Masonic Research Society
The Faith That Is In Them
– A Fraternal Forum
Edited By Bro. Geo. E. Frazer,
President, The Board Of Stewards
Henry R. Evans, District of Columbia.
Harold A. Kingsbury, Connecticut.
Dr. Wm. F. Kuhn, Missouri.
Geo. W. Baird, District of Columbia
H.D. Funk, Minnesota
Frederick W. Hamilton, Massachusetts
Dr. John Lewin McLeish, Ohio.
Joseph W. Norwood, Kentucky.
Silas H. Sheperd, Wisconsin.
Jos. W. Eggleston, Virginia
M.M. Johnson, Massachusetts
John Pickard, Missouri
Silas H. Shepherd, Wisconsin.
Oliver D. Street, Alabama.
S. W. Williams, Tennessee.
Joe L. Carson, Virginia
T.W. Hugo, Minnesota
F.B. Gault, Washington
C.M. Schenck, Colorado
Contributions to this Monthly Department of
Opinion are invited from each writer who has contributed one or more
THE BUILDER. Subjects for discussion are selected as being alive in the
of Masonry today. Discussions of politics, religious creeds or personal
are avoided, the purpose of the Department being to afford a vehicle
the personal opinions of leading Masonic students. The contributing
responsibility only for what each writes over his own signature.
Comment from our
Members on the subjects discussed here will be welcomed in the
QUESTION NO. 4
Shall Grand Lodges Issue
Charters to Military Lodges
"Shall the several Grand Lodges issue charters
to Military Lodges during the period of the great war? If so, shall
issue such charters as it pleases, or shall all the jurisdictions
that not more than one charter shall be issued for each regiment in
If not, shall American Grand Lodges permit their members to attend
French and Belgian
lodges during the period of the war?"
A Father and His Mason Son.
The formation of Military Lodges should be
in every possible way. My son, a Mason, now in the Officers' Training
himself for active military service, I feel as a father and a lifelong
have the privileges and benefits of the Order while in the army of his
There should be an agreement of some sort, formal or informal, among
the Grand Lodges
standardizing as far as practical the issuance of these charters, and
or conditions under which such charters may be granted and other
usually arise under Military conditions. The whole matter ought to
receive the immediate
and earnest attention of all Grand Lodges and provisions made for such
and the attendance upon any and all true Masonic Lodges wherever the
sailors of our country may be called to follow our flag. As to whether
shall be issued each regiment it seems to me that is a matter that
the membership in the regiment and the active interest in the Order and
in the Military
provision for Masons. In some regiments there might easily be more
one Lodge would serve to advantage while in other regiments there might
be an insufficient
number. But that is a part of the detail that can easily be met as
F. B. Gault,
* * *
Grant Charters Where Requested.
In my judgment it is expedient that Grand
Military Lodges for each regiment in active service provided there be a
from the members of the regiment for a charter. I think permission to
and Belgian Lodges will develop the international spirit.
H. D. Funk,
* * *
Avoid Narrow Technicalities.
A Grand Lodge should issue Charters to
Men of War as they see fit. Any agreed on restriction would be all
right, but in
case a Regiment is raised by some particular state, the Grand Lodge of
should have jurisdiction. I would permit Masons to visit wherever they
avoid any narrow technicalities. It'll do them good and do good to the
T. W. Hugo,
* * *
French Masons Not Our Brothers.
The various Masonic Jurisdictions should
agree that not more than one charter shall be issued for each Regiment
service. American Freemasons can not attend Belgian and French Lodges,
Lodges are not recognized as legitimate. The Grand Orients of France
have abolished belief in God as a prerequisite to membership and cut
out the Great
Landmark altogether. They are not strictly speaking Masonic bodies.
H. R. Evans,
Washington, D. C.
* * *
My opinion is opposed to the granting of
Military Lodges during the period of the present war. The reasons which
me are the probabilities of the frequent shifting of troops which would
continuity of officers or membership and the difficulty of securing
the requisite safeguards might surround the work. I believe that most
of the advantages
presumably sought might be obtained through fraternal associations
without the privileges
and responsibilities of Lodge organization. The idea of permitting the
American Lodges to attend Belgian and French Lodges during the period
of the war
appeals to me strongly.
* * *
Three Positive "No"
1st. Shall the several Grand Lodges issue
Military Lodges during the period of the great war? No.
2nd. If not, shall American Lodges permit their
to attend French and Belgian Lodges during the period of the war? No.
Military Lodges may have been, and doubtless
in the English, Irish and Scottish regiments prior to and during the
war in this country and also during the war of 1812. Such Lodges may
also have been
justifiable in the United States Army during the Revolutionary war, the
war of 1812,
and, in a few instances, during the Civil War, but conditions have
changed. In the
periods mentioned Masonic Lodges were few, but today a Masonic Lodge
can be found
in every hamlet and town in the United States. The Masonic soldier,
in this country, has the privilege of Masonic visitation and
of Masonic privilege or interest can be added by having a Lodge of his
with the Regiment. It is very questionable if the best interests of
can be conserved by organizing Military Lodges.
The Grand Lodge of Missouri does not recognize
Orient of France, the Grand Lodge of France or the Grand Orient of
a Freemason whose membership is in a Lodge under the jurisdiction of
the Grand Lodge
of Missouri can not visit a Lodge under the jurisdiction of the Grand
mentioned. Special permits can not be given.
Wm. F. Kuhn,
* * *
Military Lodges should not be chartered without
that they should initiate, pass or raise none but members of their own
and that they should not hold meetings in foreign territory of a
Lodge without official permission. Virginia permits dual or even
so that the members of a Military Lodge would not have to leave their
Each Grand Lodge should act for itself as it
Any attempt at concert of action would tend toward a surrender of that
sovereignty which can not be too jealously guarded.
As to permitting Masons to visit French or
that is a matter for each Grand Lodge to settle for itself. There is a
between visiting foreign Lodges and permitting foreign Masons to visit
My own idea is that instead of chartering
it would be better to permit Masonic clubs, not authorized to make
Masons at all.
They would answer for all Masonic intercourse and raise no questions.
The plan seems
to work well at many universities already.
To sum up, I prefer clubs, along the lines of
Fraternity, but would not object to Lodges, provided their activities
as above, and provided members were not required to withdraw from their
Jos. W. Eggleston,
* * *
A Military Lodge of 1898.
I am heartily in favor of the charter of
during the period of the war. This was done in American army of the
and is today being done by all of the belligerent countries, with much
and certainly each jurisdiction should issue such charters as it
of each regiment might not find it convenient to have the Grand Lodge
hold pow-wows when they do not know conditions, and unless we had a
Lodge or an Emergent Masonic Congress, I do not see how the fifty Grand
decide upon one course of action.
I do not believe American Grand Lodges will
permit to members to attend French or Belgian Grand Lodges, but I see
why this should not be done, even though the majority of our
jurisdictions do not
recognize these foreign Masons. Only two jurisdictions recognize the
Grand Lodge of France, and none of them recognize the regular French
or French Grand Lodge. Several do recognize Belgium though the great
not, and neither does England. But by leaving it to the members of
to be chartered to decide for themselves what is true Freemasonry
according to the
ancient landmarks, America will have a chance to do a great deal in
world solidarity and better understanding between Masons.
I may mention that during the Spanish-American
own state chartered a Military Lodge which went to Cuba, and I think it
in consequence that we recognize Cuba, Costa Rica, Porto Rico and Peru.
Whenever Masons go into another country and
into social and business relations with the Masons of the country,
shown that they are not so ready to believe all of the wild tales told
Masons coming from unreliable sources.
Louisiana has done good work and is still doing
work in bringing about real relations with Masons scattered through
and not recognized by a great many jurisdictions in the United States.
I would like to suggest that if we literally
landmarks without regard to red tape imposed by the Grand Lodges and
on the spur of the moment without due investigation, there seems to be
no good reason
why American Masons might not visit a lodge not in fraternal relations
of the American Grand Lodges. This would seem reasonable, because the
Lodges are in relation with each other. Thus, if the Philippines,
New York have given fraternal recognition to San Salvador, why should
the rest of
the country prohibit fraternal visits? My own state for example
only English speaking Masons, with the Latin jurisdictions mentioned
I do not conceive that I would violate my obligations despite that
fact, were I
a member of a Military Lodge, or even merely a traveler, should I visit
Lodge, because at least eight other American lodges recognize Belgium.
way with Hungary, which is recognized by Alabama; Egypt, recognized by
Portugal, recognized by Arkansas; Denmark, recognized by Missouri and
Germany, recognized by a dozen states; Greece, recognized by Arkansas
Dakota; Holland, recognized by eight jurisdictions; Italy, recognized
by four jurisdictions.
I recently was introduced to a French Freemason by one of our regular
I had quite a pleasant chat, and the Frenchman convinced me that
have been believing a great many things about France that are not so.
If we are
brothers in War, why not brothers in Masonry?
J. W. Norwood,
* * *
Military Lodges are almost as old as the
of Masonry. In America, following the example of the British, Lodges
were to be
found in the Colonial troops and there is still to be found a certain
cave in Virginia
where Washington met with his Lodge during the period of the old French
Wars. Robert Freke Gould in his scholarly work on Military Lodges
mentions ten as
working in the Army of the Revolution. The pioneer of these was St.
Lodge deriving its warrant from the Provincial Grand Lodge of New York
of July, 1775. Among the others was "American Union" which "moved
as a pillar of Light in New York, Connecticut and New Jersey." Then
Army Lodge No. 27 of the Maryland line. This was warranted by the
Lodge of Pennsylvania, in 1780. Washington Lodge numbered two hundred
brethren. All of these ten Lodges were actively at work during the
of the protracted struggle for American Independence and upon the
rosters were such
names as George Washington, Major Generals Knox, Green, Moultrie,
Sullivan, Lincoln, St. Clair, Montgomery, Worcester, Wayne, Lee and
of the Brigadier Generals were Masons except two. Lafayette was raised
in one of
these Military Lodges by Washington at Morristown, New Jersey. The
Marquis stated afterwards that he never fully enjoyed General
confidence until after he became a Mason.
When the American Army went into Mexico two
Lodges accompanied the expedition. Of the Generals, Wm. J. Worth was a
also John A. Quitman who after the occupation of Mexico City became
General Quitman was also Grand Master of Mississippi.
The prominent Masons participating in our Civil
were as distinguished as those of Revolutionary days. On the Masonic
George B. McClellan, Winfleld Scott Hancock, N. P. Banks, John A.
A. Logan, George E. Pickett, Robert E. Patterson. Benjamin F. Butler,
Thomas H. Benton, and others. There were Field Lodges in both Union and
Armies. Says Gould: "The experience of that great conflict was
to their utility. The practice was to issue dispensations. When
regiments in which
they were held were mustered out, or their individual membership
retired to civil
life, the lodges ceased to exist." More than one hundred dispensations
Military Lodges were granted during the Civil War. The Grand Lodge of
as many as thirty-three of these.
During our War with Spain in 1898 formal
for Military Lodges were granted by the Grand Lodge of Kentucky and the
of North Dakota. Some of our most prominent Masons of that day were
McKinley, General Nelson A. Miles, General Russell A. Alger, General
Schafter, and Admiral Schley.
In the light of our past experience, there is
reason for American Grand Lodges to charter Military Lodges during the
Of course the number should be limited.
At the present writing, all indications
to long participation by the United States in the Strife of the
sustained the greater part of the initial fighting while her ally Great
was "getting ready" for the fray. The French Army has suffered so
been so depleted, that her Reserves of 1918, mere lads of seventeen,
have been called
to the tricolor. Not for many months may France hope to sustain her
unaided. All that gallant men could do to drive the barbarian from her
Soldiers of France have done, and the best blood of the Nation as many
in history has been sacrificed to the Prussian steel.
To the youth of America, our first Conscripts
has fallen the great privilege of filling the breach and holding the
won foot by foot by the Old Guard of France. To our own Boys in Khaki
honor of sustaining the American Flag first planted on foreign soil at
And not until the united American and British Armies have forced the
Huns back upon their own accursed terrain, meted out to them in full
utter ruin, the havoc and the desolation they carried into Belgium and
not until the flags of the Allies are borne in triumph Unter den Linden
from the Kaiser's Kennel – can Peace come to the world, unless the
happen and that is quite improbable.
With several years' sojourn upon foreign soil
sure, there will be many dreary weeks and months in the trenches. What
more or better
calculated to sustain our soldier's souls through the ennui and
monotony of camp
life, than the Light of Masonry, the meeting of brethren in a
To many sorely tried heart the Five Points of Fellowship will prove an
There will be an outlet to many inner confidences only to be imparted
As to issuance of charters it would be unwise
Lodges to issue such indiscriminately. Rather an agreement between the
limiting their dispensations to one for each regiment, and in some
cases one for
each division as circumstances indicate.
It would be a distinct step ahead for our Grand
to permit the brethren under their control to visit French and Belgian
the dark days of stress the craftsmen of these two countries have had
it would be perfectly Good Masonry to accord these foreign brethren
full and free
recognition. International relations are now permanently changed. There
is now less
need for a fraternal line of demarcation. Masonry like other
Forces, must soon meet many demands for Charity Best results will
follow the extending
of the Universality of our Institution. Our overseas brethren look
America for fraternal help and recognition. Upon our answer depends the
of Continental Masonry. Let American Masons offer the same fraternal
and moral support
to the craftsmen of France and Belgium as our Administration has
respective Nations. Masonry must align its forces, gather in its own
the world over,
if it would meet the new problems presented and exert the full measure
of its illimitable
wealth and resources. Let us in fact as well as in numbers become the
constructive force in all the world. Attainment of this ideal will make
ours a Power
to be reckoned with, render quite impossible any such bête noir through
world is passing at this moment. Could Masonry today align the
craftsmen in a thunderous
protestation against War, not even William and his myriad myrmidons
would dare say
Our only complaint against French Masonry has
removal of the Great Light from its altars. For this there were reasons
Masonic scholar knows. Many times the kaleidoscopic changes in French
Masonry under the ban. There were haphazard meetings of the craft in
previously prepared for police raids and their sequel, uncompromising
Many of the regular fittings of the lodge were absent in these hastily
quarters, where personal safety was a prerequisite. Continental
among the Latins, more particularly among the French, has ofttimes been
face with serious situations. On such occasions our Institution has had
for its very life. By the same token, Latin and French Masonry has been
play politics if it would live, and due allowance must be made for a
from certain old landmarks, under such circumstances.
Because nowadays we Masons do not as prior to
specify Christianity "or the religion of the country in which we live"
as a primary requirement of membership, makes most of us none the less
By the same argument, because France does not necessarily require a
of faith in the G.A.O.T.U. from a petitioner for degrees, does not
all French Masons Atheists.
The time will never be more fitting for
English Masons to heal their continental brethren, Masonically. If
needs must, to
facilitate matters we can close our eyes to a technical departure from
If we would extend our power for good, we must draw to us our own
world. Let us draw upon our Masonic Charity and accord full and free
to the Masons of France and Masons of Belgium who have won the right of
;n the long fight for Liberty. Ours to remember We are Masons All – All
One for All.
Every energy of a world-united Masonry will
needed to repair damages done, succor our halt and maimed brethren, and
bread upon the waters for the widows and the orphans. Once united under
Lights of Liberty and Masonry which are synonymous, any recurrence of a
like that through which we are passing will be impossible.
* * *
Three "Yes" Votes.
Shall the several Grand Lodges issue charters
Lodges during the period of the Great War? Yes.
If so, shall each jurisdiction issue such
it pleases? Yes.
If not, shall American Grand Lodges permit
to attend French and Belgian lodges during the period of the war? Yes.
C. M. Schenck,
* * *
Grand Lodge Action Necessary.
I favor the granting of charters to Military
for the duration of the war. I would not say restrict the number
allowed each regiment
to a single Lodge, but only one Grand Lodge should grant charters for
the same regiment.
If regiments are organized by States, then the
Lodge of that particular State should have exclusive jurisdiction of
unless it or its Grand Master declines to charter Military Lodges. In
any adjoining Grand Lodge should be at liberty to act. These details
could be easily
arranged by correspondence of the Grand Masters or by a Grand Masters'
Your last question whether American Grand
permit their members to visit French and Belgian lodges during the war
is a large
one. It opens up the whole vexed question of "recognition." I can not
say that, with the present Lights before me, I favor it, though I
should be delighted
to see a complete understanding among American, French and Belgian
It will doubtless be found that Grand Masters
to act in most jurisdictions in the matter of chartering Military
Lodges or in authorizing
fraternal visitation of French and Belgian Lodges, and that Grand Lodge
O. D. Street,
* * *
Let Masonry Bind The Allies.
This is an exceedingly interesting question! If
Military brethren demand the "Comforts" of Masonry in their Regiments
why should they be denied? The matter of territorial jurisdiction need
in the way; to my mind this is the one and only objection.
Each Grand Lodge should grant charters to
hailing from their Jurisdiction, making a ruling that only men of that
should be initiated.
In this way a Regiment on Foreign Service
own territorial jurisdiction, and if the needs of the service call for
one Lodge, let the charter be applied for with the knowledge and
consent of the
others. The courtesy of visiting and receiving visitors should be
extended and encouraged
between Grand Jurisdictions which are in fraternal recognition, of
which each Lodge
could be kept advised. If this Great War is going to bind America and
closer together, why should not Masonry be one of the bonds?
Freemasonry owes its
existence largely to the Military Lodges of the Revolutionary period;
and the sword are old companions, and future generations may again
bless their union.
J. L. Carson,
* * *
Closer Relations Needed.
I see no reason why the several Grand Lodges
not issue charters to Military Lodges during the period of the Great
War. Such action
has been common in past wars and seems to have been productive of
It seems to me that it would not be possible,
lack of general organization, to arrange for anything like a parceling
out of the
regiments among the several Grand Lodges. In my judgment each Grand
Lodge, or Grand
Master, would have to use its own judgment in action upon petitions for
I do not see how our American Grand Lodges can
permit their members to visit the French Lodges, as unfortunately the
I believe most of the American Lodges, are not in relation with French
I sincerely hope that out of this war will come a closer relation
between the American
and English Masons and their Brothers on the Continent.
* * *
History Justifies It.
It is my opinion that should the need of
arise it should be met by the several Grand Lodges. The need of more
than one Lodge
in a regiment would hardly occur, and caution should be used not to
exceed the actual
History affords ample justification for the
of charters to Military Lodges, and where granted with due
consideration of the
need and carefulness in the choice of its Master and Wardens and with
that it must use the utmost care in not interfering with the Masonic
where it may be stationed, would promote the practice of Masonic
they were most needed and at a time when Masons are removed from the
of home with watchful mother, affectionate sister or loving wife and
Even though the several Grand Lodges permitted their members to visit
and Belgian Lodges, (which, until a broader conception of Freemasonry
is more generally
diffused, is of doubtful accomplishment), the failure of Americans to
the language spoken would make it a real symbolic Masonry; very fine
for the Masonic
student but hardly filling the requirement of the soldier.
There may have been cases which made it
as to the advisability of chartering Military Lodges, but there have
also been cases
where there was an abuse of Masonic principles in regular lodges. A
composed of just and upright Masons, zealous to uphold the principles
the virtues of Freemasonry, and fulfilling their duty to their country
their lives, can reflect nothing but credit on our time-honored Craft;
them the privilege would be an unnecessary hardship, and many a brother
that should he die in a distant land, even the last rites of Masonry
would not be
The Masonry of the heart as well as the head
to grant the worthy soldier brethren charters when the need is
Silas H. Shepherd,
* * *
Let This War Free Masonry.
It is very trite to say that this Great War is
the face of the world, but it is a deeply true saying. No age has seen
such a religious
revival as has swept France since 1914; no age has seen such industrial
as England has accomplished in her factories since 1914; no age has
seen such patriotism
as Belgium has evidenced since 1914; no age has seen one hundred
millions of human
beings grasp liberty as has Russia since 1914. The cost has been, and
will yet be, most terrible. The cost demands results. This is the time
to live Masonry or else Masonry becomes an outworn ritualism. Our petty
jealousies must not prevent our brothers in the trenches from a full
the solaces of the Craft. Blind misunderstandings must not separate us
heroic brother Masons of France. This is the hour for American Masonry!
the beauty of vital truth she must free Masonry from outworn barriers.
Let us give
full recognition to Masonry in Belgium, in France, yes, and in Germany.
and Compass should know no restrictions that will divide the allies of
The Grand Masters of American Masonry have the responsibility and the
American Freemasons look to them for epoch making leadership. We do not
fail this hour.
George E. Frazer,
The Symbolism of Numbers
By Bro. H.A. Kingsbury,
THAT metaphorical road along which the Mason
in his progress through the degrees of the Blue Lodge is flanked upon
by many, many road signs directing his attention to various by-paths
interesting fields of investigation and study. A large number of these
been at least partially obliterated by the destroying hands of the
the Webbs but, however it may be with those directing the student's
Sun Worship, Persian Mysteries, Egyptian Mysteries, Symbolism of
Symbolism of the Bible, and so forth, there is one series of signs the
which have not had their legends even partially obliterated, and which
plainly bear the same direction to the traveler – "To the Study of the
of Numbers." Yet, in spite of the frequent repetitions of this
Masons hurry along, not even realizing that there are any such signs
neglecting a field of study that, as even the below-given short
one of these paths ought to show, is well worthy of cultivation.
Only the numbers one to ten inclusive will be
and, of those, only the most important – Three and Seven – will be at
upon, as to treat each of the ten at all fully would convert what is
little more than a brief synopsis into a lengthy treatise.
That all of the numbers from one to ten are
referred to in Masonry, and presented for contemplation, can be shown
by many examples,
and the discovery of them furnishes an interesting and instructive
the student. To take one set of references only – one of the sets
by the Lodge itself – the briefest consideration calls to mind that: –
There is one Master;
there are two Wardens; three supporting Pillars; four sides to the
the Four Cardinal Points; five elected primary officers; six Jewels;
working tools necessary to the symbolic building of a proper Lodge, i.
e., the six
usual Working Tools plus the Compasses; when the Lodge is in the form
of the Double
Square (as it should be) the two Squares present eight right-angles;
there are nine
primary officers, excluding the Tyler, and ten primary officers in all.
First, to review most briefly certain phases of
significances of these various numbers except Three and Seven, and,
then, to take
up Three and Seven for somewhat detailed consideration: –
One, the Monad, is the symbol of the Male
Two, the Duad, is the symbol of the Female
in Nature. It is also the symbol of Antagonism, of Good and Evil, Light
Osiris and Typhoon.
Four is the number of the Tetragrammaton or
Name which, in the original Hebrew, consists of four letters.
to this number are very frequent. Out of the Garden of Eden flowed four
Zechariah saw four chariots coming from between the mountains of brass.
saw four living creatures each with four faces and four wings. And St.
Five, made up, as it is, of the first odd
unity, and the first even number, is the symbol of that mixed condition
and disorder existing in the world.
Six is the number of the angles of the
formed by the two interlaced Equilateral Triangles and, so, calls
attention to that
ancient talisman, the Seal of Solomon or Shield of David.
Eight, the cube of the first even number, was
the Pythagoreans to signify Friendship, Prudence, Counsel, and Justice.
symbolists consider it the symbol of Resurrection because Christ rose
on the eighth
day, that is to say, the day (Sunday) after the seventh day (Saturday).
Nine is the number of the angles in that Triple
formed by placing three equal Equilateral Triangles with their apices
a common point and the Triangles radiating from that point with the
each Triangle from the next equal to sixty degrees – the jewel of the
the Templars. As the Equilateral Triangle is the symbol of Deity so the
composed of three Equilateral Triangles is the symbol of the Triple
Essence of Deity
or, to the Christian, the Mystery of the Trinity.
Ten, being the number of the dots in the
calls the attention of the student to that great Pythagorean symbol.
is the symbol of Perfection, and for this reason – it is the sum of the
Three and Seven.
The Number Three
To cite more than a few of the very large
references in Masonry to the number Three could serve no useful
purpose, as it is
far better that the student investigate the matter for himself. But,
for a few of
the more obvious examples, it will be noted that there are three
each of the following: degrees in Craft Masonry; Great Lights; Lesser
Working Tools; Movable Jewels; Immovable Jewels; Supporting Pillars,
Cardinal Points. Also there are all the various incidents of Three that
from the fact that there are three degrees, as three positions of the
Compasses, and so forth.
Three, among practically all the ancient
considered the most significant of all the numbers and was, in many of
religions, the number of certain of the attributes of many of the gods.
Jove's thunder bolt was three-forked, and Cerebus, the dog of Hades,
had three heads.
The Druids' ceremonies contained many references to it. And in the
rites of Mithras
and in those of Hindustan are many important references to it.
Three, as the sum of the Monad and the Duad,
the result of the addition of the Male Principle, symbolized by the
Monad, and the
Female Principle, symbolized by the Duad, and, thus, plainly becomes
of the Creative Power. It is also the symbol of the three-fold nature
of Deity –
He who comprises the Generative Power, the Productive Capacity, and the
and who is the Creator, the Preserver, and the Destroyer.
The Number Seven
As stated by Mackey, "the symbolic Seven is to
be found in a hundred ways over the whole Masonic system." This
so true and the discovery of those many references is so interesting
to the student that no attempt is made here to gather them together.
But no student
who neglects to make an effort to discover them can get out of Masonry
it has to offer him.
Seven is referred to in practically all of the
religions. There were seven altars before the god Mithras. In the
there were seven caverns. The Goths had seven Deities and in the Gothic
the candidate met with seven obstructions. References in the Scriptures
are almost innumerable. To cite but a very few: –
Noah had seven days’
notice of the commencement of the Deluge. The clean beasts were taken
into the ark
by sevens. The ark came to rest on Mt. Ararat in the seventh month. The
between the dispatching of the doves from the ark were seven days each.
was seven years building the Temple. And the Temple was dedicated in
month, the feast lasting seven days.
The few examples given above of the occurrences
to the number Seven indicate the peculiar veneration in which that
number has been
held from the most ancient times. Its different symbolical meanings are
numerous as the different systems of religious philosophy in which it
to the Mason, following the teachings of "our ancient friend and
great Pythagoras," it may well be the symbol of Perfection, this
being plainly derivable from the fact that Seven is the sum of the
and Four, the numbers of the two perfect figures – the Triangle and the
In concluding it is emphasized that the above
of the significances of the various numbers are but a very small
proportion of the
many that might be made. There are many symbolic meanings assigned to
each of the
numbers and, by investigation, each student can find, among that large
interpretations, at least one meaning for each number that will appeal
to him and
which will imbue Masonry with new life and new interest and will help
what has, perhaps, become (through no fault of Masonry) a "dry as dust"
series of actions and words into a living system of instruction in
ancient history, and symbolism.
Live Out Thy Life -- [A Poem]
creed is a rod
And a crown is of the night;
But this thing is of God: –
To be a man with all thy might;
To grow straight in the strength of thy spirit,
And live out thy life in the light.
Religion and Philosophy
By Bro. J. George Gibson,
Recently there have appeared certain, and I may
almost numerous papers, which have dealt in a kind of way with this
not invariably as clearly as might have been expected from a
consideration of the
names of the writers. And it has appeared that there must be something
for in the fact that the very approach was not quite so definitely an
deal with the matter on its own merits as an attempt to treat the
In order that Masons may seat once just what is the relation of the
Craft to both
these experiences or studies may we not try first of all to know
exactly what Religion
is, and what Philosophy? And a description or definition should be such
will not only agree with the totality of the functions of each, but
will also exclude
all else. May I then at once venture to define Religion as "That course
life which is lived in reference to the authority of the Supreme
Creator and Ordainer
of the Universe." The usual Masonic description of the LORD as the
of the Universe is not enough for Masons, and does not take in much
that is essential
and indispensable. If we substitute Architect for Author we do not
very much. A Religion cannot continue in reference to something which
has been and
IS NOT. We cannot refer all our lives to antiquity. There must be
some being now existent and life-giving whom we may worship and serve.
of the King sets free the subject. Only the continuance of that King in
maintains the authority. If the Supreme Being created and then left the
of the world in other hands having no reference to Himself then we
Consequently we cannot serve tables, nor books, nor traditions, nor
of any kind whatsoever. You cannot found a religion upon the VSL unless
is venerated as the Word of a living Author and King. Religion is a
needs a vital Spirit, or it soon becomes a mere ritualism. If once upon
a time there
was a real Triune, but now that has been left out of all account, the
3, 4, 5 triangle
means nothing vital to Masons. If, however, there now is to be
identified the same
triune, the matter is altogether different. Religion is the life of the
that is lived in reference to the Supreme living Spirit of the Present.
fact of a presently living triune of the Divine and we have at once the
the present religion that is built upon the Faith that accepts the fact
of the authority
for the Life that is true religion. The WORD that once lived but is now
no authority over the life of the modern mind. But if that WORD did not
lives ever, then religion is vital in reference to that WORD.
may have beclouded our view of the Ancient Fact of the Divine Life, and
that are born of these accretions may bewilder us at times. But so long
as the inner
light of our Conscience and spiritual experience is pure and prevailing
we may leave
the superstitions to take care o themselves or give place to the light
The words of the VSL may seem to lend themselves to meanings that are
out of accord
with the Truth at times, but only to those in whose heart and life
there is not
the approach of a RELIGION. We may read what we like into the Sacred
to the pure all things are pure; and if we approach the Word we find
the WORD whatever
the words may seem to mean. We cannot make a greater mistake than by
because the words may appear to be archaic the WORD is inapplicable to
of a religious experience. We may even have differing opinions as to
but there are in all the varieties of our view and vision outlines that
in every human experience. This is the experience of the Mason; and
this is the
reason why all Masons have regard and veneration toward the VSL.
It seems strange, but really the old view of a
Science is disproved by human experience, since the very Religion which
are willing to trace to superstition is derived from Philosophy. Is
That philosophy as well as Religion may be called progressive we do not
we further are prepared to assert that the very first religious desire
from the revelation that followed philosophical study. Even the fear
are so ready to describe as the origin of religion could not exist
without the study
of things as they appeared to the first inquirer. Philosophy is the
love of and
the search for WISDOM rather than that for mere knowledge. Its birth as
we may find pictured in the Eden Story. The mother of the Religionist
then is Philosophy,
and as Philosophy has not yet concluded her work so the nature of
be capable of further light. This implies no disrespect to the wording
of the VSL,
for since the modern criticism proceeded there has been a light shed
upon the very
wording of the Sacred Law which has many times over increased the glory
of the ancient
writings of all ages. Nay, the very authority of philosophy is not
doubt, but Faith.
Philosophy is not only iconoclastic, but is reverent and filled with
to find only the Truth. In the realm of Religion the services of
It may be said, though without truth, that
is here slighted. It is nothing of the kind. Revelation is a function
of the Divine,
and philosophy but makes the natural and wise use of its transcendent
The Authority for Revelation speaks in dreams, which one man
understands and another
treats as a symptom of a disordered mind. It speaks of mysteries that
study can elucidate but credulity obscures all with. He who is seeking
it in all obscurity: he who seeks anything else is often apt to get
The ignorant religionist observes phenomena, but cannot classify and
The student from that which is seen feels his way to that which shall
superstitious find the ancient scroll and press it to their bosom as
though not understanded of the people. The scientist gathers other
and arranges all so that from the totality of the product of research
a fine truth and a new light upon the old way of pilgrimage.
Even outside the relations of Masons to the VSL
Philosophy enlightening the path of the simple. In the field of
of late years there has been going on a strongly marked conflict
between the old
and the new schools of thought. This has been little more than the war
take place between the obscurantist and the credulous in every school
when the eyes
of philosophy are turned upon the newer manifestations of the revealed
It is the old order changing and giving place to the new. It implies no
of the orthodox by the heretical. The upshot is the enlightenment of
the old orthodoxy
by the light that superstition had covered with a bushel of prejudice.
is that what older forms of thought permitted are now seen to be out of
in the life of one of the illumined. And the things which once were
the whole law and everything, are made to stand revealed as but a very
of it. What once was an act of benevolence is now but the merest duty
of a Mason.
How wonderfully has the incidence of life changed during the last
We can remember that the area of the religious life was very
there is the greatest difficulty in finding space for a merely secular
altars which once were barely tolerated in church are to be met with in
and in the home. Standards are revised in regard to all the functions
of Man's life.
Even Religion itself is not respected in the
way as formerly. Its authority is no longer the custom of the Fathers,
for we have
examined its demands by scientific methods and are convinced that its
is in the NOW as much as it ever was in the will of the ancients. There
perhaps of the sounding of the charge against SIN in the method of the
but the grip Man is taking of the neck of shame and iniquity is none
the less tenacious.
In every department of life, in all the walks of Man, in each of the
of the Human mind it is more and more evident that an enlightened
Religion is a
stronger power than all superstition could boast. Never was the VSL
held in such
veneration as it is now, for never as now did men learn to read by the
break away from the tutelage of the mere letter. Religion depends today
before upon true and reverent Science; and the greater and more truly
we find philosophy
opening out the vistas of Religion the better will that religion be.
at its best is the corolla of Philosophy.
To Build A Man -- [A Poem]
build a house or
build a man is very much the same:
You have to think, you have to plan, you cannot build by guess.
The same foundation you began before you built the frame
A man must have before he can arise to a success.
Build then upon the solid earth with fundamental things –
Courageous faith and solid worth that do not change or fail
A lot of work, a little mirth, and fellowship that brings
The brotherhood of man to birth whatever ills assail
And on that good foundation rear the man you mean to be,
On life's hard road a pioneer for other men who toil,
A temple of both love and cheer in your community,
A house to others very near upon the common soil.
With faith in men that does not tire, keep blazing in your heart
A constant beacon to inspire the hearts of others, too.
When hopes of other men expire, when all their dreams depart,
Give them a brand from your own fire to kindle them anew.
And you shall stand a shelter then to ev'ry passer-by
A hospice unto other men who journey down the way
To set them on their feet again the road again to try –
A house of help and comfort when the pilgrim goes astray.
What were a house, admittance to its fellowship denied?
What pleasure such a house to you, whose roof you do not share?
What were a man who never threw his own heart open wide
That men their courage might renew, rebuild their visions there?
Build such a house by such a plan in such a life as this
No single creed or single clan forbidden to your breast,
Your house a waiting wanigan when men the highway miss,
Your heart a hearth where any man shall be a welcome guest.
They Wait For You -- [A Poem]
not, O friend,
with unavailing tears
Into the Past – look to the brave young years!
Look to the Future: all is there in wait,
All that you fought for by the broken gate –
The faith that faltered and the hope that fell,
The song that died into a lonely knell.
It is all there – the love that went astray
With bitter cries on that remembered day;
The joys that were so needed by the heart,
And all the tender dreams you saw depart.
Nothing is lost forever that the soul
Cried out for: all is waiting at the goal.
useful where thou
livest, that they may
Both want and wish thy pleasing presence still.
Kindness, good parts, great places are the way
To compass this. Find out men's wants and will,
And meet them there. All worldly joys go less
To the one joy of doing kindnesses.
To live or to die apart is beyond the scope of
destiny, for in the eye of God each man that lives is the keeper not of
but of his brother's soul.
The Pillars of the Porch
By Bro. John W. Barry, Grand
In cut No. 34 is shown the rock beneath the
is the sacred rock, the threshing floor of Ornan – the spot upon which
about to sacrifice Isaac. Under the rock is a large cavern, believed to
be the sepulcher
of the Kings of Israel from David to Hezekiah.
When the very foundations of buildings are no
the contemporaneous coins used as money often remain and afford
While the Jews coined but little, especially in the earlier times, yet
some of value to the matter under consideration. In 65 A. D. the Jews
their Roman governors, and A. Eleazer, a Jewish high priest, issued
coins upon which
is a representation of the Temple. See cut No. 35, from Madden's Jewish
[Lib 1864] Its value to the
question in hand is found in the fact that it was the work of a Jewish
for the Jews, at a time when the inspiration of the Temple was needed,
the temple so shown is in harmony with the buildings heretofore
described. It will
be noticed that this Jewish high priest in preparing a coin that might
his countrymen to heroic deeds for their liberty, did not show a temple
projecting above it like twentieth century smokestacks.
There are two other views of the Temple, which
of their growing use in lodge work will be given here. In cut No. 36 is
Temple by Rev. T. O. Paine, of Boston, who has written and published a
illustrated book on the subject, showing the Temple in radically
from any previous conception of it. You will note that it is wider and
the top. He claims that, as above shown, it corresponds with "Holy
to the very minutest detail. He makes Jachin and Boaz eighteen cubits
gives even the weight of the metal in the shafts as thirty tons each.
Cut No. 37
shows the Jachin or Boaz as, he says, they are described in the Bible.
James Fergusson, an eminent architect of
issued an exhaustive work entitled "The Temples of The Jews." He
scale drawings of Jachin and Boaz, showing them to have been eighteen
To Herod's Temple he gives particular attention and submits three
of it. One of these drawings is used in slides showing "The Holy City,"
and is given now to make it clear that it is not intended to represent
of Solomon though the pillars in its porch are eighteen cubits high, as
It is seen in cut No. 38. Fergusson is responsible for the central
and for nothing else shown.
Heretofore attention has been directed to such
as were in point. However, there is another line of evidence entitled
to our highest
respect. It is the opinions of Masonic investigators, Bible students,
each of which classes having considered Jachin and Boaz worthy of very
and painstaking investigation. Naturally that which appeals to us most
is the – OPINIONS OF MASONIC INVESTIGATORS
Eighteen cubits is the height assigned to
Boaz in "The Symbols of Masonry," by Jacob Earnst, a Mason of high
and on pages 266 and 267 he continues as follows:
"In our rituals
we have heard them referred to as thirty and five cubits in height,
of five cubits, which conveys the idea that they were forty cubits in
height – a
very inconsiderable degree of altitude in proportion to their
not consistent with the rules of architecture, and which certainly
gives a very
Albert G. Mackey, in his "Encyclopedia of
says that the pillars of Jachin and Boaz are very important symbols. He
seven columns to their discussion; shows that they were eighteen cubits
they were within the porch and supported the entablature, and adds:
"It is evident,
from their description in Kings, that the pillars of the porch of King
Temple were copied from the pillars of Egyptian temples." See pages 583
In corroboration of Earnst and Mackey, might be
a few other Masonic authorities, thus: Jeremiah Howe, page 416;
of Masonry [Lib 1870], page
348; Mackenzie's Royal Masonic Encyclopedia [Lib*], page 565; George
page 561, and, in short, as I verily believe, all others that ever
wrote on the
Because of the important symbolism and because
peculiar and possibly somewhat obscure statement in Chronicles III-15,
Boaz have been most attractive subjects to Hebrew students and
commentators on the
Bible. While they differ in many particulars regarding the Temple, yet
so far as I could examine, are agreed that the true height of Jachin
and Boaz was
eighteen cubits. Smith's Bible Dictionary (Vol. 1), page 688, puts it
"The front of the porch was supported, after the manner of some
by two great brazen pillars, Jachin and Boaz, eighteen cubits high,
of five cubits more." In like manner might be cited, confirming
as the true height, the following: Philip Schaff [Lib 1880] (Vol. IV), page 2314; J.T.
Bannister's Temples of
the Jews [Lib*], page 107; James Hastings’ Bible Dictionary [Lib 1909], page 308; McClintock
& Strong's work on the Bible, pages 725 and 841; William
Whiston, Joseph B.
Lightfoot, T. O. Paine, and others beyond the limits of my time or your
No ancient building has been so fruitful a
discussion among architects as Solomon's Temple, and though their
widely in many particulars, yet as to the true height of Jachin and
views coincide. Eighteen cubits is the height agreed upon, and James
before referred to, who has given exhaustive study to the Temple of
a scale drawing showing the height to have been eighteen cubits, and
height, with the other members, makes the whole design reasonable and
See his "Temples of the Jews," [Lib*] page 157. E. C. Hakewill, page 55
of his work on the Temple, confirms this view. Also F. H. Lewis, G. E.
S. Poole, and in fact all without exception, so far as I could learn,
who have investigated
(Could not find
a non-copyrighted copy of Fergusson’s ‘Temple of the Jews’,
but you may enjoy his ‘Illustrated Handbook of Architecture in all
2] which describes man’s architectural
accomplishments from antiquity to ~
1850 and makes for an interesting read) – rhm
What may be called the direct evidence
Temple is confined to Josephus and the Bible. But on the point under
both sources are full, complete, and conclusive. In "The Antiquities of
Jews," [Lib 1870] by Josephus,
Book VIII, Chapter III, page 161, the most renowned work of Hiram Abiff
Hiram made two hollow pillars, whose outsides were of brass; and the
the brass was four fingers breadth, and the height of the pillars was
and their circumference twelve cubits; but there was cast with each of
lily-work, that stood upon the pillar, and it was elevated five cubits;
there was net-work interwoven with small palms, made of brass and
covered the lily-work.
To this was also hung two hundred pomegranates in two rows. The one of
he set at the entrance of the porch on the right hand and called it
and the other at the left hand and called it "Boaz."
The Bible, the one all-sufficient witness, has
reserved until the last. The Bible record is in four separate books,
and three of
them are so clear as not to admit of a doubt. The fourth, when but the
is read, is not so clear, but in connection with the other verses of
is equally specific, therefore, for the better understanding, the
verses in connection
will be given:
II. CHRONICLES, III-10 TO 15, INCLUSIVE.
"10. And in the most holy house he made two
of image work, and overlaid them with gold.
"11. And the wings of the cherubims were twenty
cubits long, one wing of one cherubim was five cubits, reaching to the
wall of the
house, and the other was likewise five cubits, reaching to the wing of
"12. And one wing of the other cherubim was
cubits, reaching to the wall of the house, and the other wing was five
joining the wing of the other cherubim.
"13. The wings of these cherubims spread
forth twenty cubits, and they stood on their feet and their faces were
"14. And he made a vail of blue and purple, and
crimson fine linen, and wrought cherubims thereon.
15. And he made before the house two pillars of
five cubits high, and the chapiter that was on the top of EACH of them
In verse 11, the wings of the cherubim are said
twenty cubits long, meaning the united length of the four wings. Again,
13, the wings are given as twenty cubits, but as before, the meaning is
length of the four wings. In the same way the two pillars are given as
five cubits high, meaning, as in the case of the wings, the united
length of the
two pillars as they stood in the porch. The language is very precise.
pillars of thirty and five cubits high" – not each, but the two
then following immediately this: "And the chapiter that was on the top
of them was five cubits high." Where is the warrant here for the
so familiar to us all, namely: "They were each thirty and five cubits
adorned with chapiters of five cubits, or forty cubits in all?" At the
blush, there is a slight discrepancy, for if the pillars were each
high, then would their united length or height have been thirty six
of thirty-five? Hebrew scholars and other investigators have almost
for this apparent discrepancy as follows: At the joint of the chapiter
the chapiter overlaps the pillar a one-half cubit, making the united
length of the
pillars, as measured standing in the porch, appear to be thirty-five
cubits. A few
others contend that the pillars were sunk into the base or foundation,
so that when
measured standing in the porch their united height appeared to be
It would seem that a one-half cubit lap at the top would be too much,
and it is,
therefore, probable that both contentions are right, except that the
lap at the
top was only four or five inches, and the sinking into a socket at the
the same, making nine inches or a one-half cubit. Recent explorations
in the Troad
carry this compromise view almost to a demonstration. The Troad, made
Homer's Iliad, contains the city of Assos, lying a short distance north
Asia Minor. Here in 1881-2 J.T. Clarke, in behalf of the Archaeological
of America, excavated a large tomb, corresponding in every detail to
the tombs of
the kings at Jerusalem, and dating from the seventh century B.C., and
also a temple
contemporaneous with that of Solomon. There is still standing there a
sunk into the foundation and held in place by lead poured round the
base, much as
water mains are now joined. (See reports of the Archaeological
Institute of America.)
Assuming that Jachin and Boaz were set this like this Assos pillar,
then is the
apparent discrepancy in the Bible fully accounted for by a column
with the Temple of Solomon, and still standing, at Assos.
However, the height of Jachin and Boaz is given
other books of the Bible, and is not mentioned in any other place than
as here indicated.
The statement is so clear that no explanation or outside reference is
and weigh this testimony:
FIRST KINGS, VII-15. "For he cast two pillars
brass of eighteen cubits high apiece, and a line of twelve cubits did
of them about."
SECOND KINGS, XXV-17. "The height of one pillar
was eighteen cubits, and the chapiter upon it was brass."
JEREMIAH, LII-21 AND 22. "And concerning the
the height of one pillar was eighteen cubits, and a fillet of twelve
compass it, and the thickness thereof was four fingers; it was hollow
and a chapiter
of brass was upon it; the height of one chapiter was five cubits, with
pomegranates upon the chapiter round about, all of brass. The second
and the pomegranates, were like unto these."
The foregoing Bible records are so precise,
so confirming the others, that together they must carry conviction to
can believe the evidence of recorded history. But even were there no
the circumstantial evidence adduced is so strong that the main facts
would be apparent.
For to the men who could construct such a building as Solomon's Temple
must be accorded
full and accurate knowledge not alone of the best buildings of their
time, but of
the best building methods as well. Think of it, here is a building
thirty feet wide,
ninety feet long, and forty-five feet high, and from the drawings alone
parts are made to size and shape in the mountains and quarries, and,
they fit with such perfect accuracy and all is so well done that the
four hundred and nineteen years, and no doubt would be standing today
had it not
been wantonly destroyed in war time. At least contemporaneous buildings
standing, and the Dome of Rock, on the site of Solomon's Temple, has
nearly two thousand years. It would, therefore, be reasonable to
conclude that the
builders of Solomon's Temple had full knowledge of the temples on the
no building has ever been found there or elsewhere in which the pillars
of the porch
were higher than the building. Why then charge the builders of
with such a blunder?
Again, so well was Solomon's Temple
excellent architecturally that it was for centuries the type of Grecian
and was many times duplicated in its main architectural features. A few
buildings remain to us to this day, as have been shown, at Paestum and
and in no case are the pillars of the porch higher than the main
building, but in
every case are in strict accord with the Bible records of Solomon's
and demonstrating the proposition that Jachin and Boaz were as given,
cubits high apiece."
A little philosophy inclineth a man's mind to
but depth in philosophy bringeth men's minds about to religion.
St. John's Day in Harvest:
By Bro. Silas H. Shepherd,
It is a custom to celebrate the anniversary of
events which have, to a great extent, produced results of lasting good.
If we were
to celebrate the anniversary of all the great events in the history of
we would have occasion to celebrate early every day of the year; but we
celebrations to those nearest our interests.
In Freemasonry, St. John's days are, by our
and usages, set apart as days on which "festival communications" may be
held. St. John the Baptist's Day, 1917, is the 200th anniversary of the
of the Grand Lodge of England, the Grand Lodge from which every regular
either directly or indirectly derives its authority, and we may well
200th anniversary with appropriate allusion to the events which then
and the conditions which then prevailed.
It would be most welcome knowledge to every
student to know just what transpired at the so-called "revival" 200
ago. We are, however, seriously handicapped in our studies of that
by having no contemporaneous record of it. The record we depend upon is
in the second edition of Anderson's "Book of Constitutions" (1738) [Lib
1738] and reads as follows:
"King George I. enter'd London
on 20 Sept. 1714. And after the Rebellion was over A. D. 1716, the few
London finding themselves neglected by Sir Christopher Wren, thought
fit to cement
under a Grand Master as the Centre of Union and Harmony, viz., the
Lodges that met,
- At the Goose
and Gridiron Ale house in St. Paul's Church-Yard.
- At the Crown
Ale-house in Parker's-Lane near Drury-Lane.
- At the Apple-Tree
Tavern in Charles-street, Covent-Garden.
- At the Rummer
and Grapes Tavern in Channel-Row, Westminster.
They and some old Brothers met
at the said Apple-Tree
Tavern, and having put into the Chair the oldest Master Mason (now the
a lodge) they constituted themselves a Grand Lodge pro Tempore in Due
forthwith revived the Quarterly Communication of the Officers of Lodges
the Grand Lodge) resolv'd to hold the Annual Assembly and Feast, and
then to chuse
a Grand Master from among themselves, till they should have the Honor
of a Noble
Brother at their Head.
"Accordingly, on St. John's
in the 3rd year of King George I., A.D. 1717, the Assembly and Feast of
and accepted Masons was held at the foresaid Goose and Gridiron
"Before Dinner, the oldest
(now the Master of a Lodge) in the Chair, proposed a List of proper
and the Brethren by a Majority of Hands elected Mr. Anthony Sayer,
Master of Masons (Mr. Jacob Lamball, Carpenter, Capt. Joseph Elliot,
who being forthwith invested with the Badges of Office and Power by the
Master, and install'd, was duly congratulated by the Assembly who pay'd
"Sayer, Grand Master, commanded
and Wardens of Lodges to meet the Grand Officers every Quarter in
at the Place that he should appoint in his Summons sent by the Tyler."
Among the regulations which were adopted at
the most important was, "That the privilege of assembling as Masons,
had been hitherto unlimited, should be vested in certain Lodges or
Masons convened in certain places; and that every Lodge to be hereafter
except the four old Lodges at that time existing, should be legally
act by a warrant from the Grand Master for the time being, granted to
by petition, with the consent and approbation of the Grand Lodge in
and that without such warrant no Lodge should be hereafter deemed
regular or constitutional."
This regulation may be considered as the most far-reaching in its
effects of any
rule that has ever been made by Masons for their government; it is the
of our present jurisprudence in regard to regularity. It is also of
as it states that the privilege of assembling had been "hitherto
Three years after the formation of the Grand
in 1720, Grand Master Payne compiled the "General Regulations," the
of which contained the following: "Every Grand Lodge has an inherent
and Authority to make new Regulations or to alter these, for the real
this ancient Fraternity: Provided always that the old Land Marks be
This regulation clearly shows a spirit of conformity to a basic law of
The organization of the Grand Lodge in 1717 was
a "revival" by the writers of the 18th and some of the writers of the
19th century, and implicit faith was placed on the statement that Sir
Wren was Grand Master of a Grand Lodge that existed prior to 1717 and
that he had
neglected the fraternity; but there is no evidence that Wren was even a
therefore none that he was Grand Master and there is great probability
that he was
not. The "formation" or "organization" of the Grand Lodge of
England seems to be a more definite and appropriate expression of what
happened; for we are told by Anderson that they "constituted themselves
Lodge pro Tempore in due form" as their first act. This formation or
of the premier Grand Lodge has been termed a "gigantic blunder" by a
thinker and learned student of Masonic fundamentals. He believes that
of co-operation was subordinate to an "organization." We are sometimes
in doubt as to where the happy medium lies, and are inclined to believe
it in the Freemasonry of today. We know its weakness and its
limitations, but they
are the weakness and the limitations of the individual and not the
principles are basically sound and if perverted it is mainly due to two
viz: the Masonic politician and the careless investigating committee.
is a necessity and where men are associated with each other it is
they give up a certain amount of personal freedom for the greater and
liberty of all. We do not wish to infringe on freedom of thought. The
is, first of all, an intelligent, free moral agent, and, so far as his
applies to the building of his own "Temple of Character," he is free to
interpret its laws, rules and regulations for himself; but when he
others in the work of teaching the neophyte and in the general labors
of the Lodge
he is subject to self-imposed restrictions which he voluntarily assumes.
From an historical standpoint the year 1717 is
important in Masonry. It is the date which divides the laws of Masonry
ancient customs and usages and the modern regulations, laws and edicts;
in a great measure divides the known from the unknown, for previous to
of the Grand Lodge in 1717 we had but few authentic facts on which we
Brother G. W. Speth, in his splendid "Masonic Curriculum" [Lib 1901] describes the need
of a chart for the use of the Masonic navigator on the sea of Masonic
after giving his opinion of the value of Gould's "History of
[Lib 1884/89, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4] as such a chart,
"We rise from
the perusal of this book with one fact tolerably well impressed upon
viz., that in the middle of our ocean lies an island, A. D. 1717, the
which our Craft underwent a reorganization of some sort; and we are
between this island and our own shores lies a tract which is fairly
out, but that beyond it extends a waste with scarcely a sounding more
indicated, stretching away into the distant past. Our first effort must
be to gain
a clear insight into this past: we shall not altogether succeed, and we
never even approach the shore at the other side, although we may be
able to fill
up many blanks, to discover solid ground here and there, mark the
of the current and take some additional soundings."
Brother R.F. Gould in his masterly essay on
Symbolism" [Lib 1890 (essay page 7 …)] says:
"I conceive that
there is ground for reasonable conjecture, whether the Symbolism of
a considerable portion of which, even at this day, no meaning can be
is entirely satisfactory to an intelligent mind, must not have
the very earliest dawn of its recorded history.' Also that it underwent
process of decay, which was arrested but only at the point we now have
it, by passing
into the control of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717."
Symbolic and traditional knowledge was of great
to the ancient world and it has been handed down through the centuries,
gift of the past to the present. Many of the most important truths of
survived the dark ages through hermetic, Rosicrucian and Masonic
sources; but with
the invention of printing and later the popular thought which came with
men no longer relied to such an extent on symbols and allegory; printed
replaced oral traditions and the methods of the ancient form of
replaced by ones more adaptable to the conditions of the progressive
age which was
born with the invention of printing and gradually developed a spirit of
and spiritual freedom which found its most pronounced expression in the
Revolution of 1688. Taine says, [Lib 1873 (Book III,
"With the constitution
of 1688 a new spirit appears in England. Slowly, gradually, the moral
accompanies the social: man changes with the state, in the same sense
and for the
same causes; character molds itself to the situation; and little by
little, in manners
and in literature, we see spring up a serious, reflective, moral
of discipline and independence which can alone maintain and give effect
to a constitution."
Although the reaction of the rule of the sober,
never-laughing puritan was carried to the opposite extreme and vices
seemed to be
the most prominent trait of the Englishman of the Revolution and the
followed it, there was an inner consciousness of moral responsibility
so well expressed in the writings of Addison, DeFoe, Pope, Berkeley and
which eventually found expression in their act as well as their
thought was not new thought, but an expression in different form of the
the ages. Restraint of action and liberty of thought are the
cornerstones of civilization.
Freemasonry has been laying these cornerstones in every age and in many
time immemorial. The Charge in the 1723 "Book of Constitutions" [Lib 1723] concerning God and
Religion could not have been written until the world was ready to
receive it. It
was taught by Masonic symbol and allegory from time immemorial, but in
1723 it was
given to the world as one of the fundamental principles of the
It is my humble opinion that the fundamental
of Freemasonry have come down to us from a very remote antiquity and
have been taught
by symbolical, allegorical and at times perhaps by hermetical methods
and that we
as individual craftsmen are most of us, as yet, only entered
apprentices in the
full comprehension of Freemasonry and that the Craft in 1717 needed an
to meet the changed condition which society had undergone.
That this organization of 1717 was not perfect
its efforts to unite men of every country, sect and opinion were
is evidenced by the schisms that have since become a part of Masonic
weaknesses are not, however, the weakness of Freemasonry, but the
failure of its
votaries to apply themselves with freedom, fervency and zeal to the
task of subduing
their passions and the duty of improving themselves in Masonic
The Mason who has studied the events bearing on
formation of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717 knows that its
foundation was laid
in the basic principle of the "Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of
and he will endeavor to prove to the profane world through his own
the Freemason is a builder – a Builder of Character.
*Taine's History of English Literature, Chapter
of England (Macaulay) [Lib 1953, Vol 1, Vol 2,
3, Vol 4];
- Real History
of the Rosicrucians (Waite) [Lib 1887];
of Freemasonry (Gould) [Lib 1884/9, Vol
- Arcane Schools
(Yarker) [Lib 1909];
Essays (Gould) [Lib 1913];
Illustrations [Lib 1772];
of English Literature (Taine) [Lib 1873];
Notes on Freemasonry (Baxter) [Lib*];
- A Masonic
Curriculum (Speth) [Lib 1901];
of Religion and History (Fairbairn) [Lib 1876].
A Plea for Action
By Bro. Jos. C. Greenfield,
THE American nation is today aflame with
We are at war with the greatest military nation in the world. The vast
of the citizens of the United States approve of that war, and
irrespective of political
affiliations, stand solidly behind the National government in all the
steps it has
taken and is still taking, to prosecute the conflict to a successful
Flag raisings, patriotic gatherings, the blare of bands and the
marching of armed
men, have aroused the people to a height of enthusiasm never before
The best blood of the country is flocking to
the training camps for officers are overrun with applications from men
character and business and financial standing; the hoarded moneys of
both rich and poor, have been placed at the disposal of the Government,
by the tremendous over subscription to the Liberty bond issue; our
women have caught
the spirit of the times and are cooperating with the food commission,
with the Red
Cross Movement, and with any and every other agency in which their
What is the great Masonic fraternity doing as a
factor in the solving of the problems that the National crisis has
pressed to the
I know many have enlisted, but they did that as
citizens and not as Masons. A few Lodges, and perhaps a Grand Lodge or
subscribed for some bonds. I have waited expecting that those who
control the National
Grand bodies would issue a call to labor. But I have waited in vain.
bodies keep grinding out members of a more or less advanced degree, but
bodies have not made any attempt to use the vast forces at their
disposal for any
phase of the National good.
What can the Craft do? Many things. One of the
important is the moral atmosphere that could be thrown around the
Here at different points, from half a million to two million men will
These camps will be composed of all kinds of men. The proper
surroundings are most
important. The public prints have lately been filled with stories of
conditions that have afflicted one of our naval training cantonments.
of the underworld flock to such places – they fatten on the bodies and
men. Can the Masonic fraternity assume a better work than the
correction of these
Can the Supreme Councils of the Southern and
Jurisdiction, the Grand Encampment of Knights Templar, the General
and the Imperial Council of the Shrine, do a greater work for the
order, for humanity,
for America, for God, than keeping clean minds and pure bodies in the
men we send
out to fight our battles?
It has been reported that one-third of the men
armies suffer from private diseases. I do not know whether or not this
I hope not, but cannot America point out the way to more exalted
manhood? The Masonic
fraternity should be something more than a Mason-making institution. It
a man manufactory – and what higher service can it do for the land than
the men who are offering themselves as food for German cannon.
We have existed for hundreds of years. We have
great charities, and have received full credit for them. We have in a
care of those of the household of faith. But we have never seen the
country in the
hour of such national need as at present.
We are living in perhaps the darkest hour of
history and the dawn has not yet appeared. Let the Royal Craft rise to
of the hour. Let those whom we have placed in high position, and to
whom we have
been taught to look for inspiration and leadership, issue a clarion
call to action.
Do they doubt their right to do so? There are times in the life of an
and a nation, when old methods must be relegated to the rear and new
be set. The duty is upon us and we should rise to the occasion.
And just as sure as there is a Divine power
and directing all things, just so sure will the rank and file of the
any steps along these lines, and rallying as a unit to the banner of
and Square, will follow whithersoever it leads, and Masonry will emerge
conflict purer, better nobler, for its labors for the order, our
country and humanity.
BUT LET US DO SOMETHING!
The Gild and York Rites
By Bro. Charles Hope Merz,
Charles Hope Merz, A.M., M.D., Sandusky, Ohio.
at Oxford, Ohio, father was Master of the Masonic Lodge there for a
number of years;
received his education at Miami University, Oxford, afterward
graduating from Wooster,
Ohio, University in 1883; graduated from the Medical Department of
University in 1885; has practiced his profession in Sandusky since that
son Charles Merz is Washington correspondent of the New Republic and
one of its
Editors; Past Master of Science Lodge No. 50; member of Sandusky City
A. M., Sandusky City Council R. & S. M., and Erie Commandery K.
T.; has written
for Masonic Journals for a number of years; author of two brochures
that have attracted
wide attention – "The House of Solomon" and "The Transition in
has lectured extensively before Lodges in various parts of the country;
Masonic Research, Charter Member of the National Masonic Research
Life Member of the Cincinnati Masonic Library; was Associate Editor of
Member of the Magian Society of New York; First Master for life of
Lodge No. 24,
Free Masons, Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Paviors, Plaisterers and
Leicester, England, he is the American Secretary of this Society;
Member of the
Lodge of Research Leicester, England; President of the Masonic Library
and of the Society for Masonic Research, Sandusky, Ohio. Dr. Merz's
has been along the line of lectures on Masonic Symbolism which have
favorable comment wherever they have been heard. He has in preparation
on Masonic subjects that will appear during the coming winter.
THOSE who claim that "Freemasonry, as we know
is in no wise derived from Operative Free Masonry," are indulging in a
not only contrary to that of the most advanced Masonic authorities of
the day, but
one presenting many points insufficiently attested and uncorroborated
or other evidence.
To accept for one moment the suggestion that a
so complex and curious and embracing so many phrases and customs, so
symbols, and ceremonials, cleverly regulated and reduced to system, was
a number of individuals met rather to originate such a wondrous system,
our credulity. The traces of antiquity are too numerous to be
overlooked or ignored.
Speculative Freemasonry is defined as "a
item of morals, veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols."
Masonry is the practice, by the Craft, of tectonic art – the science of
terms and other important structures, a working in stone, accordance
ancient usages and established customs of the Gild or Company." Beyond
Operative Free Masonry was originally a Religion and Trade combined –
was and is a great deal more in Operative Free Masonry than mere work
Conder, in his "Hole Craft and Fellowship of Mary" [Lib*] throws a
deal of light on Operative Freemasonry. He states that the Worshipful
Masons of London was the connecting link between the Monastic
Architects and the
present Society of the Accepted Masons. That the Traditional and Oral
existing in Britain in the 12th and 13th centuries were preserved by
after the downfall of the church in 1530 until 1717. That it is the
source by which the old Constitutions of the middle ages reached the
Masons, and that it is only in connection with this Company that any
Speculative Masonry is made in London in the 17th century or of any
for the fostering of Symbolic Masonry.
This Worshipful Company of Masons in 1646
an esoteric division into a body of "Accepted" Masons – persons in no
way connected with the Craft and Operative or Free Masons. Later the
synonymous, to distinguish strictly Speculative from Operative Masons.
So the Mason's
Company may be said to have been in a dual condition – Speculatives and
As early as 1620, and perhaps earlier, certain
of the Mason's Company met to form a Lodge for Speculative Masonry, and
given by the records of the Company, concerning its "accepted members,"
is the earliest record of 17th century Masonry in England. In 1472, the
was granted a Coat of Arms, which has served as the foundation for all
corporations connected with Masonry, whether Operative or Speculative.
on the Coat of Arms is of the greatest importance. In the original
grant, no mention
is made of the motto, but since early in 1700 it has been "In the Lord
our trust" – the motto in use today by the Worshipful Society of Free
Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Paviors, Plaisterers and Bricklayers.
Company was known as The Fellowship of Masons, and to this Fellowship
was made in 1472, but about 1530 the title was changed to the Company
of Free Masons.
The Company of Masons of the City of London, in its early days,
practiced and was
acquainted with all the moral teachings of the Fraternity, and when the
Gilds fell into chaos, the London Company of Masons preserved the
of the Gild, and amongst its documents a copy of those MS. traditions,
object of keeping the old order of things alive, and thus assisted in
down to the 17th century Society of Free and Accepted Masons, which
old order sometime between 1680 and 1700. One thing is very certain; up
1700, the Company and Society were hand in hand, but after that date,
ended; and there is nothing show that Speculative Masonry had a place
in the thought
of the members of the Company.
For thousands of years Trade Gilds, Castes,
Companies and similar Institutions have been in existence, and in
London alone there
are some eighty existence at the present day. To carry out its system,
Gild divided its members and also its methods into grades or degrees,
and the officers
and workmen were instructed in that particular portion of the Art or
belonged to the respective degree of which they were members.
Consequently it will
be evident that to obtain the full knowledge of any trade, a person
must begin as
an Apprentice in the low grade and, by skill and attention to duty,
up to be a Master or chief ruler of his Gild. The number of grades or
according to the practical requirements of the trade; but in each
instance, it followed
that if a young man desired to work in any of the trades, he must
belong to the
Trade Gild, as the members, would neither teach nor work with an
An analysis of the "Compositions" of fifteen
trades, ranging from the year 1400 to 1700, including the Weavers,
Tailors, Joiners, Carpenters, Goldsmiths, Smiths, Pewterers, Plumbers,
Painters, Cutlers, Musicians, Stationers, Bookbinders, Basket-makers,
and the Bricklayers,
Tilers, Wallers, Plaisterers and Paviors, shows that an Apprenticeship
to all. Many of them had an obligation binding the members to the
Brotherhood, Fraternity and Company," and protecting the trade and
secrets. A number of them used Apprentice Indenture papers, and had
three locks and keys. They were not to disclose the secrets of the
Company nor were
they to slander or misuse one another. These fraternities that met at
when the plate was brought out of the three locked chest, and the clerk
sat at the
table with the books of the Gild, all sworn men to do loyally and
keep the secrets of the fraternity – there was something more than the
a trade protection Society to animate their doings. None had repaired
or tippling house on Sunday or holiday during the time to divine
service: none said
to another "Thou lyest" or "Art false." A Gild of Operative
Free Masons still exists, as does the Mason's Company of London.
In all the Ancient Charges [Lib 1872] there is evidence
of the commencement of moral teachings and of secret signs. The Regius
MS [Lib 1390]. (1390) recommends
implicit truth. The Harleian MS [Lib*]. (1670) mentions "several words
signs of a Free Mason to be Revealed," which may be communicated to no
"except to the Masters and Fellows of the said Society of Free Masons,
me God." Here followeth the worthy and godly oath of Masons. The MS. by
Henry VI says, "some Maconnes are not so virtuous as some other menne,
for the moste parte they be more gude than they would be if they were
In the 17th century or earlier, private
Army Officers began to be admitted as members of the Society of Free
Masons in England
and Scotland – John Boswell, Esq., was a member of St. Mary's Chapel
in 1600. Robert Morey, Quarter Master General of the Scottish Army, was
made a Mason
at Newcastle in 1641. Elias Ashmole, the Antiquarian, and Col. Henry
were made Masons at Warrington in 1646. Morey was a Scotch Covenanter,
a Royalist and Mainwaring was a Parliamentarian. In 1647 Dr. Wm.
the Lodge at Edinburgh. The minutes of St. Mary's Chapel Lodge record
attested his "mark" at the meeting on June 8, 1600. The Earls of
and Eglington were initiated in the Lodge of Kilwinning in 1670.
The full title of the existing Society of
Free Masons is, The Worshipful Society of Free Masons, Rough Masons,
Paviors, Plaisterers and Bricklayers. The Rough Masons and Wallers are
Craftsmen, doing rougher work than that done by Free Masons. They are
of the Lodges of Free Masons, but may be regarded as Associates, having
of their own. They are regarded as "scabblers" and their work is not
course." They are allowed to enter the First Degree or Apprentice stone
but not the Second or Fellows yard.
The Slaters, Paviors, Plaisterers and
as the Tilers and Bricklayers), are also three separate and distinct
Lambert, in his "Two Thousand Years of Gild Life," [Lib 1891] gives the history
of the Fraternity of Bricklayers, Tilers, Wallers, Plaisterers and
Pavers of the
City of Hull. The Ordinances held by this Fraternity, 1598, are very
They had One Warden and two Searchers, to be chosen "yearlie, for ever
mondaie Sennitt after Sainte James daie the apostle." They were to show
towards "the worshipfull of the towne." Secrets of the town were not to
be disclosed. Reverence to be shown toward the Warden. The Warden and
not to be misused in words or deeds. One brother shall not "in anie
another in words." Absence from meetings and at the "hower" appointed
was forbidden. Not to be absent from the election nor from the election
Not to "lawe out" with another. The Warden was not to "forbeare any
man offending." Servants were to learne good manners and resorte to
service. Secrets of the brotherhoode were not to be opened or
disclosed. No apprentice
to be taken for less time than seven years. Not allowed two apprentices
None to "resorte to the; ale-house nor cardes in time of their worke."
None to do any "worke before he have ended his first worke." None to be
free unless serving seven yeares. To resort to the "buriall of anie
dieinge." Indentures to be inrolled.
The title, Worshipful Society of Free Masons,
Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Paviors, Plaisterers and Bricklayers,
composed of so many
distinct trades is at first sight surprising, but on investigation it
will be found
that it was not an uncommon state of affairs in the 17th century. In
1667, the 12th Trade Company comprised Free Masons, Rough Masons,
Slaters and Carpenters. In Oxford a Company was incorporated in 1604
Company of Free Masons, Carpenters, Joiners and Slaters of the City of
In Gateshead a most curious conglomeration of trades was incorporated
by a Charter
of Cosin, Bishop of Durham, in 1671. The Trades enumerated are Free
Stonecutters, Sculpturers, Brickmakers, Tilers, Bricklayers, Glaysers,
Founders, Neilers, Pewterers, Plumbers, Millwrights, Sadlers, Bridlers,
and Distillers."At Edinburgh, the incorporation of St. Mary's Chapel at
time embraced a great variety of Trades, such as Sievewrights, Coopers,
Bowmakers, Slaters, Glaziers, Painters, Plumbers and Wrights, as well
Later there were only two in the Union, the Wrights and the Masons, and
these separated, each becoming a distinct Corporation.
The greatest interest centers in Durham, where
the combination of Trades to be the same as the one under discussion.
In 1594, Bishop
Matthew Hutton incorporated the "Rough Masons, Wallers and Slaters." In
1609 Bishop James confirmed their Bye Laws and Ordinances, in which
they are designated
as "Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Paviors, Tylers and Plaisterers."
On April 16, 1638, Bishop Morton gave a new Charter to the "Company,
and Felowshipp of Free Masons, Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Paviors,
and Bricklayers." The Bishops of Durham were Counts Palatinate, so
originated from them.
These Operatives became Free men of the City,
conferred many rights and privileges upon them, and many of the gentry
of the country
became honorary members, regarding it as a great distinction, just as
members of the mercantile and professional classes become Free men and
of the Trade Companies of London.
The Mason's Company of London was incorporated
second year of Henry IV (1411) and was granted Arms in the 12th year of
(1473), which Arms are still used by them. Conder gives the date as
1472. The Slaters,
though not a recognized Company, have their Arms. The Paviors is a
Company. The Plaisterers were incorporated in 1501 and the Tilers and
in 1508. Various disputes have arisen among these Trades and others of
nature as to what was their respective work. In 1356, 1615 and 1632,
became very acute. In 1677 the Worshipful Society of Free Masons, Rough
etc., received a Coat of Arms which still hangs in the Gild Hall at
which is a combination of the Arms of the several Trades. In chief, on
side are those of the Masons: in the centre, those of the Slaters: on
side, those of the Paviors: below on the dexter side, those of the
Tilers and Bricklayers.
The Arms in each case are similar to, if not identical with, those of
Companies. In London, the use of the word "Free," in Free Mason, was
to lapse toward the end of the 17th century. This was because it had
ceased to be
a distinction when members of all the other London Companies were
and probably because the Free Masons had ceased to include Rough
Masons, etc., in
their Corporation. About 1655-56, London and Westminster Free Masons
association with other Trades. On this point accurate information is
obtain. In 1871, after the passage of the Trade Union Act, the Rough
Slaters and Paviors began to leave the Free Masons, and since 1883 have
of their own.
Operative Free Masons are divided into two
"Straight" or "Square" Masons and "Round" or "Arch"
Masons, and each class is divided into seven Degrees or Grades. A man
to one of these classes only, never to both, although he may be
one to the other, if the Masters so order it. When a man is
apprenticed, he selects
the form he intends to follow. The square is the symbol of the "Square"
Mason, and the Compasses the symbol of the "Arch" Mason. Blue is the
of the former, and red the color of the latter. Each one of the seven
its own special secrets, working rules and technical instruction.
The Degrees are:
to the Craft of Free Mason.
- Fellow of
the Craft of Free Mason.
- Super Fellows
who have their Mark.
- Super Fellows
who are erectors on the Site.
and Super Intendents or Menatzchim.
- Passed Masters.
Those who have passed the technical examination for the position of
known as Harodim.
- The Grand
Masters, of whom there are three.
Space forbids anything more than an outline
of the Rituals of the Worshipful Society of Free Masons (Gild) and the
Rite, taken from a Ritual that dates from 1726, and which, from its
and the apparent detachment of the Third Degree, is evidently derived
in the first
place from such a ceremony as the Annual Drama of the Operatives, and
in the second
place from the Ritual on which the London Third Degree was founded
Worshipful Society of Free
Indentured for 7 years to
a member of the Lodge. When approved, receives a well known pass and is
led to the
porch of the Lodge. Takes a short obligation of secrecy so that in case
he is "barred,"
his lips are sealed. Here the Treasurer sees that he deposits his fee
and the Doctor
that he is sound. He bathes and dons the toga. The Deacon prepares and
him. The ceremony does not differ greatly from our own, but an actual
is made for him, where ours is symbolic. He is taught how to hold the
hew the rough Ashlar. He is girded with an Apron on which are the rule,
maul. He is a Brother for seven years but not a Free Mason.
2nd Fellow of the Craft.
He gives a month's
notice of the expiration of his 7 years, and requests to be made a
fellow of the
Craft. Upon which inquiries are made as to his character. If accepted,
on a Saturday at High XII, and after his Indentures are torn up, and
his cord or
bond taken away, he is admitted with a pass, grip and word into a Lodge
of the 2d.
He receives as his working tools, the plumb, level and square, in
addition to those
of the 1d. The Master tests him with an Ashlar Cube and the gauge and
he is himself
tested by it. It is an exemplification of the ancient Oriental lines –
square thyself for use, a stone fit for the building is not left in the
The obligation includes that of our 3d, and the old Charges prove that
the case in ancient times.
3rd and 4th
Super Fellows. These
are Marked and taught fitting and marking, so that the stones can be
the Site which has been consecrated holy ground.
Tools, Chisel and Maul.
Drama. The Wor. Soc. of Free Masons (Gild) has
ceremonials of several sections. (1) It begins with the organization of
levy at the erection of the Temple, and there is an examination of all
and details from the 7th down to the 1st
(2) Next we have
the method of fixing the centre and four corner stones with a symbolic
(3) The chief rite is a Passion-play on Oct. 2nd annually. It follows
all the details of the old York Rite, but there is no Concealment. The
also relate to K. S. all the details of their acts, which come more
than when related by the Master. Sentence is passed on the three and
the mob deals
with the 12. At the end, the members beg K. S. to appoint a new G. M.
M. and he
appoints Adoniram, and he, as in the old York Rite, establishes a new
lodge of "Passed
Masters," a body of men who are examined and found competent in the
duties of an architect. (4) An example against negligence – a lost
(5) The Dedication. (6) A search for the vault which contains the
centre. When building
he 2nd Temple, they find the column and the plans, carry away same,
also a certain
(3300) Passed Masters (15) Grand Masters (3). The name of H. A. occurs
only in the
7th. The annual drama, when the Charges are
brought out and read, is
an entire history of the construction of Solomon's Temple.York Rite In
Apprentice Lodge, there are the tools of a working Apprentice, ladder,
the rough Ashlar is placed before those of the 1st.
There is an obligation
of secrecy before preparation, a part of which is that he carries some
prove that the "tongue of good report" has been heard in his favor.
proceeds much like that of the Gild, and the obligation is equally
strict in both.
The Master actually sets him to hew the rough Ashlar, though no doubt
it was mainly
symbolical. He is invested with a plain lamb-skin apron, the bib
covering the breast
with "the flesh side inwards." He gets his 2nd
in a month by
All signs of an Apprentice are removed, and the
level and plumb take their place, also the Perfect Ashlar Cube. He
makes three rounds
that his skill (as a supposed Operative) might be tested. At the 1st
round the J. W. hands him the plumb rule to test the uprightness of his
The 2nd time, the S. W. hands him the level to
try the horizontal position.
The 3rd round, the Master hands him the square
and tells him to examine
and test the Perfect Ashlar and prove its cubical dimensions. The
turning down the bib of the apron. Thus it represents the one now in
use. Some old
lines on the letter G and the noble science of Geometry conclude the
These have no relation with Grand Lodge
are Mark Man, and Master, of old, two Degrees, now one degree in two
the old Operative Lodges conferred a Mark. It was struck out as useless
3rd. Casual Master. The
Lodge is opened in
the F.C. Degree and the Candidate takes the Gild 2nd
O; B., our 3rd.
The last part of the ceremony then proceeds somewhat abruptly. A clock
or bell strikes
XII to represent certain things related in the Modern and Ancient Gild
relation does not differ materially from that now used, but is full of
action. The ritual corresponds very closely to the rites used by Aeneas
to the Manes
of his defunct friend. At the close, Solomon, to reward 3 of the F. C.,
the Officers of a "Casual Lodge of Masters" (a sham lodge of 12) to be
held in permanence. J.J.J. are tried and sentenced with their three
Adoniram is appointed successor and founds a new Lodge of Perfect
Masters. The Casual
signs which occurred at the "cause," are worked up to close the Lodge.
Royal Arch Degree of the
Contains same details, and is unquestionably a
of dissidents and extends to the Installation of the three Principals.
Installation. As modern Freemasonry has no Art
these exist only in name, as Wardens, Chair Masters and Grand Masters.
In the North
Country (England) Lodges, which were of Operative character and origin,
by the Harodim or Passed Masters. In every Degree of Operative Masonry,
is admitted in the toga candida of the old Romans, a white cloak open
at the breast
to show the wounds received in battle by the applicant who sought a
post. In all
the Degrees the Candidate is treated as a Living Stone. He is rough
dressed in the
1st, polished as a cube in the 2nd,
perfected in the 3rd,
and erected as a stone in the Living Temple in the 4th.
The three remaining
Degrees have their Rituals, but as their names imply, they are rulers
of the work,
and their Ritual deals with abstruse geometrical problems and the
to construct important buildings. As bearing on the Operative phase of
I desire to submit an Apprentice Indenture Paper, which explains
itself. This paper
is exactly similar to one submitted to the readers of the Ars Quatuor
Vol. III, by Brother John Yarker. [Lib 1890]
The Worshipful Society of
Free Masons, Rough Masons, Wallers, Slaters, Paviors, Plaisterers and
Lodge "Leicester," No. 91.
Established at Leicester, England, 1761.
THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH,
That Charles Hope Merz, M. D., of Sandusky, Ohio, U. S. America, doth
Apprentice to the Worshipful Society of Free Masons, Rough Masons,
Paviors, Plaisterers and Bricklayers (York Division), to learn their
Art and with
them, after the manner of an Apprentice, to serve from the day of the
until the full term of SEVEN YEARS, from thence next ensuing and fully
to be completed
and ended: during which said term, the said Apprentice his said Masters
shall and will serve, their secrets keep, their lawful commands
do: he shall do no damage to his said Masters nor see it to be done of
to his power shall let, or forthwith give notice to his said Masters of
the goods of his said Masters he shall not waste, nor lend them
unlawfully to any,
hurt to his said Masters he shall not do, cause or procure to be done:
neither buy or sell without his said Master's leave.
Taverns, Inns or Ale-houses
he shall not haunt: at Cards, Dice or Table or any unlawful game he
shall not play:
nor from the service of his said Masters day or night shall absent
in all things as an honest and faithful Apprentice shall and will
demean and behave
himself toward his said Masters and all things during the said term.
And the said
Masters (and their successors from time to time), the said Apprentice
in the Art
and Mystery of a Mason which they now use shall teach and instructor
cause to be
taught and instructed in the best way and manner that they can, finding
unto their said Apprentice sufficient meat, drink, washing, lodging and
necessaries during the said term and one pair of New Shoes yearly and
AND for the true performance
of all and every the covenants and agreements aforesaid, either of the
bindeth himself and themselves unto the other firmly by these presents.
IN WITNESS whereof
the parties above said to this Indenture, interchangeably have set
their hands and
seals this twelfth day of August, one thousand nine hundred and twelve.
Charles Hope Merz,
Clement E. Stretton,
1st Master Mason. Edward Peacock Male,
2nd Master Mason. R. Ogden,
3rd Master Mason.
Harry Smith, Clerk to the above said Lodge.
(Seal) Harry C. Bauer, Registrar.
Signed and Delivered
by the above named in the presence of John Yarker.
There is no question but that originally
were applicable to any nationality, as is the case in the Operative
but after Christian times and the acceptance of the Jewish Scriptures,
adopted as the type of the highest builder and wisest of men, and
therefore a Judaic
Commemoration ceremony was added outside of or as an explanation of the
The Grand Lodge of England in 1911 published an
note by W. Bro. John P. Simpson, B. A. P. A. G. Reg., which said: "The
of Freemasonry as far as the First and Second Degrees are concerned, is
no doubt, derived from the ceremony of the early Operative Gilds."
The note would have been more accurate had it
derived from the Operative ceremony – also the Third and Mark Degrees.
Degree was an afterthought as regards Speculative Freemasonry. As
1717, and laid down in the First Book of Constitutions, there was no
A Mason became a Master only when he became Master of a Lodge. The
in the present Book of Constitutions will suffice to make this quite
clear and this
paragraph is the same today as it was in the First Book of
Constitutions in 1723,
Sec. 4, Par. 2. [Lib 1723]
"No brother can
be a warden until he has passed the part of a fellowcraft, nor master
until he has
acted as warden, nor grand warden until he has been master of a lodge."
And the present Book of Constitutions has a
added to this section which does not appear in the Book of 1723 but was
1815: [Lib 1847]
"N. B. In antient
times no brother, however skilled in the Craft, was called a master
he had been elected into the chair of a lodge."
From the comparison of the Gild and York Rites
shown, it would appear that the Speculative Third Degree is based on
Rite, as it is an adaptation of the Annual Ceremony of the Operatives
on Oct. 2nd,
when they commemorate the slaying of the Third Master Hiram Abiff, a
the dedication of the Temple, celebrated on Oct. 30th.
It would make the present paper too long to
this question farther. Speculative Freemasonry has a survival of
Masonry in the Three Principals of the Royal Arch. In the English Rite,
of the Grand Master, the Pro Grand Master and Deputy Grand Master in
is a survival of an ancient custom and they are seated very much in the
as K. S., H. K. of T. and H. A. were.
It is not a difficult matter to trace the
the Royal Arch Degree. In laying the foundation of the Temple of
Solomon, in the
Commemoration Ceremony of the Operative Gilds, a vault was constructed,
below the floor. Over the center was erected a Pedestal, in which were
and a Scroll, on which were inscribed the first lines of Genesis. This
was laid out on the "Five Point System" and the center being fixed, it
is guarded by four men armed with swords in one hand and building tools
in the other.
When the fugitives returned from Babylon, the center of Solomon had to
and the laborers were set to find the vault and report to the Passed
had to report to the Three Grand Masters. When the vault was found,
Masters descended and brought forth the plans and Scroll, which every
brings away today. The reviewers of this Degree could not understand
Masonry had only one Grand Master while the Gilds had three. They
the three Principals all the attributes of the original builders of the
They held as their attributes, three rods, (3, 4, 5), by which they
could form a
square building or a 3 to 1 Temple. The Royal Arch Principals have
of rods and the private reception of these Principals and their secrets
identical with those possessed by the representatives of S. K. I., H.
K. T., and
H. A. Were the Pro Grand Master called H. of T. and the Deputy G. M.,
we should at once be correct.
The Drama of all the Mysteries has been of a
nature, calculated to teach man to conduct his earthly career in such a
to attain eternal life, and the Candidate has always personified a God,
risen from the dead.
A Rite that transformed into a Drama the career
Savior, was practiced by the Monks and Masons at York, when Athelstan
a Charter. There is no record of a Hiramic legend at that time. The
Greeks and Romans
introduced into Britain from Egypt a system of Trade Mysteries. These
modified into orthodox Christianity by the Culdees, a Monkish
fraternity who occupied
Scotland, Ireland and Wales and who taught and governed the Gilds
during the Saxon
period. As related previously, there was engrafted upon the plain and
Constitution of Masonry a series of Semitic legends that probably came
Palestine through the French Masons, who traveled from France to
England from time
to time. It is in France that we find the earliest allusions to
Dr. James Anderson was Chaplain of St. Paul's
1710. In the year 1714 he proposed that men of position should be
admitted to a
sort of honorary membership, and the accounts of that and the following
seven fees of five guineas each. He was expelled from the Worshipful
Free Masons for his disloyalty. All the time St. Paul's work was in
Gilds met at High XII on a Saturday, but Anderson changed the time of
7 o'clock on Wednesday evening, at the Goose and Gridiron, and in 1715
found that their old pass would not admit them. They complained to Sir
C. Wren and
Edward Strong and the dissidents were struck off the rolls. This is the
Anderson states that Wren "neglected" the Lodges.
We can readily see what Anderson "digested."
He made the Apprentice in a month instead of seven years. He dropped
of a technical nature, including the ceremonies of Mark Mason. He built
Institution on the Mystery Society of the Ancients – not Free Masonry,
but an imitation
of it – as he retained only so much of the old Rites as suited his
There was no quarrel at York that separated the
and Speculatives. The former continued to hold their meetings at High
XII on a Saturday
and the latter withdrew and met in the evening, and their Ritual
retained much of
the Operative customs not found in the Ritual of 1813.
Anderson never possessed the higher secrets of
VIId. We find this record:
"At the Speculative
Grand Lodge of England, held Sept. 29th, 1721, The Duke of Montagu, as
presiding, His Grace's Worship and the Lodge finding fault with all the
the old Gothic Constitutions, ordered Bro. James Anderson, M. A., to
same in a new and better method."
It is very certain that the present 3d or
was unknown in London and unacknowledged by the Grand Lodge before
undoubtedly derived it from York and there is strong evidence to show
had modelled it about 1726, adapting it from a source outside of actual
of work, hence London may have had it in 1728 for there was no rivalry
North and South of England at that time and communication was friendly.
further confirmed by the fact that York has always been looked upon as
from which modern Freemasonry emanated, and this all over the world,
for all Masons
who lay claim to the Ancient Ritual refer its origin to York.
In his "Arcane Schools," [Lib 1909] Yarker says:
"In all these
years the old Operative Gilds of Free Masons have continued their work
the secrecy of their proceedings. They have their Lodges in London,
Holyhead, Leicester York, Durham and elsewhere. Of late years they seen
become disgusted with the vain pretensions of modern Speculative
under authority of their co-equal Grand Masters of the South and North,
some extent, relaxed the secrecy of their proceedings."
Again he says, in speaking of Speculative or
Freemasonry, "many parts are quite incomprehensible, even to learned
without the technical part which only the Gilds of the Free Masons can
A careful and unprejudiced examination of the
will go far toward convincing the Masonic student that Speculative
irrefutably based upon and has many close resemblances to Operative
The Operative ceremonies are actual and concrete and refer to
realities, while the
Speculative ceremonies and allusions are symbolic and abstract and
refer to idealities.
The actual must pre cede the symbolic, for the latter to have reference
and the concrete must exist before the abstract can be conceived. The
must exist before the idealistic can be built upon it. The reason for
many of the
Speculative ceremonies can be found in the Operative Ritual, but the
get no elucidation from the Speculative Ritual.
It would be a pleasure to go into this subject
fully were space to permit. The writer hopes to publish at an early
date the Ritual
of the Operative Free Masons. In the meantime, any additional
information will be
gladly furnished upon request. Facts have been given where they have
as such, without any desire to impose upon the reader's credulity.
The Dewdrop -- [A Poem]
A fairy looking-glass Large as a tear –
Mirrors the things that pass,
Or far or near. Small though it be,
It holds the sun and moon;
Of skies with stars o'erstrewn –
A mimic sea –
Itself, this magic orb
Is inly lit
With secrets that absorb
Man's utmost wit.
Souls thus might shine
Ere vanishing like dew:
O would that mine
Such transient glory drew
From depths divine!
Both folly and wisdom come upon us with years.
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
AS an Ambassador from Masons in America to
in Britain, I have the joy to report a most gracious welcome. Indeed,
and brotherly love was worth crossing the sea, even in war-time, to
summer, while I was here on a visit, there was a little restraint, if I
not, between us, owing to the attitude of America in the world-war. At
least I felt
it to be so, perhaps beyond the fact, due to my own irritation at our
But that has now melted away even from my imagination, and an American
warmest welcome everywhere, and nowhere is it more delightful than
within the circle
of Masonic fellowship.
For example, it was my honor to attend a
British Lodge, at which a number of the men of America Lodge were
guests, met to
celebrate the advent of America into the war and the closer relations
two countries. It was a gathering never to be forgotten. The meeting
was held in
Free Mason's Hall, on Great Queen's Street, and was well attended.
is one of the oldest Lodges in England, being No. 8 on the Grand Lodge
list, – older,
in fact, than the American Republic – and it was fitting that it should
initiative. After a brief business session – and all business is
transacted on the
First Degree – the Third Degree was conferred in full form. Of this I
may not write,
of course, except to say that the work is very different from the
ritual of any
jurisdiction known to me in America – so different that, if I had not
degree it was, I should have had difficulty in recognizing it.
As usual, the Lodge meeting was followed by a
and it was while at table that the addresses were delivered – it being
to speak for America. It was like a family reunion, and all felt that
together of these two great nations means unpredictable things for the
civilization. One in arts and aims and ideals, they are now for the
first time one
in arms, fighting for a common cause in a spirit of comradeship which
is worth more
than all diplomatic alliances. The real American will now meet the real
and the real Scot, and when those three men know each other things will
on the earth, and the future will be better. It seems to me prophetic
of a new federation
of nations which must include, at last, even our enemies, in the
fellowship of a
nobler world-society. A favorite hymn over here now is a joint national
the first lines of which run as follows:
"Two Empires by
Two peoples great and free,
One anthem raise.
One race of ancient fame,
One tongue, one faith, we claim
One God, whose glorious name
We love and praise."
By the time these words are read, the
the founding of the mother Grand Lodge – the bicentennial – will have
Elaborate preparations are now being made to that end, albeit not so
they would be but for the war – the shadow that hangs over everything.
have not yet been announced, but there are to be at least two meetings
Hall, which seats, I am told, some ten thousand people; and to see that
of Masons on such a day will be a picture that will never fade. Ye
to have the honor of attending those meetings – except, of course, the
one on Sunday
morning, when he will be engaged in his pulpit at the City Temple. And
so, in his
next "official communication" he will be telling what an Iowa Mason saw
at the centennial session of the Grand Lodge of England.
Meantime, he makes note of another centenary –
of the birth of Elias Ashmole, described by his biographer as "the
virtuoso and curioso that ever was known or read of in England before
As astrologist, alchemist, herald, antiquary, engraver, his thirst for
was insatiable [Lib 1658]. He was
made an M. D., had Government offices, became an early Freemason – one
of the first
Accepted Masons of whom we have record, in his "Diary" [Lib 1927] – followed the Rosicrucians,
and had "the true matter of the philosopher's stone bequeathed to him
legacy." His large library of printed books and MSS. he handed over to
University. As the final load departed he wrote: "The last load of my
was sent to the barge and this afternoon I relapsed into the gout." A
too! His birthday was remembered at Oxford on May 23rd.
From across the great waters I send greetings
my Brethren, and especially to the members of the Research Society, in
which I have
an abiding interest and concern. I shall be telling them of Masonry and
on this side, from time to time, and after the awful war is over, I
hope to meet
many of them when they visit the Motherland.
JOSEPH FORT NEWTON.
The City Temple,
London, E. C.
Fame is a vapor, popularity an accident; riches
wings; those who cheer us today will curse us tomorrow; only one thing
Masonry Is Service, Continuous
PLEASE see the Worshipful Master of his Lodge
wanted to be buried with his Mother. A few of us subscribed $75 and now
body temporarily in a vault." This is part of a brother's letter sent
a few hundred miles distant. It explains much. You will understand
right away that
the Editor closed his desk at once and spent the afternoon seeking more
After a personal talk with the Master and
of the Lodge named, which by the way was not the Editor's Lodge at all,
an inspection of the records new and old, it was discovered that the
received his dimit exactly forty-nine years ago!
Where has the brother stood since that dimit
Has he not up to and even subsequent to his death received Masonic
not subscribing to any Lodge? Actually it does seem that under the
the granting of the dimit made the member free of all dues and of all
for life and entitled by that document to benefits of almost every
Another case came along one evening at Lodge.
Master's request the Editor went out in answer to a telephone call, the
being that a Mason was dead. He was not a member of any local body of
At the house we found a couple of Masons, one a relative of the dead
also well known to the Editor as a member of a local Lodge. Both
highly of the dead brother. Evidently he was a man of worth, a Mason of
"Did the family desire a Masonic funeral?"
Well, no. Already they had arranged for the
had not contemplated a Masonic service. But the widow thought on
account of her
husband's membership the local fraternity should be advised of his
death. She felt
sure it would have been his desire that the brotherhood have an
opportunity to attend
Frankly the Editor agreed to this reasonable
and said he would at once notify the Lodge of which the husband and
father was said
to be a member. On going down to the Temple to make a report he was
proceed with his plan. Accordingly he so advised the Lodge by telegram
of the death
and asked for instructions.
A reply did not come by wire, as you might have
the answer came leisurely by mail. Neither was it quite what was
expected. It said
that the deceased's name had over twenty years ago been taken off the
However, a few brethren did attend the funeral.
he was assuredly a good husband and father, and it was not seemly that
as wife and children had loved him should have their confidence shaken
by any assurance
or even a hint that he was not to be recognized as a Mason of the
For this deception, if so it must be adjudged, may we be forgiven. If
weak, it was
Only quite recently the Editor was asked what
be done when a member from another State had suddenly died and the
to have a Masonic funeral given the remains.
"Is he a Mason?"
Everybody thought so but no one could recall
him in a Lodge.
"Has any search been made among his papers?"
Yes, and the curious part of it was that
be found to show his membership.
"Did he ever say where he was made a Mason?"
Sure he did, but nobody knew more than the name
town, one of the largest in the land.
Oh, very well, then wire the Grand Secretary of
State and every Lodge Secretary in the city.
Alas, the only telegram that came back telling
acquaintance with the dead said that he was "an unaffiliated Mason," an
expression not any too easy to puzzle out to a clear conclusion in a
These three instances, by the way, are all of
recent experience, within the past twelve months in point of fact.
Ah, it is not for the Editor to say much more
somehow it does not seem impossible to make it certain that all men,
be Masons, shall in truth be what they say.
Is a dimit intended to be anything more than a
to show that the authorized holder thereof has paid the price of
admission and has
been received into fellowship but wants to change his pew? Surely a
dimit is not
a release from all demands the fraternity may make. May we not deem it
a note soon
due, and one never to go to protest? Maybe a uniform law on the subject
drafted that would be so straightforward and meritorious as to warrant
by all official Freemasonry.
Of those once members who to their loved ones
and cloak their severance with Masonic relations little need be said.
is unmistakably dishonest. It places the family in a false light when
of all times
they require sympathetic assistance, just when they are leaning with
upon a right no longer theirs to expect.
Lastly, what of those who have been ignorantly
would like to say, innocently – imposed upon? What of those who have
winked at such
Do we not need a revival of that serious view
when none were recognized but those proved true?
There are those who cannot make themselves
Masons save by stretching the tests almost to breaking. He that cannot
to be a Mason should not be recognized as such. None should recognize
any as Masons
until they have received knowledge of ample qualifications.
Wearing Masonic jewelry is not evidence except
the ability to get such decorations. Our tests are old but, they wear
are sure. They will save annoyance; yes, sorrow. Be careful to try them
any naked assertion to be substantial as proof.
Furthermore, the examination of Masonic
is not a street or office enterprise. There is but one really ideally
the Lodge; and but one fully competent authority, the Master, to order
Thus it is that where but few are prepared to examine and these seldom
chance, the many will go unchallenged. All the more reason therefore of
with new acquaintances, and as has been shown even old acquaintances
and Masonic silence in the absence of lawful information.
* * *
How Did You Know Him To
Be A Mason?
Competent and cautious Senior Wardens
themselves at the Lodge communications that all present are fully
qualified to remain.
They know the duty incumbent upon them, a responsibility not to be
will not wait until the last moment before convincing themselves that
the doors is all he professes or appears to be.
At that stage of the proceedings the successful
will be as courteous as he is cautious. Should he be in the dilemma of
the status of any who have entered the room and taken seats prior to
of the Lodge, he will at once confer with the Secretary and other
brethren. He will then approach the strangers with a proper grasp of
In these days of large lodges there is always
of failing to recognize all the members of the same Masonic body. What
thing it becomes when knowledge is denied openly or semi-privately of
of a visitor who later turns out to be of one's own family of the
will that chagrin endure. Lucky is the Senior Warden who escapes the
inflicting also upon the unsuspecting visitor a sore experience, a
it may be confessed, to the infrequent visits he has made but for which
he may not
be at fault because of absence from the neighborhood or like reasons
he has had no control.
So unpleasant a situation, bad as it is, does
with the stinging thorn planted in the consciousness when a visitor
of the confidence reposed in him. Negligence repentant bitterly bites
into the recollection
of a blundering examination or of a mistaken memory that passed the
by without critical search. None too exacting is the closest scrutiny.
He that warily recalls the just claims of the
Craft upon him will not be lured into hasty acceptance of a mere casual
as being necessarily a Mason, worthy and well qualified.
Let us not shirk the whole duty that waits upon
If it be ours to examine and to try an applicant for Masonic
recognition, then we
should aim at proper information and see that we get it.
What is here said applies to the Examining
as well as to the Senior Wardens. Yes, circumspection is always in
and without the Lodge to every unknown claimant of brotherly benefits.
Prudence pays, if only in peace of mind.
* * *
Masonic Service a Solace
in Old Age
Free-Masonry, if one loves and venerates it and
himself to its service, will illuminate with content the autumn and
winter of his
life, will enable him to live well and happy, and to die with contented
and the flood of its radiance will crown his grave with the splendors
of a glory
neither transient nor illusory.
I firmly believe that there is nothing which
self-approval, comfort and consolation, so well remunerate a man, when
of his life are shortening to the winter solstice, as faithful service
in the true
interest of Free-Masonry. If in those darkening days when past
successes and acquisitions
no longer dazzle the judgment, and their glamour no longer glosses over
and faults and errors, one can be sure that he has done all that
necessities and other exigencies have permitted, to purify and
strengthen, to exalt
and magnify Free-Masonry, he win hardly regret the Past or lack content
of mind in the Present.
I do not with leniency and indulgence judge
I know of much wherein I have failed and erred, and that I might have
more and done it better for the Rite, the interest whereof I have had
so much at
heart. But such is the story of every man's life. I am not weary of the
shall not be; until I can work no longer. How could I be, when I have
had for almost
thirty years the support, the confidence and the affection of my
associates in the
Supreme Council and of the Brethren in general throughout our wide
I can wish for each of you no better fortune than this, that the skies
of his life's
evening may be made as bright as mine are, by grateful remembrances of
and sympathy, and acts of loving-kindness, on the part of the Dead
is dear to him and honored by him, and of the living whom he loves.
And this I do wish each of you with all my
"The Hole Crafte Of
THE various trades of early England, as
were organized into gilds, or craft associations. Owing to the
importance of its
functions the builders', or mason's, gild always held a high place
among these societies;
indeed, in many cities it may be said to have dominated local affairs.
reason several of these builders' gilds lasted through the centuries, a
few of them
still existing at this present time. This is true, at least, of the
in London known as the "Worshipful Company of Masons of the City of
Organized in 1220 or earlier it has maintained an unbroken existence
more than seven hundred years and meets as of old in its headquarters.
For a long time Masonic scholars have been
in this Mason's Company because in it they found a connecting link
between the Speculative
Masonry of today and the Operative Masonry of old days. Historians not
a few have
endeavored to trace the origin of Freemasonry to all kinds of early
ancient mysteries, the Essenes, the Culdees, the Knights Templar, the
the Rosicrucians, and what not. But the best equipped scholars of the
insisted that the Fraternity as we now have it developed out of the old
gilds which once were so powerful in England. Those holding this view
the records of the Mason's Company of London of the highest importance
them they have been able to trace the gradual evolution of the rites
of the ancient architects into the symbolical ceremonies of the modern
Inasmuch as it gives us these records and traces this evolution Edward
book, "The Hole (ancient spelling for "Whole") Crafte of Masonry"
[Lib*] may rightly be considered one of the authoritative and important
Brother Conder was born in London, January 7,
and was initiated into Masonry in 1892. In the course of time he became
of the "Inner Circle" of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge of Research,
Having studied much in the early history of England (he was Fellow of
of Antiquarians) he won so high a place among his associates in that
of Masonic scholars that he attained to the Master's chair, the
perhaps, that can be conferred upon a student of Masonry. Many of his
papers attracted attention but his history of the Mason's Company of
him his widest fame. He was peculiarly fitted for this undertaking
because lie had
been made a Master of the Company in 1894.
It was at about this time that the "Court of
and Freemen" of the Mason's Company appointed him to write a sketch of
history of the organization. His "original intention was to compile a
of some twenty or thirty pages," but he found such a pile of facts
through old records and unpublished manuscripts that his "pamphlet"
into a volume of more than 300 pages. For this let us be thankful
because it gave
us one of the most valuable and interesting of all Masonic works. If
it; and others
like it, were more widely read we would be saved from so many of those
and ill-informed theories concerning our origins which do now so much
the intelligent student!
The ''Hole Crafte" is divided into four parts,
preceded by a brief introduction. In the first part the author presents
account of the earliest beginnings of Masonry, tracing the story from
down to the builders of the Middle Ages. This part serves as a helpful
to a vast and bewildering field.
In the second part he throws together the
fragments of information concerning the early builders' gilds that are
to be found
in early English traditions and histories. This portion of his story
the two centuries between 1000 and 1200. For the sake of brevity he
into chronicle form after the fashion of early writers, leaving the
facts to tell
their own story, and an interesting story it is.
Thereafter he publishes many portions of the
records of the Mason's Company itself, beginning with the year 1620.
once possessed earlier documents than these but they were destroyed by
this part of the book does not lend itself to easy quotation else we
in our present account a number of excerpts which throw badly needed
light on the
origins of much that is in our own rituals. The reader must turn to the
which, fortunately is not difficult of access.
Part four of the volume is in the nature of an
and gives us an inventory of the books and manuscripts now in
possession of the
Company; a list of its Masters and Wardens; a catalog of its "Livery
(the members entitled to wear uniforms); and a list of the clerks that
charge of its records. The first chapter of this part is of the most
us because in it Brother Conder develops a theory as to the origin of
the term "Free"
Mason. Briefly put, his idea is that the term came down to us from the
of old time, they having been called "free" masons because they worked
without plans, just as we still call a man a "free hand" draughtsman
does not work with drawing tools as an architectural draughtsman does.
has not found acceptance among the scholars but it is as sound as some
of the theories
The theory that modern Masonry descended from
practical architecture has often been set forth by our writers but on
evidence; in this volume we are offered the facts on which the theory
may be too much to say that Brother Conder has DEMONSTRATED the theory
but he has
come as close to doing so as any writer thus far. He himself, writing
in his introduction,
has given this as the chief significance of his work:
Company of Masons of the City of London enjoys, besides the interest
it on account of its antiquity and continuity, the peculiar distinction
other gilds, of being one of the principal connecting links in that
chain of evidence
which proves that the modern social cult, known as the Society of Free
Masons, is lineally descended from the old Fraternity of Masons which
in the early days of monastic architecture, now known by the
"I will not venture
to assert that the Mason's Company of London was the only channel by
which the old
constitutions of the middle ages reached the Speculative Masons of
1700. Yet, so
far as London is concerned, it forms THE ONLY DEMONSTRABLE SOURCE; and,
as far as
we know, it is ONLY in connection with this Company that any mention is
Speculative Masonry, as existing in London during the 17th century, or,
of any society of citizens meeting together for the purpose of
* * *
When the Master of all Good Poets makes up his
of early 20th Century singers he will surely not consider as the least
the lot the name of John Masefield. This man, at once very young and
very old, as
all true poets are, has given us a number of volumes of verse which
will not soon
die, containing as they do authentic gleams of inspiration, sentences
of life rather than reflection, and pages born of experience rather
It is the sea, perhaps, that he has most loved out of the divine
largess of nature,
the sea, and the ships that are the legitimate children of the sea.
There are poems
in "Salt Water Ballads" [Lib 1902] wherethrough there blows the
veritable wind, and whips
the wild spray, and smells the salt. But that other sea, equally
profound and almost
as mysterious, which we call the human soul, he has also traveled, with
those know best who have read his tragedies, "The Widow in the Bye
[Lib 1912] "Good Friday,"
[Lib 1916] "The Tragedy
of Nan," [Lib 1910] and "The
Everlasting Mercy" [Lib 1912]: in the
last named volume there is a description of a "conversion" which has
become classical in religious literature.
But poetry did not exhaust the seemingly
resources of this English mind. He surprised us all by furnishing to
University Library" one of the best brief studies of Shakespeare in the
[Lib 1911] When one true poet
interprets another, the stars have found a blessed conjunction!
And now comes his prose narrative of the
[Lib 1916] It will not do to
describe it lest the reader be robbed of his own joys of discovery; but
if you will
recall the story of that venture in blood and war, if you will then try
what that experience would naturally have become while passing through
of John Masefield, you will begin to anticipate the character of this
"Later," he writes, "when there was leisure,
I began to consider the Dardanelles Campaign, not as a tragedy, nor as
but as a great human effort, which came, more than once, very near to
the impossible many times, and failed, in the end, as many great deeds
of arms have
failed, from something which had nothing to do with arms or with the
men who bore
them. That the effort failed is not against it; much that is most
splendid in military
history failed, many great things and noble men have failed. To myself,
is the second grand event of the war; the first was Belgium's answer to
This volume was published by the Macmillan
in this year, at $1.35.
* * *
The Open Court Publishing Company, of which
Paul Carus is the head, has won the hearty regard of impecunious
its various series of low-priced books and reprints. Of these it is
the score or so of volumes belonging to the series "Religions, Ancient
Modern" have been of greatest service, though that is not to forget the
editions of the philosophical and religious classics. Of this
series no volume will hold greater interest for the Masonic student
than the little
brochure on "Mithraism" [Lib*] by W.J. Pythian-Adams, since there are
those who find hints and prophecies of Freemasonry itself in that
topic: Cumont, Franz - The Mysteries of Mithra [Lib 1903]) – rhm
Mithras is first heard of as a god in Northern
1350 years before our era. Beginning his "career" as a subordinate
he is at last exalted to equality with Ahura-Mazda himself by
Artaxerxes in 408
B.C. When the Persian Empire was overthrown in 331 B.C. the Mithraic
Cult was dispersed
over Asia Minor from whence it gradually invaded Rome. There it took
firm hold and
soon became one of the reigning religions of the Empire, growing
popular under Marcus
Aurelius and even winning as an initiate the Emperor Commodus. Being
in favor with the soldiers it grows in power until in 211 of our era
Caracalla permits a shrine to be constructed under his Baths. Suffering
a blow through
the triumph of Christianity in 312 it is revived under Julian only to
through the imperial edict of Theodosius in the last years of the
Surely a cult which enjoyed so long a career
contained much truth within its teachings! Indeed there are those who
much which passed into Christianity itself during the first four
centuries of its
history flowed out of Mithraism. However that may be, the fact remains
students of initiation will find many rich pages to reward a reading of
The Question Box
Lord Byron, Grand Master
of Masons in England 1747-1751
Dear Brother Editor: Not long ago at a Lodge
I made the statement that Lord Byron was once Grand Master of Masons in
and that some of the first New York Lodges had derived their charters
during his incumbency in office. A good Brother thought I was mistaken
He could not think Lord Byron had ever been Grand Master in England.
J. A. Jenkins,
The official "Calendar" of the Grand Lodge
of England shows that "William, Lord Byron," was elected Grand Master
of Masons in England in 1747, serving in that capacity until 1752 when
he was succeeded
by "John, Lord Carysfort." In Hughan and Stillson's "History of
and Concordant Orders" we are informed that Francis Goelet was
Grand Master for New York in 1751 by Lord Byron, Grand Master, but it
is not known
if Provincial Grand Master Goelet authorized the formation of any
was the first active Grand Master, succeeding Goelet in 1753 and
serving for eighteen
years. During his term of office the following warrants were granted:
No. 2 (now No. 1); Independent Royal Arch, No. 8 (now No. 2); St.
8 (now No. 4); King Solomon's No. 7 (extinct); Master's No. 2 (now No.
David's (moved to Newport, Rhode Island, and now extinct). Also five
satisfactorily accounted for. Warrants were also granted to other
of New York, some in Connecticut, one in Detroit, Michigan, and one in
* * *
Ritual of the Swedenborgian
Brother Joseph Hollrigl, New Hampshire,
concerning the ritual of the Swedenborgian Rite. After careful search
and many inquiries
we have been unable to locate a copy of any ritual ever used by the
Rite, or even to convince ourselves that any such ritual was ever
printed. If any
member can throw any light on this matter will he please speak up?
Beswick, in his "Swedenborg as a Mason," [Lib*]
argues that the Swedish occultist was an initiated Mason and father of
a rite but
this is vigorously opposed, and we think with telling effect, by Dr.
work, "Documents Concerning the Life and Character of Swedenborg." [Lib
1847] The curious
reader will find other material in the New England Craftsman, vol. 3,
p. 205; The
Tyler-Keystone, vol. 26, p. 32; Finders History [Lib*]; Reghellini's
work on French
Masonry [Lib 1842, Vol
3 (French)], and A.
Kohl's "The New Church and Its Influence on the Study of Theology in
Here is an important subject that will lead a
into many fascinating fields. Why won't some brother send us an article
and His Alleged Masonic Connections?"
* * *
Compasses or Compass
Dear Brother Editor: In visiting Lodges in
Jurisdictions I have noticed that in some they refer to the Holy Bible,
Compasses, while elsewhere the word used is "Compass." Which is correct?
A few years ago, Brother O.N. Wagley, one of
of Custodians of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, made inquiries concerning the
use of the
words "Compass" and "Compasses" in the various Grand Jurisdictions
of the United States and the replies received indicated that the usage
of the two
words was about evenly divided among the Jurisdictions. The Oxford
the word is now generally used in the plural. "Compasses," as does also
the Century. A defense of the usage of each word from some of our
members in whose
rituals they respectively occur might be interesting.
* * *
"Hail" Or "Hele"
Dear Brother Editor: A question has arisen in
Club as to the derivation of the word "Hail." I have been informed that
its use is obsolete except in Masonry and that the correct spelling is
R. S., North
The Oxford Dictionary defines the word "hele"
as meaning "to hide, conceal; to keep secret," and "to practice
keep a secret, keep silence." Also see Mackey's Encyclopaedia, revised
* * *
Ballot for Affiliation
Dear Brother Editor: – In what Grand
the United States is a unanimous ballot required on a petition for
J. C., Iowa.
A unanimous ballot is required on petitions for
in all Grand Jurisdictions in the United States, except Wisconsin and
article on "Dimits," page 134, THE BUILDER, May, 1917.
* * *
Rite of Adoption
Brother Editor: – I have read with much
article "Masonic Training of the Young" on page 159 of the May BUILDER
in regard to a Louveteau (Lewis) and as I believe this can be made the
binding some of our boys closer to Masonry and also renewing the means
some of the fathers, I will thank you to advise me where I can obtain a
copy of the ceremonies, instructions, obligations and prayers.
Wm. L. Abbott,
Write Brother John H. Cowles, 33d, Secretary
16th and S streets N.W., Washington, D. C., for a copy of "Offices of
Baptism, reception of a Louveteau and Adoption," [Lib*] by Brother
The price, we believe, is $1.00.
* * *
Brethren: – Will you be so kind as to let me
particular opinion or share me some information about the reliability
of the "Studies
in the Scripture" (set of six bound volumes) edited by Pastor C.T.
and also about the Charles W. Russell's Advanced Monism (there is a
league in the
United States). Have long ago heard pale references of both.
Sincerely and fraternally,
Panlilio, Angeles, Pampanga, P.I.
Our candid opinion is that the "Studies in the
Scripture" are valueless from the standpoint of the modern thinker.
Russell, as he called himself, performed a real service in leading many
of our American people to study the Bible; but, unless all modern
has gone helplessly astray, his own Biblical interpretations were wild
off the mark.
The Bible is a field of such breadth that it has been divided among
many specialties; for this reason it is unsafe to follow any one
though he may be infinitely better equipped for the work than Mr.
Russell. If you
are sufficiently interested we shall be glad, as best we can, to offer
you an outline
for Bible study based on authoritative works.
We are unable to tell you anything about the
Monism." If you will write to Brother Paul Carus, 122 So. Michigan
he will be able to give you any information desired about Monism.
National Affairs from an
Action Taken by the Grand Commandery of
Knights Templar, adopted at Sixty-Fourth Annual Conclave Held in
At time of our last Annual Conclave, the same
were rampant in Europe and on the seas as exists today but sustaining a
of Neutrality, no matter what our views may have been as to right or
wrong of contest,
it was our duty to hold our peace.
Now after all the happy years of peace that we
enjoyed, and the hope of future peace for all time to come, for which
we have been forced into war's awful holocaust against our wish or
One of the warring nations has ruthlessly swept
every thought of the laws of God and Humanity. Treaties have been
right to freedom of the seas denied, our ships and property destroyed,
and the lives
of our citizens sacrificed without explanation or apology, until we
could do nothing
else than to take up arms if we would maintain even a semblance of
and a right to be ranked as a Nation. We were compelled to enter the
war as a last
resort. We found that we must assume our share of the risks and dangers
to aid in
compelling a fuller understanding of rights among Nations, and what we
be our God-given right upon land or sea.
Patriotism, loyalty to government and to our
found running through every Masonic degree. It is, therefore, deemed
fitting that this great Order of Christian Knighthood should show to
the world our
loyalty to Country, our faith in God, and our love and veneration to
our Flag, and
all it stands for before the nations of the world.
Therefore, the Grand Commandery of Pennsylvania
in its Sixty-fourth Annual Conclave held in the City of Pittsburgh,
pledges to our
President, our National and State Administrations, and all in authority
war waged for God and Humanity, our moral and physical support to the
end that our
National Dignity and Honor may be maintained and a peace brought once
the world, founded upon the ideal of true Democracy, and recognizing
of our Great Republic resting upon the Fatherhood of God and the
May God maintain the right!
* * *
"Loyalty" -- [A Poem]
is no time to
quibble or to fool;
To argue over who was wrong, who right;
To measure fealty with a worn foot-rule;
To ask: "Shall we keep still or shall we fight?"
The clock of fate has struck; the hour is here;
War is upon us now, not far away;
One question only arises, clarion clear;
"How may I serve my country, day by day?"
There is no middle ground on which to stand;
We've done with useless pro-and-con debates;
The one-time friend, so welcome in this land,
Has turned upon us at our very gates.
There is no way, with honor, to stand back –
Real patriotism isn't cool – then hot;
You cannot trim the flag to fit your lack;
YOU ARE AN AMERICAN – OR ELSE YOU'RE NOT!
Lee S. Smith
Thomas F. Penman
* * *
The Problem of Food Conservation
To all Fraternal Organizations and other
The entire world is alarmed over the shortage of food and the high cost
of the necessities
The Farmers have been warned and advised to
their acreage of food-stuffs, and all other persons to cultivate all
to plant seeds and grow vegetables in their gardens and yards. This is
call to every citizen, to economize at the one end, by conserving our
from unnecessary waste, and at the other end, to increase the
production of the
The idea being to have sufficient food that we
and by the double process of saving and of increased production to
bring the cost
of living within the means of people whose earnings are small.
The Banker tells us that "A penny saved is a
made," and it is equally true that a pound of meat, a bushel of grain,
eatable saved, is just the same as that much more of food made or
After this long introduction, I sincerely and
appeal to all Orders, Societies and Associations of every kind
throughout this great
Country from now and until this cruel war is over to forego the giving
of all Lodge
or Society dinners, suppers, etc. Considering the thousands and
thousands of Lodges
of all kinds and other Societies and Organizations of all kinds who are
in the habit
of entertaining their members with suppers, etc., it is easy to be seen
wastage annually of millions and millions of pounds of food
and amounting to millions and millions of dollars.
Think again of the great population needing it,
wastage would feed. Then think of this great wastage, added to the
how much more plentiful and how much greater would be the reduction in
of all foodstuffs!
Then think of these many Millions of Dollars,
by the Lodges and Societies, laid aside in their Treasuries to meet the
of suffering Humanity for assistance, which will come from all points
of the Globe.
Having been a Mason for forty-six (46) years, I
would like to see the Masons of this Country initiate this movement,
but I think
the question so broad and serious that all should agree to co-operate
in the best
way possible to attain the end here sought.
I trust this article will appeal to all
this Country so that a start may be made and some action taken through
in a general appeal.
Will our Masonic Bodies be the first to act or
some others take the initiative? In either case I believe the Country
would be equally
and as sincerely grateful.
If the "Four Cardinal Virtues" mean anything,
NOW is the time to practice them.
Therefore, let us do our duty towards making
plentiful that none will suffer from the want of it.
This is a matter so momentous that as one of
station in life I have hesitated in its publication, but everything
must have a
beginning, and being beyond the age to render physical service I offer
best thing in my power – my sincere ant heartfelt advice which I most
devotedly feel, if accepted in the same spirit as offered, will be of
benefit to our Country and our Fellowmen.
Millhiser, 32d, Richmond, Va.
* * *
Cryptic Masonry and the
Dear Brother Editor: – Brother J. Angus Gillis
recent article in the January Builder on "Cryptic Masonry and the
writes as follows:
"Masonry is a
progressive science consisting of a series of degrees, and as practiced
in the American
system is divided into branches, or rites, which when taken together,
form the complete
American System of Freemasonry."
I would like, as a seeker after light, to know
Bro Gillis calls the American Rite? He says later in his article
is the top of ancient craft Masonry and Templary is the top of the
of Free Masonry.” Templarism is a trinitarian institution; Free Masonry
otherwise its membership would be restricted and its universality
so-called Masonic Knighthood is confined to Freemasons it is not a part
of any Masonic
rite nor is it a part of Masonry. Free Masonry in the United States
the two early English Grand Lodges and all its authority is derived
from one or
the other, and the original (Moderns) Grand Lodge specifically stated
that its Masonic
system consisted of three degrees only; while the newer Grand Lodge
the Holy Royal Arch into its systems. When in after years these two
they decreed that Freemasonry should consist of three degrees, E.A.,
F.C., and M.M.,
together with the Holy Royal Arch. Yet the strong prejudice of the
this intrusion of the Royal Arch into the system of Masonry persisted
an agreement was reached to place the Royal Arch under a separate
retain the three degrees ONLY in Free Masonry. Any attempt to ingraft a
order upon the body of Masonry can be nothing else than a blow at its
and is a distinct attempt to stamp, or impress, a creed upon an
itself upon toleration, which has heretofore invited men of every greed
to join its ranks and thus consummate a worldwide brotherhood. This
is the real excuse for the existence of the Order today.
For myself I am a Scottish Rite Mason and a
but I hold they are both entirely separate from Freemasonry although
for both is membership in a Masonic Lodge and therefore I look upon
them as subordinate,
or we might go further and say co-ordinate orders but not a part of the
Masonry. Reductio ad absurdum why not incorporate the Shrine and the
the American Rite!
* * *
How the Master Should Be
To the Editor: – The opinions expressed in the
Forum" confirm me more and more in the belief that my former
this matter were about correct, namely, that neither plan should be
the saving grace of common sense should always be exercised and that a
– combination of the two plans – is the only one that can best conserve
of the Lodge as a whole.
Such has been the course pursued by the Grand
of Iowa. There have been all told forty-nine different Grand Masters.
Of this number,
thirteen of them were elected from the floor, twenty-two had served as
Warden, and fifteen as Grand Junior Warden.
There can be no doubt of the fairness as well
great advantage of selecting the Masters from those who have shown
as Wardens, so that I believe that where character and competency are
what the exalted
position demands, then the Master should be selected from the Wardens,
should be no hard and fast rule in this, so that in case someone should
Warden, who has not developed the proper kind of material for Master,
should feel no slight upon him if the Master were selected from the
As to the committee on nomination, I think that
be unwise and that the procedure as suggested by Bro. Johnson of
the correct one to be pursued.
John W. Barry, Grand Master, Iowa.
* * *
Lest We Forget
Dear Bro. Editor: – In your April issue I note
Keplinger of Illinois makes an excellent point when he urges that all
articles be accompanied with citations from authorities consulted. As
he uses my
own derelictions to illustrate his point, which I unhesitatingly
I may be pardoned for calling further attention to the matter.
It would seem that all of us ought to turn over
leaf and from now on enter into the spirit of research with a
determination to do
better in the future. No one has insisted more than myself on just the
urged by Bro. Keplinger, and behold I am of the chiefest of the sinners.
There are a large number of very sincere
Masonry, who have spent years in accumulating data of considerable
value, and yet
have failed to properly index and preserve their references. While this
make their work absolutely valueless, it puts them in the position of
"authority" which their natural modesty would not claim.
It reminds me of J. J. Montague's lines on
in the Boston American,
it to somebody else,
And somebody else to somebody else,
And somebody told it to me."
There is a word of course "on the other side,"
which I offer, not as a personal excuse or in defense of myself or
others, but as
a suggestion of the difficulties we will have to overcome in the future.
For example, in gathering my own data, I once
a large library which is now the property of my lodge in another city.
other libraries in various parts of the U.S., made copious notes and
notes are perhaps stored in a dozen places or completely lost, having
away as worked into articles.
This slipshod method I believe to be common to
fraternity as barrels and barrels of reference and data seldom give the
I recall in particular the subject of "Chinese
Masonry." Heaven alone knows where all my references are now. This has
been written of in Masonic research as supposedly connected with the
Society" because less than 100 years ago somebody in India wrote to
in Scotland an article which was copied by somebody in America that has
on down to the present time – as a bunch of speculation.
Among my references and authorities convincing
the Triad Society had nothing whatever to do with Chinese Freemasonry,
the insignia symbols and signs of both organizations, very unlike. One
was a personal
interview with an American visitor to a Chinese Lodge. Another is a
an English officer whose life was granted him by a Chinese Mandarin in
days when China was a closed country to Europeans. The Englishman and
knew each other as Brother Masons, though their systems were separated
But anything I should now write on the subject
lose real research value for lack of authority. It would be interesting
the origins of Freemasonry to be traced as far back as written history
go with all the proper citations of where confirmation may be had. It
a life time of research to accomplish it, but I feel that some day it
will be done.
At present our antiquarians are chiefly concerned in comparing certain
For example, the Gild System has left us many
the Kabbalists and Hermetic philosophers a perfect hodgepodge of
hundreds and even
thousands of books containing references to the elements of what now
form the Masonic
degrees. The first two centuries the Christian writers are exceedingly
rich in material.
Every religion and everything that is known or discovered about "the
mysteries" will have to be checked up. Then we reach the known limit of
history and the beginning of the alphabet which takes us into the realm
inscriptions on monuments, oral legend, mythology, and so on back.
This requires a study of modern remains of
orders among primitive peoples. There have been some attempts along
by Churchward, Webster, Lang, LePlongeon, and others. But taken all in
work of each is separated sometimes by centuries from everything else.
I would propose that we begin with the present
map out the past into sections and assign a section to some one or more
interested and see what results would be obtained. In this way we might
some authority of our own, unless each of us already has made up his
mind as to
what he is going to find and intends to find whether or no.
– J. W.
* * *
Adams and Madison
Dear Sir and Brother: – In the Correspondence
of the November number of "The Builder," under Roll of Honor, John
Adams is mentioned in the list of Presidents of the United States who
I believe this designation incorrect. John Quincy Adams was one of the
Anti-Masons of the Morgan period and made the assertion, repeatedly,
that he had
never been a member of the fraternity. Without referring to the
authorities of the
time, allow me to quote from Mackey's Encyclopedia:
"Mr. Adams, who
has been very properly described as a man of strong points and weak
ones, of vast
reading and wonderful memory, of great credulity and strong prejudices,
in the latter years of his life for his virulent opposition to
Freemasonry. He hated
Freemasonry, as he did many other things, not from any harm that he had
from it or personally knew respecting it, but because his credulity had
upon and his prejudices excited against it by dishonest and selfish
who were anxious, at any sacrifice to him, to avail themselves of his
talents and position in public life to sustain them in the disreputable
which they were enlisted. In his weakness, he lent himself to them. The
a series of letters abusive of Freemasonry, directed to the leading
and published in public journals from 1831 to 1833. A year before his
were collected and published under the title of "Letters on the Masonic
Some explanation of the cause of the virulence with which Mr. Adams
Masonic Institution in these letters may be found in the following
in Henry Gassett's "Catalogue of Books on the Masonic Institution."'
"It had been asserted
in a newspaper in Boston, edited by a Masonic dignitary, that John
was a Mason. In answer to an inquiry, Mr. Adams replied 'that he was
not and never
should be.' These few words undoubtedly prevented his election a second
President of the United States. His competitor, Andrew Jackson, a
elected." Whether the statement contained in the italicized words be
not, is not the question. It is sufficient that Mr. Adams was led to
and hence his ill will to an association which had, as he supposed,
political evil upon him and baffled his ambitious views."
In a letter
dated Quincy, 22 August, 1831, John Quincy Adams states that his father
been initiated in the order and says, in effect, that the report that
he was a member,
probably gained currency from a complimentary answer of his father to a
and patriotic address from the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. The elder
always appeared to hold a favorable opinion of the order and remarked
upon the character
of his friends and other excellent men who were members of the society.
I have before
me a printed copy of a reputed letter of James Madison, dated
Montpelier, Jan. 24,1832.
It contains this statement: "I never was a Mason and no one, perhaps,
be more a stranger to the principles, rites and fruits of the
L. Finch, New York.
As the whirlwind
in its fury teareth up trees and deformeth the face of nature, or as an
in its convulsions overturneth cities, so the rage of an angry man
around him, danger and destruction wait on his hand.
and forget not thine own weakness; so shalt thou pardon the failings of
thyself in the passion of Anger; it is whetting a sword to wound thine
or murder thy friend.
If thou bearest
slight provocations with patience, it shall be imputed unto thee for
if thou wipest them from thy remembrance, thy heart shall feel rest –
thy mind shall
not reproach thee.
not that the angry man loseth his understanding? while thou are yet in
let the madness of another be a lesson to thyself.
in thy passion; wilt thou put to sea in the violence of a storm?
If it be
difficult to rule thine anger, it is wise to prevent it; avoid
therefore all occasions
of falling into wrath, or guard thyself against them whenever they
A fool is
provoked with insolent speeches, but a wise man laugheth them to scorn.
revenge in thy breast; it will torment thy heart, and disorder its best
more ready to forgive than to return an injury: he that watcheth for an
of revenge lies in wait against himself, and draweth down mischief on
his own head.
A mild answer
to an angry man, like water cast on the fire, abateth his heat; and
from an enemy
he shall become thy friend.
how few things are worthy of anger, and thou wilt wonder that any but
or weakness it always beginneth; but remember, and be well assured, it
On the heels
of Folly treadeth Shame; at the back of Anger standeth Remorse.
R.A.M.H., New York.
The Home Of Robert Burns -- [A Poem]
Robert G. Ingersoll, Aug. 19,
Scotland boasts a thousand names
Of patriot, king and peer,
The noblest, grandest of them all
Was loved and cradled here.
Here lived the gentle peasant-prince,
The loving cotter-king,
Compared with whom the greatest lord
Is but a titled thing.
'Tis but a cot roofed in with straw,
A hovel made of clay;
One door shuts out the snow and storm,
One window greets the day.
And yet I stand within this room,
And hold all thrones in scorn,
For here, beneath this lowly thatch
Love's sweetest bard was born.
Within this hallowed hut I feel
Like one who clasps a shrine,
When the glad lips at last have touched
The something seemed divine.
And here the world through all the years,
As long as day returns,
The tribute of its love and tears
Will pay to Robert Burns.
Sch80 / auth. Schaff Philip. - Philadelphia : American Sunday-School
Union, 1880. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 976. - 86.8 MB.
A Masonic Curriculum
Spe01 / auth. Speth George W. - Detroit : The Palestine Bulletin, 1901.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 26. - 2.8 MB.
A Poem of Moral Duties
Reg90 / auth. Regius Manuscript. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1390. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 70. - 1.0 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 003 - 1890
Ars90 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 277. - 23.5 MB.
Yar09 / auth. Yarker John. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
382. - 1.8 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And38 / auth. Anderson James. - London : J. Robinson, 1738. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 249. - 16.2 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Jos70 / auth. Josephus Flavius / trans. Whiston William. - London :
London Printing and Publishing Co.; Ltd., 1870. - p. 917. - 95.2 MB.
Dictionary of the Bible
Has09 / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's Sons,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1033. - 60.6 MB.
Mas161 / auth. Masefield John. - Toronto : S. B. Gundy, 1916. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 206. - 9.5 MB.
Mas16 / auth. Masefield John. - Cholsey : John Masefield, 1916. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 79. - 2.4 MB.
History of English Literature
Tai73 / auth. Taine Hippolyte A / trans. Laum H. Van. - New York :
Worthington Co., 1873. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 719. - 41.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 1
Gou84Yorston1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 412. - 32.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 2
Gou84Yorston2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 404. - 31.5 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 3
Gou84Yorston3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co., 1884. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 492. - 38.7 MB.
History of Freemasonry
(Yorston) Vol 4
Gou84Yorston4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - New York : John C. Yorston
& Co, 1884. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 748. - 59.0 MB.
History of Jewish Coinage
Mad64 / auth. Madden Frederic W. - London : Bernard Quaritch, 1864. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 371. - 13.4 MB.
Illustrated Handbook of
Architecture Vol 1
Fer74 / auth. Fergusson James. - New York : Dodd, Mead and Company,
1874. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 648. - 70.2 MB.
Illustrated Handbook of
Architecture Vol 2
Fer741 / auth. Fergusson James. - New York : Dodd, Mead and Company,
1874. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 645. - 87.7 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre72 / auth. Preston William. - London : Eidographic Reproduction
Publishing Co. 1887, 1772. - First Edition Facsimile : Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
295. - 5.2 MB.
La Maçonnerie Vol 1
Reg42 / auth. Reghellini. - Paris : J.-P. Aillaud, 1842. - Vol. 1 : 3 :
p. 484. - French - 15.9 MB.
La Maçonnerie Vol 2
Reg421 / auth. Reghellini. - Paris : J.-P. Aillaud, 1842. - Vol. 2 : 3
: p. 474. - French - 15.4 MB.
La Maçonnerie Vol 3
Reg422 / auth. Reghellini.
- Paris : [s.n.], 1842. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 403. - French - 13.3 MB.
Life of Swedenborg
Taf47 / auth. Tafel Johann / ed. Bush George / trans. Smithson I. H.. -
New York : John Allen, 1847. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 231. - 15.7 MB.
Macaulay's History of England
Mac53 / auth. MacAulay Thomas B. - London : J. M. Dent & Sons
Ltd., 1953. - Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 640. - 20.4 MB.
Macaulay's History of England
Mac531 / auth. MacAulay Thomas B. - London : J. M. Dent & Sons
Ltd., 1953. - Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 688. - 20.0 MB.
Macaulay's History of England
Mac532 / auth. MacAulay Thomas B. - London : J. M. Dent & Sons
Ltd., 1953. - Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 574. - 23.2 MB.
Macaulay's History of England
Mac533 / auth. MacAulay Thomas B. - London : J. M. Dent & Sons
Ltd., 1953. - Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 566. - 22.7 MB.
Old Charges of British
Hug72 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : Simpkins, Marshall &
Co., 1872. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 8.2 MB.
Philosophy of Religion and
Fai76 / auth. Fairbairn Andrew M. - New York : R. Worthington, 1876. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 346. - 9.2 MB.
Real History of the Rosicrucians
Wai87 / auth. Waite Arthur E.. - London : George Redway, 1887. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 456. - 18.1 MB.
Mas02 / auth. Masefield John. - London : Grant Richards, 1902. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 126. - 3.1 MB.
The Constitutions of Freemasonry
Whi47 / auth. White William H. - London : Norris & Son, 1847. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 169. - 7.0 MB.
The Diary and Will of Elias
Ash27 / auth. Ashmole Elias / ed. Gunther R. T.. - Oxford : Oxford
Press, 1927. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 98. - 23.6 MB.
The Mysteries of Masonry
Rey70 / auth. Reynolds L E. - Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott &
Co., 1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 588. - 33.1 MB.
The Mysteries of Mithra
Cum03 / auth. Cumont Franz / trans. McCormack Thomas J.. - Chicago :
The Open Court Publishing Company, 1903. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 270. - 5.3
The Tragedy of Nan
Mas10 / auth. Masefield John. - London : Grant Richards, 1910. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 109. - 3.3 MB.
The Way to Bliss
Ash58 / auth. Ashmole Elias. - London : J. Grismond for N. Brook, 1658.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 229. - 13.3 MB.
The Widow in the Bye Street -
The Everlasting Mercy
Mas12 / auth. Masefield John. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1912.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 244. - 4.6 MB.
Two Thousand Years Gild Life
Lam91 / auth. Lambert J Malet. - Hull : A. Brown & Sons, 1891.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 438. - 15.1 MB.
Mas11 / auth. Masefield John. - New York : Henry Holt and Company,
1911. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 259. - 6.5 MB.