Masonic Research Society
Table of Contents
Opinion on Masonic
Subjects – A Fraternal Forum
Edited By Bro. Geo. E.
Frazier, President, The Board Of Stewards
(Announcing a Monthly Department of Personal
Opinion on Present-day Masonic subjects)
RESULTS speak louder than words. In reviewing
first two years of the Society, the Board of Stewards have been
impressed with its loyalty to its original ideal, the character of its
membership, and the increasing use now being made of its resources.
numbers give no adequate idea of its real strength, but it is surely
significant that the Society has enlisted the interest of fourteen
Masons in two years. Its members include not only the rank and file of
Craft, but a large percentage of the leaders and students of Masonry in
America, and not a few representative scholars from abroad. Indeed a
the present members of the Society in any state shows a striking
the veteran Masonic leaders and the progressive young men of the
Naturally the high character of the membership
making itself felt month by month in the contents of The Builder, whose
articles provoke a wide response both in the Society as well as in the
press of the country. This response finds expression in the
column of The Builder, which increases in interest and value with each
and also in answer and comment direct from individual members. Because
directness, vitality and far-reaching interest of this response, the
taxed the limits of space devoted to it, often withholding new articles
room for letters of reply or elaboration not infrequently as
instructive as the
original article. Fortunately this demand has been met in part by the
Correspondence Circle Bulletin, edited by Brother Clegg, which is now
and invaluable monthly feature. The Board of Stewards is in entire
with the Study-Club movement, and wishes to make all possible provision
facilitate its growth and advancement.
All of which shows a very real and vital
in the study of Masonry, and the development of our work so far reveals
wide range of Masonic activities – as a glance at the Index of the
volumes of The Builder will make plain. We have, then, a trinity of
tools. First, we have fourteen thousand leading Masons who are reading
Builder, and the number is rapidly growing. Second, we have a hearty
from our members not only in appreciation, but in comment, criticism,
practical suggestion looking to the application of Masonic study to
life. Third, we have a list of contributors of serious articles which
the names of many of the finest Masonic students at home and abroad.
this is as much an evidence of the strength and virility of Masonry as
beautiful temples, the perfect exemplification of the ritual, or large
of candidates, excellent as all these are.
Your Board of Stewards has, therefore, felt the
need of adding a department to The Builder that will bring the
special information of its past and present contributors to bear on
Masonic problems. We have accordingly established a department of
opinion, which will appear monthly commencing with an early issue. This
department will be edited by the President of the Board of Stewards,
will invite contributions to the department each month from each writer
contributed one or more articles to the magazine. At least four and not
than six such expressions of personal opinion will make up the
each month. In order that opinions may be compared and opposite
fully considered the President will announce a subject for each month
form of a query. Some possible subjects are:
Masonic lodges encourage the formation of local Masonic clubs for
American Grand Lodges unite in a National Grand Lodge?
lodge dues be increased to cover the financial support of Masonic
Masters and Grand Masters be elected from the floor without regard to
in subordinate offices?
present Masonic orders favor the promotion of new systems of Masonic or
Lodge officers be financially interested in the sale of Masonic
Masonic lodges appoint committees to investigate the non-sectarian
administration of the public schools?
You are asked to read over again the typical
subjects just given. Please note that they are subjects actively
the official correspondence of practically all grand lodges. They are
topics on which Masons have opinion, and on which Masonic judgment must
passed. The subjects do not involve the discussion of politics,
creeds or personal prejudices.
The subjects given are intended merely to
out the possibilities of this department. Each member is earnestly
suggest other and better topics. Please remember that the department is
open to discussion on international policies or on religious
on sects, cults and theories of personal application. The department is
expression of personal opinion by our own former contributors on
are alive in the administration of the Masonry of today.
The contributing editors of this department of
personal opinion assume responsibility only for what each writes over
signature. Each opinion must be expressed in one paragraph of not more
hundred words. All those who have contributed articles to The Builder
invited to become contributing editors. The list will grow as all new
contributors to The Builder will also become contributing editors to
department of personal opinion. Please note carefully that this
offers the only vehicle in Masonry for comparing the personal opinions
leading Masonic students as to present-day Masonic problems. With this
one can readily appreciate the possibilities before us for constructive
thinking of a high order.
The Correspondence department of The Builder
be continued and will afford each member of the Society an opportunity
to any expression of opinion that he finds of especial interest. It is
of the Board of Stewards that this new department may stimulate many
Masonic inquiry that will in turn lead them to contribute articles to
Builder, and to join our list of Contributing Editors
FRAZER, President of the Board of Stewards.
Above all, that I may not be a coward! That I
have courage, courage to be unmoved by the uncertainties of life, and
dread of loss, whether of friends, of health or of fortune: That I may
with a firm and tranquil mind to the work of this day, fearing nothing
to meet bravely failure or deprivation.
That I may bring to the day's efforts, good
and a cheerful regard for all with whom I may come into contact: That I
judge others hastily or with bitterness.
That I may not be grasping, but content with a
share of this world's goods, willing to let others have theirs: That I
diligent in the performance of duties and cheerful in manner: That I
earnest in pursuit of the right.
That I may stand with open mind ready to
the Truth in small affairs and in large – whether in learning new and
methods or in receiving that philosophy necessary to a brave, tranquil,
well-poised, well-harmonized life.
Brisben Walker (Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association)
Words of Strength -- [A Poem]
By Friedrich Schiller, Born
Nov. 10, 1759.
lessons I would write,
Three words as with a burning pen,
In tracings of eternal light,
Upon the hearts of men:
Have hope. Though clouds environ now,
And gladness hides her face in scorn,
Put thou the shadow from thy brow,
No night but hath its morn.
Have faith. Where'er thy bark is driven –
The calm's disport, the tempest's mirth –
Know this – God rules the hosts of heaven,
The inhabitants of earth.
Have love. Not love alone for one,
But, man as man thy brother call,
And scatter, like the circling sun,
Thy charities on all.
Thus grave these lessons on thy soul –
Hope, Faith and Love and thou shalt find
Strength when life's surges rudest roll,
Light when thou else wert blind.
Masonry and King
By The Late Bro. Wm. A.
Paine, William A.,
of English parentage, date of birth unknown; a man of business and a
of the old school; Master of King Solomon's Lodge, Kingston, Jamaica,
Royal Arch Mason; lost his life in the earthquake disaster at Kingston,
14th, 1907. He was a man of noble character, of winning personality,
the lore of Freemasonry, devoted to its service, and a pioneer in his
jurisdiction in the cause of Masonic study. The essay here published is
unusual value for its wide research and its clear reasoning; and while
its readers may not agree with the position taken, they must reckon
argument opposing the Jewish claims of Masonic origin.
(For the above information and photograph, and for Brother Paine's
paper herewith begun, we are indebted to our Brother Member, E. T.
33d, of Chicago.)
IT is necessary that we look at this important
instructive factor in the system of Speculative Freemasonry from two
and distinct points – the positive and the negative.
The positive asserts itself from the fact that
Solomon's Temple, the traditions connected therewith, and prominent
characters, are very extensively introduced; and, in fine, that the
Ceremonials and Types are considerably availed of as the foundations on
the three Craft Degrees have been erected. With a limited knowledge of
origin and history of the Ritual, and of the Symbolism in Freemasonry,
not to be wondered at that a very large proportion of Masons consider
orthodox in holding the opinion that Solomon, King of Israel, and the
Hirams, were Freemasons, and that Speculative Freemasonry originated at
building of the First Temple. I need hardly say that it is only natural
Jewish Mason should hold firmly to such a view.
The negative side of the question is this: –
"That Hiram Abiff was not slain. Solomon and the two Hirams were not
Masons, and that Freemasonry did not originate at the Temple." And as I
shall be able to show that we have Masonic history to support this
and that we have only to deal with a series of interesting and
legends, the sooner we recognize and admit the same, by placing the
the Jewish characters connected therewith under the legitimate and
classification, – allegory. The sooner we seek for the origin of the
the Temple, and the period in the history of Freemasonry, when it was
introduced, the earlier and the better shall we be able to understand
what Speculative Freemasonry is; or, as in the words of one of our
charges, "Be the better able to distinguish and appreciate the
of our whole system, and the relative dependency of its several parts."
If so great a Masonic student as Dr. Oliver, in
early career, believed literally all that had been told him in the
is it to be wondered at that the like erroneous view still exists? The
experience can be best given in his own words: "The Legend of the 3d
given as a naked and unexplained fact, and recited with all the
truth, 99 out of every 100 candidates believe it implicitly, and would
it a casus belli if any one were to express a doubt respecting the most
improbable particulars which it professes to record; and when I was
initiated at an early age, I confess that such were my own impressions."
Ragon, who died in 1866, and was considered one
the ablest of French Masonic writers, thus refers to the 3d: – "All the
fables which are introduced to excite the wonder and astonishment of
Neophyte, and repeated as undoubted facts as preserved by an ancient
tradition, may be termed fanciful monstrosities, because the Holy
tacitly disprove them, for they contain no reference to the
constitute the Legend."
Grand Master Dalcho, in one of his orations,
"I candidly confess that I feel a great degree of embarrassment, while
am relating to Ministers of God's Holy Word, or to any other gentlemen,
founded on the grossest errors of accumulated ages; errors which they
to me to be such, from the sacred pages of Holy Writ, and from profane
and, that too, in a minute after I have solemnly pronounced them to be
undeniable truths, even by the Holy Bible on which I have received
Oliver says also, on the same subject: "It is
indeed indefensible as a sober matter of History, and the most rational
application of it, which the W. M. could make at the conclusion of the
ceremony, would be to explain to the Candidate, that the drama in which
sustained so conspicuous a part, is merely symbolical; and, then
reference. This course would be plausible, and prevent the Candidate
the Lodge, either with a fallacy on his mind, if he believes it to be
with a conviction that a clumsy and unworthy imposition has been
him; which, from a better knowledge of the facts, he at once repudiates
combined feeling of pity and disgust."
Such being the opinions of eminent Masonic
printed and published for the instruction even of entered apprentices,
then ascertain the true definition as given by Oliver and others.
"Freemasonry is confessedly an allegory, and as an allegory only must
be supported, for its traditional history admits of no palliation.
would remove Freemasonry out of the category, as an allegorical
might as well destroy its existence; for in no other character would it
to hold its own. It is one consistent and intelligible assemblage of
and any attempt to explain it, by reference to facts, is sure to fail:
of a clear, beautiful, and harmonious system connected in all its
distorted caricature will be produced without a single redeeming trait
Dalcho, holding similar views, says in
"Neither Moses, nor Solomon, nor Joshua, nor the two Hirams, nor the
Saints John belonged to the Masonic Order. It is unwise to assert more
can prove, and to argue against probabilities. There is no record,
profane, to induce us to believe that these holy and distinguished men
Freemasons. To assert that which may make the ignorant stare, but will
create the contempt than the admiration of the wise – let Freemasons
their vain boastings, which ignorance has foisted into the Order, and
relinquish a fabulous antiquity, rather than sacrifice common sense."
I invite your attention to the consideration of
this fabulous antiquity as applicable to Solomon's Temple. Locke, the
philosopher of the 17th century, and whom we know was a Freemason,
"Religion is the only tie which will bind men, and where there is no
religion, there can be no Masonry." Max Muller asks us to bear in mind
"That without a belief in a personal immortality, religion surely, is
an arch resting on one pillar, or like a bridge ending in an abyss ;"
Bulwer Lytton truly adds: "Though all the world were carved over, and
inscribed with the letters of divine knowledge, the characters would be
valueless to him who does not pause to inquire the language, and
meditate the truth."
These three quotations supply religion, immortality, symbolism, a most
appropriate triad, pointing to the pillars of wisdom, strength, and
wisdom abides in the man, who, with revealed religion as his guide, is
strengthened in his belief in immortality, by recognizing the beautiful
symbolism of Freemasonry, by which it inculcates so important a dogma.
Dr. Oliver considers that wherever and whenever
true God was worshiped, in the midst of idolatry, as in the time of
apostasy under Ahab and Jezebel, that such worshipers of Jehovah were
representatives of ancient speculative Freemasons, and therefore he
the erection of the First Temple, the Jews represented the pure
element which, joined to the Tyrian pure operative Masonry, was the
combination of speculative with operative. This can only be viewed at
as merely sentimental – nothing historical as bearing on the point that
the Jews were architects, or that Solomon and the two Hirams were
Nor can any such sentimental amalgamation of the Jew and Tyrian, at the
temple, be urged as analogous to the combination of Pagan and Christian
architects in the time of Constantine the First at Byzantium, or of
Protestant architects in the 17th century under Wren at the erection of
Findel, that great German Masonic writer,
ignores Jewish origin and Temple traditions, and although admitting
is historical, is only willing to trace Freemasonry from the German
the middle ages. Fort, a renowned American writer, admits Jewish
Jewish origin, but that influence as of a period long subsequent to the
Temple, for he commences his line of argument at the early Byzantium
Woodford, Past Grand Chaplain of Grand Lodge of
England, and equally a writer of note, considers "our present
system, in its modern development, as undoubtedly lineally and
the successor of the Gild Fraternities of the operative Masons, but he
'whence did the Gilds obtain the Masonic legends?' and he adds, I am
inclined to give up the legend of the temple, or even a connection with
ancient mysteries altogether."
Mackey, the American Masonic writer, referring
the 3rd degree, says, "When I speak of the antiquity of Freemasonry, I
must say, if I must respect the axioms of historical science, that its
came out of the middle ages, but that its spirit is to be traced to far
periods, for Freemasonry is the successor of the Building Corporations
middle ages – and through them with less certainty, but with great
of the Roman Colleges of Artificers – its connection with Solomon's
its birthplace may have been accidental or a mere arbitrary selection
inventors, and bears therefore only an allegorical meaning. The Temple
Solomon has played an important part in Freemasonry. Time was, when
Masonic writer subscribed to the theory that Masonry was there first
that there Solomon and the two Hirams presided as Grand Masters,
symbolic degrees and invented the system of initiation, and that – from
period in unbroken succession and unaltered – form has it passed to us,
the stream of time." But Mackey goes on to say, "The modern method of
reading Masonic history has swept away this edifice of imagination as
efficiently as the Babylonish King demolished the structure itself,
it is founded. No writer who values his reputation as a critical
would now attempt to defend the theory that Masonry originated at the
of the First Temple."
Findel, Fort, Mackey – three of as great
celebrities in Masonic literature as are to be found entirely ignore
origin; and if we bear this in view, together with the other important
that Freemasonry is only a beautiful system of symbolism and allegory,
cannot but admit that the Rabbi Maimonides' Commentary on the Legends
Talmudists is very appropriate, and a fitting Commentary on the
Freemasonry. His words are: "Beware that ye take not the words of the
men in their literal signification, for this would be to degrade and
to contradict the Sacred Doctrines. Search further for the hidden
sense, and if
you cannot find the kernel, let the shell alone, and confess you cannot
(To be continued)
The Perfect Ashlar
By Bro. H. A.
A. – born, Westfield, Mass., August 27, 1882; graduate in Chemical
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass., 1907; graduate in
National University, Washington, D. C., 1910; graduate in Patent Law,
Washington University, Washington, D. C., 1911; Member of Bar of
Columbia; Member of Bar of Supreme Court of United States; Assistant
U.S. Patent Office, 1908-1912; at present, Assistant Patent Counsel,
Departure Mfg. Co., Bristol, Connecticut; Washington Centennial Lodge
Washington, D. C.; Mount Vernon Chapter No. 3, Washington, D. C.;
Bodies, 4d to 18d, Springfield, Mass.; 19d to 32d, Massachusetts
IN the case of many of the symbols used in
it almost seems as though the ritual writers must have followed the
"The importance to be given a symbol in the ritual should be inversely
proportional to the real importance of that symbol." Particularly does
this rule seem to have been applied to the case of one of the Jewels of
Lodge – the Perfect Ashlar or Perfect stone Cube. For this symbol,
casually dismissed with but two or three brief sentences in the
instructions, is, in reality, of very considerable importance and
deserving of the careful attention of the Mason.
The Perfect Ashlar is one of a group of three
Jewels. Thus the symbol calls the Mason's attention to one more of the
(not less than twenty) references, in Craft Masonry, to the number
Three – the
most significant of all the numbers (unless it be Seven) held in
nearly every ancient system of religious philosophy, and even having,
of those systems, notably that of Plato, the importance of a symbol of
Stone, the material of the Perfect Ashlar, was
considered of great importance in many of the ancient religions and,
some was worshiped. Stone worship existed among the early American
is good reason for believing that the Peruvians worshiped stones, as
protectors of their crops. The Greeks originally used unhewn stones to
represent their deities. The Thebans represented the god Bacchus by a
the Kaaba at Mecca is a stone, Hajar al Aswad, which was worshiped by
ancient Arabians and which present-day Mohammedans regard with
Druids represented their gods by stones.
Stone is so evidently the symbol of Permanency,
Faith and Trust that it seems almost unnecessary to cite examples here.
familiar with his New Testament will recall the incident of the giving
of the name
Cephas, or Peter, meaning a stone, to Simon, who stood for the
faith and truth of the Early Christian Church, and will recall that
said, "Thou art Peter and on this rock I will build my Church."
The cubical form of-the Perfect Ashlar serves
further identify it as the symbol of Permanency, Faith and Truth as the
from the time of the Ancients has had this significance. We have an
it in Revelations (XXI, 16) where the New Jerusalem is described as
length, breadth and thickness equal, each to the other, giving, of
cubical form to the city.
The fact that Masonry uses a hewn, rather than
unhewn stone, for symbolizing Truth, furnishes an interesting example
ways in which the introduction of (comparatively) self-evident
derived from Operative Masonry has worked, in some instances, curious
in the more abstruse symbolist systems which Masonry has, apparently,
from the Hebrews and the Egyptians. That is, in the Masonic system,
at this point suggestions from Operative Masonry, the hewn and perfect
condition of the Perfect Ashlar is understood to emphasize and make yet
stronger the symbol's reference to Truth, whereas in the symbolist
the Hebrews and the Egyptians a rough, unhewn cubical stone was
symbolize Truth and a perfect, hewn stone was understood to symbolize
However interesting and important the various
symbolic significances of the Cube may be, the symbolic suggestion that
most concerns the Mason of today, and particularly the American Mason
is this: – The Cube is the symbol of the state and it is placed in the
Lodge to constantly remind the Mason, of the State, or political
which he forms a part, and to recall him to those duties which he, a
owes to that State.
If one views a cube with his eyes slightly
the top of it, and opposite one of its vertical edges, he will find
indicated in the figure, there are three faces visible, and three
him. The three visible faces symbolize the three departments of the
Legislative, which makes the laws, the Judicial which interprets them,
Executive which executes them. The three invisible faces symbolize the
invisible soul of the State, Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. As these
invisible faces are necessary to complete and make stable the Cube so
Liberty, Equality and Fraternity necessary to complete and make stable
The Perfect Ashlar, in its character of a
the State, represents an ideal to be striven for – the perfect State
yet been finally developed. But, upon his first entrance into Masonry,
Mason is presented with Working Tools with which to shape and to gauge
– the Gavel, symbolizing Force, and the Gauge, symbolizing Rule or Law.
Perfect Ashlar reminds the Mason that his entered apprentice's Working
are given him to use and that it is for him, a citizen, to apply them,
Force, properly held in restraint by Rule or Law, to, so far as in him
make his ashlar a Perfect Ashlar and his state a perfect State.
Construction -- [A Poem]
Geo. N. Foster, Lincoln, Nebr.
its millions within its awful thralls;
To do its bidding night and day, and mandate all its calls.
Another host in other parts Construction does employ;
To build our homes and cities fair, and all that we enjoy.
Construction and destruction have been fighting hand to hand
Since this old world began to turn, and neither rules the land.
But what construction does today to build in modern ways
Destruction lays in desolate waste in future struggling days.
One hand can swing the mighty sword, and in its awful swath
The lives of millions fall like grain – why reckon up the loss?
But two hands do the building as we raise the wall again;
Two hands bind up the wounded, and two hands construct again.
One hand can raise the fire-brand from the smoldering coals of hate;
Two hands must stop the raging flames before it is too late.
One hand can give the signal for the largest guns to boom
Two hands must raise above the dead the flowers into bloom.
Two hands can build with stone on stone the highest wall that's laid;
One hand can burst the fatal shells, and debts alone are made.
One hand may wield destruction as it goes along life's path;
Two hands must do the healing, as we reap the aftermath.
Why not use the brick and mortar, not the rifle and the sword?
Why not use the trowel and level, at Construction's signal word?
Why not use the square and plumb-line as we raise our friendships kind?
For destruction's not external until cherished in man's mind.
What's within brings forth the harvest; thoughts rethought make up the
That same harvest may be useful, or a useless growth of weeds.
Why delay internal plantings when destruction's passions yield?
Go into internal pastures; there prepare the fertile field.
There prepare it for the planting, like a garden fair to see;
Sow it, watch it, tend and weed it, 'til from weeds the ground is free.
By and by the crop grows stronger, and no weeds can therein grow;
For the harvest forth is coming – a repayment for the sow.
By destruction things are severed from their proper place in life.
By construction brought together; fitted 'gainst a social strife.
By destruction strong connections are at once asunder torn;
By construction once well welded – and redone by son unborn.
When our lives are in their fittings and each unit has its place
The design has form and beauty which the artist's brush would trace;
With the back ground and perspective, and our hopes the foreground fill
There's construction in the picture; beauty through the artist's will.
Faith it takes for all construction; faith it takes to plan to do;
Faith it takes at the foundation, and to see the matter through.
Faith it takes when all's destruction to rise up and build some more;
Faith it takes when broken idols lie upon the tiled floor.
Hope in all constructive action is the active force to move.
Faith is passive in the planning, and the two, resultants prove.
Hope moves faith into an action which before was in the breast,
And the two are both constructive counting for the very best.
The resultant is construction, in both matter and in mind;
Putting useful things together which apart, serve not mankind.
Two hands, with a mind and feeling make for charity and love
They produce the world's resultant guided by a Force above.
Justice is as strictly due between neighbor
nations, as between neighbor citizens. A highwayman is as much a robber
plunders in a gang, as when single; and a nation that makes an unjust
only a great gang of robbers.
By Bro. Roscoe Pound,
Dean, Harvard College of Law
I. The Data of Masonic
At the outset we may well ask ourselves why do
say Masonic Jurisprudence? Why not simply Masonic Law? Is there a
Masonic law as distinct from Masonic law itself? For in its original
etymological meaning and in the best usage, jurisprudence means the
law. It is true there are two other uses of the term. The French use it
the course of decision in the courts as contrasted on the one hand with
and on the other hand with doctrine or the consensus of opinion of
writers and commentators. To some extent this French usage has been
with us, particularly in the phrase "equity jurisprudence,"
signifying the course of decision in Anglo-American courts of equity,
gained currency through the classical work of Judge Story. But it must
obvious that Masons do not employ the word in this sense. Although the
of decision in Masonic tribunals in the form of rulings of the Grand
and action of Grand Lodges thereon and of review of trials in or by
Lodges, is an important form of Masonic law; it furnishes but a part,
relatively a modern part, of the materials of what we are wont to style
By a not unnatural transition from the French
of the term it has come to be used also chiefly in this country, simply
polysyllabic synonym for law. Medical jurisprudence, for the forensic
applications of medicine, has much vogue. Dental jurisprudence for the
interest to dentists, engineering jurisprudence for the law of interest
engineers, architectural jurisprudence for the law of interest to
are heard occasionally. These seem quite indefensible. But even if they
not to be criticized, they would not warrant Masonic jurisprudence, for
latter term calls to mind not that part of the general law of the land
has special interest for the Mason, but the internal law of the
itself. We come back, therefore, to our question whether Masonic
is simply a grandiose name for Masonic law or whether, on the other
is a science of Masonic law distinct from the law of each Masonic
Is there, in other words, an organized body of knowledge above and
particular local Masonic law upon which the latter rests as fully and
the particular legal rules of one of our commonwealths rest upon the
of general legal science and the principles of Anglo-American legal
For the moment I shall assume that there is, and my purpose in this
be, not to expound dogmatically the rules of Masonic law which obtain
elsewhere, but to show, if I may, that there is a science of Masonic
examine its material and its methods, and to set forth its principles.
In studying the law of politically organized
society we say that it may be expounded dogmatically, that is, the
application of its several rules and principles may be investigated and
forth, or it may be studied by one of the methods of jurisprudence –
analytical, historical, or philosophical. In truth dogmatic study is of
value except as it makes use of and rests upon these methods of legal
They justify themselves in the end by making for effective
criticism and improvement of the law of each state. But they are
legal science generally, while the dogmatic method is applicable not to
jurisprudence but to a particular body of law. We may study a
of law analytically, that is, we may investigate the structure, subject
and rules of a legal system in order to reach by analysis the
theories which it logically presupposes. As a method of jurisprudence,
the analytical method is comparative. It involves a comparative study
purposes, methods and ideas common to developed systems of law by
such systems and of their doctrines and institutions in their matured
Again, a particular body of law may be studied historically. That is,
investigation may be made of the historical origin and development of
system and of its institutions and doctrines, looking to the past of
the law to
disclose the principles of the law of today. But here also, as a method
jurisprudence the historical method must be comparative. It involves a
comparative study of the origin and development of law, of legal
of particular doctrines and institutions in order to draw therefrom
principles of legal science. Finally, a particular body of law may be
philosophically. That is, investigation may be made of the
of the institutions and doctrines of a legal system in order to reach
fundamental principles through philosophical speculation. When this
pursued comparatively and the philosophical basis of law generally and
general legal institutions and universal legal doctrines is sought, in
reach universal principles, the philosophical method becomes a method
jurisprudence. Formerly these three methods, the analytical, the
the philosophical, contended for the mastery. Today we recognize that
no one of
them is self-sufficient and that jurisprudence must employ each of them
to achieve a well-rounded science.
If we apply these ideas to Masonic law, we may
that a dogmatic exposition of the law of any jurisdiction would,
likely be profitable. But it would be relatively of little value,
little permanent value, unless it made use of and rested upon the
the historical and the philosophical methods. Moreover these methods
developed comparatively, as methods of a Masonic legal science, if they
give their best results. On the other hand these methods are not
their own sake. In the end they must justify themselves by making the
each Masonic jurisdiction more scientific, better organized, more easy
comprehension and of application and more effective for the purposes
it exists. Unless he can give us principles of systematization, of
and of improvement in those parts of our law which are subject to
jurist has no claim upon the attention of a craft of workmen.
Another preliminary question confronts us. How
are we justified in speaking of Masonic law? Is the body of rules to
give that name law in any proper sense of the term? Are we warranted in
applying to it the methods and in attaching to it the ideas which are
when treating of the law of politically organized society?
There are three common uses of the term
"law": (1) Law as used in the natural and physical sciences; (2)
natural law or law of nature as the term has been used by writers on
politics and the philosophy of law; (3) law in the juridical sense. In
sciences, law is used to mean deductions from human experience of the
events. Thus the law of gravitation is a record of human observation
experience of the manner in which bodies which are free to move do in
toward one another. Similarly Grimm's law in philology is a record of
observations of philologists as to the manner in which consonantal
taken place in the several Aryan languages. By natural law ethical,
philosophical and political writers mean the principles which
ethics discover as those which should govern human action and the
human relations, and hence as those with respect to which obligatory
human conduct ought to be framed. Law in the juridical sense is said to
body of rules, principles and standards recognized or enforced by
regular tribunals in the administration of justice. Obviously there is
in common here, namely, the idea of a rule or principle, underlying a
of events, whether natural or moral, or judicial. In this wide sense,
therefore, we may speak of the rules or principles which underlie a
events in a fraternal organization as law, just as we should so style
or principles underlying a sequence of events in a political society.
wide use of the term law has been the subject of much objection and
dispute and we may put ourselves on firmer ground by looking at certain
between the rules which govern the decision of controversies and the
of relations in a politically organized society and those which govern
and adjust relations in religious organizations and in fraternal
At bottom we must rest the whole structure of
and law upon the hard fundamental fact that in a finite world, human
are infinite. If there were enough material goods to go around and
so that each of us might move in the widest orbit his fancy could
his desires could dictate without coming into collision with his fellow
should not need any elaborate system of balancing conflicting interests
elaborate machinery for putting into effect the standards for
enforcing interests which result from such balancing. Unhappily the
goods of existence do not suffice to give to each everything which he
or which he does claim. Hence to conserve the values of life and to
waste men organize themselves and organize or invent rules and
principles by which to eliminate waste and make the available stock of
go as far as possible. In the beginning these organizations are simply
of kindred. Presently religious and maternal organizations develop.
Subsequently political organizations arise. In time trade and
associations are added. All these seek in one way or another to secure
values which might otherwise be dissipated. They have their
the necessity of conserving what would otherwise be lost in the
individuals to satisfy infinite claims upon a limited store.
Accordingly, if we
look for a moment at the state, we see that it eliminates waste by
means of the
law in several ways. For one thing it furnishes a rule of decision in
dispute and thus obviates resort to private war when controversies
has only to consider what happens today in case of an industrial
order to see what this means.
In an ordinary dispute between man and man
have a measure of conduct which is ascertainable within reasonable
advance. If the dispute becomes acute, one party or the other may
adversary before a public tribunal and may have the dispute adjudicated
the basis of settled rules, according to a settled procedure, and with
reference to settled modes of redress. When the judgment is pronounced,
not optional with the defeated party to adhere to it or not. The whole
the state is behind it and the force of organized society may be
carry it out. In an industrial dispute on the other hand, we have no
measure of conduct. Each party is referred to his individual sense of
and to the general sense of fairness of the public at large. But in a
diversified community in which groups and classes with apparently
interests understand each other none too well and have conflicting
justice, general public opinion is seldom sufficiently definite and
to serve as a restraint upon the partisan notions of justice
entertained by the
contending parties and hence is left to be the judge of its own case.
clear predetermined measure of adjustment of such controversies, with
settled mode of procedure, with no settled mode of redress and no
permanent tribunal, backed by the moral sense of the community, long
and the force of the state, to pronounce and give effect to a judgment,
is no way to satisfy or to coerce the disputants and in practice, as
not, the interests of each and the interests of society suffer equally.
struggles to maintain its interest in the general security and to
under such circumstances by seeking peace at whatever sacrifice. It is
question of equal and exact justice. The paramount demands of peace and
order are to be met first. The policy is not "let justice be done
the heavens fall," but "peace at any price." Hence society
endeavors to put pressure upon the disputants, directly, indirectly,
covertly, to submit to arbitration and to abide the award. A public
company may be threatened with forfeiture of franchise. A private owner
threatened with extra-legal sequestration of his property. Both parties
threatened with a report as to the causes of the dispute and the issues
involved to be made public after an official inquiry. Press, pulpit and
platform may exhort and rebuke. Thus in one way or another a compromise
arbitration may be brought about. But when such a result has been
guide has been provided for the next dispute. No precedent has
Nothing has been accomplished beyond averting or terminating a
private war in that one case. The whole process is crude and wasteful.
time that this happens we act over again the inception of law. The
magistrate who stepped between the contending litigants and called out,
"Let go, both of you," the praetor who pronounced the interdict,
"I forbid that violence take place," and the indirect devices whereby
a case for arbitration was formulated, not upon direct statement of
claims by the parties but through indirectly inducing or coercing a
or an arbitration, testify to a general condition of which the special
condition that obtains in a modern industrial dispute is perhaps the
remnant. By furnishing a rule for decision and by furnishing a guide to
the law enables society to reconcile conflicting interests, to conserve
and to eliminate waste.
This same problem of reconciling conflicting
interests, of conserving values and of eliminating waste arises in
– in religious and fraternal organizations no less than in political
organizations. And it is met in the same way. By slow and painful
of customs through experience, followed by deliberate formulation of
invented for the purpose, men select out of the great mass of possible
those which seem to call most urgently for security, define them, weigh
against other recognized interests and devise means for giving them
This process of recognizing, delimiting and securing interests when
by a political society is called lawmaking and the rules and standards
and rules and principles of decision thereby set up are called law. In
manner the rules and standards of conduct and the rules and principles
decision developed or devised to secure interests and conserve values
universal medieval church are called the canon law. No less justly may
to the rules and standards of conduct and the rules and principles of
evolved or devised to secure interests and conserve values in our
fraternal organization the name of Masonic law. For if it is said that
cannot enforce our law as the state enforces its law – that the sheriff
posse looms in the background of the latter while the former is but
the answer must be that our law has behind it the same sanction that
the law of the medieval church, namely, excommunication and that this
essentially nothing else than the sanction of the earlier stages of the
politically organized society – namely, outlawry. The group in each
out the individual who, through defiance of its law threatens a waste
values which it seeks to secure.
Assuming, then, that we are justified in
of Masonic law, what are the component parts of our Masonic legal
system; what are
the jural materials with which the Masonic lawyer must work? I venture
distinguish three types of rules: (1) The landmarks; (2) the Masonic
law; (3) Masonic legislation. I cannot deny that in so classifying the
materials of Masonry I am influenced by our Anglo-American distinction
constitutional rules, common law and legislation. And one should not
such an analogy hastily or unadvisedly. For I shall endeavor to show in
connection that Masonic jurisprudence has suffered in this country from
overzealous attempts to mold our law by the analogies of the political
the time and place and from the hasty assumption that our American
political institutions might be relied upon to furnish principles of
law for a universal
fraternity. Nevertheless the craft has engaged the hearty service of
lawyers for at least two centuries and the revival from which we date
Masonry of today took place in a time and in a country in which certain
and politic ideas were universally entertained and were almost taken to
in nature. Hence we have more than analogy – we have, if not a causal
at least a relation of great influence.
Presupposing this three-fold division, we have
first, the landmarks, a small not clearly defined body of fundamentals
are beyond reach of change. They are the prescriptive or unwritten
(using constitution in the purely American sense) by which everything
judged ultimately and to which we must all conform. Second, we have
common law – the body of tradition and doctrine, which falling short of
sanctity and authority of the landmarks, nevertheless is of such long
and so universal, and so well attested, that we should hesitate to
it and are perforce wont to rely upon it whether to apply our own law
appreciate the law of our neighbors.
These first two elements of Masonic law rest in
tradition and in doctrinal writing. They take the form of: (a)
Tradition – the
mode of conducting Masonic affairs which has been handed down from
master, from lodge to lodge for centuries and embodies the experience
countless sincere, zealous, well-informed brothers; (b) treatises, of
Oliver's Institutes of Masonic Jurisprudence and Mackey's Masonic
are the best types; (c) decisions of Grand Masters and review thereof
Lodges, recorded in the published proceedings of Grand Lodges, chiefly
America; and (d) reports of the committees on correspondence of our
Grand Lodges, in which the decisions in other jurisdictions are
criticized and a comparative and universal element is introduced which
the highest value to the Masonic jurist. These committees on
have been much kicked at and it cannot be denied that the work of some
at times has been crude. Yet for the present purpose their work has
invaluable. No one who has studied Masonic jurisprudence attentively
to testify to the unifying force exerted by these committees. The
their criticism, even when ill directed has made our local Masonic
pause to think of the rest of the Masonic world; it has exerted the
influence which is always involved in comparison; it has worked
universality in our welter of independent local jurisdictions, each
to make its own law.
The two main elements just enumerated make up
unwritten law of Masonry. A third element, namely, Grand Lodge
which our American Grand Lodges have been exceedingly prolific,
written law of Masonry.
A moment's digression is required to explain
terms. As soon as legal systems attain any degree of maturity, they are
of two elements: A traditional element and an imperative element.
Roman jurists, the traditional element is generally known in
the name of the unwritten law – jus non scriptum – and the imperative
by the name of the written law – jus scriptum; not that we do not find
principles and rules of each today only in writings, but because the
deliberately and authoritatively reduced to writing at its inception.
Our main interest is in the unwritten law – the
traditional element – which, except as local decisions interpret or
legislation, proceeds or purports to proceed on universal lines and is
to be in principle permanent and general, even as legislation is
Let me develop this point a bit. As has been
a developed legal system is made up of two elements, a traditional
an enacted or imperative element. Although at present the balance in
our law is
shifting gradually to the side of the enacted element, the traditional
is still by far the more important. In the first instance, we must rely
to meet all new problems, for the legislator acts only after they
attention. But even after the legislator has acted, it is seldom if
his foresight extends to all the details of his problem or that he is
do more than provide a broad, if not a crude outline. Hence even in the
of the enacted law, the traditional element of the legal system plays a
part. We must rely upon it to fill the gaps in legislation, to develop
principles introduced by legislation and to interpret them. Let us not
that so-called interpretation is not merely ascertainment of the
intent. If it were, it would be the easiest instead of the most
judicial tasks. Where the legislator has had an intent and has sought
express it, there is seldom a question of interpretation. The
arise in the myriad cases with respect to which the law maker had no
because he had never thought of them – indeed perhaps he could never
thought of them. Here under the guise of interpretation the court,
unwilling, must to some extent make the law, and our security that it
made as law and not as arbitrary rule lies in the judicial and juristic
tradition from which the materials of judicial law-making are derived.
Accordingly the traditional element of the legal system is and must be
even in an age of copious legislation, to supplement, round out and
enacted element, and in the end it usually swallows up the latter and
incorporates its results in the body of tradition. Moreover a large
always unappropriated by enactment, and here the traditional element is
supreme. In this part of the law fundamental ideas change slowly. The
alterations wrought here and there by legislation, not always
one another, do not produce a general advance. Indeed they may be held
times in the interests, real or supposed, of uniformity and
through the influence of the traditional element. It is obvious,
that above all else the condition of the law depends upon the condition
element of the legal system.
Another feature of the twofold composition of
developed legal systems is of no less importance. The traditional
at first upon the traditional mode of advising litigants on the part of
upon whom tribunals rely for guidance or upon the usage and practice of
tribunals. Later it rests upon juristic science and the habitual modes
thought of a learned profession. Thus the ultimate basis of its
reason and conformity to ideals of right. On the other hand the
element rests upon enactment. It rests upon the expressed will of the
sovereign. The basis of its authority is the power of the state.
The parallel with Masonic law is exact. With
the most important of our jural materials are in the traditional
First, we must rely upon the traditional
meet all new problems, and the normal course of growth in Masonic law
application of a traditional principle by the decision of a Grand
thereof in a Grand Lodge;
thereon by the various committees on correspondence;
growth of a consensus of opinion on the subject among Masonic jurists;
in some text book of Masonic law or in declaratory legislation.
Secondly, we must rely on the traditional
to fill all gaps in Masonic legislation. Thirdly, we must rely on it to
interpret legislation and to develop legislation. Fourthly, above all,
are a universal institution and ought to legislate cautiously, we must
the traditional element to furnish the principles of legislation and a
of legislation. We are not like a political organization – mere will
place in any theory of Masonic law-making.
Accordingly it is of the first importance to
theory of the unwritten law of Masonry and an organized, systematic
this traditional element of our law – in other words, to have a science
What are the data of this science? What are the
materials which we may use in constructing it?
I take it they are five:
(or systematic) construction on the basis of history, philosophy and
modern materials of Masonic common law.
Let me take these up in order. First as to
Here there are two questions: (a) What materials does Masonic history
which are important for Masonic jurisprudence; (b) what is the function
history in Masonic jurisprudence how and for what purpose should we use
in this connection? On such an occasion one can only speak summarily.
In a few
words, the historical materials which are important for the Masonic.
seem to be five:
manuscript constitutions of British Freemasons – a series of
oldest of which go back to the fourteenth century, which are the
authentic Masonic history. These are of especial importance on the
the landmarks. Thus, when we trace in the manuscripts the old charge to
to God and holy church and the new charge of 1738 that if the Mason
his art aright he will never be a stupid atheist, history reinforces
tradition contained in the master's obligation.
and eighteenth-century notices of English Masonry prior to 1717. From
materials we are able to see how Masons met and what they meant by a
prior to the rise of Grand-Lodge Masonry and are enabled to distinguish
the landmarks and the common law as to Masonic organization.
lodge records in England and Scotland. These also throw great light
organization of the Craft prior to 1717. When we find presidents and
and deacons as the highest officers of lodges, we see again what was
beginning and what is simply common law.
writers who had or purported to have access to traditions current among
at and prior to the organization of the Grand Lodge of England in 1717
old manuscripts not now extant. Even if some or much of the information
they purport to give on the basis of such traditions and such
apocryphal, it has entered into the stream of subsequent Masonic
may not be overlooked.
Lodge records, beginning in England in 1723, which show the settled
the formative period of Masonry as we know it today.
Of these five classes of historical materials,
fourth calls for some special notice. It is made up of three well-known
which have exerted an almost controlling influence upon our ideas of
history and have largely determined Masonic tradition. These books are:
Anderson's Constitution (1723, [Lib 1723] second edition 1738 [Lib 1738]), Preston's Illustrations
(1772) [Lib 1772] and Dermott's
Ahiman Rezon (1756 [Lib*], second edition 1764 [Lib 1764). It would be out of place to
attempt an appraisal
of their historical value here. Moreover the thorough-going critique of
which has definitely overthrown much which had long been accepted on
authority of these books has not wholly destroyed their importance for
jurisprudence. As Hobbes puts it, "authority not truth makes the
law." It may well happen that historical mistakes may become fixed in
legal fabric. For example, Lord Coke very likely erred in much that he
down in his Second Institute as to the history of our Anglo-American
constitutional doctrine of the supremacy of law. Yet his writing is the
foundation of our public law and his results have amply justified
It is no fatal objection in practical affairs that the conclusions must
the premises. Hence if Anderson and Preston and Dermott cannot be
landmarks, they must be read diligently in order to reach the sources
of our Masonic common law.
Let us turn now to the other question, what are
uses of Masonic history? One use is to correct tradition, as for
the case of the apocryphal long list of royal and noble Grand Masters.
is to hold philosophy in bounds, as for example, in the case of the
which raged once in one of our American Grand Lodges as to the wearing
gloves, on the theory that gloves were unknown at the time of the
the temple, or, again, in the rejection of the letter G on
by another of our Grand Lodges. Another use is to test doctrinal
logical) exposition, as in the case of Mackey's twenty-five landmarks.
correction by history should not be pressed too far. It should not be
the basis of rejecting settled Masonic common law, shown by universal
since the end of the eighteenth century. For example, nothing is better
than the doctrines of territorial jurisdiction in Craft Masonry and the
impropriety of invasion of jurisdiction. If there are no landmarks
are settled principles of Masonic conflict of laws which are a part of
universal law of the Craft.
Our second main source of law is tradition.
this is set forth in the form of doctrinal exposition and Grand-Lodge
Much of it is declared by Grand-Lodge legislation. It is of the highest
in fixing the principles of Masonic common law. But elsewhere it is
It must always be corrected by careful historical consideration of
tradition in question is authentic, immemorial and pure.
Our third main source of law is philosophy,
is, deduction from principles found by philosophical study of the ends
purpose of Masonry – for example, deduction from the principle of
from the principle of organization of moral sentiments of mankind, from
principle of furthering human civilization. It may be compared with the
metaphysical method in jurisprudence which seeks to deduce all legal
or correct them by a fundamental principle of human freedom. Philosophy
chiefly useful as a check on Masonic history. For example, if one were
only to history, he might make a strong argument that the dinner or
following the work on important occasions was a landmark. Certainly as
as we have accounts of Masonic work we find the brethren sitting about
board in this way. But consideration of the purposes and ends of the
shows us at once that we have here but an incident of ordinary human
So in the case of the objection to white gloves above referred to. The
philosopher perceives at once that we have here a traditional symbol
purely historical considerations cannot be suffered to prevail.
Our fourth main source of law is logical
construction. It has the same place with us as juristic science has in
of the state. It is of the first importance if the data are sound and
used. Mackey's famous text book of Masonic jurisprudence (1859) [Lib 1872] is still the
best example of the use of logical construction.
The fifth main source of Masonic law is to be
in authentic modern materials of Masonic customary law and in settled
usage since the last half of the eighteenth century. Indeed the general
principles of this settled usage have all but the force of landmarks.
Mackey recognizes: (1) Landmarks; (2) general laws or regulations; (3)
laws or regulations. Here the second is substantially what I call
law and the third what I call Masonic legislation. Mackey says of the
"These are all those regulations that have been enacted by such bodies
had at the time universal jurisdiction. They operate, therefore, over
wheresoever dispersed; and as the paramount bodies which enacted them
ceased to exist, it would seem that they are unrepealable. It is
agreed that these general or universal laws are to be found in the old
constitutions or charges, so far as they were recognized and accepted
Grand Lodge of England at the revival in 1717 and adopted previous to
1726." This would receive Anderson's first edition without question as
conclusive exposition of the principles of the traditional element.
Today it is
clear that we cannot accept it. But the idea at the bottom of Mackey's
I take it we must distinguish two things.
perceive certain settled principles adhered to by all regular and
lodges since the last quarter of the eighteenth century. For example,
exception it has always been recognized that at least three lodges are
to set up a Grand Lodge. But we must be cautious here. It will be
Mackey assumes that fluidity is at an end by 1721. We cannot accept
proposition. We must recognize a great deal of fluidity till much
Masonry is not bound to retain forever the fluidity of the first half
must differentiate from the principles themselves the development of
logical deduction and juristic speculation, and
judicial empiricism in the decisions of Grand Masters and the review
The latter is almost wholly American and much
is worthy to rank with the best achievements of legal development in
political organization. If the law of the medieval church became for a
law of the world and gave ideas and doctrines to the law of the state
valuable for all time, it is not at all impossible that our universal
organization, coming much later to the work of law-making, may in its
develop legal ideas of universal value and thus contribute indirectly
furtherance of civilization while contributing directly thereto in its
By Bro. Geo. W.
I CONTINUE to hear complaints from certain
concerning the wasteful extravagance in the matter of refreshments,
with suggestions as to the good that might be accomplished if the money
expended were applied to works of charity and pure beneficence. But,
notwithstanding these oft repeated admonitions from those who stand on
watch towers of Zion, the Craft jogs along in the same old way and the
is still a potent factor in Masonic life. And yet, this is strictly in
with the old precedents; a faithful adherence to the old landmarks.
Freemasonry, in its inception, was strictly a
convivial institution, all reports to the contrary notwithstanding. In
years it took on liturgical features, but the old customs, in large
were continued and in modified forms are still practiced. The custom of
"refreshment" may be traced back to the mediaeval Gilds, while the
oldest records of the Masonic Fraternity, as a speculative society,
references to the feasting (including drinking) at the craft meetings.
The seventeenth century has left many authentic
references to the conviviality which characterized the meetings in
Thus, Plot in his history, [Lib*] when alluding to the Masons, says:
any are admitted, they call a meeting (or Lodge as they term it in some
and entertain with a collation according to the custom of the place;
ended, they proceed to the admission of them." Plot was not a Mason.
Ashmole, in his diary, notes a meeting he attended at London in 1682.
he says: "We all dined at the Half-moon Tavern in Cheapside, at a noble
Dinner prepared at the Charge of the new accepted Masons." And so, it
be seen that from very early times a feast was an important part of a
It has been suggested, by some of the English
scholars, that this custom of a feast originated in the actual
the occasion; that many of the members of the early lodges came long
to attend the meetings and frequently on foot. Hence, it was necessary
they should be provided with refreshment of some kind either on their
or before setting out on their return journey. You will see, therefore,
the J. W.'s call to refreshment was not an empty formality in those
It would seem that in the old days the feast
preceded the work, a custom that has not yet died out in England. And
nature the tendency is to constantly revert to earlier types, so in
institutions we may observe the same phenomena. In many localities the
o'clock dinner has taken the place of the eleven o'clock banquet, while
old-time flow of post prandial oratory has been eliminated. This was
of the Grand Lodge of England far into the historic period, as witness
minutes of the "assembly and feast" at Stationers Hall on June 22,
1721, when "after Grace said, they sat down in the antient manner of
Masons to a very elegant Feast, and dined with Joy and Gladness." After
this followed the regular business, and then the Grand Master ordered
Warden "to close the Lodge in good Time."
But the banquet is too firmly entrenched to be
obliterated by any shell fire the disciples of the new thought may pour
it. The Freemasons are still, even as in the old days, a social
the customs of the fathers will long continue, notwithstanding the
"The Banquet must go." From the dawn of history we may find the
custom in connection with fraternal societies. It is not peculiar to
Freemasonry. In fact, our Masonic ancestors simply borrowed the custom
those who preceded them. Long years ago, in ancient Greece, the banquet
followed the initiations into the mysteries, as witness the following,
quote from the "Golden Ass" of Apuleius: [Lib 1893]
uninitiated having been sent away, the priest clothed me in a new linen
garment, and, taking my hand, let me into the penetralia of the
will perhaps, ask, studious reader, and be anxious to know, what was
What was done, ask you? I would tell, if it were lawful to tell; thou
know, if it were lawful for thee to hear. But I will not detain in long
suspense you, who are, perchance, in a state of suspense with religious
anxiety. Hear, therefore, and believe, for the things I narrate are
approached the confines of death, and, having trod the threshold of
I was carried back through all the elements. At midnight, I beheld the
glittering with clear light; l approached the gods of Hades and of
adored them face to face. Thus have I related to you things, which,
heard by thee, thou canst not know… After this, I celebrated a most
banquet in honor of my birth day into these rites; pleasant was the
lively the entertainment."
I direct your special attention to the closing
lines of the above paragraph. They simply show that mankind and human
are much the same in all ages and all lands.
A few years ago Admiral Dewey is reported to
said, that he attributed his robust health and length of days to these
that he had entered the navy and kept away from public banquets.
Perhaps all of
us cannot take the first part of his prescription, and perhaps also,
worth lies in the latter part of it. Certain it is, that while the
may have slain its thousands the deviled crab and the overripe lobster
laid low their tens of thousands. It is not given to all of us to die
of a great cause. In fact, few of us care to die. But everyone is
incur indigestion and other gastronomic ills, and this privilege the
most of us
insist in availing ourselves of with remarkable persistence.
It is said, however, that the fatalities which
the history of public feeding do not constitute its worst reproach;
that the greater
harm consists in the undigested ideas which every well regulated
bound to liberate. Bad food and poor talk make a combination that is
the soundest human system. Thus is it written:
Avoid the groaning
board, my son,
The devilled crab, the Melbaed peach,
But, deadliest of all, avoid
The after-dinner speech.
Masonic Jewels -- [A Poem]
John George Gibson
that you wear mean the test by your God
Of the work that you do, and the word that you speak,
Of the will of your mind, the thought of your heart,
Of the Past that is gone, of the Future you seek?
The Compass you wear, does it mean that you move
Within the true bound appointed and sure,
Restricted desire, pleasure defined,
A yielding of self to the bonds that endure?
The Triangle too – great emblem of Him
Who is Maker, and Master, Beginning and End, –
Do you wear it to show that He is to you
The Source and the Aim that all others transcend?
What means the gold trowel that hangs at your chain?
Does it tell of the mortar of Love that you spread?
Of the joint well cement with fine brotherly love?
Of the stones that now lie in the well-mortared bed?
If 'tis not so, then take the poor jewels away;
The meaningless bauble will only deceive
Yourself and the others you meet on your way
As meaningless lies which none ever believe.
Notes on the Origin of
By Bro. Arthur Edward
IT is said that in or about 1879, several
under the obedience of the Supreme Council of France, Ancient and
Scottish Rite, revolted from that authority and re-incorporated
La Grande Loge Symbolique de France. The rebellion, as usual, was
the Grand Orient.
It is impossible from the confused evidence to
decide what Degrees were conferred by the new body, but they were
Craft Grades only and not the High Grades of the Scottish Rite. The
body appears to have governed Lodges and not Chapters.
One of the separated Lodges, the nature of
dissatisfaction is shown by its title of Les Libres Penseurs, held its
at Pecq, a village in the department of Seine et Oise.
This Lodge on November 25, 1881, proposed that
Maria Desraimes, a writer on humanitarian subjects and the rights of
should be admitted to Freemasonry.
The proposers were the W. M. Hubron and six
Master Masons. The initiation took place on January 14, 1882, in the
of Brethren drawn from all parts. From her subsequent history, the
must have been also passed and raised, but there are no particulars in
sources to which I have had access.
The Lodge was suspended, but whether by the
authority which it had helped to create, by the Supreme Council, or by
Grand Orient, does not appear.
On March 14, April 1 and April 4, 1893, Mlle
Desraimes, acting under the influence of a certain Docteur Georges
concerned in the initiation, passing and raising of 17 candidates. The
information does not say whether they were women only or members of
but the former probably.
Some kind of Temple was founded about the same
period, place not indicated; a Constitution was framed; and an
Masonic body thus came into existence, under the title of Grande Loge
Symbolique Ecossaise, being identical with that of the Schismatic body
Its one Lodge at the moment was called Le Droit
Humain and that which it communicated was termed Universal Joint
In 1900 the Lodge in question adopted the 30
Degrees superposed on the Craft Grades by the Ancient and Accepted
This was brought about by the intervention of
French Masons said to be in possession of the 33rd Degree.
In 1903 there were centers at Benares, Paris
At the same period Joint Freemasonry in the
dominion is stated to have used a Craft Ritual appertaining to the
The movement seems to have spread from France
India and thence to England.
The title in the British dominions was altered
Joint Freemasonry to Co-Masonry about 1905.
The first English Lodge was called Human Duty
is, I infer, number 6 on the Roll.
In 1908 there was a feud in London, which has
resulted in the foundation of an independent branch, the reason being
original body, under Annie Besant and her vice-regents, constituted an
automatic and irresponsible headship, in opposition to Masonic
The English Ritual used by Universal Co-Masonry
been printed and had reached a second edition in 1908. It is called The
Working of Craft Masonry, Dharma being the title of the Lodge at
The Ceremony of the Installation of the
Master and the Investiture of Officers has also been printed.
In the Ritual of the Three Degrees the
from our own form are at once numerous and slight, but there are also
new things introduced.
Some of them may be tabulated as follows:
M. is called throughout the Right Worshipful Master, following the
rubrics are much fuller.
Entered Apprentice is taken three times round the Lodge and is brought
each occasion to the center.
second circumambulation is opposite to the first, or against the sun;
is the same as the first, or with the sun.
Second Degree, after the usual circumambulations, the Candidate is
the center and passes through five stages or experiences, corresponding
on the rough stone;
rest after work, with the idea of work to follow.
Third Degree the Obligation is shortened and certain significant
not found, presumably because women take it. The wording also differs.
differs throughout in many places and some of the prayers are changed.
Things Not Made
Thou art what we are;
Thou art what we do;
Thou art what we say.
Thou art all things,
and there is nothing which Thou art not.
Thou art that which is made and all that is not made.
Bulletin – No. 7
Edited By Bro. Robert
I. Clegg, Caxton Building, Cleveland Ohio
The Officers of a Lodge
and Their Duties
By Bro. Robert I. Clegg
If we may properly assume that the officers of
Lodge form the machinery of Masonry, the means to make its labor most
and efficient, the power plant of the institution; then the Master is
governor or regulator, the very spark-plug of the motor. Upon him rests
for the rate of progress, the dignity of the work, the spirit of the
With him much may be done, without him all is undone.
Of necessity, therefore, he must be obeyed and
ought to be worthy of such obedience. So it was of old. Let us turn to
ancient account of bygone laws and read from the White Book of the City
London of what in those days of the past they esteemed due and right
members to the officers of the "mysteries," the gilds of the Masons
and the other operative and speculative crafts seven centuries ago.
Of The Penalty for
Rebelling Against the Masters of the Mysteries
"Item, it is
ordained that all the mysteries of the City of London shall be lawfully
regulated and governed, each according to its nature in due manner,
that is no
knavery, false workmanship, or deceit, shall be found in said
the honor of the good folk of the said mysteries, and for the common
the people. And in each mystery there shall be chosen and sworn four or
more or less, according as the mystery shall need; which person, so
sworn, shall have full power from the Mayor well and lawfully to do and
the same. And if any person of the said mysteries shall be rebellious,
contradictory, or fractious, that so such persons may not duly perform
duties, and shall thereof be attainted (convicted), he shall remain in
the first time, ten days, and shall pay ten shillings for such
It was further provided that on a second
should go to prison for twenty days and pay a fine of twenty shillings,
a third offense he paid thirty shillings and was imprisoned thirty
days, and so
on for every further case of the like wrong doing.
Why were the authorities so very clear and
in stating what the City officials held proper to be done in supporting
hands of the respective Masters? It is not necessary to guess at the
behind their action. We can find them on record in the very same code
In the introduction to an ordinance relating to the admission of
these gild bodies, we note:
well as in times past, out of memory, as also in modern times, the City
aforesaid is wont to be defended and governed by the aid and counsels
of the reputable men of the trades merchant as of the other trades
and from of old it hath been the usage, that no strange person, native
alien, as to whose conversation and condition there is no certain
shall be admitted to the freedom of the City, unless first, the
traders of the City following the trade which the person so to be
intends to adopt, shall be lawfully convoked; that so, by such his
citizens, so convoked, the Mayor and Aldermen aforesaid, being
certified as to
the condition and trustworthiness of the persons so to be admitted, may
whether such persons ought to be admitted or rejected; – the whole
demands, that the form aforesaid, so far as concerns the more important
and handicrafts, shall in future be inviolably observed, that so no
future may against the provision aforesaid be admitted to the freedom
There indeed are the reasons why any city or
community might well have a lively interest and a friendly confidence
long-established practices of such an institution as ours, and to rely
aid and the counsels of good men and true assembled lawfully and
wisely by competent officers.
From the same source as the foregoing
take the approved obligation prescribed for the officers of the old
Oath of the Masters and
Wardens of the Mysteries
swear, that well and lawfully you shall overlook the art or mystery of
of which you are Master, or Wardens, for the year elected. And the good
and ordinances of the same mystery, approved here by the Court, you
and cause to be kept. And all the defaults that you shall find therein,
contrary thereto, you shall present unto the Chamberlain of the City,
to time, sparing no one for favor, and aggrieving no one for hate.
wrong unto no one, by color of your office, you shall do; nor unto
that shall be against the estate and peace of the King, or the City,
consent. But for the time that you shall be in office, in all things
unto the said mystery, according to the good laws and franchises of the
City, well and lawfully you shall behave yourself. So help you God and
Today the Master of a Lodge also promises
faithfully and impartially, to the best of his ability, to perform all
duties belonging to the office to which he has been elected; that he
conform to the "constitution, laws, rules, and regulations" of the
Grand Lodge and will enforce a strict obedience to them. He is likewise
installation required to give his assent to the old charges pertaining
position of Master. These are in general the following:
and promise to be a good man and true, and strictly to obey the moral
citizen, and to cheerfully conform to the laws of the country in which
not to be
concerned in plots and conspiracies against the government, but
submit to the decisions of the supreme legislature;
pay a proper
respect to the civil magistrates, to work diligently, live creditably,
honorably by all men;
hold in veneration
the original rulers and patrons of the institution of Masonry, and
regular successors, supreme and subordinate, according to their
to submit to the awards and resolutions of your brethren, when
every case consistent with the constitutions of the order;
to avoid private
piques and quarrels, and guard against intemperance and excess;
carriage and behavior, courteous to your brethren, and faithful to your
to respect genuine
brethren, and to discountenance imposters, and all dissenters from the
plan of Masonry;
to promote the
general good of society, to cultivate the social virtues, and propagate
knowledge of the art;
to pay homage to
the Grand Master for the time being, and to his officers when duly
and strictly to conform to every edict of the Grand Lodge, or general
of Masons, that is not subversive of the principles and ground-work of
that it is not in
the power of any man, or body of men, to make innovations in the body
to make a regular
attendance upon the committees and communications of the Grand Lodge,
receiving proper notice, and to pay attention to all the duties of
that no new Lodge
shall be formed without permission of the Grand Lodge; and that no
be given to an irregular Lodge, or to any person clandestinely
therein, being contrary to the Ancient Charges of the Order;
that no person can
be regularly made a Mason in, or admitted a member of, any regular
without previous notice, and due inquiry into his character;
that no visitors
shall be admitted into your Lodge, without due examination, and
proper vouchers of their having been initiated into a regular lodge."
of Masonry are at the same time called to the Master's attention. Among
are the Holy Writings, the Book of Constitutions (Masonic Code), and
By-laws of his Lodge. Of these he is thus admonished:
Writings, that great light in Masonry, will guide you in all truth; it
direct your path to the temple of happiness, and point out to you the
duty of man.
"The Book of
Constitutions you are to search at all times. Cause it to be read in
Lodge, that none may pretend ignorance of the excellent precepts it
also receive in charge the By-laws of your Lodge, which you are to see
carefully and punctually executed."
Several symbols, as the Square, the Compasses,
Rule, and the Line, are at the same time used to impress upon the
with renewed force on this solemn occasion the principles of morality,
limit of desires, the eminence obtained by merit, the upright walk in
of virtue, and the standards of rectitude. Upon the Master is
the duty of diffusing light and instruction to the brethren of his
Having selected and installed the Master, a
"of good morals, of great skill, true and trusty, and a lover of the
fraternity, wheresoever dispersed over the face of the earth," we may
indeed further fairly assume that he will "discharge the duties of the
office with fidelity."
The Worshipful Master
The prerogatives and duties of the Worshipful
Master are many and various. His very title, quaint and old, throws a
light upon his place and power. Master he is truly, but much more than
ruler. "Worshipful" means one worthy of honor deserving of respect
and deference. For many hundreds of years it has been employed toward
high position in English civil life. Magistrates are still so addressed
country; their "Your Worship" being equivalent to our "Your
Honor," and meaning no more or less. To many of our brethren it may
upon the ear at first as savoring of irreverence the misuse of a word
employed for religious purposes only. But to us it has no such
so designate the officer so addressed because it is he who holds
preferment in the Lodge and thereupon we continue in speaking to or of
use that subtle word of distinction implying the very aristocracy of
personal worth and mental merit among his skilled fellows.
From the decision of the Master there can be no
appeal save only to the higher body; he can invite any member to
his Lodge; he can issue a proxy to any member to represent him at the
Lodge Communication; at the Communication of the Grand Lodge he is
in action – voting as he pleases irrespective of any action taken by
he alone is the judge as to convening and opening Lodge and of the
its business; he determines when special communications of his Lodge
held and what shall be done therein; he may cut short discussion on
business at any time and close the Lodge; he controls the admission of
visitors; his permission is essential, whenever he is present, to the
of members and candidates; he has charge of the charter or warrant; he
whatever officers are appointed and he may install all the officers
elected or appointed if so he chooses; in the absence of an officer he
the substitute; he announces the result of balloting and elections; he
all committees; and while this is seldom insisted upon he has from of
old the privilege
of being present at the meetings of all committees and of presiding
at his pleasure – following the ancient practice recorded by Anderson
two centuries ago that wherever Masons congregate together the Master
entitled to govern and direct their labors on all Masonic matters; he
and also cast another vote in the event of a tie but this is not
though of ancient usage; he is immune from trial by his Lodge; he
points of order without appeal permitted to Lodge, and he presides at
and determines questions of law.
Before the installation of the Master-elect it
no means uniform in the several jurisdictions, usually required that he
have received the Past Master's degree.
The Senior Warden
In the absence of the Master the Senior Warden
governs the Lodge; in the presence of the Master the Senior Warden
in the Lodge government. At the Communication of the Grand Lodge the
Warden is one of the three officers, Master, Senior and Junior Wardens
proxies, charged with the duty of representing the Lodge.
In 1721 we find that the regulations specified
"In case of death or sickness, or necessary absence of the Master, the
Senior Warden shall act as Master pro tempore, if no brother is present
been Master of that Lodge before. For the absent Master's authority
the last Master present, though he cannot act till the Senior Warden
congregated the Lodge."
Under some foreign Constitutions it is the case
that among the sitting officers of the Lodge is the Immediate Past
upon him devolves the duty of taking up the work in the absence of the
installed Master of the Lodge, the Senior Warden assembling the Lodge
I.P.M. assuming the East for all ritualistic and monitorial purposes
Senior Warden is in charge of other matters. With us there is not that
established method. The Master being absent the Senior Warden takes his
and calls to his assistance whatever help he may find is requisite in
conducting the affairs of the Lodge, opening and closing and performing
other functions as if he be indeed the Master of the Lodge.
The Junior Warden
The Junior Warden is presumed to have especial
control of the brethren at refreshment, as the Senior Warden is assumed
in charge of the Craft when at labor. These changes of control within
are signified by the position of the columns placed at the respective
of the Senior and Junior Wardens. When the Master and the Senior Warden
absent or incapacitated in any way, the Junior Warden succeeds to the
in direction of the Lodge.
Let it here be stated that the several officers
a Masonic Lodge do not in the event of any vacancy each move up one
position. The various officers remain as they were, as far as this is
practicable, and the vacancies are filled for the time by appointment.
One of the prerogatives of the Wardens that
share with the Master and Past Masters is that of being eligible to
In the absence of the Master and the two
Lodge can only be opened and transact business by special dispensation.
Mention has been made of the Master making
appointments. It was one time the custom, (which yet prevails in some
that the Senior Warden appoints the Junior Deacon, and the Junior
turn appoints the two Stewards. Custom as to the election and
the respective officers is by no means uniform in the several
The Treasurer is the banker of the Lodge and
nothing to do with the collections which are made by the Secretary and
turned over to him. Of the receipt of these monies he must make due
pay them out only on the order of the Master and with the consent of
Worthwhile is it to note here that the old custom of the Grand Lodge of
provides for the election only of the Master and the Treasurer, all
officers being appointed by the former. Evidently the idea behind this
was to avoid any appearance of collusion between the two officers and
each of them all the more directly responsible to the electing body,
Bonds are commonly and should always be exacted of the Treasurer for
faithful performance of his duties. An honest man as Treasurer will not
to every safeguard being thrown about and around his financial
relations to his
The Secretary receives all money due to the
and pays them over to the Treasurer, taking his receipt therefor. He
observes the proceedings of the Lodge and makes a suitable record of
proper to be written. Both the Secretary and the Treasurer make an
report to the Lodge and the former is as a rule also required to
and a copy of the membership roster with all other desirable
particulars of the
work done to the Grand Secretary at such dates or times as the laws of
Grand Lodge require. The Secretary is indeed the recording, the
and collecting agent for the Lodge. From him proceed all the summonses
meetings, regular or special. All dimits, diplomas, and communications
issued by him. He is in charge of the seal and the archives. In common
Treasurer he submits his books and Lodge property to the examination of
committee at such stated intervals as the by-laws or the pleasure of
Among the appointive officers is the Chaplain.
him rests the duty of performing such parts in our public and private
as are required. Manifestly Freemasonry pretends not to be a religion
act as an auxiliary to whatever is great and good, "a pillar of cloud
day and of fire by night pointing the way, teaching a gospel of love,
men to light and life everlasting." To further this practice and
profession is primarily the place and function of the Chaplain.
The Deacons have especial duties. The Senior
is the first lieutenant of the Worshipful Master, carrying out his
the management of the affairs of the Lodge. The Junior Deacon acts in
capacity to the Senior Warden. The Senior Deacon is the immediate
link between the Master and all candidates, and similarly with all the
and visitors. The Junior Deacon assists the Senior Warden upon the
the inner door in guarding the proceedings against the intrusion of all
not qualified to enter. The two Deacons jointly carry out the
of the presiding officer in the proper preparation of the Lodge and its
adaptation to the several ceremonies.
The handling of the ballot box, the reception
visitors and their introduction and accommodation, the care of the
lights, all belong peculiarly to the duties of the Senior Deacon. None
leave, no one opens the Lodge door, no one instructs the Tyler, but
co-operation of the Junior Deacon.
The Stewards assist the Secretary in the
of dues and subscriptions, keep track of the Lodge table expenses, see
tables are properly furnished at refreshment, that every brother is
provided for at the banquets, and generally assist the Deacons and
officers in performing their duties. So substantially has been the
for the performance of the Stewards from the days certainly of Preston
Webb who so record their functions. Yes, it is even older for ten
in the old Constitutions we note that then "The Steward shall provide
cheer against the hour of refreshment, and each Fellow shall punctually
his share of the reckoning, the Steward rendering a true and correct
The Tyler permits none to pass or repass unless
they are fully qualified and possess permission. Upon his early and
attendance will depend very much of the success of the Lodge labors. He
the summonses of the Lodge, prepares the room for the Lodge meetings,
the jewels and other requisite items (as gavels and so forth) for the
the Lodge, and in the anteroom and the preparation room he provides a
aprons or whatever else may be required. He is never to open the door
without, nor permit it to be opened from within, without the exchange
preliminary alarms between himself and the Junior Deacon.
Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914]: Seal. Appeal, Right of.
Tiler's. Tiler. Obedience. Treasurer. Officers. Wardens. Past Master.
The Worshipful Master's Assistant [Lib*], by
Macoy. "Worshipful" as title, THE BUILDER, Vol. I, p. 96. The
Worshipful Master's Assistant [Lib*], by Delmar D. Darrah.
An Appeal to Our
Up to the time this issue of the Correspondence
Circle Bulletin goes to press more than 1,000 Lodges and Study Clubs
the United States and Canada were considering, or had already gone to
our plan for the systematic study of Masonry.
We know there are thousands of other Lodges
would welcome the opportunity to take up this plan if it were presented
But how are we to reach the remaining 13,000
We should like to be able to do so at an early
as possible in order that they may take up the work before the course
We have printed in circular form under the
"1,000 Wide-Awake Lodges" a complete list of suggestions for
organizing Study Clubs or introducing the study feature into the Lodges
regular or special meetings once each month.
Will you help us to place this circular in the
hands of the officers of your Lodge? Many of them are not members of
Society and we can not reach them except with your co-operation.
Read on page 8 of this Bulletin what a New
Brother has to say anent this movement. Note especially what he says in
fifth paragraph about a brother taking his degrees. Does not this
own experience? You will also agree with what he says a little further
there is something in Masonry that most of us failed to get. There is
yet time for
us to get this "something," and the way to get it is through our
Study plan. We shall also be helping each newly-raised Brother in the
a way that we ourselves were not helped.
A number of interested members have heeded our
to send in complete lists of the officers of their Lodges. This has
to get in touch with these Brethren who might otherwise never have
heard of the
Society or its work, and as a consequence committees have in a majority
these instances been appointed to put the Study plan into effect.
The fact remains that, numerically speaking, we
have as yet only scratched the surface. If our members who are
the progress of the Society and its activities in promoting the study
Masonry will lend their assistance very much can be accomplished.
Brethren, the ultimate success of this movement
depends as much, if not more, upon YOUR INDIVIDUAL HELP, than the work
Brother Clegg and those of us in the Secretary's office.
Therefore we ask you to lend your aid to this
movement by sending in a full list of the officers of your own Lodge,
Worshipful Master down to the Tiler. Do not depend upon some other
the Society in your community, but send in the list YOURSELF. We would
rather have the lists duplicated than not to receive them at all.
What an Entered
Apprentice Ought To Know
By Bro. Hal Riviere,
(The following article, prepared as an address
newly-made Entered Apprentice, appeals to the Editor of this Department
in harmony with the purposes for which the Department itself is
would seem to be a worthwhile presentation of fundamental facts not now
provided for in any Jurisdiction with which we are familiar. That it
many of the questions asked by Initiates, and at the same time gives
candidate a glimpse of the high idealism of the Fraternity at a time
mind is most receptive, commends the lecture to us as of great value.
believe that a Worshipful Master who desires to give his candidates the
possible conception of Masonry, could do no better, on the First
to present this lecture.)
Once upon a time a certain man named Philip,
traveling from Jerusalem to Gaza, came upon a man of Ethiopia, a Eunuch
an officer in the court of an Eastern queen. This Ethiopian was reading
Holy Scriptures but being of a foreign tongue and unfamiliar with the
of the Scriptures and the idioms and symbols with which they were
he was not able to interpret what he read to his satisfaction. Philip
to him and seeing his perplexity asked, "Understandest thou what thou
readest?" The man replied, "How can I understand unless some man
shall guide me?" So, my Entered Apprentice Brother, if I should ask you
tonight if you understand what you have passed through, you would
reply in the words of the Ethiopian, "How can I understand unless
shall guide me?" Will you permit me to perform that service for you?
Masonry, has been defined as a beautiful system
Morality, veiled in Allegory and illustrated by symbols. Now an
allegory is a
story told to illustrate or convey some truth. Some of the most
truths have been handed down to us through allegories, that being one
of the favorite
methods the Master used to convey his teachings. It is one of the
of an allegory that its message may not be understood by all men. One
prepared within his own mind and heart to receive the truth or else he
not. It is only a few of all those who hear who perceive the lesson
be taught by the allegory. The great majority, having ears to hear,
having eyes to see, see not the beautiful lesson but hear only a pretty
that interests for a short while and then is lost. But the earnest
truth, he who is duly and truly prepared for its reception, sees beyond
veil of the allegory and perceives the beautiful simple truth which it
from the multitude but reveals to the chosen few.
A symbol is a visible sign for an idea. From
earliest dawn of creation, man has realized that there is a Supreme
Creator who is all powerful. Many were the ancient names he bore. As
was the most powerful, most wonderful object visible to the primitive
they used it as a symbol of the Supreme Being. The majority, seeing no
than the symbol, worshiped the sun itself; but the learned, the wise,
thoughtful ever regarded the sun as only a symbol of God's power and
it to the Great Father over all.
So, my Brother, Masonry teaches by allegories
symbols, and it is your part to extract from them the truths that will
service to you in the building of an upright Masonic character. If you
only the stories that Masonry presents to you and do not see deeper
they are designed to teach, you will miss the best part of Masonry, yet
comfort yourself with the thought that by far the great majority of
no wiser than yourself. But if by pondering over the allegories and
these degrees you find the hidden truth, a new world of wisdom,
beauty will be revealed to you.
In order to understand the symbols of the three
degrees it is necessary for you to know that, broadly speaking, Masonry
come from two general sources. One of these was the societies of stone
who flourished in medieval times, and who were the builders of those
cathedrals that are being so ruthlessly destroyed in France and Belgium
These societies gradually ceased to be bands of operative workers and
men not really connected with the actual work of building. By the year
Masonic lodges had become purely speculative. But the working tools of
operative Masons, the square, level, plumb, rule, gavel, etc., were
retained as symbols to teach important truths in character building.
Masons, no longer build temples and cathedrals of stone but we build
temples, temples of character, temples of upright manhood and integrity.
The second great source from which Masonry
its symbolism was the ancient Mysteries. The relation they bear to our
will be unfolded to you as you advance in the degrees. It is only
tell you here that in every ancient nation that attained any degree of
civilization, were secret organizations known as the Mysteries, having
initiation ceremonies. These organizations were composed of the wisest
those nations, and all the higher knowledge of religion, art, and
taught in them alone. Men waited and labored for years to become
worthy to be initiated into the Mysteries. It is said that the great
philosopher, Pythagoras waited for twenty years to be initiated into
mysteries of Egypt. Moses seems also to have been an Egyptian initiate,
St. John the Baptist came from the Jewish sect called Essenes, which
the mystical rites. It has been claimed that Jesus of Nazareth was an
his teachings conforming somewhat closely to their practices.
In the ancient Mysteries of India, the
might receive the first degree as early as eight years of age. Then
severe system of mental and moral training to fit him for advancement,
every degree it was intended that he should attain more of perfection.
invested with a three-ply cord called the zennar, emblematic of their
God. From that cord we get our cable tow. The candidate was kept a long
darkness before taking a degree, to reflect upon the seriousness of the
was about to take. Truly wanting light, he was taught to worship God as
Source of Light. He was conducted regularly around the room – usually a
grotto hewn out of solid rock – passing from East to West by way of the
his right side being next the altar; the priests chanted, "I copy the
example of the Sun and follow his benevolent course." He next made a
declaration that he would keep himself pure, that he would be obedient
would maintain secrecy. After that, he was divested of his shoes and
a white linen robe. We read in the Book of Ruth that it was a custom in
that, to confirm a contract or agreement, a man took off his shoe and
to his neighbor. You see in all these ceremonies, the beginnings of
some of our
Masonic customs; and with these general principles in mind you are
hear an explanation of some of the teachings of the E. A. Degree.
Before initiation, Masonry demands that a
be duly and truly prepared. This preparation should be mental and moral
as physical. Our Order subscribes to no system of religious doctrine,
requires that every man who presents himself as a candidate for
shall declare a belief in one God, all-wise, all-powerful, all-good,
reveals himself to mankind; also teaches that there is life beyond the
The candidate must come of his own free will;
be a man, free born, twenty-one years of age, able to read and write,
moral qualities must be such as will bear a rigid investigation by a
of Master Masons appointed for that purpose. Masonry tries to exclude
come through mere curiosity or through a desire for business or social
be a member of the investigating committee is one of the most serious
Mason is called upon to perform, and every candidate deserves careful
consideration; even then, many duly and truly unprepared make their way
Masonry invites no man. He knocks at the door
the lodge of his own free will, bearing nothing that will indicate
wealth, rank or station. At the inner door of the preparation room all
equal, and entrance through this door into the lodge room is only
the candidate has satisfied all present that he is worthy and well
gain admission, and comes as an earnest seeker for Light and Truth.
buy, rank cannot demand; neither can learning guarantee admission
reputation for generosity, truthfulness and rectitude of conduct be
Secrecy is the first great lesson of the E. A.
degree. This great virtue is necessary in our order so that Masons will
appreciate the lessons taught. As a secret shared between two people
together, so the secrets of our fraternity bind the Brethren together.
teachings of beautiful truths were scattered broadcast through the
would become commonplace; so they are taught under secrecy, only to
deemed worthy to receive and practice them. Taken with the salt of
and expectation, they are the more readily perceived.
Nothing can more torture a man than the pangs
remorse which a guilty conscience can force upon him. Sharp instruments
torture the flesh, but unless the torture be unto death a few short
suffice to heal the wounds and only the scars remain to remind of the
endured. But the torture of a guilty conscience is not so. Memory of
violated, evil deeds done, kind actions left undone comes to us after
have passed; comes as we lie upon our beds and chases "Sleep, tired
Nature's sweet restorer" from our eyes, and makes our bed a hell; comes
amid our innocent social pleasures and turns our joy to pain; a face, a
an odor may bring back the hateful incidents of a scene that no
of purity and holiness and rectitude of conduct can banish from the
Brother, guard well your actions, that henceforth no memory of evil
disturb your peace or rack your mind and conscience.
We are taught that a Mason should never enter
any great or laudable undertaking without invoking the aid of Almighty
the light of that lesson, prayer becomes a duty as well as the
every Mason. How few understand the nature and effects of prayer.
has become merely a bed-time custom is not a prayer; it is an
soothe the conscience or satisfy the demands of a habit formed in more
and unsophisticated days. The object and effect of prayer are to bring
into conscious harmony with the all wise Father, whose laws are true
and righteous altogether.
"Prayer is the soul's sincere desire," so
says the old song. If that be true, (and who says not?) how earnestly
the compasses be used to circumscribe our desires and keep our passions
due bounds, so that no unrighteous, no unworthy, no covetous, no
prayer insult the Father whose all-seeing eye looks into the innermost
of our being. Prayer reveals a man to himself. For what do you pray; on
you meditate; what thought do you ponder over and keep within your
sure that it will find expression in your outer life, for "the within
ceaselessly becoming the without." Guard well your thoughts, the source
all your deeds and actions.
The trust of a Mason is in God. But before a
can trust in God whom he cannot see, he must learn to trust in his
who is made in God's image. As you placed yourself in the hands of this
and followed your conductors through the ceremonies of initiation, you
exemplified your trust in your fellow man. So ever place your trust in
walk uprightly through life, fearing no danger; know that a man's worst
is himself, and that one with God is a majority.
Masonic Light is the object of every Mason's
search. That is truly a laudable object. Light, ever and ever more
the first faint perception of those Three Great Lights, the Holy Bible,
and Compasses, until he shuffle off this mortal coil, the earnest Mason
for Light; seeks in the Holy Bible, that inestimable gift from God to
is given us as a rule and guide for our faith and practice; seeks in
symbolism of the Square and Compasses; seeks in the great book of
in the hearts and lives of men. If he realize that Masonic Light is a
for Truth; if he see beyond the symbol to the Truth itself,
comprehending it by
the light of knowledge and wisdom, then the full glory of Masonic Light
shine in his heart, and he will go forth to bear the light aloft and
shine among men.
As the lodge is a symbol of the world, in the
circumambulation of the lodge room the candidate symbolizes the
progress of a
man from ignorance to knowledge, and also the progress of the human
savagery to civilization. Cares and temptations of business and
obstacles in the way of men and of nations, and challenge their
integrity. Both individuals and nations must overcome obstacles and
their right to advance to broader fields of usefulness.
As seen in the West, the light of the sun is
declining glory. The East, as the birth-place of the sun and source of
has always been venerated by primitive peoples. As devout Moslems pray
their faces toward Mecca, the birth-place of their prophet, and as the
sun worshipers bowed to the rising sun, so Masons give the highest
place to the
East, as the true source of all Masonic Light and it is there the
Master has his station. Hence a Mason travels from West to East on his
for Masonic Light, and hence also the regular upright manner of
East and rendering it due respect.
While demanding that all Masons yield obedience
the tenets of the order, Masonry requires no act or belief that will
with any of the exalted duties that a man owes to God, his country, his
neighbor, his family or himself. Reverence for God, patriotism and
love are so frequently inculcated and so forcibly recommended in the
that the Mason who does not practice those virtues is recreant to the
imposed in him by his Brethren. Truth being the center of all Masonic
and the highest principles of reverence, patriotism and charity being
on Truth, it follows that he who lives up to the highest principles of
duty will naturally practice all moral, social and religious virtues.
He who is in conscience bound to perform an
accomplish a purpose or to keep a secret, is bound by ties though
that are stronger than any bonds that could be forged or contrived by
release of the candidate from the last ties that bind him to the world
left outside the lodge room, coupled with the reception of light is a
a new birth, a birth from the darkness of ignorance and superstition to
light of wisdom, toleration, generosity and all commendable virtues.
Charity should be a distinguishing
of every Mason. It is in the practice of this virtue that man most
his kinship to God. Hear Buddha on the charitable man: "The charitable
is loved by all; his friendship is prized highly; in death his heart is
and full of joy for he suffers not from repentance; he receives the
flower of his reward and the fruit that ripens from it. The charitable
found the path of salvation. He is like the man who plants a sapling,
thereby the shade, the flowers and the fruit in future years. Even so
result of charity, even so is the joy of him who helps those who are in
assistance." If the cardinal virtues of Freemasonry, which are
Fortitude, Prudence and Justice, were practiced by all mankind, then
as an act of almsgiving, would cease. For ignorance and intemperance
injustice would be banished from the world, and the woes of misery and
that follow them would then give place to joy. But the poor we have
always; so, as we administer our charity let us remember that it is not
those who are in straightened financial circumstances who need our
but that the poor in spirit, the despondent, the discouraged may be
and lifted up by kind and encouraging words. Let us give bountifully of
love and sympathy to every Brother in distress.
* * *
Have A Question Box In
Your Study Club!
Assuming that your Lodge or Study Club has
determined to undertake Masonic study on a serious basis, and is
our "Bulletin Course," the arrangement of a program, in order to hold
its interest, should be given careful attention. We are able to say,
actual experience, that the reading of Brother Clegg's paper, and the
supplemental papers which are prepared by the Brethren, should occupy
formal way, no more than one hour.
Some of the papers will provoke discussion.
will not, since the material used in their preparation will tell
the whole story, and the authorities given will only serve to clinch
In any event, discussion aroused will probably
on the average, consume more than another half hour. Experience shows
the Brethren get themselves comfortably seated for Masonic discussion,
formal paper arouses in them an ordinarily latent curiosity. And after
pre-arranged discussion is concluded, more than one of the faces will
light up, and immediately there will come forth some question which has
bothering the Brother. And no sooner will he have propounded his, than
on the opposite side of the room will remember that he, too, has a
which he has tried to answer, and failing this, to get answered, to no
Here is one of the very best of symptoms. A
discussion of these questions should by all means be entered into. Let
presiding officer of the meeting answer them if he can. If none of the
committee in charge of the meeting are able to answer them all, have
Secretary take the unanswered questions down. Let the Chairman then
these questions, answers to be brought in at the next meeting. Here are
of the questions that were carried over in one meeting of the kind:
Why did a
Protestant Minister move to take the Bible off the Altar in Lodges
under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of France?
What is the
symbolic significance of the position of the square and compasses in
What Grand Lodges
does our Grand Lodge recognize?
What does the word
"Orientation" mean, as applied to Masonic Temples?
What is the
present-day tendency in the administration of Masonic charity?
What is the
significance of "The East" in the Masonic sense?
These questions (all of them inspired by
Clegg's paper on "Foundations and Fundamentals") were carried over to
the next meeting. At least six other questions were asked and answered.
were brethren present who rather thought that they could answer some of
above questions offhand, but it was thought advisable to work them up
carefully and give all the best authorities on the subjects presented.
At the succeeding meeting all but one of the
questions were answered, most of them fully and all to the satisfaction
Can anyone doubt that this particular meeting
Ninety-six per cent of the Brethren present at
beginning stayed through until after 11:00 P. M., when the meeting
Lodges will feel that this hour is too late. That may be true. But the
remains that young men, finding all at once that the study of Masonry,
directed along definite lines, holds a fascination for them, and offers
welcome diversion from the routine of business cares, will want to stay
And they will go out from these study meetings, not only inspired to
work, but actually elated with the opportunity to discover what other
the Fraternity are thinking. This is as it should be. It brings back
Masonry of other days, when men glorified in its fellowship, using each
of the Lodge to ripen the man-to-man intimacy which results in true
The plan works. It is working in many, many
It will work in yours. With three or four Brethren willing to make some
– and if necessary research – the full attendance of a Lodge can find
themselves absorbingly interested in the discussions that will be born,
automatically, from the reading of a formal paper.
* * *
A New Mexico Estimate of
Our Study Club Movement
In my search through the Masonic exchanges
come to this office, there is no item of news more gratifying than that
for the Study of the Science and Philosophy of Masonry are being formed
over the land.
This is truly the supplying of a "long felt
want" and is an augury for better things both civically and masonically.
It is neither my purpose nor province to be a
but in common with many of my Brethren the realization has been painful
as Masons are not getting the good out of Masonry that we should and we
giving to the young members that to which they are entitled.
The true story of the average Lodge would read
about as follows:
A profane petitions for membership, he is
he is given the first and second degrees with little more than the
quorum of members present. In order to have a respectable number of
present at his raising, the Master orders a "feed," and, to make sure
that they will not slip away, he puts on the second section before the
spread; then, sad to relate, not more than a handful remain to give the
"newly Obligated Brother" a perfunctory congratulation at the close
of the Lodge.
Whether they have made a Mason or just a member
not the concern of the majority; nor are they to be severely
they received the same kind of a welcome from those who preceded them.
In very truth Brethren it is surprising, with
circumscribed opportunities for learning what Masonry really is, that
Brotherhood entertain so high a regard for the order in the abstract.
instinctively feel that there is a something in Masonry that they have
to get, and that feeling prompts those who become students to dig out
themselves those beauties, which with a little help from their
"better" informed Brethren, could have been acquired in half the time
and with more accurate deductions.
The teachings of Masonry are sublime and
but these teachings must be sought elsewhere and beyond the rituals and
monitors of our symbolic Lodges.
The first two degrees are only introductory to
third, and all Masonic students concur that the Master's degree
basic principles, and is the "stone of foundation" upon which the
entire superstructure of Masonic philosophy has been erected; but how
few of us
ever realize what that degree really contains.
It does not make the same impression upon any
men, and the exchange of impressions in an hour's fraternal gathering,
close of the Lodge, or on some other night in each month, would be far
beneficial to Masonry in general and the Lodge in particular than the
any number of new "members of the order."
It is readily perceived that the organization
these Study Clubs has been undertaken with the determination to stop
of making "members" by giving all, present and to come, an
opportunity to become Masons in fact as well as in name.
In this work the Fraternity in New Mexico
afford to lag behind, for there is as great need of real Masonry here
as in any
other jurisdiction; and, an appeal is hereby made to our Scottish Rite
to take the initiative in the work of organizing Study Clubs all over
state. You know much better than they know themselves the imperative
Masonic study by the mass of members with whom you come in contact
These clubs are in no way to conflict with our
Scottish Rite Clubs, nor need the Scottish Rite be ever mentioned
yet, your patently superior knowledge of Masonry, acquired in the
Rite, will prove to be a stronger incentive for others to seek what
there secure than any direct appeal.
Rite Bulletin, Santa Fe, N.M.
The Four Hirams of Trye
By Bro. A.S. Macbride,
II. The Two Artisans
"Artisan" is here used in its proper sense as one skilled in Art; a
IN the traditions of Masonry connected with the
M. degree, the central figure is that of "Hiram Abif." A martyr to
fidelity and honor, his memory has been held sacred by the Craft. Yet,
historically, there is very little known of him. By many, if not by the
of those who troubled themselves to think on the subject, the
regarding him, until recently, were considered to be mythological
similar to those on which the ancient mysteries were formed, and
devoid of truth. The fact that in the Biblical accounts of the building
Solomon's Temple there is no mention, nor apparently the smallest hint,
death, has been accepted as a proof that he did not die, during the
that structure. Dr. Oliver, the well-known Masonic writer, evidently
the tradition of his death as mythical, for in the "Freemason's
Treasury," [Lib 1863]
Lecture XLV, he says: "It is well known that the celebrated artist was
living at Tyre many years after the Temple was completed."
But let us examine the Biblical narrative a
more closely than we have hitherto done. Assuming for the time being as
correct, the generally accepted belief that only one artisan of the
Hiram, or Huram, is mentioned in that historical account of the
building of the
Temple; we are immediately confronted with three contradictions
attention. These are:
descriptions of his parentage;
descriptions of his qualifications;
periods named of his arrival at the Temple.
In the first place then, let us look at
The Descriptions of
In 2 Chron. H. 14, Hiram is said to be: "the
son of a woman of the daughters of Dan." In I Kings VII. 14, he is
described as: "the Son of a widow woman of the tribe of Naphtali."
Now, no man can have two mothers, and no mother can belong to two
what supposition then, can these two differing descriptions be
it some mistake as to the tribe to which the mother belonged? With
unacquainted with the tribes of Israel, or of the peculiarities of
history, that might be. But the writers of the books of Kings and
had an intimate knowledge of all these things, and we can scarcely
a moment any such mistake.
The tribe of Dan occupied the hilly country in
immediate neighborhood of the Philistines and Samson the celebrated
patriot was of that tribe.
Unable to subdue the Philistines the Danites,
the death of Samson, migrated to the plains of the upper Jordan around
of Laish, which was then the granary of Sidon. Their proximity to Tyre,
doubt, resulted in intermarriages with the Tyrians; and hence, there
nothing very remarkable in "the Son of a woman of the daughters of
Dan," being a famous artisan of Tyre.
The tribe of Naphtali were located in the
on the northern border of Palestine; and from their nearness to Tyre
necessities of trade from the sea-coast, they had regular intercourse
Tyrians, and intermarriage would, consequently, more or less result.
seems nothing extraordinary in the recorded fact, that a Tyrian artisan
"the son of a widow woman of the tribe of Naphtali."
There is little likelihood that, in either of
two cases, the writer of the book of Kings, or the writer of the book
Chronicles, would make any mistake in the matter of lineage; for on
the Hebrew writers seem to have been very particular. The fact that in
instances the father is not mentioned, adds weight to the correctness
description of the mother; and, if there was only one artisan of the
Hiram at the building of the Temple, we have before us the insuperable
difficulty of believing that he had two mothers.
Let us now pass on to consider, in the second
The Descriptions of
In 2nd. Chronicles II. 14, Hiram is described
"Skillful to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone,
in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson; and
grave any manner of graving, and to find out every device." In 1st
VII. 14, he is called: "A worker in brass, and he was filled with
and understanding, and cunning to work all works in brass." Now, just
think for a little on these two descriptions. The one is skillful to
metals – gold, silver, brass and iron; also stone and timber. In
weaving and in
dyeing, in engraving and in every device, he is an expert. He is an
architect – a marvel, a genius, a man of large experience and, no
ripe years, whose fame would be sure to go down the ages. The other is
worker in brass – no doubt a man of good parts, but limited in
knowledge – probably young in years, and, according to the description,
only a worker in brass. This statement that his craftsmanship is
brass is most carefully noted by the historian, for it is reiterated in
description. He says: "A worker in brass filled with wisdom and
understanding, and cunning to work all works in brass," He repeats the
words "in brass," as if he was afraid that the individual he was
describing might be mistaken for some other person of the same name,
celebrated as an artisan and a worker, at the building of the Temple.
Considering these two descriptions, is it
reasonable to believe that they refer to the same individual? They are
loose, nor in any way vague. On the contrary, they are very precise and
detailed, and no one reading them, without prejudice, would imagine
refer to the same artisan.
We now come to our third point, viz:
The Periods Named of
Hiram's Arrival at the Temple
In 2nd Chronicles II. 13, before the work of
Temple was begun, Hiram king of Tyre in his letter to Solomon says:
now I have sent a cunning man endued with understanding," etc. In I
VII. 13, after the house of the Lord and the house of Solomon had been
we are informed: "King Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre."
In the one statement we are told that before the house was built a
was sent to King Solomon by Hiram King of Tyre; in the other that after
house was built Solomon "sent and fetched" Hiram out of Tyre. These
periods were twenty years apart; for the house of the Lord took seven
and the house of Solomon and the courts of the Temple other thirteen
To understand the biblical narrative properly
has to keep in view that there are several "finishes" mentioned, and
that these refer only to certain parts of the work at the building of
Temple. The first "finish" is mentioned in I. Kings VI. 9: “So he
built the house and finished it" – that is the mason-work, or shell of
building. Then comes the second part of the work, consisting of the
carpenter-work of the roof, and of the chambers around about, as stated
verses 9 and 10; and in verse 14, the narrative goes on to say: "So
Solomon built the house and finished it." The third part of the work
described, consists of the decorations – the gold plating and gilding.
says: "And the whole house he overlaid with gold, until he had finished
all the house." The fourth part of the work is stated to have been the
internal fittings and carvings of the house, and the building of the
court, and the whole is summed up in verse 38, as follows: "And in the
eleventh year, in the month of Bul, which is the eight month, was the
finished throughout all the parts thereof, and according to all the
it. So was he seven years in building it."
So far as we have followed the narrative, the
itself, in its plan and embellishments, has been finished; but the
still far from being completed. The outer courts and the houses of the
with all their magnificence and ornamentation; the pillars of the
the altars and utensils of the inner court, have not yet been begun.
to take other thirteen years to construct and finish. In the meantime,
go on. The house of the forest of Lebanon, the porch of judgment,
Palace, the palace for Pharaoh's daughter, and the great court; had all
been built when the sacred narrative is abruptly interrupted by the
"And King Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre." All the work
of building proper had been completed, but many things had yet to be
before the sacrifices and magnificent services of the Hebrew religion
begun and maintained at the Temple. But, if Hiram was sent by the king
before the work was begun, why did Solomon, at this particular stage,
send and "fetch" him out of Tyre? Had he gone back to Tyre after some
years of laborious work, and was he again needed to complete the
There are one or two objections to the idea. If he did return to Tyre,
naturally expect the historian to give us some indication of his having
so. But, search as we may, there is not the smallest hint, or
that. All writers on the subject, differing as they do on many points,
that Hiram had the superintendence of the work at the building of the
Is it likely then, that he could have gone back, while the work was
The time necessary for such a journey in those days would have so
with the progress of the building operations that we are scarcely
assume such a thing, unless on something approaching substantial
custom then, and for many centuries afterwards, with artisans such as
was to make their home for the time being wherever their work was.
operations in connection with temples were necessarily of long
duration. In the
present case they had probably already stretched over fifteen years.
building of the holy house had occupied seven years, and the royal
the courts were finished, so far as mason and carpenter work were
and, as they occupied thirteen years to complete, we may safely
at least eight of these thirteen years had already passed when "Solomon
sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre." In all probability then, Hiram had
already spent thirteen years in Jerusalem and, if alive, was still
that was so, why and wherefore did Solomon need to send and fetch him
Tyre? So far as all the records go, the periods named of Hiram's
arrival at the
Temple are not consistent with the course of events, and are
each other; so long as we assume there was only one Hiram engaged at
of the Temple.
These three contradictions as to the Parentage,
Qualifications, and Period of arrival at the Temple, which we have now
considering, must apparently remain inexplicable, unless on the natural
present, the only reasonable explanation that there were two artisans
same name, engaged at the work of that famous structure. This
reconciles those contradictions, makes clear the biblical narrative,
certain hitherto unintelligible statements, and lends corroborative
to the truth, in its substance, of the Masonic tradition of the death
Abif. In the light of this hypothesis let us now review the whole
mentioned in the sacred narrative.
The first Hiram is "the son of a woman of the
daughters of Dan," and arrives at the beginning of the building of the
Temple. He is an all-round artisan, skillful to work in stone, timber,
iron, etc. He superintends the building operations. It is a task of no
difficulty. A great Temple has to be built on the top of a rugged hill,
entirely surrounded by sharp precipices. Immense walls, the lowest of
to be 450 feet high, have to be reared up in the valley out from the
precipices, and the intervening space has to be filled up with earth in
to make room for the Temple with all its courts and palaces on the top.
work has to be done under the peculiar conditions that neither hammer,
nor any tool of iron is to be heard in the main structure, that is the
sanctuary; while it is being built. All this would require great skill,
knowledge and experience. Stonework, timber-work, and metal-work of
have to be executed. The Sanctuary has to be covered inside and outside
gold. Great curtains, with cherubims and other devices, have to be
manufactured. Carvings on stone, and on timber; engravings on gold and
have to be done, and done in the highest and most skillful manner
work is not only stupendous in its nature; it is also magnificent in
character. Well, the years pass on and, at the seventh, the house of
and the inner court have been built. Then began the work of the outer
and the royal palaces. These, while parts of the Temple scheme, were
considered as parts of the sanctuary, and hence, sacred silence was no
necessary condition. All was now bustle. The sounds of hammer and
chisel, and the
stir of toil filled the air, while the great courts and palaces were
erected. Other eight years passed in this work, and Hiram the first,
wonderful genius and skill, built a structure whose fame has been
through the long corridors of Time. Now it is at this stage that Hiram
first disappeared and Hiram the second, "the son of a widow woman of
tribe of Naphtali" came into view. Everything, except the molten
brass-work, has been done. Why did Hiram the first not do it? That he
perfectly capable, there can be no reasonable doubt. Why then, did
to send for Hiram the second to do it? It is evident that Hiram the
no longer available. Why? Neither scripture narrative nor profane
far as we can trace, give any answer to this question. But the
Masonry supply a very clear and natural answer. Hiram the first was
hence Solomon sent and fetched Hiram (the second) out of Tyre, to
work. Everything had been completed except the brass-work. and Hiram
is described specially as "a worker in brass." Five more years passed
and the final finish of the Temple came. The mighty brass pillars – the
of which was a wonderful achievement – the various altars and utensils,
golden candlesticks etc., were all made and put in their places and,
pomp and sacrifice, Solomon dedicated and consecrated the house of the
In this way, on the assumption that there were
Hirams engaged at the work of the Temple the sacred narrative is clear
coherent; and the seeming inconsistencies and contradictions we have
But there still remain one or two passages in
narrative which puzzle us. In I. Kings VII. 45, we read: "And the pots
the shovels and the basins, and all these vessels, which Hiram made to
Solomon for the house of the Lord, were of bright brass." In II.
Chronicles IV. 16, after ascribing as in the book of Kings, the various
made by Hiram – the pillars, the bases, the layers, and the sea with
oxen under it – we read: "And the pots also, and the shovels, and the
flesh-hooks and all their instruments, did Hiram, his father make to
Solomon, for the house of the Lord, of bright brass." Here we have
evidently a parenthetical remark interjected by the writer of the
with the object of making plain to the reader some fact which would be
otherwise obscure. The words "of bright brass" arrest our attention.
What do they mean? They evidently want to emphasize that the pots,
all the work of brass done by "Hiram, his father" were of bright
brass that is, malleable brass; while the pillars, the bases, the
mentioned in the context were of cast brass. This distinction is
with the words "his father." Whose father could it be, but the father
of the person whose work is being described? In verse II of the last
chapter in Chronicles, we read: "And Huram made the pots and the
and the basins. And Huram finished the work that he was to make for
Solomon for the house of God." Now, according to Hebrew scholars the
here translated "Huram" in both instances, are distinct, and
different in the original. In I. Kings VII. 40, our translation should
Chirom made the layers and the shovels and the basins. So Chiram made
an end of
doing all the work, etc.": and in II. Chronicles IV. 11, it should
"And Chiram finished the work that he was to make for King Solomon"
In view of the distinction in the names, and of
apparent parenthetical character of the 45th verse in I. Kings VII. and
16th verse in II. Chronicles IV., the reading of the sacred narrative
to be as follows, beginning at I. Kings VII. 40:
made the lavers and the shovels and the basins, and Chiram made an end
work that Chirom was to have made king Solomon for the house of the
two pillars, and the two bowls of the chapiters that were on the top of
pillars; and the two net-works, to cover the two bowls of the chapiters
were upon the top of the pillars; and four hundred pomegranates for the
net-works, even two rows of pomegranates for one net-work, to cover the
bowls of the chapiters that were upon the pillars; and the ten bases,
lavers on the bases; and one sea, and twelve oxen under the sea: – but
and the shovels, and the basins; and all those vessels which Chirom
king Solomon for the house of the Lord were of bright brass."
In the same way beginning at II. Chronicles IV.
we would read:
made the pots, and the shovels, and the basins; and Chiram finished the
which Churam was to have made for king Solomon for the house of God –
the two pillars, and the pommels, and the chapiters which were on the
the two pillars, and the two wreaths to cover the two pommels of the
which were upon the pillars. He made also bases, and lavers made he
bases: One sea and twelve oxen under it; But the pots, and the shovels
flesh-hooks, and all the instruments which Churam, his father, did make
Solomon for the house of the Lord were of bright brass."
This reading of the narrative, seems to us, the
only one that gives any appearance of consistency and plain sense. The
repetition of the name "Hiram" in I. Kings VII. 40, and its use in
verse 45; the repetition of "Huram" in II. Chronicles IV. 11, and the
words "Huram his father" are all inexplicable and confusing, as they
stand. The explanation that makes everything plain and clear is that
son made the pillars, the lavers, etc., of cast-brass, and that Huram
father made the pots, basins, etc., of bright or malleable brass. In
the words "his father" (in the original "Abif") is rendered
quite natural and intelligible, and accords with Masonic tradition.
In all the variations of the Masonic
the Hiram whose death occurred immediately preceding the completion of
Temple is named "Hiram Abif." This designation becomes significant
only in view of the fact that another Hiram, his son, also
superintended at the
building of the Temple and finished the work which his father would no
have finished had he lived a few years longer. Why should the
"Abif" have been given if there was no other Hiram engaged at the
Temple? It surely indicates not only another Hiram, but also that the
the son of the Hiram so named.
The Hiram whom Solomon "fetched out of
Tyre" is described as the son of a widow. This description accords
with the theory now advanced. If Hiram Abif was dead and his wife
son Hiram would naturally be the son of a widow.
The expression "sent and fetched" is
peculiar and is also perhaps very significant. It seems to indicate in
probability that the King Solomon sent an escort for Hiram. Our Rev.
Rosenbaum thinks this was to protect him from his father's enemies.
we can scarcely agree. These enemies were all too insignificant to
him a royal escort. Ordinary guards as was usual for travelers, would
sufficient so far as safety was concerned. A royal escort was, and is a
honor and it seems much more probable that this respect was shown to
in honor of the fame and memory of the father.
This theory of the two Hirams-Artisans at the
building of the Temple also harmonizes with the statement made by Dr.
which reference has already been made, viz: "It is well known that the
celebrated artist was living in Tyre many years after the Temple was
completed." This statement has been used as an argument against the
of the Masonic tradition regarding the death of Hiram. But if there
Hirams the statement of Dr. Oliver and the tradition of Hiram's death
be true. Hiram the son may very probably have returned to Tyre and
us fondly believe, many years the worthy son of a noble father.
To A Skeleton -- [A Poem]
MS. of this
poem was found in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, in
a perfect human skeleton, and sent by the curator to the Morning
publication. It excited so much attention that every effort was made to
discover the author, and a responsible party went so far as to offer a
of fifty guineas for information that would discover its origin. The
preserved his incognito, and, we believe, has never been discovered.
'Twas a skull,
Once of ethereal spirit full,
This narrow cell was life's retreat;
This space was thought's mysterious seat.
What beauteous visions filled this spot;
What dreams of pleasure long forgot?
Nor hope, nor joy, nor love, nor fear
Have left one trace of record here.
Beneath this mouldering canopy
Once shone the bright and busy eye;
But start not at the dismal void.
If social love that eye employed,
If with no lawless fire it gleamed,
But through the dews of kindness beamed –
That eye shall be forever bright
When stars and sun are sunk in night.
Within this hollow cavern hung
The ready, swift, and tuneful tongue;
If falsehood's honey it disdained,
And when it could not praise was chained;
If bold in virtue's cause it spoke,
Yet gentle concord never broke –
This silent tongue shall plead for thee
When time unveils eternity!
Say, did these fingers delve the mine,
Or with the envied rubies shine?
To hew the rock or wear a gem
Can little now avail to them.
But if the page of truth they sought,
Or comfort to the mourner brought,
These hands a richer meed shall claim
Than all that wait on wealth and fame.
Avails it whether bare or shod
These feet the paths of duty trod?
If from the bowers of ease they fled,
To seek affliction's humble shed;
If grandeur's guilty bride they spurned,
And home to virtue's cot returned –
These feet with angel wings shall vie,
And tread the palace of the sky!
The Significance of
By Bro. Frank B. Gault,
MASONIC observances and ceremonies are founded
authentic history or upon legends and traditions our race cherishes
unremitting fervor. In our recurring commemorations of these
events we, in an appreciative way, reengage with those ancient worthies
their notable contributions to human welfare. Thus the Maundy Thursday
reminds us of the closing scenes of the earthly career of the Savior of
world. Yea, more, for by our recurring celebrations of this mystic
perpetuate and we accentuate the greatest world-lesson that ever fell
ears of our common humanity for inspiration and guidance. The outlying
incidents may be briefly told.
Our Lord was reaching the culmination of his
of passion. A few days before he had entered Jerusalem in triumph amid
waving of palms and the glad acclaims of an expectant populace. The
looked for a king. Our Lord was truly to found a kingdom but it was to
spiritual kingdom, investing man with a new worth and dignity. Peace on
social equality, liberty of conscience, and the worth of the common man
be ruling virtues in this new order of human affairs.
It was Thursday "Green Thursday," the
Middle Ages called it. Approaching night had thrown its lengthening
o'er the Judean hills. The Son of Man, accompanied by the Twelve,
little city of Bethany, passed over "Olive's brow" to the upper room
in the city of David where, by prearrangement, the great Jewish feast
Passover was to be celebrated. It proved to be the first Maundy
now so happily known as the "Mystic Banquet."
In that land the host met his guests with a
of water that they might bathe their feet after laying aside their
most welcome attention after travel upon the dusty roads. This service
committed to slaves. Upon this occasion there being no host, provision
refreshing act had been omitted. Observing this our Lord arose and in
but gracious manner washed the feet of his disciples not, however,
Thus was exemplified in unaffected sincerity
modest condescension the most impressive lesson in human service and
democracy the race ever received. In thus bestowing upon his disciples
omitted act of hospitality, although the courtesy of menials, the Lord
mankind an object lesson for all time which means that he who rules
himself serve. Let us in this festal hour hearken unto this effective
old, though too often neglected, that all must serve. It is not the
of the inferior to a superior; not a mercenary hope of reciprocal gain;
mercy that is unrestrained. Our civilization is based upon this
firesides, our schools, our hospitals, our neighborliness, our
itself, rest upon this law of human relationship – we serve each other
together we are servants of the common good. However humble that
service, if it
is needed, it must be rendered freely and joyously.
This simple ceremony concluded, our Lord,
to his disciples, said, "A new commandment I give unto you, that ye
one another." Here is the motive of the service – love, good will to
sympathy, devotion to wellbeing, lending a hand.
Of kindred origin with the word commandment is
mandate, mandatory and mandamus. These words, indeed, are identical.
The day of
the command, the Thursday of the commandment, the mandate Thursday, and
The literal and formal observance of the
feet in a public manner by church and state officials has long existed.
emperor of Austria, the king of Bavaria, and the czar of Russia are
examples. Usually the twelve oldest men in the realm are selected and
through servants, performs the ablution. Sometimes prelates of the
select twelve very poor men for the rite.
This incident and the new commandment afford
candid variances of opinion as to important features, but these must
obscured by the imperative lesson, – our obligations to our fellow man
regardless of race, status or creed. The attitude toward humanity
at that Passover feast two thousand years ago is our challenge.
be the ruling principle in the world, and humanity our service,
royalty, dynasty, imperialism, undeserved privilege, and "man's
to man" must cease to disturb and destroy. The sorrows, the distresses
the enmities of today show that the incident and the commandment of
far-off first Maundy Thursday feast cannot too often be impressed upon
chaotic and unhappy world.
The democracy of service and the service of
democracy are the hope of mankind.
The Work of a Mason
The work of the Freemason is the important work
life. It involves the development of his body so that he may be the
enabled to support himself and family; the development of his mind so
may be enabled to think and act intelligently and rationally; the
of his soul so that he may gradually evolve into that more perfect
The Masonic Compeers of
By Bro. Frank E. Notes,
GREAT exigencies and great occasions give birth
great men, and many a man who under ordinary circumstances would not
mediocrity, has, under the spur of great demands, become really and
There is always a tendency to make heroes of
who took prominent part in the birth of the Nation; but when all
have been made, the fact still remains that in proportion to numbers
preceding and following the organization of our National government
more men of courage, ability and true patriotism than any other period
history, not even excepting the years of the Civil War.
Among the colossal figures that stood out
prominently in those trying years, the Masons of revolutionary times,
Masonic Compeers of our immortal Washington, are justly entitled to
names written high on the pillars of worldly fame.
There is an unwritten history of the silent but
patient influences of Masonry in producing the various political
of that period, and the mighty brotherhood of Masonry, ever the friend
liberty, was omnipotent for good.
While there were doubtless transient meetings
Masons in different American colonies from time to time late in the
and early in the eighteenth centuries, it was not until about the time
Washington's birth that the workings of the order began to assume
shape and the written records of Masonry in America commenced. In
Lord Montagu, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of England, appointed
as "Provincial Grand Master of New England and dominions and
thereunto belonging." Organizing the Grand Lodge in July of that year
granted a charter to eighteen brethren in Boston to form "First
Lodge," a name maintained till 1783 when it was changed to St. John's
Lodge. If Washington was the "father of his country," Henry Price was
in a like sense the father of American Masonry. In the following year,
his authority was extended to the whole of North America and he granted
warrants to brethren for lodges at Philadelphia, Pa., and at
Portsmouth, N. H.;
and in December, 1735, for one at Charleston, S. C.
Prominent in the early history of the country
the Randolph family of Virginia. Peyton Randolph was the first
president of the
Continental Congress which convened in 1774. He was also the last
Master in that colony. In 1778 an Independent Grand Lodge was organized
Virginia and Edmund Randolph, nephew of Peyton, became its Grand Master
1786. He was also Governor of Virginia the same year and in 1787 was a
of the convention that drafted the Federal Constitution.
In 1787 an independent Grand Lodge was formed
Georgia and Gen. James Jackson became its Grand Master. Distinguished
state for military valor, he was also, in 1788, its first elected
In the same year the Grand Lodge of South
was organized and in 1790 Gen. Mordecai Gist became its Grand Master.
North Carolina organized its Grand Lodge in
Richard Caswell, who was the first elected Governor in that state and
served as such in 1776, '77, '78 and '79, and again in 1787, was the
Grand Master in 1788. Also in national affairs he was prominent in the
Continental Congress and as a member of the Constitutional Convention.
prominent Mason in that state was Wm. R. Davie, Governor in 1798 and
Master in 1790.
The first Grand Master of Connecticut was
Edward in 1790. He was a son of the famous divine, the Rev. Jonathan
one of the early Presidents of Princeton College.
Gen. John Sullivan was Governor of New
from 1786 to 1790. During his last term a Grand Lodge was organized in
state and he was its first Grand Master. Gen. Sullivan is noted for the
splendid campaign he made in 1779 against the Six Nations of Indians
fighting with the British troops.
Gen. Rufus Putman was prominent in
went to Ohio late in the eighteenth century and became Grand Master in
state in 1808.
There were many other prominent men who were
Masonic Compeers of Washington, but the list is too long to dwell upon.
How many Masons are familiar with the part that
Masons played in the Boston Tea Party? It was on the evening of the
December, 1773, when a party of Masons, mostly members of St. Andrew's
Boston, assembled for the purpose of protesting against the iniquitous
tea. Samuel Adams is said to have been a member of that party. Gen.
first prominent martyr to the cause of American Independence and once
Master of Massachusetts, was a member of that party. Paul Revere,
for his famous ride before the battle of Lexington, at that time
of the Lodge and afterwards Grand Master, was a leading spirit among
resolute Masons who emptied the tea into Boston harbor.
While much of the specific wording of the
Declaration of Independence is credited to Thomas Jefferson, Masons
leading spirits in the movement. Almost simultaneously and perhaps not
of the other's action, Samuel Adams in Massachusetts and Richard Henry
Virginia wrote vigorous protests in 1774 against the tyrannous acts of
English government. It was Lee who in the Constitutional Congress, June
1776, made the motion that the colonies were and of right ought to be
The battle of Lexington was the result of an
attempt on the part of the British soldiers to arrest John Hancock and
Adams as arch traitors, but they were warned and escaped to
the fifty-six members of the Continental Congress who signed the
Independence, twenty-two are known to have been Masons and quite a
others are believed to have been members of the order, but the
records of those days leaves a doubt as to their membership. Of the
of five appointed to prepare the Declaration, three, viz: Sherman,
and Adams, were Masons. John Hancock, who was the president of the
was the first Mason to affix his signature. He was afterwards for
years Governor of Massachusetts. Of the first eight signers of the
seven were Masons. The Masons were the head and front of the movement.
Besides Hancock and Adams, the following Masons
signed the Declaration:
Josiah Bartlett, first
to vote for and second to sign. He was at first a prominent physician,
afterwards a lawyer and for six years Chief Justice of the Supreme
Court of New
Hampshire and the first Governor of that state. He was also Grand
Master of the
Grand Lodge in 1798.
William Whipple, born
in Maine two years before Washington, prominent as a lawyer and a Judge
Supreme Court of New Hampshire for three years.
Matthew Thornton, born
in Ireland in 1714 and an advocate of ability; for six years a member
Supreme Court of New Hampshire.
Robert Treat Paine, born
the year before Washington in Boston; was for fourteen years a justice
Supreme Court of Massachusetts.
Elbridge Gerry, a
member of the Constitutional Congress five times, member of the
Convention, Governor of Massachusetts in 1810-'11 and Vice President at
time of his death in 1814. It was from his work of districting the
we get the word "gerrymander."
Speaker of the Massachusetts Assembly in 1742 and for several years
Governor of the state for thirteen years and for several years a member
prominent in the legislative affairs of Connecticut, member of the
several succeeding Continental Congresses, and one of the five members
committee to draft the Declaration of Independence. Among his
descendants were Senators Wm. M. Evarts of New York and Geo. F. Hoar of
member of the Continental Congress and of the Constitutional
one of the Committee of five who drafted the Declaration.
member of the Continental Congress for several years and Governor of
Connecticut for eleven years.
Francis Lewis, a
native of Wales, who engaged in commerce and amassed a large fortune
which he spent in the cause of American liberty, was a member of the
Continental Congress from New York, in which state he died at the ripe
of 90 years.
John Witherspoon, a
Scottish Doctor of Divinity who came to the Colonies after he had made
reputation as one of the strongest preachers of his age. He became
Princeton College in 1768 and by his wise administration greatly raised
rank of that institution. Sat in the Continental Congress for three
years at a
time at two different periods.
Francis Hopkinson, head
of the Navy during the Revolution, Judge of the Admiralty in
ten years to 1789 and then, as an appointee of President Washington, a
States Judge till his death in 1791.
Lewis Morris, a
wealthy resident of New York who risked his fortune in the cause of
whose large estates were burned by the British in 1776.
Benjamin Rush, the
most noted physician of his age, who, with Richard Henry Lee moved the
of a resolution for independence early in June, 1776. He was treasurer
U. S. Mint in Philadelphia from 1799 till his death in 1813. It was
that Rush Medical College in Chicago was named.
Benjamin Franklin, Grand
Master of Pennsylvania in 1784 and the most distinguished diplomat and
of that period. George Ross, a judge of the Pennsylvania Admiralty
died in 1779.
Richard Henry Lee, who,
although a Virginian, took strong grounds against Slavery in 1761. In
was president of the Continental Congress and was the first U. S.
Virginia. His younger brother, Francis Lightfoot Lee, was also a signer
Benjamin Harrison, four
times a member of the Continental Congress, twice Governor of Virginia,
father of William Henry Harrison ("Old Tippecanoe"), the ninth
William Hooper, a
native of Boston but a representative for several terms of North
the Continental Congress. These twenty-two Masonic signers of the
were a sturdy group – men for the most part of great learning and
occupation eleven of them were traders and farmers, eight of them were
two were doctors and one a minister of the gospel. Seven of them served
states as governors and gave a combined service of 48 years or an
about seven years each. Seven of them were judges, mostly of the
courts, and rendered a combined service of 64 years or an average of
years each. Two of them were Grand Masters of Masonic Grand Lodges.
Statisticians tell us that science and modern
methods of living have greatly increased the average span of human life
these latter days. But the twenty two Masonic signers of the
living for the most part under primitive conditions, far outran the
of their fellows both in those times and now. Only two of them died
age of 50; twelve of them were over 70 years of age; five of them were
and one reached the age of 90 years; while the average span of life for
whole twenty-two was 70 years. The earliest death among them was in
latest in 1814. This is a remarkable exhibit of the strength of mind
of the leading founders of the government of our great Nation.
They did their work well and were an honor not
to themselves, their families, their communities, their states and the
but they honored the great brotherhood to which they belonged and were
the noblest representatives of true Masonry, which has always stood for
highest patriotism. Of them may well be said,
growth had marked their manly brows,
They sought our altar and they made their vows –
Upon our tesselated floor they trod,
Bended their knees and placed their trust in God.
Through all their great and glorious lives they stood
As true, warm brothers, foremost e'er in good;
And when they died, amid profoundest gloom,
Their mourning brethren bore them to the tomb."
Upon their coffins were the aprons placed
Of Masonry, which through their life they graced.
The profound gratitude of men unborn
Will follow them until the dawn of morn
When Nations, true to Christian brotherhood
Shall nevermore shed unprotected blood.
When Peace, the angel guest of heaven divine,
Brings greatest happiness to all mankind.
rouse the Lincoln in you all,
That which is gendered in the wilderness,
From lonely prairies and God's tenderness.
Imperial soul, star of a weedy stream,
Born where the ghosts of buffaloes still dream,
Whose spirit hoof-beats storm above his grave,
About that breast of earth and prairie-fire –
Fire that freed the slave.
Let the Light Shine
The essence of Free Masonry is light. Its
is to illumine. To be sure Masonry has its secrets and mysteries, but
so has sunlight.
The one may be understood by the adept as the other has been analyzed
scientist. Opaque objects on the earth cast shadows and in the
movements of the
planets the sun becomes eclipsed. So in Masonry there are emblems of
and ceremonies wherein light is extinguished; but these are only for
Light, ever increasing light, is the ideal.
And yet there are dimmers in the Masonic World.
lodge is such if it fails to illumine, and so is a Mason who does not
light shine before men. Such lodges and such brethren are like opaque
in nature. Light either does not permeate them, or if it does, it stays
instead of shining through or being reflected by them. They not only
light from others, but really stand in their own light; for if a lodge
flourish, or if a brother would get for himself the best that Masonry
him, that lodge and that brother must let the light shine, not within
like an electric light with dimmers on, but through them and from them
the world upon human institutions and upon humanity outside the Craft.
The final test of Masonry is its altruism, what
accomplishes, not for itself and its votaries only, but for humanity;
and he is
the best Mason and does the most for his lodge and the advancement of
Order, who most carries out into the business, political and social
light with which he himself has been illuminated in the lodge room, and
most lets that light shine, through his beneficent words and deeds, for
enlightenment and enlivening of his fellow men.
Graves Greene, 33d Hon.
The Things I Share -- [A Poem]
Lord, for strength of arm
To win my bread,
And that, beyond my need, is meat
For friend unfed:
I thank Thee much for bread to live,
I thank Thee more for bread to give.
I thank Thee, Lord, for snug-thatched roof
In cold and storm,
And that beyond my need is room
For friend forlorn:
I thank Thee much for place to rest,
But more for shelter for my guest.
I thank Thee, Lord, for lavish love
On me bestowed,
Enough to share with loveless folk
To ease their load:
Thy love to me I ill could spare,
Yet dearer is Thy love I share.
SLOWLY our Republic is being drawn into the
of world-war, which it cannot much longer honorably avoid. Indeed, by
these words are read it may already have made the plunge, taking up its
white sword in behalf of the humanity of the nation and the humanity of
world. Peace without victory, peace at any price, are becoming
impossible in theory and in fact. They are not just who will not fight
justice; and there is one thing better than keeping the peace – that is
a peace that is worth keeping.
No nation can turn hermit and live apart from
world, shut in by a narrow, selfish nationalism. The world is too
closely bound together, too delicately organized. In 1870 England held
and saw France crushed, but she prepared disaster for herself. This
for us, because we have behind us three generations of national
that policy is now obsolete. It is not whether America shall enter the
that hangs in the balance – but whether she shall enter the world, not
conquest but for co-operation, for service, for sacrifice, if need be,
behalf of a common civilization.
Some things there are more precious than life,
without which life is not worth living – Liberty, Justice, Mercy. If
precious things can be secured by wise delay, by moral power alone, let
thanks; but if moral power is finally set at naught, let the aggressor
invincible defender of humanity! If that issue is drawn, no one need be
where American Masons will stand: they will insist that the flag should
for the protection of our citizens, and that our citizens stand for the
protection of the flag! A little high school girl wrote these words,
through them her gentle hand will touch the heart-strings of thousands
flag. For it I will give
All that I have, even as they gave –
They who dyed those blood-red bands –
Their lives that it might wave.
This is my flag. I am prepared
To answer now its first clear call,
And with Thy help, oh God,
Strive that it may not fall.
This is my flag. Dark days seem near.
O Lord, let me not fail.
Always my flag has led the right,
O Lord, let it not fail."
* * *
The New Thinking
Every movement, every institution, has two
and must have if it is to fly very far. Time out of mind they have been
the Radical and the Conservative; the one looking to the future, and
seeking to conserve the hard-won inheritance of the past. Both are
they must be held in balance, each serving the other and working
the result will be disaster and wreck. Between those who will let
alone, and those who will allow no change at all, there is a middle
cautious and reliable progress. If we do not conserve what we have
cannot improve it. Nor can we really conserve it without improving it.
must have not only the wish but the ability to improve, else we shall
we have while blunderingly trying to get what we want.
Now these principles apply equally to Masonry,
ye editor confesses that he is a radical in heart but a conservative in
thought, having the disposition to improve and the desire to conserve,
as John Bright was wont to say, to "make the past glide easily into the
future." For that reason, he would have Masons be doers as well as
dreamers, conservatives but not mere preservatives, and radical without
revolutionary – in short, Builders and not mere Agitators. For the same
he is ready and willing to listen to Brethren of the radical wing of
who are making themselves heard of late, assured that they ought to be
because they have something to say, as witness the following words from
letter before us:
"How can the Society undertake a progressive
study of Masonic fundamentals with its back turned to the future? The
are, Brother, the Society has not dared to touch on a single vital
us. While it may be a subject highly interesting to a close student,
hardly admit that a controversy over some technicality in the records
Mystics of the Middle Ages is a matter of vital importance to us here
flesh and blood now. I am a radical in thought, and although as were
that a circle would be drawn that would include all, we find that the
has not been fulfilled. If the motive back of the formation of the
visas the hope of diverting a rapidly growing radical sentiment into
conservative channels, I will admit that in part you have succeeded.
tide will turn and you will soon have to take cognizance of the radical
the Society. Among the present-day subjects of vital interest to the
Universal military training, would it be used
defeat or to aid Masonic Brotherhood? Famous Masons who are working for
league to enforce world-peace. Are Masons neglecting the public
schools, if so
what will be the ultimate result? President Wilson’s challenge to the
of the world on world peace, is it a challenge to Masonry or Democracy?
Masonry doing today to uphold the right of free speech, free press, and
public assembly? Where must Masonry stand tomorrow on present-day
its future is to be as honorable as its past? Is Masonry an institution
definite objects in view; if so, what are they? Is Masonry merely a set
rules for individual conduct? Can Masonry squarely turn from its
admiration of its past and resolutely face the problems of the future?
Masonry organize to combat the growing influence of Romanism in
politics? Can Masonry afford to allow its membership to form its
a controlled press?
But I hear you saying that these are political,
moral and economic questions, and have no part in the program of
are they proper subjects for discussion in our journal. If this is your
thought, Brother, then I ask you where under high heaven can a poor
soul go for
reliable information? Far be it from me to detract from the glory of
past, but I am interested more in a glorious present and a bright and
future. Before the coming of the Builder, recent Masonry was like the
Empire, great in bulk, unwieldy, self-satisfied and with no particular
in view worthy of its manhood or traditions."
Here is the typical radical – God bless him –
eager, utterly sincere, impatient, a pace-maker but not a peace-maker,
would transform the Masonic Lodge into a debating society, and so upset
that it would take a generation to set them right. We respect his
motive – even
if he suspects the motive which prompted the founding of this Society;
admire his idealism and enthusiasm; but we cannot agree with his
after all, it is all a matter of method; since all of us want to do
wisest and best, making the present worthy of the past and prophetic of
future. Of course our Brother exaggerates, after the manner of his
leaving the impression that our present studies are devoted to
technicalities of the Mystics of the Middle Ages. But if he thinks that
honorable past of Masonry, to which he wishes us to be true, was made
methods such as he recommends, he had better look into the old records
Far, very far from it. Had our fathers followed
such leadership, there would be no Masonic Lodge today, or else it
only an indistinguishable atom in a welter of partisan feud. Suppose
should open its pulpit to issues such as our Brother outlines, it would
a place not of devotion but of debate, and injure its influence – as,
it has done in so far as it has followed this program. No more can the
Lodge commit itself to such a program, unless it wishes deliberately to
destruction. What then shall we do? Ignore present-day issues, turn our
upon them and leave them to be fought out in the spirit of feud? Not at
Masonry, as an organized body, cannot deal with issues of this sort,
can. And it is the mission of Masonry so to train men in the spirit of
righteousness, human sympathy and social obligation that they will face
solve such questions in a spirit of justice, wisdom and truth!
Once for all ye editor stated his position in
respect to this whole matter in "The Builders," (pp. 244-250) [Lib 1914] and he sees no
reason to alter it by one iota; but instead all the more reason to
it, with due regard for his Brethren who disagree. He feels profoundly
matter, not because he is indifferent to the living issues of this dark
troubled time – God forbid – but just because the tendency which our
voices, now becoming clamorous, means the overthrow of the Order.
plainly, yet kindly, he is frank to say that if such a program were
the Masonic Order he would leave it instantly, and he would be followed
vast majority of its members. It would no longer be the Masonry he
seeks to serve, but something so utterly unlike the Masonry whose past
honorable, and so alien to its spirit, as to be its enemy. So may it
while grass grows and the sun shines!
Masons may form groups, if they like, and
the questions which our Brother suggests, and others of a sort similar;
Fraternity cannot indulge in such debates without disaster. In saying
are thinking far ahead to a time when the noises of today shall have
the feet that made them into the Silence remembering, too, the wisdom
fathers which has approved itself by results. Our Brother thinks we
a circle too small to include him in its embrace. No, no, it is the
round. Somehow, in thinking of this matter, we recall the words of
"Oh if we
draw a circle premature,
Heedless of far gain,
Greedy for quick returns of profits, sure
Bad is the bargain!"
* * *
From Brother Oswald Wirth, of Paris, comes a
gracious letter, not only expressing appreciation of the work of the
and its journal, but suggesting that it be made international. He is
of Le Symbolisme, and he gives a
of the difficulties that beset him in publishing a Masonic journal
pressure of war conditions in France. Indeed, Le
Symbolisme is suspended temporarily, owing to financial
perplexities, but we trust that dawn will come soon, and that its
may be resumed. The following excerpt, as setting forth a more
of Masonry, may be of interest and profit to our readers:
our Order has been especially ceremonial; the material, external side
too predominant. It is not right to be contented henceforth to practice
Freemasonry ritualistically; we must come to comprehend it, to possess
intelligence of it. It is therefore no longer for men to wish to
together, pay their dues, and bear the symbols by which we must address
ourselves, but to have intellects capable of comprehending our
philosophy. I am
formulating no criticism in regard to Masonic bodies, and I do not wish
interfere, at least not directly, to reform them. That which interests
the eternal wisdom to which the symbolism makes allusion. It is
revive this wisdom, while searching everywhere for the remnants of its
corpse. This is the task to which I have assigned myself; but when I
to communicate to others the fruits of my researches, I have found that
Freemasons often show less receptivity than the profane. Having been
consecrated and initiated, and placing there the value of Freemasonry,
believe too easily that they have nothing more to learn. This
decides me to propagate a Masonry of the spirit independent of Masonic
If your morals make you dreary, depend upon it
are wrong. I do not say give them up, for they may be all you have; but
them, like a vice, lest they should spoil the lives of other mender.
Life After Death
DEAR EDITOR: – In the list of books received by
Builder, I note the work of Sir Oliver Lodge, entitled "Raymond, or
After Death," [Lib 1926] purporting
to give the communications received from his son who was killed in
Remembering what you said about "Patience Worth," [Lib 1916] I have a keen
curiosity to know what you think of this book. I venture to transcribe
following words written by William Dean Howells thirty-five years ago,
story, "The Undiscovered Country," [Lib 1880] and quoted in the March
Atlantic Monthly, fearing
that you may have missed them. Speaking of spiritualism and its
materializations, he says:
systems of belief, all other revelations of the unseen world, have
rule of life, have been given for our use here. But this offers nothing
barren fact that we live again. It is as thoroughly godless as atheism
and no man can accept it upon any other man's word, because it has not
shown its truth in the ameliorated life of men. As long as it is used
establish the fact of a future life it will remain sterile. It will
be doubted, like a conjuror's trick, by all who have not seen it; and
have seen it will afterwards come to discredit their own senses. The
been mocked with something of the kind from the beginning; it is no new
I do not say that this expresses my view of the
matter. In fact, I do not say that I have any view, preferring to keep
mind, and being deeply convinced of a future life on other grounds.
a matter has no place in our journal, but if it has – and I recall your
that Masonry is concerned with all things human – some of us would be
know your thought.
My Brother, we live in dark and terrible times,
the Unseen World seems very near, its gates thronged by a host no man
number of the bravest and the best who are giving their lives for the
that make life dear. Death, so multitudinous and overwhelming, has
immortality to light. For many, as for Sir Oliver Lodge, its silence is
by the accents of familiar voices – as in a cablegram that lies before
signed, "A Mother of Five" – and for all the assurance is doubly sure
that "Life is ever lord of Death and Love can never lose its own."
The book by Sir Oliver Lodge is noble and notable, not only for what it
but for the dignity, restraint and austere care of the recital. As he
the preface, only his sympathy with the appalling premature and
bereavement due to the war would have induced him to remove the veil
own private grief, and he writes in the hope that his words may help to
hearts wounded by the deep stab of war and death.
The book is divided into three parts: the first
which tells the brief life of a boy, his letters home from the front,
on the field of honor – a pitiful page by his mother, and a memoir by
brother. The second recites the messages supposed to have been received
him after his death, telling, in his characteristic manner, of the
trying to make its conditions real to his friends; of his interest and
solicitude for them, with many touches as beautiful as they are tender.
third part is a discussion by the father of the meaning of it all – a
piece of writing, in which the mind of the scientist masters the heart
father, making him critical of evidence, careful of fact, and doubly
because his heart is involved. Altogether it is a book to make one
ponder, and does not at all come under the category described in the
Howells thirty-five years ago; because it is the work of a great man of
science, and because the whole question is looked at in a different
Personally, we are in much the same case as
Liggon, wishing to keep an open mind and a tender heart – not mistaking
sentiment for substance, fancy for fact – and, like him, utterly
eternal life on other grounds. Nevertheless, we confess that this book
a great inspiration, in that it has helped to make the unseen world
more human, and has touched it with light and color and joy. Certainly
it something more than a "barren" fact, and that means very much to
such as wait for those who return no more. Of Patience Worth we said
while we were unable to say whether her stories and songs were
the unseen, they were worthy of being such, alike for their beauty and
And we say the same of this book. If it deals at times, in matters
trivial, we remember that they are the best kind of personal
even in a court of law, and not less so in the Court of the Dead.
Nor can we agree with Howells that such
communications, as they are now reported and studied, are "sterile"
of influence and furnish no "rule of life." What it means to have a
real assurance – to be triumphantly convinced – of the deathless life
seen in the life of Frederick Myers, who, by way of scientific psychic
research, came to certainty about it. The result was not simply a
transformation, but a transfiguration. He seemed to have a new
character, a new
personality – as William James has told us. A passionate, disdainful
unhandy man, became tender sympathetic endlessly patient and above all,
radiantly canny: and the fortitude of his last days, amidst atrocious
sufferings touched the heroic. No, it does not delete life, but adds a
hemisphere to it.
Such thoughts are surely timely in a world of
griefs and graves, and the more so on the eve of Easter day, when
men, women and little children find their way to the House of Hope – in
country meeting-houses, in old ivy-covered chapels, in stately
cathedrals – to
renew the ancient expectation of their race. Happy are those to whom it
given to see that there is no future life, but that life is one here
hereafter – a vision of love, comradeship and character – and that
death is a
shadowy gate through which we pass out of phantoms into reality, out of
darkness into light!
* * *
The Eastern Star
A new and elaborate "History of the Order of
the Eastern Star," [Lib 1917] by
Mrs. Jean M'kee Kenaston, of the Grand Chapter of South Dakota, lies
Taking as her motto the saying of Lord Acton, that "history, to be
evasion or dispute, must stand on documents, not opinions," the author
done a very careful piece of work worthy of the great Order whose story
tells with interest and charm. She has endeavored to perform two
to interest her readers in the records and achievements of those
and men whose acts combined to make possible the greatest fraternal
organization of women; and second, to produce some evidence of the
useful character of the Institution – that its claims for Charity,
Loving Kindness may be the more readily seen and appreciated.
The work is well written, and informed by a
spirit, including a sketch of the origin of the order, a biography of
founder, Dr. Morris – one of the best we have seen – the history of the
Grand Chapter, and brief accounts of the Grand Chapters of the States,
as foreign Grand Chapters. To which are added the Mosaic Book, the
the Eastern Star Degree, the Book of Instructions, and the Rosary of
Eastern Star – making the volume as nearly complete as it could well
work is a distinct achievement in Masonic research, a real addition to
literature, and we congratulate the author and the Order, the while we
heartily commend the volume to our Members. The book is neatly printed
* * *
As an example of noble writing, as an example
the spirit in which the men of Europe lay aside their dreams for the
reality of war, we venture to reproduce the following preface to "The
Book of Wonder," [Lib 1916] by
Lord Dunsany, of England. The dreams of this book will grow more real
memory of the Europe of today fades. Our hope is, that out of the
house" not only his dreams, but the man himself will be saved to give
more books of beauty, to cast upon us the spell of his charms.
I do not know where I may be when this preface
read. As I write it in August, 1916, I am at Ebrington Barracks,
recovering from a slight wound. But it does not greatly matter where I
dreams are here before you amongst the following pages; and, writing in
when life is cheap, dreams seem to me all the dearer, the only things
Just now the civilization of Europe seems
have ceased, and nothing seems to grow in her torn fields but death;
is only for a while and dreams will come back again and bloom as of
the more radiantly for this terrible ploughing, as the flowers will
where the trenches are and the primroses shelter in shell-holes for
seasons, when weeping Liberty has come home to Flanders.
To some of you in America this may seem an
unnecessary and wasteful quarrel, as other people's quarrels often are;
comes to this, that though we are all killed there will be songs again,
we were to submit and so survive there could be neither songs nor
any joyous free things any more.
And do not regret the lives that are wasted
us, or the work that the dead would have done, for war is no accident
man's care could have averted, but is as natural, though not as
regular, as the
tides; as well regret the things that the tide has washed away, which
and cleanses and crumbles, and spares the minutest shells.
And now I will write nothing further about our
but offer you these books of dreams from Europe as one throws things of
if only to oneself, at the last moment out of a burning house.
* * *
Albert Pike's Letters
By the kindness of Brother J. H. Tatsch, of
Spokane, we have a copy of a letter written of Albert Pike, which he
time ago in Goddspeed's Bookshop, Boston. It breathes a spirit which
Pike to those who knew him, showing the personal side in a way not
brought out in our usual conception of the man. Brother Tatsch suggests
make request for copies of other letters by Pike, believing that such a
might bring to light, from unknown places, much of value to the Craft.
such a request in one of the earliest issues of The Builder, but gladly
it, hoping that the prophecy may come true. The Society is anxious to
all possible material about Albert Pike, and we are sure that our
assist in every way. The letter referred to was addressed to Brother
Spafford, in 1878, and is as follows:
My dear Friend: –
I thank you with all my heart. Simple words are the best. I am greatly
by your kind words; and the poems come to me as a voice from the old
which I left near forty-seven years ago, not unkindly remembering me,
live here and rarely go out. Gout has lessened by locomotive powers and
inclination to move. If you can get about "fluently" come and see me.
Please present my very kind regards to Mrs. Spafford, and for her and
accept all manner of good wishes, and especially that this New Year may
happy one for you both, until her latest breath.
friend and brother,
* * *
History of the
Eastern Star, [Lib 1917] by Mrs. J. M.
Kenaston. Torch Press, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. $2.50.
Ancient Times, a
History of the Early World, [Lib 1916] by J. H. Breasted.
Ginn and Co., New York. $1.50.
Institute Speech, [Lib 1916] by H. B. Rankin.
Revolutionary Encampment Commission, [Lib
by J. H. Fort.
Address, [Lib*] by B. H. Saxton, Fort Dodge, Iowa.
War the Cross of
Nations, [Lib*] by L. Swetenham. Robert Scott, London.
Gentle Art of Making Enemies, [Lib 1904]
by J. M. Whistler. New Edition. London. $4.00.
* * *
The Question Box
Dear Brother: – As a member of the Craft, I am
enclosing a brief letter herewith sent me by the Indo-American Book
explains itself: "The Harmonic Series, complete in three books, are now
out of print, and cannot be furnished. They were discontinued because
the claims set forth therein have been found to be untrue." Can you
inform me as to which of the claims as set forth in those books have
to be untrue? Judging by the trend of this letter, it seems plain that
thousands of Masonic Brethren have been imposed upon. I shall be under
obligations for any information.
Thereby hangs a long tale, which we were
with at the time we were writing replies to the dear Brethren who
stupid and unspiritual because we did not accept the claims and
advanced by the TK. (The Builder, Vol. I, pp. 118, 143, 163, 181,
Fortunately, we could not tell it then, and it would serve no good
recite it now. Let us be kind; it is a case calling less for censure
the sweetest charity which our Order has taught us to cultivate.
1918, Sylvester G. West published ‘TK and the Great Work in America’
which claims that ‘… his
personal claims and experiences, were not founded upon facts and actual
demonstrations, and were therefore absolutely unreliable and
* * *
Some time ago you referred, in an address, to a
statement by Edmund Burke which you said had long been the basis of all
political thinking, and that you first heard it used by the late
in a Lincoln-day address in Boston seventeen years ago. I see that you
it again in one of the sermons preached in the City Temple last summer,
volume entitled "An Ambassador," [Lib 1916] but you do not give it in
full – at least I infer
that it is only reference. Will you please give it in full and tell me
may find it in the works of Burke?
It is indeed a remarkable utterance, and may be
found in "Reflections on the French Revolution," [Lib 1910] by Edmund Burke
– Bohn Library Edition of Works of Burke, pp. 368-9 – and is as
"Society is indeed a contract. It is to be looked upon with reverence,
because it is not a partnership in things subservient only to the gross
existence of a temporary and perishable nature. It is a partnership in
science; a partnership in all art; a partnership in every virtue, and
perfection. As the ends of such a partnership cannot be obtained in
generations, it becomes a partnership not only between those who are
but between those who are living, those who are dead, and those who are
born. Each contract of each particular state is but a clause in the
contract of eternal society, linking the lower with the higher natures,
connecting the visible and invisible world, according to a fixed
sanctioned by the inviolable oath which holds all physical and all
natures, each in their appointed place."
* * *
Perhaps half a hundred Brethren have sent us
following prayer, saying that it had been sent to them with the request
they send it on to nine Brother Masons, forming an endless chain of
"O Lord, I implore Thee to bless all mankind. Bring us to Thee, keep us
dwell with Thee." So far, good; it is a brief, wise, and universal
like a line caught from a vast litany of humanity. But the usual form
letter adds that this prayer was sent by all Masons in the olden time
all who wrote it would be free from calamity, and that those who did
it on would be in danger of misfortune. What a pity to spoil the beauty
all, breaking the links which Tennyson said bind us as with "chains of
about the feet of God," with such a bribe and such a threat. It becomes
matter of luck, like wearing a rabbit-foot, or some other token handed
from old time magic – whereas prayer, if it has any meaning, much less
is a wish sent Godward, a law of life. Over gainst this superstitious
prayer set the noble words of George Meredith, in "Beauchamp's
Career," [Lib 1899] and
write them in your heart:
"He who has
the fountain of prayer in him will not complain of hazards. Prayer is
recognition of laws; the soul's exercise and source of strength; its
conjunction with them. Prayer for an object is the cajolery of an idol;
resource of superstition. There you misread it. We that fight the
must have the universal f or succor of the truth in it. Cast forth the
prayer, you meet the effluence of the outer truth, you join with the
elements giving breath to you. Who rises from prayer a better man, his
* * *
Manual of Masonry
Brother Editor: – I am anxious to find a manual
Masonry that will cover each degree and each rite briefly, with such
information in general as an ill-read Mason would like to find in a
space, and would be obliged if you will cite me to such a book, if
Ye editor has long wished to write such a book
you here ask for, but he fears that it will be among his lost and
dreams. As it is, the best book of the sort, (so far, is "The Problem
Masonry," [Lib*] by J. G. Gibson, whose articles our readers have
It is brief, comprehensive, accurate, and written in a style simple,
singularly happy in its light and easy grace; the late Brother R. F.
furnished an introduction, in which he commended the book most highly.
contains a sketch of the history of the order, a chapter on each of the
three degrees, on each of the several rites, with much else which every
wishes to know. It is an English book, and will be difficult to obtain
while, unless copies can be found in this country.
* * *
Brother Editor: – Perhaps you do not know it,
many ladies also read The Builder, and I, for one, very much enjoy it.
it aloud in our family circle. Some of us would like to know what you
the best books which the war has produced, if that is not too big a
So far there have been over three thousand
published about the war and that is only the beginning. For generations
books will be appearing, and even then the whole story will not be told
the half of it. Histories, biographies, memoirs, arguments, state
poems, stories – there will be a stream of them swelling into a flood.
name only a few. The "Ordeal of Battle," [Lib 1915] by Oliver, is a
very strong book, having one of the finest prefaces ever written; while
"The War and Humanity" [Lib 1916] by Beck, shows what an
American thinks of
the vast tragedy – a brilliant book it is, too. "Mr. Britling Sees it
Through," [Lib 1917] by
Wells, is one of the best war stories behind the lines, showing the
awakening, – both spiritual and political – in England; also the
the author over his own discovery of religion. "Mademoiselle Miss,"
up of letters from an American girl serving with the rank of Lieutenant
French Army Hospital at the front, is a book to stir the heart to the
and So is "My Home on the Field of Honor," [Lib 1916] by Huard. One of
the most brilliant series of sketches is "Men, Women and Guns," [Lib 1916] by
"Sapper," matched by "A Student in Arms," [Lib 1917, Vol 1, Vol 2] by Hankey – this
last notable for its glimpses of the religious aspects of the war. In
there are the songs of Rupert Brooke [Lib 1920] [Lib 1934], Emile Verhaeren of Belgium
[Lib 1915], Oxenham [Lib 1919], and not least
of all our own Alan Seeger [Lib 1917 (Poems), 1917 (Diary)], who
fell in Flanders on July 4th, 1916 – nor must we forget Cunliffe's
of "Poems of the Great War." [Lib 1918] But, my dear friend, much of
and most heart-gripping literature of war will never find its way into
as for example the following letter of a French soldier to his wife,
his body after battle, which you cannot read aloud in your home without
"I am writing this letter to you in any event
– for one never knows. If it reaches you it will be that France will
needed me unto the end. You must not weep, for I swear to you that I
happy if I need to give my life to my country.
"My only care is the difficult situation in
which you will find yourself – you and the children. How can you
yourself and the babies? Happily you can count upon your former
teaching and the full assistance of all my people. How I should like to
sure that some arrangement will be found.
Discusses His Children
"As to the education of the little ones, I am
not worried. You will know how to direct it as well as I. I hope that
create for themselves an independent position as I had hoped to assure
had I lived. Kiss the dear little ones for their father; tell them that
gone on a long, very long, journey without ceasing to love them; to
them and to protect them from afar. I should like to have Cotte at
"There will be the baby whom I shall not have
known. If it is a boy, my wish is that he should be a doctor, unless
war France still has need of officers. You will tell him when he is old
to understand, that his papa gave his life for a great ideal – that of
country reconstructed and strong.
"I think I have written the most necessary.
Good-by, my darling, my love. Promise me not to bear a grudge against
she has asked my life. Promise me to console papa and mamma and to tell
little girls that their father, however far he may be, will never cease
watch over them and to love them.
"We shall find ourselves one day reunited, I
hope, near Him who guides our lives and who has given me, near you and
you, such happiness.
"Poor darling, I have not even time to think
long of our love, so great, however, and so strong. Good-by, the long
true one. Be strong. Your JEAN."
* * *
Brother Newton: – You have several times
recommended Hastings' Encyclopcedia of Religion and Ethics, and I
to know what you think of the article on the Inquisition [Lib 1908, Vol 7, pg 330].
To me it seems a lame and miserable apology for an institution infernal
extreme. Two sentences made me mad in six spots at once: "The tribunal
the Inquisition conformed to a very high ideal of justice." And this:
"Taking everything into consideration we may hold that the institution
workings of the tribunals of the Inquisition were the means of real
progress." Surely that is the limit.
We do not remember to have recommended the
Encyclopaedia as a whole, but only certain articles in it, notably the
Freemasonry and the one on Circumambulation; but we do say that it is a
work, notwithstanding the article complained of. It was the policy of
editor, Dr. Hastings, to entrust articles to men of the communions most
concerned, and so he selected Dr. Vacandard to write on the
article is indeed an unconvincing defense, but it is interesting as
what is repeated in regard to the atrocities of the present war – how
far a man
will go in defense of a thing which it suits his interest or purpose to
away. He goes to great length, even making such use of Lea's classical
"History of the Inquisition" [Lib 1901, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] as to misrepresent him
utterly – actually
garbling his words and twisting them every kind of way. It is absurd to
that the evils and iniquities of the Inquisition were incidental. They
inherent in the very genius of the institution, and foreknown – as, for
example, in the Bull of 1256 [Lib*] which authorized Inquisitors to
each other, making a closed corporation of crime. The final verdict of
(111, p. 650) is overwhelming, when he says that the Inquisition
"introduced a system of jurisprudence which infected the criminal law
the lands subjected to its influence, and rendered the administration
justice a cruel mockery for centuries. It furnished the Holy See with a
powerful weapon in aid of political aggrandizement, it tempted secular
sovereigns to imitate the example, and it prostituted the name of
the vilest temporal ends. It stimulated a morbid sensitiveness to
aberrations until the most trifling dissidence was capable of arousing
fury and of convulsing Europe from end to end. On the other hand, when
became fashionable in high places its thunders were mute." That does
read like a description of a benign institution, or one that made for
progress. We could go into detail? but we are soon to publish an
three parts describing, in cool fact, first, the organization of that
machine; second, its procedure; and third, its attempt to destroy
* * *
Brother Editor: – I do not want to seem to
in" and raise a row, but do you understand that Masonry teaches the
resurrection of the body? I have often thought of this, but never had
to ask anyone. So there now, throw this in the waste basket, if you
No; Masonry teaches the immortality of the
but it does not specifically affirm or deny the resurrection of the
leaving that issue for each man to interpret for himself, and so avoid
"row" which our Brother fears. So far as Masonry is concerned, a man
may believe in the resurrection of the body or not, according to his
Beyond the fundamental truths of faith it does not go – never
speculative theology which is a breeding place of animosities of many
Personally – and our opinion is worth no more than that of another – we
believe in the resurrection of the body, as it is, or used to be, held.
we think the Great Light in Masonry teaches it. Certainly St. Paul
distinguished very sharply between the "natural body and the spiritual
body," and when he spoke of the resurrection of the body he did not
our body of "flesh and blood," but our personality, the form and
spirit of our life. Some of our Brethren may not agree with this, and
at liberty to disagree and we promise not to start a "rough house."
Hebrew and Egyptian
If there is any one thing I am thankful for it
to have the brethren give us the titles of the books which have helped
the way to Life and Light. In the last issue of The Builder, Brother
mentions two books I do not have as yet, while in regard to the third I
you would lose no time in giving us the bill of particulars, plans or
specifications to demonstrate that General Pike's volume "Morals and
Dogma" needs revision.
As The Builder is a "research"
publication may I ask the various brethren to cite authorities for some
their more important statements? For instance: Some time ago I read an
I think it was by Brother Norwood, in which he stated that the whole of
was comprehended in the stars or the science of astronomy. That
bothered me for
quite a long time for I hardly knew where to look for the information
writing him. Shortly afterward, however, I learned of James Morgan
Testament Restored. [Lib 1914] This
book gave me a great deal of light on the subject.
In the February issue Brother Norwood has
very interesting article in which he refers to the declarations of
Christian Fathers relative to the pre-existence of Christianity before
advent of the Master. Pryse also refers to the incautious admissions
early Christian writers regarding this matter but like Brother Norwood
cite any volume to which we can refer. Fortunately, however, I can
Brother Norwood's statement for the simple reason that within the week
on the shelves of an old bookshop, an old, badly dilapidated copy of
Robert Taylor's volume entitled Taylor's Diegesis. [Lib 1860]
In the same article Brother Norwood states
"Egypt has left the records of a Masonry where may be found all our
and most of our words." Here, too, Brother Norwood should cite his
authority. If I had not found Gerald Massey's two volumes, "A Book of
Beginnings," [Lib*] I'd simply have to take his "ipse dixit" and
let it go until I ran upon the information in some way or other. That,
is a haphazard way of development of the craft and I hope we can secure
information which will enable us to grow systematically.
Thinking it might be of interest to some of the
brethren I will quote some of the information Massey gives us:
"So Mote It
Be" – vol. I, page 178: "The Freemasons make use of a formula
"So MOTE It Be," instead of So Be It, or Amen. This MOTE is purely
Egyptian, a rare form of May it be. "MET" is to fix, establish.
"MET" is an ejaculation. "MET" means to pronounce
conservative formulae. (Pierret "Met") "So Mote It Be," is
the conservative formula of the Masons, as it was in Egypt of the
The same author also gives us a number of
words with their Hebrew equivalents.
|| a corpse, the dead, state of dying, dead.
|| the dead
|| a dart.
|| an archer.
|| goat kind of sheep.
|| the womb.
|| the mother.
|| measuring line.
|| measured out.
|| noose, tie, girdle.
|| first ancestor, father.
|| first ancestor.
|| to build, metaphorically to beget.
|| the coupling point or place of junction;
|| chprth, the mercy seat and place of the two
cherubs; in Egyptian arks the two scarabs, afterwards featherwinged.
|| house of the two beetles; the crab
constellation, as a place of summer solstice, the point of junction;
sign of the god Khepr.
|| a rod, staff, rod that blossomed, branch twig,
sceptre, expansion, extension
|| cry of joy.
|| supposed black marble marble pavement
tessallated in colors.
|| sculpture, carve, engrave tessellated.
|| 2 Kings xvii: 30, supposed image of the
|| the Phoenix constellation, emblematic of the
|| eastward, Eden, image of the eternal and of the
|| shut, a circle, closed seal ring with ankh,
image of life.
|| a horn, symbol of male power.
|| Ka, karu and karunata
|| male symbols.
|| seven – the oath covenant, or binding, is
synonymous with number 7 in the Egyptian sefekh as it is in the Hebrew
|| typical maid or handmaiden, one of a family, as
if a noun of unity, the concubine or whore.
|| a goddess, consort of Taht. Her name is number
7. Sefekh is a survival of Khefekh or Khepsh, of the Seven Stars, who
was once the "Living Word," degraded as the Great Harlot.
|| a symbolical pitcher Ecc. XII :6.
|| the womb.
The last words "kd" and "kat"
are interesting for the reason that the figures of speech in the third
scripture reading have long been a puzzle to me. This is a clue worth
Here is another – relative to the
"grasshopper" in the same reading which will be of interest to the
Mason who is not satisfied with the superficial explanation so often
This item is found in Note 84, page 169 of the
volume "Talks With Socrates About Life," [Lib 1887] published by
Scribners, 1891. I quote:
closely cropped was regarded in Athens as a badge of slavery, while
hair on the other hand was worn only by fops. It was customary for boys
their hair long until they were admitted to the rights of citizenship,
was cut off and dedicated to some deity, generally a river god,
visit was sometimes made to Delphi for the express object of
as an offering to Apollo. Upon reaching manhood, they allowed their
grow again. Thucydides (1, 6) speaks of the golden clasps, in the shape
grasshoppers, wherewith the Athenians, in the old times before the
Wars, were accustomed to fasten their hair in a knot at the top or back
I think we'll make much greater progress if we
refer to and verify the statements made by other research students
having to devote so much of our time to gain the heights they have
scaled. What do you think?
Yours very sincerely and fraternally,
G. Keplinger, Illinois.
* * *
In the January number of "The Builder"
just received I notice the inquiry of Bro. John Whicher of California,
regard to more light on the life of David Vinton, who is reputed to be
author of our hymn, "Solemn Strikes the Funeral Chime." I do not have
access to the previous article referred to in the March, 1915, number,
do not know how much you may know of him. But my mother was a
"Vinton" and I have the Vinton Memorial Volume from which I can give
you the following information which may be of interest to you, to him
The said David
Vinton was the son of another David Vinton who was a descendent of one
VINTON, from whom all the Vintons in America trace their descent. The
VINTON, of Masonic note, was born in Medford, Mass., Jan. 6, 1774, and
in Providence, R. I., one Mary Atwell who seems to have belonged to a
Providence family. Our DAVID, after serving an apprenticeship in Boston
goldsmith business with David Tyler, went to Providence and established
in business. He spent his life in Providence, engaged in traffic; not
moderately successful. He was quite prominent in the Masonic
compiled and published a volume entitled, "The Masonic Minstrel," (do
you know anything about that book?), and according to the book, on a
Kentucky on Masonic business, died about 1830 when 56 years of age. His
was a woman of uncommon powers of mind, and to her energy and force of
character we owe the education and training of the children. As early
Mrs. Vinton wrote a letter to John C. Calhoun, then Secretary of War,
secured the admission of her son David to the Military Academy. Later,
other sons attended the same school. (The rules then were different,
is the only instance of three brothers attending the same school as
After the death of her husband Mrs. Vinton purchased an Estate called
Plaisance," in Pomfret, Conn., where she died in 1854. Two of the
became prominent clergymen of the Episcopal Church. The Rev. Alexander
Vinton, D. D., was for many years. He was a graduate of Brown
other schools, and after practicing medicine for a few years, studied
ministry and was Rector of St. Paul's church, Boston, Mass. Another son
Rev. Francis Vinton who also graduated at Brown; was also for a while
Point, and for a while served in the Creek War. Afterwards he, too,
the ministry and became Rector of several large Episcopal Churches in
Providence, and later of Grace Church, Brooklyn, N. Y. In 1849 he was
Bishop of the Diocese of Indiana, but declined the honor. In 1854 he
only a few votes of election to the Bishopric of New York, at the
elected the since famous Bishop Potter to the place. Dr. Vinton was
later assistant-minister of Trinity Church, New York, having charge of
Paul's Chapel in that parish. Yet two other sons of DAVID were
Military circles: John Rogers Vinton, who fell at Monterey, and was
prominently commended by Gerl. Scott for his bravery. He was Brevet
Major at his
death. Another brother was David Hammond Vinton who was also in the
as Major of Staff and Quartermaster. One of the daughters was married
George Green of the U. S. Army. Truly a remarkable family.
C. L. Nye, Independence, Iowa.
* * *
"Many of the best educated men of this and
earlier ages never had any extended experience with the schools. A
of the most religious men, in the history of the progress of Man, have
for conscience sake, to remain outside the Churches. And we are
learn that one may be a Fraternalist without being a member of a lodge.
In the last analysis it will be found that the
Thought, the Life and the Works of the individual count more than the
professions. Perhaps no Man of modern times illustrates the principle
present more fully than does Abraham Lincoln. He was educated without
or the hindrance of the schools. He was intensely religious without
hampered by the limitations of a creed. He was a Fraternalist, "in his
heart" without having been brought to the Light through the process of
in the lodge.
Lincoln achieved self-control, self-reliance
self-sacrifice – the three great achievements of Man – without any of
"helps" which most of us need, or think we need, for the
accomplishment of The Great Work of fitting ourselves for the building
Temple – that house not made with hands – a perfect Moral Character.
Few, if any, of the Great Masters of Life have
able to evolve within the hampering limits of the institutions of their
In almost every case they have either developed without the help of
institutions or have been ejected from the institutions within which
begun their struggles for individual perfection. They have usually
that the "aids" of institutions were merely crutches to emphasize the
infirmities of those who used them. Strong individuals soon learn that
must “tread the wine press alone."
Before the election of Lincoln to the office of
President of the United States, he found himself opposed by all of the
institutionalists of his day. Almost all of the products of the
"learning" despised him openly. The ministers of the church were
against him almost to a man. In reference to this last he says:
twenty-three ministers of different denominations (in Springfield,
all of them are against me but three. Mr. Bateman, I am not a
knows, I would be one; but I have carefully read the Bible, and I do
understand this book. These men know that I am for Freedom in the
Freedom everywhere as far as the Constitution and; laws will permit;
my opponents are for slavery. They know this; and yet with this book in
hands in the light of which human bondage cannot live a moment, they
to vote against me. I do not understand this."
Later in his experience Lincoln understood. He
learned, what all must learn, that Principle is one thing and the
built up around the principle is another.
So must all of us learn that there is no saving
power in lodges, as institutions, but that we shall grow and expand
only as we
understand the Principle and apply to our Life and Conduct that which
by the society, the association, the fraternity, of our own Free-will
"Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord,
shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of
which is in heaven."
Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, just
ninety-two years after the Masonic Fraternity began to teach character
and just ten years before the Odd Fellows in America began to establish
schools for the teaching of character formation instead of character
reformation. Fifty-five years after Lincoln was born, the Pythians
establish their schools in the United States for the purpose of helping
restore reason by the process of fraternal education to a nation that
captured by policy-controlled men, legal-minded men and money-mad men.
Since February 19, 1864, the fraternal orders
increased in the United States from three to over six hundred and some
fraternal orders have over a million members. Perhaps over 12,000,000
the United States now belong to these various fraternal orders which
to shun war, hell and politics.
Oriental Consistory Official Bulletin of
February 12, 1917, had the above contribution on Fraternity and
word "Fraternalist" is substituted herein for the word
"Mason" so that it will apply to all fraternities that are teaching
* * *
Masonry and Its Ideals
Dear Brother: – "Masonry and Its Ideals"
– that is the subject, too vast and too profound to be more than
an article of this kind. The ideals of Masonry are co-extensive with
aspirations of men. Whatever is good, whatever is true, whatever is
whatever is manly, this appeals to one who has caught the vision of the
Is it not worthwhile to pause and consider,
possible, to discover what is the one thing, or the several things, the
underlying principle, it may be, that has enabled Masonry to survive
thousands of years, not only to survive, but ever to be in the van of
of progress, civilization and enlightenment; that has caused men, real
virile men whose names will be remembered and honored as long as
read or tradition heard to be votaries at her shrine; and that has
to endure more vicious and virulent abuse, calumny and anathemas from
ignorance, superstition and blind hatred than any other institution,
of which the world's annals tell and yet gloriously triumph?
The fact that it is esoteric has no doubt been
conducive to its longevity, though that would not suffice, and
not explain its remarkable influence and power, because other fraternal
innumerable have had their secret signs, emblems and words and
Some have adopted this outward manifestation of Masonry, and others
did not avail to resist the dreadful onslaught of time. The soul of
they did not find; its ideals they did not grasp. Whatever stands the
and test of time is grounded on the immutable principles of right and
The history of Masonry is a history of the
for light and truth. Every step of the candidate from the time he first
admission until he beholds the last solemn scene is strewn with
flowers of truth. It has been sought at times with patient zeal, and
the feverish and fanatical enthusiasm with which the ancient alchemists
the philosopher's stone, the universal solvent and the elixir of life.
what end? To teach men to know God and to love the good, the pure and
Masonry is non-sectarian, but no atheist can become a Mason; it points
Supreme Being, and teaches the immortality of the soul, and he who
the precepts and spirit of Masonry must be a reverent man.
Masonry is, too, a system of morality, the
of which are veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols. Her purpose
develop character, which, like an unseen garment woven about our souls
invisible fingers from materials of imperishable beauty, sparkling with
light of every virtue, guards us from all dangers and permits us to
unabashed and unawed in the presence of the forms clothed with the
robes of holiness, and to light and show the way of the struggling
"Morality is her foundation, Truth and Virtue are her pillars, and
Brotherly Love is the High Priest that ministers at her altars." Her
principle is the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of man.
* * *
My dear Brother: – We have in our Lodge Library
pamphlet, the title page of which reads as follows: "Oration delivered
the City of Detroit, to Zion Lodge No. 1 at their request on the
St. John The Evangelist, December 27th A. L. 5810 by brother Harris
Hickman, published at the request of the Lodge, Pittsburgh, 1811." On
last page of the pamphlet is the following: "The first charter of Zion
Lodge was obtained in the year 1764 from an authority in the (then)
New York, and was renewed in the year 1806 by the Grand Lodge of the
Officers of Zion Lodge for the year 1811:
W. Sylvester Day,
Bro. Jonathan Eastman, S.W.
Bro. Augustus B. Woodward, J.W.
Bro. Philip Lecuyer, Treasurer.
Bro. James Abbott, Secretary.
Bro. Harris H. Hickman, S.D.
Bro. John Anderson, J.D.
Bro. Andrew W. Vanalstine, Steward.
Bro. George Johnston, Steward.
Bro. John Palmer, Tyler
This book came into the possession of our Lodge
1816. In two recent numbers of The Builder there have been statements
the first lodge of Detroit was founded about 1799.
It seems to me that Zion Lodge should get into
communication with the Grand Lodge of New York.
Wm. M. Simons, Secretary,
Hiram Lodge No. 18, Delaware, O.
The Apron Lecture -- [A Poem]
J. W. Crawford, "Capt. Jack."
suggested by Dr. Walter C. Miller, J. W., of Webb's Lodge No. 166,
may bring to you success,
The victory laurel wreath may deck your brow,
And you may feel Love's hallowed caress,
And have withal domestic tenderness,
And fortune's god may smile on you as now,
And jewels fit for Eastern potentate
Hang over your ambitious heart, and Fate
May call thee "Prince of Men," or "King of Hearts,"
While Cupid strives to pierce you with his darts.
Nay, even more than these, with coming light
Your feet may press Fame's loftiest dazzling height,
And looking down upon the world below
You may exclaim, "I can not greater grow!"
But, nevermore, O worthy brother mine,
Can innocence and purity combine
With all that's sweet and tender here below
As in this emblem which I now bestow.
'Tis yours to wear throughout a life of Love,
And when your spirit wings to realms above
'Twill with your cold clay rest beneath the sod,
While breeze-kissed flowers whisper of your God.
O, may its stainless, spotless surface be
An emblem of that perfect purity
Distinguished far above all else on earth
And sacred as the virtue of the hearth,
And when at last your naked soul shall stand
Before the throne in yon great temple grand,
O, may it be your portion there to hear
"Well done," and find a host of brothers near
To join the angel choir in glad refrain
Till Northeast corner echoes come again.
Then while the hosts in silent grandeur stand
The Supreme Builder smiling in command
Shall say to you to whom this emblem's given,
"Welcome art thou to all the joys of heaven.”
And then shall dawn within your 'lightened soul
The purpose divine that held control –
The full fruition of the Builder's plan –
The Fatherhood of God – The Brotherhood of man.
History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages Vol 1
Lea01 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1901. - Vol. 1 :
3 : p. 601. - 31.3 MB.
A History of the Inquisition of
the Middle Ages Vol 2
Lea011 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1901. - Vol. 2 :
3 : p. 598. - 30.7 MB.
A History of the Inquisition of
the Middle Ages Vol 3
Lea012 / auth. Lea Henry C. - New York :
Harper & Brothers, 1901. - Vol. 3 :
3 : p. 743. - 38.3 MB.
A Student in Arms Vol 1
Han17SA1 / auth. Hankey Donald W. -
Toronto : McLelland, Goodchild & Stewart,
1917. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 269. - 5.2
A Student in Arms Vol 2
Han17SA2 / auth. Hankey Donald W. - London :
Andrew Melrose, Ltd., 1917. - Vol. 2 : 2 :
p. 249. - 15.5 MB.
A Textbook of Masonic
Mac721 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York :
Clark, Maynard, Publishers, 1872. - 7th Edition :
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 571. - 28.1 MB.
Der64 / auth. Dermott Laurence. - London :
Robert Black, 1764. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
271. - 10.0 MB - Not Searchable - Illustrated.
All Clear - A book of Verse
Oxe19 / auth. Oxenham John. - New York : The
Business Press, 1919. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
99. - 1.9 MB.
An Ambassador, City Temple
New161 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - New York :
Fleming H. Revell Company, 1916. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 227. - 4.1 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York :
The Masonic History Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 :
1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One with
Ancient Times - A History of
the Early World
Bre16 / auth. Breasted James H. - Boston :
Ginn and Company, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
827. - 47.9 MB.
Mer99 / auth. Meredith George. - Toronto :
George N. Morang, 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
535. - 25.4 MB.
Ver15 / auth. Verhaeren Emile. - Boston :
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1915. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 151. - 4.2 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London :
William Hunter, 1723. - Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard
& Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And38 / auth. Anderson James. - London : J.
Robinson, 1738. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
249. - 16.2 MB.
Collected Poems of Rupert Brooke
Bro20 / auth. Brooke Rupert. - Toronto :
McClelland & Stewart, 1920. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 163. - 3.5 MB.
Tay60 / auth. Taylor Robert. - Boston : J.
P. Mendum, 1860. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
451. - 24.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. -
New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol.
7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
History of the Order of the
Ken17 / auth. Kenaston Jean M. - Cedar
Rapids : The Torch Press, 1917. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 707. - 41.6 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre72 / auth. Preston William. - London :
Eidographic Reproduction Publishing Co. 1887, 1772. - First
Edition Facsimile : Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
295. - 5.2 MB.
Letters and Diary
See171 / auth. Seeger Alan. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 230. - 7.0 MB.
Lincolns Cooper Institute Speech
Ran17 / auth. Rankin Henry B. -
Springfield : The Illinois State Register, 1917. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 19. - 0.5 MB.
Cab16 / auth. Cabot Richard C. - Boston : W.
A. Butterfield, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
111. - 1.8 MB.
Men Women and Guns
Sap16 / auth. Sapper. - Toronto : Hodder and
Stroughton, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
306. - 10.1 MB.
Mr. Britling sees it through
Wel17 / auth. Wells Herbert G.. - New York :
The Macmillan Company, 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 449. - 23.4 MB.
My Home in the Field of Honour
Hua16 / auth. Huard Frances W. - New York :
Grosset & Dunlap, 1916. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 304. - 9.7 MB.
Ordeal by Battle
Oli15 / auth. Oliver Frederick S. - London :
Macmillan and Co, 1915. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
495. - 23.5 MB.
Patience Worth - A Psychic
Yos16 / auth. Yost Casper S. - New York :
Henry Holt and Company, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 302. - 10.2 MB.
Poems by Alan Seeger
See17 / auth. Seeger Alan. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 215. - 6.5 MB.
Poems of the Great War
Cun18 / auth. Cunliffe John W. - New York :
The Macmillan Company, 1918. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 326. - 8.3 MB.
Raymond: Or Life After Death
Lod26 / auth. Lodge Sir Oliver. - London :
Methuen & Co., Ltd., 1926. - 13th Edition :
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 433. - 24.1 MB.
Reflections on the French
Bur101 / auth. Burke Edmund. - London : J M
Dent & Sons, Ltd, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 396. - 36.5 MB.
Report of the Valley Forge
For16 / auth. Fort John H. - Camden :
Sinickson Chew & Sons Company, 1916. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 109. - 5.6 MB.
Talks with Socrates
Pla87 / auth. Plato. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1887. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
208. - 6.0 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar
Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914. - 5th : Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for
reference - 0.6 MB.
The Complete Poems Of Rupert
Bro34 / auth. Brooke Rupert. - London :
Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd., 1934. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 165. - 4.0 MB.
The Freemason's Treasury
Oli63 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Bro.
R. Spencer, 1863. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
393. - 12.4 MB.
The Gentle Art of Making Enemies
Whi04 / auth. Whistler James M. - London :
William Heineman, 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
339. - 5.2 MB.
The Golden Asse
Apu93 / auth. Apuleius Lucius / trans. Adlington
William. - London : David Nutt, 1893. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 254. - 10.9 MB.
The Last Book of Wonder
Dun16 / auth. Dunsany Edward J. - Boston :
John W. Luce & Company, 1916. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 229. - 9.4 MB.
The New Testament Restored
Pry14 / auth. Pryse James M. - New York :
John M. Pryse, 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
832. - 19.8 MB.
The Undiscovered Country
How80 / auth. Howells William D. - Boston :
Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1880. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 427. - 14.3 MB.
The War and Humanity
Bec16 / auth. Beck James H. - New York : G.
P. Putnam's Sons, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
331. - 9.7 MB.
TK and the Great Work in America
Wes18 / auth. West Sylvester A.. - Chicago :
S. A. West, 1918. - 1st Edition : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 467. - 20.9 MB.