it was
to have worked on the evening of May 28, successively by Keystone
Lodge and Orient Mark Master's Lodge. Unfortunately the Master of the
body was absent for so long that the arrangement could not be perfected
The next meeting of Keystone Chapter fell,
on June 14 ‒ Flag Day ‒ and it was decided, in lieu of the former
project, to observe
the occasion by conferring the Royal Arch degree followed by a dinner
to which members
of other bodies would be invited. The High Priest, accompanied by
Springer of Luzon Chapter, Manila, visited Zion Chapter on the evening
of May 25
and extended the invitation there and special invitations were sent to
the presence of those who responded to these invitations other features
to make the occasion a memorable one. It was the last regular
autumn and as the High Priest was planning a trip to the States during
the meeting was, in a sense, a farewell to him. Moreover his
predecessor, Past High
Priest Darrah, had just returned from a similar visit and the occasion
a welcome home to him.
Commencing at 6 P.M. the R.’.A.’. degree was
on a team consisting of Bros. Thomas Sammons (American Consul General
G. J. Petrocelli and Thomas J. Broderick. The following officers, all
in full costume
and regalia, exemplifed the work:
Charles S. Lobingier, M.E.H.P.
John M. Darrah, as E.K.
W. C. Woodfleld, E. S.
George A. Derby, Secretary.
John Kavanaugh, C.H.
Wm. Whiting, P.S.
E. Lindquist, R.A.C.
Companions Swettenham Street and others as Masters of the Veils.
H. Schultze, Tyler.
The ceremonies were completed by 8 P. M. and
then repaired to the refectory where a substantial repast was served,
of which the High Priest presented to M.·.E.·. Companion Darrah, in
behalf of the
Chapter, a handsome Past High Priest's Jewel, at the time expressing
Chapter's fraternal regard for the recipient and the general
recognition of his
faithfulness, reliability and zeal.
Continuing, the High Priest said that there was
of his predecessors present who deserved special mention for his long
service to the Chapter. He recounted how, in September, 1904, when
enroute for the
first time to the Philippines, he, the present High Priest, had stopped
at Shanghai, called at the old Masonic building which occupied the site
of the present
more imposing structure, and, finding that the American Chapter was at
evening, proceeded to visit. There he met and was welcomed by M.·.E.·.
Derby, then, as now, Secretary of Keystone Chapter. The friendship then
continued ever since and, though he little dreamed then that he should
ever be a
member, and much less an officer, of the Chapter, the High Priest had
the occasion with pleasure, particularly as it was his first visit to a
outside of his home jurisdiction of Nebraska. M.·.E.·. Companion Derby
were the only ones present who were there on the previous occasion and
in view of
this among other evidences of the former's faithful attachment to the
cause of Capitular
Masonry in Shanghai he proposed the health of M.·.E.·. Companion Derby.
The latter responded feelingly stating that, in
twenty years of residence in Shanghai, he had never missed a meeting of
when in town and that he cared more for Capitular than for any other
form of York
The High Priest next proposed a toast to the
called for a response from Companion Sammons who, he said, was reputed
to be a hard
worker but had never so much resembled a workingman as he had that
evening and who,
though endowed with the grace of humility in a reasonable degree, had
so humbled himself before.
Companion Sammons expressed himself as greatly
by the work he had just witnessed. He liked the term "Companion,"
the good fellowship of the occasion and hoped to be able to attend the
in the future.
The High Priest then remarked that, among the
Companions present was one who had taken an active part in the
formation of the
Grand Chapter of Western Australia and he felt sure that all would like
first-hand something of that interesting process. He, therefore,
proposed a toast
to said Grand Chapter and called upon M.·.E.·. Comp. H. B. Joseph to
The Companion referred to, who is a barrister
proved to be a most interesting speaker. He told how the Chapters in
were once divided between those of Scotland and those of England and
the achievement of Australian unity in 1901 the idea of home grand
bodies took form
and was finally realized in that State by the formation of the Grand
Western Australia. Of this body the speaker was the first Grand
Secretary and one
of the most interesting features of his work as such was the receipt
of Proceedings of other Grand Chapters especially those of America
which were prepared
with such great care and elaborateness of detail.
Companion Charles Kliene who, though a Danish
appeared to have received most of his Masonry in Scotland, was called
upon for some
remarks and told how he had entered the Craft just twenty years ago and
one of the group known as "Jubilee Masons" being those who joined in
year of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. The speaker mentioned various
organizations which he had joined, including the Glasgow Conclave of
of the Red Cross of Constantine. He hoped that the High Priest, as
in the Far East would someday grant a dispensation for a Conclave in
of the Compass and Square
By Bro. Denman S. Wagstaff,
IN European countries there is a fashion
universally, of having a Sign upon a business place, nearly always
in its symbolic meaning to the character of the trade carried on
within. For example
‒ an Ale House in old England is called "the Hen and Chickens," another
"The Gray Goose," another "The White Horse," etc. There are
many curious signs displayed, which in our day, mean something quite
of the apparent ancient understanding of titles. This would be the
the casual observer. Yet these signs did have some reason for
existence. They told
a story, often forgotten, in the turning of this old world upon its
axis; yet today
they simply stand as evidence of the "peculiarities" of a past
There is one Sign, however, which has never changed its meaning and
anywhere in the civilized world ‒ The Compass and The Square. A sign of
of the Body and Soul. A Sign, that though the World may change its
garb, from spring
and summer to winter endlessly, yet still will live to mark the
civilization shall leave along the roads of progress. This Compass and
may find it above a door, even in the very Catholic city of Quebec, in
narrow passageway, next to the well-known "Military Club." One may not
see it from the street, yet it is there for the Mason to feast his eyes
the profane chance to see it, they may look upon it as the equivalent
Chat Noir" on lower Government Street. It stands, however, for the same
it stood for hundreds of years ago. The characters of its keepers are
the same sign of endeavor the world has always known Masons by; and the
of purpose guides their march from East to West and back again toward
that rises out of the bed of the Sun. In all countries and under all
it stands for the same gospel. It has never failed to fulfill its
purpose in a greater
measure, than any SIGN man ever put upon an edifice of his own raising.
I saw a
Compass and Square upon a barren wall in an abandoned mining camp in
day in the 70's. The place had been known as South Pass City. It had
been the home
of Wyoming Lodge No. 2. I learned afterward that dispensation was given
it to move
to Landers, when the "Camp" "petered." I learned this from Brother
John Ramsay who was a member there. Where he may be now I would like to
to say, as he was to my knowledge a good man and fit to be a Mason.
As I entered the deserted sanctuary, with its
dusty floor the memories of a life time of years almost crowded one by
me. I realized that there in that vacant place, a Masonic Lodge had
Not a soul remained to tell me the story. There upon the wall, in all
grandeur of its stately living loneliness, The Sign looked down upon
me, with the
great eyes of a world's righteousness. It meant what it said to me.
Where were its
guardians? They had left it alone upon the sands of time. Thus I
thought on for
a minute or two. Then as I raised my broad brimmed hat before its
majesty, I realized
that it needed no guardian but myself ‒ it needed no guardian but each
as he might come this way to look up at it and silently pray to the
who had willed that man should place it there. It was indeed not alone.
It was a
Universe by itself and of itself, surrounded by the pledges of the
souls of men
and guarded by the Spirit of The Great Creator.
Afterward, as I came to know that the Lodge
and prospered, I realized that the knowledge detracted not a whit from
its sign upon the wall had lent to me. It had fulfilled its mission, as
far as one
soul was concerned; and just for me at least, it had been left upon
that wall, that
I might treasure in my heart the pass word its symbolism portrayed. The
meant just what it said.
Now let those of us who go about with a Compass
Square upon our coats, be worthy of the sign, that we may bear out the
traditions of its significance. Let us have the inward strength and
power it outwardly
points to. The strength and power to square our actions by the square
and so to circumscribe our lives, that within the circle there may be
sublime secret of Life.
The time is never lost that is devoted to work.
Youth looks forward and age backward.
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
PERHAPS I owe an apology to the readers of THE
in that I may seem to have been remiss in making my usual reports as
But that is only seeming. If I have fallen behind with my reports, it
I have been too busy, and too much on the wing, to write them.
Returning to America,
I spent all the time and power I had in trying to tell my countrymen
what the war
is like after my trip along the British Front and to Paris. Now that I
am back in
London, I shall take up the thread of my reports and keep THE BUILDER
in touch with
things Masonic and otherwise on this side of the great waters.
No mention has been made in America, so far as
aware, of the new Lodge consecrated in May last, composed of Grand
Secretaries of Lodges ‒ called the Fratres Calami Lodge, No. 3791. As
the name indicates,
it is a Fraternity of the Pen, the object of which is really to promote
research and information. They are issuing a journal, three numbers of
appeared, known as the Masonic Secretaries' Journal, and it promises to
be of unusual
interest and value. The second issue is before me, and it contains,
things, a very gracious review of my little book, "The Builders," by
Secretary. An article on "The Future of Freemasonry," by Brother Dudley
Wright, is of special interest to American Masons, because he thinks
that the new
undertakings of the Craft should be in the way of Social Service ‒ as
is more and
more the tendency among American Masons. Indeed, he says that America
led the way in this regard, and that in his opinion it is the next step
This Lodge of Secretaries recalls another very
of London, the Fraternity of the Scriveners ‒ or Mystery of the Writers
‒ of the
Court Letter of the City of London. It has been in existence "time out
or to be exact since 1374, and it played an important part in the City
Scrivener discharged many of the duties which now devolve upon lawyers;
charters and deeds concerning land, tenements, and inheritances, and
all other writings
which, by the custom of the realm, required to be sealed. The Company
had an ancient book called the "Common Paper," which contains much
information. It is of the nature of a minute book, in which we may read
of a Scrivener, recorded in a set of ordinances drawn up in 1390 ‒ the
date of the
oldest document of Freemasonry now in existence ‒ as follows:
"I, N......., of my own proper will, do swear
the holy evangelist to be true to my office and mystery and to do by
that all the feats that I shall make to be sealed shall be well and
after my learning and cunning.”
Like the Masons, they had their feast days and
and there is a curious entry on the Common Paper under the year 1497.
It was felt
that many of the apprentices had not "their proper congruity of grammar
is the thing most necessary and expedient to every person exercising
and faculty of the mystery. So it was ordered that apprentices should
by the wardens, and if found deficient, sent to the grammar school
until they "be
erudite in the boks of gender, declensions, preterits and supines,
equivox and sinonimes."
Truly, those old scribes had to be very learned.
Such a Lodge, editing such a Journal, should
great and far-reaching influence on the Craft, stimulating the study of
as the practice of its virtues. I am sure that thousands of secretaries
will wish to come in touch with this new Lodge of Writers, whose
Secretary is Brother
I. Cohen, 22 St. George's Square, London, S.W.1, England. I bespeak for
Calami long life, great prosperity, and the wide influence which it
My readers, especially the ministers among
be glad to know that my predecessor at the City Temple, Rev. R. J.
recently become a member of the Craft, largely through the influence of
of Birmingham, who is Grand Chaplain of the Grand Lodge of England. I
find, to my
amazement, a certain indifference ‒ and occasionally, hostility ‒ to
Craft among men of the Free Churches. Of late, however, Lodges have
among Free Churchmen, and this will do much to melt such a prejudge
away. I think
I can do something to that end myself, and I have in mind a great
in the City Temple in the not distant future ‒ of which more anon.
City Temple, London.
"The Seven Fold Compass
SYMPATHY is the needle of the heart and should
point to the good.
CONVICTION is the needle of the intellect and
always point to the truth.
VOLITION is the needle of the will and should
point to the useful.
ADMIRATION is the needle of the imagination and
always point to the beautiful.
OBLIGATION is the needle of the conscience and
always point to the right.
ASPIRATION is the needle of the soul and should
point to the free.
DEVOTION is the needle of the personality and
always point to God.
Rev. Bro. William
HE would be a bold man and Mason, who would
to give expression to all of the cross currents which are coursing
through the veins
of Masonry these days. Each of the extreme types of mind is having its
War is viewed through as many different pairs of spectacles as there
are pairs of
Masonic eyes, and the angles of the conflict twist this way and that
way in an endless
variety of pictures. With our good American (and good Masonic, too)
habit of being
sure that we are absolutely right, we agree on this point and disagree
the discussion's length being limited only by the lack of sleep. It
would be distinctly
pleasant if all could be right in their opinion of what Masonry's Duty
now. Then we could all make a New Year Resolution, and everybody would
Let us "try on" a few of these various pairs
of spectacles. The first one that comes to hand is the property of one
"I move that a Committee of three be appointed, with power to act"
He's a busy sort of chap. He wants to see all the good things in the
and done quickly. He knows just who could do the job, and he is sure
that the right
Committee could carry the whole thing through. Probably he has thought
duty in this War, only as a matter for his Lodge, or at moat, his Grand
should be a fund collected, and a Committee appointed to disburse it.
He's no grafter,
he doesn't want to be appointed on the Committee because he wants to
out of it at all, he just naturally believes in Committees. Personally,
he is too busy to do anything about it. Contribute? Oh, yes, gladly.
To him the War is a thing apart, an ugly Thing,
a Committee to deal with Masonry's part in it would be exactly the
right thing to
counteract its influence.
Then here is the good brother whose spectacles
a Lodge donation almost the parting with some of his own personal
bought $500.00 worth of Liberty Bonds last night" and "we" are taking
a lot of satisfaction in it.
Take up another pair and all you can see is Red
Masonry should help.
The next pair shows Red Triangles. Masonry
This pair was worn by a Brother who went "over
the top" in the recent Y.M.C.A. campaign. He was full of enthusiasm,
20 or 40 per cent excess that his Committee got spells SUCCESS in
We should do likewise, says he.
Here is a dark pair. For the wearer they
the actinic rays of the sun. To him, however, the glory is all gone.
He's not exactly
a pacifist, but no good can possibly come out of it all, and Masonry
has no rightful
part in it, anyway. For Masonry is an Institution of Peace, for Peace,
by Peace. In war it is out of place. And since the war has involved all
Masonry's title to a "place in the sun" as a constructive Human
is very small ‒ almost eliminated.
The Brother who wore these saw clearly that
should put its club houses into the Cantonments, and minister to the
needs of the
good Brethren of the Army.
And right beside them is another pair which
plan look absolutely impractical. Donations to the established agencies
by the Government would fulfill every obligation, without imposing any
burden as any other plan would involve.
* * *
Not a word of the above is written with any
of malice. Every single one of these ideas has been voiced, thousands
of times, in these United States, and yet not a single constructive,
plan of unified ACTION has been advanced to our knowledge. It is a
fact that if we look through all of those spectacles at once, there wil
ahead of us except a blur. And yet every one of these Brothers is
and really and truly wants to see Masonry assert itself in this War,
lines, which shall be of real value to the Brethren who are offering up
upon the Altar of their Country, and at the same time convince the
world that Masonry
has the strength and power to meet even a world-wide WAR in a dignified
and efficient manner.
* * *
Can we not analyze this dilemma, and make it
clearer? Let us endeavor to state a few self-evident facts that are
and then see if the logic of events will not bring us to a real basis
action, along lines that shall not depart from the traditional
conservatism of the
Fraternity, and yet give us a guide for real work.
What Is Masonry? For the sake of cool judgment
take the definition given to us in the German Handbuch: "Masonry is the
of closely unites men who, employing symbolical forms borrowed
the mason's trade and from architecture work for the welfare of
morally to ennoble themselves and others, and thereby to bring about a
league of mankind, which they aspire to exhibit even now on a small
This definition may not be acceptable to many, either in form or
because it contains that clause "work for the welfare of mankind" it
do for the present discussion.
Is This War Masonry's War? Can our answer be
but "YES"? Is Prussian Autocracy working for the welfare of mankind?
Kultur strive morally to ennoble its votaries and others? Surely
about a league of mankind" does not mean that we must all be subjects
autocratic Kaiser! The Brotherhood of Man ‒ an Anglo-Saxon phrase as we
it ‒ has been tabooed and called weak and unmanly by Prussianism. And
in these days
when the military idea has crowded all else off the highways of
Germany, the heel
of that Despotism has ground down the head of Freemasonry wherever
War it is, my Brethren, by every token of Fellowship and Fraternity and
which we have been taught to hold sacred.
How Does Masonry "Work for the Welfare of
"Through the individual" would be the time-tried answer. By instilling
into him, through the medium of an oft-repeated ritual, the principles
our whole conception of human development is based. By illustrating
which teach these truths, by explaining its symbols, each calculated to
upon the mind a vital measure of conduct, or an inspiration for
or a recognition of and an obedience to the God that is within us.
What Has Masonry Ever Done in War Time? Spread
around the civilized globe. Installed itself in the hearts and lives of
through army Lodges, travelling under warrants issued by what we call
Grand Lodges." Ministered to soidiers wounded in battle; given decent
to those who fought and died that Freedom and Democracy might live;
bridges between the lines of opposing forces that humanity might for
have its way; mitigated the horrors and prevented the worst atrocities
of war; insured
fair trial to those who were court-martialed; kept soldiers and sailors
giving them clean associations and the indescribable delights of calm,
"work," when otherwise idle moments would have been less profitably
* * *
There is but one more obvious question. "WHAT
TO PREVENT MASONRY FROM DOING THE THINGS THAT NEED TO BE DONE, NOW?"
And there is an answer equally obvious,
All that Masonry in the United States has to do
forget that it is composed of 49 Grand Lodges, a General Grand Chapter,
Grand Council, a General Grand Encampment, a Northern Jurisdiction of
and Accepted Scottish Rite, a Southern Jurisdiction of the Ancient and
Scottish Rite, an Ancient, Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, a
whatnot, and show itself TO BE ONE great, big, grand old MASONIC
INSTITUTION, composed of nearly 2,000,000 MEN, AMERICANS, BIG ‒
HEARTED, RED ‒ BLOODED,
without distention, without jealousy, without self-seeking motives,
ready to work
and to sacrifice, looking not for Glory but for an OPPORTUNITY OF
SERVICE, and willing,
for once, to stand up and be counted AS A WHOLE!
"UNITED WE STAND, DIVIDED WE FALL!" is as
true now, as it ever was!
With some strong, centralized organization, a
Council of Defense" if you please, composed of the men in American
who know how to do things and to take advice before treading paths they
do not know,
backed by the 1,800,000 Masons of these United States and the
$5,000,000.00 or the
$10,000,000.00 which these men would be glad to give in such a Cause,
do anything that She willed to do. She could build Masonic Club Houses
and Cities nearby. She could tie soldier to soldier as of old whether
gold insignia decorated shoulder straps or not. She could be a GREAT
Brethren, and carry her gentle, human influence whither she would. She
her children in France or in Italy or even in Russia betimes, ready to
add her "bit"
to the welfare of her votaries wherever dispersed, in a way that would
wherever the Stars and Stripes may fly.
"SO LET IT BE DONE. TOGETHER, BRETHREN!" G.L.S.
Conserve ‒ But Where?
The things we need we pay for whether we buy
not. Economy must be practiced in times like these ‒ but where shall we
We need an adding machine in our business but
buying it "on account of the war." Have we saved anything? No. The
hours of labor required and the inefficiency experienced because of not
machine we need exceeded in best the purchase price of the machine.
BUSINESS ‒ Shall we cease to develop our
of the war? No. Not if we are patriotic business men.
CHURCH ‒ Shall we stop our subscription to the
on account of the war? No. Not if we value the necessity of the
CHARITY ‒ Shall we withdraw our support from
Orphanages and other deserving charities on account of the war? No. Not
if we love
humanity more than dollars. Y.M.C.A. ‒ Shall we refuse to support the
on account of the war? No. Because the moral and physical development
of this and
the coming generations are the most valuable assets a nation can
NATIONAL DEFENSE ‒ Shall we refuse to subscribe
Red Cross, Liberty Bonds, and other means of national support on
account of the
war? No. Not if we are worthy the name "American Citizen."
LODGE ‒ Shall we dimit from all our Masonic
on account of the war? No. Unless our spirit of fraternalism is and has
been a deception
and for selfish gain only.
BUILDER ‒ Shall we stop indulging in many of
pleasures and support the National Masonic Research Society? YES.
Because the development
of the fraternal spirit is so closely related to the development of the
Spirit that they must BOTH be enthusiastically disseminated.
DECISION ‒ This economic necessity must not
with those fundamental activities which develop a nation to its highest
Neither our Business, our Church, our Charity,
A. support, our National Spirit nor our Fraternal Spirit can he
effected by the
economic effort without serious loss to our nation.
DON'T PUT MASONRY IN THE DISCARD ‒ but notify
return mail that you are full of the spirit "Don't give up the ship."
For the things we need we pay for whether we buy them or not.
Edited By Bro. H.L. Haywood
(The object of this Department is to
readers with time-tried Masonic books not always familiar; wnth the
literature now being published; and with such non-Masonic books as may
appeal to Masons. The Library editor will be very glad to render any
to studious individuals or to study clubs and lodges, either through
or by personal correspondence; if you wish to learn something
concerning any book
‒ what is its nature, what is its value or how it may be obtained ‒ be
free to ask
him. If you have read a book which you think is worth a review write us
if you desire to purchase a book ‒ any book ‒ we will help you get it,
with no charge
for the service. Make this your Department of Literary Consultation.)
Masonry in South Australia
TO a Masonic student living amid the prairies
Middle West of the United States it seems good to read a "History of
in South Australia," for it serves to make more vivid, if that were
his sense of the universality and the solidarity of the Order. Brother
Glover, P.D.G.M., the author of this "History of the First Fifty Years
in South Australia," [Lib*] modestly states in his brief Introduction
he does not "pretend that this work will add materially to the
Masonic History; it must be regarded as a compilation of the records of
Lodges in this State." This disclaimer to the contrary notwithstanding,
volume does add very materially to the "literature of Masonic History"
for it acquaints us as few histories can with the story of a heroic
band of Brothers
who established Masonry in a State even before its official
that Masonic writers of the early 18th Century had taken it into their
preserve, as is here done, the early records of Masonic activity! How
speculation it would have saved us who come after! For history, Masonic
must first begin as a "compilation of records" (so is it that Brother
Glover describes his volume) else all that is written thereafter be
Brother Eustace B. Grundy, G.M., contributes a
to the book written in simple and unaffected but effective style. This
by the author's own "concise history" of the State of South Australia
itself, the better to set his narrative in the framework of the past.
follow the "records" themselves, Lodge minutes, dedication ceremonies,
speeches, and what not, furnishing us with the essential data of the
the Craft down to 1884. A second volume, to bring the story down to
date, is also
promised. Seeing that there are now more than 6,000 members in the
State, the second,
as well as the first, of the volumes will attract attention in lands
Freemasonry was first established in
1803, seventy-five years after it had set foot in the United States.
But the first
Lodge established "under a regular warrant" from the Grand Lodge of
was a military body which began its work in 1816. Four years afterwards
Lodge was erected. The first Lodge to be established in South Australia
in London October 22, 1834, just two years, strange to say, before the
formally opened. Naturally, these first organizations operated under
England, albeit some were established under Irish Constitutions. But
decade between 1844 and 1854 the fraternity had grown to such
dimensions that a
Provincial Grand Lodge was established.
This bare hint cannot even suggest the full
of the story, the heroism, the self-sacrifices, the overcoming of
obstacles, through which our brethren of that remote continent toiled
consummation of their Masonic endeavors. May the Grand Architect of
them on their future way!
Brother Glover has informed us that a limited
of copies are yet to be had; the half morocco selling at $4.00 and the
$3.50. Any orders sent to the headquarters of this Society will be
to South Australia.
* * *
Religion and Experience
Freemasonry is not a religion but it is
fundamental landmarks being Faith in God, Belief in Immortality, and
of Man. Holding such tenets in its heart of hearts it cannot remain
to the changing winds of doctrine that blow across the theological
world. Here are
two books, therefore, which many craftsmen will care to purchase for
"The Religion of Experience" [Lib 1916] by Horace J. Bridges,
published by Macmillan's at $1.50.
"The Validity of the Religious Experience"
[Lib 1917] by George A. Barrow,
published by Sherman, French & Company at $1.50.
Both of these volumes bear witness to the
of gravity in religious discussions. Once was when all writers assumed
that a body
of doctrine had been delivered once and for all in a book. Holding such
a view it
was natural that theology should consist of the interpretation and
defense of this
divinely donated creed. Therefore was it that in the old days a
doctrine was based
on some authority external to the human soul.
But now our point of view has shifted. The
cannot tolerate the idea that any set of doctrines was ever delivered
to us, ready-made,
from without, to be supinely accepted, however much they might conflict
and observation; nor does it ask for any authentication of religious
truths by any
authority, for religious truth is its own authority, manifesting itself
by its own
In consequence of this the center of gravity
from authority to experience, as may be so clearly seen in any of the
works in theology; such, for instance, as August Sabatier's
epoch-making book, "Religions
of Authority and of the Spirit" [Lib 1903]; or in a volume of popular
essays such as Jonathan
Brierley's "Religion and Experience." [Lib 1906]
The two volumes now under review are both
interpret the religious life from the point of view of experience.
delivered a course of lectures on the subject before the Faculty of
Arts and Sciences
of Harvard University, thereby receiving such favorable comment that he
to publish his studies in a volume "as an approach to the awakening of
theology." Mr. Horace J. Bridges, an ethical culturist, has undertaken
same task from a slightly different point of view in his "Religion of
a volume adequately described by itself, as witness the following:
"The 19th Century, the author maintains, was
by a bitter and long continued conflict between religion and science.
The 20th Century
will, he thinks, be distinguished by a reconciliation between the two.
All the great
issues have been fought out and the combatants have learned to
understand and respect
each other. It is now time for terms of peace to be drawn up. This book
is an attempt
in that direction."
If a reader is at all dissatisfied with these
it is that both share in that which is the fundamental defect of so
literature in our day: they are books ABOUT religion instead of books
that is to say, their authors have told us what other men have
experienced of the
life of God; they have not told us of their own experiences. There are
many of us
who long for the return of the day when prophets will arise among us
who can speak
out of their own hearts of the Great Life; then will books become
studies of vision
and power, possessing in themselves the appeal which can alone enable
us to discover
that divine Lost Word within us which we, as Masons, believe to slumber
in the depths
of every man.
* * *
"The Garden Of Nuts"
"I know that the mystical life is the great
of literature and the other arts. God is the sum of the arts, and all
is from Him. The well-spring of pure inspiration flows from the search
and of Him are all the books of life. Thou art the Pierian fount, O
Lord. I have
come to Thee as a poet; I have desired to drink deeply. I have looked
for thy revelation
in the night and in the day I have waited on thy inbreathing. Thou hast
gifts of literature into the world as a voice of direction for those
who would return
to Thee." Thus writes a great seer of the present day who loves a
will here be thrown about his name.
Not often are books written in this spirit,
only another way of saying that not many books compose that "gift of
herein mentioned; but when such a volume comes to hand one is placed
obligations to make known the tidings.
"The Garden of Nuts" [Lib 1905] by W. Robertson Nicoll,
editor of the British Weekly, is not a new volume, except in the sense
that it cannot
grow old, but it has not received the circulation of which it is so
therefore is it that we mention it as a service to those brethren who
literature. "Real" is here used advisedly, and "literature"
also, for, though we have received many volumes from the gifted pen of
this little volume on the mystical life surpasses them all. Those who
"The Letters of a Book-Man" [Lib 1913] and the "Life of Christ" [Lib
1897] will be familiar
with his virtuosity of style; and they will appreciate our tribute when
we say that
in this present study Nicoll's style surpasses itself, rising into a
which few men have ever spoken to this world.
The purpose of "The Garden of Nuts" (it borrows
its title from a verse in the Song of Songs) is to set before the
reader the truth
about mysticism, and more especially, Christian mysticism. Therefore is
we recommend it to our readers, for, as everybody knows, Masonry has
not a few with the life mystical.
Always is it needful to keep in mind the
distinction between mysticism and occultism. The latter seeks for
power; the former
aims at character. The occultist believes in a universal force, or what
will yield itself to the adept for good or evil, as is abundantly
explained in Eliphas
Levi's "History of Magic." [Lib 1922] The mystic yearns evermore
for the Presence of God
and seeks only to reordain his character to the Divine Will. Thus it is
are worlds apart; and thus it is that every Masonic student must beware
confuse the two in his mind.
Many are the books now being put forth to
to the neophytes; some of them are good and not a few are bad, for of
it easier to write nonsense. But to him who seeks a BRIEF introduction
to the study
we would almost sooner recommend The Garden of Nuts than any other book
It leaves a reader wistful and reverent, his mind filled with musings
that are half
poetry and half music, his memory enriched with sentences that cling
about the mind
like silken tapestries.
Religion should be the rule of life, not a
Trust your heart, especially when it has been
Never deny it a hearing.
No indulgence of passion destroys the spiritual
so much as respectable selfishness.
However mean your life is, meet it and live it;
shun it and call it hard names.
It were endless to dispute upon everything that
(The Builder is an open forum for free
discussion. Each of its contributors writes under his own name, and is
for his own opinions. Believing that a unity of spirit is better than a
of opinion, the Research Society, as such, does not champion any one
school of Masonic
thought as over against another; but offers to all alike a medium for
and instruction, leaving each to stand or fall by its own merits.)
Who Were The Giblimites
And Where Were They From?
We shall let Brother Robert Morris answer your
by citing an account of his visit to Gebal, which first appeared in
a Masonic journal published at Dubuque, Iowa, in 1868. Dr. Morris'
his visit follows:
The town of Gebal lies about twenty-four miles
coast from Beirut. It stands upon an easy and regular slope from the
the slope extending about two miles along the coast, and from one to
two miles back.
All this space and more, was once thronged with Temples, palaces and
erections, the remains of which in granite, marble and Liboman
limestone are visible
in every stone fence, upon the surface, and appear in excavations at
from ten to thirty feet. But now Gebal is a poor and forlorn little
village of five
hundred inhabitants. There is not one edifice standing that has the
unless it be the old Maronite Church, and that does not date much
beyond the Crusaders.
The soldiers constitute a force of about one hundred and fifty
Zouaves, who live in some new buildings, the remnants of more costly
while the grand old Castle next the sea, is suffered to fall into
Desolation and neglect are written upon all the remains of Gebal.
Gebal derived its name originally from the hill
it stood. The Greeks changed the name to Byblos, but in this case, as
in many others,
the title imposed by the conquerors fell into oblivion, while the
was retained. Gebal gave its name to the country around it, which in
5, is termed "the land of the Giblites;" this, it will be remembered,
was more than fourteen centuries before Christ, or 3,300 years ago. In
of Solomon the people of Gebal were the most skillful sailors and
the dominion of King Hiram. So eminent were they in architecture that
the word "Giblites"
in Hebrew is translated "Stone-squarers" a most remarkable
(Read I Kings, v. 18). In the tremendous denunciations by Ezekiel
against all Phoenicia,
he says, concerning the city of Tyre "the ancients of Gebal and the
thereof were in thee, thy calkers." (Read Ezekiel XXVII, 9). This was
about four hundred years after the building of Solomon's Temple, and
refers to the
city I am now describing.
My visit to Gebal as it was the first of my
Masonic explorations, has impressed itself more deeply upon my mind
than any other
visit can be expected to do. Here I find upon the monstrous ashlars of
ages (hewn stones eighteen feet long and upwards), the distinguishing
"rebate" or "bevel" of which I have so much read, but now for
the first time in my life seen. This is the "Mason's mark" of ancient
Craft Masonry. Our fathers wrought them and set them up in useful
places in great
edifices and we, their lineal descendants in the mystical line, have
our inheritance therein. The stones themselves strike an American,
unused to such
architectural prodigies, as enormous. They are twice as heavy as any
I had ever seen.
Gebal is full of the days of Hiram. Hundreds
of granite columns are here, both of the red and white varieties, taken
quarries of Egypt, with all the enormous labor which the working of
stone requires; brought a thousand miles down the Nile, shipped thence
vessels or rafts to this coast, landed here, drawn up this steep hill
by human hands,
and reared up, doubtless, with shoutings and rejoicings; thousands of
them I say
are here from twelve to thirty inches in surface as smooth and
unaffected by the
weather as on the day they left Egypt, two, three or four thousand
years ago. They
prop up the stalls in the bazaars; they sustain the filthy roofs of
are built into the military castle and other public buildings in
numbers; they are
worked into stone walls; in short they are used with a profuseness that
inexhaustible number of them that lie among the ruins.
It is but a brief seven miles east of this
Aphaca, the principal seat of the worship of Adonis or Tammuz, existed
for an indefinite
period. This was the original Freemasonry of the heathen and that upon
Solomon engrafted the revealed precepts given to his fathers upon
Sinai. As the
wild stock into which the inspired Word was engrafted, these Rites of
the attention of Masonic writers. This is not the place to enlarge upon
but I must be permitted to say that a system which had the favor and
the wisest and best cultivated oœ the human race for two thousand
years, that led
to the cultivation of the fine Arts as they have never been cultivated
that was thought worthy by so far-reaching a mind as King Solomon's, of
and incorporation into the true theology, cannot have been altogether
by the age of Constantine it may have become so corrupt that zealous
it necessary to uproot the last traces of it, is quite likely; but the
may be said of the prevailing system of Christianity a few centuries
later. By the
age of Constantine, the Rites of Adonis had probably accomplished
was involved in them, but they must have presented many innocent and
to attract the admiration of a Solomon. It was then, doubtless, that
this wide spread
system of worship gave to the poet his idea of the Age of Gold.
I reserve to this place, however, to justify
in selecting Gebal as one of their seven prominent Masonic Localities.
It is, that
here was the Seven Liberal Arts and Sciences. Here in the days of
Hiram, the Widow's
Son, was a congregation of earth's wisest (let us believe earth's best
whom a seeker of knowledge like himself could come for instruction and
a genius could be fitly schooled. From this center of learning went the
planned that unparalled Temple, across the hills eastward, that crowns
of Boalbec; just as from here went southward down the coast, to build a
Fane on Mount Moriah at Jerusalem. The Paphian Temple on the Island of
which was thought in its day unapproachable for beauty, doubtless
received its inspiration
from those men, as many a temple, palace and stronghold did during a
of ages. I stood within the tombs of some of these Giblites ‒
chiseled in the hard, blue limestone of yonder hills; I saw a row of
coffins (Sarcophagi) opened. I purchased many of their funeral lamps,
and other tokens of their faith, and coming back to my house-top, I
walk and muse
upon the hopes embodied in these emblems. Hopes of some kind (the
the soul's immortality) we know these old Masons had; the rites handed
so many generations from them to us clearly prove that. But a
resurrection to what?
an l an immortality for what? what secret was so heled within these
emblems of theirs,
what made them so anxious to express it in outward marks but to conceal
at the risk of its being forever lost, as to its esoteric meaning?
Did he who prepared the rituals of the Select
Degree have in mind that exquisite passage from an English poet?
Silence and darkness,
solemn sisters, twins,
From ancient night, who mark the tender thought
To reason, and on reason build resolve,
That column of true majesty in man.
The "twenty-two from Gebal" who constituted
so large a portion of the mystic number "twenty-seven" in a Lodge of
Masters, were of course drawn from this city, and each of them must
have seen, as
I see today, this enormous ashlar that forms the base of the old castle
is nearly twenty feet long and broad and deep in proportion. To whom
can I dedicate
it with so great propriety as to King Solomon himself, who ordered a
number of stones
cut upon this model, bevelled as this is, and built into the foundation
of the Temple
wall on Mount Moriah, as may be seen to this day.
Before leaving Gebal I sought out the entrance
of the great Phoenician tombs, carved out of the face of the cliffs,
the town, and there cut deeply with my chisel the Square and Compass,
it to a number of active, working and renowned members of the Craft.
* * *
Grand Lodge Recognition
and the Right of Visitation
The article on Grand Lodge Recognition and The
of Visitation in the September "Question Box" has brought again to my
mind a question for which I have long sought an answer and as I will
be "travelling in foreign countries," I submit it to you for
I have read many very interesting anecdotes by
brethren in which they told of visiting bodies closely resembling our
occurs to me at present that I read one such in the February, 1917,
issue of THE
BUILDER where a brother visited a Chinese Lodge on the Coast and
observed many signs
and symbols easily recognized by him. In fact, if my memory fails not,
he was vouched
for by a brother who had himself worked his way into this Lodge through
knowledge. From the tenor of the article I gathered that the place
not "regularly recognized."
Other similar stories by army officers in the
Islands and travelers in the Far East tell of brethren gaining
admission by means
of Masonic knowledge to secret places not "regularly recognized." For
my own part I cannot see how these brethren reconcile their actions.
Can you give
me some light?
Never having visited any of these places
Brother W., we cannot satisfactorily answer your query as to how these
reconciled their actions.
But as to the particular matter of the Masons
United States jurisdictions visiting Lodges under the jurisdiction of
Orient of France, we quote a resolution adopted by the Grand Lodge of
its Annual Communication held in Louisville, October 16-18, as follows:
"Whereas, In the year 1869 the Grand Lodge of
issued an edict of non-intercourse against the Grand Orient of France;
"Whereas, The reason for such edict of
has long since ceased to exist; and
"Whereas, Said edict of non-intercourse is
and embodied in Regulation No. 155,
"Resolved, That said edict of non-intercourse
the Grand Orient of France be, and the same is, hereby revoked,
repealed and held
for naught; and,
"Resolved, That said Regulation No. 155 be, and
the same is, hereby repealed."
In another resolution also adopted by the
Lodge the above was interpreted to mean that any regular Kentucky Mason
any Lodge under the Jurisdiction of a Grand Lodge against which no
edict of non-intercourse
has been issued by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, or vice versa, and
Masons of such
Jurisdictions may visit Kentucky Lodges. This holds good whether the
Lodge has ever been "officially recognized" by the Grand Lodge of
Similar action was taken by the Grand Lodge of
at its last Annual Communication.
From the tenor of the Kentucky resolutions it
appear that, for instance, should a Kentucky Mason (and by the way, the
mentioned as appearing in the February, 1917, issue of THE BUILDER was
a Kentucky Mason, Brother J. W. Norwood) visit the so-called Chinese
Lodge on the
Coast he would be within his rights as granted by the Kentucky Grand
Lodge, so long
as no interdict exists against the so-called Chinese Lodge by the
Lodge. But, on the other hand, this particular Chinese organization
does not claim
to be a Masonic organization but a Chinese Tong, the Bing Kong Leong.
there be any more objection to a Mason visiting a meeting of this Tong,
he could gain admission without revealing any of his Masonic secrets or
to his visiting a Lodge of the Senussiyuh in Africa under the same
* * *
Names of Candidates in Lodge
In some jurisdictions all communications from
are mailed in sealed envelopes. It is a good rule.
A candidate's name appears in the Lodge notice
"To ballot for, and if approved, to initiate
John Doe, proposed by Brother John Black, seconded by Brother John
or, "To pass Brother John Doe," or, "To raise Brother John Doe."
In the jurisdiction in which I am now domiciled
notice states briefly "Work on the 1d, or 2d or 3d as the case may be.
the under-cover rule been compulsory here I would have known what to do.
I am growing old, and live in the country a
from the Lodge, therefore am irregular in attendance. The other night,
I attended Lodge, there was work on the 3rd degree, I was a bit late,
the work had
To my dismay the Brother receiving the 3rd
a man whom I knew to be a thief.
What would you have done?
L. J., Virginia.
If you "knew the brother to be a thief," you
were certainly under a strong obligation to prevent his advancement.
Just how you
should proceed would depend upon the law of your Jurisdiction. In some
candidate may be stopped up to the time that he is obligated; while
the time of formal reception the end of the use of an objection,
preferment of charges. (See THE BUILDER, February, 1917).
Now, if the time for making objection, and
his progress had passed, there would be but one thing which you could
do, in justice
to yourself and to the Lodge: present the facts to the Lodge by means
in the regular manner, and let the Lodge then pass upon him again.
* * *
A Few "Live" Subjects
The following are a few thoughts gathered while
the October issue of THE BUILDER and I should like to have the
in THE BUILDER. If I have raised any points worthy of discussion I
shall be pleased
to hear from others on them.
of balloting for a candidate is indeed a serious matter. However well a
may know a man there is still a chance that someone may know something
of his character
that would make him undesirable. Supposing such a case, would there be
wrong if that man, having knowledge of something not generally known,
anonymously to the committee, fully stating the case and asking that it
on "Freemasonry in the Far East," in the next to last paragraph on page
307, do you imply that though the Islamite takes his obligation on the
is necessary to also have the Holy Bible in the Lodge room?
both particular and clandestine Lodges?
one know a clandestine Lodge in the United States, save by color?
309 it is stated that the Institution is "keeping strict tab on the
and political encroachments of Rome.” Where and how is the Institution
of physical qualifications of candidates in the days of Anderson (1723)
Masonry, necessarily would exclude a maimed man. Doubtless he would
refuse to employ
a carpenter with a peg leg, but do you think if Brother Anderson were
with us today
he would refuse a good man who could prove that he could climb a ladder
a roof? Conditions are vastly different today and we should not hew too
the line. If a candidate is well-qualified and competent in all other
let us not refuse him if he has met his misfortune honestly. Think of
the many noble,
self-sacrificing men who may return to us maimed and halt, from the
conflagration, true noblemen; mayhap your son, your brother, who has
that we may be safe. Exclude them? No! a thousand times No!
"Who would think of putting a broken stone in a
fine edifice?" My friend, that would depend on how badly broken; if not
badly broken but that it would fill its purpose, use it ‒ otherwise
It was my pleasure during the erection of our
Temple in Philadelphia, to watch the workmen some part of nearly every
day. I recall
how well the faces of the massive blocks of granite were protected by
the other five sides being practically bare. Is it not quite probable
that in knocking
the coverings off of these stones, some of the inside edges may have
Suppose an inside corner had, by accident, been broken off, would the
refused it? Doubtless many rough, misshapen ashlars were used to fill
in the foundation and walls; they had their places and served the
When the Temple was dedicated were they not one with the perfect ashlar?
It is quite apparent that you read THE BUILDER,
B. We wish that all the rest of our members would realize that just
are invited monthly from every one of them. If we cannot get all of
them in the
present number of pages allotted to the monthly issues, we will enlarge
to get them in. Such thoughts as are here presented are, we know, of
to all members of the Craft. Therefore, brethren, take due notice and
accordingly. This particular department of THE BUILDER is your own
we wish you to make use of it.
We shall endeavor to reply to the foregoing
in their order:
1. Balloting For Candidates
We think the brother would be fully justified
the committee as you suggest. Presumably you state the case just as you
do in view
of the fact that a near friend of the candidate might be one of the
you fear that it might lead him to think that you were prejudiced
against the candidate
were you to convey the information to the committee in person. This
might know the same facts and yet, believing that the particular acts
be repeated and that the candidate having already made amends for them
not be held against him, he might possibly withhold them from the
remainder of the
A much better plan would be to report the facts
Master of your Lodge in confidence and secure his opinion in the
matter. One might
be just a little prejudiced against a person and be unconscious of the
fact. A very
good rule to follow in cases of this kind is "Judge others as you would
2. Presence of the
Holy Bible Necessary When Candidate Obligated on the Koran
It should be understood that Brother Johnson,
article on "Freemasonry in the Far East," is speaking of Lodges under
the registry of some duly recognized Grand Lodge which recognizes the
as a necessary part of the furniture of such Lodges. In this instance
of the Holy Bible in the Lodge room would be necessary to the
regularity of the
proceedings. However note what Mackey has to say about Lodges in
in the second paragraph preceding the one you mention.
3. French Masonry
The Grand Orient has been, and is yet,
clandestine body by many Grand Lodges. See reply to B.F.B., Florida, in
concerning the recent action of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky in regard
to the Grand
Orient of France and the right of visitation. Also the article in this
4. Clandestine Lodges
in the United States
A complete list of all the regular Grand Lodges
world with the name, number and location of each subordinate Lodge is
by the Masonic Relief Association of the United States and Canada.
Copies may be
obtained by writing Brother Willis D. Engle, Secretary, Masonic Temple,
5. Loyal Orange Institution
The "Institution" here referred to is not
the Masonic Institution but the "Loyal Orange Institution," a purely
society to which only Protestants are admitted by ballot, as is stated
in the last
paragraph of Brother Carson's article, on page 307.
6. Physical Qualifications
"Respectfully referred" to Brother O. D.
of Alauama. He started it. W.E.A.
I notice a discussion of the desirability of
Military Lodges, with the authority to confer the three degrees upon
taken from the military command to which each Lodge would be attached.
As a soldier of the Regular Army, who has been
in two camps of the Regulars and one of the National Army, I state most
that I have found a need for such Army Lodges, and heartily endorse the
I have found one comrade who was ordered away
a week after receiving the First Degree, and has since been kept so
the move that his only chance of Masonic advancement is through a Lodge
in his military
organization; another, who was ordered away just after preparing his
for the First Degree in his home town; and several similar cases.
A Lodge should not be chartered in any
unit, however, until it seems reasonably probable that the personnel of
and hence the membership of that Lodge, has fair prospects of
permanency for half
Rogers H. Galt,
Med. Dept. 347th Field Artillery, U. S. A., Washington.
* * *
I wish to thank you especially for your
the search after the lost "Swedenborgian Rite." So far the same has not
been recovered, and we are left at the mercy of those who know. The
are, however, sufficient to show that there is yet a large field to be
by Masonic students.
* * *
"Says the Young Master
There is an appeal in the September number of
"Says the Young Master Mason," which should be answered. I would be
to read what the elder brethren have to answer to this heart-gripping,
question: "Why then stand ye here idle?" As a young Master Mason I
his fate and join in his willingness to learn.
(The opportunity is within your grasp,
your October BUILDER to the next regular meeting of your Lodge and read
to the members
the article on page 7 of the Correspondence Circle Bulletin, "Organized
Study in Monthly Lodge Meetings," and get the Lodge to appoint a
Committee" and advise us of the members of this committee. We will help
to get the plan started in your Lodge. There is no need to "stand idle."
* * *
Grand Lodge of Illinois
Refuses Recognition to the Grand Lodge of Panama
report of the Committee on Foreign Correspondence of the Grand Lodge of
adopted by that Grand Body at its Annual Communication in Chicago the
in October of this year, is herewith presented to our members through
of Brother Charles H. Martin, Chairman of the Committee. It presents
of the question in contradistinction to the views held by the Grand
Lodge of Massachusetts
as given in the article published in the November issue of THE BUILDER,
in Panama," by Brother Melvin M. Johnson, Past Grand Master of
To the Most
Worshipful Grand Lodge, Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of the State
on Foreign Correspondence, to whom was referred the application of the
of Panama for fraternal recognition and an exchange of representatives,
and respectfully report that there is nothing in or accompanying said
tending to show that the said Grand Lodge of Panama possesses the
essential to a Sovereign Grand Lodge of Ancient Craft Masons, as
forth and defined, and uniformly insisted upon by this Grand Lodge, in
obtain such recognition. Elsewhere it is learned, however, that the
in order to regularity of formation is entirely wanting, to-wit:
of origin of constituent Lodges uniting to form a Grand Lodge."
In a showing
made by this soi disant Grand Lodge
Panama, to the Most Worshipful Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of
and by him (the latter) reported to the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts,
it is said:
"In the year 1913, Panama having six Lodges, and believing that the
territorial occupancy was theirs, conceived the idea that the time was
for establishing both a Supreme Council and Grand Lodge, and believing
was a just one, approached Venezuela with the request.
subject was favorably received, and a Special Deputy was sent to
empowered to place the application before the Supreme Council of
Venezuela: in due
time and form a meeting was convened, and the application was placed
Supreme Council, that Body approved the application and appointed a
Deputy, who accompanied the Commissioners of Panama to Panama, and
without any delay,
with legal authority and in due ceremony established the Supreme
Council of Panama,
conferring the 33d on certain selected members. In the same year
a Grand Lodge was made by the six Lodges above mentioned, and with the
suitable to the occasion, the Grand Lodge was instituted and its
and installed. This Grand Lodge believing in good faith that the
legally formed, continued its work and granted a charter for the
a lodge under its immediate jurisdiction; a lodge to conduct and carry
on the work
in the English tongue. This lodge was established in December, 1913,
and is known
as "Unity" Lodge No. 7. The six Lodges above mentioned, which had been
chartered by Venezuela, were transferred to the jurisdiction of Panama,
respective numbers were changed to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ‒ Panama now having
question of the world's official recognition was taken up,
correspondence was sent
out detailing all the information, and with the exception of a few of
American Republics, San Salvador and Santo Domingo, the requests did
not meet with
being the case, the best means of settling the question was most
and it was agreed upon by the Panama Supreme Council to approach the
Council on the subject; the approach was met in the most brotherly
in a happy amalgamation." ‒ Proceedings of Mass., 1916, page 711.
Lodge of Massachusetts has published a "Treaty" or "Protocol,"
in which the high contracting parties are the Grand Lodge of
Massachusetts and the
Grand Lodge of Panama. In the history therein given, antecedent to the
proper, appears the following:
Panama, in 1903, definitely severed itself from Colombia, its territory
as open to the Masonic World. Consequently the Supreme Councils of
Venezuela (the latter founded in 1875) both established Symbolic Lodges
the 16th of April, 1916, there existed in the Republic of Panama the
de America, formerly No. 65 of Venezuela, now No. 1 of Panama; Pro
formerly No. 67 of Venezuela, now No. 2 of Panama; Orion, formerly No.
68 of Venezuela,
now No. 3 of Panama; Aurora del Istmo, formerly No. 69 of Venezuela,
now No. 4 of
Panama; Restauracion, formerly No. 70 of Venezuela, now No. 5 of
Panama; Jose Bernito
Alivizua, formerly No. 71 of Venezuela, now No. 6 of Panama; Unity,
December, 1913, by a Grand Lodge of Panama which was under the auspices
of the Supreme
Council, now No. 7 of Panama; Cosmopolita, formerly No. 55 under the
of Colombia, constituted 1910, now No. 8 of Panama. Spanish, the
language of the
country, is used by all except Unity Lodge, which is permitted to work
the 16th day of April, 1916, these Lodges met in convention and
executed a formal
declaration of the establishment of a Grand Lodge of Symbolic Masonry
for the Republic
of Panama. At a meeting held August 19, 1916, they adopted Grand
the unanimous vote of delegates from all of said eight lodges and
Officers. The organization of La Gran Logia de Panama was consummated
12, 1916, when the Most Worshipful Grand Master and other Grand
Officers were publicly
installed and proclaimed. This organization of a Sovereign Grand Lodge
jurisdiction over the three degrees of Symbolic Masonry has been
approved, and accorded
recognition by the Supreme Councils of Panama, Venezuela and Colombia,
two accounts above quoted at their face value, and waiving the
appearing, it is altogether fair to conclude that every one of the
to form the present and last Grand Lodge of Panama was planted by a
that failing to obtain recognition of the Grand Lodge formed in 1913,
was resorted to by the Supreme Councils concerned, and above named, of
charters from the Grand Lodge of Venezuela for the same lodges. In
other words the
Grand Lodge of Venezuela was induced to pull down the curtain and hide
of this aggregation of lodges from the Masonic world.
To all those
who take seriously the landmarks of Masonry, and the principles and
in the fifteen points of the Masters' installation vows, this specious
cannot avail. The Grand Lodge of Venezuela has never been recognized by
Lodge of Illinois, nor by any considerable number of regular grand
lodges as a sovereign,
recital of facts tend to indicate that it is not such, but that its
action in issuing
charters was on the initiative and at the instance of, if not dictated
by, the so-called
originally contributing to form the Grand Lodge of Venezuela were
warranted by the
Grand Orient of Spain, which is also a body which the Grand Lodge of
never recognized as a grand lodge. As a controlling reason why it can
never be recognized
as such, it is sufficient to suggest that it was formed of lodges
created and established
by a Supreme Council. This Grand Lodge has time and again approved the
that no tribunal or power on earth is competent to form or warrant a
lodge of the
original plan except a regular sovereign grand lodge.
In one report
expressly approved by this Grand Lodge the following language was used:
utterly deny that any body save a representative Grand Lodge can by
warrant or charter
create a Lodge that has any claim whatever to the name of Masonry, or
that can administer
Supreme Council, the Grand Orient of Spain nor the Grand Lodge of
or ever was, competent to form or bring into being a Lodge of the
and hence not a single Lodge contributing to form the present Grand
Lodge of Panama
can be regarded as a regular Lodge of Ancient Craft Masons.
therefore recommends that the request of the Grand Lodge of Panama for
and an exchange of representatives be declined.
Committee on Correspondence.
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