Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
The Faith That Is In Them
– A Fraternal Forum
Edited By Bro. Geo. E. Frazer,
President, The Board Of Stewards
Evans, District of Columbia.
Harold A. Kingsbury, Connecticut.
Dr. Wm. F. Kuhn, Missouri.
Geo. W. Baird, District of Columbia
H.D. Funk, Minnesota
Frederick W. Hamilton, Massachusetts
Dr. John Lewin McLeish, Ohio.
Joseph W. Norwood, Kentucky.
Francis W. Shepardson, Illinois.
Jos. W. Eggleston, Virginia
M.M. Johnson, Massachusetts
John Pickard, Missouri
Silas H. Shepherd, Wisconsin.
Oliver D. Street, Alabama.
S. W. Williams, Tennessee.
Joe L. Carson, Virginia
T.W. Hugo, Minnesota
to this Monthly Department of Personal Opinion are invited from each
has contributed one or more articles to THE BUILDER. Subjects for
selected as being alive in the administration of Masonry today.
Discussions of politics,
religious creeds or personal prejudices are avoided, the purpose of the
being to afford a vehicle for comparing the personal opinions of
students. The contributing editors assume responsibility only for what
over his own signature. Comment from our Members on the subjects
will be welcomed in the Correspondence column.
Shall The Dues In Masonic
Bodies Be Increased?
dues in Masonic bodies be increased to cover the financial support of
in the respective Grand Jurisdictions? If so, shall such Masonic homes
for aged and infirm Masons only, or for Masonic widows and orphans? If
members of each lodge be encouraged to contribute as individuals to a
at the disposal of a charity committee regularly appointed by the W. M.?
The Future Has Heavy Burdens
in Ohio, ample provision is made by the Grand Lodge, through its annual
assessment on lodges, to provide for the support of a Masonic Home, it
me as a bounden duty that each lodge in a jurisdiction constitute
itself a unit
to contribute annually according to its means to the proper financing
of an institution,
which should be one of the foremost of its Charities. Charity is a
of our Order, and first of all such, should come our own Masonic
must take care of its own, and the calls upon Masonry in the near
of the parlous times in which we now live are bound to be considerable.
increase of lodge dues such as you suggest, should be met where
even though at the cost of considerable lodge embarrassment. As between
financing of a Masonic Home, and the luring of passive Masons to lodge
by the stomachic
route, there should not be a moment's hesitancy in making one's choice.
eliminate the superfluous banquet, the entertainment, the picnic or
degree" and let each craftsman put his shoulder to the wheel to help
the financial well-being of the Masonic Home.
If you refer
to our obligation, it will convince you that the inchoators of the
held in equal esteem the Masonic widows and orphans, these being ever
the Master Masons in the setting forth of the duties of the craftsmen.
So in practical
Masonry today, in building for the future, we should build equally for
wife, widow, mother, sister, son and daughter, as for the needy and
The greater the hardship the better for the craft. Masons must face all
and it is their privilege to serve. We cannot afford as Masons to show
for the well-being, spiritually and materially of our widows, and our
does another great religious world force evince for its own in this
the task to sustain the grand reputation handed down to us by our
and make Masonic Charity mean something wherever the Square and
Compasses have blazed
a trail. It is admirable in any lodge to encourage brothers to
contribute as individuals
to a Charity Fund at the disposal of a Charity Committee appointed by
the W. M.
Far better to my mind, however, the plan adopted by my own lodge,
369 (Ohio), some fifty-one years ago, of providing for an enforced levy
each year from the General Fund to be added to the Charity Fund, this
be under control of the Trustees and dispensed at their discretion for
our own lodge
charities only. Starting with nothing in 1866, Excelsior soon amassed
thousand dollars for this particular fund alone, and it is still
growing. That our
forbears builded well, the brethren are beginning to realize, with
present and presumptive
calls made upon this fund.
John Lewin McLeish, Ohio.
* * *
A Home Must Have Assured
to me that the logical order of questions is this:
- Does the Jurisdiction need
the care of any kind of Masonic dependents?
- If yes, which need is the most
– for aged Masons (with or without their wives), or for widows and
- How shall such a home be
1 and 2 are ones of fact purely and can be decided best, in my
judgment, by a careful
study of the applications for charity made to the Grand Lodge and the
Lodges over a series of years. An attempt to get the opinion of Lodges
questions would probably have misleading results.
No home should
be undertaken without assured revenue. This would ordinarily come from
tax under the established methods of Grand Lodge finance. It would seem
to be difficult
to assure revenue on any other basis.
probably only care for the support or possibly for supporting a sinking
capital to start the institution would probably have to be raised by
or might come from bequests.
This is not
the Massachusetts method, but the financial methods of the Grand Lodge
throughout are different from those commonly used in other Grand Lodges
could not well be as suggested as models.
Frederick W. Hamilton, Massachusetts.
* * *
Dues Democratic. The increasing of dues in Masonic bodies is a matter
be studiously avoided wherever and in every way possible. It is so easy
to add just
a little, with the idea that the amount is so small that it will not
amount to anything;
not with the idea of making it hard for anyone – and yet, these small
gradually amount to a sum that may be almost prohibitive especially to
Lodges, and it is among those very Lodges that we often find the finest
realization of true fellowship and brotherhood. To gradually raise dues
to the breaking
point for any purpose is neither Masonic nor advisable – and it is a
the maintenance of large charitable institutions can be accomplished
expenditure of sums of money for establishment (original cost) repairs,
eventually become so large that, if invested, would produce an income
to enable annuities to be granted, allowing the recipients to continue
to live with
relatives and friends.
such Homes ARE established, they should by all means include the Aged
brethren and their dependent Widows, as well as the Orphans.
If the Annuity
system be used, it should be made available through a Committee working
of the Grand Lodge, and the money raised in the usual way by a per
capita tax on
the membership of the Lodges in the jurisdiction.
I do not
wish to be understood as condemning the many magnificent Homes that
have been established
throughout the country, neither do I lose sight of the benefits derived
earnest work of Christian men and women within these institutions and
good derived from proper intensive training of youth along religious
lines – these are, unquestionably, excellent and most desirable – but
aged and infirm of both sexes could not be as well, if not better cared
for at less
actual cost in institutions that are already established and in working
means of the granting of suitable annuities that could be graded
according to necessity,
is a grave question.
From a sentimental
standpoint, there is no choice. There is nothing that will conduce to
and well-being of a Mason in his years of health and strength, as to
know that when
he is enfeebled and unable to provide for himself and those he loves,
will be cared for within the family bosom of the Brotherhood that he
loves so well
– next to his OWN HOME, there is no place on earth where he will feel
they are so
safe from harm as in a well-appointed Home that is run under the
of the Grand Lodge – a place where the aged and infirm brother,
together with his
Widow and Orphan can and WILL be made as comfortable as possible by
S. W. Williams, Tennessee.
* * *
The President Of A Home
of such Homes should come from the treasury of the Grand Body of the
which has authorized their establishment, and the per capita tax on
be increased sufficiently to permit of that appropriation.
should be for all Masonic dependents, but if possible the
accommodations for the
children should be separate from those of the older persons.
should not be depended on to support the Home, but there is no reason
should not be urged to contribute to some funds for special objects
needed at the
A very important
feature of the finances of a Home is to charge each Lodge sending a
person to the
Home a certain small weekly sum; this tends to make them a little less
generous; 25 cents for a child, 50 cents for a woman, 75 cents for a
man; the tendency
is when it does not cost anything more to dump everything onto the
Home, but a little
sum like the above is a great economizer. I have been 13 years
President of a Home
and have learned a few things in connection with Masonic charity when
it don't cost
the dispenser anything, with Masonic sentiment in connection with the
of a Home, and the necessity of strict business principles from the
T. W. Hugo, Minnesota.
* * *
Let the Dues
Be Ample. Dues should be ample for Lodge purposes without depending on
existence, for the obvious reason that Lodges should not have the
incentive of a
need for new members. Grand Lodges should levy tax sufficient to care
of orphans and old Masons, preferable, I think, in private families.
if decided on, should be separate institutions for the aged and
should care for its own, their means to be supplemented, when
necessary, from funds
of Grand Lodge in hands of a good Grand Charity Committee. Voluntary
be encouraged rather than relief by taxation, because that is the only
charity. Homes are, many of them, costly failures, and all expensive
to manage. Bricks and salaries are only extravagant advertising at
not thy left hand know, etc."
Jos. W. Eggleston, Virginia.
* * *
Homes. The lodges should support the Masonic Homes in their
jurisdictions and when
necessary the dues should be increased for such purpose. Masonic homes
established for aged and infirm Masons; also for Masonic widows and
occasion demands it.
H.R. Evans, Washington. D. C.
* * *
Cares for Her Own. The great landmarks of Freemasonry are faith in God,
immortal life, and love of fellowmen. Belief in the first two can best
by practicing the third. Each Grand Jurisdiction should, it seems to
me, make adequate
provision, under exclusively Masonic control, for the care of its aged
its sick and suffering, its widows and orphans. Its hospitals should be
Its Home should be all that this name implies. Its orphans should be
educated with the most scrupulous care. Not until they are fully
they be sent out into the world, and the watchful eye of the Masonic
even then see to it that they have a fair chance in the battle of life.
Jurisdiction of Missouri is demonstrating today that all this can be
done and well
done without an excessive tax upon the brethren. And in Missouri also
Order of the Eastern Star has done a magnificent work in aiding to make
Home of Missouri an institution of which every Mason and every Star in
is justly proud.
John Pickard, Missouri.
* * *
Favors Use Of Both Plans,
It is my
opinion that neither a Home nor a Charity Fund alone is the ideal plan
for our dependent brethren, their widows and orphans. To be complete
be both. Some cases cannot be cared for in their own homes or among
and relatives. Some have no homes, some have no relatives, some have no
who can and will undertake the burden even for ample pay. Others have
or relatives, where to the increased happiness of all, they could and
would be lovingly
cared for with the aid of a monthly or quarterly stipend from a Grand
In addition to an annual tax on all the Masons in the jurisdiction to
forms of relief, there should also be Permanent Endowment Funds created
by voluntary contributions and by a small percentage of the annual per
set aside each year for this purpose.
the several lodges for their own dependents would be too irregular and
it should in all cases be furnished at least in the greater part by the
acting in unison under uniform regulations which would bear equally
upon all and
insure equal benefits to all according to their necessities.
say I have set an impossible standard. It is not. That it is high I do
but no great accomplishment was ever achieved without a high standard.
of a worthy brother in a Masonic lodge should be a guaranty that
neither he nor
his wife and children should ever want for the necessities at least of
Oliver D. Street, Alabama.
* * *
Thinks Homes Very Desirable.
of the dues in the lodges to an extent that provides an adequate per
the Grand Lodge "charity fund" is the most satisfactory and equitable
way of providing for the ones we wish to assist and is particularly
those Jurisdictions which maintain Masonic Homes. In every Jurisdiction
I have any knowledge this per capita tax is supplemented by voluntary
of those who are more able to give than the average brother and these
contributions are sometimes very large. The act of giving, which is, in
capita tax plan, an act of the Fraternity as such, often creates a
desire to do
something as an individual.
It has been
demonstrated by the different Jurisdictions which maintain Homes that
they are the
best method of doing our duty to our brethren who need care in old age
and the widows and orphans. I believe that Homes should be provided for
all of those
who are in need of our assistance and who can be better taken care of
in the home
than elsewhere. However, I believe it is advisable to maintain the
orphans in a
separate home where practical, and at least in a separate building.
A duty correctly
comprehended is a pleasure, and it is the opinion of your scribe that
interest in others' welfare produced by being a contributor to a
Masonic Home will
have an uplifting influence among many brethren who would not otherwise
it called to their attention.
Silas H. Shepherd, Wisconsin.
* * *
Is Half Charity Real Charity?
brethren, has the advantage of reading what you have said, before he
for himself. What you have said so well above should stir up some real
Here is a subject that reaches every lodge and every Mason alike. And
we have now
the ever increasing demands of war charities.
establish a scientific system of Masonic charity? If we support homes
at all, does
not each initiate come into our order with the implied understanding
that we have
a definite plan for his relief in the time of his need? Facts are
at times. In many jurisdictions we commit infirm Masons to Homes which
have no endowment
and which depend upon periodic contributions for their meagre support.
whether this half charity is real charity in any sense of the word. Oh,
I do not
mean to disparage the splendid courage and sincere devotion of the
manage these institutions. But I do question the moral right of our
order to establish and maintain any haphazard, sporadic and unendowed
charity. Better by far that we send our brethren elsewhere, say to the
than that we should partly do that which many of our members think that
should not do at all.
What I have
written reads cold blooded. Every charitable institution challenges our
But must we not some time take the viewpoint of how we would feel, if
sent by our
brethren into the care of an institution that has no secure and assured
Perhaps the time has come when we should say to the world that Masonry
is not a
charitable institution; that the order assumes none of the financial
of its members. It is not a difficult matter to state this question; it
the best thought of all our leaders to rightly answer it.
George E. Frazer, IIlinois.
By Bro. A. W. Tichnor, Michigan
I SHOULD like to derive the word Lodge from the
"lecgan," to "lay" or "lie." I like this derivation
better than that from the Greek "logos," as none of the other
of this word have the soft "g"; and I like it much more than that which
derives it from the German "Laub," and makes it cognate with "lobby."
Perhaps, however, some brother, more fortunate than myself, has access
New Etymological Dictionary of the English Language [Lib 1888], now being published
in England, and probably the last word in etymological definition.
If Lodge is derived from "lecgan," however,
we may formulate three definitions all containing the root meaning, and
applicable to Free Masonry.
The first definition, then, that we can give to
word Lodge is that it is a place where Free Masons "lie," or rest,
their travels in foreign parts, and is undoubtedly taken from the name
huts that lay around the feet of the great Cathedrals on which the
their art and skill. It was in these that the Craftsmen lay at night
and spent the
eight hours allotted to refreshment and sleep.
Symbolically, let us remember that, as Masons,
on this earth, traveling in foreign parts working at the erection of
in which, when it is completed and the ledger – or cope – stone is
laid, the Stone
rejected by the builders, we expect to possess the Word and to receive
our due wages.
The place of our labors, however, is the Lodge; and this is
as the world wherein we rest until we receive the summons to travel on
Now let us examine the symbolism that compares
to King Solomon's Temple. This edifice, and particularly the Sanctum
Holy of Holies, was that in which the Word of God lay, and which, to
Jew, was the Lodge of God among men. But the Temple was but a symbol of
not made with hands, eternal, in the heavens, and it is on this House,
that we as Masons are laboring, preparing, by means of our working
tools, the living
stones. Let us notice, by the way, how the rough ashlar is taken by the
and, after the application of the point of a sharp instrument, made a
and set in the corner of foundation. Then again, more firmly held by
and, having been tried by the square, it is passed to a more excellent
and caused to stand before the eye of the Supreme Architect. Finally,
securely bound by the cable-tow, according to the plans delineated by
it is raised, after many trials, from earth to heaven, where finally it
the Word. Symbolism therefore teaches us that the Lodge is where our
In the lodge of the master of the work our
brethren gathered to transact such business as might properly come
and to make, pass and raise Masons. So an assemblage of Masons came to
a Lodge. But here let us remember that with such a Lodge lay the power
the degrees and of regulating the Craft, and so, authority having been
with a proper number, they might be considered, in an especial sense,
There is a striking similarity between Free
and the Catholic Church. Corresponding to the Worshipful Master is the
to the brethren about the Lodge the Bishop's council of presbyters. To
committed the deposit of the faith – which is the Word of God – and the
of the Mysteries, by which men are introduced, passed and raised – by
means of the
Sacraments – into a position of unity with God. So with the Master,
Brethren is lodged the "Landmarks" – of some of which we should not
too openly – and the power of ministering the Mysteries after the true
with the result of making a man ultimately the depository of the
Masonic Word, which
in itself is symbolic of unity with the Grand Architect of the
Universe. Thus a
body of men may be known as a Lodge, because of what "lies" with them.
There is another sense in which Masons use the
Lodge, and that is in connection with a piece of furniture seen only,
as a rule,
at the consecration of new lodges. It is used there as a symbol of the
it may also be taken to be a symbol of the Ark of the Covenant – which
by the way, of the wood of the acacia – which was the place of deposit
of the Testimony
of God (Ex. xxv., 16). I think that the Ark of the Lodge should be that
what is revealed at the illumination of a Mason, the Word of God, and
the Urim and
Thummim of Direction and Truth, the Great Lights of Masonry. (cf.
of the Bible," and Pike's "Morals and Dogma" sub voce.)
It must be remembered that the Ark of the
the primary symbol of the Presence of God in the revelation of Religion
older order. It lay first in the Tabernacle and afterwards in the
Temple, and was
that for which the Temple was built to contain. At the destruction of
it disappeared – "Arca Testamenti nostri direpta est, 4 Esdras x. 22,
– and it, and the cavern in which it was hidden were objects of search
to the pious
Jew. (cf. Jerem. iii. 16, and 2 Macc. ii. 4, et seq.) Some scholars
state that the
Ark was destroyed; but certain traditions indicate otherwise.
We may further notice that, according to the
it was not God's purpose to take Himself away absolutely from His
people, but only
to retire from them for a while as a punishment for their sins. It
for Him to remove from them the abiding presence of His Word, because
had profaned it by their misconduct, because they looked on the Mystery
with less than that reverential awe due it, and had made it common
among them. Therefore
the Ark was taken from them, the Word was lost, but not forever. And so
of Consecration could well remain as the symbol of the resting place of
and the abiding principle of Free Masonry.
Now all of this may be taken as a study in
and some of the symbolism contained therein. And it is concerned here
the objective philosophy of Free Masonry than the subjective, which
seems to be
the trend of Masonic study of today. But still we have seen that the
Lodge, in all
senses of the word, represents the Deposit of the Word of God, where it
or is "lodged," for the benefit of the Craft, to be given each one at
the completion of the Temple, if found worthy. Some of us, it is true,
the Word is to be found in Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews, whom we
God with us, the Tabernacle of God with men, the Temple destroyed and
three days. So we strive to defend the Christian religion and spread
cement of brotherly love and friendship, that we all may be "builded
for an habitation of God through the Spirit." (Ephes. ii. 22.)
Labours -- [A Poem]
Elizabeth Gibson Cheyne
is worth doing
That does not eventually send a man
On a higher and wider quest.
All labours that narrow,
All toils that deaden,
All pursuits that enslave,
Are enemies to be fought
With the sword of enterprise
And the arrow of adventure.
Therefore, at any moment
Of this eventful or uneventful life,
It behooves a man to ask himself
What he is doing,
And whither his work is leading him.
If it is leading him to prison,
To lethargy, or to mutilation,
To dishonour, or to death,
Let him arise and take ship
To the furthest port he can reach,
Or let him wander among the mountains
Making new observations,
And finding nobler labours.
The Pillars of the Porch
By Bro. John W. Barry. P.S.G.W.,
Nor was Solomon without examples in the Holy
according to I. Samuel, III., 3-15, the Ark was housed in a temple at
Canaanites had large temples in the time of the Judges. The Temple of
at Shechem, was a place of refuge for a thousand men. (See Judges IX.,
was a large temple of Dagon at Gaza, supported on pillars, for which
XVI., 23:29, and one at Asdod (I. Sam. V., 5:6, and I. Chron. X., 10.)
In the land
of Hiram were many temples, as related by Josephus. A single
illustration will suffice.
On page 257 of Antiquities of the Jews [Lib 1870 (pg 166)] is the following: "Menander,
translated the Tyrian archives out of the dialect of the Phoenicians
into the Greek
language, makes mention of these two kings, where he says thus: 'When
dead, his son Hiram received the kingdom from him. He raised a bank in
palace, and dedicated the golden pillar which is in Jupiter's Temple.
He also went
and cut down materials of timber out of the mountain called Libanus for
of temples, and when he had pulled down the ancient temples he both
built the temples
of Hercules and that of Astarte.'" And why, it may be asked, are there
or no remains of those temples as compared with temples built long
before on the
Nile? Largely because they were of wood construction. The columns were
with metal or wound with hemp, and coated with stucco. Layard's men, at
during his digging there, found sufficient of such encased wood columns
their camp fires. And such, with few exceptions, was the construction
in the Holy
Land before Solomon. But as to foundations of heavy masonry there are
remains at Baalbec, Palmyra, and other places. Solomon's Temple was,
new and exceptional in its construction only in the extreme richness of
and in making Jachin and Boaz wholly of brass, and its perpetuation in
of men is due principally to the fact that it was the first great
to the Living God. As such it has and will endure in the minds of men.
For four hundred and nineteen years it stood a
building. Because of its fine workmanship, because of its lavish wealth
and because it was the Temple of the God of Abraham, it became well
known not alone
to priests, princes and kings, but to builders throughout the world as
such a building would be imitated and duplicated by other kings
thirsting for glory.
Josephus says it was duplicated on Mt. Gerizim and also in Egypt by
in his learned treatise, "The Temple of Jerusalem the Type of Grecian
shows that Grecian temples, built while Solomon's Temple was still
duplicates of that famous structure. This view is held by a number of
who after long years of study of the Temple of Solomon, have come to be
as almost final authorities. Among this number is Edward Charles
Hakewill, an architect,
who has published a work called "The Temple." [>Lib*] In this he
scale drawings of Solomon's Temple, and says that the plans and
accurately to existing temples that were built while Solomon's Temple
It occurred to me that a photograph of the ruins of those old temples,
with Hakewill's scale drawings, would give the best possible idea of
appearance of Solomon's Temple.
The general outline of adjoining buildings,
with its courts, may be seen in cut No. 13, from Pain's Temple of
Cut No. 14 is the ground plan of Solomon's
is duplicated in the temple at Paestum and in the Theseum. The dark
Jachin and Boaz standing in the porch. In the next cut will be seen a
and then a sectional view on the line A-B, showing Jachin and Boaz in
Cut No. 15 is the front view, and in the massive, well-proportioned
can see why it stood four hundred and nineteen years. In cut No. 16 is
sectional view, showing the pillars in the porch, drawn to scale,
In cut No. 17 is seen a general view of the
Paestum, a long since abandoned Grecian city. The building at the left
is the Temple
of Neptune, and the other the Temple of Ceres, dating from the early
part of the
sixth century B.C., and, therefore, contemporaneous with Solomon's
and Boaz stand within the porch, and are architecturally known as
in antis." Returning now to cut No. 14, note how accurately the Temple
corresponds. Returning to Paestum, cut No. 18 is a rear view, looking
The pillars, including the chapiters, are twenty-nine feet high, or
less than half
the height assigned to Jachin and Boaz, when we say they were forty
cubits, or sixty
The Theseum, the other temple to which the
apply, is at Athens, and is seen in cut No. 19. It was contemporaneous
Temple of Solomon, and, like the temple at Paestum, is remarkably well
In size it is 45x104, with pillars nineteen feet high. Cut No. 20 is a
of the front. The pillars corresponding to Jachin and Boaz are seen
within the porch
at the middle.
Neither do the other temples at Athens furnish
suggestion of such an anomaly as a building with its porch higher than
structure. The world renowned Parthenon is shown in cut No. 21, as it
The portion here shown dates 450 B. C., but it stands on a foundation
sections of columns from a temple erected in the prehistoric past. This
the foundation is seen in cut No. 22.
The Erectheum, at Athens, is an Ionic structure
from the fifth century B. C. In cut No. 23 is a view of the north
porch, famed for
its excellence. Its pillars are twenty feet. In cut No. 23a is a view
of the Erectheum
from the south, showing the east and west porches. In cut 23b is seen
of the Caryatids at the west entrance to the Erectheum, the most famous
which there are any remains. Though contemporaneous with the Temple of
and odd to the verge of a dream, it yet adheres to the principles of
construction, and its renowned female columns are not reaching over the
top of the
In cut No. 24 is shown a porch from the Temple
and Pollux, at Girgenti. The four pillars shown are all that remain
the temple. This temple was 51x111, with pillars twenty-one feet high,
from the fifth century B.C.
Think of it, here are the ruins of grand
with that of Solomon, and how high are their pillars? At Paestum twenty
including the chapiters; of the Theseum, nineteen feet; of Castor and
feet; of the Erectheum, twenty feet, while the Parthenon, over one
wide, has pillars but thirty-three feet high. Compare with our second
wherein Jachin and Boaz are said to have been forty cubits, or sixty
in a building only forty-five feet wide, a height out of proportion,
inconsistent with the architecture of Solomon's time, or for that
matter the architecture
of any other time.
Roman Buildings on Hebrew
As was said previously, there are no remains in
Holy Land dating back far enough to be of service for the purpose in
hand. Yet Baalbec
and Palmyra are noted for the ruins of temples dating from later Roman
nearly all of them stand on Tyrian or Hebrew foundations, they may be
in showing that though built upon and in the midst of the ruins of
from Hiram and Solomon, no one of them even suggests a porch higher
than the temple.
In cuts No. 25, 26, and 27 is shown views of the ruins of the Temple of
which was a magnificent structure 370x440 feet.
The Temple of the Sun was 130x200 feet, with
forty-five feet high (shown in cut No. 28)
Palmyra or Tadmour was built by Solomon. In
29 and 30 are views of its ruins, but there is no suggestion even here
of a building
with its porch higher than the main structure.
Tyre, next after Jerusalem, is the most
spot to Masons, but nothing in point could be secured. However, the
tomb of Hiram
will interest Masons. Six miles outside the present town is the tomb,
shown in cut
No. 31, and so far as can be learned it is the real thing, the actual
of Hiram, King of Tyre. To the right will he noticed a square and
compass cut in
the rock, but by whom and when are questions that cannot be answered.
In the same
way the southeast corner of the original wall of Solomon is of interest
cut No. 32). At this point the wall stands 60 feet above the ground. In
Warren dug down to the beginning of this wall, which he found eighty
the surface, and showed that the portion below grade was part of the
made in preparing the temple site. On the underside of the stones were
red marks or signs, which he could not explain.
The principal buildings now on the temple areas
the Mosque of Omar, known as the Dome of Rock, which Ferguson says
dates from the
first century of our era, and the Mosque el Aksa, built about five
later. Though interesting, they are only of negative value to the
purpose in hand,
for though built on the very site of Solomon's Temple and amid its
ruins, they give
no hint of such a building as is now described when the second degree
In cut No. 33 is shown one of the four porches of The Dome of Rock.
is an octagon, measuring one hundred and fifty feet in diameter and
on a side. The dome is sixty-five feet in diameter and ninety-seven
Here, then, is a building two thousand years
on the very site of Solomon's Temple, and indeed it is believed to
once a part of Solomon's Temple – yet take note that the pillars are
to the main building and support the facade.
(To be continued)
Mad wars destroy in one year the works of many
of peace. –
Masonic History – Suggestions
By Bro. John T. Thorp, England
MASONIC students – the majority of them – are
that this Craft of Masonry to which we belong was originally, and for
almost exclusively operative, and that it is to our forefathers in the
we are indebted for those magnificent structures, temples, cathedrals,
and abbeys, which are spread more or less all over Europe, and which
are at once
our wonder, our admiration, and our pride. Now, just when and just
where this brotherhood
of Masons originated we do not know. Indeed, we may never know; it is
so old, it
goes so far back into the mists of antiquity, that its beginnings are
this we know, that, like many other things, it began somewhere in the
advanced, travelling by slow steps in the trail of the sun, towards the
are of the opinion that it originated in India, one of the oldest
that is known, the land of golden sunshine, of marvelous temples. It
may be so.
Others, again, think they can trace its origin to the land of Egypt – a
is still full of wonder and full of mystery. But whenever and wherever
originated, students today have come to the conclusion that its
due primarily to two causes. First, that it was due to the dangerous
the employment. Of all the occupations to which men in the early days
the Mason's was, and is still, one of the most dangerous. He had to
work with sharp-edged
tools, he had to deal with huge masses of material, he had to convey
from the places where they were prepared to where the building was
and he had to raise these materials to considerable heights from the
ground – all
of this probably with very imperfect and unsuitable tools. It is fair
that no large building was erected in olden times without considerable
loss of life
and injury to limb. Now we believe that this dangerous character of
employment drew together the various members of the building craft into
bound and banded together for mutual assistance, protection, and
support. If you
come to think about it you must see that it is very probable to have
been the case.
What brings people together? A common danger, a common experience, does
I once knew two men who were as unlike as two men could possibly be; no
understand what made them fast and firm friends. What was it'! They had
their father when they were young, and a common sorrow brought them
bound them together in an almost life-long friendship. And so we can
that the dangerous character of a common employment would bind the
into a brotherhood. A second cause seems also to have operated in a
It is this: While most of the early craftsmen were occupied, as I have
simple work, work that required little skill, making what was for
as, for instance, the manufacture of clothing, or the materials for
and utensils for the household, implements for agriculture, weapons for
or for war, all more or less for temporary use, excellence of work,
was not absolutely necessary. But the masons did not build for today
nor for tomorrow;
they built for the ages to come. And how well they built we know, for
are still there to prove it. And so, in order to ensure that none but
should get admission into their brotherhood, the Masons probably bound
together, in order that they might prevent anyone joining their
those whom they were perfectly certain would be a strength to their
an ornament to their craft. This is a subject I recommend to your
study. We have
not by any means yet got to the bottom of all this. I am giving you the
of our latest investigations, but we have still much to learn. There
are still many
things to discover, and I recommend this subject to you as a study and
research. What was at the back and the beginning of this establishment
is a study well worth all the time you can spare to devote to it.
Starting, then, somewhere in the East – we do
where – our brethren travelled slowly westward, through Phoenicia and
where they built the temple of Jerusalem, much of which is mythical,
though in connection
therewith we have the first historical account of the division of
Masons into classes
– on through Asia Minor, entering Europe by way of Byzantium, the
through Greece to Rome, where, already, several centuries before the
we find the Masons strongly established, firmly bound together, and
in the erection of "stately and superb edifices," under the name of
One would fain use an English word, but I do not know that there is one
translates it. Collegia were corporations of persons associated
together in pursuit
of a common object – rather a long phrase, but that is what it means.
Well, no doubt,
many of the members of these Collegia were neither more nor less than
The Collegia, however, were not all of them composed of workmen, but
they were established
and continued for many and very varied purposes and objects. For
instance, not only
were there collegia of masons, but there were collegia of architects,
artists, collegia of painters, collegia of musicians, collegia of civil
collegia of those who were learned in the law, collegia of those who
and surgery, collegia also of those who occupied themselves in the
of religion; but still no doubt a great many were purely trade
these collegia are an exceedingly interesting study. Bro. Ravenscroft
[Lib 1910] has written a book
dealing with this subject, in which he gives an interesting insight
into it. But
he has not completed it yet. There is still much more to discover, and
again I recommend
this subject to your study. These collegia were an exceedingly
of men, and in many respects they resembled the Freemasons' Lodges of
for example, their brotherhood being divided into three classes, as
with us. Their
first class they called learners; we call them apprentices. I need
you that the word apprentice means a learner. Their second class they
or companions; we call them fellows of the craft. Fellows are
companions, are they
not? A school-fellow is your school companion. See how similar, even in
classes were. The third class they called magistri or masters. The duty
of the masters
was not only to prepare plans and designs, and to superintend the
erection of the
building in hand, but also to teach the learners. You will remember
that when you
were invested with the badge of a master mason, you were told, among
it would be your duty to afford instruction and assistance to the
brethren in the
inferior degrees. So the brethren of today in this twentieth century
can clasp hands
with the brethren of the old collegia of Rome, over two thousand years
In the early years of the Christian era, Rome,
of the principal of these collegia, was mistress of the world. Her
you know, from history, extended far and wide, and in all the outlying
of the huge Roman Empire colonies had been established, guarded, and
legions of Roman soldiers. In these colonies, at any rate in the Roman
in England, there have been discovered traces of collegia of masons as
the reign of the Emperor Claudius, Anno Domini 50. So, in the first
century of this
era, there were in England organized bodies of masons banded together
for the erection
especially of "stately and superb edifices," some of which ornament and
adorn this land at the present day.
But after two or three centuries of almost
domination, the great Roman Empire was invaded by the Goths and Huns,
warriors from the north, and to resist the invasion and to protect the
city, the Roman legions were summoned hastily back to Rome. They went,
with them there went many members of the collegia, for the Roman
soldier was not
only a soldier, he was also a workman. And how well he worked, and what
roads he made, we all know. Resistance was all in vain. Rome was taken
the collegia of masons were dispersed, and a small remnant of the
to the accounts that are left to us, fled northwards. There, on the
of Comacina, in Lake Como, they secluded themselves, and through two
remained there, sharing with one another the secrets and mysteries of
emerging now and again from their hiding places to do a little work in
neighborhood, anxiously waiting and watching for the time to come when
set themselves more publicly to work at their craft.
Two centuries passed – we call them the Dark
they were dark – but at length the time came when the forces of misrule
had spent themselves, and the masons once more emerged from their
and set themselves diligently to work. Their first duty was to restore
in a measure
the ravages of the Goths, and, having accomplished this, they set out
on their journey towards the golden West; through Lombardy,
and Gaul they travelled, and thence on to England, where, by the time
A. D. 926-940, we find them strongly established under the name of
Now of these gilds we know a great deal; but we
know everything. Mr. J. Toulmin Smith [Lib 1870] and others [Lib 1918] [Lib 1837] [Lib
1908] ,have written very
learnedly about the gilds. There was a great deal about the Gild of
that we do not know yet, and if any of you have begun the study of
gilds, you will, I am sure, have found it a very fascinating one, and I
you to proceed with it. These gilds seem to have been similar in some
the collegia, and it is quite possible, they were established on the
ruins of the
old Roman collegia.
I have just mentioned Athelstan. Now Athelstan
wonderful man. We do not know one-half we as masons owe to Athelstan.
He was the
grandson of Alfred the Great, and the first to call himself King of
was a wise and pacific prince, and he gave the land just and wise laws.
the arts of peace, and, as one of the records says of him, "He brought
land to rest and peace, and builded great buildings of abbeys and
castles, for he
loved masons well." We cannot wonder that gilds flourished during
time, that they spread themselves all over the nation, becoming
and doing exceedingly good work. They flourished for several centuries,
only finally suppressed in the reign of Edward VI., about the middle of
century. These gilds we are now coming a little more to modern times –
powerful. It is an astonishing thing that all through the ages the
masons have been
an exceedingly powerful body. The reasons for it you will probably
you read the early records diligently. These gilds had special
privileges. For instance,
they were allowed to frame their own rules and regulations, and to
to them. Indeed, in some towns the records tell us that the municipal
themselves assisted the gild of masons to enforce obedience. How great
that was I need scarcely remind you; ordinary working men then had no
it was the King, the barons, and the Church that usurped it all.
folk, like you and me, had no power, but the masons, banded together,
powerful to say to the authorities of a town, "These are our rules and
you to assist us to enforce obedience to them"; and they did. Another
they possessed was the great power they had in controlling any branches
trade or manufacture. Thus, no one could follow the trade of a mason in
unless he was a member of the local masons' gild – so that practically
the control of our craft of masonry in any particular town. It is a
common and trite
saying, that for every privilege you get, you get a responsibility; and
you do. A man is wealthy, and he has the responsibility of his wealth.
He does not
always recognize it, but I firmly believe that with every privilege
there is given
a responsibility along with it.
Now these old gild masons of five hundred years
had responsibilities and restrictions over against their privileges.
And what were
they? Inasmuch as municipal authorities granted them extensive
on their part, promised to stand by the authorities. And members of
were not allowed to accept work outside the town in which the gild was
They were to remain there, and constantly to be in readiness in case
required their assistance for the repairs or extension of the castle or
walls. You will easily see how necessary it was, in those troublous
times of five
hundred years ago, when every man was against his neighbor, the King
everybody, and the barons spent most of their time in quarrelling – you
how necessary it was in those times that there should be a strong and
body of masons to see that the defense of the town was properly secured.
I now ask you to consider a very important date
history of this fraternity of ours. This date was 1376, for in the
records of the
City of London of that year we first meet with the word "Freemason." It
is quite possible it may have been in much earlier use, but that is the
date at which we find it. Inasmuch as the word "Freemason" is used in
connection with, and in contradistinction to the word "Mason," it is
that there was some difference between the two.
Who, and what were the Freemasons of the
century? It is a fascinating study, and it has fascinated scores of us.
We do not
yet know the truth of the matter. Many suggestions have been made from
time to time.
Many have thought the word "free" had reference to the material in
the mason worked. The "free" mason was said to be the man who worked
"free" stone, the squared stone, whereas the ordinary mason was the
worker. Others, again, were inclined to believe that a Freemason was a
man who was
"free of his gild." Many students, however, are now accepting the
which was propounded some years ago by a very prominent Freemason,
alas, no longer
with us, our late Bro. Speth [Lib 1893]. Briefly, it is this: – After
the Norman Conquest
in 1066 a great many ecclesiastics flocked over from the Continent to
a whole host of cathedrals, churches, abbeys, priories, and monasteries
all over the country. Now, in order to erect buildings of that
masons were necessary. When these buildings were being erected in
towns, the gild
would be able to supply sufficient skilled labor. But it was the case
abbeys, that they were built far from any populous center, and the
authorities found it exceedingly difficult to get the amount of skilled
was necessary to erect these buildings. Now it is believed that they
by bribes or by promises of higher wages, or better conditions of work,
a great many of the skilled gild masons from their allegiance to the
making them free – not free of the gild, they were free of the gild
free from all the limitations, restrictions, and responsibilities which
to the rules of the gild imposed upon them – free to travel here and
they liked, free from all those restrictions and bonds which had been
them. Thus there were at the same time two distinct bodies of masons
England, the gild masons and the church-building Freemasons, and it is
latter body that we believe the Freemasons of today are descended.
Now, I will try if I can to show you some of
between the two bodies of masons. In the Middle Ages, to which period I
am now coming,
nearly all the architects were ecclesiastics; bishops, abbots, and
priors. I won't
say exclusively, but a great many of them were architects; thus from
with these ecclesiastics, and from the fact that they were occupied in
of ecclesiastical edifices and church building, the Freemasons became
religious body. They were permeated with religious ideas and religious
and their work was done in a great measure as a religious duty, and, I
fact accounts in a great measure for the splendid beauty and excellence
of the cathedrals
in this land. That work was done as a religious duty, and I believe
piles of architecture are a consequence and a result of that fact. Now,
that many of these old bishops were architects. We know, for example,
Hugh, of Lincoln, not only prepared plans and designs, but worked with
He himself squared the stones, carried them with his own hands to the
along the scaffolding, and placed them in their position in the
building. And we
are told that all such master masons 'were teachers of apprentices of
– this ecclesiastical architecture; they instructed them, and, we
believe that when
they instructed the apprentices in the use of the square, the level,
the compasses, the mallet, and the chisel, as working tools, at the
same time they
instructed them in the symbolism of those tools. Then I would remind
you that the
verbiage of our Masonic ceremonial is comparatively modern. All our
certainly are not more than 200 to 220 years old, if as much, but our
is exceedingly old. Some of it goes back even prior to the time of
Christ, so it
is quite possible that the apprentices of olden times, while they were
in the operative part of their craft, were also taught by their
the symbolic meaning of the working tools which they were using with
We believe, many of us, that this accounts to some extent for the
of our ceremonials of today. It has come along through the ages that
are past, right
down to the present; and that our ceremonial will always remain a
is our hope and prayer.
These church-building masons then were an
religious body. The gild masons were not so eminently religious. It is
had their Saint's days, and they went most religiously to church, but
tell us that those days frequently ended in scenes of drunkenness and
the gild masons were strictly local bodies. Their operations were
the area within the town walls, and if a mason wished to leave his
take service with another, all that he had to do was to refer the new
employer to the gild books for his character and qualifications. The
Freemasons, on the contrary, were by no means a local body. They
and thither throughout the land, and settled wherever they could find
for them. They had, therefore, no books and no employers, except at
to whom they could refer their new masters for their character and
So they took with them something else; they took with them "a sign,
and word." By that means they could prove that they were what they
to be, and that they occupied certain positions in the craft which they
to occupy. That was the proof they took, and that was sufficient for
So our brethren traveled throughout the length
of the land, through several centuries, beautifying and adorning it
and superb edifices," which are at once our joy, and our pride, and
a grand and glorious heritage to us, today, from times that are past.
Then you may
ask me, what was this sign, token, and word? Ah, we should like to know
– very much
like to know.
Now, whence came this "sign, token, and word"?
We read a good deal about a certain meeting or convention being held in
of York, in 926, and we are told that the rules and regulations of the
framed at that meeting, and that the "sign, token, and word" were
there, and carried from that meeting throughout the land. There is no
proof of it,
but at the same time there must have been a meeting somewhere, where
and regulations were adopted, and it is quite possible it was held in
the City of
York, but we do not know. We still seek more light, and every few years
ray of light comes to us out of the darkness. Now, of the rules and
framed during the period to which I have been referring, many copies
are in existence
– about seventy – and they are very interesting documents. Of the
seventy, not two
are exactly alike; yet there is such a similarity between them, that we
justified in believing that they originated from one far-off long lost
They commence with an invocation to the Trinity, which we believe is
of our opening prayer in the First Degree. There follows the
introducing men such as Lamech, Noah, Hermes, Euclid, Tubal Cain,
David, King Solomon,
coming down to Naymus Graecus, Charles Martel, and ending with
as the traditional history ends with Athelstan, we are justified in
it was about that time that these rules were arranged and coded.
With regard to these rules, I want to say a
two. Although we are of the opinion that the bishops not only taught
the use of
the working tools, but also their symbolic meanings, still one would
that the rules and regulations of an operatives' society would, at any
prominence to operative rules. Strange to say, they do not. A great
many of the
rules – the majority of them – regulate conduct between employed and
the conduct of the employer towards the workman, and the conduct of the
towards one another. You would naturally expect that; but right in
front of these
rules and regulations are three which are not operative, but dealing
and conduct. Let me read from a manuscript of the fourteenth century,
one of the
very earliest we have: –
- That whoso
will con this craft and come to estate (position)
- He must
love well God and holy church algate.
- And to his
liege Lord the King
- To be true
to Him over alle thing.
- And thy
fellows thou love also
- For that
the craft will that thou do.
Is it not significant that right in the front
rules – operative rules and regulations which bound them together as an
society of working men, there should be these three rules for faith and
It seems to me to be exceedingly significant. These same rules I could
you in documents of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth
centuries, until we
come to our books of Constitutions, and there we get the same thing
only in modern
phraseology, right through the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth
So long as these rules and regulations have existed, never mind how
in course of years, there always stood, right in front of them, these
three – love
of God, fidelity to the King, and assistance and loyalty to one another.
The golden age of operative Freemasonry was the
thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, for during that period
of our grand and glorious English cathedrals were erected. Then came
– due probably to three causes, first, the long-continued war – civil
war – Masonry
is an art of peace – war destroys and Masonry erects, and Masonry never
in times of war. Freemasonry today, alas, is under a cloud, and there
whom we cannot meet. I think it is sad that it should be so. God grant
cloud may soon pass away, and that Masons the world over may be
brothers once again.
The first cause of this decline, as I have
the long-continued wars, which impoverished the country. The second
cause was the
dissolution of the monasteries. The monasteries had been great
supporters of the
operative masons. The third cause was the advent of Puritanism. The
people had always
desired that their temples for worship should be the most beautiful and
that man could devise, and skill could accomplish. But when Puritanism
they were content with temples of worship which were small in size,
or no ornamentation, and easy to erect. In their dilemma the masons
what had been the wealthiest portion of the community – the Church – to
wealthiest portion – the landowners, the nobility, and the gentry of
the land, and
for one or two centuries they appear to have occupied themselves in the
of "the stately homes of England," many of which still remain through
the length and breadth of the land. This brought our ancient brethren
with a different class of people altogether from that with which they
hitherto. Their previous associates had been ecclesiastics, and they
very much from that association, but now they became associated with
men of a different
class altogether – men of education, men of leisure, men of wealth. You
this would have an effect upon the society, and it had this effect,
that many of
these landowners were attracted by Freemasonry. They were struck with
and they were struck with the many curious claims which were made on
by those who belonged to it. And they were struck, in a measure, by the
which surrounded it. There is nothing like mystery to attract people,
and so these
landowners said, "Can we be masons?" They were attracted all over the
country, the men whose mansions were built by the masons, and they
began to inquire
what it meant. And so they sought admission, and the masons said, "You
we cannot admit you as masons, because you are not masons; but,
although you are
not, we will accept you as though you were," and that was the origin of
word "accepted" mason. These men were not masons, but they accepted
as brothers, as though they were masons; and so at that time – about
and seventeenth centuries – the society was composed of free and
In the early part of the eighteenth century the society had again got
down to a
very low ebb, and the members of four lodges in London decided to make
to revive it, and to bring it back to its old position of importance
These four lodges, therefore, met to see what could be done. There was
at the Goose and Gridiron ale-house, St. Paul's Churchyard, the lodge
at the Crown
ale-house, the lodge at the Apple Tree Tavern, in Covent Garden, and
the lodge at
the Rummer and Grapes, Westminster. They met in June, 1717, and
established a Grand
Lodge, the original of our Grand Lodge of today. They had three
their Grand Master and Two Grand Wardens. One was speculative and two
showing that the operative element was still the dominating one. Three
we find that the proportion changes – there were two speculative and
only one operative.
Six years later we find that the operatives had disappeared. Their
officers – the Grand Master and the two Wardens – were all speculative,
that time our society has been gradually losing its operative
character, and for
the last century or so we have been practically an exclusively
speculative and philosophical
There is much more I could say, but I have
I think, a good deal to study, much food for thought, and many subjects
recommend to your attention. But bear this in mind, that amid all the
took place in the rules and regulations which bound them together, in
under which they worked, and in the work on which they were employed,
never lost sight of their allegiance to those three rules to which I
your attention. They were the foundation upon which they built the
edifice of Freemasonry. And I am firmly convinced that as long as we
of today are firm and faithful in our allegiance to our Masonic
are similar, we need never fear but that our society will go on
flourishing. We may rest assured that throughout the ages to come it
all storms, it will withstand all shocks of revolution, surviving
perhaps the wreck
of many empires, and even, let us hope, resist the destroying hand of
The Apron -- [A Poem]
O. E. Looney, M. D.
Than order is old,
Whose story, fancy
Has never, all, told.
Culled from the innocent
Protype of Christ,
Worn in Fulfillment
To circumscribe vice.
Presented on entrance,
In "Temples of Light,"
To Entered Apprentices,
Whose trust is placed right.
Worn on his journey,
From threshhold to Sanctum;
Heart filled with yearning,
Worn by him proud
Through life as a token,
Of acts unallowed,
And secrets unspoken;
Placed on the coffin
Of his last remains,
An emblem to soften
Our loss, of its pains.
The Men's House
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton,
(This address, first given in the form of a
a company of Masons, is published in response to many requests,
to go further in the study of The Men's House may find it
by Prof. Hutton Webster, in his "Primitive Secret Societies," [Lib
chapters 1-4 and 10-11.)
AFTER all, the great secret of Masonry is that
no secret, and might better be called the Open Secret of the World. If
into the tyled recesses of the lodge and works in the quiet and privacy
it is the better to teach in parable, symbol, emblem and drama those
great and simple
truths which are to our human world what light and air are to the
When a young man enters a Masonic lodge he is asked whence he came, and
has come to do. Today let us reverse that order of inquiry and ask of
question which she asks of all who bow at her altar: Whence it has
come, and what
service it has to render to humanity? Time does not allow us to answer
in detail, but perhaps a brief sketch may provoke others to pursue the
thus learn how far back the story of Masonry goes, and how deeply it is
the nature, need and aspiration of the race.
In primitive society there were four
three of which we are familiar, but the fourth is not so well known.
first of all, the most fundamental, the Home the cornerstone of society
It was crude, as all things were in the morning of the world, yet it
had in it the
prophecy of that enshrinement of beauty and tenderness into which we
and the memory of which remains to consecrate us. There was the Temple
– not a temple at first, but only a rough altar of uncut stone –
uplifted by the
same instinct for the Eternal which built the great cathedrals. Its
rites were rude,
often grotesque and horrible, yet even in the darkness of a great Fear
gleams of "that light that never was on sea or land" by which we are
through the labyrinth of the world. Then there was the state, beginning
rule, merging thence into the tribe and the nation, and at last we see
fused into huge empires which met in the clash of conflict. The state,
rude, but it had in it the rudiments of our patriotic devotion to our
Early Society Secret
But there was another institution, quite as old
other three and hardly less important, to which we are more indebted
than we realize.
Of this hidden institution let me speak more in detail, not only for
its human interest,
but also for the fact that Masonry perpetuates it among us today. It
the Men's House, a secret lodge in which every young man, when he came
was initiated into the law, legend, tradition and religion of his
research has brought to light this long hidden institution, showing
that it was
really the center of early tribal life, the council chamber, the guest
the meeting place of men where laws were made and courts were held, and
trophies of war were treasured. Indeed, early society was really a
and unless we keep this fact in mind we can hardly understand it at
all. It is the
key to the interpretation of the evolution of primitive social life,
it one can scarcely know the process of human development.
When tribal solidarity was more important than
expansion it is hard to exaggerate the value of these lodges as
based upon feelings of kinship, and as promoting a sense of social
unity and loyalty
which lies at the root of law, order and religion. Methods of
in different times and places, but they had, nevertheless, a certain
they had always the same purpose. Ordeals often severe and sometimes
required – exposing the initiate not only to physical torture, but also
of unseen spirits – as tests to prove youth worthy, by reason of virtue
to be entrusted with the secret lore of his people. The ceremonies
of chastity, of courage, of secrecy and loyalty, and, almost always, a
the advent of the novice into a new life. Moreover, the new life to
which he awoke
after his "initiation into manhood," for such it truly was, included a
new name, a new language or signs, grips and tokens, and new privileges
If a youth failed to endure the tests, and proved to be a coward or a
he became the scorn of every man of his tribe.
No doubt it was the antiquity of the idea and
of initiation which our Masonic fathers had in mind when they said that
began with the beginning of history – and they were not so far wrong as
smart folk think they were. At any rate, they saw clearly the service
societies in the development of civilization, and that, like the home
and the temple,
the Men's House was one of the great institutions of humanity. When the
to be the unit of society, giving place to the nation, the secret
for men became at once a school and temple, preserving and transmitting
of religion, the rudiments of science, and the laws of art, all of
which were universally
held as sacred secrets to be known only to the initiated. By a certain
men felt that everything must not be told to everybody, but that men
themselves as worthy to receive truths which had cost so much; and that
was wise and true. Even the gentle Teacher of Galilee would not cast
before swine, and it was therefore that He taught in parables, cryptic
Hence the great ancient orders called the Mysteries, which ruled the
world for ages
before our era, and he who would estimate the spiritual possessions of
must take account of their influence and power. Thus the Mysteries of
the East, of Isis in Egypt, and the Eleusian Mysteries of Greece swayed
using every device of art to teach the truths of faith and hope and
In the temple of the Mysteries, which contained the tradition and
ministry of the
Men's House, the greatest men of antiquity received initiation – such
men as Pythagoras,
Plato, Plutarch, to name no others, and Cicero tells us that the truths
the house of the hidden place made men love virtue and gave them happy
for the hour of death. Those temples of the Mysteries were shrines
where art, philosophy,
science and religion had their home, and from which, as time passed,
out fanwise along the avenue of human culture.
The Temple Builders
History is no older than architecture. Man
become a civilized being until he had learned to build a settled
habitation, a Home
for his family, a Temple for his faith, a Memorial for his dead. So,
so, the Men's House came at last to be associated with the art of
the constructive genius of the race, using the laws and tools of the
emblems to teach the truths of faith and morality. Long before our era
we find an
order of Builders called the Dionysian Artificers, working in Asia
they erected temples, theatres and palaces – a secret order whose
the ancient drama of the Mysteries – and they were almost certainly the
of the Temple of Solomon. Thence we trace them eastward into India, and
into Rome, where they were identified with the Roman College of
emblems have come down to us.
When Rome fell a band of artists took refuge on
island in Lake Como, in Northern Italy, where ' for a period they
an asylum to their persecuted fellows, and where they preserved the
classic art. From them descended the great order of Comacine Masters –
Builders – whom we can trace through the Middle Ages, and who early
as Freemasons – free, because they were exempt from many restraints,
Gild Masons, were permitted to travel at liberty wherever their work
were great artists, commanding the service of the finest intellects of
yet so bound together that, as Hallam [Lib 1837] said, no cathedral can be
traced to any one artist.
For the cathedrals were not the work of any one man, but the creation
of a fraternity
who so united the spirit of fraternity with a sense of the sanctity of
art as to
obliterate individual aggrandizement and personal ambition.
Thus the Freemasons traveled through the years,
those monuments of beauty and prayer which still consecrate the earth,
decline of Gothic architecture, when the order of Cathedral Builders
began to decline.
As early as 1600, scholars and students of mysticism began to ask to be
as members of lodges of Freemasons, the better to study their symbolism
– as, for example, Ashmole, who founded the museum which bears his name
These men though not actual architects, were accepted as members of the
Free and Accepted Masons. From earliest time, as we may learn from our
– as well as from many ancient writings, such as the Chinese classics
and the Egyptian
Book of the Dead – the tools and laws of building had been used as
symbols of moral
and spiritual truth; and when the work of practical architecture became
as no longer to require the service of a fraternal order, the
to be builders of temples of brick and stone, but retained their
traditions – builders not less than before, but using their tools as
the truths and principles with which they sought to build a Temple of
and Friendship upon earth.
Freedom, Friendship, Fraternity
This newer Masonry, as it has been called, took
in the organization of the Grand Lodge of England, in 1717, from which
it has descended
to us having spread all over the civilized world. Forming one great
society of devout
and free men, it toils in every land in behalf of Freedom, Friendship
among men, seeking to establish government without tyranny and religion
superstition; seeking, that is, to refine and exalt the lives of men,
their thought and ennoble their faith; teaching them to live and let
live, to think
and let think, to love peace and pursue it. Truly, the very existence
of such an
order of men, initiated, sworn and trained to uphold all the redeeming
humanity, is an eloquent and farshining fact. It does not solicit
in so far as its influence in a community may invite the cooperation of
men who wish to foster what is noblest in humanity, toiling the while
that social and moral sentiment which gives to law its authority and to
its sovereign opportunity.
What, then, is Masonry? For one thing, let it
with all emphasis that it is in no sense a political society, and its
– called Old Charges – forbid the discussion of political issues in its
what never yet conduced to the welfare of the lodge, nor never will."
Masons, like others, have their political opinions; but as Masons, and
as a lodge of Masons, we never take part in political disputes. There
was once an
anti-Masonic political party in this country, born of falsehood and fed
which defeated Henry Clay for the presidency because he was a Mason;
intending to do so, it elected Jackson, who was also a Mason. While
Masonry is not
a political order – for politics divides men, and it is the mission of
unite them – it does train men for citizenship, and it is a fact that
it did in
this way write its basic principles of civil and religious liberty into
law of this Republic. Our first President was a Master Mason, and was
office on an open Bible taken from a Masonic altar.
Having presided over the birth of this
Masonic order has stood guard all down the years of its history, its
along the heights of liberty; and so it will be to the end. Let it
never be forgotten
that, in an evil hour, when States were torn apart and churches were
rent in two,
the fellowship of Masonry remained unbroken, true and tender amidst the
of civil war. If it was unable to prevent the strife, it did mitigate
of it, building rainbow bridges from battle line to battle line. When
of Masonic history is told, as it is my purpose sometime to tell it,
men will see
what Masonry meant in those awful years, and how nobly it labored
odds, in behalf of friendship; even as it labors today, without resting
lasting, for freedom, gentleness and justice between men and nations.
Nor is Masonry a church, unless we use the word
as Ruskin used it when he said, "There is a true church wherever one
another helpfully, the only holy or mother church that ever was or ever
But if we use the word in its specific sense, Masonry is not a church,
nor is it
the enemy of any church of any name, seeking instead, to bring men of
together the better to teach them to love and honor one another. To
that end it
invites them to an altar of prayer, laying emphasis only upon that
all creeds and over-arches all sects, while laboring in behalf of that
which St. Paul said truly that the most perfect theology is nothing. It
all true-hearted men are everywhere of one religion, and that when they
know what they have in common they will discover that they are
brethren. Today the
religious world, by reason of closer fellowship and a finer courtesy,
rapidly toward the Masonic position as set forth in the Constitutions
of 1717, and
when it arrives Masonry will rejoice in a scene which she has
prophesied for ages.
What, Then, Is Masonry?
If Masonry is neither a political party nor a
cult, what, then, is it? It is a world-wide fraternity of God-fearing
upon spiritual faith and moral truth, using the symbols of architecture
men the art of building character; a historic fellowship in the search
and the service of the ideal, whose sacramental mission is to make men
train them in righteousness and liberty. It is, therefore, that it wins
of young men, teaches them to pray to the God whom their fathers
trusted, and upon
the open Bible which their mothers read asks them to take solemn vows
to be good
men and true, chaste of heart and charitable of mind, and to build the
their faith and hope and conduct upon the homely old moralities, and to
the worth of life by its service and its sanctity. By as much as this
by so much will this sad earth be healed of the wounds of war, the
shame of greed
and lust and all injustice and unkindness!
Come, clear the way,
then, clear the way;
Blind creeds and kings have had their day;
Break the dead branches from the path:
Our hope is in the aftermath –
Our hope is in heroic men,
Star-led to build the world again.
To this event the ages ran –
Make way for Brotherhood – make way for Man!
By Roscoe Pound, Dean, Harvard
II. The Landmarks
By landmarks in Freemasonry we are generally
to mean certain universal, unalterable and unrepealable fundamentals
existed from time immemorial and are so thoroughly a part of Masonry
that no Masonic
authority may derogate from them or do aught but maintain them. Using
in the American political sense, as I said in the first lecture, they
may be said
to be the prescriptive constitution of Freemasonry.
Not long ago it was a general article of
that there were such landmarks. The charge to the Master Mason taken by
monitors from Preston's Illustrations, seemed to say so. The first and
to the master in the installation service (numbered 10 and 11 in Webb's
– also taken from Preston's Illustrations – seemed to say so. The books
jurisprudence in ordinary use and Masonic cyclopedias told us not only
were landmarks but exactly what the landmarks were in great detail.
master of an American lodge of a generation ago, who was reasonably
would have acquiesced in the confident dogmatism of Kipling's Junior
"knowed the ancient landmarks" and "kep' 'em to a hair." Hence
it may well shock many even now, to tell them that it is by no means
there are any landmarks at all – at least in the sense above defined.
I think there are such landmarks. But I must confess the question is
not so clear
as to go without argument in view of the case which has been made to
Accordingly I conceive that there are two questions which the student
jurisprudence must investigate and determine: (1) Are there landmarks
at all; (2)
if so, what are the landmarks of the Craft? And in this investigation,
as I conceive,
he will find his path made straighter if he attends carefully to the
between the landmarks and the common law of Masonry, which I attempted
in my former lecture.
It is well to approach the question whether
landmarks historically. The first use of the term appears to have been
"General Regulations," published with Anderson's Constitutions of 1723.
Payne was the second Grand Master after the revival of 1717. If
these regulations, coming from one who took a prominent part in the
be entitled to the very highest weight. But many believe that Anderson
liberties with them, and if he did, of course to that extent the weight
of the evidence
is impaired. There is no proof of such interpolation or tampering –
only a suspicion
of it. Hence in accord with what seem to me valid principles of
criticism, I must
decline to follow those who will never accept a statement of
in itself, without some corroboration, and shall accept Anderson's
on this point at their face value.
How then does Payne (or Anderson) use the term
He says: "The Grand Lodge may make or alter regulations, provided the
be carefully preserved." It must be confessed this is not clear. Nearly
who have commented on the use of the term in Payne's Regulations, as
Anderson, have succeeded in so interpreting the text as to sustain
their own views.
Perhaps there could be no better proof that the text is thoroughly
views as to what is meant seem to have support from the text.
One view is that Payne used the word landmark
sense in which we now commonly understand it. This is consistent with
the text and
has in its favor the uniform belief of Masons of the last generation,
charge to the Master Mason and the Prestonian installation ceremony. I
added tradition, were I sure that the tradition could be shown to
antedate the end
of the eighteenth century, or indeed to be more than a result of the
Dr. Mackey, in combination with the charges just referred to. A second
view is that
Payne used, the word landmark in the sense of the old traditional
secrets of the
operative Craft and hence that for use today the term can mean no-more
than a fundamental
idea of secrecy. This interpretation is urged very plausibly by Bro.
Prov. G. M. of Derbyshire, in an excellent paper on the landmarks –
Old Landmarks of the Craft – in the Transactions of Quatuor Coronati
25, p. 91. [Lib 1912]
A third view is that Anderson, finding the term
Regulations, where the word was used in an operative sense – for Payne
used operative manuscripts – used it without inquiry into its exact
without troubling himself as to how far it had a concrete meaning, and
so made it
available as a convenient and euphonious term to which others might
attach a meaning
subsequently as Masonic law developed. This last view, which eminent
now urge, is a fair specimen of the uncharitable manner in which it is
among Masonic scholars to treat the father of Masonic history. But it
said that such a phenomenon would have an exact counterpart in the law
of the land
under which we live. Historians are now telling us of the "myth of
and it is undoubtedly true that the immemorial rights and privileges of
which our fathers asserted at the Revolution were at least chiefly the
work of Sir
Edward Coke in the seventeenth century and that he succeeded in finding
therefor in what we have since regarded as the charters of civil
Coke was right in finding in these charters the basis for a fundamental
individual rights. And may we not say that Mackey was equally right in
upon a scheme of Masonic jural fundamentals and finding warrant
therefor in his
books in the references to the landmarks, even if Payne and Anderson
were not very
clear what they meant by that word?
Next we may inquire how the term has been used
In 1775 Preston, in his Illustrations of
1775], clearly uses the
word landmarks as synonymous with established usages and customs of the
in other words as meaning what I have called Masonic common law. This
by the context in several places. But it is shown conclusively by two
which he expressly brackets "ancient landmarks" with "established
usages and customs of the order" as being synonymous. He does this in
to the ritual of the Master Mason's degree, which in each case he says
these ancient landmarks. Preston's Illustrations of Masonry was
by the Grand Lodge of England. Hence we have eighteenth-century warrant
that everything which is enjoined in the Master Mason's obligation is a
But, if this means landmark in the sense of merely an established
custom, we are
no better off. Perhaps one might argue that the Grand Lodge of England
concerned with sanctioning the proposition that the Master's degree
landmarks than with Preston's definition of a landmark! However this
may be, it
is manifest that here, as in the case of Anderson, there is very little
Some further light is thrown on Preston's views
charge to the Master Mason and the charges propounded to the Master at
as set forth in the Illustrations of Masonry. The former may well refer
to the landmarks
contained in the Master Mason's obligation. The proposition in the
suggests the idea of an unalterable prescriptive fundamental law. The
is required to promise to "strictly conform to every edict of the Grand
or General Assembly of Masons that is not subversive of the principles
of Masonry." Also he is required to testify "that it is not in the
of any man or body of men to make alterations or innovation in the body
These principles, this groundwork, this body of Masonry, whether we use
landmarks or not, convey the very idea which has become familiar to us
by that name.
The next mention of landmarks is in Ashe's
Masonic Manual [Lib*], published in 1813. But Ashe simply copies from
In 1819 the Duke of Suffolk, G. M. of England,
a circular in which he said:
"It was his opinion
that so long as the Master of the lodge observed exactly the landmarks
of the Craft
he was at liberty to give the lectures in the language best suited to
of the lodge over which he presided."
The context here indicates clearly that he
the authorized ritual.
Next we find the term used by Dr. George Oliver
sermon before the Provincial Grand Lodge of Lincolnshire in 1820. In
Oliver tells us that our "ancient landmarks" have been handed down by
oral tradition. But he does not suggest what they are nor does he tell
us the nature
of a landmark. Afterwards in 1846 Oliver published his well-known work
in two large
volumes entitled "Historical Landmarks of Freemasonry." [Lib 1846,
Vol 1, Vol 2] One will look in
vain to this book, however, for any suggestion of Dr. Oliver's views on
we are now discussing. The book is an account of the history of the
Craft, and the
word landmark in the title is obviously used only in the figurative
sense of important
occurrences – as the phrase "beaconlight," for example, is used in
"Beacon Lights of History." Oliver does not use the term again till his
Symbol of Glory, in 1850 [Lib 1850]. In that book he asks the
question: "What are
the landmarks of Masonry, and to what do they refer" – in other words,
very thing we are now discussing. His answer is most disappointing. He
telling us that what landmarks are and what are landmarks "has never
defined." He then explains that in his book, "Historical Landmarks,"
just spoken of, he is speaking only of "the landmarks of the lectures,"
and adds – obviously referring to the sense in which we are now using
the term –
that there are other landmarks in the ancient institution of
Freemasonry which have
remained untouched in that publication, and it is not unanimously
agreed to what
they may be confined.
Next (1856) occurred the publication of Dr.
epoch-making exposition of the term and his well-known formulation of
landmarks. [Lib 1872] I shall
return to these in another connection. But it is interesting to see the
this upon Oliver. In 1863, in his Freemason's Treasury [Lib 1863], Oliver classifies
the "Genuine landmarks of Freemasonry" into twelve classes, of which he
enumerates some forty existing, and about a dozen others as obsolete
or as spurious. But he admits that we "are groveling in darkness" on
whole subject, and that "we have no actual criterion by which we may
what is a landmark and what not." Nevertheless, Oliver's ideas were
to be fixed, as a result of Mackey's exposition, and it is significant
that in 1862,
Stephen Barton Wilson, a well-known English Masonic preceptor of that
an article in the Freemason's Magazine entitled "The Necessity of
the Ancient Landmarks of the Order" in which he takes landmarks to mean
laws of the Craft which are universal and irrevocable – the very sense
had adopted. After this, Mackey's definition of a landmark, his
criteria of a landmark,
and his exposition of the twenty-five landmarks obtained for a time
The whole was reprinted without comment in England in 1877 in
Masonic Cyclopaedia [Lib*]. In 1878, Rev. Bro. Woodford, one of the
the Masonic scholars of the time, questioned the details of Mackey's
list, but without
questioning his definition or his criteria. In the same way Lockwood,
the definition and the criteria, reduced Mackey's list of twenty-five
Presently Masonic scholars reopened the whole
Today three radically different views obtain. The first I should call
theory, the second the historical theory, the third the philosophical
legal theory accepts Mackey's idea of a body of universal unalterable
principles which are at the foundation of all Masonic law. But the
been to reduce Mackey's list very considerably, although two of our
greatly extend it. Nine American Grand Lodges tell us that the old
the ancient landmarks. Six Grand Lodges have adopted statements of
their own, varying
from the seven of West Virginia and the noteworthy ten of New Jersey to
of Nevada and fifty-four of Kentucky. These declaratory enactments –
to the attempts to reduce the fundamental rights of man to chapter and
the bills of rights in American constitutions – are highly significant
for the study
of Masonic common law, and deserve to be examined critically by one who
the received doctrines of the traditional element in the Masonic legal
since the admirable report in New Jersey in 1903 and the careful
Mackey's list by Bro. George F. Moore in his paper in the New Age in
1911, it is
quite futile to contend for the elaborate formations which are still so
If, however, we distinguish between the landmarks and the common law,
we may still
believe that there are landmarks in Mackey's sense and may hope to
so far as fundamental principles may be formulated in any organic
The historical theory, proceeding upon the use
word landmarks in our books, denies that there is such a thing as the
assumes. The skeptic says, first, that down to the appearance of
Jurisprudence "landmark" was a term floating about in Masonic writing
without any definite meaning. It had come down from the operative Craft
had meant trade secrets, and had been used loosely for "traditions" or
for "authorized ritual" or for "significant historical occurrences,"
and Oliver had even talked of "obsolete landmarks." Second, he says,
definition of a landmark, the criteria of a landmark, and the fixed
received in England and America from 1860 on, come from Mackey. Bro.
"It was more because Mackey's list purported to fill an obvious gap
any signal claims it possessed that it obtained a rapid circulation and
ready acceptance." Perhaps this is too strong. But it must be admitted
dogmatism with respect to the landmarks cannot be found anywhere in
prior to Mackey and that our present views have very largely been
formed – even
if not wholly formed – by the influence of his writings.
Granting the force of the skeptic's argument,
it does not seem to me that the essential achievement of Mackey's book
I have already shown that a notion of unalterable, fundamental
principles and groundwork
and of a "body of Masonry" beyond the reach of innovation can be traced
from the revival to the present. This is the important point. To seize
term landmark, floating about in Masonic literature, and apply it to
law was a happy stroke. Even if landmark had meant many other things,
warrant for this use in Payne's Regulations, the name was an apt one,
and the institution
was a reality in Masonry, whatever its name. The second theory seems to
me to go
too much upon the use of the word landmark and not enough upon the
Under the influence of the second theory, and
in a laudable
desire to save a useful word, a philosophical theory has been urged
the term to a few fundamental ethical or philosophical or religious
may be put at the basis of the Masonic institution. Thus, Bro. Newton
in a note
to the valuable paper of Bro. Shepherd in volume one of The Builder,
a statement of the landmarks: "The fatherhood of God, the brotherhood
the moral law, the Golden Rule, and the hope of a life everlasting."
admirable of its kind. The Masonic lawyer, however, must call for some
Either we have a fundamental law or we have not. If we have, whether it
the landmarks or something else is no great matter. But the settled
usage of England
and America since Mackey wrote ought to be decisive so long as no other
of the term can make a better title.
Next then, let us take up Mackey's theory of
and first his definition. He says the landmarks are "those ancient and
customs of the order, which either gradually grew into operation as
rules of action,
or if at once enacted by any competent authority, were enacted at a
period so remote
that no account of their origin is to be found in the records of
history. Both the
enactors and the time of the enactment have passed away from the
record, and the
landmarks are therefore of higher authority than memory or history can
In reading this we must bear in mind that it was written in 1856,
before the rise
of modern Masonic history and before the rise of modern ideas in legal
the United States. Hence it is influenced by certain uncritical ideas
history and by some ideas as to the making of customary law reminiscent
History of the Common Law [Lib 1820], to which some lawyer may
have directly or indirectly
referred him. But we may reject these incidental points and the
will remain unaffected – the theory of a body of immemorially
which give to the Masonic order, if one may say so, its Masonic
character, and may
not be altered without taking away that character. It is true Mackey's
list of landmarks
goes beyond this. But it goes beyond his definition as he puts it; and
is to be found in his failure to distinguish between the landmarks and
Next Mackey lays down three requisites or
of a landmark – (1) immemorial antiquity; (2) universality; (3)
and immutability. He says: "It must have existed from time whereof the
of man runneth not to the contrary. Its antiquity is an essential
it possible for all the Masonic authorities at the present day to unite
in one universal
congress and with the most perfect unanimity to adopt any new
such regulation would while it remained unrepealed be obligatory on the
yet it would not be a landmark. It would have the character of
is true, but it would be wanting in that of antiquity." As to the third
he says: "As the congress to which I have just alluded would not have
to enact a landmark, so neither would it have the prerogative of
The landmarks of the order, like the laws of the Medes and the
Persians, can suffer
no change. What they were centuries ago, they still remain and must so
in force till Masonry itself shall cease to exist."
Let me pause here to suggest a point to the
– for though I am not one of them, I think we must recognize the full
force of their
case. The point as to the regulation unanimously adopted by the
congress is palpably taken from one of the stock illustrations of
American law books.
The legal futility of a petition of all the electors unanimously
praying for a law
counter to the constitution or of a resolution of a meeting of all the
unanimously proclaiming such a law is a familiar proposition to the
lawyer. One cannot doubt that Mackey had in mind the analogy of our
and political institutions. Yet to show this by no means refutes
of a fundamental Masonic law. The idea of an unwritten fundamental law
from time immemorial is characteristic of the
Middle Ages and in
another form prevailed in English thought at the time of the Masonic
the Germanic peoples who came into Western Europe and founded our
the Roman idea of law as the will of the sovereign was wholly alien.
of law as something above human control, and of law-making as a search
for the justice
and truth of the Creator. In the words of Bracton, the king ruled under
the law. To Coke in the seventeenth century even Parliament was under
the law so
that if it were to enact a statute "against common right and reason, or
or impossible to be performed" the common law would hold that statute
In the reign of Henry VIII the English Court of Common Pleas actually
did hold a
statute void which attempted to make the king a parson without the
consent of the
head of the church and thus interfered with the fundamental distinction
the spiritual and the temporal. In 1701, Lord Holt, Lord Chief Justice
repeated Coke's doctrine and asserted that there were limitations upon
of Parliament founded on natural principles of right and justice. This
form in America in our bills of rights and our constitutional law. But
it is not
at all distinctively American. On the contrary the accidents of legal
and developed the English medieval idea with us although it died in the
century at home. In the whole period of Masonry in England prior to the
and in the formative period after the revival, this idea of an
fundamental law would have been accepted in any connection in which men
thought of law at all.
When presently I come to the subject of Masonic
law I shall have to take up Mackey's twenty five landmarks in detail.
For I take
it his list may still stand in its main lines as an exposition of our
But are there any of his twenty-five which we may fairly accept as
it is presumptuous, after the labors of Lockwood, of Robbins, of the
committee, and of Moore to venture a formulation of the landmarks
simply on my own
authority. But the matter is too important to be allowed to rest in its
condition without some attempt to set off what is fundamental on the
one hand and
what is but established custom on the other hand. Moreover there is
at bottom than appears upon the surface. To a large extent the
this subject are due to reluctance on the one hand to reject
and on the other hand to admit those usages to the position of
unalterability involved in putting them in the category of landmarks.
we recognize an important category of established customary law, not
unalterable, but entitled to the highest respect and standing for the
element of our Masonic legal system, we are able at once to dispose of
of controversy and to reduce the matter to a footing that eliminates
the most serious
features of disagreement. For myself, I should recognize seven
might be put summarily as follows:
- Belief in
- belief in
the persistence of personality;
- a "book
of the law" as an indispensable part of the furniture of every lodge;
- the legend
of the third degree;
- the symbolism
of the operative art; and
must be a man, free born, and of age.
Two more might be added, namely, the government
lodge by master and wardens and the right of a Mason in good standing
But these seem doubtful to me, and doubt is a sufficient warrant for
to the category of common law.
"Belief in God, the G.A.O.T.U.," says Bro.
Moore, "is the first landmark of Freemasonry." Doubtless Mackey would
have agreed, though in his list it bears the number nineteen. For this
we may vouch:
- The testimony
of the old charges in which invariably and from the very beginning
there is the
injunction to be true to God and holy church. Anderson's change, which
so much dispute, was directed to the latter clause. As the medieval
church was taken
to be universal, the addition was natural. In eighteenth-century
England there was
a manifest difficulty. But the idea of God is universal and there seems
for rejecting the whole of the ancient injunction.
- The resolution
of the Grand Lodge of England that the Master Mason's obligation
contains the ancient
- The religious
character of primitive secret societies and all societies and
- The consensus
of Masonic philosophers as to the objects and purposes of the
of Anglo-American Masons, in the wake of the Grand Lodge of England, in
to recognize the Grand Orient of France after the change in its
The second landmark, as I have put them, is
in Mackey's list. He says:
this belief in God, as a landmark of the order, is the belief in a
to a future life. This landmark is not so positively impressed on the
by exact words as the preceding; but the doctrine is taught by very
and runs through the whole symbolism of the order. To believe in
Masonry and not
to believe in a resurrection would be an absurd anomaly, which could
only be excused
by the reflection that he who thus confounded his skepticism was so
the meaning of both theories as to have no foundation for his knowledge
Perhaps Mackey's meaning here is less dogmatic
his words. Perhaps any religious doctrine of persistence of personality
would satisfy his true meaning, so that the Buddhist doctrine of
and ultimate Nirvana would meet Masonic requirements. Certainly it is
our whole symbolism from the entrance naked and defenseless to the
legend of the
third degree is based on this idea of persistence of personality.
same symbolism is universal in ancient rites and primitive secret
in the most primitive ones it signifies only the passing of the child
and the birth
of the man. Yet even here the symbolism is significant. I see no reason
We come now to an alleged landmark about which
controversy still rages. I have put it third. In Mackey's list it is
I will first give Mackey's own words:
"It is a landmark
that a 'book of the law' shall constitute an indispensable part of the
of every lodge. I say advisedly book of the law because it is not
that everywhere the old and new testaments shall be used. The book of
the law is
that volume which, by the religion of the country, is believed to
contain the revealed
will of the Grand Architect of the Universe. Hence in all lodges in
the book of the law is composed of the old and new testaments. In a
Judaism was the prevailing faith, the old testament alone would be
in Mohammedan countries and among Mohammedan Masons, the Koran might be
Perhaps the point most open to criticism here
it must be the book accepted as the word of God by the religion of the
For example, in India, lodges in which Englishmen sit with Hindus and
keep the Bible, the Koran and the Shasters among the lodge furniture,
the initiate upon the book of his faith.
The essential idea here seems to be that
if not a religious institution, at least an institution which
and seeks to be a co-worker with it toward moral progress of mankind.
Hence it keeps
as a part of its furniture the book of the law which is the visible and
evidence of the Mason's adherence to religion. In so doing we are
confirmed by the
evidence of primitive secret societies; for religion, morals, law,
opinion, government were all united in these societies at first and
The relation of Masonry with religion, in its origin, in its whole
in its purposes, is so close that there is a heavy burden of proof on
seek to reject this tangible sign of the relation, which stood
unchallenged in universal
Masonic usage till the Grand Orient of France in 1877 substituted the
book of Masonic
constitutions. In view of the universal protest which that action
of the manifest impossibility of accepting the French resolution as
fixing the ends
of the order, of the uniform practice of obligating Masons on the book
of the law,
as far back as we know Masonry, and as shown uniformly in the old
charges, it seems
impossible not to accept Mackey's twenty-first landmark in the sense of
recognized book or books of religion among the furniture of the lodge
candidates thereon. Indeed the English Grand-Lodge resolution that the
obligation includes the landmarks of Masonry, seems fairly to include
of that obligation upon the book of the law, as it was then taken.
Fourth I have put the legend of the third
is Mackey's third landmark. "Any rite," he says, "which should exclude
it or materially alter it, would at once by that exclusion or
alteration cease to
be a Masonic rite." Here certainly we have something that meets the
of immemorial antiquity and of universality. The symbolism of
resurrection is to
be found in all primitive secret rites and in all the rites of
antiquity and the
ceremony of death and re-birth is one of the oldest of human
Fifth I have put secrecy. Mackey develops this
eleventh and twenty-third landmarks. The exact limits must be discussed
connection. But if anything in Masonry is immemorial and universal and
if the testimony
of ancient and primitive rites counts for anything at all, we may at
least set up
the equipment of secrecy as an unquestioned landmark.
Sixth I should recognize as a landmark
the symbolism of the operative art. This is Mackey's twenty-fourth
one might say that it is a fundamental tenet of Masonry that we are
it is worthy of notice that this symbolism is significantly general in
primitive teaching through secret rites.
Finally I should put it as a landmark that the
must be a man, free born, and full age according to the law or custom
of the time
and place. This is in part Mackey's eighteenth landmark, though he goes
and requires that the man be whole. I shall discuss the latter
requirement in connection
with Masonic common law. As to the form for which I contend, perhaps I
vouch (1) the vote of the Grand Lodge of England that the Master
contains the landmarks; (2) universal, immemorial and unquestioned
usage; and (3)
the men's house of primitive society and its derivatives.
A special question may possibly arise in
with the proposition that it is a landmark that no woman shall be made
No doubt all of you have heard of the famous case of Miss St. Leger, or
as she afterwards
became, the Hon. Mrs. Aldworth, the so called woman Mason. Pictures of
sister in Masonic costume, labelled "The Woman Mason" are not uncommon
in our books. The initiating of Mrs. Aldworth is alleged to have taken
1735 in lodge No. 44 at Donraile in Ireland. She was the sister, of
who was Master, and as the lodge met usually at his residence,
the story is she made a hole in the brick wall of the room with
scissors and so
watched the first and second degrees from an adjoining room. At this
point she fell
from her perch and so was discovered. After much debate, so the story
Entered Apprentice and Fellowcraft obligations were given her. This
was first made known in a memoir published in 1807 – seventy-two years
Modern English Masonic historians have examined the story critically
and have proved
beyond question that it must be put among the Masonic apocrypha. The
proof is too
long to go into here, where in any event it is a digression. But I may
to Gould's larger work where you will find it in full.
Of course the action of a single lodge in 1735
not be conclusive – against (1) the terms of the Master Mason's
the resolution of the Grand Lodge of England in the eighteenth century;
weighty circumstance that all secret societies of primitive man and the
among all peoples in all times that continue the tradition of the men's
exclusively societies of men. But it is after all a relief in these
days of militant
feminism, to know that we are not embarrassed by any precedent.
Such are the landmarks as I conceive them. But
remains to be said about other institutions or doctrines which have
some claim to
stand in this category when we come next to consider Masonic common law.
Masonic Service in War Time
THE dream of Masonic World Unity is not yet at
I recently saw the Union Jack of England, the Tricolor of France and
the Stars and
Stripes received in a Lodge of Masons. Almost it seemed as if Robert
Oswald Wirth of Earls, and our own Albert Pike bore them in. For the
of the hour seemed to be drawn from the intellectual giants whose
spirits were approving
a Democratic and a Masonic international Patriotism.
Yet a thought of sadness was also there. Had it
possible for a German Flag to have been brought in, borne by Wilhelm
spirit of the hour would have been sweet indeed. Honorably borne into
Room, perhaps with some other flags which have been held aloft by other
Masons, World Unity in a Masonic sense would have been truly typified.
it could not be so. The chasms are too great, in this dark hour.
Can the rainbow bridges of our Masonic idealism
these awful chasms? Would that it were so. Would that Masons the world
accept each other's pledges in war time, following the precedents of
our Civil War.
Would that the good faith of Masonry had not been challenged along with
of the War Powers. But it is not so. The fact is before us, it is not
Looking a little way into the future, Faith and
plead that our American Lodges will not sit in judgment upon the
motives of their
far distant Brethren. Perhaps, among us, Masons born in enemy countries
remain calm and fraternal. Perhaps they will refrain from bringing
the motives of the war into our Lodges - and will so conduct themselves
in the outside
world that none of our American Brethren will feel the necessity of
in, of drawing lines. Let us hope that it will be so.
There may be those who will deny that it is the
underlying, fundamental principles upon which Masonry is based that are
in this war. America is not yet awake. Masonry, let us pray, will
SHE MUST WAKEN - she must come to see clearly how vital is the battle
fought in behalf of her ideals. And though she may remain charitable
when she wakens,
she cannot forget that the monarchies and dynasties and militarists
our Nation now wars have ever placed upon Freemasonry the heel of
well the remembrance. Charity will remind us that neither the People
near the Masons
of the Nations against whom America fights are responsible for that
heel. BUT MASONRY
WILL NOT FORGET THE HEEL.
What of the Present Hour?
As Masons, "true to their government and just
their country," we have a right to believe that every other Mason is a
We have a right to assume, in our conversations within and without the
every Mason believes in those great principles of Democracy which
We have a right to consider each and every Brother loyal to the great
Universal Brotherhood which each and every Lodge typifies, on a small
promise can never be fulfilled under a selfish Despotism ambitious to
rule the world.
No matter what strains of blood may be mingled in his veins, no matter
in what church
he may pray, no matter what political party may claim his affiliation,
if he believes
in True Brotherhood, then he as a Mason, his Lodge as a Lodge, and his
as a Grand Lodge of Masons, should so conduct themselves as to make it
of the liberty-loving people of this great Republic, no class, no
party, no religion,
no birth-land clan is more loyal to the things America fights for, than
we of the
To our civic and moral conscience this War is a
To our individual and collective sense of Brotherhood this War is
likewise a Challenge.
The days are not far distant when many of our Brethren will start for
To their eternal glory let it be here set down that thousands of them
forward prepared to make the supreme sacrifice, to pay the last full
devotion. Even before they shall hear the rumble of the cannon, our
duty to those
whom they leave behind will have begun. Presently thereafter will come
days of scanning the casualty lists. And in but a little while the cots
will come, bringing our loved ones back to us, crippled and maimed and
unable longer to perform their life-duties. As Brothers we do not need
to be reminded
of our duty. Rather will there be a glorious opportunity for us all.
Meanwhile there is a challenge, also, to our
There will be taxes and more taxes and again taxes. Pay them! Pay them
Do not complain if a human Congress makes some errors, and the
adjustment of the
financial burden is apparently not altogether fair. Pay your taxes!
Least of all,
let wealth complain. Do not pay because someone sounds the alarm of a
in the event of failure. Do not let the word "failure" remain in your
American dictionary. Pay because Almighty God and the blessed freedom
this great flag of ours you have been privileged to enjoy have made it
for you to save some money. Pay because you want your children to live
in a world
of Democracy and opportunity. And thank God that you can pay!
Let Efficiency Answer the
How can Masons best help their Country? "By
fairly the challenge with which we are met" would seem to be the only
Shall Masons, as Masons, duplicate the functions of the Red Cross, by
with which to care for our own wounded, and the indigent families of
those who are
at the front? A practical answer would seem to be the affirmative,
where the solace
and the help can be efficiently administered within our own
But to duplicate the overseas activities of the
Cross in establishing foreign hospitals, etc., and to espouse
activities akin to
the Y.M.C.A. Camps, on an independent basis of our own, would seem to
How far we should go in extending to our enlisted Brethren the
privileges of formal
Masonic meetings, in Army Lodges and what rules should properly apply
shall presently discuss in our Department of Opinion.
As practical and efficient means of helping all
Brethren as they face the dangers to come, it would seem that first of
all we should
everywhere lend substantial aid to these two great official
organizations, thy Red
Cross and the Y.M.C.A. The one minister efficiently to the sick and the
and if we add the touch of fraternal brotherhood to that organization
many a Brother
in the trenches will come to know it as akin to the ministry of a far
The Y.M.C.A. Camps help to keep the army clean, and help give by us to
will be a welcome index of out Masonic patriotism, and a living
testimonial of our
de sire to make those memorable words "to be Good Men and True, or men
and Honesty" mean something.
SO LET IT BE DONE, TOGETHER, BRETHREN.
Editor's Note: - The purpose of this department
ever been to acquaint our readers, as well as our small space would
the books of the day which have light to throw upon our Masonic
mysteries, or contain
some message of help or interest for our members. But there are other
of them a long time written, with which every intelligent Mason should
It is these that may well be described as the classics of the Craft.
would be performing a real service by acquainting our readers with
you may already be familiar with some of them), we have undertaken a
series of studies
of this great Masonic literature and will deal with the books or sets
of books as
listed herewith. We might say, by the way, that this list would form an
library, either for the private individual or for a Lodge.
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum." [see Bibliography]
Conder's "Hole Craft in Masonry." [Lib*]
Finders "History of Masonry." [Lib*]
Fort's "Antiquities of Freemasonry." [Lib 1881]
Gould's "History of Freemasonry." [Lib (four volumes each in two
– see Bibliography)]
Hughan's "Old Charges." [Lib 1872]
Hutchinson's "Spirit of Masonry." [Lib 1795]
Mackey's "Encyclopedia of Freemasonry." [Lib 1914]
Pike's "Lectures on Symbolism." [Lib*]
[Plutarch's (?)] Iamblichus’ "On the Mysteries." [Lib 1821]
Preston's "Illustrations of Masonry." [Lib 1772] (Several other editions
– see Bibliography)
Leader Scott's "Cathedral Builders." [Lib 1899]
Toulmin Smith's "The Guilds." [Lib 1870]
Vibert's "Freemasonry Before the Grand Lodge Era." [Lib 2010]
Waite's "Studies in Mysticism." [Lib*]
Webster's "Primitive Secret Societies." [Lib 1908]
H. L. HAYWOOD.
* * *
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum"
IN 1844, Dr. Kloss, a German Masonic scholar,
a "Bibliography of Masonic Literature" which contained more than 5,000
titles. Forty years later, T.S. Parvin, the then librarian of the Grand
of Iowa, was able to boast that he had a majority of these volumes on
There they may still be found, as the, present writer can testify, for
it has of
late been his task to go through these books. What a dreary, juiceless
are, most of them, as ancient, seemingly, and as much out of touch with
spirit, as the Egyptian "Book of the Dead"! Preston, Oliver and Mackey
may still be read with profit, and even with interest, but for the most
discussions of "Spurious Masonry," of "The Noachites," etc.,
speak in a language that falls strangely on living ears.
The one radical defect of these treatises is
utter lack of the historical sense and of critical judgment. Fables,
poems, and rumors were accepted on the same terms as the soberest facts
their writers wandering through the past as if hypnotized by an
inability to discern
between dreams and realities. Lost in the mazes of their fancy they
Hume's sarcastic fling about the mendacity of Masonic historians.
Craft is in nowise dependent for its existence on its literature else
it had long
ago fallen into sleep except for men of untrained minds.
Feeling that Masonic scholarship might well be
on a sounder basis a number of English scholars determined to organize
a Lodge of
Research, the purpose of which would be to apply to the history of
same principles of historical criticism that had so revolutionized the
the past in other fields. On November 28, 1884, they were granted a
thereby authorized to establish the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, 2076. Bro.
Warren was duly made Worshipful Master and George W. Speth was elected
Thus was launched, and successfully from the first, the most
in Masonic scholarship in the long history of the Craft.
The scholars who undertook this labor of love
become names to conjure with. Fred J.W. Crowe, whose own name belongs
to the inner
circle, believes "that the nestorship of the group belongs to William
Hughan, because without his work as pioneer in the authentic school
adjective) of Masonic history, and the ever-ready assistance and advice
he has so
freely given, the work of those who followed in his footsteps would
have been impossible."
Others would grant the premiership to George W. Speth who combined a
power with the erudition of an antiquarian, but there is no need to
grade the ranks.
Robert Freke Gould, the Craft's great historian; Henry Sadler, who
old myth concerning the "Antient and Modern controversy"; Chetwode
the historian of Irish Masonry; David Murray Lyon; W. H. Rylands; these
others won for themselves as secure a position in the annals of Masonic
as it will ever be possible for men to attain. Pioneers working through
uncharted wilderness, their task was almost superhumanly difficult, but
their verdicts will surely bear the acid test of time, while the data
were enabled to unearth will keep the smaller fry busy for years to
Fortunately or unfortunately, as each must
his own watch-tower, these students confined themselves almost
exclusively to the
historical problems, leaving that symbolism which Pike described as the
Masonry to await its Hughans and Goulds among "those who come after."
This is not said in criticism of these men, for humans cannot do
offered as a suggestion to young Masonic students who may feel that
been left for them to do. Truly, if a group of men would undertake the
our symbolics as the Coronati men studied our history, they would at
least be permitted
to sit opposite in the Senior Warden's station of Masonic scholarship.
So mote it
From the first the Quatuor Coronatorum printed
and lectures in its Transactions, now gone into almost thirty volumes.
Sad is the
fate of the Masonic student who has not access to this golden mine! As
notable among these published papers one might hazard to mention
on "Masonic Worthies," one of which was his now famous essay on Pike;
also, the same author's miscellaneous series since issued in book form
title of "Essays on Free Masonry"; the Hughan and Speth debates on the
degrees theory; the Crawley papers on Irish Masonry; and Sidney Klein's
"The Great Symbol," one of the best brief studies of Geometry and its
interactions with our Craft development that has ever been written. But
only those which loom large on the mental horizon of the present
would choose differently.
In connection with its Transactions the Quatuor
issued a series of "Antigrapha," being reprints of all the old
which link us up to Operative Masonry, and to that dim transitional
Operative Masonry passed into Speculative Masonry.
Perhaps all this labor would have been
lack of support, as had happened before to Research Lodges, had not the
George W. Speth, by one of the inspirations of genius, conceived the
of a Correspondence Circle. This was made up of men not members of the
itself but who desired to keep in constant touch with its work. In 1909
comprised more than 3,000 members; what is its membership now we have
no means of
knowing. The reader who may desire to link himself with this Circle may
application through the Grand Secretary of his Grand Lodge. Membership
fee is 10s6d;
annual dues are the same.
The National Masonic Research Society is
to possess a complete set of the Transactions, entitled "Ars Quatuor
which it is glad to make available to any Brother in any manner
Aside from its concrete achievements the Lodge
has had much to do in clearing the air, so to speak, about Masonic
study. Many of
the Brethren, exercised by an admirable reverence for all things
Masonic, were long
suspicious of the "innovations" of Masonic scholars, feeling toward
as the old-time lovers of the Bible were wont to think of the "Higher
So long as this mood prevailed it was almost impossible to work through
of tradition, and wholly impossible to acquaint the Craft at large with
facts of its past. That time has now gone by, fortunately, but there is
work to be done in making effective that spirit of Masonic
Brother Roscoe Pound has recently defined for us as "that insistence
think for themselves, and that matters of interpretation are not to be
of authoritatively, but by every man thinking down into the subject
* * *
"The Life of the Caterpillar"
Reader, have you ever wandered in bug-land? We,
were born with an aversion to insects of all kinds, caterpillars
last having about as much attraction as snakes themselves, and that is
But now, along comes John Henri Fabre, [Lib 1916*] that wizard if ever there
was one, and shows that
all our aversions were baseless, gratuitous, childish, puerile, and any
you may have at hand. Truly, the caterpillar is wonderfully and
and very human too, especially the "Processionary," which holds the
of honor in the volume the title of which heads these paragraphs. This
book is one
of the last of the series published in this country by Dodd, Mead and
translated by the same Alexander Teixeira de Mattos who gave us so many
works in English dress.
Fabre's Book of Insects [Lib 1921], Life of the
Fly [Lib 1919], Life of the
Spider [Lib 1916], Life of the
Weevil [Lib 1922], Social Life
The Insect World [Lib 1914], The
Mason-Bees [Lib 1914], The
Mason-Wasps [Lib 1919]) - rhm
Space does not permit us to tell what we think
as scientist, philosopher and writer, the last not the least of his
nor is there any need to particularize about this present volume,
except to say
that it is on a par with the previous treatises, and more than that it
impossible to say, for of all men who have naturalized Fabre is easily
at his disposal one of the rarest of all human intellects, as well as
one of the
sweetest of human spirits. He was one of the dearest, grandest old men
While one reads his many volumes, many of them
written with his blood, one is often wishing that Fabre had given us an
the Masonry of the insect world. For if geometry is the science on
is established, then there is much of it among the insect peoples, for,
is always telling us, they are forever geometrizing. Here is a
paragraph in point
chosen from among the rich pages of the work in hand:
"He will admire
as much as we do geometry the eternal balancer of space. There is a
belonging to the domain of reason, the same in every world, the same
sun, whether the suns be single or many, white or red, blue or yellow.
beauty is order. Everything is done by weight and measure, a great
truth breaks upon us all the more vividly as we probe more deeply into
of things. Is this order upon which the equilibrium of the universe is
pre-destined result of a blind mechanism? Does it enter into the plans
of an Eternal
Geometer, as Plato had it? Is it the ideal of a supreme lover of
beauty, which would
"Why all this
regularity in the curve of the petals of a flower, why all this
elegance in the
chasings of a beetle's wingcases? Is that infinite grace, even in the
compatible with the brutality of uncontrolled forces? One might as well
the artist's exquisite medallion to the steam hammer which makes the
in the melting."
* * *
Brother Arthur M. Millard, President of the
Employment Bureau of Chicago, was kind enough to let us see the
which explains itself:
GOLDEN RULE LODGE
No. 726, A.F. & A.M.
May 7th, 1917.
Dear Madam: –
It is the desire of Golden Rule Lodge members
far as possible, maintain a fraternal interest in the welfare of the
families of our departed brethren, and particularly from the standpoint
of service and usefulness, in the many problems and difficulties
many of us at this time.
Of course you understand that Masonry is not a
organization in a financial sense, nor in any way similar to the many
fraternal institutions; at the same time there are so many cases where
counsel and advice, or his efforts, may be of benefit, that we are
taking the liberty
of bringing ourselves to your attention with the thought that possibly
we may, in
some manner, be of service to you.
It may be that there is a boy or girl, or both,
family who would be glad to have a big brother interested in their
and interests, as well as in their future welfare and development; it
may be that
there are some problems or difficulties confronting you which might be
or overcome by a brother's aid and advice; in either, or both cases, we
to feel yourself a part of our family and trust that you will have no
in communicating with us fully, for we assure you we shall consider it
as well as a privilege, if we can be of service, and will be glad to
call and consult
with you if you will permit us to do so.
It is our aim to have, in the near future, a
at some convenient place for our boys and girls, and a get-together
our members and families. You will be notified of both events, and we
hope that you will personally aid us in making them a decided success.
At this time, let us also call your attention
Masonic Employment Bureau at 1900 Masonic Temple, the service of which
at no cost to any of the members of your individual family.
Extending to you the brotherly greetings,
and best wishes of all of our members, we are
Sincerely and fraternally yours
GOLDEN RULE LODGE COMMITTEE,
1900 Masonic Temple.
It is one of Masonry's rightful boasts that it
charity whenever and wherever the opportunity presents itself; but
there is charity
and charity, and oftentimes, it may be feared, the results of
philanthropy are not
as fine as the motives that prompt it. Indeed, expert charity workers
that mere miscellaneous, unorganized, uninformed giving very often does
than good. Besides, where relief is sporadic and unsystematized many of
deserving ones are overlooked precisely because the most deserving
to make known their wants.
Here is a method of the right kind. It is
it is well informed, in other words, efficient, yet without losing the
touch without which it so often becomes "organized charity, scrimped
in the name of a cautious, statistical Christ." We heartily recommend
workers, as well as to Masonic Lodges, both the method and the spirit
of our Chicago
brethren. We have reason to believe that any applicant for information
as to "how
they do it" will receive courteous and prompt response from Brother
* * *
"Russia in 1916"
In his introduction to this book, its author,
Graham, [Lib 1917] writes:
"I was in Russia when the war broke out in 1914. I spent 1915 in Egypt,
Balkans, Russia, and England, and again I spent the summer of 1915 in
have, therefore, been in touch with the Russians all the time of the
It is these facts that give to this volume its value. Now that we are
an ally of this great Slav people, such studies are not only timely but
But Russia is far off, not only geographically but culturally, and it
is safe to
say that few of us know anything about the Russians except those vague
information which have filtered to us through newspapers and magazines.
Graham has traveled much in all parts of the Empire, speaks the
the people, and knows how to tell his story, therefore this book, and
his former volumes which are of much greater importance than this,
a welcome among us. Many of us may feel that he is too prone to laud
forgetting that there is another side to the story, but the reader who
to make his own deductions, will find much of profit as well as of
pleasure in these
Although the best description of Masonry to be
in the world's fiction was written by the Russian Tolstoy in his "War
and Peace," [Lib 1869] it is
a well-known fact that Masonry, because of the Czarish prejudice
societies, has been unable to get a foot-hold in the country. We wish
well-informed writer would let us know what prospects the Revolution
up for the organization of Masonic Lodges there.
The Question Box
Lodge Grants "Mark"
Card to Member's Wife
Dear Brother: For some months I have been
write to you, and to the members of the Society through you, regarding
which I will proceed to explain. Some time back, in going through some
and papers belonging to my grandmother, I discovered the enclosed card
its character, seems to bear some close relationship to the Masonic
I have thus far been unable to find anyone who can throw any light on
what it represents.
You will note it was issued at Antwerp, New York, by Antwerp Lodge 226;
the following inscriptions:
Wife, Annah M. Hopper, Given in 1864.
This is her Mark among Free and Accepted Masons around the Globe.
It is countersigned by my grandmother, Annah M.
and signed by J. B. Harris, A. Z. Turnbull, and her husband and Mr.
Geo. H. Hopper.
Printed in the center of the card is a flight of three, five and seven
the top of which is an arch supported by four pillars (two on each
side) and on
the top step, under the arch is a figure of a man clothed Masonically.
On the top
of the third step is the signature of Annah M. Hopper.
On the reverse side of the card are various
and symbols of the craft which, so far, I have been unable to
I have thought this card was possibly given
Civil War as a means of identification or card of recognition but
the large membership of the Society you are able to reach through THE
hope it can be learned what brought about its issuance and to what use
it was put.
Would appreciate its return when it has served
Sincerely and fraternally yours,
Hopper Smith, Ohio.
Perhaps some member of the Society in touch
Lodge in question may be able to furnish the desired particulars.
Meantime it also
revives an old curiosity regarding the extent to which Masonic bodies
issued identification cards to the families of their members. Today it
is by no
means uncommon to find the wives and the children of Masons wearing
some badge significant
of the fraternity in one branch or another. Just how far this should be
or whether it ought to be permitted at all, we will not attempt to say.
It is a
convenient method of commending those we love to those we trust.
Doubtless the desire
to do this has persisted since Masonry came into being, and a careful
probably discover many other specimens as quaint in their way as the
now under consideration.
Talking of identification cards for women also
us that on one of the visits of Brother Gilbert Parker's play, "The
of Allah," to the editor's town, an Arab passing a local Mason had his
attracted by the charm worn by the latter. He stopped abruptly, looked
took something out of his pocket, and then holding it half hidden
between his two
cupped hands held it up for only the Mason to see. For but an instant
could it be
seen and then with a mutual smile of understanding they parted. It told
because that medal frequently found outside the United States where
them among their members as Chapters do Marks with us, bore the
Compasses and Square,
a large paragraph indeed from the language universal among Masons.
* * *
Large Claims Demand Complete
Dear Brother: – I have heard it claimed several
that there is an Austria-German-Catholic alliance in the World War now
That through the Catholics the spy system has been perfected, and at
spies are stenographers clerks and secretaries of the government
officials. Do you
know if this is true?
– R. R.
We have seen no attempt to prove these claims.
possessing evidence of acts injurious to this country will be seriously
their duty if they fail to furnish the facts forthwith to the nearest
But great care must be exercised. Mere gossip is no proof of guilt.
Treason is detestable
and so is unjust suspicion; the true Mason will expose the one as
freely as he will
scorn the other.
* * *
Mackey's Masonic Landmarks
Dear Brother Editor: – Mackey has enumerated
landmarks as being twenty-five in number. Two have attracted my special
1. Number two: "The division of symbolic
into three degrees is a landmark that has been better preserved than
other; although even here the mischievous spirit of innovation has left
and by the disruption of its concluding portion from the Third degree,
a want of
uniformity has been created in respect to the final teaching of the
and the Royal Arch of England, Scotland, Ireland, and America, and the
of France and Germany, are all made to differ in the mode in which they
neophyte to the great consummation of all symbolic Masonry. In 1813,
the Grand Lodge
of England indicated the ancient landmark, by solemnly enacting that
Masonry consisted of the three degrees of Entered Apprentice
Fellow-Craft and Master
Mason including the Holy Royal Arch. But the disruption has never been
the landmark, although acknowledged in its integrity by all, still
There is much of truth in his contention and I
but wonder why this has obtained. Has this landmark in its essential
violated, to use his word, through any feeling on the part of the
that the thirteenth degree in that body might thereby be depleted of
or has the omission been due to the antipathy of the Capitular bodies?
Or, is this
not truly a landmark, merely one which Mackey has brought into being by
And, in consequence of either or both, has the landmark, therefore,
with the ultimate aim of denying and eventually forgetting it? If it be
why this violation? I would have more light.
2. The other landmark is his number twenty-two.
equality of all Masons is another landmark of the Order. This equality
has no reference
to any subversion of those gradations of rank which have been
instituted by the
usages of society. The monarch, the nobleman, or the gentleman is
entitled to all
the influence, and receives all the respect, which rightly belong to
But the doctrine of Masonic equality implies that, as children of one
we meet in the Lodge upon the level – that on that level we are all
one predestined goal – that in the Lodge genuine merit shall receive
than boundless wealth, and that virtue and knowledge alone should be
the basis of
all Masonic honors, and be rewarded with preferment. When the labors of
are over, and the brethren have retired from their peaceful retreat to
more with the world, each will then again resume that social position,
the privileges of that rank, to which the customs of society entitle
If I misinterpret his meaning, and I hope I do,
well and good. That, I ask of you. To me, however, "in the Lodge"
out too prominently. I would surmise from this that Masonry, to Mackey,
"in the Lodge"; outside, autocracy. And surely, if this be true, we of
the present day and generation know that Masonry is not of such as
this. For past
times and in other countries this idea of Masonry may have held sway.
surely, we know that Masonry is only Masonry as we exemplify its
teaching in every
walk of life and apply to our life outside the lodge the beautiful
truths and fellowship
and brotherly love we have come to acknowledge through and in the
lodge. And only
as we live it are we Masons.
If my conception of his rendering of the
such as Mackey intended, then surely we need a revised set of
landmarks. If both
of these are "out of date" then truly they should not obtain today. And
as "The Builder" makes for progress, may I, as one of your earnest
suggest this held for your attention?
– M. E.
1. You have opened one of the most hotly
all Masonic problems, the matter of Landmarks. Since the word first
the General Constitution of 1721, in Section 39, all manner of Masonic
have discussed the question, "What is a landmark," but it is safe to
that no two have thus far wholly agreed. Lenning's, published in
one of the oldest of Masonic "Encyclopedias," does not mention the
though Mackey modeled his own work upon it; nor does the French
of Masonry," published in Paris the following year, hazard on the
In the early editions of his "Encyclopedia" Mackey printed only
lines on the subject but in his 1858 edition he gave us his now famous
list of twenty-five.
Perhaps Mackey himself was satisfied with this catalog but no other
been, with very few exceptions. In an article published in the Iowa
Proceedings of 1888 (p. 157), Pike demolishes the whole list seriatum
in his most
Pikeish manner. Although Oliver refused to commit himself in 1853 in
of Symbolic Masonry," [Lib 1853] he afterwards joined the
list-makers with twelve
Landmarks. Horsley names five "as indispensable"; Woodford's
gives eighteen; J. T. Lawrence risks five; Findel gives us four in his
and Form of Masonry" [Lib 1874 (German)]; Crawley
names three; John W. Simons, fifteen; Rob Morris, seventeen; the Grand
New York found 31, while the Grand Lodge of Kentucky raised the number
to 54; T.S.
Parvin, who, being a master in Masonic jurisprudence, spoke with some
refused to name a single one. From this data you can now answer your
"Is this not truly a landmark?"
If one of the characteristics of a Landmark be
and on this most authorities are agreed, then "the division of symbolic
into three degrees" cannot properly be classed as a Landmark because
degree was not fashioned until after the revival of 1717; how many
prior to that time is still under debate; some, following Hughan,
was but one; while others follow Speth in believing there had been two.
We do not believe that the Scottish Rite had
to do with the division into three degrees. Suppose you make a little
study on the
influence of the Scottish Rite in degree making and send us a paper on
2. We believe you to have misunderstood Mackey
He is endeavoring to make it clear that Masonry does not demand a
social forms or customs in order to its establishment in a community.
If that were
the case it could only move behind a propaganda of social or political
But in your contention that Masonic brotherhood should exist outside as
inside the Lodge you are most certainly right.
Our own interpretation is that Brother Mackey
that to the Third Degree belonged something now found in Royal Arch
Holding as he did that to other branches had been given what formerly
was a part
of the Blue Lodge "work," he felt constrained in laying out his
of Masonic structure to define the old boundaries and to show what
done to them. He was also but repeating what had been agreed upon at
of the United Grand Lodge of England. The protest he voiced was just
but we know
of none who would favor the taking away of anything from the splendid
Masonry of America. Scotland confers the Mark under Lodge auspices,
it in an organization that does not work the Royal Arch, while the
latter is conferred
where they do not give the Most Excellent, and so it goes. With us the
a scope and dignity all its own, second in elaboration and
impressiveness to no
other of its sister bodies.
Within the rich stores of the Grand Lodge
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, there is a very valuable ritual that was formerly
of that steadfast student of Masonry, George Oliver. Among other rare
contains a transcription of what may have been the Third Degree in 1740
So much of it suggests the ideal that Brother Mackey must have had in
we cannot but wish that a rendition of this old ceremony might be given
brethren throughout the country could see it.
As to the second question we can only see the
of an equality in the Lodge room that cannot be shown elsewhere.
in his "Mother Lodge" shows Masons meeting as Craftsmen in a tyled
who could not even assemble at the banquet table. Well known is it that
George Washington, when a general of the army, attended Lodge
which presided an officer of much lower rank. To our way of thinking,
was emphasizing that equality where each is best taught, where all are
on the level of standing, where there are no differences under tuition,
none have preference save that conferred by knowledge of the work
the hall of Masonic labor the initiate must remember that which he was
cannot be a Mason and be heedless of the teachings of Masonry. It is
that he cannot in the social world be at once captain and private and
this is a
distinction that Masons as citizens or soldiers will acknowledge though
it is quite
true that Masonry recognizes neither worldly wealth nor honors. Masons
same duties but not always have they the same rights.
* * *
The Palm and Shell Degrees
Brethren: Referring to the inquiry of O.B.S. in
May BUILDER for information relative to Palm and Shell Degrees. On the
April 17th a Bro. A. E. Myers gave a lecture before Bradentown Lodge
No. 99 of this
city. In the course of his lecturer he spoke of receiving "The Palm and
Degree" while on a trip to the Holy Land, but at this time do not
it was in Palestine or in Egypt, but believe it was in or near
This Bro. Myers was one of that party of some
600 Masons who made an exploration and research tour to the Holy Land
35 years ago,
being composed according to his statements of something like 200 from
South America and the remainder being from England, Wales, Ireland,
and some of the Scandinavian countries. I believe this party he said
assembled together in Copenhagen and from there they went together in a
the Holy Land and were gone altogether about nine months. He spoke of
Morris being one of the party. Personally I did not get his address and
not appear to be recorded in the Lodge records here. Am trying to get
information and may be able to do so before mailing this.
Do not believe he intimated that he had the
but am quite sure he could give much more information about that degree
gave before the Lodge. In the course of my conversation with Bro. Myers
that at one time he lived in Kansas City, and in connection with some
Chapter talk he spoke of being personally acquainted with Past Grand
Wm. F. Kuhn. So if am not able to get any further definite information
the present address of Bro. Myers, and O.B.S. is interested believe he
more definite information from Comp. Kuhn, or if he cares to write me
him whatever else he cares to know that I may recall.
E. P. Hubbell,
* * *
Brother O. B. S. asked a question in regard to
and Shell ritual. There is one in Dublin, Ga. In 1913 Brother Coalteman
a Chapter of the Palm and Shell there, but have forgotten the name of
Bro. W. B. Adkinson of Dublin, was one of the officers. There were
members. I myself think it very appropriate for a lecture, and study of
from the Coast of Joppa is very interesting. I had the misfortune to
lose my ritual
shortly after taking the degree but have found several of Bro. Morris'
Florida who joined in 1880. Most of them are very old men. I left
after taking the Degree and have not seen any of the members since. I
kept up a
correspondence with Bro W. B. Adkinson two years but have now dropped
The Oriental lectures are very good and the
was grand. There is much good to be derived from the lecturer if given
as Bro. Rob.
C. explained them. While I can not remember all, yet the Entered
Apprentice is taught
a lesson not to be forgotten; the Fellow Craft is taught better; the
is fully exemplified and the Knights is grand. Nothing would please me
to hear the Eastern Lectures giver again.
In passing along the beach and picking up shell
is often reminded of the fact that all Masonry is inscribed in
"Ancient Free." Geometrical lines on certain shell gives some idea of
the Grand Artist Power in showing things, but I can not explain them as
been explainer to me.
– J. E.
These details of a little known "side" degree
are very welcome and we invite all further particulars that may be in
of any of our readers. The subject of "side" degrees is alluring to the
student of secret societies and we shall be glad to receive all the
that we can get along this line.
* * *
Title of Major General Used
By Grand Master
Dear Brother: – At the first Annual
the Grand Lodge of Alabama, held in December, 1821, it was
Resolved that the words "Major General" used
in the charters and dispensations, preceding the name of the W. G.
Master, be stricken
out, and that they be not used in any transaction of the Grand Lodge.
And it was ordered that all subordinate lodges
those words from their charters.
We are puzzled when, where, and under what
did such a custom originate as that of dubbing the Grand Master a
and in what Grand Bodies has such a custom ever prevailed?
O. D. Street,
We can recall no parallel case. But has the
been borrowed from the army career of the Grand Master of Alabama of
the year 1821?
It is perhaps not unreasonable to suppose that the good brother used a
title of rank, and when this was brought up before the Grand Lodge the
was not acceptable. This solution of the problem is submitted with
in the hope thereby that search might be blade as to the army record of
If he really was a Major General or if at any time he had had the right
to use the
title he may have carried that privilege into all formal documents as a
custom or pride.
Location of the Pyramid
Brother Editor: – May a brother unversed in the
Doctrine" (which is the subject of Bro. Greene's correspondence in the
1917, "Builder") make a correction to his very excellent article? He
that the Great Pyramid Cheops of Egypt "stands as near as may be, on
mentioned tropical Line" or about 23 1/2 degrees north latitude. After
lengthy study of this wonderful structure, I cannot accept Bro.
particularly as the best evidence at hand indicates that the Pyramid is
at the tropical line, but precisely on the thirtieth parallel. It is
like the Temple,
"located so far north of the ecliptic" that the sun can cast no ray of
light in a possible north window. For evidence as to the location of
see Piazi Smyth's monumental work [Lib 1874], or even consult a reliable
Some years of study on the subject of this
monument have caused me gradually to form a theory which would be
shocking to good
orthodox Masons. I would recommend the reading of the above reference
as well as
Bro. McCarty's later work [Lib 1907], to all who are studying
Masonry, as being the most
interesting matter that can be obtained.
* * *
Editor The Builder: – In Bro. George F.
explaining the celebrated Pillars – Jachin and Boaz – he says that
" 'Boaz' was used
to mark the sun's highest ascension to the North of the Tropic of
Cancer, and the
longest day of the year. The Great Pyramid of Cheops of Egypt is the
Boaz of the
ancient priesthood and stands, as near as may be, on the above
Regarding the position of the Great Pyramid,
is somewhat mistaken. As a matter of fact, the mistake amounts to the
difference of 447 miles, 861 yards.
The Great Pyramid was placed by its builders as
to the thirtieth degree of North latitude as their observational
methods could determine;
the actual position being one mile, 568 yards south of that parallel.
to latitude North 29d 58' 51".
The angles of the sides have been estimated
of the casing stones. The measurements of this stone vary from 51d 50'
to 51d 52.25'
giving a mean of approximately 51d 51'. This means that the sun shone
on the North
side of the Pyramid from February to October, a period apparently
without any special
Nevertheless, I believe that Bro. Greene is on
track, and that corrections in detail will serve not only to determine
the astronomical basis of what he is seeking, but as well to increase
of man's knowledge of geometry.
According to Proclus the Pyramids "terminated
in a platform from which the priests made their celestial
these platforms were not intended as contributions to science is
evidenced by their
elimination through the completion of the pyramidal forms. Astrology
supply the only "key," because astrology was a part of the ancient
stock in trade by which they endeavored to foretell the future. The
not interested in the science of astronomy as such, but they were
and as firmly believed, in the influence of the sun, moon and stars
upon their lives,
whose future they sought to penetrate by a study of the celestial
Proctor [Lib 1883] has placed the construction
of the pyramids at about
3400 B. C. and it is quite clear that their builders were not only
but expert workmen as well. When all the possible attendant
circumstances are considered,
it becomes evident that in the construction of the Pyramids there is
logical opportunity for the crystallization of that Philosophy which
through the Ages.
Eber Cole Byam,
* * *
The Skeleton of Life
Fate and luck are but the bare skeleton upon
man builds his life. The result depends entirely upon himself.
The Scotch have a story of a boating party that
caught in a storm.
"Let us pray,"
suggested some one.
the boatman; "let the little mon over there do the praying, but let all
strong men take an oar."
There was no impiety in this. Prayer cannot
or succor to those who do not use the strength and means at hand.
Fate is treacherous and soonest betrays those
most upon it. It helps only those determined to help themselves. Luck,
too, is faithless
and laughs at the man who too strongly puts his trust in it. It
a golden glow upon the accomplishment of the man who does for himself,
but for the
man who does not strive it has only mockery.
There is no worse belief than that in fate and
to make you a failure.
It puts you in a wholly wrong attitude toward
It deadens your incentive and your power to
It destroys fixed and wholesome aspirations.
It paralyzes your energies.
It renders organized and spirited effort
Don't believe that there is any fate for you
that which you make yourself.
Hope for no luck that you are not worthy of and
* * *
"Our Flag" -- [A Poem]
O. E. Looney, M. D.
AN EXPLANATION – On the tenth day of January,
I visited the old historic house at No. 239 Arch Street, Philadelphia,
1776, Betsy Ross made and presented to General George Washington the
American Flag in the presence of Honorable George Ross and Robert
a committee to receive the same. On the fourteenth day of June, 1777,
was adopted by Congress as our National Emblem. I tarried in the little
that event took place for more than fifteen minutes, entertaining
cannot be described.
I therefore trust you will appreciate the
lines, most of which I composed February first, 1914, in an effort to
of the many thoughts that cluster around "Old Glory" and to marshal
in rhythmic form.
Henry Lincoln Redfield
the canopy of
Was the darker hue first brought;
And a glorious constellation
On that hallowed color wrought;
While a thousand gorgeous sunsets
Lent their crimson for the bars,
And the peace-doves of our Nation
Spread their white wings 'neath this stars.
Though the form of that blest emblem
Was by God himself thus planned;
It was reverently fashioned
By a matron's skillful hand;
And the "Father of His Country,"
In that awful, solemn hour,
Took it, like Elijah's mantle
Vested with prophetic power.
Then unfurled in mighty splendor,
Round its standard flocked the throngs,
Buckling swords and grasping weapons,
To redress impending wrongs!
Long the struggle, great the conflict;
But above the din and roar
Heaved aloft that glorious banner,
Wafting freedom to each shore.
But again in smoke of battle,
O'er a soil that should be free;
Out of chaos, blood and carnage,
Came a two-fold liberty –
Came a prestige, love, devotion,
Freedom, and a Union strong;
For beneath its mighty standard
Right had triumphed over wrong!
Yet that flag did droop midst sorrows
As 'twas folded o'er the bier
Of the loved and martyred hero,
For whom fell a Nation's tear.
But from dirge and muffled drum-beat,
From a country's mourning throng;
Like the Phoenix from its ashes,
Rose and swelled a world-wide song.
Song that touched the hearts of nations
And brought myriads to our shore,
While beneath the starry wavelets
Rest the oppressed forever more.
Yes, we love that cherished emblem,
For its mission is divine;
May its bars increase in splendor
And its stars forever shine!
It is floating from the mast head
Of our vessels in all ports –
O'er the islands of the sea unfurled –
Guardian of our forts.
In the cities of the Old World
It is held – an honored guest
And the sun doth never set upon
That "Spangled Banner" blest.
Though the red may mean the life-blood
Shed for it in conflicts past;
Yet the white doth prophesy that peace
Shall rule the world at last.
While the stars upon the blue
Direct our thought to Him above
Till the nations of the whole earth
Shall be govern'd by God's love.
War and the Un-Named -- [A Poem]
An Ancient Chinese
Wen-Tien Hsiang. - From Giles'
all that ever was
Or ever yet will be,
There is that shapes the sun and stars
And makes the land and sea.
In man its Spirit; but unnamed In earth and sea and air,
Below us, and above, around
Behold it's everywhere.
And though in harmony and peace
It's not perceived by men,
When storm and stress the nation shake
We all can see it then.
Patriotism -- [A Poem]
Sir Walter Scott
man with soul so dead
Who never to himself hath said,
This is my own, my native land;
Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned,
As home his footsteps he hath turned
From wandering on a foreign strand?
If such there breathe, go, mark him well,
For him no minstrel raptures swell;
High though his titles, proud his name,
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim,
Despite those titles, power and pelf,
The wretch, concentered all in self,
Living, shall forfeit fair renown
And, doubly dying, shall go down
To the vile dust from whence he sprung,
Unwept, unhonored and unsung.
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Fab16 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T. - Toronto :
McLelland, Goodchild & Stewart, Ltd., 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
378. - 9.7 MB.
Life of the Fly
Fab19 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T. - New York
: Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 479. - 12.5 MB.
Life of the Weevil
Fab22 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T. - New York
: Dodd, Mead and Compnay, Inc., 1922. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 358. - 4.9 MB.
Old Charges of British
Hug72 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : Simpkins, Marshall &
Co., 1872. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 8.2 MB.
On the Mysteries
Iam21 / auth. Iamblichus / trans. Taylor Thomas. - London : Bertram
Dobell, 1821. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 390. - 13.2 MB.
Our Inheritance in the Great
Smy74 / auth. Smyth C. Piazzi. - London : W. Ibister & Co.,
1874. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 550. - 28.1 MB.
Primitive Secret Societies
Web08 / auth. Webster Hutton. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1908.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 241. - 7.0 MB.
Russia in 1916
Gra17 / auth. Graham Stephen. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1917.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 211. - 4.2 MB.
Social Life In The Insect World
Fab14 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. Miall Bernhard. - New York : The
Century Co., 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 349. - 13.9 MB.
Pai61 / auth. Paine Timothy O. - Boston : H. H. & T. W. Carter,
1861. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 124. - 5.9 MB.
The Cathedral Builders
Sco99 / auth. Scott Leader. - London : Sampson Low, Marston &
Co., 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 520. - 16.1 MB.
The Comacines Their
Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 94. - 3.4 MB.
The Early History and
Antiquities of Freemasonry
For81 / auth. Fort George F.. - Philadelphia : Bradley & Co.,
1881. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 514. - 21.2 MB.
The Freemason's Treasury
Oli63 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Bro. R. Spencer, 1863. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 393. - 12.4 MB.
The Great Pyramid
Pro83 / auth. Proctor Richard A. - London : Chatto & Wyndus,
1883. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 368. - 17.8 MB.
The Great Pyramid Jeezeh
McC07 / auth. McCarty Louis P. - San Francisco : Louis P. McCarty,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 592. - 28.7 MB.
The Life of the Spider
Fab161 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T. - New York
: Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 406. - 9.9 MB.
Fab141 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T. - New York
: Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 324. - 6.6 MB.
Fab191 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T. - New York
: Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 330. - 7.9 MB.
The Old Guilds of England
Arm18 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : Weare & Co., 1918.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 231. - 8.9 MB.
The Spirit of Masonry in Moral
and Elucidatory Lectures
Hut95 / auth. Hutchinson William. - Carlisle : F. Jollie, 1795. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 370. - 13.8 MB.
The Symbol of Glory
Oli50 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1850. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 397. - 11.6 MB.
War and Peace
Tol69 / auth. Tolstoy
Leo. - Pictou : ronigo, 1869. - Digital : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1171. - 3.9
What is Freemasonry
Spe93 / auth. Speth George W. - London : George Kenning, 1893. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 16. - 0.3 MB.