Masonic Research Society
Masonic Degrees in England
By Bro. C. C. Adams, Canada
that Masonry has to teach is to be found in the three Symbolic Degrees,
and it is
generally recognized that the Grades and Orders which have grown up
Masonry are not positively essential, but are useful insofar as they
light on the fundamental teachings. Most of these degrees are of modern
and their number is legion. Many have been organized and placed on the
by some enterprising Brother, who has made-them popular for a time, but
were found to have no real value they quickly disappeared into that
which they had come.
There is no need to consider these Masonic
further, but there are a number of degrees outside the pale of the
which have a real utility, have spread over most of the civilized
world, and have
had an uninterrupted existence long enough to prove their real value.
At the present time, there are probably more of
degrees to be found in England than in any other English speaking
country, and their
organization and arrangement is very different to that in America, so
that a short
description of the systems of degrees in England may be of interest.
The York Rite of the United States and Canada,
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, cover almost all the degrees now
in North America, but in England the York Rite is unknown. All the
with the exception of the Degree of Past Master, are worked in England,
come under six different governing bodies, and are not organized into
The Craft is governed by the United Grand Lodge
Free and Accepted Masons of England, which came into existence at the
Union of the
Ancient and Modern Grand Lodges in 1813, and according to the
Constitutions of this
body "pure Ancient Masonry consists of three degrees and no more, viz.:
of the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow Craft and the Master Mason,
Supreme Order of the Holy Royal Arch." Consequently, outside St. John's
the only recognized Degree or Order is that of the Royal Arch.
The Grand Lodge holds communications every
the Officers being appointed annually. The jurisdiction is divided into
and Districts, the former in England and Wales and the latter in other
the Empire. Each Province is ruled by a Provincial Grand Master who is
by the Grand Master. He selects his own Officers in his Provincial
which usually meets annually. The government of a District is carried
out in the
same way by a District Grand Master. The boundaries of the majority of
coincide with those of the English counties; Lodges, however, in the
city of London
are not governed in this way, but are directly under the rule of the
This system of government also obtains in the majority of other degrees.
Under this Constitution, the Apprentice is
as a Mason and as well entitled to have a voice and to vote in the
Lodge as any
other member. For this reason, all routine work and general business is
out in the First Degree. Lodges are opened first in the First Degree
and then in
the Second and Third Degrees successively, if required for ceremonial
The Master, Treasurer and Tyler of each Private
are elected annually by the members. The Master appoints his Wardens
and all the
The ceremonial work is, of course, essentially
as that found in America. An interesting point in English Lodges is
that the American
form of Altar is unknown. The Greater Lights are placed on the pedestal
of the Master.
The Holy Royal Arch is governed by the Supreme
Chapter which works in conjunction with the United Grand Lodge. Each
must be attached to a Craft Lodge and carries the same number on the
First Principal of the Chapter represents Z, the Second, H, and the
Third, J. In
the Ritual, the sequence of events is slightly different to that of
the ceremony of "Passing the Veils" is omitted except in a few Chapters.
The Degree of Grand High Priest is not very
in Great Britain; it is conferred on installed Third Principals in the
the Holy Royal Arch, and is under the jurisdiction of the Grand Council
of the Allied
Degrees, and will be further considered in relation to that body.
The Mark Master's Degree is conferred on Master
under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons. This
be taken either before or after the Royal Arch. The Degree of Royal Ark
is governed by the Grand Master of Mark Master Masons assisted by the
Council, and is conferred only on Mark Masters. It appears to have had
in England about the end of the eighteenth century, and is little known
that country. The time is symbolically that of the Deluge, and certain
Some years ago a proposition was made in the
Grand Lodge of England to recognize the degree of Mark Master. This was
but a great number of opposers to this innovation attended the
Communication, with the result that the minutes of the previous meeting
confirmed. Since then the question has not again been raised.
The Degree of Most Excellent Master is
Councils of Royal and Select Masters, which also give the Degrees of
and Super-Excellent Master. These degrees are conferred on members of
of the Holy Royal Arch who are also Mark Master Masons.
The Order of the Temple in England is governed
Great Priory assisted by Provincial Priories. The bodies conferring the
entitled Preceptories, the ruler of each being a Preceptor. Although
the same as the American work, the English Ritual is not so elaborate
and the clothing
is simpler. The frock coat and hat are unknown in the British Isles,
of the Order on all ceremonial occasions wear the white tunic and
mantle and a crimson
velvet cap. The Orders of the Temple and Malta can be conferred on
Royal Arch Masons
whether they have taken any other degrees or not. The candidate is
a Knight of the Temple and the Mediterranean Pass is conferred as a
degree to the Order of Malta.
The Red Cross Degree is unknown by that name
substantially the same as the Red Cross of Babylon, which is under the
of the Grand Council of the Allied Degrees.
This completes the list of degrees of what is
as the York Rite in America. The next series for consideration is the
Accepted Scottish Rite, or, as it is known in England, the Ancient and
Rite, the title "Scottish" having been dropped by the Supreme Council
some years ago. This system is very different to that under the two
of the United States. Only five of the thirty-three degrees are
namely the 18th, 30th, 31st, 32d and 33d degrees. Chapters of Princes
are chartered by the Supreme Council, and these bodies have power to
degrees from the 4d to the 17d in a short form, and the Degree of
Rose Croix in full. This is the only degree conferred ceremonially by
Chapters. There are no Consistories in this jurisdiction and the higher
are only conferred by the Supreme Council. Applicants for the 30d,
which is the
next conferred in full after the 18d, must have been members of the
Order for three
years at least, and installed as Most Wise Sovereign in the Chair of a
Chapter. The degrees from the 19d to the 29d are conferred in short
form on Candidates
for the 30d. The Supreme Council select all members for the higher
the numbers are limited in the case of the 31d to 99 members, and in
the case of
the 32d to 63 members. The 33d is limited in a similar way and nine
members of that
degree constitute the Supreme Council.
The Degrees of Knight of the Red Cross of
Knight of the Holy Sepulcher and Knight of St. John the Evangelist are
in Conclaves of the Masonic and Military Order. Candidates for
admission must be
Master Masons and in the case of the two latter degrees, Royal Arch
supreme authority for this series is the Grand Imperial Conclave of
There is one other Masonic governing body of
in England, namely, the Grand Council of the Allied Degrees, which has
jurisdiction a very large number of side degrees. As in every country
Craft has made great progress, a large number of honorary and side
appeared in England from time to time. Some of these have been
conferred in Lodges
having no central authority, while others were communicated by one
Mason to another.
To give these degrees a common form of government this Grand Council
It has under its jurisdiction over forty distinct degrees many of which
now worked. Every Council under this obedience has authority to work
of St. Lawrence the Martyr, Grand Tyler of King Solomon, Knights of
the Red Cross of Babylon, Grand High Priest and Secret Monitor. The two
these are, I believe, unknown in America, while the third is slightly
Degree of Grand Tyler of King Solomon is very similar to that of Select
the York Rite. The Red Cross of Babylon is substantially the same as
the Red Cross
Degree conferred as a preliminary to the Order of the Temple in
The Degree of Grand High Priest which is conferred on installed Third
of Royal Arch Chapters probably came from the United States, and the
the two countries are almost identical. The Degree of Secret Monitor is
as a side degree in some parts of America. In addition to being
conferred by Councils
of the Allied Degrees in England, it is worked in more extensive form
under the jurisdiction of the Grand Conclave of the Order of the Secret
which is a body quite distinct from the Grand Council of the Allied
the remaining degrees, under the obedience of the Grand Council, some
by the Royal Kent Tabernacle and Council at Newcastle-on-Tyne, while
are not now actively worked.
In England, there are now five Provincial Grand
of the Royal Order of Scotland. The oldest of these is the Provincial
of London and the Metropolitan Counties and this only confers the Order
on Masons of the 30d.
An article on this subject would not be
mentioning the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia which was put into form
in 1866 by
Robert Wentworth Little. This organization is not Masonic in its nature
Candidates to be Master Masons. Its ceremonies are hermetic in origin,
and its object
is purely literary.
Of the hundreds of Masonic degrees which have
in England at different times, very many have fallen into disuse. There
however, a great number, and it has been no easy problem to make
of the more worthy ones and yet to keep this article within reasonable
over the world it is the same; the Craft is the immovable basis on
which a superstructure
of explanatory degrees is being built. Some of these are useful and
take a firm
hold, but others have no sufficient reason for their existence. They
last for a
time and then fall into the abyss and are forgotten.
By Bro. J.N. Saunders, G.M.,
The old Patriarch of Israel, as evidence of
preference, clothed the son of his old age in a coat of many colors,
but this token
of his love for Joseph did but kindle the envious hatred of his
brethren who tended
You are now to be clothed, not in a coat of
– typical of life's changing fortunes, the bright spots and the dark
of paternal love and fraternal hate; but you are to be clothed with the
lamb-skin, the emblem of innocence, the badge of purity, the Mason's
Let its pure white fold be to you an incentive
of life. Let its strong, but pliant, texture encourage you in strength
character, and stimulate within you a ready willingness to conform your
desires to the good of our order, and the harmonious concurrence of the
The valiant Knight, that forth to battle rode,
in iron armor and bore a deadly lance, from the visor of his helmet he
upon a hostile throng, his sole endeavor to take that which no man can
As an Entered Apprentice you stand not among
foes, but in the midst of brothers, firm, tried and true. The Mason's
armor is the
breast plate of righteousness, his weapon, offensive and defensive, the
truth; his helmet, virtue's crown. From his waist swings not the
sash, but the white leather apron, as pure and soft as a woman's cheek.
be judged by
the way you wear it,
You'll be measured by your life,
You'll be watched as you do battle
In life's ever-changing strife.
Bear you well the-part assigned you,
Keep your heart attune to love,
Let sweet Charity control you,
Lift your prayers to God, above.
Keep this lamb-skin pure and spotless,
Let your life be free from stain,
Let your hand be ever ready
To relieve a brother's pain.
God, our Father, will reward you
As you keep this garment clean,
Your brothers here will emulate
All your manly virtues seen.
Then let this lamb-skin, soft and white,
Entrusted to your keeping,
Be monitor to moral life
In wakeful hour, or sleeping.
In your full Masonic triumph
You will wear it with delight –
We'll wrap it round your lifeless form
When you're buried from our sight.
As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a
This expresses my idea of democracy. Whatever differs from this, to the
the difference, is no democracy.
The appellation “Worshipful” Master is
the minds of many. In fact the time was when the writer questioned very
whether such an appellation should ever be made to any man. It had the
irreverence and therefore sacrilegious and blasphemous. We thought it
meant to say
that the Worshipful Master of a lodge was equal with and deserving of
as his maker – God Almighty; that he was a creature to be worshipped by
But we found out that we were mistaken in the plain, simple meaning of
“Worshipful.” Our little dictionary says the term means “venerable.”
former opinions one would sometimes become sadly disappointed in a
who would always remove his hat in calling the name of the Deity in the
but would “cuss like a sailor” at other times. Most of them are of the
* * *
In completed man begins anew a tendency to God.
told man’s near approach; so in man’s self arise august anticipations,
types of a dim splendor ever on before in that eternal cycle life
By Joseph Fort Newton
darling seat –
All hail thy palaces and towers,
Where once beneath a monarch's feet
Sat Legislation's sovereign powers.
"NO sooner had the editor arrived in Edinburgh
than he was arrested, in due and ancient form. Why it came about, and
and how he made his peace with the powers that be, such questions are
immaterial, if not impertinent – or words to that effect. His friends
do not ask
any explanation; his enemies, if he has any, would not accept any – and
are. Therefore he adopts the wise policy of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn,
decided that "Mum" was the right word in such cases.
Anyway, it was late at night, which is a
circumstance, and the streets were dim, as all city streets are in
Britain in war-time.
Lamps were shaded or turned low, and shadowy figures moved to and fro,
his way as best he could. Above, giant search-lights scanned the sky,
shining swords through the clouds, as if stabbing at airy enemies that
bombs on sleeping cities. Occasionally, there was a rift in the veil of
the moonlight shimmered down over the old city like a fairy mist, soft
as the summer
air, filling the valleys with silvery light. It was an hour of
From whatever side Edinburgh is approached, it
picturesque, combining so happy a blend of hills and castles, of rocky
lofty spires, as to command admiration. It is the most beautiful city
that I ever
saw. Whatever opinions may be held respecting its antiquity, all agree
Castle Rock was fortified before the land fell under the sway of the
derived its name from King Edwin of Northumbria, whose name the Celtic
molded to fit their tongue as Dun-Edin – "the face of a hill." Where
one walks in Princess Street Gardens was once a bed of a lake, known as
To describe the panoramic scene which displays itself from the summit
Seat, or Castle Hills, baffles any words I have so far tamed or trained
Everywhere one sees the name of Sir Walter
life and genius are no small part of the tradition of the city he so
His monument, on Princess Street – designed by a young artist named
Kemp, who died
before he saw his dream realized in stone, as so many mortals do – is
one of the
most graceful memorials on earth. It is a cruciform Gothic spire, two
high, supported by four arches, beneath which is a statue of the gentle
with his favorite dog at his feet. Statuettes of the best known
his works adorn the buttresses of the monument, adding to its beauty
– all the dream of a self-taught genius who graduated from a country
shop to design
a memorial to match the fame of the man who vies with Burns as the
First we went to see the Castle, which took us
that is my dear, dear friend who journeyed with me as companion and
guide – into
the older part of town, with its lofty houses and numerous closes and
dire poverty mixes with historical associations. Up High Street we
the Cathedral, and the old Parliament buildings, to the Esplanade where
were drilling – as, later, we saw them practicing trench warfare and
the use of
the bayonet below the Holyrood Palace. The Esplanade was once a place
execution; and here Lord Forbes, Lady Glammis, and some of the
Reformers, as well
as several persons accused of witchcraft, suffered death. At the Castle
found a guide, portly, rotund, with ponderous oratorical powers – until
asked to reign his eloquence a bit, and not to address us as if we two
were an audience.
He took it in good part, and for that relief we expressed much thanks
in our tips.
All the while we wandered in that grim, gray
with its battery, its armory, its ancient postern, its crown-room and
whose walls could tell tales to break the heart, I seemed to be walking
in the far
past. It was a unique sensation, so little was there to suggest the
save a soldier now and then and the busy arts of war. No, we walked
under the shadow
of history. How remote from our time, how pathetic withal, the tiny
Chapel of St.
Margaret, the oldest building in Edinburgh, a gem of Norman
architecture. The Castle
is a fortress of the past, defending the history and tradition of a
whose vicissitudes have more than once touched the depths of tragedy.
high the least alarms,
Thy rough, rude fortress gleams afar,
Like some bold vet'ran, grey in arms,
And marked with many a seamy scar."
From the Castle it is only a little way down
to St. Giles Cathedral, the first parish in the city, standing on a
to religion since the ninth century. How long that Tower has stood,
"changes and chances," one of the glories of the old Town! What stormy
scenes it has witnessed! It is a Gothic pile, its windows rich in
of sacred scenes; two row-s of pillars separating the nave from the
aisles – the
capitals of those at the east end being beautifully foliated, while the
severely plain. Attached to the pillars in the nave are some of the old
the principal Scottish regiments. Above the arcades are two lines of
windows, the glass of which contains representations of the city arms
of the incorporated craftsmen of Edinburgh. The pulpit, of Caen stone,
with symbols of the six cardinal virtues, and the Font is a replica of
that at Copenhagen
by Thorwalden – an angel, holding a large shell. Noble of form, mellow
rich in associations pious and patriotic, it is a monument to the
mighty faith of
Further down High Street we paused at the home
Knox, and then went on our winding way to Holyrood Palace where we
an hour. Of course, we saw the birth place of Stevenson and-Scott, the
– now a vast hospital – and then back to the Old Waverley for lunch in
time to catch
the train for London, going down the East Coast via the cathedral
towns, chief among
them York, known and beloved by Masons as one of the capital cities of
in the olden time.
By Bro. H.A. Kingsbury,
BUT few, if any, of the various symbols
the Masonic candidate is instructed carry with them a wealth of
and interesting suggestion equal to that borne by that symbol which the
is given, and concerning which he is instructed, in his first degree –
Apron. The briefest study of its origin, its color, its material, and
and of the various positions in which it is worn, cannot fail to give
a better realization of the wonderful completeness and perfection of
The rite of investiture, and the significance
rite, i.e., the appropriate preparation of the candidate for the
ceremonies in which
he is about to engage, come to us from far back in the world's history
come "well recommended." The priests of the Israelites wore a linen
In the Persian Mysteries the candidate was invested with an apron. The
provided their novices with robes. And in the Scandinavian Rites the
In each of these instances the color of the
was, like that of the Masonic apron, white. The significance of that
color has always
been the same – purity. That white is the symbol of purity could be
by almost innumerable examples. Throughout the Scriptures are many
references. The Egyptians decorated the head of their principal deity,
a white tiara. The disciples of Pythagoras, in attendance at his
school, wore garments
of white when chanting the sacred hymns. In the early ages of the
a white garment was placed upon the recently baptized convert to denote
had been cleansed of his former sins. Portal in his "Treatise on
refers to white as "a characteristic sign of purity."
The material of the apron – lambskin – is also
significance. The ritual states that the lamb has been, in all ages, an
innocence. Examples of the truth of this statement are too common to
call for notice
The significance of the shape of the apron can
best seen when this symbol is spread to its greatest extent, as
illustrated in solid
lines in the figure. In this position it leads to the contemplation of
the Square, the Nine Significant Numbers, the Broached Thurnel, and the
of Egypt. That it, by its flap, presents the Triangle, and, by its
the Square, is obvious.
It presents one large figure, composed of two
figures, one having three sides and the other four sides; it is bounded
lines and has six lines in all; the square has four angles and the
three, making seven in all; it may be considered as a full front view
of a solid
(a side and a top face of which are indicated by dotted lines in the
of a cube surmounted by a rectangular pyramid, and this solid, as it
stands on a
support and with its bottom face concealed, presents eight faces and,
from the support to expose all its faces, presents nine faces. Thus
does the apron
call attention to the Nine Significant Numbers, and hence, to the
Again, the solid suggested by the apron is the
The Broached Thurnel is, it is to be regretted, growing unfamiliar to
Masons though it still appears upon the trestle board of the French
It is for the Entered Apprentice to try his Working Tools upon. Among
Masons it has given place to the Perfect Ashlar.
Because of its shape – that of a rectangular
surmounted by a rectangular pyramid – the solid suggested by the apron
mind the obelisks of Egypt. Thus the apron, by indirection, refers to
of the Porch, it being hardly open to question that those pillars found
in the obelisks erected, one at each side of the entrance, before
to symbolize the Northern and the Southern limit of the travel of the
this point the student is led by an almost inappreciable step, to the
of Sun Worship, Circumambulation, the Egyptian Mysteries, the story of
his murder by Typhon, and kindred matters.
The positions in which the apron is worn are
Considering its position as a whole, it is worthy of notice that that
about the waist. Being so placed the apron not only divides the human
two distinct parts – the upper intellectual portion and the baser lower
– but also, and what is of more importance, it conceals the lower
portion. So, symbolically,
it reveals the nobler qualities of Man and conceals the baser, always
doing in theory
that which it ought always to do in practice.
Considering the apron with regard to the varied
of the flap and the body in the first, the second, and the third
degree, it is plan
to be seen that the symbolism in this connection is identical with that
of the Square
and Compasses. That is, there is here symbolically presented the
of the Material represented by the Square, by the Spiritual,
represented by the
This final lesson – that Masonry inculcates the
of the Material by the Spiritual – is the greatest teaching of the
in giving us this crowning symbolism, does not this simple, white
presented to each of us in the period of our first gropings for Masonic
us the summation of all the Teachings of Masonry?
Geometry of God: A Masonic
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton
"According to the measure of man, that is of
angel." Rev. 21:17
FEW realize the service of the science of
the faith of man in the morning of the world. It was almost his first
hint of law
and order in life when he sought to find some kind of key to the mighty
things. Living in the midst of change and seeming chance, he found in
the laws of
numbers a path by which to escape the awful sense of life as a series
in the hands of a capricious Power. Surely it was not unnatural that a
men obtained such glimpses of unity and order in the world should be
them, imparting its form to their faith. Having revealed so much,
numbers came to
wear mystical meanings in a way quite alien to our prosaic habit of
thinking – faith
in our day having betaken itself to other symbols.
One of the first men to follow this hint was
of whom we know so little and would like to know so much. He was a
lofty and noble
figure, albeit half-hidden in myth, and only a few of his words have
to us. He saw in all the multiplicity of experience, to which
Heraclitus had borne
witness, a rhythmic march – a movement, but with disciplined step and
soul of music in it. One of his few sayings that remain sums up his
things are in numbers, the world is a living arithmetic in its
development – a realized
geometry in its repose." Take a snowflake and look at it under a glass,
you will see what filled that ancient thinker with wonder. It is an
of the geometry of God – squares, circles, triangles, pentagons,
more exact and delicate than the deftest hand could trace. Throw a
stone into a
still sheet of water, and immediately there arises an ever-widening
series of concentric
circles. The mountains in their strength stand fast forever, held in
by a parallelogram of forces, and the stars swing round their vast
orbits as noiselessly
as a dewdrop is poised on a flower.
Such is the structure of the universe, and it
wonder that Pythagoras saw in these signs and designs, everywhere
present, the thought-forms
of the Eternal Mind; else they would not be the natural, self-sought
forms of matter.
Nature is a realm of numbers, and the frolic architecture of a
snowflake is a lesson
in geometry. Music moves with measured step, using geometrical figures,
free itself from numbers without dying away into discord. From
Pythagoras this insight
passed to Plato, whose opulent genius gave eloquent exposition to the
Numbers. When asked by a pupil what God does, he replied, "God
continually," and he was often wont to say that Geometry, rightfully
is the knowledge of the Eternal. Over the porch of his Academy at
Athens he inscribed
the words, "Let no one who is ignorant of Geometry enter my doors,"
that his teaching rested upon the science of numbers. What Plato and
saw modern science confirms in myriad ways, as we may read, for
example, in the
researches of Henri Fabre. In the last chapter of his book on "The Life
the Spider," [Lib 1916] he wrote:
is to say, the science of harmony in space, presides over everything.
We find it
in the arrangement of a fir-cone, as in the arrangement of an Epeira's
we find it in the spiral of a snail shell, in the chaplet of a spider's
and in the orbit of a planet; it is everywhere, as perfect in the world
as in the world of immensities. And this universal geometry tells us of
Geometrician, whose divine compass has measured all things."
How interesting it is, revealing the infinite
of the Divine imagination and the measured movements of its labors.
find hints of this science in the Bible, in which certain sacred
indicating words, suggesting thoughts, and revealing truths. Nowhere is
manifest than in the book of the Apocalypse, which, instead of being a
clouded and confused visions, is a work of spiritual mathematics. In
that book there
is the signature of Deity. Four indicates the world of created things.
peace and covenant, while ten is the symbol of completeness. Even
earthly things, odd numbers heavenly things, and the odd and even added
two. With this ancient science in mind, the vision of the City of God,
geometrical design, takes a new meaning, albeit we should add to it the
the prophecy of Zachariah in which the young man is told that the holy
city is not
to be measured in cubits of human reckoning. Some hint of the paradox
of the measurable
and the immeasurable must have been in the mind of the Seer of Patmos,
as if someone
had asked him how our earthly cubits can form a calculus for that which
the gauge of time or space. Hence his parenthesis, to resolve the
to the measure of man, that is, of the angel."
Man is a citizen of two worlds, but he has no
to realize the world of spirit apart from the aid of the world of
sense. If he asks,
wistfully, about the life to come, the only answer is one expressed in
and colors of the life that now is. As often as he tries to ponder,
what is the essential nature of God, he finds himself thinking of the
terms of those moral qualities which he sees, dimly enough, in the
He cannot help himself; there is no other way for him to think. Truth,
mercy, goodness in man must be of the same nature as truth, justice and
in God, however they may differ in degree, else they mean nothing to
us. Long ago
Ovid said that "our measure is in our immortal souls," and our faith
less than our philosophy rest upon the fact that there is an angel in
akin to the Eternal, making our highest thought and vision valid. No
was what Plato meant when he said that by the art of measurement the
soul is saved
– that is, by measuring up to the Angel within us we attain to the
truth; by reading
the reality of life through the highest, we learn its meaning and
value. If so,
we have our marching orders and the path of attainment is made plain
even to the
humblest, and no one need err therein or lose his way.
Just as in nature, from snowflake to star
are found everywhere – circles, cubes, triangles – so, among all races
and in all
ages, certain ideas, ideals, faiths and hopes are held and trusted.
the discovery – one of the greatest ever made – that humanity is
universal. By asking
questions, which was the business of his life, he found that when men,
be artists or artisans, think round a problem and go to the bottom of
it, they disclose
a common nature and a common system of truth. After this manner the
human insight, thought and experience confirms the fundamental truths
like a problem of geometry, and we are justified in taking these basic
the thought-forms of the Eternal Mind reflected in the mind of man.
There is also
a moral geometry which works itself out in the same way, tested by
sorrowful human experience. Every evil way has been so often tried,
that when we
see a lad start along a dark path of evil doing we know what the result
No prophet is needed to predict the final issue; it is a problem in
David Swing said, in his noble sermon on "The Idealist," writing in his
calm and simple manner:
"Some speak of
ideals as if they were mere dreams. On the opposite all high ideals are
portraits seen in advance. It would be much truer to affirm that ideals
most accurate results reached by the most painstaking calculations. It
in their favor that they have come not from the brains of the wicked,
but from the
intellects that were the greatest. The greatest men of each age have
Liberty, because only the greatest minds can paint in advance the
picture of a free
people. Many nations are in the dust and mire today, because they have
great enough to grasp a divine ideal. Instead of being a romance, a
is often the long mathematical calculation of a mind as logical as
is not the musings of a visionary; it is the calm geometry of life."
For the rest, let us consider in a practical
geometry of manhood, its proportions and dimensions. Like the Holy
City, which the
Seer saw descending from heaven, its length and breadth and height must
as Phillips Brooks taught in his great sermon on "The Symmetry of
– which his church asked him to repeat ever so often. The basis of the
of character – that is to say, the length of a man, the extent of his
and power, is a matter of morality. Purity is the first measure of a
a certain simple, sturdy, homely moral quality, he is a man only by the
of his shape, though he have the learning of Bacon, the grace of
the eloquence of Webster. Morals are ever the boundaries of liberty and
dimensions of manhood. Honesty, purity, truthfulness – nothing can take
and without them religion is either a superstition or a sham. A pure
heart may sanctify
a creed, but a creed, however true it may be, must bear moral fruit
before it can
sanctify a life. To give morality any other than the first place is to
order of life and upset all its values. It is the foundation of
character and of
But a man may be moral, and yet mean. He may be
but cruel; righteous, but uncharitable; truthful, and yet narrow,
bigoted and hard.
He may throw a poor family out of his house for lack of rent, and in so
honest – and inhuman! If there is anything worse than the wrongs
wrought by wicked
men, it is the evil done by good men. That which gives beauty, breadth
to life, melting our morality into goodness, is sympathy. And so to
purity we must
add pity. Justice runs lengthwise of life, but mercy is width, and is
of nobility, of refinement, of graciousness of spirit. Lacking it, we
have a Calvin
in the church consenting to the death of Servetus because of a
difference of dogma,
and a Jaubert in fiction pursuing like a sleuth hound the weary,
tangled and sorrowful
steps of Jean Valjean. [Lib 1900, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3; Victor Hugo, Les
Man is akin to the
animal, but God put into his heart an alabaster box of pity out of
which, when once
it is opened, come the amenities of life, its courtesies, its graces,
extensions of sympathy which it is the mission of culture, not less
than of religion,
to promote. And tolerance, too, since heaven is only a village if it is
only those thinkers who come always to the truth. Blessed be this broad
sympathy in which bigotry and cynicism melt away and reveal to us the
man, that is of the angel that is in him.
There is yet another measure of manhood, what
James called "that altogether other dimension of existence," so often
forgotten in our day. Some, to be sure, regard it as a kind of fourth
a thing which you may argue exists, but which we can never realize. Not
so. No Mason,
at least, can think so. It is a natural, normal development of man,
his life lacks symmetry and is a thing unfinished and imperfect. Call
it a mystical
faith, if you will, from it we derive most of our ideal impulses, our
that transcend the merely sensible and understandable world. From
comes that ray of white light which can brighten the pale moonlight
into a glowing
sunlight, give to the light of the sun a sevenfold brightness, and
glorify all common
things – as De Hooge lets the sunlight fall on the rubbish of a back
yard and wakens
in us a thrill of joy and wonder.
Men must seek the heights of being, must be
soul as well as broad, if they are to see life in the large. Altitude
of mind gives
new proportions and perspectives, and shows that many things of which
men are wont
to make much are insignificant, and that other things, like a cup of
offered a Brother, are of eternal moment. It is when we add this third
that we see that men, when measured by the Angel in him, is
immeasurable. Man is
the measure of all things, said an ancient sage; but man himself, in
reaches of his being, cannot be measured. He is like an inlet of the
landward, it is limited; looking seaward, it is linked with the
think God's thoughts after him," said Kepler, as he looked through his
into the sky, which is true of all high human thinking, all noble
living, all upwardleaping
aspiration. Truly, He that made us hath set eternity in our hearts, and
we are until we find our rest in reunion with His will in which is our
Let us strive, then, to unite purity, pity and
in our lives, revealing the length and breadth and height of life.
Also, let us
judge life and our fellows by the Ideal of the Angel, that so, at last,
are tested by the measure of the Angel – that is, by the Angel of Death
– we may
be found to have attained, in some degree, to the measure of the
stature of true
manhood. And by as much as we have failed, by so much let us trust the
God which is without measure and knows no end –
For the love of God
Than the measure of man's mind;
And the heart of the Eternal
Is most wonderfully kind.
Peace and War
Both peace and war are noble or ignoble
their kind and occasion. No man has a profounder sense of the horror
and guilt of
ignoble war than I have. I have personally seen its effects, upon
nations, of unmitigated
evil, on soul and body, with perhaps as much pity, and as much
bitterness of indignation,
as any of those whom you will hear continually declaiming in the cause
But peace may be sought in two ways. That is, you may either win your
buy it – win it, by resistance to evil – buy it, by compromise with
evil. You may
buy your peace with silenced consciences. You may buy it with broken
vows – buy
it, with lying words – buy it, with base connivances – buy it, with the
the slain, and the cry of the captive, and the silence of lost souls –
of the earth, while you sit smiling at your serene hearths, lisping
prayers evening and morning, and muttering continually to yourselves,
peace," when there is no peace; but only captivity and death, for you,
as for those you leave unsaved – and yours darker than theirs.
I cannot utter to you what I would in this
all see too dimly, as yet, what our great world-duties are, to allow
any of us to
try to outline their enlarging shadows. But think over what I have
said, and in
your quiet homes reflect that their peace was not won for you by your
but by theirs who long ago jeoparded their lives for you, their
children; and remember
that neither this inherited peace, nor any other, can be kept, but
through the same
jeopardy. No peace was ever won from Fate by subterfuge or agreement;
no peace is
ever in store for any of us, but that which we shall win by victory
over shame or
sin – victory over the sin that oppresses, as well as over that which
For many a year to come, the sword of every righteous nation must be
save or to subdue; nor will it be by patience of others' suffering, but
by the offering
of your own, that you will ever draw nearer to the time when the great
pass upon the iron of the earth – when men shall beat their swords into
and their spears into pruning hooks; neither shall they learn war any
"For The Good of the
By Bro. E.R. Burkhalter,
(Brother Dr. Burkhalter was born in New York
21st, 1844; was graduated with the degree of A. B., from Princeton
1862; studied in the universities of Berlin and Heidelberg, 1864-5; and
in the Union
Theological Seminary, 1867-70; received the degree of Doctor of
Divinity from Lenox
College, 1884, and from Princeton in 1895; the degree of Doctor of Laws
College, in 1906, of whose Board of Trustees he has for many years been
was pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Cedar Rapids, Iowa from
1914, and since that time has been pastor emeritus. He is a member of
all the bodies
of "York" Rite Masonry, in whose fellowship he is at once an
and a benediction.
Every man finds in Freemasonry what he brings
and no one ever brought to its altar a clearer mind or a purer heart
than this honored
and beloved Pastor. His initiation was a notable event never to be
the following testimony, recorded at our request, is as sincere as it
and is an honor alike to its author and to the Order in whose
fellowship he has
found so much joy in the evening of his life. Ripe of mind, rich in
in faith, his alert and beautiful intellect saw the far-echoing
meanings of Masonic
symbolisms, and his genius for friendship responded devoutly to its
appeal of Brotherly
Such a testimony, we believe, will do much to
prejudice as may still exist against a Fraternity so benign in its
beneficent in its influence, and especially among men of the pulpit who
look upon it with disfavor. Among young men, too, such words should
mean much, coming
from a man of consummate scholarship and exalted character; and to the
it is a tribute as memorable as it is gracious. If these noble words
touch the heart
of the Craft, renewing its faith and rekindling its love, it will be
for ye editor, to whom their author is both a father and a friend,
whose love and
fellowship are among the rarest gifts of the mercy of God.)
The Editor of The Builder has asked me to
its columns an article along the lines of a contribution to a Masonic
Meeting. In good old days of yore it was the custom of the brethren in
gatherings to relate their experience for the comfort and edification
of those present.
As I have enjoyed a recent and to me at least, and also to my friend,
of this periodical, a very interesting and marked Masonic Experience, I
asked by him to tell it. I may say in passing, that whenever he makes
of me any
request, I am eager to fulfill it, for he is to me a friend more dearly
than he would perhaps dare to believe, though I should tell him most
and now especially that he is alas so soon to leave us, and go across
the sea, and
occupy and, as I believe, adorn the pulpit of City Temple, London, the
non-conformist pulpit of the British Empire. But I am glad also to tell
story for the benefit of Masonry, hoping that it may bring gladness and
and fraternal love, into many a heart that may chance to read it.
I was raised to the Master's Degree in Crescent
Cedar Rapids, on the evening of December 14th, 1915. I was at that time
years old, and had been for more than forty-five years a minister of
Church. For more than forty years I had been the minister of the same
in this city of Cedar Rapids, and I had just been released from the
and responsibilities of that charge to become Pastor Emeritus. My
relations to all
the churches of my home city during the forty years of my ministry had
been of unbroken
and increasing joy and brotherly love, the most perfect unity and
that I was prepared by my release from one particular charge to enter
of identification with all the Brethren.
I mention this simply because I believe it
to explain the full dimension of the experience which is now to be
told. I may also,
I trust, be permitted to say that another preparation for my entrance
into the Lodge
was brought about by a yearning for companionship caused by a deep
had recently fallen to my lot: the departure from earthly life of my
my comrade for forty-seven years. I was lonely, and my whole soul was
I entered the Masonic Lodge and found what I was longing for, but in a
beyond what I had imagined.
The abundant and significant use that is
made in Masonry of parable and symbolism especially appealed to me and
me. The Lodge seemed to be full of voices, telling me profoundly the
of life. As often as I returned to its convocations, and I came to be
there, I saw and I heard something new – something that had escaped me
simply sat in my place as chaplain, and I saw new meanings, or deeper
ones, in every
item of the Ritual, so that I marveled greatly.
But my chief experience was gathered at taking
degree. First impressions are apt to be the most striking and most
enduring. I was
most profoundly moved by what was taught me concerning my poverty, my
my absolute need, and the propriety and well-foundedness of my trust in
I believe the great moment came to me when a hand was given me from one
me "my brother." That moment marked an epoch in my life. I had often
that word, "Brother," before. I had often had it applied to me; but
under similar circumstances, and I am sure that many who may read these
understand me perfectly when I say that sometimes in life a word
expressive of a
relationship will come to present for some reason a meaning it was
to have before. The word was there before, the relationship it
expressed was there
before; but as we look back from the new experience it seems to us that
the word nor the relationship had ever before been conceived. At that
overwhelming and overflowing sympathy possessed me. I felt rising
within me, as
it were, an ocean of fraternal love, which, as it rose, washed away one
by one all
lines and marks of subdivision, until they had all gone and for me
away from sight and even from existence. As this ocean of brotherly
love arose within
me, it submerged one by one all the little lagoons made by sand or
all was merged into one everlasting unity. At that solemn moment God
were seen in one, and to them I was asked to pledge my troth. I went
night from the lodge room, and discovered that I had had a new
experience. I was
not surprised to observe that the world now wore a new smile. The world
now assumed a new aspect. It was simply the answer from without to what
put within me.
But it may well be asked, was there anything
new in this? Had I not known all this before? Yes, in a very important
I had learned it all when a child at my mother's knee, where from a
babe I had been
taught the sacred writings. I had professed it from my first Christian
I had preached it thousands of times from the same pulpit, from my
I had seen it illustrated in many beautiful instances in lives around
me. I may,
I trust, be permitted to hope that I had been illustrating it in some
in my own life. But I am only telling the truth when I say, that from
of experience which I am now recording, I realized what the word
meant as I never realized it before. I saw man himself beneath all
beneath all local, racial, national or other, distinctions, separated
from all class
differences and diversities of social condition. I saw man as man, and
man, another child of my Father. Every man seemed to me as only my
other self, as
dear to me as I could ever be.
All this I saw and felt as I had never seen and
it before, and when I make this known, can anyone be surprised that I
feel a solemn
and grateful zeal in telling it as having come to me on the occasion of
my obligation in the first degree of Masonry?
And with this experience there comes to my mind
natural enquiry, May it not be the purpose of the Author and Builder of
to make use of the order of Freemasonry as a great factor in promotion
of His evident
Desire to realize and complete the Brotherhood of man? What more
and efficient method could be devised, to bring about this consummation
to be wished for?
Is not this a question for every Mason solemnly
Is it not every Mason's prerogative and privilege to lay to heart the
he and his brethren throughout the whole world may contribute, "each
to the construction of that temple of Humanity, which, inasmuch as it
is the building
of God, is the surest thing to come of all the buildings that are in
And now as I look about the room in this
meeting, I think I can observe a pardonable smile on the faces of not a
few of my
elder brethren at the enthusiasm of this youthful novice who has just
to them. But perhaps it may be possible that I, their youngest brother,
may be employed
to bring back again to my seniors in Masonry some of that strange
which is so apt to fall back again into the Common day. I have seen
It is a part of that primeval ray which came into being with the first
fiat of Creative
will. He who in the beginning caused the Light to shine out of the
shined into every true Mason's heart. Every true Mason has seen the
glory. He who
knows its precious value, will never willingly allow it to fade; but
it everywhere, and will thus have more of it within himself.
And now before I take my seat, being properly
to order as having consumed all the time becomingly allotted me in an
meeting, let me record with extreme thankfulness the pleasure and
profit I am continually
receiving from the use of the working tools of a Master Mason, in their
and symbolic sense. Every day does each one of these tools come into my
needful and useful employment, but especially do I enjoy the use of
three of them:
first, the Gavel to knock away the protuberances of the rough ashlar,
and fit it
to become a valuable constituent of that living Temple in process of
the Indwelling of Deity; secondly, the twenty-four inch Gauge,
regulating the systematic
use of the sacred time of which life is made; but principally the
one buries in that boundless cement of Love, made of the very substance
of God Himself
and to be applied to every piece of his work, to unite it in one
wholeness with the labors of all his Brothers.
Who can think of such symbols and metaphors,
being conscious that he is being taught a method of living by the Great
Teacher of us all? Who can come in perpetual contact with such an
belongs to a real Masonic Lodge, without feeling prompted to make use
of its obligations
and opportunities to the highest possible advantage to his Brethren and
The present writer is glad to testify that he has never in his life
power of the Beatitude, "Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after
as he has realized it in a Masonic Lodge Room, while he has witnessed,
in, the Solemn Ritual.
The world is crying out at this tragic time for
No word in our language strikes the ear and the heart with such sense
of need and
of desire. And the world is crying out for "Character" in each
man. There is an imperative call for worth, for value, for merit. The
for the real thing, not for any cheap imitation thereof.
I am persuaded that Masonry is marvelously
realize individual character and universal world-wide Brotherhood. I do
for Masonry as against any other Institution. I would decline to enter
discussion concerning it. I have only a zeal, and it is a fervent zeal,
to say what
I have said, in the way of positive and constructive testimony. And I
send it forth
in the confident hope that it will awaken echoes in other human hearts,
known what I now know, and will call up voices which will not cease
again to speak,
until they have brought a conscious blessing to many lives, which love
to feel the
possession and the opportunity of our Common humanity.
Are You A Mason? -- [A Poem]
Harry E. Andrews
Written for and read to Eastgate Lodge of Los
Angeles, August 3, 1916.
pilgrim, you who knocketh at our door
And fain would have a footing on our tesselated floor!
Now stand ye there, bold traveler, and with patience rest a while.
For before your journey's ended you'll go many a weary mile
The Master of the lodge must know and answer your request,
And from the East he'll duly send his message to the West.
So fear not, anxious pilgrim, as you stand waiting there –
For wee meet upon the level and we part upon the square.
And, Tyler, bare thy burnished blade; watch well the outer gate!
Beyond our guarded portal shall no cowan penetrate;
No scoffer and no renegade may hope to look within;
Our sacred rites and mysteries, there's just one way to win.
So, Tyler, stand with ready hand; the lodge well tyled must be;
The candidate must there await the Master's due decree.
But, Tyler, with thy guarding all, be this thy greatest care –
That we meet upon the level and we part upon the square.
Oh, Master we call Worshipful, in the station of the sun
God help thee finish well this day the work thou hast begun!
Lead thou the craftsmen faithfully. Thy compasses fail not.
Instruct us in the ancient arts the kings of old have taught.
But, Master, while the brethren in their lessons thou dost guide,
One master word must e'er be heard above all else beside
This, brethren, the commandment from the Master's sovereign chair –
That we meet upon the level and we part upon the square.
Are you a Mason, brother, are you true to every vow?
Then let's recall them, one by one, and let's renew them now.
To walk in paths of righteousness, erect and unafraid;
No brother wrong, and if we're strong, the weaker one to aid;
Rejoicing in our cable and delighting in its length
And, as God has made us able, exulting in our strength.
Then, brethren, are we Masons? Yes, we are if everywhere
We shall meet upon the level and shall part upon the square.
Are you a Mason, brother, a Mason blue and true
And do you by your brother as you'd have him do by you?
The world is full of Philistines and dealers in deceit;
Rogues, small and great, don't hesitate their brother man to cheat;
Are you a Mason, frater, and never such as these?
Aye, let us both repeat the oath we took upon our knees.
Are you a Mason, brother? Then together let us swear
That we'll meet upon the level and we'll part upon the square!
Ha, ye Hittites and Amalekites, who forever rail and mock
Shall ye triumph over Brotherhood, or shall it stand the shock?
Shall Love and Kindness rule the world or crooked courses lead?
Shall Scorn and ruthless Hate prevail, or Fraternity succeed?
My brethren, oh, my brethren, how shall we win our fight,
And how the sons of Darkness shall we vanquish with the Light?
By this sign we shall conquer – that we only shall be fair
And shall meet upon the level and shall part upon the square.
Are you a Mason? What reply, my brother, can you make?
Sincerely can you answer and no obligation break?
Yes, can you answer joyously and serenely hold your head
No rancor for the living and without remorse for dead?
Away with hollow platitudes! Off, every pretense strip!
And, brethren, let us give again the honest Mason's grip,
"I am, I am a Mason," with all loyalty declare,
As we meet upon the level and we part upon the square!
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
– No. 6
Edited By Bro. Robert I.
Clegg, Caxton Building, Cleveland Ohio
THE BULLETIN COURSE OF MASONIC STUDY
Division I. Ceremonial Masonry.
A. Lodge Foundations and
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
C. First steps.
D. Second steps.
E. Third steps.
Division II. Symbolical Masonry.
B. Working Tools.
Division III. Philosophical Masonry.
D. Religious Aspect.
E. The Quest.
G. The Secret Doctrine.
Division IV. Legislative Masonry.
A. The Grand Lodge.
1. Ancient Constitutions.
2. Codes of
Relationship to Constituent Lodges.
Duties and Prerogatives.
B. The Constituent Lodge.
2. Qualifications of Candidates.
3. Initiation, Passing and Raising.
5. Change of Membership.
Division V. Historical Masonry.
A. The Mysteries – Earliest
B. Study of Rites – Masonry in the Making.
C. Contributions to Lodge Characteristics.
D. National Masonry.
E. Parallel Peculiarities in Lodge Study.
F. Feminine Masonry.
G. Masonic Alphabets.
H. Historical Manuscripts of the Craft.
I. Biographical Masonry.
J. Philological Masonry – Study of Significant Words.
* * *
AN EXTENSION OF THE FIRST TWO SUBDIVISIONS OF
(This detailed subdivision is presented in
Study Clubs and Lodges undertaking to follow the "Bulletin Course" may
see how we have the subject mapped out in advance. As the work
progresses the remainder
of the Outline will be similarly divided into groups of subjects, and,
as in this
instance, some of the references to Mackey's Encyclopedia will be
included in the
Outline itself. In many cases these topics will not be directly
discussed in any
of the articles presented; they are arranged for the convenience of
those who wish
to prepare additional papers.)
A. The Work of a Lodge.
1) The Lodge
– Foundations and Fundamentals.
Halls, and Temples.
b) Lodge Rooms.
Rules and Regulations." (Being only a brief summary of the authority
a Lodge has for being in existence, the conferring of degrees, etc.)
a) Grand Lodge
Constitutions and By-Laws.
b) Lodge By-Laws.
3) The Officers
of a Lodge, and their Duties.
a) The Worshipful
Master and his prerogatives.
b) The Senior
and Junior Wardens.
c) The Secretary
d) The Appointive
e) Past Masters,
and other Past Officers.
of a Lodge.
e) Due Form.
j) Lodge Meetings.
c) Oral Instruction.
d) Modes of
e) Tests and
h) Grand Honors.
B. The Lodge and the Candidate.
for the Mysteries.
of the Petition.
of the Candidate.
of a Candidate.
a) When it
may be had.
b) The Ballot.
c) Black Balls,
(cubes), and white balls.
d) The Lodge
record of the ballot.
8) The Degrees.
Apprentice, Fellow Craft and Master Mason.
ii) The "Webb-Preston
Work" in America.
* * *
(A brief summary of the authority which a Lodge
for being in existence, the conferring of degrees, etc. )
* * *
The Authority of a Lodge
By Bros. G.L. Schoonover
and R.I. Clegg
WE have discussed the Lodge, from both the
and spiritual standpoints, and have traced a few of its roots down into
human past, where fact loses itself in fiction, and only here and there
is a vestige
of evidence left to guide us. We turn now to a more practical phase of
– a discussion of the authority, precedent and custom which go to make
up the present-day
procedure of the Masonic Lodge in its internal workings.
It was Albert Pike who said "It is the Dead
govern. The Living only obey. And if the soul sees, after death, what
this earth, and watches over the welfare of those it loves, then must
happiness consist in seeing the current of its beneficent influences
from age to age, as rivulets widen into rivers, and aiding to shape the
of individuals, families, states, the World; and its bitterest
punishment in seeing
its evil influences causing mischief and misery, and cursing and
long after the frame it dwelt in has become dust, and when both name
are forgotten. We know not who among the Dead control our destinies.
men in the past have done, said, thought, makes the great iron network
that environs and controls us all. We would make or annul a particular
but the thoughts of the dead Judges of England, living when their ashes
cold for centuries, stand between us and that which we would do, and
it. We would settle our estate in a particular way; but the prohibition
of an English
Parliament, its uttered thought when the first or second Edward
reigned, comes echoing
down the long avenues of time, and tells us we shall not exercise the
power of disposition
as we wish. We would gain a particular advantage of another; and the
the old Roman lawyer who died before Justinian annihilates the act, or
intention ineffectual. This act, Moses forbids; that, Alfred. We would
lands; but certain marks on perishable paper tells us that our father
or a remote
ancestor ordered otherwise; and the arm of the dead, emerging from the
peremptory gesture prohibits the alienation…" (1)
Thus it is in Masonry; the fundamentals of
have been determined, the principles laid down. And by these
fundamentals the youngest
Entered Apprentice, equally with the oldest Nestor of the Fraternity,
is and must
be governed. It is therefore needful, at the beginning of any Masonic
we should briefly summarize the laws, rules and regulations which are
for bringing a Lodge into existence, and to which it looks for the
do its work.
We have, in the first instance, the Grand Lodge
(2) of each Grand Jurisdiction in the world. Elsewhere in this Course
of Study we
shall consider the "Old Charges and Constitutions" (3) upon which all
Grand Lodge Constitutions are based. Each Grand Jurisdiction, however,
has its own
fundamental Law, its Constitution, in which its powers and limitations
defined, just as each state or Nation has its organic law in a
in declarations of governmental principles occupying the same relation.
As in most
cases the Grand Lodges, in publishing their Constitutions, (4) include
Charges" therewith, the student will have no difficulty in obtaining
to them. Almost without exception these volumes are supplied to all
Lodges. A single
reading of them, in connection with the points brought out in this
paper, will suffice
for the present.
In some Jurisdictions, Grand Lodge By-Laws have
been adopted, and there are still other cases where the Decisions of
are published separately, and are available. Quite generally, also,
there is a Code
of Law, which goes into details regarding all the functions of both the
and the Constituent Lodges. In some cases the decisions of Grand
Masters are periodically
entered in these Codes as annotations, or comments upon the particular
of the Codified Law to which they refer. The student must of necessity
himself with the particular manner in which his own Jurisdiction deals
problems, and as the work of investigation on his part proceeds, he
will find much
of the underlying reason for this or that law or edict – a process
time and careful study. The series of "Jurisprudence Studies" (5)
in THE BUILDER is directed toward a comparative study of the various
and he who is interested in this sort of study will find a wealth of
The purpose of this paper, however, is to bring
beginner merely a statement of these fundamental laws, to the end that
he may better
understand the functions of his Masonic government, of which he is
himself an integral
Of course each Lodge has its own methods of
dictated by a set of By-Laws adopted for the regulation of its
particular and private
affairs, usually in strict conformity with the basic laws laid down by
Lodge for the sake of uniformity. These By-Laws of the Lodge should be
detail, in order that each Member may know for himself the routine of
conform thereto with an understanding of the common need.
We come now to a mention of a much-discussed
of Masonic fundamentals, known to us as "Landmarks." Definitions of a
Landmark have been widely divergent. (6) Probably no two writers have
Mackey defines Landmarks (7) as "those ancient, and therefore
of the Order, which either gradually grew into operation as rules of
if at once enacted by any competent authority, were enacted at a period
that no account of their origin is to be found in the records of
history. Both the
enactors and the time of the enactment have passed away from the
record, and the
landmarks are therefore 'of higher antiquity than memory or history can
Antiquity is its essential element, and this, coupled with the belief
that no group
of Masons, however eminent, or by whatever authority clothed, could
repeal it, gives
to the term a very definite quality. In spite of this, however, the
are not agreed upon any definite list of the Landmarks of Masonry. (8)
enumerated twenty-five, (9) and his list has the sanction of a number
of Grand Lodges,
(10) yet other authorities consider that many of those enumerated in
his list lack
the fundamental quality which they consider essential, and restrict the
further. The Landmarks, in spite of the haziness surrounding their
authority, play an important part in Masonic government, and will
explain to the
student as no other source of authority will, the origin of and
foundation for many
of our modern Masonic customs.
Landmarks are the characteristics of the Craft,
limits or boundaries that make Masonry significant and different. Every
duly circumscribed by landmarks; directed by duty, warned by law,
guided by precept
toward that haven of his hopes wherein the weary find eternal rest. His
a continual spur to an enlightened integrity he avoids vicious
practices and pursues
right living, a citizen free to support all or any party or pal ties
that aim at
beneficent public service. Instructed in the moral law, bound rigidly
claims to walk uprightly before God and man, the true Mason labors
these objects that unite his brethren and will not willingly nor
among them whatever may savor of strife. While he will urge liberty and
in all things doubtful or essential, yet first and last the Freemason
is for unity
among the brethren in all things.
Customs, however, Masonically speaking, derive
authority from other sources than the Landmarks. We shall find the
roots of many
customs buried deep in symbolism, (11) and older by centuries than any
of the historical
laws or regulations. And on the other hand, comparative study of
symbols and of
rituals, too, so far as any such have descended to us, show that the
system is a growth, having borrowed from the customs of successive
its history. (12)
Initiation into all secret societies, ancient
has commonly been accompanied by ceremonies of impressive type. From
all times and
from all peoples we draw most interesting particulars. Curious as are
of the past they are paralleled by the present. Compare the reception
of the adult
male into the full measure of tribal life, and that of the grown girl
The two have much in common. Ritual marks both. After the ceremonial a
reached of most distinct nature, one not again to be attained. Students
it as having reference to being born again; at the first birth to enter
at the second to be born into full tribal or society activity. The
Out" as it is today known in certain social strata when young women
"debut" into society, is a survival of very old methods. It marks the
step by which transit is suddenly made from girlhood's early youthful
the place of acknowledged maturity among women. In the older countries
she is presented
at court and kisses her sovereign's hand, her dresses are lengthened,
her hair is
put up in a special style, jewelry is more freely worn, an
entertainment of some
sort, a dance for example, is given in her honor, and thus at a bound
the line of separation from schoolroom restraint to whatever social
her especial opportunities may afford.
So it is in all lands that a ceremonial has
as a landmark the passage between ignorance, darkness and immaturity,
and that of
enlightenment of the intellect, illumination and acceptance among the
of the ceremony of Baptism and Confirmation among modern churches.
Rite of Circumcision among the Jews. Read over the several references
to the ancient
mysteries to be found in Mackey's Encyclopedia [Lib 1914] – a list is to be found on
page 4 of Part 3 of the
Correspondence Circle Bulletin.
This also is worth careful study: Among some
of Southeastern Australia, when the boys are assembled for their formal
into manly positions and responsibilities, there is presented to them
an old man
dressed in bark fiber and who lies down in a place representing an open
is then covered with earth and twigs or branches, lightly but freely,
concealing him from the spectators. The person so buried holds in his
hand a small
bush which extends upward and projects through and above the loose mass
lying upon the body. Other similar bushes are stuck into the ground
The candidates are then brought to the edge of the grave and a song is
the singing continues, the bush held by the buried man begins to quiver
is shaken the more vigorously, freeing the man bit by bit. At last he
starts up and springs forth from the grave.
Organization of the first Grand Lodge of which
the particulars, the one Grand Lodge dating back a couple of centuries
year, was a union of operative and speculative lodges, the Grand Master
from the one type of lodge and the Grand Wardens chosen from the other.
of the earlier Grand Masters shows one obvious fact: the brethren soon
to the election of the most prominent persons obtainable. Titled
freely found in the list of Grand Masters of the two Grand Lodges which
the last century became the United Grand Lodge of England. If the
the readiness of the fraternity to prefer men of rank for official
also demonstrates that such men found something worth while within the
Peculiarly illuminating is a study of the
of the Grand Master. (13) Although listed by Mackey as one of the
Landmarks of Masonry,
it is so skilfully and at the same time definitely interwoven with the
as to make any summary of the "laws, rules and regulations" of the
incomplete without giving it special mention. Take for example the
of Masonry. It is accomplished by the formation, in one locality after
of new Lodges. And when a new Lodge is to be formed, it is peculiarly
of the then Grand Master of the particular Jurisdiction in which the
of Masons reside, to inquire into the conditions of the community, the
of the Brethren desiring to form the new Lodge, and the probabilities
of its ultimate
success. Convinced of the favorableness of the surroundings, he issues
(14) to the Brethren, by name, (they having previously signified their
working officers) and empowers them to meet as a Lodge, confer degrees,
all the functions of a Lodge as such. By this, and by no other means,
has the dissemination
of Masonry throughout the greater portion of the world progressed. And
the Lodge has gone to work, and has proven its devotion to the cause of
and laid the foundation for substantial success, is the Grand Lodge
the matter. Having proven itself worthy, the Lodge is then, after a
of its doings, granted a Charter, is so that it becomes entitled to a
name and number,
and a place on the roll of "regular and well governed Lodges" of that
Jurisdiction. It, in turn, becomes amenable to the Grand Lodge
all the inherent powers of a Constituent Lodge to participate in
changing that Constitution
within the limits prescribed by the "Landmarks"), subjects itself to
Codified Law and the Customs of Masonry, and sets up its altar of
devotion to our
Such, in brief, are the salient features of the
of a Lodge to the other Lodges of the world. By these general rules we
the "regularity" of a Lodge, wherever it may be located: its allegiance
to the Grand Master and Grand Lodge which gave it birth, and the
of that Grand Lodge, being the distinguishing characteristics which
members to recognition by other Masons who trace their origin along
to the same source.
- Albert Pike,
Morals and Dogma, P. [Lib 1871]
published with the Code.
- If not found
in your Grand Lodge Code, consult some of the Reprints of the Old
Charges of 1723.
[Lib 1872] Also N. M. R. S.
Reproduction of the Roberts Constitutions of 1722 introduction by J. F.
a discussion of the Old Charges as a whole.
- See above
in the January, 1917, issue of THE BUILDER.
- For list
of Landmarks, see Shepherd Article, Vol. I, pp. 183 and 187, THE
Encyclopedia, P. 421 et seq. [Lib 1914]
List, Vol. I, THE BUILDER, P. 40.
- T.S. Parvin's
List, Vol. I, THE BUILDER, P.38.
- Chetwode Crawley's List, Vol.
II, THE BUILDER, P. 217.
- Encyclopedia, P. 422 et seq.
- See 6 above.
- Correspondence Circle Bulletin
No. 2, accompanying Nov.,
- Prerogatives – L.A. McConnell,
- Mackey's Encyclopedia. [Lib 1914]
* * *
Particular References on
Adherence of the Irish Craft and the "Ancients"
to [Lib*]: – J. L. Carson.
Vol. II, THE BUILDER, P. 7.
With respect to Physical Qualifications – Geo. W. Warvelle.
Vol. II, THE BUILDER, P. 17.
Making a Mason at Sight – Wildey E. Atchison.
Vol. II, THE BUILDER, P. 47.
The, Spirit of the Landmarks – H. R. Evans.
Vol. II, THE BUILDER, P. 207.
Also "The Mother Lodge" (poem) – Kipling.
[Lib 1907 pg 318]
Non-Christian Candidates – Roscoe Pound and
Vol. II, THE BUILDER, P. 302.
Belief in a Supreme Being – Melvin M. Johnson.
Vol. II, THE BUILDER, P. 368.
References to "Laws, Rules and Regulations" found in Mackey's
a. Grand Lodge Constitutions
b. Lodge By-Laws.
c. Codified Law.
Laws of Masonry.
Constitution of a Lodge.
The Master -- [A Poem]
F. S. Thompson, Past Grand
Orator, Grand Lodge of Washington.
I, if I be
lifted up … will draw all men unto me."
– John 12-32.
day was done, the
When he gathered the well-used tools,
And rapidly walked down Nazareth's street,
Toward Kishon's gleaming pools.
"What Apprentice passed," a Pharisee asked.
"What, know you not," spake one
Who had watched the youth as he passed, –
"Why, 'twas Jesus, the Carpenter's Son."
On another day down the street he fared
Past Jerusalem's turrets and towers,
The work was leveled and plumbed and squared,
Brim-full were the shining hours.
"What Craftsman passed," asked a Sadducee
Who stood in a wayside khan.
A beggar replied, "Can you not see?
Why, 'twas Christ, the Son of Man."
Stately and spacious in every part
Soared the Temple toward the sun, –
The columned temple of perfect art,
Of a life that was finished and run.
A Cross stood darkly against the sky,
Like a stain it shadowed the sod.
"What Master passed," asked one standing by,
"Why, 'twas Christ, the Son of God."
More sufferings have been inflicted by good
good motives, than by all the tyrants that have ever lived.
The Four Hirams of Tyre
By Bro. A.S. Macbride, Scotland
It will, no doubt, surprise many Masons, as
non-Masons, to be told that there are four Hirams of Tyre mentioned in
narrative of the building of King Solomon's Temple of Jerusalem.
Recently the Revd.
Br. Morris Rosenbaum, P. P. G. Chaplain, Northumberland; Hollier-Hebrew
University of London; called the attention of the Masonic fraternity to
of Meir Lob Malbim, the famous Rabbi of Kempen, as shown in his
Commentary on the
books of Kings and Chronicles. The learned Rabbi maintains, that these
to two Hirams who were employed at the building of the Temple, and that
in these books are only reconcilable on that supposition. While
proposition and searching for information regarding it, some
became apparent, leading to the conclusion, that there are two Kings of
well as two Artisans of Tyre, mentioned in the sacred narrative; and
by the name of Hiram. Following up these indications and reviewing the
at full length, this article on "The Four Hirams of Tyre" is the result.
Let us then consider the two propositions
viz : First, that in the narration of the building of King Solomon's
Temple at Jerusalem,
as given in the books of Kings and of Chronicles, two kings of Tyre,
are mentioned. Second, that in the narration above referred to, two
Tyre, called Hiram, are also mentioned.
I. The Two Kings Called
The first mention in the Bible of the name of
is in II Samuel V. 2, where we read: "And Hiram of Tyre sent messengers
David, and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons, and they built
David an house."
Referring to the same circumstance, we read in I Chronicles XIV. 1:
king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and timber of cedars, and
masons, and carpenters,
to build him an house." In I Kings V. 1 we are informed: "And Hiram
of Tyre sent his servants unto Solomon; (for he had heard that they had
him king in the room of his father:) for Hiram was ever a lover of
In II Chronicles 11. 3, it is recorded: "And Solomon sent to Hiram the
of Tyre, saying, as thou didst deal with David my father, and didst
send him cedars
to build him an house to dwell therein, even so deal with me." After
had been built, as we learn from I Kings IX. 10: "It came to pass at
of twenty years, when Solomon had built the two houses, the house of
the Lord, and
the King's house, … that then king Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in
of Galilee. And Hiram came out from Tyre to see the cities which
Solomon had given
him; and they pleased him not. And he said: What cities are these which
given me, my brother? And he called them the land of Cabul unto this
(This word "Cabul" expresses contempt. According to Josephus [Lib 2014, 1870], it means, "that
which does not please.")
Let us try to arrange the circumstances here
in chronological order. From II Samuel V. 5, and I Kings II. 11, we
learn that David
reigned thirty-three years in Jerusalem. It was in the early years of
there, that David received from Hiram, cedar trees, masons and
carpenters to build
his house. This was, in all probability, thirty years before the death
and the crowning of Solomon. In the fourth year of Solomon's reign the
of the Temple was begun and Hiram, king of Tyre, sent his servants to
the work. Twenty years afterwards, Solomon gave Hiram, twenty cities in
of Galilee. Such is an outline of the events connected with Hiram king
as related in the Hebrew Scriptures, and if we closely examine them the
will naturally arise: was the Hiram who sent cedar-trees, and masons
to David the Hiram of the twenty cities? If so, then when Solomon gave
him the twenty
cities, he must have reigned in Tyre for fifty-four or more, years; an
length of reign in those days in the east. (This figure is arrived at
from the building of King David's house to the crowning of King
Solomon, 30 years:
from the latter event to the beginning of the building of the Temple, 4
the beginning of the Temple to the giving of the twenty cities, 20
years: In all
Considering the conditions of royal government
in the eastern world in the days of Solomon and David, we are surely
assume that Hiram would be at least twenty years of age when he sent
and masons to build a house for David his friend. If this is right,
Hiram must have
been at least seventy-four years old when he "came out from Tyre to see
cities which Solomon had given him." For an aged eastern monarch to
a journey through a rough and barren country, such as Galilee, seems
not at all
natural. One can hardly suppose, also, that after his long intimacy
with David and
Solomon he would be without a fairly accurate knowledge of the cities
his own kingdom, and that he would have needed to undergo the toil of
such a journey
in order to know what they were like. This journey indicates more the
of an active, young, monarch, than the careful action of one
approaching, if not
actually the octogenarian stage. The phrase, also, in Kings V. I: "for
was ever a lover of David," scarcely accords with the idea of an old
It seems more to indicate a youthful admirer whose father, or near
long been a friend of David.
The only known source of information on this
outside of the Hebrew Scriptures, are the two Hellenistic historians:
Ephesus, and Dius; the latter being largely dependent on the former.
of these historians have been preserved by the Jewish writer Josephus,
these we learn that Hiram I, son of Abi-baal, reigned in Tyre from 970
to 936 B.
C. and that the building of Solomon's Temple dates from the eleventh
year of Hiram.
If this is correct, he could not be the Hiram who sent masons and
build an house to David, according to the sacred narrative, at least
years before the building of the Temple. If Hiram, son of Abi-baal, was
of the name, then who was the Hiram of David's house referred to in II
2? This difficulty is explained by some writers, by suggesting that
a distinctive, or honorary name; and that his proper name was Hiram:
and this, according
to Kitto's Cyclopedia, [Lib
1876; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] "is rendered
probable by the fact that other persons of the name of Hiram occur in
of kings of Tyre." On the whole, taking everything into account, the
and probable conclusion seems unavoidable, viz: that the Hiram of the
David's house and the Hiram of the twenty cities were two distinct
persons. If we
assume that they were one and the same, we are faced with the following
must have built his house shortly before his death, after reigning in
for about thirty years; which does not agree with the sacred narrative.
intrigue with Bathsheba, the mother of Solomon, must also have occurred
in his old
age, which is not quite likely.
various campaigns, detailed in the narrative, after the building of his
also have taken place in his advanced years, viz: the Philistine war at
and the war in the valley of Rephaim; the conquests of Moab, of Zobah,
of Edom and of Ammon; the revolt of Absolom, various insurrections,
war, in which David waxed faint in battle; and the battles of Gob and
Gath, et cetera.
must have been a child when he was crowned king of Israel, and when he
build the Temple; also, when he married Pharaoh's daughter, and gave
judgment in the case of the two women who claimed each to be the mother
of the same
child; and further, when he had established a fame for wisdom and
had spread over many lands; all of which is very improbable.
Reading the Hebrew Scriptures in a common sense
there seems no reasonable doubt that none of these improbabilities
built his house previous to the Bathsheba incident, and the various
to. Wars were protracted and trying in his day, and we can scarcely
mentioned as being carried on by an old monarch of seventy years, nor
in less than
twelve to fifteen years. Add to this the intervals of peace, in which
the Ark was
taken to Zion, and in which preparations were made for the building of
the three years of famine, and other things mentioned in the sacred
we may safely say that, at least, thirty years intervened between the
David's house and his death.
In contrast to this contradictory and
theory, that there is only one Hiram, king of Tyre referred to, in the
of the building of the Temple; the assumption that two kings of Tyre,
are therein mentioned, at once solves our doubts and difficulties, and
narrative plain and natural.
The course of events seems to have been as
David of Israel and Hiram of Tyre were great friends and, probably,
about the same
age. After David captured Jerusalem, his friend in Tyre sent him masons
to build an house for him. War had for years devastated Judea, causing
and manufactures to be neglected. The peaceful occupations of the
builder and the
artist had been abandoned for that of the warrior, and hence David had
those from Tyre; which was then famous all the world over for its arts
Time passed and age began to steal over the hardy shepherd, warrior and
Twenty-six years after the building of his house his friend Hiram dies,
and is succeeded
by his son Hiram; and, seven years afterwards, David himself is
gathered to his
fathers and Solomon, then thirty years of age, ascended the throne. In
year of his reign Solomon began to build the Temple, with the
assistance of Hiram,
king of Tyre, the successor of Hiram the friend of David. In
furtherance of this
view of the subject we find in the letter sent by Hiram to Solomon,
the request for assistance in the building of the Temple, the following
now I have sent a cunning man, endued with understanding of Huram my
Here we have, surely in the light of common sense, a clear indication
that the predecessor
of Hiram on the Tyrian throne was also called Hiram.
Reviewing all the circumstances as related in
narrative, and taking into account the testimony of Menander that the
the Temple was begun in the eleventh year of the reign of Hiram; there
one conclusion open to us, viz: that the Hiram who sent masons and
build a house for David, and the Hiram who, fifty-four years after that
the twenty cities offered to him by king Solomon; were not the same but
kings of Tyre; of the same name, and, probably, father and son.
Nor knowest thou what argument
Thy life to thy neighbor's creed has lent.
Dr. Elisha K. Kane: Artic
By Bro. J.W. Eggleston,
I WISH to bring to the notice of the Masons of
century one who lived his Masonry and, actuated by Masonic impulse, not
things but set a high example under great difficulties.
In the 1850's Dr. Kane was America's hero and
the world's most conspicuous man, [Lib 1856, Vol 1, Vol 2] Kings,
Princes and Potentates not excepted. He was born Feb. 20, 1820, in
and from childhood, brilliant in brain and of dauntless courage, but of
and all but deformed. Old saws, reverenced as they are, sometimes prove
individual cases, even those coming down from the classics. "Sano mens
sano" was one to which Doctor, or better still, Brother Kane, was a
exception. He was so unprepossessing in appearance that once he and a
struck by the contrast presented by a splendidly formed and handsome
and her pitiful looking little husband. The friend said, "What do you
are that woman's thoughts when she contemplates that as her lord and
Kane sadly replied, "to save some lady similar emotions I long ago
never to marry."
To the writer he was the one boyhood's hero. I
over his works and read all the current literature regarding his
and in 1857, in the midst of the great blizzard of that year had the
satisfaction of standing on the bank of the Ohio river, shivering in
the high snow-laden
wind, and seeing the steamer Telegraph, draped in black, bear his
remains up the
river. Great as was his well-earned fame in the '50s, as a scientist,
a Mason after whom many Lodges were named, the awful events of the 60s,
him and he has been almost forgotten. In early manhood he decided to
education at the University of Virginia because that Institution
permitted an elective
course. He afterward studied medicine and was assigned first to the
navy and later
to the army. He pursued his scientific investigations in South America,
China and the Philippines and was the first white man to cross the
Island of Luzon
from Manila to the Pacific Ocean. He traveled in India and became a
one of the chiefs under whose auspices he explored the Himalayan
Mountains. He penetrated
equatorial Africa before Livingstone or Stanley were known to fame.
piteous appeals to the world, to try to find and rescue Sir John
with his expedition, lost in the Arctic, aroused him greatly. He
Sir John, like himself being a Mason, and his ties being few, it was
his duty to
try to find him. In the first expedition he went as a subordinate in
and scientific capacity. Returning he devoted all he possessed, and all
earn by lecturing, to helping to finance the second Grinnel expedition,
to relieve his distressed brother Mason. This should be called the Kane
which he commanded. It would have been so called but for his own
modesty. We all
know, of course, that his Masonic object entirely failed, but it was
fault of his great heart. He discovered and mapped Grinnel Land,
described the open polar sea, and went nearer the pole than had any
and that record stood for many years. While he did not reach the pole
how, only, it might be done, and the great marvel now is, how he did so
his meager equipment, with which few navigators would today attempt to
Greenland's western coast.
The above condensed sketch gives a very slight
of his marvelous exploits. From early life, in addition to a slight
frame, he suffered
greatly with organic heart disease. He stated that medical men of high
warned him that he must never undergo great physical exertion or great
or he would risk sudden death. And yet in his latest years he said that
he had never
for a moment heeded the advice and had never been free from pain save
great excitement or great physical strain. His works, on the two
classics and read like novels. Having done, perhaps, as much for
science as any
predecessor had done even in a long life, he died in Havana at 37. So
his fame that he was honored by monarchs and scientific societies all
over the world.
His funeral was the greatest America has yet known. His remains were
Havana to New Orleans where they laid in state and the Grand Lodge,
City and State
governments, paid all possible honor to his memory. Thence up to
like ceremonies were held. At Louisville the civic and Masonic
both Kentucky and Indiana joined in doing him honor as was true at
Baltimore, and Philadelphia where his body was finally laid to rest. It
is in print
that every station on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was draped in
many of them were thronged with sorrowing people as his funeral train
as he was, he was a simple Master Mason, actuated all his life by
and devoted to its principles. Who can measure or imagine his sorrow at
able to find and relieve his brother Mason who perished miserably of
cold or starvation
in the Arctic? He did his very best and his example of heroic devotion,
of our exemplar of old, should stimulate all to do what lies near their
do, be it little or much.
Secret Societies of Islam
By Bro. H. Bedford-Jones,
The secret societies of the Islamic world –
longer includes the Turks, these having recently been expelled en masse
ranks of Muslim, or "enlightened" – is a topic on which no white man,
I believe, can speak with any authority. Their relation to Freemasonry
is also hypothetical.
There are, however, certain facts which we do know.
Africa is the great home of these societies,
of which is the Senussiyeh, or Beni S'nouss. These sons of S'nouss have
monastic and missionary, tremendously powerful in its secrecy, scope,
Many travelers have heard of their Grand Master and other officials,
and have confused
this society with Freemasonry.
Here, as it happens, I can speak with some
A member of the Senussiyeh once told me of their "lodges" and
these have nothing to do with Freemasonry, being devoted to the
propagation of the
pure religion of Muhammad, and nothing else. Let this dispose of the
and the random theories regarding it.
Lesser societies are many. They may be centered
the teachings of some Muslim saint; they may be a gild, such as the
of the Aissaouas; or, like the Anjuman Hidayat al-Islam, they may be
An English army officer told me the following,
I believe true. On his first trip across the Sahara – and he has made
many – a native
friend gave him a strip of sheep-skin on which was written a "word" in
Arabic. He could never get this "word" translated, but it carried him
safely through many difficult places. He believed this to be an
evidence of native
Here is an excellent sample of how anything may
to suit one's fancy. What this "word" was, I do not know, but it was
a password of the Senussiyeh. That it had any connection with
Freemasonry, is improbable
rather than otherwise.
Thus far, it would appear that I am unduly
condemnation of such theories. But why should we stretch the meaning of
serve our own ends? When we find the Cross a tribal emblem of the
we find the Cross upon the weapons of the ultra-fanatical Touaregs –
these things? The Berbers are the descendants of the ancient African
and have held to that sign; indeed, we should not forget that Islam
and his teachings. The Touaregs found the Cross a powerful talisman of
and Norman crusaders, and borrowed it to lend their weapons power. That
Is there, then, nothing of Freemasonry in the
world, and particularly in northern Africa? Beyond all question – there
a great deal of it!
Astronomy, which doubtless entered more into
than into modern Masonic practice, was the base of much of Muhammad's
This is probably coincidence. The society of Assassins sprang from a
to embrace all religions, creeds and peoples, and which was ruthlessly
by the Arabs. The Assassins carried on sufficient of its teachings to
That Freemasonry should exist in some form
Muslims of North Africa is not at all astonishing. It attained great
growth in France
under Napoleon, and was carried to Egypt by the French. The Barbary
took great numbers of prisoners from all Christian countries, and these
frequently became renegades. There we have the genesis from which
sprang a good
deal of debased and irregular Masonic knowledge among the Arabs.
Further, the Arabs
were keen students, and the Moors of Spain delved in all the mysteries
This is enough of generalities. I need only add
the educated Muslim finds Freemasonry in astonishing accord with the
Muhammad, and there is absolutely no reason why a good Muslim should
not be a good
Blue Lodge Mason.
Legitimate lodges have been established in
and these we need not consider. That there is a primitive Freemasonry
in the Hejaz,
in the sacred Meccan territories where no Europeans have openly
entered, and that
this exists both among the Turks and Arabs, has very recently been
A. S. B. Wavell [Lib 1913], who went
through all this country in Muslim disguise, shortly before the Great
Unfortunately, he was not a Mason himself. He
however, that the existent hatred between Arabs and Turks barred them
other's lodges, and that the Arab lodges possibly had political aims.
This has developed,
I believe, in the new Kingdom of Arabia.
In the Dutch island of Ceram, in the South
find a society called the Kakehan. It is a secret society of males
around three chiefs whom they must obey blindly. Their object is the
of old usages against foreign influence, and mutual aid and succor
among the members.
All affairs of religion and society are discussed by the society in
the three chiefs presiding. These meetings are held in the communal
house of the
society, which no woman may enter.
Is this, then, Masonic? There we find the same
to say "yes." It is very possible that cast-aways from wrecked ships
this society; it may have been founded by the English three centuries
the Dutch wars in that part of the world. Yet we have no definite basis
an opinion. The outward resemblance only is known.
So it is with the secret societies of Islam,
come back to the opening statement – that no white man can speak with
upon this. By collecting a story here, an experience there, we may form
on the subject; but to get actual cold facts on this topic is a task
which for long
is destined to remain next to impossible.
The Chapter: What It Stands
By Bro. Asahel W. Gage,
(Delivered At The Installation Of Evanston
Officers For 1917)
BROTHER Robert Burns in an epistle to a friend
"Perhaps it may
turn out a sang,
Perhaps turn out a sermon."
To be real frank, I am a little worried as to
my talk will be looked upon by you. The Chapter means so much to me
that I feel
deeply the responsibility of trying to show what it stands for. I will,
do my best.
It must be remembered that what I say is only
conviction. I speak with no official tongue. I am confident, however,
I fall short or err, – there you will exercise that great Masonic
Does the Chapter stand for higher wages, larger
more prosperous business, for a better and greater service to our
fellows? In other
words, for a more complete knowledge and fuller practice of Masonry?
Let us see:
"Masonry is a progressive, moral science."
Anything which is progressive, cannot be fixed,
change, and this change must be for the better, it must grow.
Morality cannot be confined to questions of
sex. A thing
is moral or immoral as it agrees with or violates the experience of the
to what is good for an efficient human society. The term moral differs
"religious" and similar terms, in that it refers to truths gathered
the experiences of life.
A science is a system or regular arrangement of
elements of knowledge relating to some subject.
Masonry then is a growing system of the
the experiences of life.
The value of this study cannot be overestimated
as we understand these experiences and- learn their causes, we are able
the forces that bring them about. If we have this control, we can
regulate the experiences
of life. With this control our lives are a succession of events of our
That is, we are able by Masonic knowledge to control the circumstances
Let us look for a moment at some of these
a community where there is much poverty and want, ignorance and
Vice and crime we see are the necessary results. Thus we learn the
worth of wealth
and prosperity, and rejoice in, and work for their possession by others
as by ourselves.
Where there is abundant employment and much
hard work, we always find a clean, strong moral people.
Think about these things, brethren, and you
wonder at the great emphasis that Masonry places upon work. You will
that Masonry has selected the working tools of the laborer for jewels
You will understand why Masonry makes a Master Workman, the companion
associate of a King.
I might dwell upon and develop the meanings of
symbolism, if I did not realize that by doing it for yourself, you will
get a result
both more profitable and more satisfactory, – to yourself.
I am reminded of an incident related in "The
the Journal of the National Masonic Research Society, for this December.
King James I, of England, desiring to play a
the Spanish Ambassador, a man of great learning, but with a crotchet in
for symbolism, informed the Ambassador that there was a distinguished
of the science of sign language in the University of Aberdeen. The
out for Aberdeen, preceded by a letter from the King, and in compliance
letter, one Geordy, a butcher, blind of one eye, but a fellow of much
wit and drollery,
was gowned and wigged as a professor and placed in a chair of the
was instructed to play the part of a professor with the warning not to
speak a word.
The Ambassador was shown into his presence and they were left alone.
the Ambassador came out, greatly pleased with the experiment claiming
that his theory
was demonstrated. He said: "When I entered the room I raised one finger
signify there is one God. He replied by raising two fingers to signify
Being ruled over two worlds, the material and the spiritual. Then I
fingers, to say there are three persons in the Godhead. Then he closed
evidently to say these three are one." The butcher was then sent for
what took place in the room. He was very angry and said, "When the
entered the room, where I was, he raised one finger as much as to say I
one eye, and I raised two fingers to signify that I could see out of my
as well as he could out of both of his. Then he raised three fingers as
to say there were but three eyes between us. I doubled up my fist, and
if he had
not gone out of the room in a hurry, I would have knocked him down."
Whether that incident ever happened or not, it
in that it illustrates how you can get from the occurrences of this
life just what
you are looking for, either God and his attributes or an abuse of
yourself and trouble.
But let us get back to Masonry, for the Chapter
solely for a fuller understanding and practice of Masonry.
In addition to its teaching of the
and necessity of labor, both mental and physical, Masonry has another
distinguishing it from other societies:
This second characteristic is illustrated by a
legend which I again quote from "The Builder":
Enoch, fearful that
the Name of God would be lost in the impending world deluge, caused it
to be inscribed
upon a triangular plate of gold and placed in a secret vault for safe
flood, however, completely obliterated this vault with mud and silt so
that it could
not be located.
There is also another legend that Hiram, a
in order that the Master's word might not be lost, wore it engraved on
plate of gold suspended around his neck. Upon his death ardent search
was made and
great anxiety felt lest the word should be forever lost.
The word itself every Mason knows to be of
but every Mason also feels the power of the knowledge of which that
word is but
Labor, the loss and the search are peculiar
precepts, which can best be understood by a careful study of the Blue
by the aid of the peculiar light of the Chapter.
As to the significance of a mere name or word,
quote from one of our patrons, St. John the Evangelist: "In the
the word, and the word was with God, and THE WORD WAS GOD." My
great mystery of Masonry is the lost word and in the Lodge it is not
found; we are
there required to be content with a substitute. The Lodge stands for an
honest search which may never be successful. The Chapter stands for a
continuation of this search which must lead to success.
Perhaps I can illustrate and make you see what
by the old symbolism of the Name of God:
Among the ancients
to call by name signified to know the quality. By the name was
understood the essence
of a thing. Names were given having a peculiarity similar to and
How a name referred to qualities or
is illustrated by the instances of changing the name when the character
For instance, in the great light, we learn how Abram was changed to
of particular interest to Masons as well as the descendants of the
of the Children of Israel, is the change of Jacob's name to Israel.
"Supplanter" and you will remember how he supplanted his brother Esau,
but when Jacob abandoned his mean characteristics and wrestled with the
God and conquered, his name was changed to Israel, meaning "Soldier of
The Name of God is but a symbol of the acts, or
of God which are in the world around us. Remember, to know the name is
to know the
To the Orthodox Jew, the Name of God included
It governed the world by its power. Other names and surnames ranged
about it like
officers and soldiers about their sovereign. The Christian will realize
of this Name when he reflects upon the benefit to humanity accomplished
by the Galilean
"in the Name of the Father." He healed the sick, multiplied food and
charity, in the Name of the Father.
The Name of God is symbolized by a word.
not interested in ancient superstitions or idle speculations in
reference to this
Name or word, but grasps every thought that may assist and help us to
broad knowledge and understanding of that which is symbolized by THIS
The Chapter stands for the key to Masonic
and Understanding. It would unlock the symbolism of the Blue Lodge. It
the Craftsman, how by honestly working for his fellow men, he himself
the little task, conscientiously and apparently unobservedly done is
not in vain.
How the moral quality apparently destroyed with its possessor, is not
the kindness done or service rendered apparently unnoticed or forgotten
preserved. How the hard labor, performed apparently without fee or
inevitably be fully compensated. The Chapter stands for an ample wage
for an honest
service. It stands for a knowledge of the Master Mason's Word that will
to travel in foreign countries, work and receive Master's wages.
A Toast to Laughter
Here's to laughter, the sunshine of the soul,
of the heart, the leaven of youth, the privilege of purity, the echo of
the treasure of the humble, the wealth of the poor, the head of the cup
it dispels dejection, banishes blues, and mangles melancholy, for it is
of woe, the destroyer of depression, the enemy of grief; it is what
kings envy of
the peasants, plutocrats envy the poor, the guilty envy the innocent;
it's the sheen
on the silver of smiles, the ripple on the water's delight, the glint
of the gold
of gladness; without it humor would be dumb, wit would wither, dimples
and smiles would shrivel, for it is the glow of a clean conscience, the
a pure soul, the birth-cry of mirth, the swan-song of sadness.
Masonic World Unity
WHAT can Masonry do to help to hold the world
in these stupendous days, when one after another so many ties are being
What design has Masonry on its Tracing-Board for the reconstruction of
after this human earthquake has passed by, leaving its heap of
blackened ruins –
and the unnumbered graves where sleep the fathers of dream-children
never to be
born! Such questions must be much in the minds of thoughtful Masons, as
out upon the wide stretching desolation and consider the future of the
Masons must sometimes take the Sword, as they did in behalf of the
liberty of America
and the unity of Italy, it is always as a dire necessity, and in
defense of the
fundamental rights of man. Their best-loved weapon is the Trowel, by
repair the ravages of war, building on the ruins of hate, and cementing
stones into one common mass.
What can Masonry do now in respect of the
that will surely come at last when the thunder of great guns is hushed?
is clear: if Masonry is to have any real and far-reaching influence in
the wider and closer unity of the world in the future, it must itself
Alas! how far we are from it, divided almost as sadly as the Church,
of one land refusing to recognize their Brethren of another on the
ground that they
have disregarded some technicality of law or procedure – quite as
bigoted in the
sectarianism as the theologians! Surely it is not an edifying spectacle
Masons accuse their Brethren abroad – in France, for instance – of
from the ancient Landmarks of Masonry, when we have not yet defined
what a Landmark
is! Instead, we take some Tradition, Custom or Usage, of comparatively
and erect it as a barrier with which to exclude our Brethren –
that a Landmark is one thing and a high board fence is another.
Nay, more; we actually take some detail of
of whose antiquity no one dare make claim, and use it in the same way.
What a queer
outcome of the gracious and free spirit of Masonry whose genius it is,
be, to unite men and make them friends and fellow-workers! What a
the universality of Masonry, when we are all the while devising ways
and means –
often petty ways and unMasonic means – of limiting the fellowship of a
whose ties of friendship and service should encircle the earth like a
belt of warm
and life-giving air! For years our Brethren in Europe have appealed to
us to extend
them the hand of brotherly love and co-operation, as in these memorable
words from Switzerland, setting forth the truly Masonic aims and
the International Bureau of Masonic Relations: –
"We do not ask
our American Brethren to relinquish their opinions or their Landmarks;
we wish them to do is to recognize us as good Freemasons, faithful to
laid down by the Grand Lodge of London in the year 1717. We desire them
into fraternal relations with us, to inquire, in a benevolent spirit,
into our History,
our leading Principles, our Activity, and our Deeds, and to convince
that we have the same right to be acknowledged as good and true
Freemasons, as they
claim for themselves."
How can American Masons forever resist such an
so open and fair, so fraternal and true-hearted, asking for tolerance
as to minor matters in the interest of unity and fellowship in the
of Masonry? How could we better celebrate the bicentennial of the
founding of the
mother Grand Lodge, in June, 1917, than by a united effort to make an
end of Masonic
sectarianism, and bring to the service of humanity in one of the
darkest days of
its history a united Masonry! Henceforth we must rise above race, rank,
and technicality and think in world-terms, drawing a vaster design on
the while we renew our vows to the profound, far-shining, universal
the greatest order of men on earth.
* * *
As all study, all discussion, must begin with
of what it is we are studying, we suggest the following survey of the
of Masonry to be pondered and kept in mind by those who take up the
study of it.
Not only will it make for a clearer understanding of just what it is
that we are
to study, but also how the study of Masonry is related, vitally and
the still more important matter of living the Masonic life. "All truth
life," is a maxim of the wisest thinkers of our time; it must be put to
uses of everyday, not as a mere theory or a collection of facts, which
may be as
dry as a basket of chips. Now, consider:
I. What is Masonry? It is first a
Spirit and then an Institution
which seeks to embody that Spirit, to promote its spread and practice
and to make it prevail in the individual, in the fraternity, and in
(1) The Spirit
of Masonry, like all the high and beautiful things of life, eludes
words. Of course
it is akin to the finer, diviner spirit of humanity in all its forms
and yet it is unique. Perhaps we can get at it by asking ourselves such
as these: How does Masonic fellowship differ from other fellowships
which we enjoy
in the home, in the church, in the club, in business? What is there
about it unique?
What do we get from Masonry that we do not get elsewhere? Why are we
drawn to it,
held by it? How much would we miss if we should let go of it? In some
such way as
this a man may make vivid to himself what he finds it hard to define in
and it will heighten his appreciation of the Order to do it.
as an Institution may be quite clearly defined. Among many definitions
– and it
is worth while to collect and compare as many as we can get, none is
or more complete than that given in the old German Handbook, quoted by
in "The Builders." It not only defines Masonry, but describes it in its
uniqueness, and the definite and beautiful form which it gives to the
of humanity for the higher life. Therein it succeeds where so many
fail. Here lies one of the chief values of the lectures of Brother
Pound on "The
Philosophy of Masonry," in that they show the place of Masonry among
of the race and the movements making for the noblest life its relation
to morals and law, to religion, to metaphysics, and to the thought and
life of our
II. Why is Masonry? Why should such
a unique institution
ever have come into existence? What necessity in human life, what
instinct in human
nature, gave it birth? What are the real foundations of Masonry in the
man? Why did the Men's House stand alongside the home, the temple, and
in primitive society? A great social and intellectual fellowship,
rooted in spiritual
faith and moral principle, found almost everywhere upon earth – surely
fact of its existence is a challenge to thought. What purpose does it
other fellowships do not fulfill? What can it do for a man which other
do not do? Rising above party, above sect, above race, uniting men of
temperament and training, what is the meaning of such a fellowship?
What is it worth
to the world in behalf of private nobility and public welfare?
III. What does Masonry teach, and
how? As in the olden time
every Lodge was a school of the seven sciences and the art of
architecture, so today
every Lodge is a school of morals and faith and the art of brotherhood.
Masonry to teach men today, and by what method does it teach?
teaches the Fatherhood of God, the Brotherhood of Man, the Moral Law,
Rule, and the reality of the Life Eternal; truths from which spring the
the sanctities, the obligations and the aspirations of human life. Do
need to be taught in our day? What are they worth to man in his
thinking and living?
(2) How does
Masonry teach? Has it a peculiar method of teaching? What is that
method? Is it
sound and valid? What are its principles?
(a) It teaches
secretly. Why? What is the psychology of it? What advantage does it
offer? Has it
any disadvantages? If so, what are they? Is the truth which Masonry
or only its method of teaching?
(b) It teaches
symbolically. Why? What is a symbol? What is its purpose? What can be
symbols that cannot be taught otherwise? What demand does such teaching
the student? Do other teachers than Masonry use symbols? Does Nature
teach by symbols?
What kind of symbols does Masonry employ? Why? What is there unique
about the symbolism
teaches by allegories and dramas. What is an allegory? Give examples
or life. Why does Masonry make use of the drama? What is the worth of
instinct? What is its service in the portrayal of truth? Is Masonry
wise in making
use of it?
teaches by fellowship. What does a man learn from fellowship with his
he cannot learn from books, symbols, or dramas? Fellowship is at once a
of the reality of truth and an opportunity for the practice of it.
Truly did Robert
"For I, as man with men am
And not a stone with stone; no gain
That I experience must remain Unshared."
Such are some of the thoughts and questions
to mind as one takes up the study of Masonry, and they may well claim
both theoretically and practically. They err who imagine that the study
is of interest only to antiquarians and seekers after curious lore, as
if our symbolism
were simply an old curiosity shop. Not so. It is the keeper of good and
beautiful truth, and he, who learns to make use of it in his life will
be a wiser,
freer, happier, more fruitful man.
* * *
The Eternal Will
Often during the last two years and a half we
the profound "Meditation on the Divine Will," by Abraham Lincoln, and
because it has been a help amid the vast tragedy of world-war in which
we live we
beg to suggest it to others. Nothing is more awe-inspiring than a great
over a great problem; and here we see a great and simple mind brooding
over the mystery of the tragedy in which he stood. Without envy,
without hate, without
selfishness, he sought to know the will of the Eternal, and he was wise
see that the Divine will rules even when he could not find out its
ways. He was
more anxious to be on the side of that Eternal Will than to have it on
and so he set down these grave and austere words:
"The will of God
prevails. In great contests each party claims to act in accordance with
of God. Both may be, and one must be, wrong. God cannot be for and
against the same
thing at the same time. In the present Civil War it is quite possible
purpose is something different from the purpose of either party; and
yet human instrumentalities,
working just as they do, are the best adaptation to effect His purpose.
I am almost
ready to say that this is probably true; that God wills this contest,
that it shall not end yet. By His great power on the minds of the now
He could either have saved or destroyed the Union without a human
contest. Yet the
contest began. And having begun, He could give the final victory to
any day. Yet the contest proceeds."
* * *
Many, many thanks to the many Brethren who have
ye editor such gracious letters about his invitation to the City
Temple, too many
to be answered personally. For the benefit of the large number who wish
him in his work in that historic pulpit, he suggests that they may do
the pages of the Christian Commonwealth, which is the brightest and
of non-sectarian religious thought published in the world. The sermons
of the editor
preached in the City Temple [Lib 1916] will appear in it each week,
as they have appeared
for the last year or more. It is published at 133 Salisbury Square,
London, E.C. England, and its subscription price is $2.15 per year. So
much in answer
to many requests.
In the London Freemason, Jan. 20th, Brother
whose articles our Members have enjoyed, began a series of articles on
Burns as a Freemason," which promise to be the completest account so
of the Masonic life of the first poet laureate of the Order. They have
as a serial for some time in the Masonic Standard, of New York, and are
and enlarged – and the author invites suggestions and corrections from
We sincerely hope that these articles will finally be gathered into a
as they deserve to be, which would surely have a wide reading among
Masons in all
lands. We congratulate Brother Wright upon this fine piece of work,
which is of
real and permanent value to the literature of the Craft.
"Adjute Domine" -- [A Poem]
E.P. King, Georgia
my eyes are
dim – my tired hands
Drop my dulled tools; while yet before me stands
The rugged Ashlar – Rough as though my pain,
My grievous labor, had been all in vain.
Despite my toil, my struggles and my tears,
No Perfect Cube in the dull stone appears.
But do thou, Father, only grant to me
The steadfast courage of Gethsemane;
Then though I faint, and weary of the strife
To smooth this Rugged Ashlar of my life.
Some day, perchance, upon some higher sphere,
The Perfect Cube! wrought by me, may appear.
JOHN Witherspoon, signer of the Declaration of
was born in Scotland, where he was educated, where he received his
(D.D. and LL. D.) and where he was ordained a Minister in the
He came to America in 1768, and soon became
of the University at Princeton, N. J.
He was a forceful and eloquent speaker and took
interest in the cares and troubles of the colonists, who elected him to
Congress, where he served with distinction. His writings, however, were
on political affairs, but almost wholly on religious subjects.
The bronze statue of Witherspoon stands on a
lot of ground, at the juncture of Connecticut Avenue, Eighteenth Street
and N Street,
in the Capital City, near the Church of the Covenant, and was paid for
(mostly by Presbyterians) and presented to the National Capital.
It was modeled by William Couper, and is much
as a work of art.
It is worthy of remark that there are but three
of Signers of the Declaration in the Capital City, and all of them paid
for by subscription.
One would think that the Nation would be careful to honor these men in
to all others.
Though a Freemason there are no records of his
nor prominence in the Order. His record is in Vol. IV of the Library of
Geo. W. Baird,
P.G.M., Dist, Columbia,
LOVE is the root of everything that is eternal,
it into practice; be unwearying workers in the construction of the
Temple, and dedicate
the building to the happiness of the future races. As a Freemason thou
art a citizen
of the universe."
"Freemasonry raises men above everything that
been invented by human reason and passion or the necessities of civil
rank and social position, the accidents of vocation and birth, the
churches and political interests, and assembles mortals in the Lodges,
as men united by fraternal feeling to all men of each zone."
"Let us abjure all political activity; let us
every attempt to win over for one party our society and our Lodges. No
either in the domain of religion! Our business concerns humanity, and
the art of being a man! Masonry, which is to teach us this art, exists
"Masons must display their activity in behalf
the general well-being. Is not this, moreover, the mission of every
It is eternal. Its form only is changeable. Formerly, endeavors were
to combat distress. Help was given to the hungry, to the sick, to the
Gradually, however, the notion of rational and permanent help was
Such is the spirit, and such are the eloquent
of "Swiss Freemasonry," of which we may read in a historical sketch of
its organization, principles, activity and constitution, by Dr. Bernard
[Lib*], of Neuchatel; and seldom have we seen a little book more aglow
with the heroic and beautiful spirit of the Order. Moreover, it is
and hardly a page but has a phrase that flashes like a gem of purest
ray in the
sunlight. We doubt if anywhere on earth Masonry has attained to a finer
at once idealistic and cosmopolitan, than in the little land of
we on this side ought to be more familiar with its story and its labors.
Masonry was introduced into Switzerland as
1736, by a few Englishmen who founded at Geneva, the old home of
Calvin, the Society
of Freemasons of Perfect Consent; and the history of its development
of the country in the richness of its dramatic episodes. Nor could it
The principles of Masonry, codified by Anderson, were in glaring
contrast with the
temper and bearing of the oligarchical rule of the old Confederation of
Cantons. Law was an arsenal built against innovation, and liberty, its
even the secret mysteries of toilet! And the Freemasons – what business
in such a land!
Naturally, the Genevan Lodge was soon attacked
Councils and the clergy who, knowing nothing about Masonry, were sure
it was a peril
and a plague. In these despites, in 1768 nine Lodges formed a National
and the Order flourished to the alarm of the rulers at Berne. Through
of interdiction and revival, attack and defense, the Fraternity fought
its way until
rumblings of revolution were heard in France. Those were hard times – a
as our historian says, of formation, reconstruction, and incoherence.
up quickly and faded like flowers. Sometimes only one member would be
left as sole
owner of the furniture. Such constancy in the midst of confusion, such
in the face of persecution continued until Hottinger became Grand
Master in 1844.
At last the Grand Lodge Alpina of Switzerland
born, and appropriately christened; and what was needed in efforts,
perseverance, sequence of thought, generosity, and greatness of soul to
victorious, is recorded in its annals. In 1879, by a revision of its
the Alpina entered upon a new era of quietness and activity – for
Masonry in Switzerland
is as practical as it is idealistic, not only in ministries to "those
of whom the most necessitous are the nearest," but in educational
looking to the overthrow of poverty. The Constitution of the Alpina
widest liberty on the part of the local Lodges as to constitutions,
their own administration generally, each Lodge being a little democracy
Cantons in the Swiss state.
Of the details of its organization and
may read in the little book under review, in which he will find not
only facts of
great interest, but some of the finest and most nobly expressed Masonic
which it has ever been our joy to read. Not often does one find the
and aspiration of Masonry set forth in nobler words than these, by
"A prolific science,
a work of art of an elevated character, an invention which increases
power of peoples, an intelligence which learns how to make wise use of
power, to keep it within normal limits, self-sacrifice, devotion to
duty, the abolition
of poverty, such is the work which constitutes the practical side of
which exists for all, which is not, nor can be attacked by anyone, for
abroad on all sides light, warmth, and concord. It is the only ground
believers and doubters can meet, who otherwise would always remain
* * *
How to Read
Reader, do you really know how to read? Excuse
Of course you know the alphabet, and can put salt on the tail of an
idea as it hides
in the crooked lines on the printed page. But is that all there is in
to read? Not much. If you think so, read that delightful and sparkling
"How to Read," [Lib 1916] by Kerfoot,
one of the editors of Life – that journal which shoots folly on the
fly, and mixes
wit and wisdom in a confection of joy. "Reading is a form of living";
it is comradeship, fellowship, in which an author bids us sit down by
his side and
join with him in telling a story, singing a song, or untwisting a knot
Charles Lamb loved "books about books," and
so do we, certain owl-eyed professors to the contrary notwithstanding –
chatty, companionable books that talk about other books and how they
But Kerfoot has written a book on how to read books, the best, the
most enchanting book of its kind that we have ever seen – and that is
saying a good
deal. Why do folks read, anyway? For two reasons, he tells us: first,
to lose themselves;
and second, to find themselves. How could it be better stated, if one
a thousand years! When we are weary, care-ridden, all the strings of
the mind sagging,
we take upon a kindly book – and lo! we are lifted into another world,
forget our care in a new and sweet anxiety as to whether the hero will
win the heroine
or the mystery of the plot will be untangled. What an emancipation! God
for these dear enchanters who can woo us from fret and fume and the
litter of our
labor! They never intrude. Unlike some of our friends, they will shut
up when we
wish them to. They respond to our mood, as an organ to the touch of a
meditates in melodies.
By the same token, when we are restless, aware
life is more than it seems, but unable to get hold of it with larger,
when we want something and hardly know what it is; when some great
truth seems hovering
over us trying to make itself real – we take up a book, and find
ourselves! It may
be Dickens – the greatest American ever born in England – or Emerson,
or some others of the later seers and singers and tellers of tales, but
ourselves, our nobler, truer, blither selves. Well, such is the thesis
of this book
by Kerfoot, but this bare statement of it gives no inkling of the
hearty, wholesome way in which he works it out, beginning by
Dictionary" and ending by serving "The Cosmos A La Carte," with due
attention to "Intellectual Digestion."
Dry? Dull? Land sakes! one has to go at high
keep up with him, and on every third page there is a new stunt equal to
circus. He can take the English language and make it crack like a whip,
our old elephantine ideas stand on their heads, or eat peanuts out of
Buy a copy and give it to some old dry-as-dust – a theologian, for
example – and
hear him laugh till his ribs rattle. Withal, it is wise as well as
and real, as instructive as it is entertaining.
* * *
The Hungry Stones
For example, if one wishes to go on a long
into a land very far away, among a people who think from an angle
unlike our own,
let him take up "The Hungry Stones and Other Stories," [Lib 1916] by Rabindranath Tagore.
He will find himself sitting on a mat on the floor beside a man clad in
a long silken
robe, his beard falling in waves upon his breast, his thin artist hands
and his great dark eyes full of benign light – like a sage of old India
out of the world of ancient dream. In a low, sweet voice he tells us
the life and love and legend of his land, and one knows not which is
best, but it
would surely be hard to find one to surpass the story of "My Lord, the
unless it is the one entitled "The Victory." The Victory is a story of
two poets, one majestic, thunderous, learned, sweeping all before him,
applause, the other quiet, deep, with a song so sweet that it stilled
of men so that they forgot to applaud. They make contest before the
king, and of
course, when judged by the applause, the gentle singer is defeated and
despair. But not so when judged by the beatings of human hearts and the
profounder judgment – which, alas, he did not hear or know till it was
Such is the rude way of the world estimating things by noise and
numbers, and forgetting
to honor the deeper voices till they are hushed and cannot hear. It is
a story to
make one sit and think a long time after the book is laid aside, as to
the most fruitful influences in life, and his meditation will end in a
of the value of the quiet, deep influences which, like sunlight, work
* * *
- The Hungry
Stones, [Lib 1916]
Tagore. Macmillan Co., New York. $1.50
- The Psychology
of Religion, [Lib 1916] by Coe.
University Chicago Press. $1.50
- Swiss Freemasonry,
[Lib*] by Bernard Perrelet. Berne, Switzerland.
Lodge No. 1, [Lib*] by J. M. White.
Code of Ohio, 1914 [Lib*]
- Mind Versus
Millions, [Lib*] by R.E. Hughes, St. Louis. $2.00.
- The Gift
of Immortality, [Lib 1916] by Slattery.
Houghton Mifflin Co. $1.25
- The Ultimate
Belief, [Lib 1916]
E. P. Dutton Co., $1.00
Real action is in silent moments. The epochs of
life are not in the visible facts of our choice of a calling, our
acquisition of an office, and the like; but in the silent thought by
as we walk; in a thought which revises our entire manner of life, and
hast thou done, but it were better thus."
The Question Box
The Mother Lodge
Three Brethren have asked recently for a kind
to the famous Kipling poem, "The Mother Lodge," confessing that some of
its allusions are occult to them. For answer we give the following
in the Theosophic Messenger, by C. Jinarajadasa, with which may be
explanation in the "Handbook of Kipling's Poetry," [Lib 1914] by Durand, which
explains, not always clearly, the Masonic references in his poems. Both
and the poem are subjoined, as they belong of right together:
To appreciate fully Kipling's stories of India
have an intimate knowledge of India and Indian peoples. Every phrase
pointed remark about Indian life that is occult to all except those
that have the
key. Very typical of this is his poem, "The Mother-Lodge," that
a certain Masonic lodge in India. No doubt many a Mason has read it,
but its significance
is more than seems at first sight.
The narrator is an ordinary English soldier of
classes, vulgar, dropping his h's and g's, but good-hearted at bottom
and with a
certain dim ideal dawning upon his consciousness. In his Mother-Lodge,
first several English, himself as Junior Deacon, and then two employees
of the Government
Railway, another from the army commissariat, a jail inspector, and
Blake, who was the Master. All these were Christians and, though then
of the Established Church of England.
There were, however, other nationalities and
represented. Old Framjee Eduljee, who dealt in goods imported from
Europe in his
"Europe-shop," is a Parsee by race and a Zoroastrian by religion; Bola
Nath, accountant, is an orthodox Hindu, belonging to the writer
sub-caste of the
third great caste. Then there was the Hebrew, Saul, from Aden, and Din
follower of the Prophet of Islam. Babu Chuckerbutty (a Bengalee form of
Chakravarti) is of course a Brahmin and a Hindu of the Hindus; but Amir
Hindu, follows the Sikh faith, one of the many semi-orthodox off-shoots
and Castro, an Eurasian "half-caste," is a Roman Catholic.
After labor they could not eat or drink, "lest
a brother's caste were broke!" but they could smoke, and smoke they
– cheroots made in Trichinopoly in South India, with the cigar lighter
passing from one to another. And while the butler (khansamah) snored
the "bottlekhana" floor (pantry), the talk would veer to religion,
man comparin' of the God 'e knew the best." Comparative Religion was no
studied in a lame fashion, but still they found it was "ighly curious."
and when they went home to bed it was with "Mo'ammed, God, an' Shiva
pickets in our 'ead."
In the outer world salutation was according to
obligations and conventions – "Sergeant! Sir! Salute! Salaam!" but once
inside the lodge it was "brother!" And proud-of-race, uncultured Tommy
Atkins realized that there was a view of the world wherein there was
nor black, Jew nor Gentile but only brothers.
* * *
The Mother Lodge -- [A Poem]
was Rundle, Station
An' Beazeley of the Rail
An' 'Ackman, Commissariat,
An' Donkin' o' the Jail;
An' Blake, Conductor Sergeant,
Our Master twice was 'e,
With 'im that kept the Europe-shop
Old Framjee Eduljee.
Outside – "Sergeant! Sir! Salute! Salaam!"
Inside – "Brother," an' it doesn't do no 'arm.
We met upon the Level an' we parted on the Square,
An' I was Junior Deacon in my Mother-Lodge out there.
We'd Bola Nath, accountant,
An' Saul, the Aden Jew,
An' Din Mohammed, draughtsman
Of the Survey Office, too;
There was Babu Chuckerbutty,
An' Amir Singh, the Sikh,
An' Castro from the fittin'-sheds,
The Roman Catholic!
We 'adn't good regalia,
An' our Lodge was old an' bare,
But we knew the Ancient Landmarks,
An' we kep' 'em to a hair;
An' lookin' on it backwards
It often strikes me thus
There ain't such things as infidels,
Excep', per'aps, it's us.
For monthly, after Labor,
We'd all sit down and smoke
(We dursn't give no banquits
Lest a Brother's caste were broke),
An' man on man got talkin'
Religion an' the rest,
An' every man comparin'
Of the God 'e knew the best.
So man on man got talking
An' not a Brother stirred
Till mornin' waked the parrots
An' that dam' brain-fever-bird;
We'd say t'was 'ighly curious
An' we'd all ride 'ome to bed,
With Mo'ammed, God an' Shiva
Changin' pickets in our 'ead.
Full oft on Guv'ment service
This rovin' foot 'ath pressed
An' bore fraternal greetin's
To the Lodges east an' west
Accordin' as commanded
From Kohat to Singapore,
But I wish that I might see them
In my Mother-Lodge once more!
I wish that I might see them
My Brethren, black an' brown,
With the trichies smellin' pleasant
An' the hog-darn passin' down;
An' the old khansamah snoring
On the bottle-khana floor,
Like a Master in good standing
With my Mother-Lodge once more!
* * *
Several Members have asked about the fraternity
which has made quite an ado in Philadelphia and other eastern cities,
as to whether
it is another imitation of Masonry. Unfortunately, we do not belong to
and know only what others have read of the organization; from which we
it resembles Masonry only in that it has three degrees. From what we
can make out
it is a purely Christian order – the Lodge idea taken over by the
churches, or rather
Men's Club, of churches turned into a Lodge – and while it may have
by the Masonic Lodge, it is in nowise related to it. An article on "The
Fellowship," [Lib*] by its founder, Rev. Dr. H.C. Stone, in a recent
of the Homiletic Review states the spirit and purpose of the order as
Fellowship is an organization formed for the purpose of presenting to
men an opportunity
for their moral uplift, based upon the idea of church unity among the
churches; an opportunity for men to get back to primitive times and
present to the
world at large the Church of God, inclusive of all who profess Jesus
believe in the religion which He came to earth to establish – a
religion which too
often in the past has been obscured by man-made traditions and
cluttered by man-made
ambitions for personal advancement."
From which it will be seen that it is simply an
Christian secret fellowship, meant to bring men of various sects
together for the
cultivation of the religious life and the organized doing of good. It
name from its founder, but this has a further allusion – to the text in
Master said to Peter, "Upon this rock I will build my church," etc.
16:18.) Perhaps some of our Members belong to the Stonemen Fellowship,
give us further information – such as it is proper for them to reveal.
* * *
The Spirit of Masonry
Dear Brother: – Being a young Mason, and one
ones are much opposed to Masonry, there are a great many things they
spring on me
that I do not understand, and I do not know how to govern myself
you please explain the enclosed declaration made by a Masonic Lodge in
taken from a Masonic journal. The Builder is a wonderful help and
me, as I am unable to get to Lodge but seldom.
Sincerely and fraternally,
The declaration referred to is as follows, to
is added a comment from an editorial in a Masonic journal:
landmark of Free Masonry, every sign and symbol known by us and between
us as brethren
indicates that we cannot as a body recognize Jesus, Buddha, Mahomet, or
any of the denominational churches of either. All prayers or speeches
or appeal to any deity or prophet save to God alone, are out of place
in a Masonic
This is followed by an editorial comment in the
paper as follows: "Sometimes a minister, in offering prayer in a
inadvertently uses the name of Jesus, but in all cases in our opinion
it is the
force of habit, and never done intentionally."
(It is easy to understand how a young Brother,
the ways of Masonry, would be puzzled by a declaration of this kind,
the more so
when it was urged upon him by members of his family who are unfriendly
to the Order.
And yet if he will think a little, he will see that the declaration is
sound, and that Masonry could not long exist upon any other basis. If
it were to
recognize Jesus as the only teacher and become distinctly Christian, it
excluding men of Hebrew or Hindu faith, and thus become a sect,
dividing men instead
of uniting them – one more sect in a world of sects, some of which are
to be called insects. If it acknowledged Moses or Buddha as the one
it would be none the less a sect, losing all its glory, a meeting place
of all sects and men of no sect. As it is, Masonry honors all great
the truth which each has to tell – as our Brother will learn when he
into the degrees of the Scottish Rite – the while it brings men
together upon those
truths which underlie all religions and all sects, in that spirit of
which no theology is of any worth to anybody.
And the same is true in the matter of prayer,
the editorial refers. The old familiar words, "For Jesus sake," at the
end of a prayer may mean much or little, according to the spirit and
which they are used. They may mean nothing more than a "Yours truly" at
the end of a letter, a mere matter of form – nothing more. But a letter
is a letter
even when those words are not used; and so is a prayer. Men prayed long
was born, and there are few who would say that their prayers were not
rewarding. Moreover, in the brief, grand prayer which Jesus himself
taught us to
pray, "after this manner," His name is not used, any more than in His
own prayer of which we have record. Our Brother will learn, as he
more deeply, what is meant by the word "name." In Masonry, as in the
the name of a person stands for the person himself, in a way not
realized by people
of our western world. Masons are ever seeking a lost, ineffable Name –
it mean? It means that they are seeking God Himself – not a mere word,
knowledge of the Eternal and fellowship with Him which is the goal and
life. Therefore, those who truly pray "in the name of Jesus" are not
those who use His name, and think no prayer valid without it – no, but
pray in His spirit, as He would pray, asking for the things He would
ask for, and
with His great and simple faith.
A Christian may be a true Mason, bring all his
and hope into our ancient fellowship; but he is not a true Christian –
a sensible man – if he has not a sincere respect for the faiths of
other men, and
rejoices to join with them in the common prayer at our universal altar.
of the mission of Masonry is grander, or more needed, than its
upon the things that belong to all and which may be shared by all,
spirit in which petty sectarianism cannot grow, and teaching men the
make for character and conduct. We hope that by his dignity of life,
and goodwill, as well as by his graciousness of spirit, our Brother
will show his
loved ones that they are mistaken about Masonry, and bring them to a
of its spirit and its principles. – The Editor.)
* * *
A Lady Freemason
Dear Brother: – I send herewith an extract from
written by Dr. J. M. Buckley, in regard to the first (and supposedly
Mason, as it may interest some of our Members. I have heard of a
similar case in
the United States, and would like to know if you or any of our Members
me information about it.
– W. A.
Buffalo Gap, South Dakota.
The following is an extract from a letter
Rev. James M. Buckley, Editor of the Christian Advocate, published in
January 5, 1911. Writing from Cork, Ireland, Dr. Buckley says:
"The handsomest building in Cork is the
of Saint Finbar (Church of Ireland). The first church on this site was
than 1,200 years ago, but this cathedral was begun in 1862 and
completed in 1879.
The custodian was very intelligent and from him
much information. He showed us the spot where lies the only woman who,
was ever regularly initiated into the order of Free Masons. A meeting
of the order
had taken place at her husband's residence, and she overheard all that
So the only thing the Masons could do was to initiate her and make her
appalling oath of secrecy which such orders are supposed to require of
From the stone I copied the following
Pious Memory of
of Newmarket, County Cork
Arthur, First Viscount Doneraile.
Her remains lie close
to this spot.
Born 1695, Died 1775
Initiated into Freemasonry in
Lodge No. 44 at
In this County
* * *
Lincoln and Masonry
By the kindness of Brother C. H. Ketridge, of
Ill., we have a copy of a letter written to J. H. Benton, under date of
1878, by Robert T. Lincoln, published some time ago in the Chicago
Daily News, as
"I never heard
that my father was a Mason until after his death. A great many
Masonic bodies, especially in France, were then received and caused me
to make some
inquiry, but I do not remember that anyone could tell me anything on
It is possible that when a young man he may have joined a lodge in
this state, but I feel very sure that within the time of my memory (I
was born in
1843) he had no active relations with any lodge."
Having been a student of the life of Lincoln
and unable to find any trace of his membership in the Masonic
fraternity, we wished,
however, to make sure before answering the inquiry suggested above. So
we sent the
letter of Robert Lincoln to Mr. Henry B. Rankin, of Springfield, Ill.,
of "Personal Recollections of Lincoln" we edited last year, and
the following reply:
ago I made a diligent inquiry about whether Lincoln belonged to the
I found no record in Petersburg or this city that he was ever a member,
of the older citizens who knew or believed that he was a Mason. There
a Lodge at New Salem. There was, and is, a Lodge at Petersburg, Ill.,
of which my
father was a member in 1840, and remained such until his death. My
brother and his
oldest son are now members of the same Lodge."
We think it quite certain that Lincoln was
never a member
of the fraternity – though, by his spirit, he was a great uninitiated
Mason – and
he is known to have expressed a wish to join the order after he became
Prejudice against the order was intense during his early manhood, and,
remembering how membership in the order was used against Henry Clay,
he deemed it wise not to become a Mason. So at least the matter must
stand – unless
some unknown record should leap to light.
* * *
Dear Brother: – I note in the December issue of
Builder that Detroit, Michigan, then a part of Lower Canada, claims the
of a Masonic Lodge as early as 1799. I do not think there is any doubt
as I have in my possession a Freemason's Monitor, dated 1815, by Thomas
– published by John D. Cushing, Salem, Mass., 1821 – in which I note
No. 10, Detroit, then Lower Canada, accounted for, under the
jurisdiction of the
Grand Lodge of Lower Canada, with Most Worshipful, His Royal Highness,
– S. E.
Dear Sir and Brother: I had a Masonic
summer which I believe will interest you and the readers of "The
I was traveling from Spokane to Denver, and the evening before arriving
at the latter
place I ate something at dinner which gave me ptomaine poisoning. I
all night and when we reached Denver next morning I was in a helpless
and among strangers. I therefore inquired of the Station Master if he
knew of a
Knights Templar in the building and he took me to the office of the
of the Union Pacific Railway who at once put me in charge of the Head
his road who took me in his machine to the Mercy Hospital where I was
treatment, and in a few days the worst was over.
Now comes the part of my experience that will
most interesting to Masons. I found that I was in a Catholic Hospital
by the Sisters of Mercy, and the room I was in was one that had been
furnished by South Denver Lodge No. 93, A. F. & A. M., for the
use of its members
and stray crippled brethren like myself. On the corridor side of the
door of this
room was a brass plate with the square and compasses thereon, and as I
this familiar emblem of our noble Order it was as a "Shock of
to me, for it was the last thing I expected to see in a Catholic
I glorified in the broad-minded spirit and action of my Masonic
brethren in Denver
and it gave me a new view of the beauty and glory of the Spirit of
never in all my 46 years of Masonic experience have I seen anything of
I understand, however, that every Masonic Lodge in Denver maintains a
room in the
I was so impressed with this experience of mine
since my return I have related it to the brethren here in Evanston, and
has been started for the purpose of the maintenance of a room in one of
hospitals. The idea is universally favored and I have no doubt but it
will be consummated
in the near future. We all agree that it is the right thing to do, and
way can be found to do it. Every member of the Order, I believe, wants
to do something
for "Brotherly Relief" and in this collective way he is given the
to do what he cannot do individually. Our Masonic Lodges should be
than mere Social Clubs and Degree factories. The Spirit of Masonry is
not only Fraternal
but Helpful. The one is negative, the other is positive and means
than the collective selfishness which characterizes the average Masonic
Another word in closing. I cannot say too much
kindly, generous treatment accorded me by the brethren in Denver. I
of it but a lump comes in my throat. They went to the extreme of
friendship in even
cashing my check. They put me in special charge of the train officials
care was given till I got to my room in Evanston.
One incident on the train greatly impressed me.
colored porter, in an aside, said to me, "We've got our orders to take
of you," and in saying this he showed me a Knights Templar charm,
"There's four of us on this train and we don't need no orders to take
of you." There are some things the human heart knows no exceptions, and
a smile is the same in all languages, so is a kind word and deed, no
matter of what
color, race or creed is the giver.
Thanking you for the privilege of this
wishing you all that is best for you, I am
– C. H.
* * *
For what purpose were the two celebrated
and Jachin, placed at the entrance to the porch of King Solomon's
Temple? Was it
for strength, beauty, or to commemorate a moral or historical event?
In the first Book of Kings 7:15, we read "For
cast two pillars of brass of eighteen cubits high apiece, and a line of
did compass either of them about," and in verse 46, we read, "In the
of Jordan did the King cast them in the clay ground between Succoth and
In Second Chronicles 4:17-18, we read, "In the plains of Jordan did the
cast them in the clay ground between Succoth and Zeredathah. Thus
Solomon made all
these vessels in great abundance, for the weight of the brass could not
Lieutenant Lynch of the United States Navy,
party in the year 1847, made surveys of the Valley of the Jordan from
the Dead Sea
North to the South end of the Lake Galilee. Nowhere could any such clay
be found. Nor could he find any trace where a furnace or smelting works
they must have been swallowed up in the north end of the Dead Sea. For
about a mile
around the Dead Sea, the surface of the ground he found to be of an
about the color of wood ashes. Not a sprig of any plant or shrub found
His report was made to the Secretary of the U. S. Navy and placed in
Institute at Washington, D.C.
Rev. Dr. Ridgeway and his party toured the Holy
in 1874. In his book, "Ridgeway in the Holy Land," [Lib*] he reports
visited most of the important places, and saw many things of curiosity
They inspected both sides of the River Jordan. They crossed the river
of Bethany. The water was clear and cold and about knee deep to their
bed of the river he found to be Chert* Gravel and cobble stones. On the
of the river they found a few pieces of broken crockery ware, but
they find any such clay grounds as recorded in the books of Kings and
He gives it as his opinion that the report made by Lieutenant Lynch is
accurate statement of the physical features of the Valley of the Jordan
up to that date ever been printed in the English language.
a fine-grained silica-rich
may contain small fossils.
It varies greatly in color (from white to black), but most often
manifests as gray,
brown, grayish brown and light green to rusty red; its color is an
trace elements present in the rock, and both red and green are most
to traces of iron (in its oxidized
and reduced forms
Bishop Marvin of St. Louis, Mo., at a later
the Palestine lands. In his book, "East by Way of the West," [Lib 1878] he says that he did
not see nor could find any such place as the clay grounds of the
Jordan. Nor could
there be any surface indications found showing where any furnace or
had ever existed. Who will give us more light on this subject?
J. G. Anderson,
* * *
John and Jonathan
Dear Sir and Brother: – Anent your gloomy
of the feelings of the British against America, which you received on
trip to England, I wrote my esteemed English Masonic Brother, Sir
and the following is his reply.
A. E. Bachert, Pennsylvania.
"20, Carlton House Terrace,
London S.W., 18th Dec., 1916.
"My Dear Mr. Bachert: – I am concerned to hear
of Mr. Joseph Fort Newton's pessimistic impressions of the feeling in
towards the United States. I am concerned because I know these
impressions are really
contrary to the facts. The British people realize more and more every
month of the
war how much they owe materially to the American people, who have
their resources at our disposal. What is more important still, we
realize your moral
sympathy and support, and understand that you and we have a common idea
and humanity, which is at stake for both of us in this struggle.
"No, I can assure you Mr. Newton has been
by an irresponsible minority of the press, and by isolated voices of
who do not represent public opinion. These were vociferous before
had formed itself. When the real opinion of this country finds
expression, you will
have more cheering impressions to record.
"I am certain myself that this war will lead to
an immense strengthening of the bonds between the two English-speaking
and that this will be one of the most far-reaching results it will have.
Yours very truly, Gilbert Parker."
(The reference is to certain observations made
editor in the second of his Travel Sketches, which appeared in the
issue of November
last. Of course, questions of politics, whether local, national or
are as out of place in a Masonic journal as in a Masonic Lodge; and we
to this letter from Sir Gilbert Parker – by the kindness of Brother
Bachert – only
because he is distinguished alike in English literature and in English
It is the good word of a Brother Mason to his brothers and fellows in
we rejoice to know that our impressions were wrong, or at least to be
by so gracious a man. Howbeit, we are not entirely convinced by such an
and we mention the matter here because the relations between these two
which have so many ties to bind them – not least among them a common
and great Freemasonry
– is a question in which Masonry should have to do, not politically but
and humanly. Close up to each other, bound in a common destiny,
of each other's faults and a little too shrill in announcing them –
irritation is the discordant intimacy of business partners and family
know that they cannot live apart, but they have not yet learned to live
without friction. So the matter stands, and Masonry should be an
for closer fellowship and mutual understanding between the great Empire
great Republic – and, indeed, between all races and peoples within the
* * *
Reasons for Research
Dear Brother: – I have been engaged in Masonic
since 1895, and expect soon to publish a work entitled, "The Secret
of the Priesthood.
I find that back of all the ancient religions
existed a "Base" upon which the priesthood have ever founded their
Creeds. That two systems were used, one for the Initiated and the other
Uninitiated, an exoteric and an esoteric; or one for the multitude and
one for the
priesthood, well understood by the Ancient Initiated, and should be by
Many people of today, even the Initiated,
different religious terms in common, everyday use, such as God, Heaven,
etc., without ever stopping to consider that they are priest-created;
and that they
must have once had a definite meaning to the ancient Initiated priest.
Free Masonry has all the ancient symbols used
ancient Craft, but not the same explanations; and this is what our
is founded for, if I understand it right, – to obtain the ancient
of Religious terms and their true meanings, to be used for the benefit
of the world
at large, and not Free Masonry in particular. Is this right?
Wishing you all the compliments of the season,
thanking you, I remain, yours etc.,
Geo. F. Greene,
(Assuredly our Brother is right as to one of
objects of the Research Society, and perhaps he will be good enough to
give us some
of the results of his studies to that end. The distinction between the
and the esoteric is ancient; and runs with one degree or another of
through all the old systems – albeit Buddha denied any such distinction
in his case,
describing himself as a teacher who taught all alike, and not veiling
anyone. Nor does initiation admit one to the hidden meanings of things.
It is not
necessarily insight, but only a birth into a world of truth and beauty,
to be followed by growth and study – which is the chief reason for the
of our Society, that it may bring to the uses of modern life the high
truth that makes men free from fear and the folly that makes them mad.)
* * *
During my travels through several states it
to me, what a nice remembrance it would be for each lodge to keep a
card album wherein could be posted pictures of Masonic temples visited
by the traveling
In this way lodges can keep track of their
members and in time would have a fine collection of some beautiful
throughout the world.
I wish you would advocate such an innovation
Gavel Lodge F. & A. M., N. Y.
* * *
The Right of Each Rite
My Dear Sir and Brother: – I hand you herewith
published in the October number of the Texas Freemason, written by
Judge W. S. Fly,
Chief Justice of the Court of Civil Appeals, at San Antonio, and headed
Two Rites." Judge Fly is one of the best known and best loved men and
in the State, and is a Past Grand Master of Masons in Texas. I think
is well worthy of more extended circulation, and I submit it to you for
that you may publish it in The Builder should you care to do so.
I have written to Judge Fly, advising him that
send the paper to you.
Truly and fraternally yours,
L. Terrell, Past Grand Master.
The Two Rites
No institution, it seems, can be organized in
but that schisms and disagreements will, in process of time, arise,
which, in many
instances, become quite antagonistic to each other, resulting in rival
This is exemplified in the Christian church, which many of us believe
to be of divine
origin, and the pages of history teem with accounts of the terrible
those claiming to be the followers of the meek and lowly Nazarene, who
the pivotal doctrine of His church on earth.
This spirit of dissension and strife is no less
in other religions, but all have to a greater or less extent their
Freemasonry? the great brotherhood of the
universal teacher of liberty, equality and fraternity, has not escaped
weakness, which causes strife and trouble in all organizations, and
have at times cropped out in the body of Masonry. So we see different
at different times, which were not only rivals, but veritable
antagonists of one
There have been nearly forty of these different
some living only a fitful period; some for longer times, and others,
institutions, such as the York rite, and the Scottish rite.
There can be no doubt that the York rite is the
of all rites, and consisted for many years of only the three first
to Dr. Albert G. Mackey, the Master Mason's degree, prior to the latter
the 18th century, that is, between 1750 and 1790, included much of what
is now found
in the royal arch degree, and was practically a finished and
About that time Thomas Dunckerly, an English Mason, who wielded almost
influence among the Masons of England, separated from the master's
degree much that
necessarily belonged to it. The third degree as curtailed and robbed of
its wonderful wealth and power, has since been conferred in the York
rite. Of course
it is known that the name of the rite was taken from the city of York,
in the north
of England, in which it is said the first general assembly of Masons
by Athelstan, grandson of Alfred the Great, and king of England from A.
D. 924 to
The three degrees comprised all of York rite
proper, and contained in their pristine state all the essentials of
Masonry, upon which foundation has been builded the great
superstructure of Masonry
of all rites. All other defensible degrees are but the consistent
the arraying in beautiful raiment; the sublime dramatization; the
exposition of the rugged truths imperfectly presented in the three
degrees as they
stood prior to being dispossessed of some of their beauties and powers.
The degrees in the chapter serve to throw light
beautiful manner upon the truths contained in the three degrees of the
Those three degrees, tho, like a mighty oak
of its leaves, dreary but firm; rugged, but fitted to stand the storm
of the centuries,
have been clothed with evergreen foliage and golden fruitage by the
degrees of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry.
The three degrees as now given portray all the
truths of life, but they are so veiled in allegory, symbol and mystery
ordinary average mind fails to grasp their significance, beauty and
the mind is not brought into the full effulgence of the light of truth.
conferred under no pretense of bringing the candidate into the full
light, for he
is reminded first and last that they do not give a full comprehension
of the truths
symbolized by them. It is the Masonry of the people, which, while
veiled in allegory,
and illustrated by symbols, not always comprehensible, leads men to
higher and better
lives, but cannot satisfy the minds and hearts of those who would
commune with the
truth, and ascend into the realms where men can more clearly comprehend
with their fellows and their duties to God.
There is and should be nothing but harmony
between the York and Scottish rites. They seek the same ends; they have
foundation, and teach the same essential truths. In the United States,
and its colonies, the three degrees are common to and form a part of
both. In the
countries enumerated the Scottish rite has relinquished the right of
confer the first three degrees, and begins its ceremony at the fourth
evincing its desire and intent to interfere in no manner with the
progress of the
ancient York rite. Nor does Scottish rite Masonry desire to interfere
with any one
in his progress through the Royal Arch Chapter, with its sublime
degrees, to the
culmination and desire of every Christian, the Order of the Temple and
orders. It may be stated that every Christian Mason will find comfort,
and the highest advancement in learning the truths of his religion, as
and beautifully illustrated in Commanderies of Knights Templar.
In Scottish Rite Masonry no creed is
religion is condemned; but any clean man who is a Master Mason, who
places his trust
in God, the Father, and who has by his labors in the three degrees
shown his zeal
and devotion to the principles of the ancient brotherhood, is given a
No man can understandingly receive those
becoming a better member of any church with which he may be connected;
but will love his country with more earnestness; no husband or father
but what will
view his family ties as of more binding effect than ever before; no man
be more conservative and charitable to his fellow men, and have a
of the duties resting upon him in all the relations of life.
No true Scottish Rite Mason will lend himself
of the York Rite, which was formerly included in the three degrees of
the blue lodges,
but now contained in the degrees of lodge and royal arch chapter, and
no one can
reasonably question the fact that the great charities of Freemasonry
those who wear the simple white apron, that badge of innocence to which
of honor can be added by any order conferred by human hands but he does
no Mason can ever obtain a full knowledge of the beauty, truth and
glory of the
ancient fraternity until he has taken the magnificent degrees of the
He does claim that in building up Scottish Rite Masonry, the eternal
of the ancient craft will be appreciated as they can never be
its influence; he does claim that in being educated in Masonry, he will
his interest in the York Rite, but will be a more devoted worker
therein than ever
before, and that his love for the brotherhood will be sanctified by
and ennobled by higher knowledge.
There should be no jealousy, no antagonism,
the two Rites. A large proportion of the members of either Rite belong
and the few who do not so belong, and who may be so inclined, should
not be permitted
to foment strife, or stir up ill will. Hand to hand the great
go forward in the great work of spreading the doctrine of liberty,
fraternity. With malice and enmity towards none, but filled with an
for humanity and adoration of God, we should combine and work together
Let our united aspiration be to make better
better fathers, better men in all the walks of life.
Bro. W.S. Fly
Past Grand Master of Texas, San Antonio.
* * *
Aboriginal Races and Freemasonry
Brethren: – At one of our recent
communications, I was
talking with a visiting Brother who repeated to me an experience which
given in open Lodge by a missionary to Africa.
The missionary said he was much discouraged by
to accomplish any results or to make himself felt among the natives.
the cause, he was told that if he would command any attention from the
he must join a society known as the Blood Brothers. This he did.
The ceremony consisted of lacerating the hands
candidate, also the hands of another person. (I did not understand
candidate or a Brother.) Their hands were then bound together so that
of blood from each would result. After this, the candidate was knocked
by a blow on the head. He did not know how long he remained in that
after he came to, he was raised on the five points of fellowship and
with the grand
Masonic word. He further stated that having been made a blood Brother,
he was more
graciously received everywhere he went than he could have been among
Can you tell me, or advise me, where I can get
information about this order. The missionary related the incident in
order to show
that when we search for the origin of Masonry, we search in vain for
here were two
persons, as widely separated in every walk of life as possible in this
each having received the same word, which had been handed down from
Anent the same matter we reproduce the
from the South Australian Freemason, which is worthy of notice for the
it relates. Certain signs are well-nigh universal, not because they are
membership of one secret order, but because they are natural, having
much the same
meaning everywhere. Because they are natural gestures of greeting, of
or of distress, they have become signs used in secret orders, whether
be savage or civilized. However explained, the incidents are
interesting and suggestive.
The article is as follows:
The Masonic Craft in Australia should be
to Wor. Bro. Dr. Albert Churchward, M. A., for the light he has thrown
question I raised in the columns of The South Australian Freemason last
regarding Masonic Signs among the Australian blacks. Dr. Churchward
[Lib 1913] connects the original
of Masonic signs among our native races, given to the explorer, John
more than fifty years ago, with the Hero-cult natives. Apparently he
bases his conclusion
regarding the McDouall Stuart incident largely upon my statement that
in the region visited by Stuart "had features resembling those of the
Our aborigines, we are told, are descendants of the Nilotic negro of
the Nile Valley
– The Herocults, who employ "many signs and symbols that have been
through the ages since they left Africa, and many of their sacred signs
are identical with those in use amongst the Masonic Brotherhood at the
The thanks of the Craft are also due to The South Australian Freemason
the medium for elucidating this most interesting subject.
The Bishop of Marlborough, at a meeting of
Lodge, No. 2396, (England) some years ago, related a story concerning
blacks, and illustrating the usefulness of our Craft. His Lordship said
was attending the British Association meeting at Bath in 1803, and that
in the geographical
section a paper was read by a Brother Mason, named Graham, who had made
– He was with a party of explorers who tried to pass from the extreme
South of Australia
to the North. It was the third time Graham found himself in about the
Australia; the carriers were nearly dying for want of water; there was
and no food; and, just as they were about to return exhausted they came
upon a small
band of aborigines, naked and savage, no word known to them to convey
that the party wanted bread. This tribe possessed Masonic signs and
words, and became
the faithful servants of Graham's party, and it was owing to the
that the explorers obtained roots and water, and reached the Northern
Australia in safety. These aboriginal tribes, who knew nothing of
continued the Bishop through Freemasonry, rendered this great service
and his companions. Conceive the mystery, the antiquity, the usefulness
of an institution
such as ours. It was strange how, in the very center of Australia with
relation to the rest of the world, such a thing could have possibly
it did, and the consequence was that these white men, assisted by the
had passed Masonic signs and words, were able to achieve a very
and were saved from certain destruction.
Taking the date of the British Association
by the Bishop of Marlborough, Graham's party must have undertaken their
across Australia not long after McDouall Stuart accomplished his great
of crossing the Continent, and the ill-fated Burke and Wills got almost
of the waters of the Gulf of Carpentania.
A medical man on one occasion journeyed further
the Australian bush than he had previously ventured. Captured by a
he was forthwith condemned to death, and the sentence would have been
not the doctor used certain Masonic Signs which apparently were
recognized by the
chief, and had he not complied with the condition to marry a lubra.
In each of these instances the tribes were
distinct. Their happy hunting grounds were separated by thousands of
miles of territory,
at least, so far as two of the tribes were concerned, and they had
seen white men.
What I am about to record I had from the lips
of a Brother
on the evening on which we together were raised to the Third Degree.
was a member of the Tietkins Expedition to Central Australia many years
country explored was between Fowler's Bay and the Musgrave Ranges, much
west than McDouall Stuart's route. The members of the expedition were
a part of their journey by a number of semi-civilized blacks, and among
was Ningman, chief of the then Fowler's Bay tribe. One afternoon, as
were proceeding on their course, a small party of blacks made their
the distance. They were camped on a hilltop, and were beckoning to the
the expedition. A black boy accompanying the explorers was too
frightened to approach
and hid himself in the trees. The inference was that the natives ahead
to fight. Ningman stripped himself of his clothing, and armed with a
forth to meet the gallant savage, the leader of the oncoming blacks,
whom he had
never seen before. The other warrior chief advanced as for battle. As
one another the scene rapidly changed. One saluted the other, and the
the salutation; they dropped their native weapons, and went through a
which my informant described as closely resembling the F.P.O.F. And
what, at the
outset, looked like hostility and battle array, gave way to a
declaration of friendship,
and the blacks on both sides thereafter mingled in the most friendly
explorers were understood to be the first white men to visit the region
of the far
interior. My informant was not a Mason when he witnessed the scene
but the extraordinary conduct of these aborigines impressed him so much
carefully noted it in his diary, and the scene vividly returned to his
on the occasion of his taking the Third Degree some years afterwards. I
his remarking at the conclusion of the Masonic ceremony that he had
some years before
seen signs much resembling those that had been communicated to us by
Master. In proof of his statement he brought in his diary the following
What is the object of Freemasonry? To edify
All the preoccupations of humanity must turn towards this invisible
which thinks for it and watches over it.
A Modern Pilgrim in Mecca
Wav13 / auth. Wavell A J B. - London : Constable & Company,
1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 363. - 37.1 MB.
An Ambassador, City Temple
New161 / auth. Newton Joseph F.. - New York : Fleming H. Revell
Company, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 227. - 4.1 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G.. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
Arctic Exploration Vol 1
Kan56 / auth. Kane Elisha K. - Philadelphia : Childs &
Peterson, 1856. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 480. - 26.4 MB.
Arctic Exploration Vol 2
Kan561 / auth. Kane Elisha K. - Philadelphia : Childs &
Peterson, 1856. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 479. - 23.6 MB.
Kip07 / auth. Kipling Rudyard. - New York : Doubleday, Page &
Company, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 380. - 14.9 MB.
Jos14 / auth. Josephus Flavius. - Pictou : ronigo, 2014. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 1349. - 5.6 MB - Digital Version - No Illustrations.
Jos70 / auth. Josephus Flavius / trans. Whiston William. - London :
London Printing and Publishing Co.; Ltd., 1870. - p. 917. - 95.2 MB.
Cyclopedia of Biblical
Literature Vol 1
Kit76BL1 / auth. Kitto John / ed. Alexander William L.. - Edinburgh :
Adam and Charles Black, 1876. - 3rd Edition : Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 928. -
82.9 MB - Illustrated.
Cyclopedia of Biblical
Literature Vol 2
Kit76BL2 / auth. Kitto John / ed. Alexander William L.. - Edinburgh :
Adam and Charles Black, 1876. - 3rd Edition : Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 894. -
80.9 MB - Illustrated.
Cyclopedia of Biblical
Literature Vol 3
Kit76BL3 / auth. Kitto John / ed. Alexander William L.. - Edinburgh :
Adam and Charles Black, 1876. - 3rd Edition : Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 1244. -
101.5 MB - Illustrated.
East by Way of the West
Mar781 / auth. Marvin Enoch M. - St. Louis : Bryan, Brand & Co,
1878. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 612. - 12.3 MB.
How to Read
Ker16 / auth. Kerfoot John B. - Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 305. - 7.8 MB.
Hugo's Works Vol 02 - Les
Miserables Pt 1 - Fantine
Hug00HW02 / auth. Hugo Victor. - New York : The Jefferson Press, 1900.
- Vol. 02 : 10 : p. 652. - 33.7 MB.
Hugo's Works Vol 03 - Les
Miserables Pt 2 - Marius
Hug00HW03 / auth. Hugo Victor. - New York : The Jefferson Press, 1900.
- Vol. 03 : 10 : p. 686. - 36.6 MB.
Hugo's Works Vol 04 - Les
Miserables Pt 3 - Valjean - Hans of Iceland
Hug00HW04 / auth. Hugo Victor. - New York : The Jefferson Press, 1900.
- Vol. 04 : 10 : p. 731. - 38.0 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Old Charges of British
Hug72 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : Simpkins, Marshall &
Co., 1872. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 8.2 MB.
The Gift of Immortality
Sla161 / auth. Slattery Charles L. - Boston : Houghton, Mifflin
Company, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 247. - 6.8 MB.
The Hungry Stones
Tag161 / auth. Tagore Sir Rabindranath. - New York : The Macmillan
Company, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 264. - 6.8 MB.
The Life of the Spider
Fab161 / auth. Fabre J. Henri / trans. deMattos Alexander T.. - New
York : Dodd, Mead and Company, Inc., 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 406. - 9.9
The Poetry of Rudyard Kipling
Dur14 / auth. Durand Ralph. - New York : Doubleday, Page &
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 406. - 7.4 MB.
The Psychology of Religion
Coe16 / auth. Coe George A. - Chicago : University of Chicago Press,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 379. - 8.6 MB.
The Signs and Symbols of
Chu13 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
Company, Ltd, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 546. - 59.2 MB.
The Ultimate Belief
Clu16 / auth. Clutton-Brock A. - New York : E. P. Dutton and Company,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 130. - 3.6 MB.