Masonic Research Society
Travel Sketches – The Land
of Robert Burns
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton
O come awa'
Strang brither o' the West-lan',
Altho' we hinna meikle gear,
Yer welcome tae our best, man.
Auld Scotias bens an' glens cry oot
A greetin' tae the West-man,
An' honest herts an' frien'ly han's
But wish ye wad them test, man:
O come awa', syne come awa'
An' be our luckie guest, man."
THESE lines, written by an honored and beloved
came floating down to London-town from the Land of Robert Burns. How
resist such an invitation; how could one ever forget such a welcome?
And so I went
to Scotland, by the Midland route, up through rural farming England by
way of Bedford,
the city of Bunyan; then over "the peak country" into Yorkshire, with
a glimpse of Lancashire; across the wide moorland district to
Cumberland, and the
beautiful Eden Valley of "Merrie Carlyle" with its cathedral and
of which Scott sang in The Lay of the Last Minstrel. Ten miles further
on we crossed
the border at Gretna, now a great munitions center, and another twenty
us to Dumfries and the Burns country.
Our first stop was at Glasgow on the Clyde, the
and industrial capital of Scotland, the rival of Liverpool in
of Manchester in its manufactures, and perhaps the foremost city in the
its solution of the problem of public utilities. Standing on the site
of an episcopal
see founded by St. Mungo in 560 A. D., Glasgow has a long and thrilling
much of which is enshrined in its noble cathedral, which more than any
I saw in Briton gave me a sense of gray antiquity. But my mission to
Masonic, and for Masonic students its chief claim to fame is that it is
of Progress Lodge, and its distinguished guide, philosopher and
A. S. MacBride, of whom all may read elsewhere in this issue. He it was
those lines of greeting and welcome, and all that the poet predicted
was more than
fulfilled in fact. Such a reception! Never in all his life has ye
enjoyed a hospitality more hearty and more happy, or a brotherly
courtesy more complete
in its appointments or more exquisitely canny in its delicate details.
was "The End of a Perfect Day," dross-drained and lovely, and set like
a gem in my heart forever. As I was led into Progress Lodge to be
Brother stepped forward and took from beneath the Bible an American
he spread over the Altar, as the entire Lodge rose and cheered. It was
one of many
such acts of thoughtful courtesy which marked the evening, like so many
Lodge was then opened in form, and I was permitted, by the kindness of
Master, to respond to the greetings of the Brethren, to express
the work of Brother MacBride, and to tell of the fame of Progress Lodge
side of the sea. They were much interested in my brief sketch of
in American Masonry, and of the interest in Masonic Research among us.
Next day I was shown the city of Glasgow, its
homes, its churches, its schools and university, it’s neat and
and its great central Library – where, in the safety vault, I had a
peep at old
editions of the poems of Burns which made it hard to obey the law which
us not to covet our neighbors goods. Then we visited the homes in which
houses some fourteen thousand Belgian refugees, and found them
carefully kept, all under the management of a Past Master of Progress
we entered a home for children, whose parents are either lost or
killed, their little
faces lighted up with greetings, each giving us a fine military salute,
morning, and thank you." Some of those faces haunt me still, with their
locks and bright eyes – tiny waifs sent adrift by the horror of war,
home and food and care in the lovely land of Scotland.
In Glasgow, as everywhere in England and
squares and parks are adorned with statues and memorials of great men
of war and
state, of science and religion, poets and prophets and soldiers
standing side by
side. It is so in George Square, the finest open pace in the city,
the spacious Municipal buildings – in which there is a lovely staircase
and alabaster – the Post Office, the Bank of Scotland, the Merchant's
so forth. Walter Scott, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, Sir John Moore,
Clyde, Watt, Peel, Robert Burns, Livingstone and Gladstone, all look
down upon the
passerby, reminding him of the fine issues to which human life ascends.
grow where great men are honored, and the sons of old Scotland go all
over the earth,
everywhere taking the lead in whatever field they enter.
High Street, leading to the Cathedral, was the
thoroughfare in the old city of St. Mungo, and at "Bell o' the Brae,"
where it sweeps to the right and begins to ascend, Wallace won a
victory in 1300.
The Cathedral, as I have said, is truly a noble monument, its chief
being its Crypt, a finely proportioned structure, with a fine vaulting.
its sixty-five pillars are crowned by exquisitely carved capitals, and
for a Mason
who has an eye for angles and arches it is a pure delight. What workmen
in those days of old! On the north side is the tomb of Edward Irving,
of whom a
portrait appears, as St. John the Baptist, in the window above. The
frequently referred to in "Rob Roy," [Lib 1880, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] by Walter Scott,
but the classical description of it is, undoubtedly, that of Andrew
After lunch at the Liberal Club, we were off
for a pin
about the city and down to Loch Lomond. It was crisp, clear, ideal day
– even the
Weather Man, who does not always behave well in Scotland, seemed to
have been tipped
or otherwise induced to be at his best. We had a glimpse of the Clyde
way, thronged with boats, bordered by vast ship-yards full of boats in
At Renton we paused to see the monument to Smollet, and better still
for a visit
to the Lodge Room of the Lodge Leven St. John, in which some of the
visions of Brother
MacBride in respect of Lodge decorations and arrangements have been
Then there was a real and happy surprise. Entering a quaint little
shop, and climbing
a winding stair, we found ourselves in the presence of a stately old
clad in the garb of his clan, waiting to receive us with all the eats
of the olden days. It was a peep back into the past, picturesque and
for which I was deeply grateful.
Down the valley we went, on one side the wooded
rich in waving ferns, and on the other, presently, Loch Lomond – the
MacBride told the history and legend of the places we passed in
suchwise that one
hardly knew where one ended and the other began. Loch Lomond is in some
the loveliest of the Scottish lakes. Seen on such a clear day, with the
form of Ben Lomond towering beyond, having a crown of cloud upon his
head – looking
like Mount Sinai – it is a picture that can never fade. Returning by
Loch Long and
Loch Gare, we hasten back to Glasgow to catch the train for Edinburgh,
the first time in my life, I was arrested. But as Kipling would say,
is another story."
A Prayer in Prospect of
By Robert Burns
“A prayer when fainting fits, and other
of a pleurisy or some other dangerous disorder, which indeed still
first put nature on the alarm.” (First Common-Place Book, under date
A manuscript in the Burns Monument, Edinburgh,
heading, “A Prayer when dangerously threatened with pleuritic attacks.”
There seems to be an uncertainty about the date
poem, for though assigned to 1784, the entry in the “Common-Place Book”
proves it earlier than the August of that year. The poem was probably
the poet’s residence in Irvine, when, as would appear in a letter
written to his
father, 27th December, 1781, he had the prospect of “perhaps very soon”
“adieu to all the pains and uneasiness and disquietudes of this weary
Poems, Cambridge edition.)
thou unknown, Almighty
Of all my hope and fear!
In whose dread presence, ere an hour,
Perhaps I must appear!
If I have wandered in those paths
Of life I ought to shun –
As something, loudly, in my breast,
Remonstrates I have done –
Thou know’st that Thou hast formed me
With passions wild and strong;
And list’ning to their witching voice
Has often led me wrong.
Where human weakness has come short,
Or frailty stept aside,
Do Thou, All-good – for such Thou art –
In shades of darkness hide.
Where with intention I have erred,
No other plea I have
But, thou art good; and Goodness still
Delighteth to forgive.
Masonic Education in California
By The Grand Lodge Committee
TO the Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of
Your Committee on Masonic Education, continued
last year to formulate plans for research and study, beg to report as
We feel it to be not only a duty, but a
do our full part in furthering the cause which should and will be of
more and more
importance as the years roll by, notwithstanding the action of the
Grand Lodge last
year in refusing to adopt our then proposed plan of lectures.
We are especially anxious that the Grand Lodge
give its active and unqualified support to the cause of Masonic
year, as indicated above, the essential portions of our report and
were referred to the Finance Committee and not reported back, thus
leaving the balance
of little effect.
If ever there was a time in the history of our
when men need enlightenment and understanding, that time is now. They
need the understanding
which shall help them to understand themselves. They need the
shall deepen their sympathies for their fellows. They need the
shall broaden their outlook in life. They need the understanding which
them more kind and tolerant of all men, particularly of those they call
The trend of events the past year or so will verify all this.
In our Masonic Lodge rooms the great principles
brotherhood should be so sanely voiced that our members will see in
them real beauty,
and understand that they can endure only when harmony prevails.
The basic principles for which we stand should
earnestly and eloquently impressed both on our candidates and our
members that all
will be aroused by a mighty inspiration.
In our work, we should depend less on formalism
more on enlightenment. We owe more to the candidates who knock at our
we sometimes give them after they have crossed the portals. Mere
will not suffice – it is appealing so far as it goes – but it does not
go far enough;
not every man is prepared to grasp its hidden meaning.
At the very outset of his Masonic career, the
should be thrilled with the vital principles and purposes of the
these should be made known to him as clearly as pure English can define
should that interest be allowed to wane and become inactive through any
We have among our members many men of ability
aid materially in accomplishing this work. How shall we go about it?
Let us only
reiterate what we asked for last year, and with the hope that this time
receive the hearty co-operation of the Grand Lodge.
We therefore sum up this report by submitting
points for consideration, being the same four paragraphs that appeared
in our report
last year, and as found on page 508 of the printed proceedings of 1915,
First: That a Committee
on Masonic Education, consisting of three members, be appointed by the
M. W. Grand
Master to serve for the ensuing year. That it shall be the duty of this
to exercise a helpful influence toward all Lodges who desire their
counsel and advice.
That this Committee shall foster and encourage throughout this
study and research of Masonic tradition, history, literature, law,
dominant purposes of this Institution.
Second: That a series
of lectures to be read in our Lodges at stated periods, shall be
the direction of such Committee; such lectures to be submitted to the
M. W. Grand
Master for his approval, and afterward printed; one lecture to be
mailed each month
to every Lodge in this jurisdiction, but only on request.
Third: That a series
of three lectures be prepared under the direction of the Committee on
along exoteric lines, appropriate respectively to the E.A., F.C., and
such lectures to be first approved by the M.W. Grand Master and
These lectures to be placed in the candidate's hands after he has
degree. The lectures to be sold to the Lodges desiring them, at cost.
Fourth: That the formation
of Study Clubs be encouraged, and that this feature of the work follow
and carefully conceived plan.
Irving J. Mitchell,
Alfred W. Bush,
The report was adopted.
(This is an exceedingly wise and able report,
adoption by the Grand Lodge of California is a significant omen. Seldom
seen the need for Masonic education stated with more force and aptness,
the point of view of the efficiency of the Order and its influence upon
and the recommendations cover about all the methods so far tried albeit
the whole program, and rightly so, immediately under the supervision of
Master and the Committee. The suggestion about the three lectures on
the first three
degrees is most timely, for that it takes advantage of the fresh
impression in the
minds of newly admitted Brethren, making use of an enthusiasm and
interest too often
neglected and wasted. We note with deep interest the encouragement
given to the
formation of study clubs, which promises to be so important and
delightful a feature
of Masonry in the years to come.
Howbeit, we are minded to call special
the suggestion to induce able and well-informed men of the jurisdiction
themselves for service as Masonic lecturers or instructors. There are
of such men in every jurisdiction, and we have the feeling that this
will be the
final solution of the vexed problem of securing competent and reliable
Why not have a Board of such lecturers, as we have in many
jurisdictions for the
teaching of the ritual – what could be more delightful, interesting and
both for the lecturers and for the young men whom they inspire and
instruct in Masonry?
This is not meant to depreciate, in the least, the services of
lecturers, some of whom have done most valuable work – although others
disappointing and unsatisfactory, often setting forth strange,
notions in the name of Masonry. All this is avoided by the
recommendation of the
California Committee, whose suggestion is worthy of thoughtful
pondering by every
jurisdiction awake to the necessity of Masonic education. – Editor.)
A Great Masonic Teacher
By Bro. Joseph Fort Newton
A. S. Macbride
MASONRY had many great teachers in times past,
the first order of intellect who devoted their fine powers to the
its simple, wise and beautiful truth. Pike, Parvin, Mackey, Fort,
Crawley, Findel, Hughan, it is an honor to recall the names of such
men, into whose
labors we have entered, and whose legacy of inspiration and instruction
is a priceless
inheritance. Noble men, great Masons, tireless students, wise teachers
– our debt
to them is beyond calculation. But reverence for the work of men of
other days should
not make us forget our leaders today who are doing so much to interpret
and make it eloquent and effective for its high purposes.
Masonry has great teachers today, many of them,
no one more worthy of the honor of his Brethren of every land and rank
A. S. MacBride, of Lodge Progress, Glasgow. More than once we have said
lectures on "Speculative Masonry" is one of the best Masonic books ever
written, and we are ready any time to give a reason for the faith that
is in us.
First of all, its style is the native speech of Masonry – simple,
lucid, and aglow
with poetic light and beauty. There are passages that haunt you like
when the book has been laid aside. Second, it is a book of vision, in
is shown to be a wise, clear-seeing, practical Moral Idealism, touched
meanings and taught in symbols, parables, emblems, and dramas. Third,
it is a book
of careful, painstaking, reliable scholarship – three things which make
it one of
the real classics of the Order, and we sincerely hope that it is a
other books of like spirit and quality.
As will be seen from the accompanying sketch,
MacBride was trained in the tradition and lore of the Craft by wise
the olden time, whose method was as thorough as their knowledge was
twenty-five years, or more, he has been a teacher of Masonry in the
land of Robert
Burns instructing young men in the symbolism and ceremonial of the
Craft, and he
has left a permanent impress upon the Masonry of his native land. His
exquisite sense of the fitness of things, together with his rich
learning and sound
common sense, make him an ideal instructor, and with these are joined a
Whether in public printed lecture, or in the more private teaching of
– examples of which lie before us in the form of rituals of the first
– his work has the same sagacious insight, the same fine sanity, and
the same delicate
touch of poetry which mark him as a truly great teacher of Masonry.
Such men are rare, and we wish the work of
be more widely known on this side of the waters, we present the
sketch of his Masonic career, by one of the Past Masters of Lodge
illustrations showing the new home of Lodge Leven St. John for which he
did so much
and where he is so beloved. It is such a sketch as the too great
modesty of its
subject would permit, interesting and valuable for its data, but
conveying but a
very slight impression of a man of unmistakable distinction of
character of singular
personal and intellectual charm, brotherly withal and winning; a
of Scotland, to know whom is to have something to remember of the
of his country and his race – a Mason to whom the world is a temple, a
poet to whom
the world is a song.
Brother A. S. MacBride was initiated in Lodge
St. John on the 13th July, 1866. On November the 19th, of the same
year, he was
elected Secretary; and on November 22nd, 1867, he was elected Master.
Leven St. John was constituted on April 9th, 1788, by several members
of the craft
residing in and about the towns of Leven in Dumbartonshire. As stated
in the Charter,
it was granted "for holding a Lodge in the said towns of Leven." That
is, it was a movable Charter, and the old minute books which are
preserved in fairly
good order and which go back to the 6th November, 1788, show that
held in various places from the river Fruin on Loch Lomond side, to the
the river Leven at Dumbarton. These old minutes seem to indicate the
an unchartered Lodge, previous to the existing Charter from the Grand
Lodge in Edinburgh.
It has been a practice from 1788 at least, as
by the Minutes of the Lodge, to appoint instructors to every newly
and Brother MacBride in this respect had the good fortune to have as
two of the very oldest Masons in the Lodge. It is to the instruction he
that he attributes the enthusiastic interest with which he has for
fifty years studied
the history and symbolism of Masonry. It was at one time the universal
all Scottish Lodges to appoint these instructors (or "intenders" as
were called) to newly entered brethren, and it is to be regretted that
old custom has been abandoned generally. It is still, however
in Lodge Leven St. John.
In the second year of his accession to the
MacBride introduced his system of lectures and instruction. He began,
first of all,
with the office-bearers, and in a year or two with the members of the
seven years he retired from the chair, but still maintained a close
the Lodge. In 1879, with some reluctance and only at the unanimous and
of the members, he once more accepted the position of Master. He
continued in office
until 1884, and as Past Master continued taking an active interest in
affairs. He was recalled again to the chair in 1887, and was in harness
During this period of nearly thirty years the
established a reputation for a high standard of "work," discipline and
enterprise, and its members became celebrated for their knowledge of
Lodges in Scotland generally, at that time, met in licensed premises;
St. John met in the Black Bull Inn, in the village of Renton. The
of the craft, however, began to dominate the minds of the members, and
of having solemn and sacred ceremonies in a hall devoted to the worship
determined them in 1891 to have a building of their own. Although a
whose membership was small in number and practically composed of
workmen, yet such
was its vital energy and enthusiasm that, despite many difficulties, a
Lodge Room was erected. In a few years the Lodge building was not only
free from debt but a new building fund was formed of upwards of
for extensions. These extensions have now been completed and the
a monument to the enthusiasm and loyal devotion of the members, for,
with the exception
of three brethren belonging to other Lodges who unsolicited sent
the expense amounting to about three thousand pounds has been defrayed
The Lodge Room presents some unique features which the accompanying
will partly show, in its pillars, winding stair of three, five and
and its middle chamber.
Sixteen years ago Brother MacBride removed to
and there threw in his lot with Lodge "Progress," which had been
two years previous. This Lodge is founded on temperance principles, a
part of its
constitution being, "No intoxicating or spirituous liquors shall be
at any meeting or communication of the Lodge, or held under the
auspices of the
Lodge." This was in Brother MacBride's opinion a movement that deserved
encouragement of every well-wisher of the craft. Personally, he was not
abstainer, but the drinking customs in connection with many lodges had
a serious evil that some counterweight was greatly needed, and he
Lodge Progress. His long experience gave him an early opportunity of
being of service
to that Lodge; its members, while full of enthusiasm, being practically
in the work of Masonry.
In November, 1900, he was elected Master, and
that year he applied himself to the training of office-bearers in a
their duties and of the "work" in connection with the various degrees.
In the succeeding year, and for fully ten years as a Past Master, he
to the work of instruction. Enthusiastic instructive Lodge meetings
on for three or four months every winter. At these meetings lectures
by him which have been revised and printed in a work entitled
Masonry." [Lib 1914] Besides
this, various symbols and ceremonies were explained in detail and the
were also given an opportunity of "working." The result has been this:
Lodge Progress stands out, not only as the strongest Lodge in Scotland,
as representing the highest ideal in its method of "working." It is no
boast, but a plain fact that these two Lodges, Leven St. John and Lodge
are models in the manner in which they "work" the ceremonies of the
degrees, and in the knowledge possessed by their members of the
symbolism and principles
When residing in the province of Dumbarton
took an interest in the proceedings of the Provincial Grand Lodge of
He was Secretary for a number of years and filled the offices
successively of Provincial
Grand Junior Warden, Provincial Grand Senior Warden, and Deputy
Master. On removing to Glasgow he was asked to allow himself to be
office in the Provincial Grand Lodge of Glasgow but refused,
considering that his
energies could be directed to better purpose in the Lodge of
with Lodge Progress. He, however, gave his services as a member of
Committee for a number of years.
Brother MacBride has been a member of the
Coronati Lodge," London, since May, 1893, and has found the
that Lodge of immense value to him in the course of his Masonic studies
He has always
been an advocate for reform in Lodge "working," and his criticisms of
the coarse, vulgar methods adopted in some lodges brought on him
condemnation of his brethren, who, not having studied the symbolism of
had very little conception of its real beauty and significance. These
however, are all now things of the past, and he has been able to
overcome, or modify,
the news adverse to his mode of "working," and to gain generally the
and esteem of those who at one time were his opponents.
Everywhere in the west of Scotland there has
late years a marked improvement in the "work" of Masonry. The
of the lodges has been purified and elevated to a very considerable
a larger and closer knowledge of its symbolism has been diffused
amongst its members;
and Brother MacBride rejoices at having been able in some degree to
to this beneficial result.
All of which is true as to facts and dates, but
all of the truth, being a bare statement and far too conservative in
recital, needing an added touch of appreciation and estimate of a
service to the Fraternity. The work of Brother MacBride in behalf of
be divided into three parts, as things Masonic are so often divided:
genius as an expositor of the history, philosophy and symbolism of the
of which may be known and read by all in the book to which we have
his mastery of the ritual, and his poetic insight and literary skill in
not only more luminous, but more perfect as a medium through which the
truth of Masonry may be conveyed to the initiate. Of this aspect of his
may not write in detail, except to say that the ritual prepared by him
to our ideal of what a Masonic ritual should be, alike in accuracy,
beauty of form, and depth and suggestiveness of meaning, than any we
have ever seen.
It is an unalloyed delight to eye and ear and heart – Masonry wearing a
by a poet-hand, and worthy of its spirit and truth.
And the third part of his labor is equally
– the manner in which he uses the ritual, thus wrought out, not only to
Spirit of Masonry and to promote its fellowship, but to teach the truth
it was meant
to teach. He is a teacher who trains teachers – following the teachers
him – using the ritual, keeping close to the ritual, and through it
pupils to the wider questions that grow out of it and are suggested by
his method is sound, both Masonically and pedagogically, and it is a
hint to put
those who would teach Masonry on the right track. Moreover, his first
care is to
train the officers of the Lodge, making them leaders and teachers of
the Craft as
they should be. Take, for example, the following "Hints to Masters,"
serve as a preface to the ritual of Lodge Progress:
- The Master
should not be Craftsman, laborer, and everything. He should superintend
- Have a meeting
of the Office-bearers, as soon after the election as possible, to
arrange your work,
and to encourage them to study and enter upon their duties with an
- Get each
Office-bearer to learn the duties of the Office immediately above his,
so that he
may, when required, be able to perform them.
- Always remember
it is the Master's work to plan, and to draw out the plan of work.
Treat your Office-bearers
confidentially and show them your plan, and then you may rightly expect
work to it.
- Give every
encouragement to anyone who wishes to work, and get your Officers to do
but bear in mind that your own members have the first claim on your
- Don't parade
your authority, but prove yourself worthy of the power placed in your
using it as seldom as possible.
the best Master is he who best serves the Craft. 'Tis no wonder that
such a method,
used in a spirit of Masonic idealism made effective by a fine practical
has attested its worth and wisdom in rich results. It was the rare
pleasure of a
lifetime to visit Lodge Progress – of which we offer a brief account
this issue to meet its members, and to join with them in paying homage
to one of
the wisest Masonic teachers of our generation whose work has won, and
to win increasingly, the lasting and grateful honor of the Craft in all
its gentle labors are known.
On Presenting the Lamb-Skin
By Fay Hempstead; Poet Laureate
and white are
its leathern folds;
And a priceless lesson its texture holds.
Symbol it is, as the years increases,
Of the paths that lead through the fields of Peace.
Type it is of the higher sphere,
Where the deeds of the body, ended here,
Shall one by one the by-way be.
To pass the gates of Eternity.
Emblem it is of life intense,
Held aloof from the world of sense;
Of the upright walk and the lofty mind,
Far from the dross of Earth inclined.
Sign it is that he who wears
Its sweep unsullied, about him bears
That which should be to mind and heart
A set reminder of his art.
So may it ever bring to thee
The high resolves of Purity.
Its spotless filed of shining white,
Serve to guide thy steps aright;
Thy daily life, in scope and plan,
Be that of the strong and upright man.
And signal shall the honor be.
Unto those who wear it worthily
Receive it thus to symbolize
Its drift, in the life that before thee lies.
Badge as it is of a great degree,
Be it chart and compass unto thee.
By Bro. Wildey E. Atchison.
A.S.S't Rr. N.Y.
THERE are many roads of Masonic Research. And
perhaps the most logical beginning for Study groups would be along the
bordered by the stories of the past, where here and there might be
found a memorial
of some prehistoric "Men's House," yet to many of us, a browse among
modern Masonic pastures is of equal interest. And so, while Brother
us far afield in the land of folklore and mediaeval events which have a
upon the earlier aspects of this Institution we call Freemasonry, let
are interested in the present, sit down in the ante-room for a while,
the many-sided questions of Jurisprudence, as they are exhibited for us
in the Codes
and Judicial Decisions of our American Grand Lodges.
Let it be understood at the outset that this is
as no exhaustive treatise upon Masonic Law. Nor will we attempt to
codify the Statutes
of our Grand Jurisdictions. Manifestly, a Masonic Journal, even the
Journal of a
Society devoted exclusively to Masonic Research, is no place for that.
as many a man studies the Law, not with the expectation of practicing
it as a profession,
but simply that he may ask intelligent questions and thereby keep out
of legal tangles,
so will we, as a matter of common information, make a careful, though
investigation into the books of Masonic law as they are. And all this
to the end
that we may acquaint the Members of our Society with the fundamentals
of our American
We all study Civil Government, that we may know
of our duties as a citizen in the State. Our present purpose is to take
up a few
of the more important points of Masonic citizenship, if you please. Let
that I aim at no formal codification. This effort is simply to portray,
the means of a brief tabulation, a comparative statement of the legal
of Masonry, but comprehensive enough so that the fundamentals will be
There is ample excuse for such a series as this
be, if excuse were needed, in the embarrassing situations created among
whose vocation keeps them traveling through different States. It has
with cause, that many a Mason loses interest, and becomes indifferent,
if not a
non-affiliate, because of his own unfamiliarity with the common
visitation. And again, Brethren who contemplate a change of residence
State, hesitate a long time before affiliating with the Fraternity in
homes, simply because they do not know anything about the formal steps
be taken. They feel that to attend Lodge regularly in their newfound
homes is an
imposition upon the very men who would be glad to greet them as
Brethren; they feel
that to attend the banquets and functions of the Lodge without joining
in the expense
incurred (as they would be doing if they paid dues) is demanding too
much of Courtesy.
The constraint remains, often for a long period, before some good
Brother of the
Lodge discovers the fact of membership, and brings the lonesome one
into the fold
in the proper manner.
The present study concerns "Affiliation."
It will be followed, from time to time, by others. So far as each table
will embody the Codified Law and the Judicial Decisions affecting the
and we shall in every case endeavor to have our brief statement of the
checked up by the Grand Secretary of each Jurisdiction, that it may be
If errors are found, we shall welcome correction. And if, after reading
table, the Brethren of the Society believe that it will be worthwhile
them (for we expect to cover at least twenty or more of the important
we shall be glad to do so at the close of the series.
Necessarily these tables will overlap one
many points – that is inevitable. But we shall do our best to keep the
clearly drawn between them as possible, and shall welcome your
will make the presentation more practical, more timely, or better
fill the need.
The February subject will be "Advancement."
Other topics on the way are "Demits," "Visitation," "Qualifications,"
etc. Occasionally we hope to be able to vary this program with
discussions of these
questions from the viewpoint of Grand Lodges outside of America.
It was found necessary to restrict the
of the subject to the number given in the chart, not only for
conservation of space
in THE BUILDER, but to avoid digression, as the subject of Affiliation
connected with others such as Balloting, the Masonic standing of
etc. Neither has it been practical to quote the exact wording of the
in the narrow space allotted to the different headings. But the
attitude of each
Grand Lodge has been stated in as few words as possible, and in a
where possible, ignoring certain peculiar linguistic forms which, while
adopted in the various Grand Jurisdictions, are immaterial from the
point of view
of this study. But we believe our members will have no difficulty in
important features of the problems involved.
A Central African Mystery
By H. Rider Haggard
IF any reader will take the trouble to consult
map of central South Africa, he may see a vast block of territory
speaking, by the Zambezi on the north and the Transvaal on the south,
and Bechuanaland on the west, and by Portuguese East Africa on the
perhaps six hundred miles square.
Scattered over this huge expanse are found
whereof about five hundred are known to exist, while doubtless many
to be discovered. These ruins, in spite of certain late theories to the
it would seem almost certain – or so, at least, my late friend,
Theodore Bent, and
other learned persons have concluded – were built by people of Semitic
Phoenicians, or, to be more accurate, South Arabian Himyarites, a
somewhat obscure by age. At any rate, they worshiped the sun, the moon,
and other forces of nature, and took observations of the more distant
in the intervals of these pious occupations, they were exceedingly keen
men. Business took them to South Africa, where they were not native,
kept them there, until at last, while still engaged on business, or so
most probable, they were all of them slain.
Their occupation was gold-mining, [Lib 1900] perhaps with a little
trading in "ivory, almug-trees, apes and peacocks" – or ostriches –
in. They opened up hundreds of gold reefs, from which it is estimated
extracted at least seventy-five million pounds' worth of gold, and
probably a great
deal more. They built scores of forts to protect their line of
the coast. They erected vast stronghold temples, of which the Great
is situated practically in the center of the block of territory
is the largest yet discovered. They worshipped the sun and the moon, as
I have said.
They enslaved the local population by tens of thousands to labor in the
other public works, for gold-seeking was evidently their state monopoly.
A Vanished People
They came, they dwelt, they vanished. That is
know about them. What they were like, what their domestic habits, what
took ship from, to what land returned, how they spent their leisure, in
they abode, whither they carried their dead for burial – of all these
many others we are utterly ignorant.
But Mr. Andrew Lang, with that fine touch of
put the problem in a little poem that once he wrote at my request for a
which I was interested at the time, so much better than I can do, that
I will quote
a couple of his verses:
the darkness whence
They passed; their country knoweth none.
They and their gods without a name
Partake the same oblivion.
Their work they did, their work is done,
Whose gold, it may be, shone like fire,
About the brows of Solomon,
And in the House of God's Desire.
The pestilence, the desert spear,
Smote them; they passed, with none to tell
The names of them that labored there;
Stark walls and crumbling crucible,
Strait gates and graves, and ruined well,
Abide, dumb monuments of old;
We know but that men fought and fell,
Like us, like us for love of gold.
The thing is strange, almost terrifying to
We modern folk are very vain of ourselves. We can hardly conceive a
state of affairs
on this little planet in which we shall not fill a large part; when for
purposes, except for some obscure traces of blood, our particular race,
the Teutonic, the Gallic, whatever it may be, has passed away and been
Imagine London, Paris, Berlin, Chicago, and those who built them,
such things may well come about; indeed, there are forces at work in
although few folk give a thought to them, which seem likely to bring
a great deal sooner than we anticipate.
As we think today, so doubtless these
Himyarites, or whoever they may have been, thought in their day.
Remember, it must
have been a great people that without the aid of steam or firearms
could have penetrated,
not peacefully, we may be sure, into the dark heart of Africa, and
there have established
their dominion over its teeming millions of population.
Under The Conquerors
Probably the struggle was long and fierce – how
their fortifications show, for evidently they lived the overlords, the
of hostile multitudes; yes, multitudes and multitudes, for there are
in Rhodesia where, for league after league, even the mountainsides are
by the patient, laborious toil of man, that every inch of soil might be
for the growth of food. Yet these fierce Semitic traders broke their
brought them under the yoke; forced them to dig in the dark mines for
gold, to pound
the quartz with stone hammers and bake it in crucibles; forced them to
hard granite and ironstone to the shape and size of the bricks whereto
accustomed in their land of origin, and, generation by generation, to
build up the
mighty, immemorial mass of temple fortresses.
When did they do it? No one knows, but from the
of the ruins to the winter or the summer solstice, or to northern
think that the earliest of them were built somewhere about two thousand
Christ. And when did they cease from their labors, leaving nothing
behind them but
these dry-built walls – for, although they were proficient in the
cement, they used no mortar – and the hollow pits whence they had dug
and the instruments with which they treated it? That no scholar can
tell us, although
many scholars have theories on the matter. They vanished, that is all.
the subject tribes, having learned their masters' wisdom, rose up and
them to the last man; and in those days there was no historian to
record it and
no novelist to make a story of the thing.
Solemn, awe-inspiring, the great elliptical
of Zimbabwe still stands beneath the moon, which once doubtless was
its courts. In it are the altars and the sacred cone where once the
prayer, or perchance offered sacrifice of children to Baal and to
The People of the Sun
On the hill above, amidst the granite boulders,
the fortress, and all round stretch the foundation blocks of a dead
city. Here the
Makalanga, that is, the People of the Sun, descendants without doubt of
conquerors and the native races, still make offerings of black oxen to
of their ancestors – or did so till within a few years gone. The
temple, too, or
so they hold, is still haunted by those spirits; none will enter it at
of the beginning of it all these folk know nothing. If questioned, they
that the place was built by white men "when stones were soft"; that is,
countless ages ago.
What a place it must have been when the
the carven vultures, each upon its soapstone pillar, stood in their
the broad, flat tops of the walls, when the goldsmiths were at work and
trafficked in the courts, when the processions wound their way through
passages, and the white-robed, tall-capped priests did sacrifice in the
Where did they bury their dead, one wonders.
these, as yet, no cemetery has been found. Perhaps they cremated them
and cast their
ashes to the winds. Perhaps they embalmed them, if they were
individuals of consequence,
and sent them back to Arabia or to Tyre, as the Chinese send home their
while humbler folk were cast out to the beasts and birds. Or perhaps
lie in deep and hidden kloofs among the mountains.
The Fine Souls
We have a debt to every great heart, to every
to those who have put life and fortune on the cast of an act of
justice; to those
who have added new sciences; to those who have refined life by elegant
'Tis the fine souls who serve us, and not what is called fine society.
The Boston Tea Party -- [A Poem]
L. B. Mitchell, Michigan
Three ships left Albion's docks with tea.
They little dreamed of what destiny planned
As they sailed away to the western land,
For to Boston harbor they were bound
Where the proud old world got turned around.
Now the Colonist loved his tea to sip
'Twas the stamp thereon made him "bite his lip."
And he vowed that there would trouble be
If the King sent on the stamp taxed tea.
So the local Masonic Lodge, you see,
Planned to have a "party" when came the tea.
And the secret they kept till it came in, –
Now soon the festivities would begin.
The communication to order came
And outlined the details of the "game."
The Junior Warden from labor, then
Called to refreshments the waiting men.
And soon they went out as Indians red,
And the chief, the Junior Warden, led.
And the whoops that rang in the streets that night
Were the signals that started the Colonies right.
And on and on to the wharf they flew,
And no sentry or watchman their errand knew.
Their torches flared that December night,
And their hatchets gleamed in the somber light.
And they brushed the sailors aghast aside
And consigned the tea to the ocean's tide.
And as o'er the railings the chests were flung
They were smashed with the hatchets deftly swung.
And those "reds" ceased not till the cargoes three
Were "brewing" away in the "salted sea."
And back to the Lodge they swiftly sped
As Revere, the Junior Warden, led.
And SOME things were said that had the ring
Of eternal defiance to the King!
No tax, not agreed, will we ever pay
On the goods of the realm sent to Boston Bay!
And the Lodge was closed in its due form
As the gray in the east foretold the morn.
* * *
So it was that this way of "serving the tea"
Set the fires that made the Colonies free.
And from this time on till victory came
The Masonic Colonist was "in the game."
And the Nation should ever its tribute pay
To the "party" that night in Boston Bay.
The Empty Boats -- [A Poem]
do I see these empty boats, sailing on airy
One haunted me the whole night long, swaying with every breeze,
Returning always near the eaves, or by the skylight glass:
There it will wait me many weeks, and then, at last, will pass.
Each soul is haunted by a ship in which that soul might ride
And climb the glorious mysteries of Heaven's silent tide
In voyages that change the very metes and bounds of fate
– O, empty boats, we all refuse, that by our windows wait!
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
– No. 4
Edited By Bro. Robert I.
Clegg, Caxton Building, Cleveland Ohio
Freemasonry and Monasticism
in the Middle Ages
By R.I. Clegg
THERE are some old documents known to us, as
Charges. These show that the Freemasons of the middle ages possessed a
peculiar to themselves. This tradition dealt with the origin of Masonry
invention of geometry, that branch of the liberal arts and sciences
so largely into the practice of the craft whether operative or
in his book. "The Hole Craft and Fellowship of Masons," [Lib*] says
"this tradition was without doubt largely due to the clerical influence
over their calling."
Not only is this very probable but there is
evidence to indicate that the oldest of these Ancient Charges was
written by one
holding office in the Church.
This contact of the Lodge and the Church is not
From the most remote antiquity Masons have built structures to house
of the Deity. At all stages of the work they have been associated with
They were also intimately allied with those religious orders affiliated
This fact is of itself sufficient to account
semi-religious body that the Masons became. It explains the moral
teaching and the
curious traditions found embedded so intimately within the Masonic
which has so freely drawn upon the sacred books of the Church and from
Brother Conder says further:
was the fact. It is therefore without surprise that about the end of
or early in the fifteenth century we find a document, evidently founded
on a much
earlier one (or on remote oral traditions) which recites the supposed
the Fellowship of Masons, and lays down rules for the guidance of its
the same time inculcating a behavior and conduct, which if not a
is as regards ordinary workmen greatly in advance of the spirit of the
far beyond that practiced by the other trades. No doubt this was to
craft in maintaining its ancient worthy position, and in order that its
might continue to hold their ancient and honorable station."
"As the beauty
of the so-called Gothic architecture advanced under the wing of the
of Masonry, wherein the elements of Euclid were taught to the higher
operative masons, became attached to certain religious houses and from
time to time
efficient workmen left these schools for work further afield."
"Not only in their
structural designs but in the decoration of their buildings the old
liberal employment of the principles set forth by the great
In the construction of the equilateral triangle entering into the very
of Euclid's famous "Elements" [Lib 1806] there was shown to the Master
Mason a new form for
the arch, a suggestion for the familiar trifoil representative of the
by the intersection of the circles he was symbolically shown "the Deity
present where the eternity of the past overlapped the eternity of the
was, and is, and is to be."
"If we follow
the details of Gothic architecture, we shall see that the triangle and
form the keystone to that ornamental tracery for which this style is
symbolical language of Masonry, together with the use of the Mason's
compasses, would doubtless be used by the ecclesiastics as an object
lesson to the
workmen engaged on the sacred edifice and so become incorporated in the
of their gild. The Masons at the cathedrals and other large
were attached to the monastery, and often a technical school of Masonry
by the monks who in teaching the craft would not forget the higher or
meaning to be derived from the geometrical figures used in tracing
Thus far I quote Brother Conder.
How far is this vision borne out by the facts?
mind it has a very reasonable foundation. Let us take but one of the
orders and compare it with Freemasonry. I will not now take the time or
go carefully into a comparison of the Ancient Charges or any part of
them with the
rules and regulations laid down by any order of monks. Such a
comparison while interesting
is largely unnecessary because for all practical purposes the
of today are similar to those given in the old charges. You may
for yourselves what I may say of any monastic institution and determine
it resembles the Freemasonry that is known to you by its distinctive
ceremonies, by our authorized and familiar monitor and ritual.
We will, if you please, consider then the order
Benedict. That great lawgiver, dying in the year 542, saw one night in
the whole world gathered together under one beam of the sun. So states
the following century and the tale has come down the long years. In the
this very suggestive illumination his followers had great breadth in
Said the Venerable Bede: [Lib 1845, Vol 1, Vol 2 (see Vol 1, page
"You know, my
brother, the custom of the Roman Church in which you remember you were
But it pleases me that if you have found anything either in the Roman
or the Gallican,
or any other Church, which may be more acceptable to Almighty God, you
make choice of the same, and sedulously teach the Church of the
English, which as
yet is new in the Faith, whatsoever you can gather from the several
things are not to be loved for the sake of places, but places for the
sake of good
things. Choose therefore from every Church those things that are pious,
and upright, and when you have, as it were, made them up into one body,
minds of the English be accustomed thereto."
Such were the instructions of Gregory to
Newman has given us in the Mission of St.
Europe [Lib 1888-97, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, (see Vol 2 page
so richly colored by his affectionate regard for the brethren that it
"Silent men were
observed about the country, or discovered in the forest digging,
cleaning, and building;
and other silent men, not seen, were sitting in the cold cloister
tiring their eyes
and keeping their attention on the stretch, while they painfully
copied and recopied, the manuscripts which they had saved. There was no
contended or cried out, or drew attention to what was going on; but by
woody swamp became a hermitage, a religious house, a farm, an abbey, a
a seminary, a school of learning, and a city. Roads and villages
connected it with
other abbeys and cities which had similarly grown up; and what the
or fierce Attila had broken to pieces these patient meditative men have
together and made to live again. And then, when they had in the course
of many years
gained their peaceful victories, perhaps some new invaders came, and
with fire and
sword undid their slow and persevering toil in an hour. Down in the
dust lay the
labor and civilization of centuries- -churches, colleges, cloisters,
and nothing was left to them but to begin all over again; but this they
grudging, so promptly, cheerfully, and tranquilly, as if it were by
some law of
nature that the restoration came; and they were like the flowers and
great trees which they reared, and which when ill-treated do not take
or remember evil, but give forth fresh branches, leaves and blossoms,
greater profusion or with richer quality, for the very reason that the
rudely broken off."
Of Dunstan, whose work in the restoration after
ravages of war was notable, Newman recites:
"As a religious
he showed himself in the simple character of a Benedictine. He had a
taste for the
arts generally, especially music. He painted and embroidered; his skill
work is recorded in the well-known legend of his combat with the evil
as the monks of Hilarion joined gardening with psalmody, and Bernard
and his Cistercians
joined field work with meditation, so did St. Dunstan use music and
directly expressive or suggestive of devotion. 'He excelled in writing,
molding in wax, carving in wood and bone, and in work in gold, silver,
brass,' says the author of his life in Surius, 'and he used his skill
instruments to charm away from himself and others their secular
to raise them to the theme of heavenly harmony, both by the sweet words
he accompanied his airs and by the concord of the airs themselves.'"
We are told that when a young man desired to
monastery of St. Augustine he had to remain for some time in the guest
a postulant. When the day was fixed for the admission, or as it was
"rastura," the shaving of his head, the prior gave him notice that
days before he was to dine with the abbat. The abbat would then call
the prior and
two of the seniors, and they appointed the novice-master who was
charged to instruct
him in all that was necessary for his state, and to supply all his
wants. The abbat,
then, after some kind words, left the youth in the hands of the master,
him and found out if he had everything he wanted for the time of his
The postulant was then warned to cleanse his
confession if necessary, and was then instructed in the rudiments of
These instructions were spread over the intervening days on one of
which the postulant
dined with the prior.
On the day appointed the postulant attended
and made an offering after the reading of the Gospel. His master then
took him to
the chapel and there prepared him diligently for the ceremony.
When the hour arrived he went with his master
chapter house where the brethren were assembled and prostrated himself
He was then asked what he desired and he
the usual form. He was then bidden to arise, and was told by the abbat
and trying was the life that he desired.
Then he was asked if he was freeborn. Was he in
health and free from any incurable disease? Was he ready to accept
well as pleasant things, to obey and bear ignominy for the love of
Christ? To these
questions he replied "Yes, by the grace of God."
Continuing the examination the abbat asked if
had ever been professed in any other stricter order; whether he was
bound by any
promise of marriage, and was he free from debt and irregularity.
On receiving an answer in the negative the
his prayer; and he was forthwith taken by the novice-master to have his
and be invested with the monastic habit.
Gould [Lib 1906, Vol 2, (see page 353)] gives us the essentials
of the initiation into the order of St. Benedict as:
"The vow was to
be made with all possible solemnity, in the chapel, before the relics
in the shrine,
with the abbot and all the brethren standing by, and once made it was
to be irrevocable."
He further points out the relation of the
darkness as connected with death and initiation. Upon the matter of the
he had the advantage of quoting directly from a communication sent to
him by an
eyewitness, and which was given in the following terms:
"St. Paul’s without
the walls of Rome is a basilica church, and in the apse behind the high
altar had been fitted up. The head of the Benedictines is a mitered
abbot. On this
morning the abbot was sitting as I entered the church, with his miter
on his head
and crozier in hand. Soon after our entrance a young man was led up to
who placed a black cowl on his head. The young man then descended the
upon his knees, put his hands as in the act of prayer, when each of the
came up and, also on their knees, kissed him in turn. When they had
velvet cloth, with gold or silver embroidery on it, was spread in front
of the altar;
on this the young man lay down and a black silk pall was laid over him.
semblance of a state of death he lay while mass was celebrated by the
this was finished, one of the deacons of the mass approached where the
lay, and muttered a few words from a book he held in his hand. I
the words used were from the Psalms, and were to this effect: 'Oh thou
arise to everlasting life.' The man then arose, was led to the altar,
where I think
he received the sacrament, and then took his place among the
The significant numbers three, five and seven
found to be employed by the Benedictines. There were "three voices" to
be recognized among the brethren in the chapter. These were the ones of
the answerer, and the judge.
Another "five voices" were those of him who
presided, the guardians of the order; the precentor and succentor; the
charged with keeping the silence, "because silence is called the key of
whole order"; and then the almoner and sub-almoner. These five in their
were the first to proclaim anyone who through their respective offices
had infringed the rules. The monk so proclaimed had to go out into the
the chapter and prostrating made confession of his fault, and saying
(I have done wrong) and promising amendment then received penance and
Everyone who had ceased to be under ward had a
to speak in the chapter on "three points"; defects in the public
the breaking of silence, and the distribution of alms. On all other
must ask leave to speak.
In processions there was to be preserved a
of "seven" feet between each of the monks.
But sufficient has been pointed out to serve
These extracts will be found highly suggestive to the thoughtful Mason
recall much that is bound up in his own experience.
* * *
Hints for Further Research
The two preceding issues of the Bulletin have
number of references for the study of Freemasonry in the middle ages.
To these I
may add the two volumes entitled "The Black Monks of St. Benedict,"
[Lib 1897, Vol 1, Vol 2] by E. L. Taunton,
and published by John C. Nimmo of London, and Longmans, Green and Co.,
Free use of this work has been made for presenting the above facts.
In response to your "Get Together" letter
of September, let me present "Keystone Kraftsmen Klub" as a new member
of the Correspondence Circle.
This is the beginning of an earnest, active
of Craftsmen who desire to know why and how they are known as Masons.
The announced purposes are given as "the
of greater efficiency in degree work, a practical knowledge of the
and a better understanding of the tenets and philosophy of Masonry."
An invitation was extended to all Master Masons
in this vicinity as well as to the members of Keystone Lodge No. 153,
F. & A.
M., upon the regular monthly Lodge notice.
Permanent organization was perfected on Tuesday
November 7, the brethren present including the Master, Junior Warden,
and a Past Master. At this meeting it was decided to follow Masonic
than an elaborate code of by-laws for the government of the sessions.
The presiding officer is to be the Master of
Lodge if he be a member of the Klub. If he is not a member, a vice
take the chair. The purpose of this is many sided as you will see. In
place, we are sure of the "brightest" Mason being in the chair, that we
shall have him handy for information as to what he desires in the Lodge
administration, that he can see that his staff of officers is efficient
work, and also see that nothing but good Masonic subjects are studied.
He is not
expected to take an active part in the preparation of papers unless he
The Chairman of the Program Committee, who
assistant, will assign all topics for papers, by and with the advice of
He will assist the members in the preparation of papers, advise them as
to find the information desired, if possible, and act as Librarian of
The Treasurer will also be the Chairman of the
Committee. He and his assistant will pass upon all applications for
collect the dues, issue membership cards, which are to be signed by the
and keep the funds, paying them out by check.
The Secretary, then, has but his minutes and
For the present our dues are $2.00 per year,
Meetings will be held on the second and fourth
of the month, except during June, July and August. The second meeting
in June is
to be used as a "Pilgrimage" to some place of Masonic interest.
It is proposed to secure speakers on special
from time to time, and issue special invitations therefor.
One of the first benefits to be secured is a
course of instruction for candidates, and an established school of
the officers, in floorwork as well as the lectures. The floorwork to be
in the Lodge room.
We shall be pleased to be put in touch with
through the "clearing house" you have established, and to receive
at any time.
The Keystone Kraftsmen Klub will thoroughly
articles published in "The Builder," and Keystone Lodge will receive as
much benefit from this club as it will agree to hear.
With best wishes for success in your great work,
T. George Middleton,
Chairman Programme Committee.
This excellent plan should fully fill that
want of which I am hearing so much. A skilfully planned administration
it is, hinging
as it should upon close contact with Lodge authority and making
An ideal arrangement truly from many points of view and cannot but be
Say, Brother Middleton, when you arrange that "Pilgrimage" in June,
do not fail to let me know of it. If within easy reach of the
possibilities I shall
gladly join you. And in the meantime kindly continue to keep me in
touch with your
* * *
New Work for the Fellowcrafts
I was a little surprised to see a portion of my
some time since printed in THE BUILDER of November. Your offer to help
off is timely and good.
There is connected with Adelphi Lodge an
called the Fellow-craft Club whose primary aim is to keep the Brothers
in line so
that we may have a full, well-drilled floor team. It appealed to me
that I could
put the proposition of a Study Club up to the F. C. club and if they
took it up
it would help me in getting the study idea going in New Haven.
I met with them last evening and the idea was
up more enthusiastically than I dared hope. I told them briefly what I
do and asked them to think it over until next meeting one month hence –
being that I would rather drop the whole thing than have to be and make
enthusiasm myself. They voted to subscribe for THE BUILDER and next
month I am to
address them on the modest subject of "Masonic Law" and at that time
a modus operandi.
This is where you come in. I have my
and time of meeting. Our idea is to use perhaps an hour of the club's
in this way. I should like some advice as to program and methods of
the good of the Craft in general and Adelphi Lodge in particular I want
a success of it. Our club has 72 members on the list and there was an
of 13 besides myself last evening and this was normal for no one but
knew what I was about to propose.
I apologize for writing so long a letter but I
to show my proposition from all sides thinking also that it might help
Brother to know of the F. C. Club and perhaps organize one which would
with actual Lodge service as ours will if we succeed.
Julius H. McCollum,
Sec'y Adelphi Lodge No. 63, New Haven, Conn.
Suppose you try out the Keystone Kraftsmen Klub
by Brother Middleton in this issue. When you run out of papers prepared
by any of
your members, try one of mine. In every issue of THE BUILDER I aim to
paper on some question of interest to my Brother Masons. If I don't
happen to take
such lines of study as in your judgment may seem most desirable, kindly
let me know.
But your situation is so closely akin to that of Brother Middleton's
that I wish
you would put into practice as far as possible and let us know the
have something to do with a Masonic Club, being President of a Masonic
of considerable size. To many of us your experience will be of the
* * *
Lodge Is a School
In late issue of THE BUILDER many writers are
the importance of making the Lodge a Study Club. Really if we had taken
that is what a Lodge is, and always has been, a place where "Masons
where the "Worshipful Master gives good and wholesome instruction,"
It is a hopeless task to try to get up anything new in Masonry. All
that is best
for man physically and spiritually, and the sanest, simplest way of
doing it, has
been culled from the wisdom of ages, so that all that remains for him
to do is to
put in practice the beautiful system, to the end that life on earth may
normal, easy to live and full of intense enjoyment. By all means revive
practice and make the Lodge a study club.
A. K. Bradley,
True enough! A Lodge is the place for work and
Just as a diamond reflects all rays of light with added glory in color
and in brilliance
so has the Lodge, to the seeing eye, to the informed intellect, to the
mind, a message of grouped facts and instruction borrowed from the near
remote past. Converging in that geometrical crystal of history that we
Lodge, our priceless heritage should there be turned into glowing
radiance of service,
a truly perfect reflection in new uses of old tenets, the ancient made
do well to remind us that the Lodge is a School. Would that our hearts
open to its teaching.
* * *
Putting It Up To George
We had a meeting for the starting of a Study
Wednesday last, in the Scottish Rite Club Rooms of our Temple. There
were but five
men present – discouragement enough for any five men. However, we have
like Antaios, doubly determined that by our own endeavors and your
shall receive further light in Masonry.
Accordingly we have set a second meeting for
November 23, at the same place and for the same purpose. We have set it
into the future that we can have opportunity to communicate with all
Fraternal Lodge No. 37 has nobly come to our assistance and instructed
to send a postal card notice of this meeting to all its members. Our
Trinity No. 208, has a notice of it published in its monthly Bulletin.
intend to have it noticed on all bulletin boards, and in the City
We are especially interested in the closing
of your letter in which you offer your valued assistance in preparing
organizing. Will you kindly send me what you have on this so that I can
a plan of organization at the meeting?
310 City Hall, Davenport, Iowa.
* * *
In response to your letter of recent date I am
you herewith a copy of the by-laws adopted by the Boone, Iowa, Study
Club. You will
note that their code is a model of simplicity and, it would seem to me,
adopted by other Clubs with very little modification. They have
provided for three
officers: a President, Vice-President and a Secretary-Treasurer which
all that should be required.
Some Study Clubs are asking us for a
of study to cover a period of six months or a year. Others are using
articles which appear each month in the "Correspondence Circle
Personally I consider the latter course more preferable.
Brother Clegg is making a series of the
them up one with the other, and they are going to prove fascinating as
well as instructive.
This, to my mind, is what the Brethren want, the majority of them will
to be loaded up with dry facts and specific data which they cannot
all the Brethren will agree in the opinions expressed by Brother Clegg
is not to
be expected. In fact the articles are written with a view of inviting
of diverse opinions of the members of the Study Clubs.
We want them to prepare papers on the subjects
read and discussed at the same meetings at which Brother Clegg's
articles are used,
and to send copies of their papers to us so that we may forward them to
For this reason we shall ask the Clubs to use
Clegg's articles at their meetings a month later than their appearance
in THE BUILDER
in order to enable the Study Club members to prepare their papers on
and mail copies of them to us not later than the fifteenth of the
so that we may have time to copy them here and send them out to the
in advance of their meetings.
We also hope that the Study Club Secretaries
us each month a report of their proceedings so that we at Anamosa may
be kept in
close touch with each individual Club.
I shall anxiously await the result of your
wish you every success in the organization of your Club.
Geo. L. Schoonover,
Brother Schoonover's answering letter fills the
in so many directions that I could not refrain from publishing it.
it does so clearly the desire we all have for a frank and thorough
the papers published in the Bulletin, I sincerely trust its suggestions
followed with zest and with all practicable regularity. Of many minds
Differences of opinion are common to us upon various branches of
No one, least of all myself, should fail to welcome every effort at a
of Masonry. To bring about a wholesome regard for study and for
students among Masons,
to set a still larger section than ever of the Craft to work, to do
in a cheering spirit and systematic style, is indeed a task. But
great encouragement. And many thanks for that compliment, G. L. S.
* * *
Developing Individual Effort
in the Study Club
A word about our Study Club may be of interest.
a membership of fifteen with an attendance of about twelve, and at this
taking up the study of Brother Newton's book, "The Builders." [Lib 1914] We assign two questions
to each member for each semi-monthly meeting, we first gave a greater
questions, and confined the answers to the book answers but found this
as we frequently departed from the book for other information, and
found that the
study lasted longer than we believed best for a continued interest in
So we decided to limit it to two questions and allow the members to
the book answers and give a review of the question assigned from any
desired to follow.
Our dues are one dollar per year. We frequently
a luncheon or dinner prior to the study, and on occasion, we gave an
the consideration of Masonic poetry to which we invited the ladies,
the guests selections to read or recite.
We are pleased with the interest in the club
observe that the members dislike to miss a single meeting, and
other important functions in order to be present.
The by-laws of the Boone, Iowa, club are of
but we do not think they are as well adapted to a club having in mind
effort, as those adopted by our club.
Our purpose is to make every member a student
turn an instructor, to require individual study and effort, and in
order to accomplish
this object, we have limited the membership to fifteen, believing that
if a greater
number desire to become members, that a second club would be a greater
than to have so many members that the individual effort might be
In the notes of the Study Club Department we
the plan suggested of a larger membership, would require instruction
more in the
nature of a lecture, this we believe would be instructive for the hour,
but it is
not the kind of effort that will stay with the student.
We shall be pleased to have any suggestions
to time, and will be glad to submit special papers as we have
Cooper, President Masonic Study Club, Canon City, Colo.
Whether a Study Club shall be large or small is
offhand an easy question for me to answer. Your point, Brother Cooper,
worth pondering. It is not quite the same question as to the preference
large lodges and small ones, as I see your position. Do we not all
agree that there
should be more complete circulation of Masonic knowledge among the
far then shall we restrict Study Club membership? Of course there may
be a distinct
advantage in independent meetings, and even of an organization
separately, of the
leaders, the "instructors," to use Brother Cooper's term. But in some
way the work of the Study Club ought to get before the brethren at
large. You recognized
this social impulse in most commendable style, Brother Cooper, when you
your audience to include the ladies. Why should we not oftener plan for
to that sex? The idea seems eminently deserving of imitation. Here are
of the Boone Club:
BOONE MASONIC STUDY CLUB
Constitution and By-Laws
PREAMBLE – The Masons of Boone, Iowa, being
of obtaining for themselves "Further Light in Masonry," and of
to the best of their ability the Cause of Masonic Research, for the
good of the
Order, hereby associate themselves into an organization for Masonic
Study and Research.
ARTICLE I – The name of this organization shall
Boone Masonic Study Club.
ARTICLE II – The object of this organization
the improvement of its membership in Masonic knowledge
ARTICLE III – The Club shall be composed of
Masons as, having expressed a desire for "Further Light in Masonry,"
make application for membership and be elected thereto by a majority
vote of the
ARTICLE IV – The officers of this Club shall be
Vice-President and Secretary-Treasurer, elected by a majority vote of
present at the December meeting of each year. The duties of these
be such as usually appertain to their respective positions, and the
absence of one
or more of them shall automatically place the responsibilities of
the meetings of the Club upon the officer next in order as above
newly elected officers are to assume their duties at the January
meeting next following
ARTICLE V – The meetings of the Club shall be
on the third Wednesday evening of each month, and the hour shall
correspond to the
hours of meeting of Mt. Olive Lodge No. 79. Special meetings may be
held when deemed
necessary for the good of the Club.
ARTICLE VI – Dues in the Club shall be
annually, payable in advance. These dues shall be applied to the
of the Club, subject to the decision of the three principal officers.
ARTICLE VII – There shall be only one standing
the Program Committee, which shall be composed of the three principal
The President shall have power to appoint any other committees he may
ARTICLE VIII – This Constitution and By-Laws
amended at any regular meeting of the Club, such amendment having been
in writing at the next previous meeting, by a two-thirds vote of the
* * *
Masonic Study Club in Session
As my last endeavor to inform you of our
so favorable response, I am going to try again and hope you will be
able to see
our weakness and help us strengthen it.
Meeting of four brethren; two interested
Preface of Mackey's "Symbolism" read and
directed to explanation of the ritual of Wisconsin given the candidate,
he is informed that the lessons of Masonry are taught by types, emblems
figures. A full comprehension of this work would undoubtedly clear many
mind of the confusion which appears to prevail.
We then read Speth's "What is Freemasonry,"
[Lib 1893] each taking turns
reading and others taking notes on points to be raised. A discussion
A brief description of Anderson's "Book of
(<Lib 1723) was given
and attention particularly directed to regulation 39 and its
significance. The question
was also brought out that among Masonic students there are several
schools of thought
and that Bro. G.W. Speth belonged to what might be called a critical or
and furthermore, that, while Speth, Gould, Hughan and others of their
critical in their method and did not wish to give as history anything
doubtful, they freely admitted that much lay outside the scope of their
and they were not dogmatic in their views of the origin of Masonry.
The following questions were also asked all of
were not fully answered:
- How far
does Masonry antedate Christ's time?
- Does the
Bible conflict with the teachings of Masonry?
- Who were
the ancient Magi?
- Are the
Magi the same as spoken of in the Bible as bringing their book to the
burning them? (Acts 19:19-)
- Who were
the great world characters who were Masons?
the meaning of cowan?
As exhibit we had: Reprint of "H. F. Beaumont
Reprint of "York rolls." Fac simile of "Regius Ms." Reprint
of "Anderson's Book of Constitutions" (1723).
Questions discussed at previous meeting were
upon and meeting was closed with everybody pleased and happy.
In answer to Question 1, the different schools
were mentioned and it was considered one of those problems which we, in
class, must not try to solve but leave open for our best efforts when
ourselves proficient in the elementary work.
Question No. 2 was unanimously decided in the
For the information of the Brother asking
3 and 4, I am loaning him "Arcane Schools" [Lib 1909] (page 79 contains
reference), "History of Initiation" [Lib 1855] (lecture IV has some light),
History" (Book 4, Art. 4, has reference) [Lib 1823; Vol 4], and references in
Gould's History, and will look up such others as I can.
Question No. 5 is one none of us were qualified
answer but we will be on the lookout and note them as much as possible.
I have a
fairly good idea of our most noted American Masons.
Question No. 6 was answered by Mackey's
Hoping this may be of use to you and that by
criticism you may help us, I am, Yours to find the key to the door of
Silas H. Shepherd, Hartland, Wis.
Just the thing I want. To tell me of
what you are
trying to do and how you are going about it and what you have to do
with is the
sort of story that whets my Masonic interest to the acme of keenness.
I can tell you of any way to better what you have in hand. Anything
from me may
sound presumptuous. But I'll risk it if only to show my desire to lend
What a wealth of material you possess! Is there
just a little danger that the very amount of it may oppress and deter
inquirer from going ahead on his own more limited course of research?
me have your advice on this matter. You have doubtless noticed that I
try to give
references in my own articles and I do like to lay hands on sources of
readily available for everybody. We must make it easy for the average
Mason to start
I'm not concerned with accelerating the
brethren of the Hartland quality. They are speeded up in great style.
But I do worry
over what we can do to enthuse those whose opportunities and capacities
less auspicious. I rely upon your help in this work. Please continue to
the active benefit of your goodwill and of your valued criticism.
Regulation 39, to which you refer, will be
"Every Annual Grand Lodge has an inherent Power
and Authority to make new Regulations, or to alter these, for the real
this ancient Fraternity: Provided always that the old Landmarks be
and that such Alterations and new Regulations be proposed and agreed to
at the third
Quarterly Communication preceding the Annual Grand Feast; and that they
also to the Perusal of all the Brethren before Dinner, in writing, even
of the Youngest
Apprentice; the Approbation and Consent of the Majority present being
necessary to make the same binding and obligatory; which must, after
after the new Grand Master is install'd be solemnly desir'd; as it was
obtain'd for these REGULATIONS, when propos'd by the GRAND LODGE, to
about 150 Brethren,
on St. John Baptist's Day, 1721."
Your Question 5 reminds me of the long list
the Annual of the International Bureau for Masonic Affairs. It includes
though I am not aware of any evidence to prove his membership. However,
la-Tente's lists of Mašons
importantes de l'Histoire de la Mašonnerie were
undertaken with all sincerity by that enthusiastic Freemason and it is
to be hoped
that they may be corrected wherever amendment is found necessary. Is
there any record
connecting Lincoln with the Craft as an initiate?
* * *
The Organization of Study
I find that there exists in many sections a
desire for some more formal scheme of organization than has so far been
by me. From the National Masonic Research Society's headquarters at
there is sent to every inquirer a list of the fellow members in his
that he can make a very convenient start at the organization of Study
Club. If steps
to this end have already been made then the inquirer gets the addresses
already active, and every effort is made to set him at work under the
auspices. So far so good.
But more is asked. Too often there is a
"stick on the way" and the launching of the enterprise does not then
rapidly enough to suit a very natural and common desire for results.
* * *
Expert Assistance at the
If we could but send on a competent brother to
the work, offer advice, instruct the officers, lay out a preliminary
course of work,
we could leave the members busy, pleased, ambitious, and resultful.
we shall do something after this style. Some task! Yes, but there is a
now under consideration whereby such an effort may be practically put
But it is far too remote to count upon for the present.
How then shall we bring about that happy
affairs which will satisfy the demand for a formal organization? Not by
system of control at long range or by any unwieldy method of local
the best results be obtained. Just enough to hold all hands together in
plenty. Not too formal lest peradventure "the letter killeth." A just
mean, an even balance, a happy medium is eminently desirable.
* * *
Distribute the Study Club
First of all we must distribute the duties
many members as is possible. On the other hand keep the duties
themselves down to
a minimum. Thus each member will probably have something to do but will
not be burdened
to discouragement. Many hands make light work.
There will be a President to perform the usual
of that office. There will be a Vice-President or two to take charge in
of the President. A Secretary will attend to preparing and sending
notices and the
general correspondence but he should not clutter up his own wheels by
of the proceedings. The Treasurer will handle the funds and collect and
them. Many times the two offices, Treasurer and Secretary, may
profitably be combined.
The Librarian will take charge of such books and magazines and
manuscripts as may
come into the possession of the Club and will distribute them to the
preserve them as required. There will be a Master Builder to prepare
for each meeting. There will be a Critic to see that the subject is
and that definite progress is accomplished. And there will be a
Reporter to keep
the headquarters of our Society at Anamosa regularly informed as to the
is being done.
* * *
Better A Few Faithful than
an Idle Many
Inasmuch as I see no good reason why a Study
say but two or three really loyal and active members cannot do
effective work my
readers will at once understand that I do not deem it necessary to have
of the foregoing positions filled by a separate and distinct brother.
But the titles
and the synopsis of their duties will furnish an idea of the work that
in my opinion
should be accomplished by the officers to maintain satisfactory
progress in research.
* * *
Maintaining an Interest
Programmes depend so much upon individual taste
suggestions can only be made very roughly. Of course the BULLETIN will
along regularly with its notes for various courses of Masonic study so
be no lack of matters for consideration. In the absence of any other
a copy of Mackey's revised Encyclopedia [Lib 1914, or No Graphics] or "THE BUILDERS" and read
that strikes you as especially favorable, the one most to your liking.
reading with a discussion. Prior to the meeting have the Secretary
state the subject
in his announcements, and also have the Critic line up two or more
members to study
the same section or chapter in advance and be prepared to discuss some
it. Any Masonic essay or topic may be examined in the same style.
* * *
Sleepy or Wide-Awake Study
Unless the meetings are of interest, and
strong desire for attendance, we must expect a dormant Club. Much rests
ability of everybody to do his part. Here is indeed the purpose of my
that many hands be actively employed. No one to do very much and yet
all to do a
fair share. Visitors should be invited, but not allowed admission at
meetings unless they are accepted as members. No one should be proposed
unless agreeable to all and willing on his part to be active in doing
be assigned him to do. Continued absence may be challenged and the
If he improves not, then a fine may fit his case if the limit of
expulsion be not
chosen. But the regular meetings of congenial brethren in agreeable
for the instructive examination of matters Masonic would surely be
always that different duties fit different men; one of the very best of
officers known to me would be the poorest of Secretaries; one delighted
to the results of Masonic research is, as I have often found,
indisposed to individual
* * *
Topics to Be Tabooed
Whether the members of a Study Club are all
with the same Masonic bodies or not, there will be matters that in the
it is the part of wisdom to avoid. Questions of Lodge policy, for
be embarrassing if ventilated thoughtlessly in a research organization.
are occasions when the consideration of Lodge practices is as harmless
as any other topic of Masonic importance. Right here is the benefit of
Builder and the President. The one sees that the proper subject is
the other is charged with the duty of allowing none but appropriate
and seemly argument upon it.
* * *
Laying Out the Rules
Having gone thus far in a general way let me
out a set of regulations following the foregoing lines. Fill in the
to suit your collective judgment when organizing.
RULE I. – The name of this Study Club shall be
RULE II. – The purpose shall be the promotion
study and discussion.
RULE III. – The Officers shall be a President,
President, Secretary, Treasurer, Librarian, Master Builder, Critic,
RULE IV. – The President shall perform the
of a Chairman.
RULE V. – The Vice-President shall in the
the President assume the chair and perform all the duties of that
RULE VI. – The Secretary shall keep a record of
proceedings, send out notices of the meetings, prepare and forward to
Masonic Research Society on the date of institution, and regularly
every half year
thereafter on the first day of January and July, a statement of
membership and a
copy of his semi-annual report of receipts and disbursements. He will
to the headquarters of the National Masonic Research Society results of
and appointments of officers and the names and addresses and Lodge
of all new members when they are admitted to membership.
RULE VII. – The Treasurer shall collect and
funds. He shall pay them out only upon orders prepared by the Secretary
by the President.
RULE VIII. – The Librarian shall take charge of
books and magazines and MSS in the possession of this Study Club.
RULE IX. – The Master Builder shall prepare the
for each meeting and assist the President in its most effective
RULE X. – The Critic shall see that proper
takes place at all meetings.
RULE XI. – The Reporter will keep the National
Research Society informed regularly and frequently of the activities of
RULE XII. – The Guard will attend to the door,
messenger, and also introduce new members and visitors.
RULE XIII. – The President, Secretary and the
shall be elected semi-annually by written ballots without any other
The remaining officers shall be appointed by the President. Any officer
may be removed
from office by a two-thirds vote of those present at any meeting called
such vote, all the members having been notified.
RULE XIV. – Meetings shall be held at. .
(place) . .
monthly upon . . (date) . . and punctually at the following time.......
falling upon St. John's Days, the twenty-fourth of June and the
December, or in default of this coincidence of time, the meetings
these dates shall be designated as Election Days.
RULE XV. – Dues shall be payable in advance on
of an applicant for membership, and are again due and payable on
The semiannual dues of each member shall be $......Members in arrears
nor hold office and are subject to expulsion.
RULE XVI. – Applications for membership shall
a prescribed form and the action thereon shall be by ballot, two
the applicant. Any application may be renewed after an interval of six
RULE XVII. – Special meetings may be called by
at any time, or by any three members in good standing.
RULE XVIII. – A quorum for the transaction of
shall consist of not less than..members.
RULE XIX. – Rules may be amended by a
at any meeting of which usual notice he been given.
* * *
And, Finally and Moreover
Say, brother, don't you just ache to start
of this sort? Well, then, don't wait for large numbers. Get two or
three good fellows
like yourself together. Read this story of mine over, to them. Ask,
nay, tell them
to vote "Aye." Then write to the Secretary, George L. Schoonover, at
Iowa. He will help. Topics will be suggested to you. Pointers on
freely to you whenever you want them.
Start something. When you get the data all in
bring together your best studious Masonic friends. Talk it over. The
cost can be
as little as you choose. My notion would be for the pleasantest of
Let there be frequent occasions when refreshments as well as research
will be temperately
relished and good cheer be abundant. Of such was Freemasonry of old.
Handled with prudence, temperance, and zeal,
a goodly assortment of fortitude, these Study Clubs may be sturdy
and enjoyable associations of truly Masonic builders.
* * *
Masonic Study in the Lodge
In the smaller cities, where Lodges are not too
with degree work, it is recommended that the Lodge take up the study of
as a body. The ideal plan would be to set aside one meeting each month
purpose. This could be either a regular or a special meeting. If a
is decided upon, let the Lodge be prompt in opening at the stated time
of the routine business as quickly as possible. Then turn the Lodge
over to the
Chairman of the Program Committee and proceed with the reading and
the articles and papers which have been made ready for presentation.
work, under this plan, would be confined to special meetings. If on the
special meetings are deemed more practical for the purpose, let them be
thirty days apart, selecting if possible a definite meeting night of
This meeting night to be exclusive for study programs.
* * *
How to Present the Proposition
to Your Lodge
The Worshipful Master should be interested,
all. With his sincere co-operation, very much can be accomplished. Then
weeks or a month to advertise the preliminary meeting at which the
to be considered. Have your Secretary emphasize the date and purpose of
in all his notices that are sent out in the meantime. Some Lodges are
notices in their home newspapers. The day before the meeting send out
the last notices,
and urge every member to be present.
At your preliminary meeting the Brother having
of introducing the subject should have all the necessary data for
Some copies of the "Correspondence Circle Bulletin."
Our regular Study Club Bulletin.
The special Bound Volume Offer of the N. M. R.
Some N. M. R. S. Membership Circulars for
This will enable him to outline what the
organizing is, how the papers are to be brought before the members,
what the National
Masonic Research Society is and how it can be of help to your group.
After all the facts are presented and
discussed, a "Research
Committee" should be appointed to take charge of programs, assist the
in preparing papers, lead the discussions, etc. The same Committee, or
as a whole, should also then and there determine how far it wishes to
go in purchasing
books of reference, etc.
The meetings may be called whatever you wish –
Meetings" and "Research Communications" have been suggested for Lodge
use – of course if you organize a Study Club, simply a meeting of it
give notice to all.
These suggestions are by no means complete, but
emphasize the lengths to which we are willing to go in order to make
this work a
success. If you have other suggestions to offer, or if there is any
of organization which you feel like taking up with us, "let it be
* * *
Use of Brother Clegg's Articles
We have thought out the problem of everybody
together along this same outline, and it seems to us that if all Lodges
Clubs will use these articles at their meeting night the month
following their appearance
in the Correspondence Circle Bulletin, we shall all work to better
for this reason: it will enable you to get to us copies of additional
for presentation at your next meeting, and then we can pass them on to
Clubs, who, in their turn, will send us material which we can pass on
to you. For
example, if these copies of your additional papers get to us not later
fifteenth of the month – that is two weeks after THE BUILDER reaches
you – then
we can review them, gather together all the good points and make a
prior to the first of the next month – in other words, in time for your
Such a plan, consistently worked to and systematically carried out,
will give us
all the maximum of benefit – almost as good as having a joint meeting.
communications direct to
NATIONAL MASONIC RESEARCH SOCIETY, Anamosa Iowa.
* * *
Notice to Our Members
If our members will send us a list of the newly
officers in their respective Lodges, we will be very glad to take up
with them ways
and means by which we can be of service to them. It looks very much as
if 1917 were
to be a year of study for many thousands of American Masons, and it is
it should be so. We are prepared to be of material assistance to groups
to have a share in this movement. The foregoing discussion of method
will be followed,
next Month, by an installment, at least, of our Course of Study, which
is now practically
completed. Comprehensive, but based upon books which are easily
accessible to the
student, we believe that any Lodge will be able to follow it through.
of advantage derived, as always, will depend upon the use that is made
of it. And
so, from every point of view, we are anxious that the Brethren should
it – and particularly the Masters and Wardens for 1917.
Democracy is not a mere phrase. It is a spirit,
It is that faith in the excellence of human beings which makes life
It finds that excellence in inclusiveness. It is different from any
other and all
other religions. It has its root in a kind relation to God because it
has a kind
relation to man. It is more than liberty, equality and fraternity. It
is the thing
Lincoln had. It is the thing Whitman had.
Cryptic Masonry and the
By Bro. J. Angus Gillis,
In the beginning I wish to say that in this
there is nothing original. In some instances I have used quotation
marks and at
times give full credit when I have copied verbatim what I have read if
at the time
I remember who made the original remarks, but the assembling of facts
of arguments may be of some value to the Craft.
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite,
claims to have conferred both the Royal and Select Master's degrees at
S.C., in 1783, which was certified from Berlin, Prussia; but Josiah H.
investigated and found that the ritual was not authentic, for while
the Supreme Council as the governing body, the Supreme Council did not
1801. The records show that in 1802 to 1807 the Inspectors General
different degrees, but the Council degrees were not named among them.
The Supreme Council, Northern Jurisdiction,
that the Royal and Select Master's degrees were conferred in the lodge
in New York by Andrew Franken who received his authority from Stephen
Jamaica, Deputy Inspector General, and that Morin was empowered to
rite in the new world by the Emperors of the East and the West in
France; but there
is no evidence to substantiate the claim.
Philip P. Eckles and Hezekiah Niles received
of Select Master in 1792, at Baltimore, from Henry Wiemans, Grand
but there is no record of when, where, or from whom Wiemans received
and Niles conferred it on Jeremy L. Cross in 1807, and Cross conferred
it on a great
many Royal Arch Masons in the North, South and Western parts of the
States; and in 1818 he received the Select Master's degree and united
it with the
Select Mason's of 27, now the Select Master's degree. To Jeremy L.
are we indebted for uniting these two degrees and forming the Cryptic
even if it was from a mercenary motive for disseminating them more
anyone else, until they became independent in their governmental
relations to the
other branches of the American system, it was a real service to the
The origin of all Masonic degrees is unknown;
the Holy Bible, the Great Light of Freemasonry, gives an account of
we know. Our knowledge otherwise is limited, mystic, unauthentic,
denied by some
and averred by others. No one can go back with steady steps through the
and sometimes obliterated pathways of the past, to the time or
birthplace of Masonry.
In discussing the origin of the different
Frederick Speed said:
"One myth after another has vanished into thin
air, until we do not hesitate to aver in writing, that, with scarcely
the ritual of every Masonic degree now produced in these United States,
or was elaborated, since the American revolution, and by Americans; but
admission of this fact does not in the least degree detract from the
character, or claim to an ancient origin of the institution itself."
All Masonic students admit that the origin of
degrees are in doubt, just as are the origin of the Symbolic and
and while there seems to be no doubt but what the Scottish Rite first
them as detached or side degrees, there is the same proof that the
Royal Arch degree
was conferred by the Inspectors General the same way, and under the
until each branch became self-supporting, or expressed a desire to be
or under the jurisdiction of State Grand Chapters and Councils. While
in each branch
or rite in the American system there is an interdependency for
application for membership,
both by affiliation and by receiving the degrees, the system lacks one
link of being
complete, because of its numerical place (except in the Virginias), as
organization does not protect the Council as is done in all the other
For example, the pre-requisite to apply for the
degree is to be a man of lawful age, etc.; for the F. C. is to have
been an E.A.
for a proper length of time; for a M. M. is to have been a F. C. a
of time. As a member of a Symbolic lodge, he may apply for the
and as a member of a Chapter of Royal Arch Masons he may apply for the
or he may skip this link in the series of allegories of Ancient Craft
apply to the Commandery for the Chivalric Orders – the summit of
teaching in the
American system of Freemasonry.
Thus, each degree is a pre-requisite to the
degree, and each branch is a pre-requisite to the succeeding branch.
Each is supported
from below and protected from above, (except the Council), and if the
to Sec. 113 of the Constitution of the Grand Encampment is adopted, the
scheme of Masonic support and protection will be carried out in full.
Masonry is a progressive science consisting of
of degrees, and as practiced in the American system is divided into
rites, which, when taken together, form the complete American system of
Albert Gallatin Mackey said: "I learned from
experience of my early Masonic life, that the character of the
institution was elevated
in every one's opinion, just in proportion to the amount of knowledge
that he had
acquired of its symbolism, philosophy and history." This is why Masonry
something different to each individual. Some think it is simply a "club
good fellows," while to others it is a "system of morals, or even pure
religion," according to their foundation of character, educational and
attainments, previous instructions, etc.; as is evidenced by the
selfish views of some who see only the part that suits their narrow
the deep reverence and wide humanitarian outlook of others; and the
greater the more difference there is in their preliminary Masonic
It is a pleasure to gather together the
of Freemasonry, each different, but deftly built together so that their
as a whole develops the great TRUTH. The Cryptic degrees are so closely
with the degrees of the other branches of the American system, their
utility is unquestioned; their logical necessity is recognized by all
They are thoroughly established and organizations are maintained in
Jurisdiction in the United States; and no one will claim to have
completed the studies
of Ancient Craft Masonry who has not received the Cryptic degrees. This
we do not treat the applicant for further Masonic light justly when we
to skip these links that are explanatory of the 3rd and 7th degrees.
This logically brings to mind the question of
of the Council degrees for the Commandery Orders, which has been before
Encampment for the last three years, and which is to be adopted or
rejected at the
Triennial Conclave in Philadelphia in October, 1919.
There is no good reason why this legislation
not be adopted; for if Cryptic Masonry is good – and it is or
not be maintained – it should have the same protection that is accorded
branches of Masonry. This argument of one's own free will and accord
will not stand
against the acid test of enlightened reason, and the fact of compulsion
in all other degrees and branches comprising the American system of
The Cryptic rite is universally recognized and accepted as a component
part of the
American system, and a legitimate and necessary branch to complete
Masonry; therefore the Commandery should willingly require knowledge of
degrees, Symbolic, Capitular and Cryptic, in order to maintain with
impartial justice its position at the head of the system.
Cryptic Masonry is the top of Ancient Craft
Templary is the top of the American system of Freemasonry; and it is
that it was the intention of the original organizers of Templary in
America to make
all Masonic degrees pre-requisite to the Commandery Orders, for each
at that time was specifically mentioned. The accepted scheme of Masonic
and protection should be carried out full. A Templar should receive all
contained in the system; not be a half or two-thirds, but a complete
If a brother is satisfied with his Masonic
and fraternal associations after taking the Symbolic degrees, well and
a Companion is satisfied after taking the Capitular degrees, it is also
if he then desires to take the Chivalric Orders for the satisfaction of
Templar, or in order to be eligible to take the Shrine, he should also
to take the Cryptic degrees. Each applicant should have the same
teaching, receive the same lessons, learn the same allegories, and miss
the links; for if so, it will be a handicap in accomplishment in
proportion to the
educational attainments along other lines. For, "He who has the key to
science will interpret the whole according to the light he possesses,"
the efficiency of the membership will be marred according to the number
a part of the legends.
The claim that this legislation, if adopted,
the death knell of Templary in some Jurisdictions, is proven not to be
a fact from
the rule and practice in Connecticut, New Hampshire and Ohio, and in
many of the
large subordinate Commanderies; and as the law in some Jurisdictions
applicant for the Capitular degrees to apply and pay for the Cryptic
the same time, experience wholly disproves that the additional fee,
or association as Cryptic Masons, deleteriously affects Templary; e. g.
conditions in Texas and South Carolina.
In every walk and vocation and in every effort
we must advance or retrograde. Accomplishment is effected by individual
effort, and so called Independent Jurisdictions must decide whether
they can accomplish
the most independently or collectively. We must all admit that visits
exchange of idea is an aid to accomplishment, and having this end in
view the National
Masonic bodies have been organized. The General Grand Chapter, General
and the Grand Encampment Knights Templar of the United States of
America are working
(in a broad sense) harmoniously together towards the hope of
great things which are in the heart of every true Mason; and the
question of affiliation
of the so-called Independent Jurisdictions with the National bodies is
good can be accomplished alone or by working in concert with a large
the other Jurisdictions of the United States.
This last phase of the question some may say
to do with pre-requisition, but I think it has, for – "in union there
and every division means a less concerted effort which is a detriment
The Power of Virtue
I think there is some reason for questioning
the body and mind are not so proportioned, that the one can bear all
which can be
inflicted on the other; whether virtue cannot stand its ground as long
and whether a soul well principled will not sooner die than be subdued.
The Lambskin Apron
Arranged By Bro. C. G. Emrich,
Past Deputy Grand Lecturer Of Ohio.
Brother, I am about to present you with the
which is an emblem of innocence and the badge of a Mason, more ancient
Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle, more honorable than the Star and Garter,
or any other
order. And from a time whence the memory of man runneth not to the
emblem, plain and unadorned; has been the peculiar clothing of all
and Accepted Masons. The citizen toiling in humble poverty and the
the resources of empires, have alike worn it in the consciousness that
it has lightened
the labor of the one and added dignity to the power of the other. It
may be that
you are or yet will be so firmly entrenched in the confidence of your
or so deserve their gratitude, that they will elevate you to the
of honor, trust and emolument and cause your name to be inscribed high
pillar of worldly fame. But never before have you had, and never again,
will you have a higher mark of favor and confidence bestowed upon you
which I, as the representative of these brothers and of the craft
world, am now about to bestow – this emblem which King Solomon wore
in all his glory; which invested with additional dignity other kings,
rulers, and which has been eagerly sought and worthily worn by the best
men of your
generation, I now with pleasure present to you. Its spotless white is
of that purity of heart and uprightness of personal manhood which we
sincerely hope will hereafter distinguish the conduct of all your
This emblem is yours to wear, we hope, with pleasure to yourself and
honor to the
fraternity. If you disgrace it, the disgrace will be augmented by the
that you have, in this lodge, been taught the principles of a correct
life. It is yours to wear as a Mason, so long as the "vital spark"
animate your mortal frame; and when at last, whether in manhood or old
spirit shall have winged its flight to that "house not made with
when amid the tears and sorrow of surviving relatives and friends, and
by the hands
of sympathizing brother Masons your body shall be lowered to the
confines of that
narrow house appointed for all living, it will still be yours – to be
the evergreen upon the coffin that shall enclose your remains, and with
in the windowless palace of rest. My brother, may you so wear this
emblem of spotless
white that no act of yours shall ever stain its purity or cast
reflection upon this
ancient and honorable institution, which has outlived the dynasties of
the mutations of empires. May you so wear it and "so live that when
comes to join the innumerable caravan which moves to that mysterious
each shall take his chamber in the silent halls of death," that you may
not like the quarry slave at night, scourged to his dungeon, but
soothed and sustained
by an unalterable trust, approach thy grave like one who wraps the
drapery of his
couch about him and lies down to pleasant dreams."
The White Leather Apron -- [A Poem]
D. W. Clements
white leather apron
is more ancient by far
Than the eagles of Rome, a symbol of war,
Or the fleece of pure gold, by emperors given,
A rich decoration for which many have striven.
The Garter of England, an Order most rare,
Although highly prized, cannot with it compare;
It is an emblem of innocence, symboled in white,
And purity ever brings the greatest delight;
With pure thoughts and actions, how happy the life,
How care-free the conscience, unclouded by strife!
No Potentate ever can upon us bestow
An honor so great as this apron doth show;
No king on his throne in his highest estate
Can give us an emblem so cherished or great;
'Tis the Badge of a Mason, more noble to wear
Than the gold of the mine, or the diamond most rare.
So here's to the lambskin, the apron of white,
That lifts up all equals and all doth unite,
In the Order so ancient that man cannot say
When its teachings began or name its birthday.
Since its birth, nations young have gone to their tomb,
And cities once great turned to ashes and gloom;
Earth's greatest achievements have long passed away,
And peoples have risen and gone to decay.
Outliving all these, never changing with time,
Are the principles taught in our Order sublime.
And now, my good brother, this apron's for you,
May you worthily wear it and ever be true
To the vows you have made, to the lessons most grand;
For these, home and country, we ever will stand.
A Prayer -- [A Poem]
though this life
is but a wraith,
Although we know not what we use,
Although we grope with little faith
Give me the heart to fight and lose.
Ever insurgent let me be.
Make me more daring than devout,
From sleek contentment keep me free,
And fill me with a buoyant doubt.
Open my eyes to visions girt
With Beauty, and with wonder lit –
But let me always see the dirt
And all that spawn and die in it.
Open my ears to music; let
Me thrill with Spring's first flutes and drums, –
But never let me dare forget
The bitter ballads of the slums.
From compromise and things half done
Keep me with stern and stubborn pride
And when, at last, the fight is won,
God, keep me still unsatisfied.
Building the Temple Not
Made With Hands
By Bro. H. L. Haywood, Iowa
IT is the mission of our fraternity to make
and brotherhood prevail. But Brotherhood! It is a world in itself as
wide as it
is ancient which breaks through our definitions and overflows our best
was it more talked about than now when it seems like an angel troubling
pools to a new sense of its inevitability and never has it haunted us
so much as
in this hour, though war seems to make a red mockery of it.
Until two years ago the signs of the time
indicate that at last after all the weary ages of waiting the Kingdom
was at hand. Industry was busy plaiting a web about the earth: throwing
thrumming wires, sending its ships like bobbins to and fro, catching up
caravans as shuttles to its hands, weaving the whole world of men into
a web of
mutual interest and trust. Science toiled quietly at the same task and
hidden forces in ray and wave to serve the wants of men, the while its
carefully built its republic of letters in which was neither free nor
nor Gentile; Democracy went about to cast its leaven under the throne
and Socialists dreamed their dream of a United States of the World.
church's missionary enterprise went out to bind up the ends of the
world into the
kingdoms of our God in which the race's littlest people might find a
place in the
Then, on a fateful day, a young Serbian high
student fired a shot the echoes of which are still heard round the
world. It was
as if some shaggy creature from Dante's pit had crawled out and swept
all this fine
work away with one sweep of its paw. The instruments of fraternity
underwent a change
like the transformation in some horrible dream phantasm when the most
suddenly loom in terrifying aspect. Clouds of battle smoke drifted over
like hell's mirages making our nearest neighbors to look like demons.
impressed into the service of shot and shell. Science went over to the
side of Satan.
Socialists shot each other down from opposing trenches. Philosophers
and poets mobilized
for the warfare of hate. Rival churches prayed from the one God the
boons of victory.
The whole fair web of amity was rent in twain from top to bottom and
turned sick within us to the realization that John Ball spoke the sober
he said, "Brotherhood is heaven; the lack of brotherhood is hell."
But, after all, is not the lack of brotherhood
old thing? The war has not created a new problem but has only served to
ancient problem into bolder relief. Human charity under the sun was as
Abraham tended his flocks as now, and rarer. Who cannot testify to the
disillusionment when he discovered the gray character of men to be so
from the generous estimates of early enthusiasm? When the appearances
were so much more favorable it was still true that deep weariness and
made human life something like a hell, and that men were too much given
Has not this always been the problem of the
What the war has brought us a white focus has always existed there,
though not always
clamant. In that sacred rectangle with the light from the East across
it men have
been subjected to influences constantly appealing to the better angels
nature. Ancient ritualists have played upon them with the soft
insistence of a prayer
and appealed to them as only the truth can when throbbing with the
of a divine poetry. The very atmosphere, as we have all felt, has been
all save these fine appeals and silence, which is finer than all; and a
watchman has been at the gate guarding us against the enemies of love.
But one thing has ever slipped past the tyler,
scarred and twisted human nature. The heart of man is desperately
wicked and full
of deceit, and never more unmasked in its wickedness than in the circle
the Great Light of Masonry is the center. Slander, envy, pride, vanity,
cunning, gossip and silent, vicious innuendos have crept in and always
in while man is man. The lair of anti-brotherhood lies not in outward
in the heart; it is the shadow cast by our unredeemed nature. Armaments
do not create
it, they merely give it vent. We have learned war for so many ages,
and personal war, it has become a part of our very substance, so that
are warped permanently into the ways of strife.
All this is but to say that brotherhood itself
problem. If we hold our hopes in check and do not let our wishes create
we shall all see that fraternity cannot come by any easy incantation.
We want that
men shall deal with each other as if the whole race were one family, as
is, albeit so many of us have not yet made the discovery. This is the
would build. But what imperfect ashlars we men are! To use William
vivid phrase, each of us is in some vital direction "born short." We
twisted and gnarled, selfish and vain, conceited and stubborn,
determined to have
our own way and jealous of our comfort, ready on slight provocation to
say or do
the thing that will wound a brother's heart.
Is this an overstatement of the case? While
thunders about the world one could hardly exaggerate this matter. I
the matter as vigorously as possible in order that we may all the more
be led to
realize the divine potency of that power which, in spite of wars and
wars and the opposition of human perversity, will yet prove itself able
up the shining spires of the temple not made with hands.
Whence can come an illumination able to dispel
darkness? I believe it can come from no other place than from that
Great Light which
lies unfolded on the altar at the center of the lodge. Two brief
twin suns, lie close upon its pages. Let me recall them and then let me
to show how in them lies the principle which alone is capable of coping
enemies of brotherhood.
"Return good for evil." "Love your enemies."
Each of these utterances, on which hang all the
and the prophets, is a wholesale condemnation of the method of
one great condemnation of retaliation is not that it violates some
of morals, but that it will not work. And that is what amazes me about
so many hard
headed men who pride themselves on being "practical," and who have so
much undoubted vigor and good sense! In business these men have
detail to the acid test of workability, creating thereby the new
science of efficiency,
yet in so obvious a transaction as returning evil for evil their sense
of the practical
seems to forsake them. They go on returning evil for evil all the days
life, as if in obedience to some hard and fast law of nature entirely
to the results; indeed seeming never to examine results at all.
What these results are every child can discover
will. When one returns evil for evil, the world is so made that the
possible is the increase of evil. If I return a lie for a lie, I add
one more liar
to the world. If I return slander for slander, two serpent's tongues
where only one hissed before. If I cheat the man who cheated me, the
one more thief. The spirit of evil is as much in the other man as
as a result of my own opposition, resentment has been aroused and he
instead of better. The net result of my retaliation is simply this, the
evil in the world has been increased by it.
Is that success? Does that work? Is such a
any conceivable jugglery of words, to be described as practicable? If
in our dealing with evil is to destroy evil, retaliation manifestly is
because it defeats its own object. If one cares to see this visually
let him step into one of the old-fashioned penitentiaries where the
exposed to the vengeance of society. Society returns evil for evil,
with the result
that the criminal is made more of a criminal than before, so that
the very means of reformation into a school of crime.
If the condemnation of the method of
that it does not work, the glory of the method of returning good for
evil is that
it does work. If a man supposes it a piece of moral moonshine fit only
for an impossible
utopia, he simply confesses that he has not tried it, or at least has
it observingly and thoroughly. Even if it does not wholly succeed, it
has as an
advantage over retaliation the fact that evil is not increased, and
that is more
than can be said for the opposite method.
But, returning good for evil most certainly
than merely refuse to increase the amount of evil; it has a positive
result, which springs from the fact that usually evil will wither up in
of love. For love is not a mere matter of reciprocity; it is a
creating its own ends and conditions, as Henry Demarest Lloyd taught us
in a glorious
book, making something exist where before nothing existed. Love is like
which not only chases away the dark, but brings in the light.
This is the idea, as I can understand it, in
By "love" it does not mean admiration, affection, or fondness. These
are instinctive and cannot be commanded. Any teaching which demanded
that we feel
fondness for a brute cannot possibly be binding upon us, because it
flies in the
face of the very constitution of our souls. This, however, is not
by the Bible, a fact that is overlooked by George Bernard Shaw and
who condemn the teachings of non-resistance and love, and who
in the divine pages as if it were the equivalent of "admiration." Love
is not a matter of the mere sentiments; it springs from the will and
may be described
as the habitual willingness that the object of love shall be permitted
to live the completest possible life.
This heavenly wisdom of love, this spiritual
which is the ultimate cleverness, was exhibited by Warden Allen of
Joliet who, if
ever a man was, was justified in seeking retaliation on the men who had
violated his confidence and betrayed his confidence. But that great
heart did not
go back like a fire brand to wreak vengeance; he went back with
to love his "boys" the more. That is not to say that he can feel
for the men who murdered his wife; it is simply to say that he willed
men should be encouraged to live a completer and more human life.
Love as thus defined is a creative, a
and justifies itself by creating its own objects. If a man is too
twisted and bent
to fit into the machinery of brotherhood, treating him in an
won't better him any, but treating him in a brotherly fashion will. By
he will be made more lovable. Men may be brothered into brotherliness.
Brotherhood is most certainly nowhere an
fact. We must all agree with the cynic on this charge, but that is not
the case for it, because the very principle in the Book on which our
lodge is erected
is that brotherhood is a task. And it is the first great task of the
to organize all men of good will, "mobilize" them, if you prefer, for
the purpose of making brotherhood prevail. We enter the Craft as
drawn from the crude quarries of human nature; in our hands is placed
trowel; from ritualism, teaching and example is supplied the mystic
cement; by forbearance,
tolerance, faith, and prayer, we are called to engage in that heavenly
task of raising
the house not made with hands.
man soe'er I chance
to see –
Amazing thought – is kin to me;
And if a man, my brother.
What though his hand be hard with toil
And labor his worn garments soil;
He is a man, my brother.
What though ashamed, with drooping head
He beg a morsel of my bread;
He is a man, my brother.
What though he grovel at my feet,
Spurned by the rabble of the street;
He is a man, my brother.
What though his hand with crime be red,
His heart a stone, his conscience dead;
He is a man, my brother;
The soul which this frail clay enfolds
The image of its Maker holds;
That makes this man my brother.
The Origin of Druidism
By Bro. Dudley Wright, Ed.
IT is doubtful whether the question, so often
as to what period in the history of man witnessed the origin of
Druidism will ever
be answered. Some writers maintain that it was a development or
offshoot – of the
Egyptian religion, and, along with Freemasonry, originated in the
of Ptah, which are said to have been brought out of Egypt by Moses.
Philology does not render much assistance,
few modern scholars would consider seriously the suggestion once very
made that the word "Druid" is derived from the Greek word drus, meaning
"an oak" or the argument that the original Druids sprang from the oaks
of Mamre, mentioned in the Book of Genesis. One explanation given is
means "the body of an oak," formed from derw, oak, and ydd, a
termination; that Ovydd (Ovate) implies the sapling or unformed plant,
"raw," "pure," and ydd; and that bardd signifies the branching,
derived from bar, "a branch" or "the top." Others give the derivation
as from the Hebrew word derussim or drussim, the meaning of which is
given as "contemplators."
Another explanation is that it is an old Celtic word, druis, formed
or truwis, meaning "a doctor of the faith." The Persian duru means "a
good and holy man"; the Arabic deri, "a wise man"; and the Welsh
drud, "an absolver or remitter of sins." In Scotland the Druids were
Dercergli; in Spain, Turduli or Turdutan. The Oriental Dervishes are
some to derive their name from the same source as the Druids. Mr. D.
who may be regarded as an authority, says that according to the best
scholars it would appear almost beyond doubt that the word derwydd is
dar, meaning "above" and gwydd meaning "understanding," "learning,"
"knowledge." Cynwal, an eminent Welsh poet of the sixteenth century, so
employs the term and thus apostrophises an ancient Bard:
Dywed weithian dad
ieithydd Dy feddwl ym, do foddawl wydd!
thou then, thou father of languages, Thy mind, if of well-cultured
According to Caesar, who, of course, had to
other people for his information, the Gauls boasted that they were
Dis as their father, a tradition handed down to them by the Druids.
Dis, or Dives,
according to mythology, was one of three brothers, of whom Jupiter and
the two others. They had Saturn for their father and Minerva for their
is the same word as the Hebrew "Japheth," and this is probably the
for the tradition that Japheth was the progenitor of the Celts, who are
to be the earliest colonists of Western Europe. Whatever the origin,
would venture to quarrel with Theodore Watts-Dunton's statement that,
Druidism – that mysterious poetic religion which more than any other
the very voice of nature – all other religions have a sort of
commonplace and modern
ring, even those which preceded it by centuries.
Let it be at once admitted that nothing precise
with regard to the origin of Druidism, that the statements made even
to its religious tenets are, in many instances, deductive only; that
there is anything approaching definite statements, the source is in
There is, however, no conflict in the testimony
their rites and ceremonies and it is difficult to explain the many
points of strong
resemblance between the rites and institutions of the Druids of Britain
the Magi of Persia, the Chaldeans of Babylonia, the Brahmins of India,
and the priests
of Egypt except upon the hypothesis that the rites and institutions of
religions were derived from one common source, which would be of a date
to the time when the Greeks and Romans produced those "elegant
O'Curry, in his "Manners and Customs of the
Irish," [Lib 1873, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] says: "It must
occur to everyone who has read of Zoroaster, of the Magi of Persia, and
of the sorcerers
of Egypt mentioned in the seventh chapter of Exodus, that Druids and
not originate in Britain any more than in Gaul or Erin. It is indeed
notwithstanding Pliny's high opinion of the power of the British
Druids, the European
Druidical system was but the offspring of the Eastern augury, somewhat
perhaps, when transplanted to a new soil than in its ancient home."
of the opinion that the Druids were the Gaulish Magi, and, according to
"the name Magi in the East was most august and venerable: they alone
in divine matters and were the ministers of Deity." Higgins believed
be Pythagoreans, and, therefore, akin to the Essenes, while Madame
the opinion (one which, of course, cannot be substantiated) that the
the descendants of the lost Atlanteans! Alexander Bertrand maintained
was not an isolated institution, without analogy, but that its parallel
is to be
looked for in the lamaseries which still survive in Tartary and Tibet.
Dr. Churchward, in "Signs and Symbols of
Man," [Lib 1913] holds
that the ancient Druids "were undoubtedly descendants of the ancient
priests, who came over and landed in Ireland and the west of England,
and who brought
with them their religious doctrines and taught and practiced them
there. The Tuatha-de-Danann
who came to Ireland were of the same race and spoke the same language
as the FirBolgs
or the Formarians, possessed ships, knew the art of navigation, had a
magnetic-needle, worked in metals, had a large army thoroughly
organized, a body
of surgeons, and a Bardic or Druid class of priests. These Druids
brought all their
learning with them, believed and practiced the Eschatology of the solar
and came from Egypt. That their temples are older than those found in
Yucatan, in Mexico (which are stated to be 11,500 years old), those
Incas in South America, and some of the Zimbabwe in South Africa, is
by their want of knowledge in building an arch, although we find in the
amongst the Zimbabwe lintels at Umnukwana and no doubt there are others
African ruins, but successive immigrants have obliterated most of the
which was the old Egyptian, as can be proved by other facts."
Concerning the arrival of the Tuatha-de-Danann
Keating in his "History of Ireland," [Lib 1861] says that they journeyed to
Erin after seven months
sojourn in the north of Scotland. They landed on the north coast of
in order that they should not be seen by any of the Fir Bolg, they, by
the magical powers with which nearly all ancient writers invest them,
raised a mist
around their vessels until they reached Sliabh-an-iarainn
iron mountains in County Leitrim. Once landed they made their departure
by burning their boats.
With regard to Druidism in Ireland we are
more certain ground than when dealing with Druidism in Britain,
inasmuch as the
sole source of information of Irish Druids comes from Irish writers,
our knowledge of Gaulish and British Druidism is derived from Latin and
According to the Irish ancient writings, Parthalon made his advent into
three hundred years after the date assigned to the Deluge. He came from
and brought with him three Druids: Fios, Eolus and Fochmare, names
which mean Intelligence,
Knowledge and Inquiry. Three hundred and thirty years later there came
of immigrants, led by Nemid and his sons, who entered into a conflict
with the Druidical
forces they found established in the island. From that time there is a
unbroken record or chronicle of the acts of the Druids in Ireland. In
writings they were referred to frequently as "men of science" and
powers were attributed to them. They were credited with the power to
and atmospheric disturbances as well as with the ability to quell such
The following translation of an incantation used by them is taken from
of the Invasions of the O'Clery's" [Lib*] in the Royal Irish Academy:
I pray that they reach
the land of Erinn, those who are riding upon the great, productive,
That they may be distributed
upon her plains, her mountains, and her valleys; upon her forests that
of nuts and all other fruits; upon her rivers and her cataracts; upon
and her great waters; upon her spring-abounding hills.
That we may hold our
fairs and equestrian sports upon her territories.
That there may be a
king for us in Tara and that it (Tara) may be the territory of our many
That the sons of Milesius
may be manifestly seen upon her territories.
That noble Erinn may
be the home of the ships and boats of the sons of Milesius.
Erinn which is now
in darkness, it is for her that this oration is pronounced.
Let the learned wives
of Breas and Buagne pray that we may reach the noble woman, Great Erinn.
Let Eremon pray and
let Ir and Eber implore that we may reach Erinn.
The tempest is said to have ceased and the
enabled to land immediately after this oration had been pronounced by
It would certainly appear from an examination
evidence that the Druids settled in Ireland at a much earlier date than
in England. The Druidical faith also survived in Ireland to a much
than it did in Britain. Long after the advent of St. Patrick in Ireland
monarchs adhered to Druidism. Two of the daughters of King Laogorius,
in whose reign
St. Patrick preached the doctrines of the Christian faith, were
educated by the
Druids and maintained their ground in a dispute against the new
and all the provincial kings of Ireland, however, granted to every man
of professing and preaching the Christian religion. Rowlands gives it
as his opinion
that when the Druids were expelled from Anglesea they sought refuge in
the north of Scotland and the Scottish Isles. Certainly when Druidism
in Gaul and the active persecution of the Druids began they appear to
to Caledonia, there to practice and teach their religion. According to
"History of the Church of Scotland" they were in force in Scotland in
the latter part of the third century. He writes: "Cratylinth, king of
coming to the throne in the year 277, made it one of his first works to
kingdom of heathenish superstition, and to expel the Druids, a sort of
in those days in great reputation. They ruled their affairs very
being governed by a president who kept his residence in the Isle of
Man, which was
then under the dominion of the Scots, they did once every year meet in
to take counsel together for the ordering of affairs, and carried
things so politely
and with such discretion that Cratylinth found it difficult enough to
because of the favour they had amongst the people."
Although, in Britain, the Romans issued
ordering the suppression of the Druidical groves and altars, there is
for believing that Druidism was not eradicated. It was too deeply
rooted not to
spring up again after the Romans had taken their departure. In many
parts of the
island the Romans permitted the natives to retain many of their laws
and to be governed by their own princes, and here, undoubtedly, they
the performance of their ancient and sacred mystical rites. It may also
from some of the ancient poems that a seminary for the training of
was maintained after the Roman invasion somewhere in the north of
Britain and there
are not wanting writers who assert that Druidism was not suppressed
the end of the sixth century. A rescript of Augustus forbade Roman
citizens to practice
Druidical rites, but in Strabo we find the Druids still acting as
arbiters in public
and private matters, though they do not appear to deal then with
charges of murder
as formerly they did. Celtic and Gaulish Druids and Druidesses are
the third century as connected with events in the lives of Aurelian and
They are mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus [Lib 1894] and Ausonius [Lib 1919; Vol 1, Vol 2] in the
fourth century and their practices are noticed in the sixth century by
[Lib 1896]. Gibbon epitomises
the history of the Druids in the Christian era in the following words
Vol 1]: "Under the
specious pretext of abolishing human sacrifices, the Emperors Tiberius
suppressed the dangerous power of the Druids; but the priests
gods and their altars, subsisted in peaceful obscurity till the final
Like Mithraism, however, Druidism was
off the face of the earth. But it must not be forgotten when speaking
of the supplanting
by Christianity of Druidism, that the Druids held many of the tenets
by Christianity. The doctrine of the immortality of the soul, the
belief in miracles,
and other beliefs of the Christian faith had already been taught them
by their own
priests and they were no strangers to the rite of Baptism, which every
neophyte had to undergo.
Life Is What We Make It -- [A Poem]
O. A. Fick, Jan. 19, 1916
is what we make
Be it paradise or hell.
When things go wrong, just sing a song
As if it all was well.
Life is what we make it, boys,
You can't get away from that.
Make life worthwhile, and wear a smile
When your castles all fall flat.
Life is what we make it, boys,
You can bet your bottom dollar.
When you hit a snag, don't stop and lag,
But brace right up and holler.
Life is what we make it, boys,
Be it cloudy, fair or bright.
If you have hard luck, revive your pluck,
Roll up your sleeves and fight.
Life is what we make it, boys,
So let's cheer up and sing –
"We're here today to make it pay,
We thank thee God, for everything."
The Feet of Time
DEAR old Rabbi Duncan, who was no Rabbi at all,
a quaint teacher of Hebrew in New College, when his students assembled
holidays, met them with these words: "Gentlemen, many will be wishing
happy New Year; I wish you a happy Eternity." Truly it was a wise wish,
by a man who had found out the trick which Time plays upon us whereby
we are deluded
into the feeling that we live under the despotism of days and years.
had set him free from that old tyranny, teaching him that what we call
time is only
a measured portion of that eternity in which we live now and always. He
our quarrel with Time is a case of "much ado about nothing," since Time
is fiction and an illusion.
One of the greatest thinkers of the world
once for all in his desperate, bewildered, longing to grasp a moment,
and make it real. But when he opened his hand it was empty. There is no
is dead; there is no future that is unborn and may never come; nor can
touch put a finger on the present. And yet we perceive, or think we
of time, we compare them and find joy or sorrow in the illusion.
Indeed, it is hard
to see how we could ever have gotten along without the idea of time,
is so obvious. No past, no future? But how should we regulate our
lives, how make
plans, how profit by our days? What should we do with our mistakes, and
we place our hopes?
If there is no such thing as time, what is it
us the sense of duration, what is it that seems like the passing of
time which makes
us happy or sad? It is simply movement, the putting forth of energy.
The hands of
the clock go round because the spring is wound up, or because the
weights are doing
their duty. With the great star-clock in the sky it is the same – just
so much motor
force. When we speak of our age, and of the feeling of being borne
along from youth
to middle life and beyond, it is the same. Again it is movement,
decay, the onflowing of life like the winding of an invisible stream.
Here we come upon one of the great secrets of
often overlooked, but of far-reaching meaning. Our earth goes round the
sun at a
high speed but we are not conscious of it, because we move with it.
we cannot stand and see ourselves go by. But there is something in man
somehow, stand aside and be aware of the movement of life which we call
flies, not we," ran an old proverb, and it is the timeless within us
us aware of the passing of time; and this fact, when we ponder it,
opens many gates
of thought and hope. Read his 146th Sonnet, and see how Shakespeare
found in this
fact the key whereby we became Masters of Time and Death be obeying the
Once we learn this profound and simple secret,
set free from the tyranny of days and know the fellowship of that life
Time is only a shadow! and where a thousand years are as a day. This is
emancipation, open to every man, and to win it is the finest of all
victories. There is no such thing as a future life. Life is one, here
and here after,
now and forever. God is here; eternity is now. The sky begins at the
top of the
ground, and if we are immortal at all we are immortal now. Therefore,
aware of this truth is the one great human experience, the truth that
makes us free
indeed. If this be not the deep lesson of the Master Degree of Masonry,
have misread its meaning utterly.
The First Degree asks us, whence we came and
are here on earth to do? Receiving our answer, it instructs us in that
morality which must be the ground-plan of every noble human life. It is
It is beautiful. Nothing can take its place. Without it life is a house
the sand. The Second Degree asks us what we are, and without waiting
for our answer
it seeks to make us aware of our mental powers, and how to use them. It
the arts and sciences, and leads us up the winding stairway to a larger
showing the dignity of the intellectual life, its ascent toward the
its rich rewards.
The Third Degree reveals to us who we are,
if only for a moment, the august and awful fact that we are citizens of
It does not bid us cherish a hope of immortality to be realized
hereafter. Not so.
Immortality is a reality into which the candidate is initiated,
and now, teaching him in a parable and a drama the greatest truth man
in the midst of the years! He that hath ears to hear, let him hear and
if so that he learn to outrun the Feet of Time!
* * *
The Masonic Apron
Horace Greeley used to say that he would not
cent for a man who could not spell a word in more than one way – it
showed a lack
of versatility and inventive genius. Much the same may be said of
which is as flexible as it is suggestive, and may be interpreted in
many ways, by
each initiate or student according to his light. "Each sees what he
in his heart," as we read in the Prologue of Faust. All of which is
to mind by a passage in the valuable book, "True Principles of
noted elsewhere in this issue, in which the author tells us, out of a
rich and thoughtful
mind, what the Apron means to him. It symbolizes that plan for the
of personality, which Masonry has sought to promulgate from the
remotest ages. As
we may read:
"This apron is
composed of a square, surmounted by a triangle, or of seven lines, four
in the square
and three in the triangle. The lower line in the square, to me,
the lowest and most degrading of all human passions. It has been the
from time immemorial, that 'The love of money is the root of all evil.'
But I say
to you that selfishness is the root of all evil, because selfishness,
in its very
worst form, may be entirely free from love of money; that selfishness
of Creed and
Dogma, that is not willing to concede to another the same freedom of
and conscience that we demand for ourselves. Selfishness is tie
progenitor of all
the base passions of the human heart, vanity, deceit, cruelty, envy,
greed, malevolence, lust, unhumanity, and brutality.
Rising from this low
plane of selfishness, we have two perpendicular lines; the one I call
and the other Spirituality. The one might possibly be termed an
attribute of the
mind, the other of the soul; and each of them capable of development,
of, or to the exclusion of the other. For example, a man may have
reached the summit
of all human knowledge. He may have the intellectual ability of a
Euclid or a Sir
Isaac Newton, but at the same time be wholly lacking in spirituality,
or that faculty
of his nature may be wholly dormant. In that case, endowed with the
intellect that can be conceived of, he may be a moral degenerate.
On the other hand,
another man's spirituality may be abnormally developed, to the utter
intellectuality; in such case you find the religious fanatic or a
So we are forced to the conclusion that in order to secure good work,
and square work – ,just such work as is needed in the construction of a
temple, the development must proceed along both lines of
intellectuality and spirituality,
in due proportion and harmony with each other. The top line of the
represents faith – a logical, reasoning faith that has grown up out of,
projected from, the two lives of intellectuality and Spirituality. A
satisfies the longings of my spiritual nature, and at the same time
meets with the
approval of my reasoning faculties.
Parallel with the top
line of the Apron's square, and in close proximity to it, is the line
at the base
of the triangle. To me it represents unselfishness and self-sacrifice.
this line are the two converging lines of the triangle; the one love of
the other love of my fellow man; and their intersection at the apex of
generates the great undying light of Freemasonry."
Whether or not all will accept that
the symbolism of the Apron, all will agree that it is wise and good and
teaching, which every man of us ought to lay to heart as the years come
like hooded figures, each bringing its quota of joy and sorrow, and
also its opportunity
for advancement toward that coronation of character which is the crown
of life and
the defeat of death. So mote it be.
* * *
Ye Editor has accepted the pastorate of the
in London, at once the most famous and the most responsible pulpit in
but this will in nowise alter his relation to the Society or his labors
in its behalf.
Indeed, it should extend its influence and following, enlisting the
co-operation of Brethren in England and Scotland, making it
international in a way
hardly possible otherwise. He will remain an editor of The Builder, as
as ever for its welfare, bringing to its service the best Masonic
scholars of Europe;
a Masonic Ambassador in behalf of a closer fellowship and a happier
of the Craft the world over. In fact, it will be easily possible for
him to do as
much, if not more, for the Society in England as he has been able to do
As he will not be going before spring, he will go on with his work as
this opportunity offered to thank the Members of the Society for their
support, made known in so many ways, the while he wishes most sincerely
New Year may be the best of all years for each of his Brethren.
Truly we stand at the end of an epoch, and we
to see things in the large, to think in world-terms, the better to make
– which is a world-Order of international meaning – effective for its
part in that
vast readjustment of values and relations following the world-war.
Whoso does even
a tiny bit in that behalf, has wrought a benign and permanent labor
his country, his race and his Craft, looking for the dawn of that day
will be the lasting inheritance of mankind.
Principles of Masonry
NOW it is in Iowa, now in Arkansas, now in
and still the Hand-books of Masonry multiply, in obedience to a deeply
that the history, principles and symbolism of the Order be set forth in
understandable form for the instruction of its younger Brethren. The
to the list, "True Principles of Freemasonry," [Lib*] by Brother
R. Grant, Sovereign Grand Inspector General in Mississippi, had its
an address delivered to a joint meeting of Blue Lodges in Meridian on
At the request of Grand Master Carson, the author made a tour of the
delivering a series of addresses to joint meetings of Lodges throughout
Everywhere he found the men of the Craft eager to know more about
Masonry, and his
volume now published is in answer to that interest and need. Frankly a
it is none the less a useful book and will no doubt win the wide
reading it deserves,
albeit we could wish that the author had been a little more careful in
as facts certain things about which Masonic students are less certain
used to be.
Beginning with a chapter of Historical Briefs,
traces the genealogy of Masonry in Mississippi, then proceeds to the
origin of Masonry
in America, and so on back into antiquity – a very readable sketch
indeed. Two chapters
are given up to Old Charters, Charges and Regulations in England,
Germany, some of them of doubtful authenticity, but useful as giving a
the laws and organization of old Craft Masonry. Lectures on the
definition of Masonry,
its Symbolism and its Teachings follow, and a chapter on each of the
degrees. The Bull of Pope Leo against Masonry [Lib 1884] and the famous reply of
Albert Pike [Lib 1884] are included, in
full, with a brief survey of the history and principles of the Scottish
concluding essay is one of the best in the book, informed by a fine
and a passion for the noblest achievements of faith and character. The
purpose and spirit of Masonry are well interpreted in the following
It takes the low ideals and renovates and
into high and noble concepts of beauty; making them over into laws of
man who has come into full fellowship in this Institution, finds his
overlaid with strength, his purposeless instincts transmuted into moral
with the upward goal ever in view. Emerson tells us that the influx of
into the finite is always accompanied by a consciousness, an enthusiasm
of the soul,
as it is welcomes this guest who comes to dwell therein. What greater
there be in all the universe than a man whose life is enthused by and
in accord with the Divine. He enters into a compact with his spiritual
resolves henceforth to be God's man. He finds life presenting a new
aspect. He sees
in trifles. unheeded before, beauty and power. He finds that, as
"there is nothing puerile in nature! He finds that in all men God is
incarnated, through goodness, beauty, truth, mercy and justice."
* * *
A Student's Reverie
A student sits in meditation before a skeleton
been studying. Falling into a train of reflection upon the human form,
he is led
to ponder the undeveloped powers of man, the reason for his existence,
at its longest, so broken at its best, and thence to solemn thoughts of
Not only his own destiny, and of the shadow of a man before him, but of
in its endless procession passing across the earth, as one generation
another generation appears. Their life is woven of joy and woe, of
tragedy and comedy.
To not a few it is a thing to be endured, not enjoyed. Some move
not of the future; others trudge heavily, stooping under burdens of
sorrow and care.
For all it ends in the grave. Whence do they come, and why? Where do
they go? We
can follow them no farther. What does it all mean? Has it a meaning? Or
Great Spirit when He took clay and made man, simply play with it?
Such is the scene, and such the problem of
Victor: A Student's Reverie," [Lib 1899] by Henry N. Dodge; and since
science offers no solution,
the student listens while the Master of Galilee tells, in a majestic,
monody, of His passion and hope for humanity. No matter to what school
thought a man may belong, he will find much to exalt and touch him to
in this little book. Scattered through it are lyrics, some of them of
delicacy and beauty, singing of life and love, of the coming of spring
and the birth
of the flowers, and of the love that should bind man to man. For
man soe'er I chance
to see –
Amazing thought – is kin to me,
And if a man, my brother!
What though in silken raiment fine
His form be clad, while naked mine;
He is a man, my brother.
What though of strange and alien race,
Of unfamiliar form and face;
He is a man, my brother.
What though his hand be hard with toil
And labor his worn garment soil;
He is a man, my brother.
What though ashamed, with drooping head,
He beg a morsel of my bread;
He is a man, my brother.
What though his hand with crime be red,
His heart a stone, his conscience dead;
He is a man, my brother.
Though low his life, and black his heart,
There is a nobler, deathless part
Within this man, my brother.
The soul which this frail clay enfolds
The image of its Maker holds –
That makes this man my brother.
* * *
Was Jesus An Essene?
Several Brethren have taken pains to call our
to "The Brook Kerith," [Lib 1816] by George Moore, as proof
that Jesus was a
member of the Essene monastic sect, which, because it was in some sort
order, is supposed to be one of the ancestors of Masonry. In token of
we beg our Brethren to read the sketch of Moore, by Frank Harris, in
for December, after which they will not have much confidence in his
Personally we have no prejudice against the idea that Jesus was a
member of the
Essene community – if it can be proved. But so far only a thin wisp of
has been brought forward in its behalf. Even Brother Wright in his
"Was Jesus An Essene," [Lib*] adds no new guess to the rest. But when
George Moore is brought to the witness box, it is too much. An apostate
who now seeks to portray the Master of Galilee as a poor deluded, if
fanatic, staining that great story with the dirty smear that one finds
in all his
work – well, if any Brother likes that sort of thing, he is easily
it again, Brethren.
Principles of Freemasonry, [Lib*] by M. R. Grant. Truth Publishing Co.,
3010 Ninth St., Meridian, Miss.
The House of
Solomon, [Lib*] by C. H. Merz, Sandusky, Ohio
History of King
David and King Solomon, [Lib*] by H. Shamieth New York, N. Y. 50 cents.
Christus Victor: A
Student's Reverie, [Lib 1899] by H. N. Dodge.
Putnam's Sons, New York. $1.00
"Mr. Britling Sees
It Through," [Lib 1917] by H. G. Wells.
Macmillan Co., New York. $1.50.
Raymond: Or Life
After Death, [Lib 1926] by Sir Oliver Lodge,
Methuen, London. $2.75
Stranger, [Lib 1916]
by Mark Twain. Harper Brothers, New York. $2.00.
I sat in Lodge
With You, [Lib*] by Wilbur D. Nezbet. P. F. Volland Co., Chicago. 50
Ambassador, City Temple Sermons, [Lib 1916]
by Joseph Fort Newton. F. H. Revell Co., N. Y. $1.00
The Question Box
Dear Brother Newton: – Knowing that you have
a student of Lincoln, I was surprised to see you recommend the Life of
by Lord Charnwood, [Lib 1917] which,
according to a letter which I read today in the New York Times, states
was of illegitimate birth. I thought I ought to call your attention to
Thank you; but the
man who wrote the letter in the Times is wrong. Lord Charnwood makes no
– had he done so ye editor would have poured carbolic acid all over him
to foot. It would have been an unforgivable blunder on his part to even
that old lie, long since exploded. Lincoln died believing that he was
born out of
wedlock. Herndon, his partner, held that to be a fact, and was
to intimate as much in the first edition of his biography. After both
away, the facts were brought to light – they may be found in ye
entitled "Lincoln and Herndon," [Lib 1910] pp. 319-321.
* * *
The Letter G
I am asked to prepare a paper for our
"The Letter G in the East." Can you tell me where I can get any
on this point?
Among oldtime Masons the Letter G stood,
first of all, for Geometry, which they held to be the chief of sciences
basis of Masonry. Perhaps you have not seen ye editor's little sermon
Geometry of God," discussing this very question, showing how in the
and in ancient literature generally – especially in Pythagoras and
Plato – Geometry,
or the science of measurement, was of fundamental importance. Nor is
hard to know. Few realize the service of the science of numbers to the
in the morning of thought, it being almost the first hint of law and
order in the
world, and a key to the mighty mace of things. With Plato, as with
was a basis of belief in God. So, naturally, in time, the Letter G came
for Him in whom Geometry had led men to believe. You will find
on the Letter G in Preston's "Illustrations of Masonry" [Lib 1772] and in "The
Spirit of Masonry," [Lib 1795] by Hutchinson, to name no
others. You have
a beautiful subject, and we hope you will go into it thoroughly. If you
take up the relation of mathematics to moral and spiritual truth, as it
today, get the little book referred to in these pages, (Vol. 1, p. 309)
"The New Infinite and the Old Theology," [Lib 1915] by Prof. Keyser of
* * *
"Worthy and Well Qualified"
A brother writes to say that, taking note of
in The Builder, (Vol. 1, p. 77) telling of the custom of Arcana Lodge
No. 87, of
Seattle, Washington, of sending a letter to petitioners, its intent
being to discover,
as far as possible their internal qualifications, his Lodge adopted the
For so doing the Lodge was called to account, or at least criticized,
by the Grand
Master and Grand Secretary of the jurisdiction. The basis of the
that it was soliciting, both high officials having gotten the erroneous
the letter was sent before the candidate has petitioned. Had that been
it would have been soliciting. But neither in Arcana Lodge nor in the
was the letter sent until after the man had actually petitioned. Well,
nods, and the lectures which the two grand officers saw fit to deliver,
enough after their kind, were wide of the mark. We are glad to have the
to our attention, lest perchance others may have received the same
This Society does not endorse soliciting – far from it – but it does
Lodges should take every care in selecting material out of which to
inquiring as to their internal qualifications, which after all, are of
Too many men enter the order for reasons other than the best and
little for the real reasons why a man should wish to be a Mason – and
for such we
have no room.
* * *
"The Secrets of a Master
My Dear Newton: – I notice your information on
and rituals in the November number, and am moved to ask a question or
two to get
a basis for an argument.
intend to perpetuate any method which wastes time and results in
"secrets of a Master Mason," or an equivalent, a technical phrase, with
a meaning which goes back over the whole of the last two hundred years
"secrets of Masonry" uniform throughout regular Masonry?
phrase, "secrets of Masonry," antedate the days of formulated rituals,
oral or printed?
If you had asked us in Indiana back in 1891
we used rituals, ciphers, &c., we would have answered you,
because we had as severe an edict or law against their use as could be
and yet in 1891, when asked whether Lodges and individuals were using
them, 98 per
cent of our Lodges reported that our law had been abolished by user, so
the law formally as it had been abolished in practice but our ritual
conception of an obligation which is often supposed to bear upon the
One jurisdiction passed a resolution
sever fraternal relations with all jurisdictions which used rituals in
and sent me a copy while I was Grand Master. Two or three practical
method of teaching the ritual is a double waste of time over the ritual
results through the oral method.
method develops some contempt for law in the user of a ritual in secret.
method of instruction inevitably must develop an office-holding machine
method causes men to take time from their usual vocations while the
permits them to use their spare, odd moments, which is an example of
You are adhering admirably to your original
and analysis in the conduct of The Builder. Certainly, for its purpose,
it has eclipsed
all Masonic Magazines and has passed the expectation of its most
I should think, when it secures 14,000 subscribers so early.
Chas. Mikels, Indiana.
P. S. I am not desirous of being in print and
want YOUR views, and not of anybody else, through The Builder.
Here is that picturesque and delightful Hoosier
again, trying to prod us with all kinds of questions and smoke us out
of a hole.
Well, a more lovable man does not live anywhere, even in Riley-land,
and our private
opinion is that when the Lord made him he did not do anything else that
But this is not answering the questions which he trots out single-file,
and four-abreast. The first list has to do with a fact of history, the
a matter of policy, and both together bring forward a question well
All will agree, we take it, that Masonry does not intend to perpetuate
which wastes time and results in inaccuracy and inefficiency. Well, now
we are down
(1) The phrase "secrets of a Master Mason,"
or its equivalent, does have a distinct meaning running back at least
to the founding
of the Mother Grand Lodge of England, and those secrets are quite
regular Masonry. Indeed, we may trace them further back still – for in
the Old Charges
of Craft Masonry the initiate was obligated to keep the secrets of the
his honor as a man on the "contents of this Holy Book." What were those
secrets in the olden time? They included the technical secrets of his
art – which
have become symbolical secrets to us – and the signs and tokens by
which he made
himself known as a Master Mason when he went a-journeying. Those
both the artist and his art. What are the secrets of a Master Mason
now? Not the
wise and noble truth which the Order teaches. Our fundamental
principles are the
common possession of thinking men and are the foundations of the higher
everywhere. No, what is secret in Masonry is not the truth which it
the method by which it teaches it – its ceremonial and symbolism, and
and token by which it protects the privacy of its Lodge room that it
may teach more
impressively. Also, those signs and tokens serve as a cover under which
brotherliness, and the busy heart of love can work without ostentation
us to serve a brother in perplexity or need without wounding a heart
Therefore, if those secrets were surrendered, something beautiful and
(2) The second list of questions form a telling
of the system of oral teaching in Masonry, and it is about as strong as
it can be
made. Why, he even intimates that it results in "an office-holding
to some extent." Think of that! And he a Past Grand Master, too! What
world coming to, anyway? Well, for sake of argument let us admit every
item of the
indictment, what then? Is there no other side? We think there is. What
in the teaching of Masonry? Surely it is something more than accuracy
of the letter,
valuable as that is. It is also the communication of a spirit, and we
this highest and most precious result is better achieved by oral
goes deeper, it stays longer, it touches parts of our nature which are
by decoding a cipher. For example, we were instructed in Masonry by a
gracious man to whom Masonry meant very much – long since gone to join
and silent people we call the dead – but the impress of his spirit
He gave us something which no book can give, because the finest truth
only through personality – it passes silently, mystically, from soul to
is so in all education. The best thing a lad gets at college is not
but from his contact with strong men – as when Garfield said that the
would be to sit on one end of a log with Horace Mann on the other end.
may be corrected, but we cannot think that the hours which we spent in
with the gracious man who instructed us in the days that come not back,
Never! Perhaps we are sentimental. If so, we are glad of it. But we do
Mikels, that to abandon the oral teaching of Masonry would mean the
loss of something
unique, particular and fine, and we know of nothing to take its place.
days it required some courage to be a Mason, and those old pioneers who
for their Masonic faith and fellowship, knew what they were about when
no risks of having their sacred secrets violated, but kept them warm
and true, passing them from mouth to ear adown the years! After all, it
a question of the best way of doing what we all want to do in the best
no one is more eager, more earnest or more intelligent in our common
quest of the
wisest and best way of making Masonry effective for its high ends, than
"Tidings From The West"
By the kindness of a Brother who omits his
have the following brief sketch of pioneer Masonry in California, as it
in the San Francisco Chronicle; showing how, when the star of empire
took a due
westerly course, Masonry followed it helping to lay the foundations of
the state in the land of the Golden Gate. It is an interesting glimpse
of days gone
by, worthy of reading and preserving:
The history of Masonry in California dates '
"the days of old, the days of gold, the days of '49." To one
the study of this history reveals facts of considerable interest. The
the Free and Accepted Masons show that Peter Lassen, a doughty pioneer,
Lassen Peak and Lassen County derive their names, was the man who
brought the charter
(overland from Missouri) for the first Masonic lodge to be established
Lassen was born in Copenhagen Denmark, August 7, 1800, and he was one
of a small
party of argonauts who crossed the plains to Oregon in 1839. By
occupation he was
In company with a number of his immigrant
Wilham Wiggins, David Dutton, John Stevens and John Wright, he took a
to Bodega, where Vallejo attempted to prevent their landing. They
and wrote to the American Consul for passports, stating that if they
did not receive
them they would take up arms in their own defense. This attitude
preserved the day
for them. Lassen settled at the foot of the Sierra, in the northern
part of the
He became owner of what was known as "Lassen's
ranch." It is not asserted that Peter Lassen was the first Mason who
into California, but undoubtedly he was one of the first of the
disciples of the
Widow's Son who set foot upon California soil. It is quite probable
that among the
first party of white men who entered the Golden State there were
Masons, but to
identify them has been a well-nigh impossible task.
In the Reed-Donner party, many of which
the lonely summits of the Sierra, there were Masons. This was in the
winter of 1846-47.
The record seems to fix the date of the arrival of Lassen in the State
sometime during the year 1840. He applied for citizenship in 1841. From
time brethren of the Masonic craft met at Lassen's ranch The nearest
of the order at that time was situated in Missouri.
For the special purpose of obtaining from this
a charter for a lodge in California, the sturdy Dane journeyed overland
in 1847. On May 10, 1848, the Grand Lodge of Missouri issued a charter
Woods, worshipful master; L. E. Stewart, senior warden; Peter Lassen,
and other brethren, to form a lodge to be known as Western Star Lodge,
No. 98, at
Benton City (Lassen's ranch), California.
Later in the same year a charter was granted by
grand master of Washington, D. C., for the organization of California
13 (California Lodge, No. 1, of today), in San Francisco. This
issued to Samuel York Atlee, worshipful master; William Van Voorheis,
Badney F. McDonald, junior warden, and their associates. Van Voorheis
qualify, as he decided not to journey to California as he had planned,
Stowell was appointed in his stead.
Forty-four Masons were present at the
Calfornia Lodge, No. 13, November 17, 1849. In April, 1850, the grand
lodge of California
was organized in Sacramento by representatives of the three lodges then
in the state – California, No. 13, San Francisco; Western Star, No. 98,
and Connecticut, No. 75, Sacramento. Two lodges under dispensation were
– New Jersey of Sacrament and Benicia Lodge of Benicia.
The first grand lodge officers were: John D.
grand master; John A. Tutt, deputy grand master; Caleb Fenner, senior
Saschel Woods, junior grand warden; John H. Gihon, grand secretary.
From all accounts it seems that Pioneer Lassen
individual who possessed an enterprising and energetic spirit. A
history of the
early days relates that in 1856 Lassen was at the head of a movement
the Honey Lake section of the country, east of the Sierra Nevada, to
form a new
territory to be called Nataqua, a name which, as they said, meant
Lassen was elected president. His strong ally was Isaac Roop. Their
through, however, and gallant as they were, they never were able to put
on the map.
Lassen's death was sudden and violent. He was
by Indians out in the wilderness near Honey Lake in the year 1858. The
hall in San Francisco was situated above an auction shop at 247
In 1849 the influx of pioneers brought many hundreds of Masons into the
lodges were formed and some years later plans for a splendid temple
* * *
A Program of Study
(Several Brethren have sent us copies of a
course of Masonic study, prepared and recommended by the Librarians of
of Instruction, of Germantown, Pennsylvania, asking our opinion of it.
we think it very suggestive albeit we are puzzled to know why our
little book, "The
Builders," is placed in the second year of the course, and in the list
and romance! No matter; our Brethren "meant well," which is the meanest
thing we can think to say to get even with them at present. Seriously,
we feel sure
that for young men making their first start in Masonic study, the
course as recommended
is rather heavy and ill-arranged – more suitable, in fact for Brethren
made more than a beginning in such studies. We think it better to begin
of a simpler sort, advancing as interest and inclination direct to the
problems and more difficult discussions. However, we are glad to
reproduce the course
suggested by our Pennsylvania Brethren, at the same time granting them
all due forgiveness
for the way in which they treated our modest little book. – The Editor.)
Every Masonic student should have the Holy
Encyclopedia and an up-to-date dictionary, and be a regular subscriber
to one or
more Masonic Magazines, The Ahiman Rezon Digest of Decisions and the
your Lodge. The Grand Lodge Report should be referred to for all
the Digest was issued in 1913.
FIRST YEAR –
Gould's Concise History of Freemasonry [Lib 1904]
Armitage's Short History of Freemasonry. [Lib 1909/1911;
Vol 1, Vol 2]
Pennsylvania Freemasonry. [Lib*]
Vol. 1 – G.L. Reprints. By Judges Arnold, Orlady, Barrett and Williams.
Mackey's Masonic Symbolism. [Lib 1921]
Stewart's Symbolic Teachings. [Lib 1917]
Buck's Mystic Masonry. [Lib 1911]
Morgan's Lessons Taught in Freemasonry. [Lib*]
Mackey's Text Book of Masonic Jurisprudence.
SECOND YEAR –
Stillson and Hughan's History of Freemasonry
Orders. [Lib 1891]
Oliver's Signs and Symbols. [Lib 1837]
Fellow's The Mysteries of Freemasonry. [Lib 1835]
MacBride's Speculative Masonry. [Lib 1914]
Look's Masonic Trials. [Lib 1902]
Pike's Poems. [Lib 1900]; see also Prose
Sketches and Poems Written in the Western Country [Lib 1834]
Boutelle's Man of Mt. Moriah. [Lib*]
The Builders – Newton. [Lib 1914]
THIRD YEAR –
Gould's Larger History (4 volumes.) [Lib
1882/85, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4]
Mackey's Larger History (7 volumes.) [Lib 1906, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4, Vol 5, Vol 6, Vol 7]
Bromwell's Masonic Restorations. [Lib*]
Pike's Lectures on Symbolism. [Lib*]
Adam's House of Hidden Places. [Lib 1895]
Buck's Genius of Freemasonry. [Lib 1914]
Pike's Morals and Dogma. [Lib 1871]
Lockwood's Masonic Law and Practice. [Lib*]
Lawrence's Masonic Jurisprudence. [Lib*]
Morris' Poetry of Freemasonry. [Lib 1895]
Jewels of Masonic Oratory. [Lib 1900]
Lights and Shadows of the Mystic Tie. [Lib 1852]
Hughan – English Rite of Masonry. [Lib 1884]
Robertson – The Cryptic Rite. [Lib 1888]
Addison – Knights Templar. [Lib 1842] or [Lib
Sherman – Brief History of the A.A.S.R. [Lib 1890]
Upton – Negro Masonry. [Lib 1899]
Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. [Lib ?] (There are 32
volumes in the Bibliography)
(See indices for Lectures.)
Wright – Indian Masonry. [Lib 1907]
Skinner – The Great Pyramid. [Lib 1871]
The Great Work. (Chap. 4.) [Lib 1913]
* * *
Dear Sir and Brother: Apropos of article on
Work in November, 1916, number, you state that in Pennsylvania the work
and communicated by District Deputy Grand Masters and that cipher keys
You are correct in that the work is uniform and cipher key is
prohibited, but although
Section 11 of Article XII of the Ahimon Rezon of 1915, covering powers
of the District Deputy Grand Masters states: "It shall be the duty of
District Deputy Grand Master to visit the Lodges in his district;
labors, and inquire into their condition and proceedings; give them
and instruction; and report annually to the Grand Master the state of
in his district, and all that he shall have done therein," much of the
is done in Schools of Instruction of which there were sixteen listed in
Masonic Register of F. and A. M. for the State of Pennsylvania for
by W. A. McCalla, 237-9 Dock St., Philadelphia, by permission of the R.
Master, under Article XVII, Section 25, page 56, of the Ahimon Rezon,
principals of these schools are directly appointed or approved by the
and are answerable only to him for the instruction imparted. My own
School of Instruction in Symbolic Masonry, has been so organized since
reorganized in accordance with the system of the Temple School
Temple) in January, 1898. We have members from 20 or 30 Lodges within
ten or fifteen
miles of the school.
In the Grand Lodge address of R. W. Grand
J. Henry Williams in 1913, he said: "The value of the Schools of
can hardly be estimated in the work of teaching the ritualistic part of
Capable and efficient instructors may be had for the asking, without
money and without
price. . . Ritualistic teaching is very important with us, in that we
nor do we recognize or permit the use of printed or written lectures,
or keys. Our work is communicated from one to the other, and its purity
is a striking
proof of the correctness of our system. None may plead ignorance when
so many are
willing to help others to acquire the work of this Jurisdiction.'
The Germantown School membership is entirely of
Masons. Initiation, or entrance fee $2.00; annual dues $2.00, payable
The Secretary and Tyler alone are paid for their services, many others
life-members or honorary members, which life-membership as per Article
VI of Section
3 of the Rules, is either $12.00 or $6.00 (see also Sec. 5 of Article
V. as to honorary
membership). Note that these rules, copy of which is enclosed, were
the R. W. Grand Master and the amendments, etc., by the R. W. District
Arthur H. Vail, 125 West Chelton Ave.,
Germantown, Philadelphia, Penna.
P. S. I find the following in the Digest of
of the Grand Lodge and Grand Masters, A. D. 1912, corrected to January,
No. 369. Instruction. In the matter of giving
instruction, two things are of primary importance; first, that the
in possession of the authorized work of the Craft and imparts
instruction by the
authorization of either the Grand Master or District Deputy Grand
Master; and, second,
that such instruction is given, if possible, in a Lodge room, or if it
be a number
of miles distant, then in some secure place, retired from observation,
being taken to exclude eavesdroppers from proximity to the place. –
1890, L.B. 12, p. 321.
No. 830. School of Instruction. There can be no
"School of Instruction" in Masonry unless it be expressly authorized by
the Grand Master. – Mitchell, Mar. 10, 1885, L.B. 9, p. 706. Mitchell
Feb. 2, 1886,
L.B. 10, p. 53.
No. 882. Work. None but the authorized work as
in the Temple School of Instruction, is permitted in this Jurisdiction.
Pro. 1904, p. 220.
No. 899. See that your Lodge is at all times
while rehearsing the work, and allow no one to enter or retire during
of the work. – Day, Feb. 25, 1884, L.B. 9, p. 263.
No. 905.... Meetings for instruction may be
the Lodge room, or a room adjacent, where entire secrecy can be
such meetings should not be held on Sunday. – Orlady, Pro. 1908, p. 172.
* * *
Detroit Lodge, 1799
(By the kindness of a Member of the Society, we
the following correspondence showing that a Masonic Lodge existed in
as early as 1799, and probably as early as 1760. It was no doubt
organized by the
officers of the English troops which came to Detroit. Further facts
about that Lodge,
if they are to be had, would be of interest to the Society.)
Quebec, 30th May, 1799.
By the Winter Express I acknowledge Receipt of
Correspondence up to the 27th of Decemr. last and then promised to
forward you as
early as possible the Determination of the Grand Lodge on the
between your Body and several of its members.
Soon after your papers arrived they were
the Stewards Lodge: this consists of the Grand Warden, Treasurer and
the Masters of the respective Lodges in Town. Their Business is to
revise and digest
all matters relative to the Craft prior to their being laid before the
where they again have a Hearing, but in a more numerous assembly.
At our last Quarterly Communication the 2d of
the Matter was finally decided and herewith you have Extracts of the
I hope will satisfy all parties; from your representation of Mr.
behavior, it was impossible to do less than expel him – Brothers Eberts
appearing in another Light – it was thought proper to give them an
rejoining – the latter under the Restriction of the Resolves as from
your own Account
he has been a worthy Brother and has repented himself of his Errors.
Upon the whole should the Grand Lodge have not
Opinion in every respect of No. 10 they must make Allowances for the
attending upon Decissions where the Evidence is exparte.
I remain Worshipf
Yr. Obedt. & very Hble. Servt.
(Signed) Wm. Lindsay
Gr. Sy. of L.C.
The Worshipful Br. James Donaldson
Master of Zion Lodge No. 10
Grand Lodge of Lower Canada
In Quarterly Communication
Quebec 2d March, 1799.
The Grand Secretary having delivered the Report
Stewards Lodge on a Reference relating to the Expulsion of several
Brethren of Lion
Lodge No. 10 and this Grand Lodge having maturely considered the same
again revised the papers transmitted by that Body – finally –
RESOLVED – That Peter Curry late a Member of
be expelled from the Society and his Expulsion be reported to all
Lodges in Correspondence
with this Grand Lodge.
That Brother Herman Eberts was free to quit the
when he pleased, but as it appears he withdrew at a time when the
Harmony of it
was Distracted – The Grand Lodge recommend his being readmitted –
That in Consequence of Lodge No. 10 having
the former examplary and Masonic Conduct of Brother James May – this
recommend that he be readmitted but he shall prior to his readmission
apollogy to No. 10 as the Members thereof shall deem sufficient for
his letter of the 10th last to Brother James Donaldson Master of that
parts of which Letter contains Unhandsome and improper Language,
tending to throw
an Odium on their proceedings.
A true Extract
(Signed) Wm. Lindsay
Grand Secretary of Lower Canada
Minutes of Examination of Facts mentioned in
May's Letter of the 29th of May, '99. to Brother Donaldson – Ordered by
to be examined by us as a Committee.
Q. Who gave the Information or exposed that one
Body had reported your expulsion?"
A. Brother Eberts, and that it was Bro. McNiff who had reported it.
Q. Who the persons were who have defam'd your
A. Brothers Powers, Freeman and McNiff.
Q. Why, and on what good grounds you have
on Brother Donaldson Master or appointing Bro. McNiff on the Committee
the 25th of Augt. 1798, and on Brother Wheaton for his Incapacity in
A. That in the imputation to Bro. Wheaton I was mistaken and unjust but
Donaldson not so.
Report of the Committee That from the matter
in the above imputations against Bro. McNiff in our opinion require
that he should
be specially summond to attend the Body to answer to the facts which
Bro. May has
promised to Evince by sufficient proof and that copy of those Minutes
should be sent to Brothers May & McNiff in order that they may
attend and give
the satisfaction due to the Body, That Brother May be ready to make the
to the Body which the Sentence of the Grand Lodge requires.
(Signed) Hugh Heward P. Master.
Lewis Bond Treasurer.
James M. Downall
Detroit 7th Augt. 1799.
* * *
Dear Brother Newton: In your March, 1915,
The Builder you had a very interesting article entitled "Solemn Strikes
Fun'ral Chime," in which reference was had to the author, David Vinton.
and I fancy many Masons, would like to know more of Brother Vinton, and
it is probable
that some of your readers may be able to finish out some of his history
in the inclosed excerpts from the Proceedings of the Grand Lodges of
and Rhode Island, and the minutes of Mount Vernon Lodge No. 4 of
Island, of which he was a member. He appears to have been the victim of
on his character, and it may be the story of his having died a drunkard
without the benefit of Masonic service, is untrue.
John Whicher, Grand Sec'y, California.
(Proceedings Grand Lodge of North Carolina,
The M. W. Grand Master read a letter from the
High Priest of the Grand R. A. Chapter of the State of Virginia,
character and conduct of Mr. David Vinton.
(Same body, December 1, 1821)
The Grand Master called the attention of the
to a letter of enquiry, from Mount Vernon Lodge, of Providence, Rhode
the denunciation of David Vinton, a member of that Lodge, by this Grand
on motion of Brother Smith, was referred to a committee, consisting of
Jas. S. Smith, William Boylan, Thomas Henderson, Jesse A. Dawson, and
M. W. Campbell.
(December 4, 1821)
The committee to whom was referred the
from Mount Vernon Lodge, Providence, Rhode Island, relative to the
of David Vinton, by their chairman, James S. Smith, submitted a report,
Lodge concurred, and ordered that the Secretary send a copy thereof to
(Proc. Grand Lodge of Rhode Island, May 28,
Resolved, the Grand Secretary communicate the
of the Worshipful Grand Lodge of the State of North Carolina,
respecting the expulsion
of David Vinton for un-Masonic conduct by their Grand Lodge, to the
Master of Mount
Vernon Lodge (the said Vinton being a member of his Lodge) and that he
lay the proceedings
before his Lodge at their next meeting, and inquire into the
proceedings and make
a report of their doings to this Grand Lodge.
(June 25, 1821)
A report of the proceedings of Mount Vernon
David Vinton received and the consideration postponed until the next
in August next.
(February 26, 1822)
The W. Master of Mount Vernon Lodge made a
said Lodge had investigated into the conduct of David Vinton.
On motion made and seconded, Voted Said report
and a copy of the proceedings ordered on file.
(June 24, 1823)
The W. Master of Mount Vernon Lodge informed
Lodge he noticed by the report of expelled Masons by the Grand Lodge of
it was stated David Vinton is expelled by Mount Vernon Lodge No. 4, in
which being an error, offered the following resolution:
Resolved, that the Grand Secretary be
inform the Grand Lodge of the State of New York that Brother Vinton is
from Mount Vernon Lodge aforesaid and that this resolution be
communicated to the
several Grand Lodges in the United States.
Mount Vernon Lodge No. 4, F. & A. M.
Providence R. I., July 9,1916.
Dear Sir and W. Brother:
Owing to the illness of our Secretary, R. W.
B. Manchester, I am answering your inquiry of June 13th regarding one
of our old
members, David Vinton, and I trust from the copies of our records
you will get the information sought.
Respt. and Fraternally yours,
William S. Greene,
W. M. Mt. Vernon No. 4,
358 Potter ave., Prov., R. I.
(Copy of the minutes of Mt. Vernon Lodge No. 4,
A. M., Prov., R. I.)
June 5th, A. L. 5821. Resolved, that the Grand
communicate the proceedings of the W. Grand Lodge of the State of No.
the expulsion of David Vinton for un-Masonic conduct by their Grand
Lodge, to the
Master of Mount Vernon Lodge No. 4 (said Vinton being a member of his
that he lay the proceedings before his Lodge at their next meeting and
the proceedings of their doings to this Grand Lodge. (Above is a true
copy of a
communication rec'd from G. L. by Mt. V.) The charges against David
Vinton as communicated
by the Grand Lodge are selling manuscripts of the Masonic lectures, and
the Mark and Past Master's degrees without any authority to do so, and
the fees, and stating to subordinate Lodges that he had authority from
Lodge which he had not.
Voted, that a committee be appointed to
the conduct of Bro. David Vinton relative to the charges made against
Committee, W. Joseph S. Cooke, W. Master Henry
Bro. John Holroyd.
July 25, A. L. 5821. Voted, that the committee
to investigate the character of Bro. David Vinton be instructed to
write to Franklin
Chapter and the Grand Lodge of No. Carolina requesting them to furnish
with those charges upon which they expelled said Vinton from their
Feb. 22, A. L. 5822. The committee to whom were
the charges exhibited by the Grand Lodge of North Carolina against Bro.
a member of this Lodge, and submitted to you by the Grand Lodge of this
who were also instructed to inform Bro. Vinton of the charges against
him and also
to communicate with Franklin Chapter No. 4, Norwich, Connecticut, from
Bro. Vinton was said to be expelled, beg leave to report that on the
13th of June
last they addressed a letter to Bro. Vinton, but owing to misdirection,
other cause, it did not reach him until the 25th of December last, as
his letter dated the 26th of the same month; that on the 31st of July
a communication to Franklin Chapter to which they received an answer
the 7th of
November following. In the month of January of the present year, your
received through the post office two packets covering a lengthy but
communication of seventy-three close written pages from Bro. Vinton,
by several letters and documents in defense of his character. Your
aware that the nature of their appointment does not require an
expression of their
sentiments upon the charges exhibited. They do not wish to be thought
this respect. But upon an attentive perusal of the documents forwarded
by Bro. Vinton,
they cannot forbear expressing it as their decided opinion that the
against our brother by the Grand Lodge of No. Carolina and Franklin
are wholly unsupported by evidence. Among the reports circulated to the
Bro. Vinton is one that he had left his family and that they were being
by the Lodge. Brethren, you all know that this report is entirely
destitute of truth.
Jos. S. Cooke,
Voted, that a special Lodge be called tomorrow
the 23d inst. at 2 o'clock, for the purpose of further considering the
Bro. Vinton, and his defense.
Feb. 23d. The object of the meeting being
to the reading of the report of the committee . . . the correspondence
and the documents
. . . which being accomplished, and after due consideration, it was
this Lodge do disapprove of the proceedings of the Grand Lodge of North
in relation to our Bro. David Vinton, and that we do concur with our
opinion that the charges exhibited against him by said Grand Lodge are
and that the proceedings of said Grand Lodge are wholly unwarranted.
(Brother Greene adds in a note: "Postage on all
correspondence in relation to this investigation was $4.25.)
* * *
Dear Sir and Brother: The "Freemason's March"
printed in your October issue is known throughout England as the
Song." In some Lodges under the English Constitution it is invariably
by the Brethren after an initiation ceremony when the Lodge has been
In the first edition of the Constitution Book
this song is ascribed by Dr. Anderson to "our late Brother, Mr. Matthew
deceased. To be sung where all grave business is over, and with the
Since the time of Dr. Anderson another verse
added as follows:
We're true and sincere,
And just to the Fair;
They'll trust us on any occasion:
No mortal can more
The Ladies adore
Than a Free and an Accepted Mason.
C. C. Adams,
* * *
"The Honor Role"
Dear Sir and Brother: I was interested to note
recent issue of The Builder that among the Signers of the Declaration
known or supposed to be Freemasons, was included the name of Francis
I would be greatly interested in obtaining confirmation of this if
is known that Francis Hopkinson's father, Thomas, was Grand Master of
Pennsylvania in 1736, but I am informed by Grand Lodge Librarian Bro.
of Philadelphia, that there is no record of Francis Hopkinson's
Francis Hopkinson Coffin, Scranton, Penn.
* * *
Dear Brother Newton: – In an editorial of the
1916, Builder Magazine, mention is made of your desire to write a Life
of Albert Pike, the great Scottish Rite Freemason. I own a copy of
Morals and Dogma
and have often wondered why this book was published without an index; a
index however is on the market which I have incorporated in my copy,
the same complete.
Your desire to write this contemplated and much
book, should meet with the hearty approval, and especially support, of
all the members
of the Society, interested in the life of Albert Pike.
Acting on my own suggestion, I am enclosing a
circular of a publication which perhaps you may have overlooked,
dealing with Albert
Pike's diplomatic work for the Southern Confederacy, also, the
following item which
I have taken from my copy of BIBLIOTHECA ROSICRUCIANA by F. Leigh
Gardner, 14 Marlborough
Road, (his present address) Gunnersbury, London, W. Either Mr. Gardner
or Mr. Arthur
E. Waite could give you information relative to this item.
Page 46. Item No. 317. Pike (Albert), The
of the Blue Degrees of Freemasonry, a thick folio MSS. in the private
the "Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia." Its date is about 1875. (Footnote,
This MMS. has never been published. It contains, in addition to its
a great deal of Rosicrucian matter not to be found elsewhere.)
Trusting that these two items may be of some
you and that you will soon get this very important book on the market,
Cordially and fraternally yours,
– H. L.
(Many thanks. The volume dealing with Albert
diplomatic work for the Southern Confederacy was noted in these pages
at the time
of its publication. (Vol. 1, p. 279.) As to the MS volume by Pike on
of the Blue Degrees said to exist in England, we have our doubts. There
a volume in the vault of the House of the Temple, in Washington – which
read with joy and profit – but we are quite sure that no copy of it was
There was a volume of lectures, two of them in fact, on Symbolism, so
to resemble MS – this may be the volume a copy of which found its way
waters. Still, some such volume may exist, for Pike was amazingly
prolific and journeyed
into many fields of research. We shall welcome any further information
which any Member of the Society may possess. Unfortunately, we were not
learn anything about it while in England.)
* * *
A Token of Memory
Dear Brother: – Referring to that note, "A
of Memory," on page 348 of the Nov. Builder, you may be interested to
that just such a practice has been followed in Barton Lodge, Hamilton,
some four or five years past. This is one of the oldest lodges in the
and recently celebrated its, I believe, 120th birthday.
The same idea had been advocated in Wilson
this city, also for some time by the present W. M., Wor. Bro. W. H.
Black, and it
so happened that a P. M. from Barton Lodge was present in Wilson Lodge
on one of
these occasions and told those present of the custom prevailing in his
The seed was dropped in fruitful ground, for one of the brethren, now
V. W. Bro.
R. F. Segsworth, offered to supply the bibles, with a suitable book
plate, at his
own expense, and has done so for two years.
Enclosed is a copy of the bookplate, and you
that the inscription is embossed, as well as the decorative heading,
merely, so that the gift is not a cheap one. The bible used is bound in
leather, and is worthy a place on any reading table.
Wilson Lodge was instituted in 1857 and its
membership is 375, of whom some 29 have gone overseas. To each one of
given by the Lodge a military wrist watch and a parchment setting forth
in the three
languages the fact of his Masonic standing, which is enclosed in a
water proof envelope.
There is one respect in which I understand that
Lodge differs from Barton Lodge with regard to the presentation bibles.
latter, the Lodge keeps the bibles until the candidate has been raised
but in the former he gets his copy when he is initiated, so that in
case he has
to be passed or raised elsewhere he can still use his bible and have it
filled in at the time.
P. T. O., Canada.
WILSON LODGE, A.F. & A.M., NO. 86, G.R.C.
This Volume of The Sacred Law was used at the
into Masonry of Bro.........................................
Initiated .... Day of .... 19 .... by Wor. Bro
Passed .... Day of .... 19 .... by Wor. Bro
Raised ...... Day of .... 19 .... by Wor. Bro
and it was presented to our Brother on his
the Master Mason Degree.
* * *
We would thank Brethren who contribute to The
henceforth, if they will be kind enough to send with their articles a
sketch, giving date and place of birth, schools attended, if any – the
of Hard Knocks, if no other – books written, business or profession,
affiliations. We wish to include such a brief notice with articles
we did in the case of Prof. Bingham, for the interest of our readers.
Brethren, and govern yourselves accordingly.
The Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa wishes
a collection of articles, books, pictures, relics of Robert Burns, and
Librarian would appreciate the co-operation of the members of the
should be addressed to Brother Newton R. Parvin, Masonic Library, Cedar
Concise History of Freemasonry
Gou04 / auth. Gould Robert F.. - New York : Macoy Publisher and Masonic
Supply Co., 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 594. - 24.5 MB.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 1
GouLF1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 5 : p. 443. - 32.5 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 2
GouLF2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 5 : p. 411. - 29.0 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 3
GouLF3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 5 : p. 493. - 34.1 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 4
GouLF4 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 5 : p. 491. - 33.6 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 5
GouLF5 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1911. - Vol. 5 : 5 : p. 652. - 41.6 MB - Illustrated.
A Short Masonic History Vol 1
Arm09 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1909. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 195. - 3.8 MB.
A Short Masonic History Vol 2
Arm11 / auth. Armitage Frederick. - London : H. Weare & Co,
1911. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 190. - 3.9 MB.
A Textbook of Masonic
Mac721 / auth. Mackey Albert G.. - New York : Clark, Maynard,
Publishers, 1872. - 7th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 571. - 28.1 MB.
Cha17 / auth. Charnwood Lord. - London : Constable & Company
Ltd., 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 493. - 29.2 MB.
An Ambassador, City Temple
New161 / auth. Newton Joseph F.. - New York : Fleming H. Revell
Company, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 227. - 4.1 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G.. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac142 / auth. Mackey Albert G.. - Unknown : Unknown, 1914. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 2132. - 7.2 MB - No Graphics - Digital Text only.
An Exposition of the Mysteries
or Religious Dogmas of the Ancient Egyptians, Pythagoreans, and Druids
- Also an Inquiry into the Origin, History and Purport of Freemasonry
Fel35 / auth. Fellows John. - New York : John Fellows, 1835. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 421. - 24.3 MB.
Ancient History Vol 1
Rol23AH01 / auth. Rollin Charles. - London : W. Baynes and Son, 1823. -
15th Edition : Vol. 1 : 8 : p. 458. - 30.2 MB.
Ancient History Vol 2
Rol23AH02 / auth. Rollin Charles. - London : W. Baynes and Son, 1823. -
15th Edition : Vol. 2 : 8 : p. 478. - 27.7 MB.
Ancient History Vol 3
Rol23AH03 / auth. Rollin Charles. - London : W. Baynes and Son, 1823. -
15th Edition : Vol. 3 : 8 : p. 507. - 30.4 MB.
Ancient History Vol 4
Rol23AH04 / auth. Rollin Charles. - London : W. Baynes and Son, 1823. -
15th Edition : Vol. 4 : 8 : p. 462. - 29.5 MB.
Ancient History Vol 5
Rol23AH05 / auth. Rollin Charles. - London : W. Baynes and Son, 1823. -
Vol. 5 : 8 : p. 440. - 25.9 MB.
Ancient History Vol 6
Rol23AH06 / auth. Rollin Charles. - London : W. Baynes and Son, 1823. -
15th Edition : Vol. 6 : 8 : p. 463. - 30.5 MB.
Ancient History Vol 7
Rol23AH07 / auth. Rollin Charles. - London : W. Baynes and Son, 1823. -
15th Editioni : Vol. 7 : 8 : p. 461. - 30.0 MB.
Ancient History Vol 8
Rol23AH08 / auth. Rollin Charles. - London : W. Baynes and Son, 1823. -
15th Edition : Vol. 8 : 8 : p. 336. - 20.8 MB.
Yar09 / auth. Yarker John. - [s.l.] : Unknown, 1909. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
382. - 1.8 MB.
Book of Constitutions
And23 / auth. Anderson James. - London : William Hunter, 1723. -
Fac-Simile by Jno. W. Leonard & Co., New York, 1855 : Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 119. - 6.0 MB.
Dod99 / auth. Dodge Henry N.. - New York : Putnam's Sons, 1899. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 197. - 2.7 MB.
General History of Ireland
Kea61 / auth. Keating Geoffrey / trans. O'Connor Donald. - Dublin :
James Duffy, 1861. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 547. - 40.9 MB.
Historical Sketches Vol 1
NewHS01 / auth. Newman John H. - London : Longmans, Green, and Co.,
1888. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 457. - 14.8 MB.
Historical Sketches Vol 2
NewHS02 / auth. Newman John H. - London : Longmans, Green, and Co.,
1888. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 500. - 16.5 MB.
Historical Sketches Vol 3
NewHS03 / auth. Newman John H. - London : Longmans, Green, and Co.,
1897. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 431. - 12.3 MB.
History of Freemasonry (Jack)
Gou82Jack1 / auth. Gould Robert F.. - London : Thomas C. Jack, 1882. -
Vol. 1 : 4 : p. 258. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry (Jack)
Gou83Jack2 / auth. Gould Robert F.. - London : Thomas C. Jack, 1883. -
Vol. 2 : 4 : p. 264. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry (Jack)
Gou84Jack3 / auth. Gould Robert F.. - London : Thomas C. Jack, 1884. -
Vol. 3 : 4 : p. 258. - 14.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry (Jack)
Gou85Jack4 / auth. Gould Robert F.. - London : Thomas C. Jack, 1885. -
Vol. 4 : 4 : p. 263. - 14.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 1
Mac06 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 7 : p. 316. - 13.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 2
Mac061 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 7 : p. 341. - 10.4 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 3
Mac062 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 7 : p. 328. - 12.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 4
Mac063 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 7 : p. 324. - 13.1 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 5
Mac064 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 5 : 7 : p. 318. - 13.9 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 6
Mac065 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 6 : 7 : p. 328. - 13.8 MB.
History of Freemasonry Vol 7
Mac066 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1906. - Vol. 7 : 7 : p. 398. - 18.7 MB.
History of Masonry and
Hug91 / auth. Hughan William J / ed. Hughan William J. and Stillson
Henry L.. - New York : The Fraternity Publishing Co., 1891. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 863. - 63.4 MB.
History of the Ancient and
Accepted Scottish Rite
She90 / auth. A Sherman Edwin. - Oakland : Carruth and Carruth
Printers, 1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 139. - 15.5 MB.
House of the Hidden Places - A
Clue to the Creed of Early Egypt
Ada95 / auth. Adams W. Marsham. - Santa Cruz : sacred-texts.com, 1895.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 90. - 0.8 MB - Illustrated.
Pop84 / auth. Pope Leo XIII. - Vatican City : Holy See, 1884. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 24. - 0.5 MB.
Humanum Genus Reply
Pik84 / auth. Pike Albert. - [s.l.] : AASR, 1884. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 40.
- 37.1 MB.
Illustrations of Masonry
Pre72 / auth. Preston William. - London : Eidographic Reproduction
Publishing Co. 1887, 1772. - First Edition Facsimile : Vol. 1 : 1 : p.
295. - 5.2 MB.
Wri07 / auth. Wright Robert C. - Ann Arbour : Tyler Publishing Co.,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 143. - 7.9 MB.
Jewels of Masonic Oratory
Myl00 / auth. Myler Larkin S. - New York : M. W. Hazen Co., 1900. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 732. - 20.3 MB.
King Solomons Mines
Hag00 / auth. Haggard H. Rider. - London : Cassell and Company, Ltd.,
1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 370. - 15.9 MB.
Light on a Dark Subject
Upt99 / auth. Upton William H. - Seattle : The Pacific Mason Publisher,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 141. - 10.0 MB.
Lincoln and Herndon
New10 / auth. Newton Joseph F. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1910.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - 13.9 MB.
Loo02 / auth. Look Henry M.. - New York : Macoy Publishing and Masonic
Supply Co., 1902. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 347. - 18.5 MB.
Morals and Dogma
Pik71 / auth. Pike Albert. - Charleston : Supreme Council AASR, 1871. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 895. - Formatted & Indexed by rhm - 7.6 MB.
Mr. Britling sees it through
Wel17 / auth. Wells Herbert G.. - New York : The Macmillan Company,
1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 449. - 23.4 MB.
Buc11 / auth. Buck Jirah D.. - Chicago : Indo-American Book Co., 1911.
- 5th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 307. - 8.9 MB.
Origin of the English Rite of
Hug84 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : George Kenning, 1884. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 166. - 5.1 MB.
Pik00 / auth. Pike Albert. - Little Rock : [s.n.], 1900. - Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 539. - 9.0 MB.
Prose Sketches and Poems
Written in the Western Country
Pik34 / auth. Pike Albert. - Boston : Light and Horton, 1834. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 201. - 10.4 MB.
Raymond: Or Life After Death
Lod26 / auth. Lodge Sir Oliver. - London : Methuen & Co., Ltd.,
1926. - 13th Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 433. - 24.1 MB.
Rob Roy Vol 1
Sco18RR1 / auth. Scott Sir Walter. - Edinburgh : Archibald Constable
and Company, 1818. - Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 329. - 15.3 MB.
Rob Roy Vol 2
Sco18RR2 / auth. Scott Sir Walter. - Edinburgh : Archibald Constable
and Company, 1818. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 329. - 15.6 MB.
Rob Roy Vol 3
Sco18RR3 / auth. Scott Sir Walter. - Edinburgh : Archibald Constable
and Company, 1818. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 353. - 17.4 MB.
Signs and Symbols Illustrated
Oli37 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper,
1837. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 289. - 9.2 MB.
Mac141 / auth. Macbride A S. - Glasgow : D. Gilfillan & Co.,
1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 283. - 18.6 MB.
Symbolic Teaching of Masonry
and its Message
Ste17 / auth. Stewart Thomas M.. - Cincinnati : Stewart & Kidd
Co., 1917. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 256. - 14.5 MB.
The Ancient Irish Vol 1
OCu73AI1 / auth. O'Curry Eugene. - London : William and Norgate, 1873.
- Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 686. - 40.0 MB.
The Ancient Irish Vol 2
OCu73AI2 / auth. O'Curry Eugene. - London : William and Norgate, 1873.
- Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 418. - 31.9 MB.
The Ancient Irish Vol 3
OCu73AI3 / auth. O'Curry Eugene. - London : William and Norgate, 1873.
- Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 742. - 45.4 MB.
The Black Monks of St Benedict
Tau97 / auth. Taunton Ethelred L. - London : John C. Nimmo, 1897. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 325. - 15.4 MB.
The Black Monks of St Benedict
Tau971 / auth. Taunton Ethelred L. - London : John C. Nimmo, 1897. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 384. - 23.0 MB.
The Brook Kerith
Moo16 / auth. Moore George. - New York : The Macmillan Company, 1916. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 504. - 10.5 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F.. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Complete Procopius
Pro96 / auth. Procopius. - Athens : Athenian Society, 1896. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 91. - 1.1 MB.
The Cryptic Rite
Rob88 / auth. Robertson J Ross. - Toronto : Hunter, Ross & Co.,
1888. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 263. - 8.6 MB.
The Decline and Fall of the
Roman Empire Vol 1
Gib13 / auth. Gibbon Edward. - Pictou : ronigo, 2013. - Vol. 1 : 6 : p.
373. - 2.8 MB.
The Elements of Euclid
Sim06 / auth. Simson Robert. - Philadelphia : Mathew Carey, 1806. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 523. - 20.6 MB.
The Genius of Freemasonry and
the Twentieth-Century Crusade
Buc14 / auth. Buck Jirah D. - Chicago : Indo-American Book Co., 1914. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 353. - 7.8 MB.
The Great Pyramid of Jizeh
Ski71 / auth. Skinner J. Ralston. - Cincinnati : Robert Clarke
& Co, 1871. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 19. - 0.7 MB.
The Great Work
Ric13 / auth. Richardson John E.. - Chicago : Indo-American Book Co.,
1913. - 15th Edition : Vol. 3 Harmonic Series : of 5 : p. 457. - 16.0
The Historical Works Vol 1
Bed45 / auth. Bede
Venerable / ed. Giles J. A.. - London : James Bohn, 1845. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p.
400. - 22.9 MB.
The Historical Works Vol 2
Bed451 / auth. Bede
Venerable / ed. Giles J. A.. - London : James Bohn, 1845. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p.
377. - 19.0 MB.
The History of Initiation in
Oli55 / auth. Oliver George. - New York : Jno. W. Leonard &
Co., 1855. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 245. - A New Edition - 12.9 MB.
The History of the Knight
Templars; The Temple Church, and the Temple
Add42 / auth. Addison Charles G. - London : Longman, Brown, Green, and
Longmans, 1842. - Scanned at sacred-texts.com, May, 2006 : Vol. 1 : 1 :
p. 285. - 1.8 MB.
The Knights Templars
Add52 / auth. Addison Charles G.. - London : Longman, Brown, Green, and
Longmans, 1852. - 3rd Edition : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 334. - 12.4 MB.
The Lights and Shadows of
Mor52 / auth. Morris Rob. - Louisville : J. F. Brennan for the Author,
1852. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 401. - 36.2 MB.
The Mysterious Stranger
Twa16 / auth. Twain Mark. - New York : Harper & Brothers,
Publishers, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 159. - 3.4 MB.
The New Infinite and the Old
Key15 / auth. Keyser Cassius J.. - New York : Humphrey Milford, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 125. - 3.8 MB.
The Poetry of Freemasonry
Mor95 / auth. Morris Rob. - New York : The Werner Company, 1895. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 420. - 10.5 MB.
The Roman History
Amm94 / auth. Ammianus Marcellinus. - London : George Bell &
Sons, 1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 654. - 29.1 MB.
The Signs and Symbols of
Chu13 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
Company, Ltd, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 546. - 59.2 MB.
The Spirit of Masonry in Moral
and Elucidatory Lectures
Hut95 / auth. Hutchinson William. - Carlisle : F. Jollie, 1795. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 370. - 13.8 MB.
The Symbolism of Freemasonry
Mac21 / auth. Mackey Albert G. - Chicaco Ill. : The Masonic History
Company, 1921. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 386. - Revised by Robert I. Clegg.
The Works of Ausonius Vol 1
Aus19 / auth. Ausonius Decimus Magus / trans. White Hugh G. E.. - New
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1919. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 448. - 13.9 MB.
The Works of Ausonius Vol 2
Aus191 / auth. Ausonius Decimus Magus / trans. White Hugh G. E.. - New
York : G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1919. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 374. - 11.2 MB.
What is Freemasonry
Spe93 / auth. Speth George W. - London : George Kenning, 1893. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 16. - 0.3 MB.