Masonic Research Society
Memorial to John Paul Jones
By Bro. Geo. W. Baird, P.
G. M., District Of Columbia
THE bronze statue of the peerless John Paul
its marble pylon for a background, is situated at the foot of
near the entrance to Potomac Park, in the City of Washington. It is the
Mr. Niehaus, an American Sculptor of German descent, who used Houdon's
This memorial had its origin in the hearts of a
Congress, when they learned that our American Ambassador, at Paris,
Porter, who was also President General of the Society of the Sons of
Revolution, had spent $35,000 in his search for and the identification
of the body
of John Paul Jones, and had refused reimbursement by the Government.
The body of the great Admiral was brought from
to the United States in a battleship, convoyed by a fleet of French war
the obsequies were held at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, on the
24th of April,
1906. This date was chosen by the President of the United States,
because it was
the anniversary of Jones' battle with the Drake.
Though a man of small stature (five feet seven
in height) the statue of John Paul Jones is of heroic size, about
twelve feet in
height. The marble pylon, the waters of the Potomac and the foliage
a beautiful background for the memorial. The sculpture is classic and
his been pronounced
John Paul Jones is represented as standing on
of his ship, in the uniform of his rank, his left hand resting on the
his sword, his right hand clenched, his lips compressed and his gaze
fixed on the
The pedestal was designed by Mr. Hastings and
on two sides with a combination of sword, helmets and laurel branches,
in high relief.
A band of low relief runs around the pedestal, and has a number of
for motives. In front the attic of the pedestal shows an Eagle in
a wreath of oak leaves. In the rear is a relief showing John Paul Jones
the stars and stripes on a U.S. Man-of-war.
At the obsequies the speakers were the
the United States, the Secretary of the Navy, the Ambassador from
J. J. Jusserand), General Horace Porter, (our Ambassador to France),
and the Governor
of the State of Maryland.
The officers of the French Fleet which had come
Members of the Supreme Court, Senators Members of Congress, officers of
and Army and other distinguished men were present.
The only flowers in evidence were the laurel
on the Casket, and the floral wreath containing a square and compasses
sent by the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. The casket was
the union jack, as is the rule for seafaring men.
No one could hear the speeches that day without
of pride and shame: of pride for the man whose acts had been so potent
the recognition of the Republic: and of shame that he to whom the
Nation was indebted
full $60,000 for services rendered, should have been buried by charity
in a foreign
cemetery, and there remain, neglected by his countrymen, for a century
and a quarter.
It was decided that day to inter the body of
Jones in the crypt, under the Naval Academy chapel (then under
in imitation of the tomb of Napoleon, at Paris. The cost of the changes
in the building,
for this purpose, was estimated by the architects, to be $100,000; and,
the proffered reimbursement of $35,000 spent in discovering and
remains, General Porter requested the Government to add the amount to
which would make the tomb so much more beautiful and imposing.
The refusal of General Porter to accept
is what determined Congress to show its gratitude in erecting a
memorial to John
Paul Jones, in the Capital City.
Senator Lodge, of Massachusetts, (a member of
of the Sons of the American Revolution), introduced a bill in the
$50,000 for a memorial statue of John Paul Jones.
The bill had such a ring of patriotism and the
and deeds of John Paul Jones had been so often repeated in the daily
press and was
so fresh in the public mind that no one thought it necessary to push
The bill was committed and probably would have lapsed had not another,
Senator Lodge's bill, been introduced in the House, by Mr. Driscol of
N. Y. This
bill differed from the Lodge bill in that it purposed making its
memorial to "Commodore"
John Barry "Father of the American Navy."
As John Barry was the eleventh Captain on the
Navy list, Congress could not declare him, in that Act, to be the
The Bill for the Barry statue was urged by the "Irish Societies" while
that for John Paul Jones seemed to have no promoters, and as both bills
by the same Committee the same day, and were passed the same day, it is
that one helped the other.
John Paul Jones was made a Freemason in the
Saint Bernard, at Kirkudbright, Scotland, in 1770, but he afterwards
took his membership
to that famous French Lodge, Neuf Soeurs, in Paris, of which Benjamin
Houdon, Voltaire, Helvetius, Elie DuMont, D'Estaing and other famous
men were members.
John Paul Jones began to go to sea when about
of age. He was a Midshipman in the British Navy, from which he resigned
of the retarded promotion. He entered the Merchant Marine and was in
a ship before he was twenty-one years of age.
He must have been a close student, for he
be master of both French and Spanish as well as being a superior
letters are still in use, as models, at the Naval Academy. As a
diplomat he was
in the highest rank, at that time.
John Paul Jones joined an older brother, in
where he was living when war was declared. He was the first officer who
a commission in the Colonial Navy (as a first lieutenant). He was the
first to aid
the Continental Congress in creating the Navy and formulating its
was the first in command of a vessel of war; the first to run up the
on an American war vessel (the Alfred); he was with those first at sea
flag, and was in at the first British warship striking colors and
an American warship; the first and only Naval officer named in an act
of the Continental
Congress, creating the flag – the Stars and Stripes. He was the first
to run up
the Stars and Stripes, on board an American war vessel – the Ranger. He
first to carry this flag across the sea; the first to propose and to
receive a salute
to the Stars and Stripes from a foreign Nation, and, therein the first
recognition of the new Nation, the United States. He was the first to
make a British
war vessel (the Drake) strike her colors and surrender to the Stars and
the first and only Naval Officer to receive a vote of thanks from the
Congress, and the only one, during the Revolution, who never lost a
warship in battle.
The Nation's Board of Admiralty said, and the
"He hath made
the flag of the United States respected among the flags of other
The victory of John Paul Jones, in command of
Homme Richard, over the Serapis, had more to do with the United States
from other Nations than any one act of that war.
John Paul Jones was the only Naval Officer, of
who dared carry a war up to a British port, so firmly were the Britons
the sea of that day.
John Paul Jones was the only American Naval
who figured at all extensively in British History of the American
At the close of the Revolutionary war the ships
Navy were dismantled and sold and the officers and crews discharged.
was depleted; there was no money for salaries. John Paul Jones,
however, was retained
as Commissioner, in France, to settle the complicated affairs that
had mixed crews of French and Americans. Some of the ships had joint
some, with mixed crews, were owned entirely in the United States.
John Paul Jones contracted consumption and
from which he died in Paris in 1792. His assets were not available and
he was buried
by the charity of noble hearted Frenchmen in a small protestant
cemetery where his
remains lay for a hundred and twenty-five years.
The search for his body extended over a period
years. It was found and turned over to the French Academy for
at first, would appear impossible. But the history of his burial, the
of measurements, particularly of the head, compared with the Houdon
bust, and the
unmistakable identification of lesions in the kidneys from nephritis
and in the
lungs from tuberculosis, the color of the hair, and numerous other ways
identification complete. The body had been preserved in alcohol, in an
Two years after his death the Navy of the
was rehabilitated, when it was found that but few of the original
living. The regulations, prepared by Jones, were used and his original
John Paul Jones was a man of remarkable
dainty and particular in his dress and manners he was, at the same
He was popular in the best of society. He was a welcome guest at the
and Louis XIV made him a Chevalier, and presented him with a sword. He
was as popular
with ladies as with men.
The Marquis of Vaudreuil said of him, "His
are so wonderful and of such diversity that each day he brings forth
Franklin spoke of the "strange magnetism in his
presence, and indescribable charm of manner."
The Captain of the Serapis, said he felt that
fighting something superhuman in his battle with the Bon Homme Richard.
John Paul Jones would never sail in a
a letter to Jefferson he said, "I can never renounce the glorious title
a citizen of the United States," and also "I do not wish to engage in
privateering. My object is not that of private gain but to serve the
public in a
way that may reflect credit on our Infant Navy and to gain prestige to
on the sea."
He also said, "If, by desperate fighting, one
our ships shall conquer one of theirs of markedly superior force, we
shall be hailed
as pioneers of a new power on the sea, with untold prospects of
These principles he lived and by them won
made his name immortal in the history of the Nation and of the world.
America -- [A
Henry Van Dyke
love thine inland
Thy groves of giant trees,
Thy rolling plains;
Thy rivers' mighty sweep,
Thy mystic canyons deep,
Thy mountains wild and steep,
All thy domains;
Thy silver Eastern strands,
Thy Golden Gate that stands
Wide to the West;
Thy flowery Southland fair,
Thy sweet and crystal air, –
O land beyond compare,
Thee I love best!
Masonic Social Service –
Chicago Employment Bureau
By Bro. Arthur M. Millard,
THIS is the story of an organization of
an organization made up of Masonic bodies, reaching out for the
fulfillment of their
higher calling which lies before, and represented in its workings by
men with high
ideals; men with a vision of purpose and of progress, and inspired by
of that which lies at the foundation of Masonry's teachings.
It is the story of an organization of effort –
privilege – an organization whose work is open to all men of Masonic
whose privilege lifts them to higher planes of purpose and of action,
to purer ideals
and nobler impulse by the practical application of that spirit of love
and of service,
which they have found is the body, soul and spirit of the Masonic
It is the story of the Masonic Employment
Chicago, an organization which during the past few years has placed
employment, has helped thousands to help themselves, has inspired the
of many other organizations of a like purpose and character, both in
of Masonry, throughout the United States and Canada, and which
preaching by its
actions the gospel of Brotherly Love and Relief, is pointing more
clearly the way
to the pathway of Truth.
The Masonic Employment Bureau commenced its
finding jobs for Masons, and helping others to help themselves, in
1905, at a meeting
of the representatives of a number of Chicago Masonic Lodges, called by
of Wrights Grove Lodge who felt the need of applying his Masonry in a
manner to those less fortunate than himself.
At this meeting, an organization was formed to
by such Masonic Lodges and other Masonic bodies of Chicago and Cook
County as cared
to join in its purpose, by a subscription fee of so far as possible
five cents per
member annually and for the purpose of securing employment for
in good standing, their widows, daughters and minor sons, at no cost to
or those securing their services.
With wise forethought, it was decided that the
of the organization should be representative, that is, each Masonic
membership in the Bureau by contribution towards its support should be
in the conduct of its affairs by a duly appointed representative (the
chosen annually from among the representatives), and as it has been
this object has a two-fold purpose; first, to give the subscribing
bodies a voice
in the conduct of the Bureau, and second, to create an interest in its
purpose by having the representative report back to the body from which
he was appointed
and arouse and enthuse in the members of that body a fraternal bond of
to those less fortunately situated than themselves.
The growth of the Chicago Masonic Employment
from its inception up to the present time, from a few to hundreds of
brethren, has not been one of phenomenal progress, rather it has been
persevering and persistent effort, which, meeting and surmounting the
that beset its path, climbs steadily onward to achieve its purpose; but
its infancy today, though it has but reached the foothills of the
mountains of purpose,
progress and achievement ahead, it stands an enduring monument, firm on
of applied Masonry, pointing out to the world about it the simplicity
and the way which shall one day be accepted as the true and enduring
which to build a practical and applied charity in the onward march of
of civilization. But it must not be assumed that the sole object of the
concerned in the welfare of this Bureau is but a plan to secure jobs
for the unfortunate
unemployed, because it goes farther than that. It is true that the
Bureau is organized
for the direct benefit of the unemployed, but beyond that is the spirit
of the work
which is behind it all.
During the past few years the Bureau has
only representatives from nearly all of the Masonic bodies of Chicago,
committees in those bodies, all of whom are working in unison on the
of helping others. Now, these brethren are planning and carrying into
effect a broader
work and a greater purpose – they are building toward an ideal.
It is not enough to provide work for the
they are now providing work for all Masons, however high or low their
helping others to help themselves.
The Chicago Masonic Employment Bureau is going
the material and binding that to the spiritual. It is striving to
become the big
brother of humanity.
It is teaching the principle of putting aside
service for others, and pointing the way to an applied Masonry, a
in its search for Truth applies the principles of Brotherly Love and
Relief to all
with whom they come in contact.
The spirit of the work of this organization of
the plans and ideals of the brethren who make it up, is not a thing
apart but it
is the spirit of Masonry pointing the way to a real brotherhood of
service, to a
universal work for the advancement of humanity; for representing as it
unity of the Masonic bodies along certain definite lines, the principle
it stands and from which it receives and gives its inspiration, and to
owes its origin, is that which lie at the source and is the fundamental
principle of the teachings of the Masonic Order.
It is that which rises above the things of
life and stands on a higher plane, a plane of purpose and of progress,
its object is carried out in the material realm below, its application
is such as
to instill into men's hearts and lives that touch of spirituality that
of duty, one toward another, that application of human sympathy and
which brings them into closer communion and fellowship with Him above,
banner they are enlisted and under whose laws they are committed to
The York Rite
By Bro. Wm. F. Kuhn, Missouri
It has been stated that "A Rite in Freemasonry
is a collection of grades or degrees always founded on the First three
This definition is wholly misleading, and constitutes as grave an error
as to call
"The York Rite" as conferred in the United States, "The American
For the purpose of adding "more light" on
the subject, we may state that in the United States there are two
known as the York Rite and the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite.
Both are misnomers if the name of the Rite is
its parentage or birth place. The York Rite was not born in the ancient
York, neither was the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite begotten in
The so-called York Rite is the result of an
in England from a One Degree Operative Craft of 1717, to a system of
six or more as now practiced in the United States, Canada, England,
Ireland. The Scottish Rite was evolved from the Rite of perfection of
Degrees, by the addition of eight more at Charleston, South Carolina,
in 1801, where
the Mother Supreme Council was formed.
If either one of the Rites is to be known as
Rite, the title probably belongs to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish
Rite. To designate
the so-called York Rite in the United States, as the American Rite,
would be even
more absurd than to call it the York Rite, for it is neither.
What is meant by the word Rite? A Rite is
"A custom of practice of a formal kind; a formal procedure of a
solemn observance." But such a religious or solemn procedure or
must have a definite end or purpose. It must have a goal idea. A
central idea which
the ceremony of procedure is intended to convey. The ceremony may be
brief or voluminous,
plain or ornate, but the central idea must be maintained and attained,
as in the
Rite of Baptism, in the Rite of Marriage, in the Rite of the Holy
The central idea or pivot around which all
or Degrees must revolve is the Loss, the Recovery, and the
Interpretation of the
Master's word. This goal idea must be the nucleus of a system of
Degrees, and without
which no system of Degrees can be called a Rite.
Any series of Degrees, however intimately
that does not contain this central idea of Loss, Recovery, and
be called a Masonic Rite. This is the goal idea or pivot of the
so-called York Rite.
The number of Degrees in a Rite is merely incidental. It matters not
are three or thirty-three Degrees, provided the central idea, the end
of all Masonic
symbolism is present.
The Loss and Recovery with a positive
or the Loss and Recovery with a general or individual interpretation is
essence of a Rite.
The Loss is symbolized in the Craft or Lodge
the Recovery is symbolized in the Royal Arch.
In the York Rite the interpretation of the
of the Royal Arch is left to the individual interpretation of the Royal
or it finds its positive and special interpretation in the light of the
as taught in the Masonic Order of the Christian Knighthood.
The Three Craft or Blue Lodge Degrees, the
and the United Orders of the Temple and of Malta are the essential
grades of the
York Rite. The Mark, Past, Most Excellent, Royal, Select Degrees, and
Order of the Red Cross are not essential, nor essentially necessary to
Rite, but they are great aids in the elucidation of the symbolism of
idea of the Rite and they adorn and magnify the Rite. The Lodge
Degrees, the Royal
Arch, and the Masonic Orders of Christian Knighthood constitute the
Rite." To eliminate the Royal Arch would be like removing the keystone
arch, and the whole fabric would crumble and fall.
In essentials, the York Rite is the same in the
States as it is in every province or Country in the British Empire; in
it is essentially the same in the Anglo-Saxon world. But each country
has its own
system. In the United States it consists of seven Degrees and three
Orders; in Canada,
of six Degrees and three Orders, although Canada has added the most
in the Chapter and the Red Cross of the Commandery to harmonize, for
of visitation with the United States; in England, it consists of four
two Orders; in Ireland, of five Degrees and two Orders; in Scotland the
closely to that of Ireland. The most excellent Degree is unknown in the
Empire, except in Canada; in England, the Mark Master's Degree is under
of a Grand Lodge of Mark Master Masons.
It will be noted that in the countries
number of Degrees in the Rite varies, even the Degrees bearing the same
in the ceremonies of presenting the same truth. The Master's Degree in
varies much from the same Degree in the other States, yet symbolically
it is the
same. The Royal Arch in the United States, is more dramatic in its form
of England or Canada, yet in essentials it is the same.
The Order of the Temple in the English Ritual
in the Canadian Ritual it is more elaborate and has its military
features; in the
United States it is more wordy, possibly more ornate and dramatic, yet
it is essentially
the same in all these countries.
The Rituals of the Order of Malta in these
are so near alike that a person that is conversant with one can readily
other; even a casual observer can readily see that this so-called "York
in essentials is the same everywhere where the English language is
spoken. The Concordat
adopted in 1910 by the Temple Powers of the World, emphasizes this
The name "York Rite" is an inexcusable blunder;
at least an unfortunate mistake. There never was a York Rite. It is
to enter upon any discussion as to the claims of the York Grand Lodge
or a York
system of Freemasonry as the question has been settled beyond
controversy. The name
"York Rite" is an inheritance from the forefathers of Freemasonry in
United States, who were more skilled in ritual tinkering than in the
Freemasonry. This becomes especially apparent, when one remembers that
Grand Lodge of York never chartered a single Lodge in America. The
the United States began under the Provincial Grand Lodge of
under the Grand Lodge of England (Moderns) with Price as Grand Master.
Lodge of England (Ancients) and the Grand Lodge of Scotland chartered
America, and it is reasonably possible, that before the union of the
two Grand Lodges
of England, the Royal Arch and the Masonic Orders of Christian
Knighthood were conferred
in this Country by the Military Lodges connected with the Irish
in the Colonies. To sum it all up, our so-called York Rite is the
English Rite dressed
in more fantastic clothing.
The name "York Rite" should be eliminated
and the name English Rite substituted. In view of the foregoing facts
as to what
constitute a Rite, we in the United States are practicing or have
American system of the English Rite; not an American Rite as it is
called, but a system of Degrees of the English Rite; it should be known
as the English
Rite, or Anglo-Saxon Rite.
A Mason's Prayer -- [A Poem]
Oscar A. Janes
thy altars, Truth,
We would commune with thee;
From errors of the heart and brain
Oh, keep our Order free.
Make us true seekers for the light
That springs from thee alone,
That we may lead a darkened world
To thy sister Reason's throne.
Help us to build our edifice
"Fair, fronting to the dawn,"
Not on a thrice denying saint
Who would his Lord were gone,
But on thy words wherever found
In tree or grass or rill;
And in the very soul of thee
We'll find our haven still.
Help us to travel unafraid
The path that thou hast shown,
For with thee standing by His side
A man's a host alone.
Help us to realize that time
"Makes ancient good uncouth,"
And for the blind who fain would see
Oh trouble the waters, Truth!
The Suppression of the Order
of the Temple
By Bro. Frederick W. Hamilton,
CIRCUMSTANCES have conspired to single out the
of the Temple from the other orders of Soldier-Monks of the twelfth
the particular notice of succeeding generations. Preeminent for their
their accomplishments during the days of their magnificent success, the
and cruel suffering attendant upon the suppression of the Order has
their name a dark shadow of tragedy. Not only so, but the added horror
of the accusations
made against them, the whispers of still more dreadful things
circulated by envious,
fearful, or malignant tongues, the unusual end of the proceedings
against the Order,
and the conviction of many members before the ecclesiastical courts
have lent an
air of mystery to the whole sad story.
The very mention of the word Templar brings to
minds the suggestion of romance and of mystery coupled with a vague
sense of hidden
crime and lurking horror. As a matter of fact there is really very
about the fate of the Templars and it is perfectly possible to find out
they were accused and to make a fair estimate of their probable guilt
This is of particular interest to Masons because large numbers of
Masons in other
than symbolic degrees have taken the name of the old Order, endeavoring
its principles and emulate its virtues and holding in everlasting
name of the last Grand Master.
Before proceeding to tell in detail the story
fall of the Order, let us stop to review briefly the story of its
In 1118, two Knights, Hugues de Payens, a
and Godeffroi de St. Omer, a Frenchman, associated with themselves six
for the service of the Holy Sepulcher, the protection of pilgrims, and
of the Church.
These men took a step beyond that taken by the
crusader, in that they undertook to give their whole lives to the
service of the
Church militant and to found an order of men likewise devoted to the
These eight men took an oath to the Patriarch of Jerusalem by which
they swore to
fight for Christ under the three fold vow of poverty, chastity, and
will be understood, of course, that the vow of poverty, while it
debarred the Knight
from having any personal possessions whatever, did not apply to the
of riches by the Order or to the Knight's enjoyment of those riches,
while the vow
of obedience had reference only to his relations with his superiors in
King Baldwin I. of Jerusalem gave them for a
a part of his palace next to the Mosque of Aksa, the so-called Temple
from which they took the name of Knights of the Temple. At first they
had no particular
regulations or "rule," as it is commonly called, and no distinguishing
dress. Their first idea appears to have been to make the Order a means
by opening its ranks to men whose past was one of sin and failure and
an opportunity to redeem their souls through offering to Christ a
service of constant
danger. They, therefore, admitted to their number excommunicated
they had obtained absolution from a Bishop, and other men of darkened
past who desired
an opportunity to bring forth fruits meet for repentance. This
missionary idea was
soon abandoned and the Knights chosen from candidates, who showed
It was unfortunate, however, in that it immediately laid the Order
of both the Church and laity because of doubts of the sincerity of such
In 1127 Hugues de Payens, who had been chosen
Master, went to Europe with the purpose of finding support for the
Order. He was
fortunate enough to enlist the interest and obtain the active patronage
of St. Bernard.
Bernard of Clairvaux, more commonly known as St. Bernard, was the
greatest and most
influential churchman of his time and one of the greatest of all times.
patronage the Order quickly obtained favor and support and grew in
members and power.
St. Bernard drew up the "rule" or series of
regulations governing the organization of the Order and the lives of
The original "rule" of St. Bernard was written in French. Unfortunately
there are no early copies of it known to be in existence. There are
copies together with the translation into Latin known as the "Latin
and additional statutes which were adopted from time to time.
It was vehemently asserted by the enemies of
in later years, that there was a secret "rule" quite different from
which entirely changed the character of the Order, colored it with
heresy, and stained
it with sin. There is no evidence whatever that any such "secret rule"
ever existed. Stories about it may be safely dismissed as idle gossip.
The French "rule" provided for the officers
of the organization and defined their duties. It also carefully
regulated the daily
conduct of the Knights and provided for the support which they should
the common funds of the Order. It is interesting to observe that the
provided that each Knight should have three horses and one squire. By
favor of his
commander, or prior, he might have four horses and two squires.
This effectually disposes of the legend that
seal of the Order, representing two Knights mounted on one horse, was
indicate that in early days the Order was so poor that the Knights went
mounted thus in pairs. The second rider in the device is probably
intended to represent
either a wounded Knight who is being rescued by his brother in arms or
being protected by a Knight of the Temple.
The Knights were not priests. That is to say,
under the three vows they were not in holy orders. Each priory or house
of the Knights
was provided with one or more chaplains. These chaplains were members
of the Order
of the Temple and were always in holy orders. The chaplains were exempt
ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Spiritually they were accountable only to
temporally only to the Grand Master. They were the sole confessors of
who were not permitted to accept the ministrations of religion from any
own chaplains unless it was impossible to secure a chaplain's services.
The monastic custom of having the Bible read at
was prescribed by the "rule" for the Knights, in consideration of the
fact that they were laymen, and consequently uneducated, the Bible was
read in the
vernacular and not in the Latin which was customary in religious
is in existence an old French Bible of the Templars which shows
evidences of the
critical spirit on the part of the translator.
With this brief survey let us pass on to the
years of the fourteenth century. The little band of eight Knights sworn
to the service
of the Holy Sepulcher and the protection of pilgrims had grown to be
one of the
great powers of the world. If its purpose and policy had been other
than they were
it might have shaken the power of any monarch in Christendom. It
consisted of many
thousand Knights besides the lay brothers and feudal servants of the
Order. It possessed
wealth far greater than that of any state in Christendom. This wealth
was the result
of the great stream of gifts which for two centuries had flowed
steadily into the
coffers of the Order, supplemented by the spoils of war, and husbanded
financial ability. Kings, princes, and nobles throughout Europe had
vied with each
other in their great donations to the Order of the Temple. It owned
of estates all over Europe and wherever in the east the crusades had
The crusades being over and their immense
having ceased, the enormous revenues of the Order were accumulating in
and those were not idle hands, for the Templars were not content to let
pieces lie idly in their treasury. This was before the age of modern
the Templars, with their great wealth, their many establishments, and
with the Orient, made themselves the great international financiers of
Kings and merchants alike borrowed on good security and at ample
interest the unused
treasure of the Order. Oriental exchange, especially, was almost
absolutely in their
hands so that they acted as the great financial clearing house between
Asia. Their establishment, commonly known as the Temple, at Paris was
of the world's money market.
It is said that when De Molay came from the
by the treacherous call to consult about the crusade, he brought with
florins in gold and ten horse loads of silver. With due allowance to
in the purchasing power of money, the gold was probably the equivalent
million dollars today. I have no way to guess the value of the silver,
but it must
have been very great. This, it will be remembered, was the ready money
De Molay could lay his hands at short notice.
The power of the Order matched its wealth. The
Master was a sovereign prince, recognized as a full peer of any monarch
The Knights, save those too old for warfare, were all soldiers trained
to arms and
owing no allegiance to any power but the Grand Master and the Pope.
During the stormy
years of the crusades, they, with the Knights of the companion Orders,
fighting edge of the Christian army. Combined with their lay brothers
and the feudal
array of their tenants they formed an army far superior to any other in
That an Order possessed of such wealth and
have been regarded with suspicion, and even fear, is only natural. It
clear, however, from their entire history, and especially from their
the Order had no policy in the political affairs of Europe either for
its own advantage
or that of any others. The Knights adhered strictly to the original
policy of the
Order. They had no enemies in Christendom and no friends outside of it.
military and political purpose was the service of the church and the
of the Holy Land. It must be remembered that while we know that the
over in 1300 the men of that day did not know it. They fully expected
that the crusades
would be resumed, and the Knights of the Temple were maintaining their
diligently increasing their wealth in order to be able to strike more
than ever before when the banner of the Cross should once more take the
In addition to all their wealth and power the
had great privileges of two classes, lay and clerical. As lay nobles
they held and
exercised all the usual feudal rights in and over estates which had
been given to
them, with certain extremely important additions. The Order, being a
in the first rank of the feudal hierarchy, exercised in all its fiefs
what was known
in those days as high, middle, and low justices, that is, complete
extending even to the infliction of the death penalty. Owing allegiance
the head of their Order, the estates of the Knights were not liable for
service except to the Order itself. The estates of the Order were the
possessions of the corporation.
The greater part of the revenue of the kings of
age was derived from certain rights of taxation which were exercised on
occasions; for example, the passage of an estate by death or marriage
from one holder
to another involved certain payments to the king or over-lord which
to an inheritance tax. The marriage of children, the knighting of the
or other events in the family of the noble were occasions for gifts to
which were practically taxes. Other forms of taxation were laid from
time to time
on the feudal estates. But corporations do not die, do not marry, and
do not have
children, consequently the estates of the Templars were free from every
taxation, except for the benefit of the Temple itself.
This exemption from military service and from
burdens struck at the very roots of the royal power as the state was
the middle ages. The Templars enjoyed all the benefits of the feudal
bore none of its burdens. When an estate in France or England, for some
passed into the hands of the Templars it was to all intents and
purposes taken out
of the kingdom as effectively as if it had been swallowed up by the sea.
As an Order of military monks, the Knights
privileges equally great.
That their spiritual affairs were in the hands
chaplains, has already been pointed out. In addition to this, the Grand
others of the high officers possessed the power of disciplinary
not of sacramental confession, a point important to be remembered in
with later developments. The Order as a whole and its members
entirely free from the jurisdiction of bishops and other ecclesiastical
They were accountable only to the Pope in person. They were not
affected by general
censures or decrees of the Pope unless they were especially mentioned.
of which there were great numbers on their various estates besides
to their houses, were not affected by ordinary excommunication and
matter what ecclesiastical censures might hang over the people of the
activities of the churches of the Temple went on undisturbed.
might be buried in consecrated ground belonging to the Templars, and
this was not
infrequently done. They possessed, by papal decree, the right to have
their own which were under interdict opened twice a year and services
held for the
purpose of presenting their cause and taking collections for the
support of the
Holy War. They collected the usual tithes from the churches on their
they did not pay any tithes, even for those churches, into the coffers
of the Church.
The natural result of this condition was envy
on the part of both civil and religious authorities. Civil authorities
with dismay while the broad lands of noble after noble passed by gift
into the control of the Templars and ceased to contribute to the
the state, while the individual noble was filled with envy as he saw
of the Temple enjoying privileges and powers so much greater than his
own, and the
law officers of the crown indignantly found their authority everywhere
at the boundary line of one of the Temple estates.
On the other hand the religious authorities,
to control the lives and actions even of kings, were enraged beyond
measure to find
themselves utterly powerless before the Knights of the Temple.
the many privileges granted by a long line of Popes the Templar could
and did snap
his fingers in the face of the most arrogant archbishop or cardinal and
churchmen had to swallow his wrath and digest it as best he could,
while he had
not even the poor consolation of collecting revenues from the parishes
in his jurisdiction
which had passed into the hands of the Order. This sort of thing had
of envy and hatred against the Order of which it seemed to be strangely
Claims that the Knights abused their power and
were common. The picture of the Templar in Scott's Ivanhoe [Lib 1904] undoubtedly represents
the widespread conception of the character and conduct of the members
of the Order.
That there were men like Scott's Templar could hardly be denied, but
there is no
reason to believe that they were typical of the Order generally.
One feature of the Order gave the opportunity
against it and the excuse for its undoing. The Order of the Temple was
secret order. Its conclaves for business and for the reception of
always closely guarded. It was as impossible for one not a member of
the Order to
get into a meeting of the Knights of that day as it would be for like
get into a meeting of one of our modern gatherings of Knights Templars.
This secrecy, as is inevitable, in all ages and
in times of ignorance and superstition, like the thirteenth and
bred all manner of suspicion. Men, and especially ignorant men, are
ready to believe
that evil things are done in places where they are not admitted and
there were too many who envied and hated the Templars and were ready to
whispered accusations. It was asserted that under cover of this secrecy
not only lapsed into heresy and consorted with Saracens and other
that they practiced idolatry and necromancy, that they performed the
travesties of religion, and that they were given to licentiousness and
every conceivable crime, natural and unnatural.
We have now set the stage for the tragedy. Let
a little the persons and antecedents of the three principal actors.
They were the
Grand Master of the Templars, the King of France, and the Pope.
The Grand Master of the Templars, who had been
since 1295, was Jacques de Molay. He was a simple, unlettered Knight,
brave, confiding and unsuspicious, incapable of intrigue or treachery,
clear headed or resourceful in the face of other than physical peril.
were always good; his conduct under the severe trials to which he was
was sometimes weak. He was a man who could be easily deceived and could
upon through his reverence for the Pope, his respect for the King, and
desire to protect the interest of the Order and the welfare of his
The Knights generally were fighters and some of
were men of affairs, but they were not thinkers and they were not
has been said that they were too stupid to be heretics but this is
probably an extreme
statement. They were rather simple minded single hearted gentlemen
to the cause to which they had dedicated their lives and for which they
The King of France was Philip IV, commonly
Philippe Le Bel or Philip the Fair, a name, by the way, which would
better be translated,
Philip the Handsome. Born in 1268 he ascended the throne in 1285. As
his name indicates,
he was a man of singular beauty, being said to be the handsomest man of
He was cold, self-contained, far-sighted, crafty, and unscrupulous. He
great ability and was absolutely remorseless in the choice of means and
in the pursuit
of his ends. It is said that he was never known to smile and those whom
in the cold persistency with which he executed his purposes said that
he was not
a man at all, but that his beautiful body was inhabited by a demon
instead of a
It must be admitted that from the point of view
interests and prosperity of the kingdom he was a good king. In his day
well governed and strongly consolidated and he left it on the whole in
a much better
condition than he found it. He had one supreme end in life and that was
the royal government supreme in France. He was determined that the
be independent of priests or nobles and the king should have a free
hand, not limited
in the exercise of his authority by any powers within or without the
To accomplish this he believed that two things
necessary. One was that the shackles imposed by the papacy upon the
King of France,
in common with the other monarchs of Europe, should be broken and the
crown of France
relieved from the domination of the Vatican. The other was that the
should be brought into subjection to the crown and especially that the
power of the Order of the Temple should be broken, their wealth
plundered for the
filling of the royal Treasury, their great estates restored to the
of feudal dependency, and their resources of men and money made
available for the
purposes of the kingdom.
The Pope was Clement V. In order to understand
of Pope Clement, it is necessary to go back a little. At a
comparatively early period
in the reign of Philip, Boniface VIII ascended the throne, in 1294. The
of Boniface was Celestine V, one of the most singular popes who ever
chair of St. Peter.
Deeply imbued with mysticism, he was a dreamer
and a writer of strange books. The sanctity of his life and the
strangeness of his
somewhat unintelligible writings placed him on the narrow edge between
as a heretic on one side and canonization as a saint on the other.
or heretic, he was utterly unfit for the difficult administrative
duties of the
papacy. He never wanted to be Pope and after a short and troubled reign
he was induced
to resign, and sought seclusion, which was really imprisonment, in a
where he died in a very short time.
Boniface was certainly the leader in the
brought about the resignation of Celestine and was charged with being
of the unfortunate old man's misfortune. At any rate, he succeeded him
on the papal
throne. There was quite a good deal of doubt in the minds of canon
lawyers as to
whether a pope could resign, and therefore a cloud rested on the title
a cloud which was only partially dispelled by the death of Celestine.
of Boniface, and he had many, declared that the death of his
predecessor was not
a natural one and that Boniface himself was responsible for it.
Boniface was proud, arrogant, and rash. He
himself over-lord of all the monarchs of the world, and set the high
of papal pretension. On one memorable occasion, when there was a
vacancy in the
office of Emperor, the Pope appeared in public, brandishing his sword
that he was Emperor as well as Pope. He claimed, and attempted to
to set up and pull down kings and even emperors.
Naturally, Philip the Fair and Boniface very
themselves engaged in a deadly conflict. Boniface laid France under an
and excommunicated King Philip and his family. The King, supported by a
the clergy as well as the laity of France, appealed to a future Council
of the Church.
It is worthy of mention that this appeal was signed by the Order of the
The appeal struck Boniface in his most sensitive spot. The question of
not a Council was superior to a Pope had not yet been settled and the
that it was his superior was unspeakably exasperating to the
King Philip was far too aggressive to content
with this appeal. Seizing an occasion when the pope was absent from
Rome on a visit
to Anagni, his native town, and comparatively undefended, the king sent
William de Nogaret, and Sciarra Colonna, a great Italian noble who was
on bad terms
with the pope, to arrest Boniface. By whom Philip expected that the
pope would or
could be tried is not clear. The charges preferred were intrusion, that
is to say,
forcing himself into the papal chair without proper title, gross
Boniface was actually arrested and treated with
indignity. Some authorities say that he was actually struck in the face
The people of Anagni rose and overpowered the guard and released
Boniface, but the
shock of his arrest with the attendant humiliation and indignation
caused his death
within a few days.
He was succeeded by a somewhat colorless pope,
II, who ruled only from October 27, 1303, to the seventh of the
He released France from the interdict and Philip and his family from
but his reign was otherwise unimportant.
Now came the question of the election of a new
in which Philip proposed to play an important part. His attention fell
de Got (Gouth). De Got came from a Gascon family and was an
Aquitainian, that is
to say, an English subject, for it must be remembered that at this time
of what is now France belonged to the dominions of the English kings,
descent from the Dukes of Normandy, or by virtue of the marriage of
Eleanor of Aquitaine
to Henry III.
De Got was Archbishop of Bordeaux. He had been
friend of Philip, who knew the man thoroughly, but in the quarrel
and the pope, he had sided with Boniface. Election to the papacy was
not then limited
to the cardinals, and the Archbishop of Bordeaux might well aspire to
He was extremely ambitious, hungering with all his soul for wealth,
honor, and power.
Philip knew his man and believed that as pope he might be controlled,
if he was made to feel that he owed his election to the king.
Philip did not see the Archbishop personally,
been claimed by many writers, but he did unquestionably have an
him through intermediaries before using his influence to secure his
questions were raised by King Philip. One was the question of the
the Order of the Temple, for the interest of both church and state
through the abolition
of the power and privileges which made the Templars so objectionable to
other was the question of the heresy of Boniface VIII. King Philip
bring pressure to bear which would make it necessary to call a General
which he would impeach the late Pope of heresy. In view of the great
of Boniface and of certain things said and done by him, there appeared
to be great
danger that the charge could be pushed home and the memory of the late
of heresy to the great scandal of the church and disgrace of the papacy.
De Got was unscrupulous enough to agree to
in order to be made Pope and he therefore agreed to co-operate in the
of the Order of the Temple if the king would agree not to press the
charge of heresy
against his predecessor. With this understanding King Philip supported
and he was elected Pope and took the title of Clement V.
As might be expected it very soon appeared that
De Got who wanted to be Pope and Clement V who was Pope, were not quite
person. Like many another successful politician before and since the
Pope had no
intention of fulfilling pre-election promises if he could get out of it.
His first movement was to propose the
of the Order of the Temple with the Order of the Hospitallers. This
would then enable
him to reorganize both bodies and amend their charters. This project
in 1306, but was abandoned on account of the vigorous opposition of the
of both the Orders. The Pope then proposed to reform the Order of the
moved slowly in carrying out the project.
King Philip was very impatient at the Pope's
continually pressed him to fulfill his promises of suppression under
threat of a
general Council and condemnation of Boniface VIII for heresy. He was
however, with insistence and threats. Through his agents he found two
of worthless character, Esquiau (Squin) De Florian, a Frenchman, and
Noffo Dei (Deghi),
a Florentine. These men claimed to have been members of the Order of
and offered pretended confessions in which they charged the Order with
various abominable practices. For all this they were well paid.
On the basis of this manufactured evidence
formal charges to the Pope. The Pope received them, but continued to
Philip's determination, however, was more than a match for the Pope's
He found means to force the Pope's hand through the intervention of
William of Paris,
Grand Inquisitor of France. The Grand Inquisitor had been King Philip's
and was entirely ready to lend himself to the King's desires. By virtue
of his office
he had power to take summary action in all cases of heresy within the
to take such measures as he saw fit to deal with them.
Philip submitted his evidence to the Grand
who forthwith demanded of the civil authorities the arrest of all the
France. Obviously this was a very serious matter. If the Templars had
action to resist such an arrest it would probably have been impossible.
in their strong houses they might have stood siege until aid could have
them from other countries and it would have been a very serious
Philip could have retained his throne. Plans were therefore laid for
by surprise and arrangements were made for the simultaneous arrest of
all the Knights
throughout the kingdom on the night of October 13, 1307.
The blow came like lightning from a clear sky.
true that the Templars had been aware of the circulation of unpleasant
They knew that there were whispers of evil and De Molay had gone as far
as to ask,
in 1306, that an investigation be made into the conduct of the Order,
was the last thing the King desired and no attention was paid to the
The apprehensions of the Templars were set at
their confidence was further deliberately strengthened by the
of the King. In 1306 King Philip had been assailed by a mob in the
streets of Paris
and saved himself from great personal danger by taking refuge in the
house of the
Templars which happened to be not far from the scene of disturbance.
however, rested lightly on his conscience. The Templars were accustomed
a public reception of Knights in addition to the private initiation and
attended such a public reception the spring of 1307. On October 12, the
before that fixed for the arrest, De Molay was present by invitation,
at the funeral
of King Philip's sister-in-law and was assigned a place of honor among
in the ceremonies. It is not to be wondered at that the blow of October
13 was an
entire surprise and was entirely successful. De Molay and all the
Knights in the
kingdom were arrested, their goods were seized, and their houses taken
of, without the slightest attempt at resistance so far as we have any
The events which ensued are somewhat
consist of two distinct sets of proceedings, first, personal
the individual Knights and second, proceedings against the Order as a
in all its branches.
Proceedings against the Knights were the first
They were begun with great vigor by the Grand Inquisitor of France, but
some question about the Grand Inquisitor's jurisdiction. Particular
rights and immunities
of the Templars which have already been noted might be considered as
beyond the reach of proceedings not instigated by the Pope, or at least
The Grand Inquisitor, however, would not allow
to be troubled by questions of this sort and immediately proceeded to
arrested Knights under torture.
We must not forget that this was not an unusual
The examination of accused persons, and even of witnesses, under
torture was the
ordinary method of judicial procedure at that time. It was not a method
to the Inquisition but was commonly practiced by the civil courts. It
been very unusual if it had been omitted in this case. Horrible as it
us and useless as a method of ascertaining the truth, it was an
in the 14th century and was absolutely relied upon as a method of
getting at facts.
Torture was not confined to physical torment.
were promised clemency if they freely confessed the acts with which
they were charged
and named their accomplices. In the case of the Templars such promises
in letters under the royal seal. These letters were decoys pure and
were either forgeries or deliberately written with intent to deceive
the slightest intention of keeping the promises which they contained.
The accused were told that if they retracted
they would suffer the pains of death in this world and of hell in the
world to come.
It was realized that men under physical torture will often say almost
may be suggested to them as a means of securing relief from their
these means were taken to prevent a retraction of these forced
Moreover the law of evidence in use in those
one provision which seems to us a peculiarly ghastly mockery. The
were wrung from the lips of the tortured victims were taken down as
thus obtained were taken to the victim after he had recovered from the
of the torture and he was asked to sign them. If he did thus sign them,
a refusal to do so would mean renewal of the tortures together with the
threats of death and damnation, confessions thus signed were held to be
and not legally made under torture.
Naturally many of the Knights confessed. De
made a partial confession. Most of these confessions were afterwards
but for the time being they stood.
The charges will be examined further on, but
things confessed should be noted here. They were:
Denial of Christ. Defiling
the Cross by spitting upon it and by other methods too indecent to
Indecent kisses which it was claimed the
compelled to give the receiving officer on various parts of his body.
Sodomy. This, by the way, was a vice much more
in the 13th century than now and was ordinarily a part of any serious
made against either individuals or groups of individuals. It was one of
against Boniface VIII when he was arrested by De Nogaret and Colonna.
Idolatry. This was based on the alleged worship
idol, of which we shall hear more, and on the accusation that the cord
part of the habit of every Templar was consecrated by this idol by
to it before the Templars put it on. Other abominations were vaguely
but these were the main points of the accusation.
(To be Continued.)
By Bro. Rabbi Eugene Mannheimer,
My Brothers: Mine it is to speak of the Trowel
instrument which, occupying an important position in the work-chest of
mason is, as our ritual suggests, the especial tool of the Master
Mason; made use
of by operative masons to spread the cement which unites a building
into a common
mass, but utilized by the Free and Accepted Mason for the more noble
spreading the cement of brotherly love and affection, that cement which
into one sacred band or society of friends, among whom no contention
exist, but that noble contention, or rather emulation, of who can best
best agree. What instrument could be of nobler significance? What
implement of more
Through the use of the trowel, spreading the
the single bricks and stones, once a chaotic mass, now stand united and
form this noble edifice which we dedicate this day to the cause of God
Through the symbolic service of the Masonic trowel, spreading the
cement of brotherly
love and affection, we, the individual members, once as separated and
these stones which house us, are as firmly bound together in a union
us one for all and all for one… What were this structure, which we
had not the trowel been honestly wielded, or if the cement and mortar
it? What were our brotherhood without the bond of love and affection to
close? And only as long as this bond continues to unite us, only so
long will this
Temple stand a true shrine of Masonry and of God. Only so long will our
be a real brotherhood, worthy of its consecration and its vows.
Do we need this lesson? Does this thought
especial emphasis we would wish to give it? Truly, none more. None to
has been more impervious in all times and all ages.
Three thousand years ago, on Judea's plain, the
of the Lord proclaimed: "Behold, it shall come to pass in the latter
the mountain of the Lord's house shall be established at the top of the
and exalted above all hills. And all nations shall flow unto it. And
beat their swords into ploughshares and their spears into pruning
shall not lift up sword against nation. Neither shall there be war
For two thousand years, not the one seer alone, but all prophets and
Judaism and Christianity together have united to emphasize the same
have urged and re-urged the truth on the fatherhood of God and the
all his children. Out of such conviction they have hoped to bring to
day of universal peace.
But look about us today and see the result.
the brotherhood, the affection, the peace, the understanding? Do not
superstition, ignorance and jealousy flourish as ever before? Are not
in creed, color and birth, on the slightest provocation, still found
excuse for savagely warring nations, as for many of-their supposed
culture? Does not the whole modern world panorama but demonstrate that
our lip service to the ideal of God's fatherhood and Man's brotherhood,
the hymns and prayers that have arisen from our temples, the songs and
not from the heart but from the lips of man only?
As Master Masons, who have taken the
the three degrees, brotherhood is our ideal. We have vowed to eradicate
hatred, superstition and misunderstanding from out our own lives and
from out the
world as far as lay within our power. Recognizing no particular creed
Lodge room, hailing as brothers the followers of all creeds who are
worthy of such
recognition, we have taught ourselves, and we hold before the world the
example, that men of different creeds can stand and work together for a
Living in a world of discord, in which brotherhood, love, sympathy and
all-too-often, nothing more than words, it is urgent beyond expression
that we continually
re-impress our vows upon our hearts and minds, that we may never lose
our lives. Most urgent of all is it for us to spread their influence as
wide in the world as our united power will permit, that thus we may do
to end the reign of bigotry, hatred and superstition. Thus will we do
our part to
help hasten the dawning of the day when the glorious brotherhood and
of the prophet shall be realized.
As men and Masons we understand that this task
easy of accomplishment. But as men and Masons we have faith in God, in
in ourselves. We know that the attainment of the goal is the sure
promise of the
morrow. In this faith we live and labor on.
But note this one thing more, my Brothers.
wrote our ritual did not harbor the foolish notion that initiation into
would in some mysterious way, in a single moment, through a single act,
entire nature of the initiate, to make him in a moment the perfect
servant of God
and man that his obligations require of him. We are not told that as
of entering the Masonic fraternity a man must be at once, so filled
with the spirit
of brotherhood that the spirit of false contention CAN never again find
within his breast. We are told that it SHOULD never again be found
within him. The
demand is made of each of us who comes to this Altar to take the
he shall continuously thereafter strive to eradicate from his heart the
error and misunderstanding that may have filled him in the past, that
at last the
moment may come when he is a Mason in reality as well as in name. But
of making ourselves such true Masons is placed upon our own shoulders,
else. To us ourselves and to no others the task is assigned.
It is these high and noble purposes, my
which the Trowels are here emblematic. These the ideals, of which they
remind us upon our Altar. As we consecrate these trowels anew, this
their holy office, unto these same holy purposes may we, at the same
ourselves. To these ideals may we vow renewed fidelity.
Watch Your Step -- [A Poem]
O. W. Holmes
in opinions look
not always back;
Your wake is nothing, mind the coming track;
Leave what you've done for what you have to do;
Don't be "consistent," but simply be true.
Arches And Arches -- [A Poem]
F. D. Snelling
as we may we
shall not reach the sky;
Our little arches bend forever low
Beneath the eternal arch that curves on high,
Above the eternal depths we do not know.
The Lodge Room over Simpkin's
Brother Lawrence N. Greenleaf
Grand Master of Colorado
room in the land was over Simpkin's store,
Where, Friendship Lodge had met each month for fifty years or more.
When o'er the earth the moon, full-orbed, had cast her brightest beam
The brethren came from miles around on horseback and in team,
And ah! what hearty grasp of hand, what welcome met them there
As mingling with the waiting groups they slowly mount the stair
Exchanging fragmentary news or prophecies of crop,
Until they reach the Tiler's room and current topics drop,
To turn their thoughts to nobler themes they cherish and adore,
And which were heard on meeting night up over Simpkin's store.
To city eyes, a cheerless room, long usage had defaced
The tell-tale line of lath and beam on wall and ceiling traced.
The light from oil-fed lamps was dim and yellow in its hue,
The carpet once could pattern boast, though now 'twas lost to view;
The altar and the pedestals that marked the stations three
The gate-post pillars topped with balls, the rude-carved letter G
Where village joiner's clumsy work, with many things beside
Where beauty's lines were all effaced and ornament denied.
There could be left no lingering doubt, if doubt there was before,
The plainest lodge room in the land was over Simpkin's store.
While musing thus on outward form the meeting time drew near,
And we had glimpse of inner life through watchful eye and ear.
When lodge convened at gavel's sound with officers in place,
We looked for strange, conglomerate work, but could no errors trace.
The more we saw, the more we heard, the greater our amaze,
To find those country brethren there so skilled in Mason's ways.
But greater marvels were to come before the night was through
Where unity was not mere name, but fell on earth like dew,
Where tenets had the mind imbued, and truths rich fruitage bore,
In the plainest lodge room in the land, up over Simpkin's store.
To hear the record of their acts was music to the ear,
We sing of deeds unwritten which on angel's scroll appear
A WIDOW'S CASE – FOUR HELPLESS ONES – lodge funds were running low –
A dozen brethren sprang to feet and offers were not slow.
Food, raiment, things of needful sort, while one gave loads of wood,
Another, shoes for little ones, for each gave what he could.
Then spake the last: "I haven't things like these to give – but then
Some ready money may help out" – and he laid down a TEN
Were brother cast on darkest square upon life's checkered floor,
A beacon light to reach the white – was over Simpkin's store.
Like scoffer who remained to pray, impressed by sight and sound
The faded carpet 'neath our feet was now like holy ground.
The walls that had such dingy look were turned celestial blue,
The ceiling changed to canopy where stars were shining through.
Bright tongues of flame from altar leaped, the G was vivid blaze,
All common things seemed glorified by heaven's reflected rays.
O! wondrous transformation wrought through ministry of love –
Behold the LODGE ROOM BEAUTIFUL! – fair type of that above.
The vision fades – the lesson lives – while taught as ne'er before
In the plainest lodge room in the land – up over Simpkin's store.
That Which Abides
A great character, founded on the living rock
is, in fact, not a solitary phenomenon, to be at once perceived,
limited and described.
It is a dispensation of Providence, designed to have not merely an
a continuous, progressive and never-ending agency. It survives the man
it; survives his age – perhaps his country and his language.
Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much;
is humble that he knows no more.
Correspondence Circle Bulletin
– No. 2
Edited By Bro. Robert I.
Clegg, Caxton Building, Cleveland, Ohio
Note. Evidence multiplies that this
idea has met the desires of a great number of our Members. This did not
any of us. The remarkable – and unexpected – feature of the replies to
September letter was the universal desire that the Society should from
lead off in a definite Course of Study. The demand appears to be for
like a Chautauqua organization. Our theory of co-operation between
Study Clubs contemplated
an interchange of queries and results between groups of Brethren
work out programs of their own, suited to local conditions. This, we
make of the Society's office and headquarters, a forum, a radiating
coming in and being forwarded everywhere that similar needs seemed to
had hoped to add, from time to time, references and helpful plans for
But to meet the present unexpected situation
time and study. We shall not shirk the problem, but with your help,
it confidently. Our friends must needs see that it will only be as they
their suggestions and problems that we shall be able (if at all) to
think them through.
This much must be said, in order that the
attitude shall not be misunderstood. We can only work out the outlines
papers, etc., which this new plan will require, in co-operation with
our own Members
as individuals, or as voluntary Study Clubs. What is said must be
suggestive and advisory only. Those who go along with us do so for the
of self-improvement, even as we expect to be benefited by your efforts.
radiates from its central source without producing friction, but
and fruition on far-distant bodies, so must we mutually agree that our
– we supplying as best we can that which you will use – shall be always
a union with the single purpose of promoting a better understanding of
and between Masons. In a word we embark now into a new enterprise, but
with no ulterior motive whatever. We simply "think out loud" in an
to help one another.
* * *
Committee Ready for Tools
Your work has, by comparison, taught a number
Brethren the boldness of the effort here, and encouraged them to try to
A Committee on Masonic Research and Education has been selected but has
with which to work. You would confer a great favor if you be so good as
me to be sent instructions regarding organization, and such literature
be helpful during the formative stage. With best wishes, I am,
– E. M.
Walker, Masonic Temple, Winnipeg,
The October issue of The Builder has in the
section in the center a letter from S. H. S. His problems were
analogous to yours.
They are indeed so closely akin that I might venture in default of
from you to repeat verbatim what I then said. If in any wise the answer
to S. H.
S. does not properly meet all the requirements I shall be willing, yes,
to serve you in every practical manner.
If your plans are local, and of such were my
in preparing the letter for the September issue (vide inside back
cover), then the
situation is less awkward for me to handle. I feel very diffident at
toward State organizations. Such a group of earnest students as was
the September issue could very informally but effectively pursue
Simplest of organizations is all that is necessary. For those who may
more formal I shall be very glad to assist in any way that is
the Masonic authorities.
With a very few books of reference and a supply
various publications issued by the National Masonic Research Society
you can easily
make a start. During the initial stages and until your members get the
the movement you can use for discussion some of the papers that will be
for that purpose in The Builder and in this Bulletin. Our resources
will be at the
disposal of the Society, as long anyway as they will hold out under
I am always ready to confer with any of the members. Kindly call upon
me again as
you go along. I am keenly interested in everything you undertake in
study club propaganda.
How can I best serve you?
* * *
Earnest Study to be Encouraged
I am much interested in Bro. Clegg's
group meetings, and request a list of the members of the Research
Society in my
location. If anyone else in this section should request a list please
give him the
preference as I am Secretary of Adelphi Lodge and don't feel that I can
the time and effort necessary for such a proposition, but feel the lack
earnest study among the brethren.
I would much rather be an enthusiastic booster
good leader than to have to do the leading myself, so even if some
requests later than mine please give him the preference.
We have over 500 members and are doing
work, so you can see the Secretary is fairly busy.
Julius H. McCollum,
40 Shelter St., New Haven, Conn.
My heart goes out to the active Secretary of a
What a multitude of things come his way, all demanding prompt and
continually courteous attention. Yet who has better chance to bring
straight home to the members, old and new? Masters come and go but
continue permanent as the famous pillars at the porch, greeting the
sojourners, ever making programs and seeing them duly executed.
Your letter was officially acknowledged
there is anything that I can do now to start you off the more
let me know of it.
* * *
Awaken the Heart Interest
I wish to make response to open letter from
Clegg for list of members of Research Society in my immediate vicinity
study of the neglected half of Masonry, the heart part. I very much
Yours very truly and fraternally,
– A. K.
Bradley, Tioga, Texas.
You have indeed hit the spot. It is the heart
we seek to encourage. Too much of Freemasonry has been allowed to push
intimacy of it aside. Advise us on your progress. Easy as it is to
it takes vim to keep agoing. Your letter lings so true that I shall
light upon your advance. Please keep us posted on your progress. Highly
* * *
How Shall We Start Something?
I see in the September BUILDER something about
for the purpose of studying Masonry. I am writing for information and
as to how
to get started.
– A. G.
Templen, Greeneville, Mo.
Your desire for information on the best way to
a start – is met fairly well in the Bulletin accompanying the October
particulars as to local members were sent to you direct. Much more than
are necessary and will be supplied in due course as my opportunities
and the resources
the Society are capable of dealing to the best of our respective
the situation. We want to start right in all we attempt but we shall
avoid all possible
* * *
Denver Is Up and Doing
If there is to be a study club organized in
Colo., I would like very much to become a member of it. I have been
trying to get
into something like this for a long time. Have been doing a lot of
lately, but don't get out of it that I should and am sure that what we
need is some
definite plan of study along some certain line. Very truly yours, W. A.
1079 So. Corona, Denver, Colo.
If there is not a study club organized in
will not be because of any lack of the finest material for membership
sure and get my old and highly esteemed friend, Henry F. Evans, the
Rob Morris Lodge, to join it. Where there is one like Evans there must
of the same kind. In him is the true instinct of evangelism. He cannot
be a missionary of Masonry. You won't have to interest him. Long ago he
and it took for keeps.
A definite plan of study along some certain
as you point out essentially necessary. In the October issue I briefly
an outline for the student of Freemasonry. Any one of the topics
require a lot of study before approaching exhaustion.
But such an outline will not meet all the
of the case. What I am considering, and what I hope to make an actual
start at in
this issue, is a paper or two in some such convenient form as to be
read at any
study club. It ought to be complete in itself. Have plenty of
references so that
the diggers among us may go ahead with their own pursuit of the Masonic
but independent of the literary frills so that every brother can
appreciate fully. But proceed along the lines laid down in the October
a start. Meantime we must as we are able provide for all the needs that
so suddenly developed on the heels of that pioneering letter of mine in
* * *
Answers to Questions in
Note the series of questions running in The
Would appreciate information as to how to procure answers to same. If
in book form please advise where same can be procured. I understand
that there is
to be a study club organized here as soon as Temple No. 4 can arrange
and fit up
a new home. Reply at your convenience appreciated.
– W. H.
McEwen, 2106 Providence street, Houston,
The series of questions may be answered by
to the book pages quoted in the articles published in the BUILDER.
Perhaps you refer
to the inquiry that once in a while waits in the correspondence
columns. Such instances
are few, very few. So I rather think your reference is to the lists of
emanating from study clubs. The questions are really in the nature of a
quickening the interest and impressing the memory with what has been
of the book on which the questions are founded. Why let the study club
a new home for the lodge? Lodge business is going on while the tenancy
Pending the change you might plan with your local brethren the initial
of a study club eminently deserving the excellent quarters that I hope
are in store
for you. Please start something. Surely there can be no better time.
Can I help
* * *
An Excellent Plan of Campaign
Have read Bro. Robt. I. Clegg's letter on
cover of September number of BUILDER and it's just what I have wanted
for a long,
long time. Will you please send me a list of the members of the Society
immediate vicinity so that I may write them calling their attention to
letter and arrange for a meeting in the near future?
As to the course of study we will want to
am afraid that we will in a way be obliged to begin with the ABCs of
will write you in regard to this after we have our first meeting.
If you have on hand a supply of Bro. Clegg's
that I may enclose in letters to Brothers who are interested in the
study side of
Masonry but are not at this time members of the Society, I would be
glad to receive
about five of same and through the study club they may be made to
realize what they
are missing by not receiving the BUILDER.
– J. A.
Stiles, Morganfield, Ky.
Many thanks. All that we could send your way
forwarded from Society headquarters. Do not fail to ask me for anything
help you in making a start. I have in prospect the publication of just
as I fervently hope will meet your requirements. These will appear
a beginning may be made in this issue. Meantime it is most cheering to
thoroughly you have caught the spirit of the enterprise. Your club is
be a success.
* * *
Starting Study Clubs by
TELEGRAM – Will you please send me paper
course of outline in September issue by Clegg? Will appreciate a prompt
subject to come before our Lodge September 18th. Wire me collect if I
am too late.
H. M. Marks,
Jr., W. M.,
Lodge 148, F. & A. M., Ft. Worth, Texas.
All the available information went your way as
as possible. We hope that it was of service to you though probably too
do what could have been done with a greater expenditure of time. The
of the BUILDER contained an article or two written with your telegram
in mind. If
they did not give exactly the data of which you were in search I trust
write us again and go more thoroughly into details of what is wanted.
* * *
Texan Takes Hold in Fine
We desire to get Masonic Lectures started in
organizations here. I note "An Open Letter to our Members " Sept. 16th,
The Builder. We desire a lecture once a month, given by our Masonic
Club in their
rooms, fostered by Master Masons. We may be able to start study units.
We have a
place to meet. The Brethren will come together on call of the Club the
in each month. The elements are all here. The Club has a small library
We need something for that Third Tuesday and you can supply the need
Robey, Fort Worth, Texas.
Your letter in connection with the telegram
neighbor, Bro. Marks, is conclusive that Masonic activity in your
vicinity is most
progressive. You have the opportunity in shape and are prepared to go
on with the
work. We hope to publish the very material of which you are in search
endeavor to time our labors so that they will fit in nicely with the
which you hold meetings. Your plans strike my fancy very favorably.
seems anticipated. My heartiest congratulations on your perseverance
and your foresight.
* * *
A Study Club of One, Plus
Kindly forward me such information as you may
your command in compliance with Robert I. Clegg's suggestion in your
of the BUlLDER. I am much interested in such work and hope within a
year or two
to be in a position so that I can mingle with Brother Masons more than
I am permitted
at this time or for the last five years. In the meantime I can be
the future as I have much time that can be devoted to study. Waiting
reply, I am,
– Lem L.
Gaghagen, Pelican Bay Woods Camp
No. 2, Odessa, Oregon.
Your message somehow gives me the impression
the moment you are too isolated for study club purposes with the
many Masons. Consider yourself therefore a member-at-large, entitled to
all the information that goes to any study club and participating in
benefits as can possibly be deflected your way.
This Bulletin department should be of
help to you in maintaining a close acquaintance with the brethren. Many
join study clubs must be cared for here. Their independent study will
BUILDER have excellent vehicle for carrying the results of their
Let no brother lament that near him there can
study club. He can, as does the good brother here, look ahead to the
and favoring prospects and in the meantime make the best possible use
of our current
advantages in the study of Freemasonry.
* * *
Local and National Memberships
Enclosed find check to cover membership fee of
J. R. Hunter. Will say in behalf of the BUILDER that we find it very
our Club work and we hope that by the first of January, 1917, all our
will be members of the N. M. R. Society. Thanking you for past favors,
– N. T.
Roach, Winslow, Ariz.
The benefit from membership in a national
is very evident. If it were only that we can spread our inquiries over
field, membership in the countrywide body is preeminently worthwhile.
We need you,
and in the proportion that our membership nationally is larger than is
so do you get the greater outlook with us. In every manner practicable
we plan to
make the contents of the BUILDER minister to the better knowledge of
your approval of it is appreciated warmly.
* * *
Books, Programs, Memberships
Upon the repeated solicitation of a number of
of the Craft of this city, I am making a canvass among the membership
whether or not it would be possible to organize a Masonic study club.
purpose in mind I have approached one of our very brightest Masons to
in the work should we succeed in starting a club of that kind. He
I now ask you, if I am not asking too much of
please send me such literature as is being sent out to such clubs in
Or state whether we ought to affiliate under the Research Society. I
to have a study program or outline of work. Also what books, if any, we
Any information necessary to thoroughly start us to working will be
Kindly send me a couple of blanks for brethren who desire to join the
N. M. R. Society.
Thanking you in advance, I am,
– E. W.
Cruss, 32d, 2314 Ave. M., Galveston,
For the reasons stated in the immediately
letter and my comments, it does seem highly desirable that you and your
should become members of the National Masonic Research Society. A
is that this body has already collected a fund of information that has
the light of print in the BUILDER and in other publications. This data
for all of you as members. In the first volume of the BUILDER, in Dean
of the "Philosophy of Masonry," [Lib 1915] and in various other
reprints, the Society
has now at your command enough for alluring discussion at many meetings.
The October issue had a briefly expressed line
laid out with a number of references to topics and to authorities. We
supplement this with a series of papers in this month's Bulletin. Such
not be too weighty but will be arranged for ready use at any study
club. They will
have a fund of references for deeper and further inquiries.
My own preference as to books is given in the
issue. If I could afford to buy but one book I would get Mackey's
Graphics] the very
latest edition. I am doubtful about study club libraries; the
own set of books is the thing to aim at. I do not profit by the sale of
and therefore my opinion is all the more that of a buyer of volumes.
are usually stagnant. Perhaps study club libraries may not run into the
But anyway I have more faith in every member having his own books and
to their number. Please refer to what is said on the question of books
there in the Bulletin of October.
* * *
First an Organization, Then
For the Rest
In answer to the Open Letter in the September
of the BUILDER I write asking for a list of the members of Research
receive the BUILDER at Onawa. I would like very much to get a Study
Unless the list has already been sent I would like to have it. After we
get an organization,
we will no doubt need assistance as to topics and programs. I think the
idea is the genuine fruit that should be the result of the Society and
H. Dobson, Box 476, Onawa, Iowa.
Any way that we can help you from headquarters,
that I can do personally, will be cheerfully done with all the speed
that is ours. Emphatically you are right. We are ready and must go
accepted time is now. Please call on our facilities as if they were in
* * *
Grand Lodge Urges Masonic
North Dakota Grand Lodge passed a resolution
the recent session of Grand Lodge favoring the aggressive pushing of
during this coming winter. We, in the library, are making every effort
to get reading
lists, study outlines, etc., with that in mind. We are advised that the
N. M. R.
S. has just such lists and outlines which may be obtained for the use
of its members.
If such is the case, may we hope to receive from you some assistance of
Personally, I should be very glad to learn just what the resources of
are which are available for the use of the members of the association.
Yours very truly,
A. Richards, Librarian in Charge,
Fargo, North Dakota.
Let me ask you please to examine the present
and also the one that appeared in the October issue of the BUILDER.
There was in
the latter a reply to S. H. S. which gave with some degree of detail
what I was
venturesome enough to offer to one Grand Lodge Committee on Masonic
offered the suggestions with considerable diffidence. I again do so. If
anything of worth to the brethren of North Dakota and to the Librarian,
be abundantly repaid.
An outline of Masonic study is given in the
Bulletin and some references are given to books as well as topics. In
maybe for the bookish and scholarly Mason, this October outline would
as a guidepost at the very least.
It does not satisfy me. As the writer of it I
right to criticize it. If we are to make Masonic study really
attractive we must
go a long way beyond the point of directing the other fellow's
footsteps. Many must
be led for a while. This calls for actual papers to be presented to the
and so thorough and so interesting that everybody will go away
that all could understand and also be inspired to do some digging on
his own account.
Masonry has at its command the best men of our
As their minds are gradually turned toward the literary delights of
we may count upon an unearthing of rare possessions. I therefore
in the activity planned by your Grand Lodge and I anticipate we shall
benefited by your co-operation with us. I hope your Grand Lodge and its
bodies will become allied with us in the most useful of studious
Masons in America.
What we call degeneracy is often but the
what was there all the time; and the evil we could become, we are. If I
me the tyrant or the miser, there he is, and such am I – surely as if
or the miser were even now visible to the wondering dislike of my
A Significant Chapter in
the Early History of Freemasonry
By R.I. Clegg
I HOPE to present some facts of very general
to the brethren. Whatever use may be made of them is a matter for each
of you to
determine for himself There are those who will value these details as
contributions to the ever wondrous story of the Craft. Others will I
them as mere coincidences, incidents of only accidental import and of
Be that as it may, the field is open to you
texts are already available. Many more are doubtless waiting for you.
It is the
purpose of our organization, the National Masonic Research Society, the
as well as the collective forces of the body, to take up these
threads of testimony and her them into whatever cord of evidence is
proper and practicable.
Two points of consequence should first be
First, It is impossible in a paper written for publication to say many
to the ritual that could readily and properly be communicated by word
of mouth within
the inner door of a Lodge. My brethren must therefore apply for
of what I shall say, having the ritual constantly in mind, continually
if the words written do apply in any wise to what each of you has
as a candidate or as an officer in the conferring of the Masonic
therefore add to what I shall here utter your own knowledge of the
work. Much will
in that way be made clear.
Secondly, in a paper such as this I must not be
technical. For those who desire to carry forward the study of the
subject I shall
elsewhere in the Bulletin of the Society submit a selection of
authorities to be
consulted. This list can easily be lengthened to elaborate proportions.
array of authors and of literary productions adds strength to any paper
but if too
freely quoted the effort becomes cumbrous and burdensome to speaker as
well as to
I am convinced that the really interesting and
things to be said and to be treasured about Freemasonry need be neither
nor appalling. Whatever success we may meet in our endeavors toward
this end, successful
or unsuccessful as any of us may be, we should honestly make the
effort. Too often
the study of Freemasonry is hidden behind a cloud of words or weakened
by a poverty
Returning to our topic after thus clearing away
path, let me state my case briefly.
Today the blessings of education are about us.
is the ability to read.
Suppose that the contrary was true. Assume that
was active but that the common people were little informed as to moral
the manner that the church and Craft desired them to be known. It would
conditions be a likely prospect that Freemasonry would attempt a means
the instruction of religion to the masses.
To make the contents of the Book of Law vivid
people there is no more striking method of presentation than the
pictorial one employed
by the devout peasantry and townsfolk of Oberammergau who for so many
the tale of the Christ on the stage. That Freemasons should have done
this is by
no means out of the question as I shall hereafter show to some extent.
Now carrying this picture in your mind's eye,
Freemasons staging the episodes narrated in the Scriptures, permit me
for a moment
to take you a step further. After several scores, yes, hundreds of
years, of such
labor by the Craftsmen we find the people gradually acquiring a
to meet their needs in the study of the Bible for themselves. Then
there would be
less necessity for the public instruction of the multitudes by
Freemasons. The field
properly tilled, the Craft would then in all probability withdraw.
But would it entirely abandon its dramatic
Not necessarily. These very probably would in some form be continued.
and pageantry delight the eye and make a very vigorous appeal to the
who listen with dull ears are keenly alive to impressions upon the eye.
Did the brethren of old desire to select some
lesson to teach a great truth then what could they have preserved of
out of the many known so well to them than the one acknowledged as the
the Craft degrees and which reappears in various forms in so many of
Masonic of every rite, old or new?
You may now ask for proof of these
we turn the pages of dramatic history. What do we find? Among the
brought down to our own times is the account of the city of London
written by William
Fitzstephen [Lib*] who died in 1191. He is quoted freely by Stowe who
some four hundred years afterwards. Well, what says Fitzstephen, the
monk of Canterbury?
"London," says he, "instead of theatrical
shows and scenic entertainments, has dramatic performances of a more
either representations of the miracles which holy confessors have
wrought, or of
the passions and sufferings in which the constancy of martyrs was
Who took part in these staged moralities, these
episodes of religion? The artisan corporate bodies. Stow is
unmistakable when in
his "Survey of London" [Lib 1890] he enumerates the "Skinner's
for that the skinners of London held there certain plays yearly, played
Snell in his "Customs of Old England" [Lib
1862] points out a very
noteworthy conclusion as to the origin of these religious ceremonials.
far as can be ascertained, the earliest miracle play ever exhibited in
– and here it may be observed that such performances probably owed
or at least considerable encouragement to the system of religious
in our opening chapter – was enacted in the year 1110 at Dunstable."
Incidentally, I may here allude briefly to the
orders, such as the followers of Saint Benedict. The initiation of a
member of the
Order of Saint Benedict has been described by our late and greatly
Gould (Vol 2, pg 353) [Lib 1906/11; Vol 1,
Vol 2, Vol 3,
Vol 4, Vol 5] Further details may be found
in the various histories
of the Order. The ceremonial includes a dramatic teaching of the
of death and the hope of immortality.
Early artisans and merchants of England
by the government to carry on their respective trades and professions)
with the religious orders to adequately represent these Scriptural
Craft took some important episode and we can readily understand that
there was involved
a lively trade rivalry, a competition that brought out a remarkably
Eventually these isolated plays, crude as they
originally have been, grew into pageants, each extending over several
the degree of elaboration meant an expense of labor and of money
exhibitions to the larger centers of population and of wealth. Thus
there came about
the planning and the presentation of the four great cycles, those of
Wakefield, and of Coventry. The cycle was a series of plays forming a
of history. Commencing with the Creation, the cycle proceeded to unfold
of earth and the people thereof unto the times of the New Testament.
were devised so that the several sections of every locality could be
the halt or lame accommodated conveniently.
Says Archdeacon Rogers of the stage itself, as
by Snell: "A high scaffolde with two rowmes, a higher and a lower, upon
wheeles. In the lower they apparelled them selves, and the higher rowme
being all open on the tope, that all behoulders might heare and see
Wood and iron were used in the construction of these portable stages.
were in the floor of the stage covered with rushes.
Roger Burton, the town clerk of York, has
for us the various trades taking part in the Play of Corpus Christi in
It reads as if an inventory of all the industrial crafts. The cycles
were a glory
of the city and it became a point of honor not to be outclassed by any
or for any participating guild, or "mystery," to be outshone by a
Sometimes the sections of the play cycle were appropriately apportioned
particular craft or organization. Thus there are instances where this
assignment of duties is very marked. Take the scene where Noah is
warned to undertake
the making of the ark, this part of the representation being given to
Company of Shipwrights"; and then when the patriarch appears in the
ark this was done by the Mariners, a special touch of realism and of
being afforded by this division of duties.
Towns were for the time being turned into
The huge stage was drawn from one station to another. Again we may
quote from quaint
Archdeacon Rogers in what he says of Chester: "The place where they
was in every streete. They begane first at the abaye gates, and when
the first pagiant
was piayed, it was wheeled to the high crosse before the mayor, and so
streete; and soe every streete had a pagiant playinge before them at
one time, till
all the pagiantes for the daye appoynted weare played; and when one
neere ended word was broughte from streete to streete, that soe they
in place thereof excedinge orderlye, and all the streetes have their
them all at one time playeing togeather, to se which playe was greate
also scafoldes, and stages made in the streetes in those places where
to play their pagiantes."
Sometimes the elaborate arrangement of the
enacted by the craftsmen was by no means unworthy of mention in the
with our modern scenic triumphs. For example we are told that at one
the "Trial of Jesus" two stages or scaffolds were simultaneously
One of these displayed the judgment hall of Herod, the other was
reserved for that
of Pilate. Messengers on horseback passed between the two halls of
no manner of means was this an unambitious exposition of Biblical
story, but one
that compares quite favorably, as I am sure you will agree, with what
has in our
own times been attempted in that direction.
When the pageants passed from the churches into
streets for their rendition they gradually became less dominantly
the churchly authorities and were the more closely governed by the
civic and guild
Pope Gregory held in the year 1210 that the
must no longer participate in what had in his belief ceased to be an
act of public
Devotees of the church in a strict construction
edict lost regard for the Craft plays but it is very significant for us
that Manning who in his translation of a French manual upon sins
representations and regarded it sinful to look upon them, yet held as
that the resurrection might be played for the confirmation of men's
faith in that
greatest of mysteries. Manning's prejudice was not universal. More than
years later, in 1328, the Bishop of Chester counseled his flock to
peaceable manner, with good devotion, to hear and see" these stagings
Moreover the Grey Friars of Coventry had a
Corpus Christi plays of their own. These they exhibited outside the
what was the reason for the selection of this place of portrayal is not
records the conjecture that it was so chosen because of the competition
of the trade
The fifteenth century found at York a famous
William Melton. He declared that it was necessary to have certain
changes made in
the conduct of the pageants. Accordingly, the mayor, William Bowes, on
the 7th of
June, 1417, issued an ordinance that has some elements of interest for
the various regulations we find "that no man go armed to the
the peace and the play, and the hindering of the procession, but that
their weapons at the inns, upon pain of forfeiture of their weapons,
of their bodies, save the keepers of the pageants and officers of the
So were they duly and truly prepared.
Hone in his "Ancient Mysteries Described"
[Lib 1823] tells of the practices
followed in the church. These suggest the fount from whence the greatly
plays of the guilds were evolved. As for instance we may take "The
the Sepulcher," as it was termed. This custom, founded upon old
taught that the second coming of Christ would be on Easter eve.
conceived that the people should await until midnight in the church for
The "Making of the Sepulcher" and the watching
of it remained in England until the reformation. An account of it by
"In the abbey
church of Durham, there was very solemn service upon Easter Day,
betwixt three and
four o'clock in the morning, in honor of the Resurrection; when two of
monks of the choir came to the Sepulcher, set up upon Good Friday after
all covered with red velvet, and embroidered with gold, and then did
cense it, either
of the monks with a pair of silver censers, sitting on their knees
before the Sepulcher.
Then they both rising, came to the Sepulcher, out of which with great
they took a marvelous beautiful image of our Savior, representing the
with a cross in His hand, in the breast whereof was enclosed, in most
the holy sacrament of the altar, through which crystal the blessed Host
to the beholders. Then after the elevation of the said picture, carried
by the said
two monks, upon a fair velvet cushion all embroidered, singing the
anthem of "Christus
Resurgens," they brought it to the high altar setting it on the midst
the two monks kneeling before the altar, and censing it all the time
that the rest
of the whole choir were singing the aforesaid anthem; Which anthem
the two monks took up the cushion and picture from the altar,
supporting it betwixt
them, and proceeding in procession from the high altar to the south
where there were four ancient gentlemen belonging to the choir,
appointed to attend
their coming, holding up a most rich canopy of purple velvet, tasselled
with red silk, and a goodly gold fringe; and at every corner of the
canopy did stand
one of these ancient gentlemen, to bear it over the said images with
the holy sacrament
carried by the two monks round about the church, the whole choir
waiting upon it
with goodly torches, and great store of other lights; all singing,
praying to God most devoutly till they come to the high altar again;
they placed the said image, there to remain until ascension day."
These early practices of the church are not
Particularly at Christmas there are many observances to be found that
strongly of these ancient customs from whence the craftsmen of old drew
for their great public displays of theatrical skill.
You may ask if there is record of the Masons
taken part as an organization in the city cycles of pageants. There is
prepared account still extant of the York pageants. This is entitled
of the Pageants of the play of Corpus Christi, in the time of the
Mayoralty of William
Alne, in the third year of the reign of King Henry V. anno 1415,
compiled by Roger
Burton, town clerk."
There are fifty-four scenes, some of which are
by more than one class of craftsmen. For instance, the Pewterers and
were associated in the rendition of the thirteenth scene. The first
scene was assigned
to the Tanners, and was "God the Father Almighty creating and forming
angels and archangels; Lucifer and the angels that fell with him into
So we go on to the eighteenth scene, allotted to the Masons. This was
with the child; Joseph, Anna, and a nurse with young pigeons; Simeon
child in his arms, and two sons of Simeon."
You will be interested to learn that some of
morality plays are even yet of record and are by no means trivial. In
fact the conditions
under which they were produced, and the time spent upon them for some
years, must have brought them to a very high plane.
Take the Cornish Mystery of the Crucifixion:
|| Woman, seest thou thy son? A thousand times
your arms Have borne him with tenderness. And John, behold thy mother;
Thus keep her, without denial, As long as ye live.
|| Alas! Alas! Oh! Sad! Sad! In my heart is sorrow, When I
see my son Jesus, About His head a crown of thorns. He is Son of God in
every way, And with that truly a King; Feet and hands on every side
Fast fixed with nails of iron. Alas! That one shall have on the day of
judgment Heavy doom, flesh and blood, Who hath sold him.
|| Oh sweet mother, do not bear sorrow, For
always, in every way I will be prepared for thee; The will of thy Son
is so, For to save so much as is good, Since Adam was created.
|| Oh Father, Eli, Eloy, lama sabacthani? Thou are
my dear God, Why hast Thou left me, a moment alone, In any manner?
| First Executioner:
|| He is calling Elias; Watch now diligently If he
comes to save him. If he delivers him, really We will believe in him,
And worship him forever.
| (Here a sponge is made ready,
with gall and vinegar. And then the Centurion stands in his tent, and
|| I will go to see How it is with dear Jesus: It
were a pity on a good man So much contumely to be cast. If he were a
bad man, his fellow Could not in any way Truly have such great grace,
To save men by one word. (The Centurion goes down.)
| Second Executioner:
|| It is not Elias whom he called; Thirst surely
on him there is, He finds it an evil thing. (Here
he holds out a sponge.) Behold here I have me ready, Gall and
hyssop mixed; Wassail, if there is great thirst.
|| Thirst on me there is.
| Third Executioner:
|| See, a drink for thee here; Why dost thou not
drink it? Rather shoulds't thou a wonder work! Now, come down from the
cross, And we will worship thee.
|| Oh, Father, into Thy hands I commit my spirit;
By Thy will take it to Thee, As Thou sent it into the world.
| (Then Jesus shall die. Here the
sun is darkened.)
You have here, my brethren, a story of the
for simple strength is not easily excelled. Not for a moment is it to
at that great throngs saw these spectacles. Theatrical skill in
abundance was lavished
upon them. Devoted craftsmen contributed freely of their means in money
ability. Great religious orders gave them literary aptness. Monks and
and Craft, combined the best that in them was for the portrayal of the
story from the creation to the cross, from the Fall to the risen Lord.
This co-operation of forces has curiously given
things in common to the Catholic and Protestant Churches and the
Think of the similarity of symbolism, particularly of colors as with
purple, white, etc. Consider the ritual of the Mass, its obvious
teaching and the
signs and ceremonies that are its accompaniment. Ponder over the joint
uses of such
words as warden, deacon, chapter, council, consistory, and so forth. Do
tell us of the days when the brotherhood of Freemasons held up the
hands of the
church with dramatic fervor, with an ornate stage, showing the
Scripture and saying
its story in so simple and strong a style that the least informed might
wise unto biblical truths and all fundamental philosophies?
This fact I hold to be one of the greatest
of Masonic history, a heritage to be proudly possessed and passed
* * *
Notes for Further Research
Readers of the Bulletin will have observed the
made on the fourth page in the October issue for a "Course in the Study
Under the head of "Ritual" I mentioned several
items for consideration. One of these was the "Mystery Plays of the
Age." Promptly I received a request that I say something further on
as at least one good brother had never thought of these plays in that
The above article was at once prepared. It is not intended to be
Time for its preparation has been so limited that I have been unable to
my liking certain phases of the subject that demand critical attention.
Yet it may
serve for the present. And it may also provide a paper that can be
any study club. Frankly do I admit that it is not my ideal of a paper
club consideration. I shall have other papers and I hope papers of even
appeal and perhaps more pertinent significance. When we get to the
stage where we
are receiving papers from study clubs everywhere we shall indeed have a
To the good brethren who seek to pursue this
further for themselves, and beyond the confines of the various Masonic
I have a few references to provide.
An excellent chapter on "Miracle Plays" is
to be found in Snell's "Customs of Old England." [Lib 1862] (1)
Some few references are to be found in Stowe's
of London." [Lib 1890]
I am especially fond of that volume in
Library" entitled "Everyman, and Other Interludes, including Eight
Plays." [Lib 1939] (2)
"Everyman," by the way, I have been tempted
to reproduce in this Bulletin, and later may do so. It is a morality
play in which
the various attributes of manhood are personified and converse with the
when he approaches his death. This exhibition of Wisdom, Strength,
Fellowship, etc., in the shadow of death is of decided interest to the
and is peculiarly apt to the era of my paper of which it is indeed a
Hone's "Ancient Mysteries Described" [Lib
1823] (3) contains some
curious lore upon old church customs. Allusion to one or two of the
many cited by
Hone is made in my paper.
The Encyclopedia Britannica has an article on
About a column of it treats of the old miracle and morality plays.
While you are
looking through the Encyclopedia, glance at the articles entitled
and "Mutilation." While these do not directly touch upon the plays here
treated, they have marked interest to the student of primitive
the consideration of these peculiarities we may derive light upon
in the earliest stages of its evolution.
F.H. Stoddard's "References for Students of
Plays and Mysteries" [Lib 1887] (4) furnishes
a bibliography that up to the date of publication, 1887, is ranked as
little volume, "Everyman," already mentioned, has in the introduction
a very useful set of references.
The two volumes of Taunton's history of the
Black Monks of St. Benedict" [Lib 1897; Vol 1, Vol 2] (5) can
be consulted for some additions to the references I have made in the
to what is said on the subject by Gould.
(1) [Snell] Charles
Scribner's Sons, New York
(2) [Everyman] E. P. Dutton & Co., New York.
(3) [Hone] William Hone, London, 1823.
(4) [Stoddard] University of California Bulletin No. 8.
(5) [Taunton] Longmans Green & Co., New York.
The Measure of Goodness
Be good at the depths of you, and you will
that those who surround you will be good even to the same depths.
more infallibly to the seret cry of goodness than the secret cry of
is near. While you are actively good in the invisible, all those who
will unconsciously do things that they could not do by the side of any
Therein lies a force that has no name; a spiritual rivalry that knows
Chips from the Quarry
Human improvement is from within outwards. –
In this world a man must either be hammer or
Architecture is frozen music. – De Stael.
Greek architecture is the flowering of
geometry. – Emerson.
A Gothic church is petrified religion. –
A Man's Man
Charles Bayard Mitchell
A man's man must be his own man. I mean by that
have faith in his own integrity. He does not discount himself. He knows
He has surveyed his own estate and knows his limitations and boundary
knows his powers, as well. He has studied himself. He has discovered
a duality; one side of him tending downward, and the other upward. He
aims to be
true to his better self. By restraining the evil and giving vent to the
him, he has seen the better forces coming to the throne of his life. He
the scepter in the hands of his own better nature. He dares trust
himself. He can
trust his instincts. He yields quickly to his intuitions. He feels
strong in the
sense of his own integrity. He knows he is a true man- – others may
think what they
please. He knows he rings true. When a great question is to be decided
take it to the bar of his own better judgment and abide its decision.
His mind is
superior to doubt and fluctuation. He can laugh at opposition. He feels
the power to will and to do. He dares to do what others fear. He
others follow. He has a sublime confidence in his own power to carry
he wills. He knows no timid lingerings. Neither doubts nor misgivings
keep him back
from the trial. He is larger than his vocation and superior to opinion.
He is impervious
to contempt and ridicule.
No man can be a man's man who is not his own
yourself and the world will take you at your own estimate. A divine
a sane self-confidence, must mark the man who aspires to win the
confidence of his
The Spirit of Masonry
It is one of the most difficult things in the
for one to be just, while suffering from injustice. It is not an easy
thing to permit
one who attacks another's reputation to go on with his own reputation
unsullied. It is not a simple matter to be non-partisan when one is
being held up
to scorn by partisans. It is not a pleasant thing to stand aside,
designing persons are telling lies about us. But the man who can be
JUST under trying
conditions, and the man who can refrain from showing resentment when
the man who can still be non-partisan when subjected to partisan
attack, and the
man who can resist the temptation to talk back when he knows that
someone is lying
about him – all of these men are exemplifying the spirit of Masonry.
John W. Hill,
The Sweetness of Life
There's night and day, brother, both sweet
moon, and stars, brother, all sweet things; there's likewise a wind on
Life is very sweet, brother; who would wish to die?"
By Joseph Fort Newton
YES, it is London. Had I been set down here
or from nowhere, I should have known that it was old London town. Here
turn to the left, as they do in the Inferno of Dante – there is no
place. And speaking of the Inferno, the English way of handling baggage
a clear idea of what that place must be like.
How quiet London is. Compared with the din of
and the hideous nightmare of the Chicago loop it is as quiet as a
There are no sky-scrapers to be seen, but the scene spread out like a
the top of Primrose Hill is not to be forgotten! Yes, it is London, the
city in the world, and not another like it. But which London is it?
Well, that depends
upon what London you are looking for.
There are many Londons, my dear reader. There
London of the Tower and the Abbey, of Soho and the Strand, of
Buckingham and Downing
Street, to say nothing of Piccadilly. There is the London of the
Whittington and his Cat and Goody Two-Shoes and the Canterbury Shades;
and Marlowe and Chatterton; of Nell Gwynne and Dick Steele and poor old
Noll – aye,
the London of all that is bizarre in history or strange in romance.
They are all here, with much else in this
of past and present, of misery and magnificence. Sometimes for me it is
know which holds closest, the London of Fiction or the London of
History, or that
London which is a mingling of both – the London of Literature. Anyway,
as I see
it, Goldsmith carouses with Tom Jones, and Harry Fielding discusses
the Vicar of Wakefield; Nicholas Nickleby makes bold to introduce
himself to Mr.
W. H. Thackeray and to ask his favor in behalf of a poor artist, the
son of a hair-dresser
in Maiden Lane; and Boz, as he passes through Fleet Street, is tripped
by an Artful
Dodger and falls into the arms of St. Charles Lamb.
No doubt my London is in large part a dream,
say a fool's paradise, but it is most enchanting. Slowly it works its
and he who does not love it is fit for stratagems and spoils – not fit
I had almost said. There is no denying, I am in love with London, and
as much tea as any Englishman who ever coveted his neighbors goods.
Here is the
center of the world, so far as I am concerned, the great old city of
of all my fathers – everywhere the hauntings of history, a scene to
stir the soul
of one who loves England equally for its fiction and its fact.
Yesterday I visited the Abbey and attended the
service – an hour I can never live long enough to forget. How can I
express my feeling
as I stood for the first time in that grey old pile thinking of the
who sleep there – thinking how those pillars have stood through all the
days, through storm and calm, peace and war, for ages. Truly, "time,
god, makes all things holy, and what is old becomes religion." I sat
the Poet's Corner, where Tennyson and Browning sleep side by side, as
in the eternal fitness of things, and the effigy of Shakespeare has the
Burns nearby. If one cannot pray in Westminster Abbey, where men have
centuries, and where the echo of voices long hushed still cling to its
cannot pray at all – unless it be on the wide and eloquent sea!
Today I went to St. Paul's and heard the
of Canterbury preach, and after the service wandered for two hours in
of the cathedral. Descending into the crypt one looks upon the tomb of
mighty lord of the sea, and the sleeping place of Wellington, the great
of the English race. Lord Roberts rests a few feet away. Here sleep the
– as the poets are honored in the Abbey – among them Wren who built St.
a famous Mason. Who can measure the influence of such a building,
it does so many historic memories, the dust of great men, and the
tradition of ages
of patriotism and prayer? It stands for order in the streets, for order
in the land,
for order in the secret places of the soul!
From St. Paul's it is not a far walk across
to Southwark Cathedral – hardly less interesting and far less known. In
stood the Globe theatre, in which Shakespeare made himself and England
there is a recumbent figure of the poet in alabaster – the gift of
younger brother lies buried there in company with Massinger and
it had been a place of literary renown long before Shakespeare, in the
days of Gower,
who rests there, and Chaucer, whose Canterbury pilgrims set out from
Inn, once close at hand. Also, in this parish was born John Harvard,
our great university, and there is a chapel in his honor in the
cathedral. And so
my story might go on endlessly.
Old London is the keeper of a great history,
London of today is athrill and athrob with the stir of history in the
impressive to step out of some grey old church – like that of St.
the Temple where poor Noll found rest at last – into the teeming,
of today; from the peace of the past into the tense air of the greatest
war in all
the annals of time. If the London of old is hallowing, London of today
– sometimes terrifying. There is a sense of a vast tragedy only a few
and here one is behind the scenes, so to speak- – soldiers and sailors
armies of nurses, Red Cross emblems, ambulances, hospitals, and so
How striking the contrast as one steps out of
of the past where "the eternal ages watch and wait." Indeed, just now
England is a world of women nurses, messengers, porters, tram and bus
very conscious and important in uniform and badge and brass buttons.
the English woman is finding herself and she likes it. Bright-eyed,
cheerful, she is doing things she never dreamed of doing before. Even
their ancient work as house-wives feel a new distinction, I dare say,
and dust their
rooms for the good of the country. They have learned their worth to the
a new way. Will they be willing to go back to the old ways after war?
Can they do
it? What will be the result? Will not England be permanently different?
Such questions have followed me ever since I
At Hyde Park entrance the other day I saw one of the shrieking
I thought were extinct – I wish they were. Maybe I shall live long
enough to forget
that sight, but I doubt it. Hideous is a mild word. Fact is, my
not allow me to say what I really feel. Those poor, half-crazed
creatures have set
their cause back fifty years in England, and injured it everywhere. Had
I been shaky
on the subject of suffrage, that harangue, and still more the wild-eyed
of the ranter, would have sent me away with a vast disgust. Heaven help
that has such advocates.
But she and the like of her are forgotten when
the heroic spirit of the multitudes of women who work and endure,
sorrow as only one item in a measureless common woe. And they are so
brave and gay
withal. Indeed, London is unnaturally gay and many are puzzled by it,
what it means. Almost every reporter who has interviewed me – and they
legion – has brought up the subject. Yet it ought to be very easy to
A man who had been in the trenches told me that there men learn to live
at a time – they may not be alive more than a moment. And the reaction,
an explosion of "insane gaiety," to use his words. Pent up feelings
find vent, and it is no wonder that the theatres are crowded every
night – and the
more rollicking the play the greater the jam.
Frankly, I was not prepared for the feeling
America which exists in England today, and I am amazed at it. It is
and is sometimes so intense as to verge on anti-Americanism. My English
assure me that it is not so in a way that really matters, but I know
better – and
Americans living here confirm my impression. Perhaps it is not so with
are discerning, but with the man-in-street it is different. He feels,
that America betrayed humanity in behalf of dollars. It is not so much
president kept us out of the war, but the appalling way in which he did
Further, the American government is a
to English people. They do not divide it into presidential terms or
and the feeling against America will continue whatever the future may
be in our
politics. Therefore it behooves us to do all within our power – on both
the sea – to see that such a feeling does not gather force and grow;
the last and worst calamity that could befall humanity would be an
between the Empire and the Republic having one language, one tradition,
common ideal of civilization. But I am off my subject and had better go
The newspapers here interest me very much. They
small now, to be sure- – except Old Thunderer, the Times – owing to the
paper and the lack of labor. They are poorly printed, as compared with
– certainly the religious papers are abominably printed. But they are
by far. They serve the news up after their fashion in more compact
form, but in
a much more lucid style, and some of the war correspondents – Phillips
than any other, methinks – are very remarkable. Also, the editorial
page has more
influence than with us, though it has suffered decline, I am told, on
Men of letters write more frequently for the daily press than with us.
the press, both in London and in the provinces, has been very kind to
me in every
I am bound to say that religious conditions in
are most distressing and confounding. The churches are empty, for the
and have little influence – the state church emptier than the rest, if
Perhaps I should have said church conditions instead – for some of my
friends tell me that there is more religion outside of the church than
thought it was so in his day. Anyway, I have attended three religious
since I came, representing three branches of the church, and the tone
and discouragement was common to all. They know not what to do, and the
are all the time trying to explain the war and "to justify the ways of
to man" – with not much success, I must admit. It makes me think of a
in the University of Michigan, after three visiting ministers had each
the question of the existence of God. He said that up until that time
he had never
had any doubts, but that now he was a little uncertain. I am much in
his case, as
to the explanations I have heard so far.
There is a vast unbridged – and seemingly
– gulf between the church and what is called the working classes; and
every day. What the end will be is hard to know. If the war did not
save dear old
England from something like revolution, it at least postponed it.
Perhaps the shaking
the war has given the churches will wake them up, before it is too
late. For surely
the people are as religious as ever they were, but the churches no
their religion. There are exceptions, of course, to all these
statements – thank
heaven – but I am speaking of the general condition.
And the City Temple is an exception to anything
It is wonderful – all that I expected and more. It has been full from
top to bottom
at every service a sea of faces below and clouds of faces in the
a sight! What an opportunity! What a crushing responsibility! If
anybody ever tells
me that an English audience is unresponsive, I shall be ready to fight
him. It is
not so. I never had such a response, much less such a welcome, in any
in all my life. And if anything had been lacking at the Temple, it
would have been
made up by the Masons at their brilliant banquet and reception in my
too, was a scene never to be forgotten till all things fade in the
dark. Of this
Masonic Light upon Mexico
– A Reply
By Bro. John Lewin Mcleish,
(Through the courtesy of the Editor of The
have been privileged to peruse advance sheets of Bro. Eber Cole Byam's
"Mexican Masonry, Another Side," written for the October issue of the
magazine. Brother Byam presents so strong a brief against the Mexican
which he italicizes as an I.W.W. Revolution, incidentally condemning
and condoning Mexican Catholicism, that I am sorely tempted to
fully our Masonic Doctrine of Tolerance, I shall stress the fact that
herein made apply strictly to Catholicism in Mexico, and I shall
support my arraignment
by references easily obtainable to those seeking More Masonic Light
IN 1494 Pope Alexander VI divided the
of the earth by an imaginary line of longitude running through the
from pole to pole, three hundred and seventy miles west of the Azores.
He gave the
Portuguese unlimited sway over all the countries that they might
discover to the
east of that line, and pledged himself to confirm to Ferdinand and
Isabella of Spain,
the right to every isle, continent and sea where they should plant the
flag on the
western hemisphere. – (Mexico and the United States, [Lib 1869] by G. D. Abbot. Putnam.)
The Catholic Conquistador Hernan Cortez and his
band of mail-clad men brought only the sword and the cross to the New
took freely of the Emperor Montezuma's gold, enjoyed his hospitality,
and in return
began "a holy war" ruthlessly destroying the monuments, history,
and records of a splendid Aztec civilization quite equal to that of the
from which they had come.
A Jesuit historian, Abbe F. S. Clavigero, in
of Mexico [Lib 1807; Vol
1, Vol 2], says: "The
Spaniards in one year of merciless massacre sacrificed more human
victims to avarice
and ambition, than the Indians during the existence of their empire
devoted in chaste
worship to their native gods."
A more recent authority, L. Gutierrez de Lara,
"The Mexican People: Their Struggle For Freedom," [Lib 1914] says: –
"In Mexico on
the other hand, the invading Spaniards found not barbarism, but a
private ownership of land in place of communal ownership, and serfdom
in place of
nomadic liberty. With fire and sword they laid waste a civilization in
superior to their own: and the fighting elements among the natives,
or exterminated, the serfs fell perforce into the most abject servitude
new masters… Spain brought to Mexico an arrested civilization and a
embittered and perverted by the fierce conflict with Islam. The Holy
set its bloody fangs in the heart of the people: persecution, fire and
all liberty of conscience and the soul of Mexico lay degraded and
shackled as even
her body. The ignorant priests went so far in their hatred of all
that emanated from any other source than the Vatican, that they burned
the invaluable library in the Imperial Palace of the Aztecs, destroying
at a blow
the records of the culture beyond their comprehension."
The Pope's proclamation in 1494 set the
the later policy of the Vatican to "Catholicize" the world, was the
of the latter day slogan of the Cardinals, "We shall make America
Witness the Council of Trent convened by Pope Paul II in 1545
body of canons that were to subject all mankind for all ages to the
will of one
man in the papal chair."
The Conquest successful, Spanish civilization
a firm hold upon Mexico. To quote from Wilson's Mexico: –
"Many of these
wretched people were formally reduced to the condition of absolute
some were even branded as such with the owner's initial by a red-hot
as well as men, while the middle class, the real backbone of the
from the land."
Now quoting from my own article, "Mexican
published in Light of June 15, 1916:
"At the inchoation
of the nineteenth century Mexico seemed hopelessly enslaved under the
of Roman ecclesiasticism expressing itself through the puppet
personalities of Spanish
Viceroys, representatives of a king and cortes utterly subservient to
the Pope of
Rome. For three hundred years this sad condition had persisted in
Mexico. In consequence
the clergy were stupendously rich, and seemingly fortified in an
What was left of the natural resources of the country after supplying
and mother-country went to the enrichment of the Viceroy and the
making up his court. For the native-born was abject misery, slavery,
Through the country the dread Inquisition flourished and held sway. Its
victims filled to overflowing the great military prisons like San
Juan de Ulúa
with their disease-disseminating, vermin-infested, dark dungeons,
So unutterably cruel were the penalties attached by the Inquisitors to
pay the clerical tithes, or any utterance against the existing order, a
what they might consider heresy, that wonder is the SYSTEM held sway as
it did. However much the native-born contributed to their taskmasters,
it was never
enough. Overseas, decadent Spain was in dire straits: Upon the Viceroys
to pay the upkeep of the Court of the Bourbons, to meet the endless
demands of the
CLERICAL OCTOPUS fattening upon both countries."
A Roman Catholic Bishop, Las Casas, protested
against the Spanish cruelties crossing the Atlantic twice to show
that a continuation of the policy inaugurated by Cortez could only
result in utter
extermination of the Aztecs as a race and nation.
Let us now take more testimony from a Catholic
Let a French Abbe, the Catholic Chaplain of Napoleon's Expeditionary
Force to Mexico,
speak to you from his book, "Mexico as It Is," [Lib 1867 (French)] published
in Paris in 1867. Says this very reverend father, Abbe Emanel Domenech:
is dead. The abuse of external ceremonies, the facility of reconciling
with God, the absence of internal exercises of piety, have killed the
faith in Mexico.
It is in vain to seek good fruit from the worthless tree which makes
a singular assemblage of heartless devotion, shameful ignorance, insane
and hideous vice… The idolatrous character of Mexican Catholicism is a
known to all travelers. The worship of saints and Madonnas so absorbs
of the people, that little time is left to think about God… If the Pope
all simoniacal livings, and excommunicate all the priests having
Mexican clergy would be reduced to a very small affair. Nevertheless
there are some
worthy men among them, whose conduct as priests is irreproachable. In
America there are found among the priests the veriest wretches, knaves
the gallows, men who make infamous traffic of religion. Mexico has her
these wretches. Whose fault is it? In the past it has been Spanish
In the present it is the episcopate… Priests who are recognized as
fathers of families
are by no means rare. The people consider it natural enough and do not
rail at the
conduct of their pastors excepting when they are not contented with one
make merchandise of the sacraments, and make money by every religious
without thinking that they are guilty of simony, and expose themselves
to the censure
of the Church. If Roman justice had its course in Mexico, one-half of
Clergy would be excommunicated… The well-instructed priests,
disinterested and animated
by a truly apostolical spirit, holy souls whose religious sentiments
are of good
character constitute an insignificant minority… One of the greatest
evils in Mexico
is the exorbitant fee for the marriage ceremony. The priests compel the
live without marriage, by demanding for the nuptial benediction a sum
that a Mexican
mechanic, with his slender wage, can scarcely accumulate in fifty years
of the strictest
economy. This is no exaggeration. The consequences of the excessive
perquisites in general are as lamentable to public morality as to
It was just such esoteric knowledge of the
his brother clergymen that led Miguel de Hidalgo, a Mexican priest, to
his vows and seek MASONIC LIGHT in Mexico City in 1806. From the time
the slogan of revolution against the puppet Viceroys of Rome and Spain,
to the ultimate
triumph of Juarez, the enforcement of the Laws of Reform, through the
revolutions of Madero, and Carranza, the fight has been for the one
of compelling the separation of Church and State.
If as Bro. Byam says, "The Church in Mexico was
stripped and had the melancholy satisfaction of witnessing the chagrin
of the strippers because the booty was so much below their
Nearly naked and poverty stricken came the
Mexico to kill and plunder the poor natives and amass fabulous wealth
three hundred years of their undisputed sway. When the worm turns at
last, to drive
them from their piratical strongholds, to give back to the State that
Church took by right of might and the Inquisition, is it other than the
of a good law "Naked ye came and naked ye go"?
Again Bro. Byam says: –
Masonry is atheistic, revolutionary and contentious, and in Mexico it
anarchistic and murderous."
I do not agree with Bro. Byam at all. Only in
the twenty-seven states of Mexico was the Great Light absent from the
this I believe in Monterey, during the mastership of General Reyes. In
his statement concerning Bro. Castellot, I again quote from the New
Age, the official
organ of the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, of January, 1915: –
Masonry in Mexico is under the leadership of Dr. Joseph G. Castellot,
of the Mexican Senate."
Permit me now briefly to epitomize from my
Mexican Masonry, already referred to:
"Our first authentic
Masonic record in Mexico may be traced back to a little house in Mexico
de las Ratas No. 4 where as early as 1806 the Masonic Lodge then known
Moral" held regular meetings… Although the SYSTEM crushed the Moral
Lodge not at all did they preclude the spread of Masonry. In 1813 was
the first Grand Lodge under the Scottish Rite, having for its Grand
Master Don Felipe
Martinez Aragon. A number of subordinate lodges sprang up through the
1816-1817 there were working under charter from the Grand Lodge of
lodges, "Friends United No. 8," and "Reunion By Virtue No. 9."
In 1824 the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania gave
to a lodge working as "True Brothers of Papaloapam No. 191." …
fights and internecine strife were but natural in an order embracing
men of the
fervent, effervescent disposition of the native Mexicans. The time
seemed ripe for
a schism. It so happened that the American Minister to Mexico, Mr. M.
was one of the high authorities of York Rite Masonry in his native
land. For many
symbolic lodges who petitioned him Bro. Poinsett secured a Charter
under the York
Rite of the United States through the Grand Lodge of New York. In 1828
as many as 102 York Rite lodges in Mexico working under this Charter.
Out of the
jealousies of the two active Rites Scottish and York emerged still a
Mexican National Rite, composed of York and Scottish Rite Masons.
Although the York
and Scottish Rites had taken a considerable part in the shaping of the
welfare, it remained for the youngest of Masonry's Mexican daughters to
a definite platform. In 1833 the Mexican National Rite set forth its
policy as follows:
of Thought, Freedom of the Press, Abolishment of the Fueros
(Privileges) of the
Clergy and of the Army, Suppression of Monastic Institutions,
Destruction of Monopolies,
Protection of Arts and Industries, Dissemination of Libraries and
Schools, the Abolishment
of Capital Punishment, and Colonial Expansion."
All of these high principles and others were
in the Laws of Reform enacted and put into the Mexican Constitution by
of the Masons of the Mexican National Rite, Brother Benito Juarez. They
same principles for which First Chief Carranza is fighting today.
Says Brother Byam: –
"The laws of Reform
were not aimed at securing freedom of worship, but at the spoliation of
Even were his statement just, and I cannot for
admit that it is, may we not answer that when the Mexican State says to
Catholic Church, "Take that thine is, and go thy way," is it the fault
of the State that "Naked they came and Naked they go"? On the contrary,
"We are satisfied: that is a GOOD LAW."
Naturally the Laws of Juarez did not at all
the Vatican as you may see from reading a summary of their intent. They
liberty for all opinion, liberty of the press, and liberty of faith and
to the members of all denominations the right of establishing schools
the intermarriage on terms of religious equality of Catholics and
the burial of Protestants in Romish lands where Protestants have no
their own in which to bury.
public schools for secular education that shall be free from the
control of the
Romish priesthood. Said the Pope, joining with Bro. Byam, in condemning
are contrary to the doctrines, rights and authority of the Catholic
it be understood that the Roman Catholic Church declares such laws as
they may be enacted, to be null and void." (See Christian World, Vol.
pp. 312-314. [Lib*])
Now to consider that portion of The Laws of
directly to the Roman Catholic Church. William Butler, D. D.,
summarizes them in
his "Mexico In Transition," [Lib 1893] published by Hunt &
Eaton, New York, 1893.
complete separation of Church and State."
cannot pass laws establishing or prohibiting any religion.”
free exercise of religious services. The State will not give any
to any religious festivals save the Sabbath as a day of rest. "
services are to be held only within the place of worship.”
vestments are forbidden in the streets.”
processions are forbidden.”
use of church-bells is restricted to calling the people to religious
discourses advising disobedience to the law, or injury to anyone are
in churches shall be public only.”
of real estate to religious institutions are unlawful, with the sole
edifices designed exclusively to the purposes of the institution.”
State does not recognize monastic orders nor permit their
association of the Sisters of Charity is suppressed in the Republic,
and the Jesuits
are expelled and may not return.”
is a civil contract and to be duly registered. The religious service
may be added."
are under civil inspection and open for the burial of all classes and
one can sign away their liberty by contract or religious vow.”
in the public schools is free and compulsory."
I am sure when Brother Byam carefully considers
wise enactments he will admit "The Laws of Reform are Good Laws, Just
Three years the Mexicans under Juarez fought
Laws of Reform. Says De Lara, in his "The Mexican People: [Lib 1914]"
"But the fight
was destined to be bitter and prolonged, for against the limited
resources of the
Constitutionalists were pitted the millions of the Church and against
the calm statements
of the constitution were pitted the inflammatory, seditious harangues
of every priest
in the country… The Church indeed, leaning strongly upon her
of psychological debauchery, exploited every device known to the
science of class
rule, in order to counterbalance the simple, mighty appeal to the
people of the
great Constitution of 1857. Her priests throughout the land proclaimed
war" characterizing the struggle as one against the enemies of God. The
marched to battle bedizened with scapulars and crosses, bearing aloft
banners inscribed with the sacred images and symbols of religion. Those
were extolled as martyrs in the holy cause – the peers of the first
under the Roman Empire."
None the less right triumphed. The Clerical
utterly routed. Before President Juarez had full time to perfect the
reforms he had in mind, the Clerical Conspirators prevailed upon
France, Spain and
England to press their claims for debt. As Napoleon the Little had
and England withdrew in disgust when they fully understood the full
affairs in poor Mexico. Only the French remained to establish by force
of arms the
Empire of the Pope's puppet, Maximilian. I make this statement
advisedly, and quote
from the letter of Pope Pius IX to his Austrian fugleman as given in
"Mexico a traves de los siglos," Vol. V, p. 671, [Lib 1880; Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3, Vol 4, Vol 5 (Spanish)] sic: –
is fully aware that in order to remedy the wrongs committed against the
the recent revolution, and to restore as soon as possible her happiness
it is absolutely necessary that the Catholic religion, to the exclusion
of any other
cult, continue to be the glory and support of the Mexican Nation: that
have complete liberty in the exercise of their pastoral ministry: that
orders be reorganized and reestablished, according to the instructions
that We have given: that the estates of the Church and her privileges
and protected: that none have authorization for the teaching or
publication of false
or subversive documents: that education public or private be supervised
by the ecclesiastical authorities: and finally that the chains be
broken that until
now have held the Church under the sovereignty and despotism of civil
Of how well Maximilian obeyed his Papal Master
read in history. In 1866 Napoleon III ordered the withdrawal of the
of 50,000 men under Marshal Bazaine, leaving the Pope's puppet to pay
with his life for his numerous Black Decrees and an unblushing
effrontery in trying
"to Catholicize" the Republic of Mexico.
I have touched more in detail upon points
mentioned in my series, "Masonic High Lights of the Struggle for
in The American Freemason of April and May, 1916, and October, 1916, to
respectfully refer Brother Byam. Also to Light of May 15th, 1916, and
A careful examination of the records will show
before the enactment of the Laws of Reform the Roman Catholic Church
$200,000,000 of property from which and other sources the Church
derived an annual
income of not less than $20,000,000. How did they get it? You will
the priests who came over with Cortez possessed only a scanty wardrobe
crosses backed by the mail-clad men and the Holy Inquisition. "Naked
and naked they go." It is a just law.
I have shown that Mexican Masonry had no
Now relative to the claim of Bro. Byam that the
revolution was an I. W. W. and Socialists' Movement. Again I
Matters were running along nicely enough in
long as President Diaz held true to his Masonic Vows, and kept in force
of Reform. When having married a second time, he succumbed to the
relatives of his
young wife Senora Carmelita Diaz – all Catholics… when he lifted the
allowed the Catholic Clergy some of their old Fueros or Privileges,
in Mexico as it always will there and everywhere when the blackrobed
the Third Sex are allowed to play Politics.
Says De Lara, [Lib 1914] in "The Mexican People":
"Never for a moment
since Diaz came into power in 1876 had the spirit of revolt ceased to
fire the hearts
of the people. Its manifestation had been repressed but the spirit
lived on and
grew stronger with the passing days… Mexico under Diaz was no place for
A movement such as this which had for its avowed object the enforcement
of the Constitution
of 1857 in general, and the restoration of the agrarian democracy in
called for prompt suppression at the hands of Diaz and the
Scientificos. Such a
suppression was not altogether easy matter. Up to the year 1910
of dollars were expended by the Mexican government to stamp out the
organization. At the same time the Scientists played into the hands of
Church, with the result that Mexico was fined more than a million
dollars in the
matter of the restitution of the long cancelled pious funds formerly
paid by Mexico
to the Church in California for the upkeep of the missions to the
Now let us listen to William R. Tourbillon,
on "The Curse of Mexico" [Lib*] in The New Age of September, 1913:
in Mexico as in all parts of the world diligently seek and acquire
over the boys and girls, and over the sisters, wives and mothers of
men. They especially
direct their attention to the sisters, wives and mothers of men who are
so that they are able to dominate even where the head of the house is
not a Catholic…
The Catholic Party knowing that General Diaz could not abolish the Laws
as Chief of the Liberal Party, whose program was and is bound up with
laws, worked with all the influence in their power to secure the aid
of the women in the families of Porfirio Diaz and his Cabinet. During
the life of
the first wife of President Diaz this influence was very small and Diaz
in his convictions. His second wife, Mrs. Carmelita Romero Rubio de
Diaz, a most
devout Catholic, allowed herself to fall under the influence of the
is ever ready to gain a foothold in some way or other, and through her
Diaz and the Government. Mrs. Diaz tried in every way possible to
husband. The Catholic Church through this influence gained many
even General Diaz was rapidly becoming a Mocho.
before the late Madero revolution materialized, and even during the
time the late
assassinated President, Francisco I. Madero was going through the
about the great principles of the Liberal Party, a great many Liberals,
the necessity that Mexico had for the preservation and enforcement of
the Laws of
Reform, and knowing that the Catholic Party was attaining greater and
hoped and wished secretly for the success of Don Francisco I. Madero.
Diaz had been so long in power and had become so old that he did not
truth and strength of the movement that a few Liberals helped to blow
into a great
flame and secure his downfall. These Liberals knew that the great
was regaining control and they were determined to stop it. After the
loss of thousands
of lives the Madero revolution triumphed."
I only wish space permitted the inclusion of
of this very convincing and authoritative narrative. As it is I shall
enough to show the sordid conspiracy which caused the present dire
in Mexico directly due to "The Catholic curse."
knew that with the late President Madero in power they could not
everything they demand their former power. They are working with
to have the Laws of Reform revoked, and to that end nothing can stand
in their path…
The principles of the Madero Government were based on Masonic ideas…
of Masonry were deeply instilled in the heart of Madero and his
on these principles Madero spared the life of Felix Diaz who had
forfeited it at
Vera Cruz, where he was defeated and taken prisoner by General Beltran
first revolt… President Madero with the help of Vice President Pino
Masons of the highest degrees,) believed, and what is more to the
purpose put into
practice even in the machinery of the Government, practical Masonry.
His was a Masonry
that meant enlightenment for the people – a Masonry that did not speak
having always in view the advancement and education of the masses, with
faith in his brethren to carry out all the principles contained in the
The Catholics in Mexico, on the other hand, have been, were, and are
to uplifting the masses. Their interests have been and are today joined
10,000 who own practically the whole of Republic of Mexico against the
that are the tools of the few. The 12,000,000 have always been kept by
we now find them, for the priests know that if through Masonic
principles the populace
receive light, the Catholic Church would soon lase its hold over them."
I ask you to read the following arraignment by
R. Tourbillon and then tell me if you agree with Brother Byam that "the
Revolution is an I.W.W. Revolution."
"Madero represented honor and truth. His
despised treachery and cunning and unfortunately for him he had faith
in all men.
The Catholic Party stands guilty today of a base combination and they
guilty of the assassination of President Madero and Vice President
lent their moral aid to its accomplishment. They are responsible for
revolution in Mexico, because of their intrigues with Huerta and Diaz.
"With Madero's Government, Masonry stood for
that is absolutely true, fair, honest and above-board, and the Catholic
all this, thinking they could gain more power."
"Out of a clear sky the revolt in Mexico City
The Catholic Party began its intrigue through General Mondragan, who
made Minister of War. Mondragon through his friendship with the Colonel
of the Government
Boys' School "Aspirantes" induced the Colonel and the boys to join him.
They united with another regiment, went to the military prison, freed
… and released General Felix Diaz. The band separated into two parts,
to the National Palace and in the fight that ensued lost his life.
Felix Diaz and
Mondragon went to the arsenal which surrendered after a sham fight, and
possession. All this had been prepared.
"Huerta came to the President and Vice
and reiterated his loyalty. He was Commander-in-chief. All the troops
were put under his command… The army under Huerta, President Madero's
shot, at everything but the enemy. He was a part of the plot. The Roman
Party had joined hands with him.
"The conspiracy was carried out in every
The farce had to be well played. Failure for
Catholic Church, Huerta and Diaz was impossible. Diaz knew that the
Huerta would not shoot at him or his troops. All had been arranged
the Catholic Party.
"After the tenth day, Huerta personally invited
the President's brother Don Gustavo Madero to dinner… Don Gustavo was
bound. He was sent to the arsenal, the enemy stronghold, where without
he was shot to death.
While Huerta did this, Huerta's aid, General
two blocks away from the National Palace, with a group of soldiers made
of President Madero and Vice President Pino Suarez in the palace.
Huerta the trusted
friend and General of Madero and Saurez became President.
"Huerta held them prisoners in the palace for
days before they were killed… After the second day and at eleven
o'clock at night,
Huerta ordered that Madero and Pino Suarez should be silently taken
from the palace
in a closed automobile and sent to the penitentiary. When they arrived
were taken out to the wall at one side of this prison and met by a
captain and twelve
soldiers. Vice President Suarez was first shot. He had three bullets
head and the brain in the back part of it was all destroyed. The twelve
ordered to shoot Madero, but, recognizing the President, refused to do
"The Captain then struck Madero over his left
with his pistol, knocking him senseless to the earth, and then the
coward shot him
from behind, the bullet going through his brain and coming out between
When President Madero was seen last, just before lowering his body into
in the French cemetery, his left eye was swollen; it was red and blue
from the blow.
"Huerta, in order that no witnesses to this
murder might survive, had the twelve soldiers shot, and the Captain
be a Colonel. During all that night Huerta did not leave the National
"This is the man, Huerta, to whom the Catholic
Party of Mexico 'representing the Machos,' gave their assistance,
money. Will they give him and his deeds the holy blessing of the Pope?"
Remember the facts stated are given on absolute
If Bro. Byam wishes more Masonic Light on this period I respectfully
refer him to
Hon. Luis Manuel Rojas, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge, Valley of
City, Mexico, during that period, a true Mason who exhausted all the
at his disposal at that time to save the lives of his brothers Madero
President Taft to whom he repeatedly appealed
had already imparted instructions to the American Ambassador Henry Lane
and relying upon his timely intervention referred Grand Master Rojas to
I quote once more from Bro. Tourbillon:
"The Grand Master
after the conference with Mr. Wilson, knew that the Ambassador was
a policy that up to today has had no satisfactory explanation. Henry
representing in Mexico the American Government, which since the days of
has despised treachery and cunning, and has never been a party to
is not absolutely true and above-board, allowed himself to become the
tool of the
Roman Catholic Party of the Mochos, of Huerta, Diaz, Leon de la Barra,
Ambassador Wilson therefore could have requested, could have demanded,
secured the lives of Madero and Suarez, while he walked arm in arm with
the combination… Ambassador Wilson would not listen to the plea of Mrs.
Mrs. Suarez to save the lives of their husbands; he was implored and
by them to interfere, as they knew it was in his power to do… Mr.
Wilson knew that
Madero and Pino Suarez were to be taken prisoners, for the
representatives of the
treacherous plot met in the American Embassy. but he did not advise
or Pino Suarez to escape
"One word from
Ambassador Wilson would have been sufficient to have delivered them to
one of the
battleships which were then in Vera Cruz harbor… Nor was Mr. Wilson
moved by the
Grand Master's appeal in the name of all Master Masons in Mexico, made
to him as
a Master Mason, to save the lives of brother Master Masons."
Perhaps our Ambassador had conceived the same
opinion of Mexican Masonry as that voiced by Brother Byam in his
I have presented the facts supported I think by
authority. If Brother Byam wishes more I have plenty at hand. I too
lived some years
in Mexico, part of the time in Mexico City where I had the privilege of
General Agramonte, Judge Andres Horcasitas, J. Mostella Clark and other
in those days: also much time in interior Chihuahua where I saw daily
the oppressiveness of conditions for the masses. In our mines and
smelter we employed
many hundred men with whom I came in daily contact.
I have gone some length into this reply,
because I cannot
but regard Bro. Byam's article other than an excellent brief for
Much more I might say did space permit but as Bro. Denman Wagstaff says
– Masonry does not fight Catholicism … she tolerates it because of her
for all things. The Roman Church is continually attacking Masonry. Very
like I should say. We are not intending to attack or storm the Vatican.
nothing therein contained that we need or want or prize. We not only do
our neighbor's goods, but being plain truth-tellers, we are in addition
to confess that "there is nothing there which would be of use to an
The Sublime Achievement
By Bro. Henry Banks, P. G. M.,
IN all times, in all
climes, and among all nations, wherever the banner of Masonry has been
she has had her enemies. Though her pathway down the ages has been
strewn with the
most fragrant flowers of Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth, though the
the best and purest among the Sons of Men have been magnificent
monuments to the
grandeur of her mission, yet her enemies have not failed to decry her
ceased their efforts to destroy her usefulness. While the Masons of
century – this century of soul liberty – have the freedom to erect her
worship about her altars, the spirit of enmity still exists, and
of her methods are freely offered by those who are ignorant of her
mission, or blind
to the rich fruitage of her labors.
When we consider the
antiquity of Masonry, the dangers through which she has so safely
passed, the persecutions
of bigotry, superstition, and fanaticism she has so successfully met
and behold her today with the glory of her centuries clustering about
and the years of labor resting so lightly upon her unbowed form,
and stately with all the vigor of her early youth, her feet as elastic
to run errands
of mercy – knees as supple to bend in prayer for a Brother's need –
breast as faithful
to receive and keep a Brother's whispered words, hands as ready and
strong to support
a falling Brother, and lips ever whispering words of cheer and comfort
to the ear
of distress – we stand with unshod feet and uncovered head at her
and fain would lay the laurel wreath of well-earned fame upon her pure
The flight of time
has not dulled her ardor nor made sluggish the blood that richly
her veins. The finger of the ages has been powerless to mark the years
upon her beautiful face. Her form unbent by the burdens she has borne;
undimmed, catch the sign of trouble, and her ears are quick to hear the
cry of distress, while old Father Time, with all his perseverance, has
not yet accomplished
the task of unweaving the meshes of her hair, or weaving one silver
its golden tresses. Although her pathway down the ages has been marked
monuments of glorious achievement and gems of precious truth sparkle
about her feet,
yet she has not been, and is not now, free from detraction. The mystery
that hedge her in and veil her beauties from the prying eyes of the
world is no
barrier to the performance of her mission.
She came into the world
at the cry of distress, uttered in man's need. No blare of trumpets or
banners heralded her coming, but secretly and silently, as the dews
Hermon, she came from the loving heart of God to take her place as one
of His mighty
factors in the building up of the waste places in His moral kingdom,
and to bless
man by the beneficent power of her secret, silent influence. Masonry,
with her beautiful
ritual, impressive ceremonies, and the glory of centuries clustering
about her brow,
stripped of her moral character, would lose her greatest charm, her
jewel. For Morality is her foundation, Truth and Virtue her pillars,
Love the high priest that ministers at her altars. To be good men and
true is the
first and most important lesson taught within her sacred walls. Every
step of the
candidate, from his preparation to the last solemn scene, as he passes
beautiful ceremonies and is inducted into her mysteries, leads along a
with fragrant flowers of truth, while diamonds of virtue sparkle about
illuminating the mind with moral light, flooding the heart with a
of divine principles, inspiring the soul and leading up to a higher
plane of holy,
upright living. The trowels in our hands are rusty from lack of use,
for the cement
of brotherly love has not always been spread with generous hand. The
hours of relief
have been so destitute of service that we have well-nigh lost the
gauge's use, while
from lack of labor our arms have become too weak to wield the gavel in
the rough ashlars for the Great Builder's use. Wrong and error stalk
among us, and
ofttimes unseemly tread our chequered floor.
The mission of Masonry
in the world is to fight the wrong and defend the right. Is she needed?
Is her mission
ended? Coming in answer to man's need for moral help, she has come to
there are no wrongs to right, no sin to fight, no distress to help, no
woes to heal,
no lessons of purity and righteousness to teach; when, by the practice
of our secret
art, the original design shall be restored to the trestle board, and
man is faithfully
working it out, then, and not till then, will her mystery be revealed
and her mission
The power of faith
threw its mysterious shield of protection about the forms of the Hebrew
as they walked unscathed amid the roaring flames of the
It parted the waters of the Red Sea for the passage of the Children of
was a cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night as they wandered for
Its mysterious healing power was felt by them as they looked upon the
uplifted in the wilderness. Its mystic power is felt as it flows in
through the songs of the sweet singer of Israel, and, like a thread of
will be woven in the robes of righteousness we shall wear around the
throne of God.
As with such mystery God has clothed His wondrous works in nature and
and through them showered blessings upon the world, so shall Masonry,
continue her blessed work among the erring sons of man.
The prayer of every
Mason's heart should be that all men were Masons; and all Masons true.
peace would hover over all lands, nations would learn war no more.
be beaten into plough-shares and spears into pruning-hooks, brotherly
prevail and every moral and social virtue would cement us. If we so
pray let us
so live; and, renewing our allegiance to the grand principles of
more earnestly her great light, making it the only rule of our faith
and the man of our council, and so move among our Brothers and the
world that they,
seeing the beauty of Masonic holiness as it shines in our words and
deeds, may be
constrained to exalt Masonry to the high and honored place she so
Thus we will speed the glad time when the sublime principles of Masonry
the earth as the waters cover the deep, and the glorious sway of her
girdle the globe with kindness, love, and truth.
Lamb-Skin Apron -- [A Poem]
Light and white are its leathern folds,
And a priceless lesson its texture holds.
Symbol it is, as the years increase,
Of the paths that lead through the fields of Peace.
Type it is of the higher sphere,
Where the deeds of the body, ended here,
Shall one by one the by-way be
To pass the gates of Eternity.
Emblem it is of a life intense,
Held aloof from the world of sense;
Of the upright walk and the lofty mind,
Far from the dross of Earth inclined.
Sign it is that he who wears
Its sweep unsullied, about him bears
That which should be to mind and heart,
A set reminder of his art.
So may it ever bring to thee
The high resolves of Purity.
Its spotless field of shining white,
Serve to guide thy steps aright;
Thy daily life, in scope and plan,
Be that of a strong and upright man,
And signal shall the honor be,
Unto those who wear it worthily.
Receive it thus to symbolize
Its drift, in the life that before thee lies.
Badge as it is of a great degree,
Be it chart and compass unto thee.
Keeping the Peace
Our duty is not only
to keep the peace, but to make a peace that is worth keeping. For the
kind of peace
that the world needs cannot be had for the asking. It comes high, but
it is worth
Samuel M. Crothers.
The Lamp of Fellowship
RUSKIN lighted his Seven Lamps of Architecture
1907] and set them on golden
candlesticks, the better to show us that the laws of art are moral
they are used in building a cathedral or in making a character. If we
for eternity, he tells us that we must obey Him whose mountain peaks
aisles we imitate in our temples. Martineau lighted five Watch-night
Lamps, in a
noble address, and urged us to keep our souls awake looking for the
dawn in "this
solemn eve of an eternal day which we call Human Life."
But there is another Lamp without which all
and fade as we walk together in the dim country of this world – the
Lamp of Fellowship.
Indeed, one may sum up the whole of life, and of religion, in the one
– a deep and tender fellowship of the soul with the Father of all,
and help are the supreme facts of life; and then, turning manward, to
fill all the
relations of life with the spirit of sincere and sympathetic
fellowship. What more
than this can the best man do, how better can he serve his fellow
pilgrims who journey
with him the old-worn human way?
Lack of fellowship is hell."
By the same token, if the soul of Masonry is
its heart-throb is felt in its Spirit of Fellowship. Its history is
gray with age.
Its philosophy is profound. Its philanthropies are beautiful and
benign. Its ritual
is rich in suggestion, eloquent with echoes of those truths that have
mind of man since thought found a throne in the brain. But the heart of
its vital force, its divine fire are in its Strong Grip by which men of
of every creed, of every shade of temperament and thought are brought
the five points of Fellowship!
Fellowship – that is the word which utters, so
any word may utter, the deepest reality and the highest aspiration in
of Masonry. This is the mystery which its rituals labor to express and
symbols seek to interpret and unfold – a mystery, as Whitman said, more
than metaphysics, by which man is united with his Fellows in Faith,
Friendship. For this Masonry exists – to assert the fact, to spread the
and to promote the practice of Brotherhood – that man may learn that it
he shares that makes life worth living, and that "he who seeks his own
the things in common.”
Indeed, the whole arrangement of human life
man may learn three things: the law of right, love of God, and love of
long ages of tragedy we are beginning to learn the first lesson, that a
which poison makes men strong and food destroys them is not more unreal
than a world
in which falsehood makes great characters and righteousness issues in
and unworthy life. How far we have failed to learn the other two truths
of God and love of man, the human scene makes pitifully plain. Yet
learn them we
must, else the story of men will be blurred with blood and blistered
till whatever is to be the end of things, with never any hope of a
better day to
Here lies the divine mission of Masonry, to
which we must make deep research into our history, and still more into
using every art at our command, every influence we can invoke, joining
in one high service, the while we light the Lamp of Fellowship and
learn to "live
in the eternal order which never dies."
This is the work on
the Trestle-board for Brethren everywhere,
For never was there greater need for level, plumb, and square,
For trowel with cement of love to strengthen and unite
The human race in Brotherhood, and usher in the Light!
* * *
Truly, "the best laid plans of mice and men
aft aglee," and not a few of our pet schemes have suffered wreck during
year, much to our regret. Nevertheless we have made progress, and we
our Members will agree not only that The Builder is far and away a
than it was a year ago, but that the Society is not far from a solution
of the hardest
problem which any group of Masons ever set themselves to solve – how to
to study Masonry alike in its deeper aspects and its wider practical
Our Brethren abroad are amazed at the advance
and even those among us who hold aloof, waiting for tangible results,
that something has been done that has never been done before. Looking
tokens are most encouraging, in the response to the Study-Club program
as well as
in the general feeling that the Society is an honest and firmly
having the good of the Order at heart, free from fads and bent on
serving the cause
to which every true Mason is devoted. Criticism has given way to
a degree unexpected even by the most sanguine, and the omens for the
friendly and full of promise.
So far, of course, only the corner-stone has
but it is a good beginning, and we feel that the spirit and intent of
have won the intelligent confidence of the Craft. Something has been
the field of original research, as our pages bear witness, and more
will be accomplished
in the days to come. Nothing would be easier than to edit an erudite
with learned essays to be read by the few and filed away for reference,
been the purpose of the Society. But our first concern is to reach the
file of the Craft, as far as possible, and to enlist them in the study
truth, the practice of Masonic principles, and a better use of the
the service of humanity.
Many plans are afoot for the New Year, but our
aim will be to push to successful issue the Study-Club program, in
every part of
the land. How difficult the problem is, how novel and fascinating
withal, the Correspondence
Bulletins reveal, and the letters which threaten to swamp Brother Clegg
the Society did not misread signs of the times or the needs and
feelings of the
draft. If we have only scratched the surface of the field, we at least
rich a soil we have to till, and if we do the thing that needs to be
done the harvest
will take care of itself. The motto of England these days would not be
a bad motto
for us, "Every man do his bit, and stick to it."
* * *
Let Us Give Thanks
Soon will come the day when we shall be called
thanks, as a people, for the old sweet fashions of nature, for the
miracle of seed-time,
summer and autumn harvest, for the necessity which impels industry and
of material for use and beauty. No man, surely, can think back over the
not be moved to gratitude for the joys of life, for home and family and
love of comrades; yea, even for the sorrows that subdued him to sobs
him in love and pity to his kind. Thankfulness is the fruit of
if we cannot be thankful for all things we may learn to be thankful in
– albeit saddened unutterably by the vast shadow of woe that hangs over
May we not also give thanks for the great order of Freemasonry, whose
not to tear down but to build up, to bless not to hurt, and whose
labors in behalf
of a better world never stop, never tarry, never tire? Indeed, yes, and
our hearts, the more so in a day when men are divided by sect and party
and every tie is needed to keep the world together. Humbly let us give
One who in a way beyond our reckoning brings good out of ill, and makes
of man to serve His awful will.
Steps to the Crown
FROM over the sea comes a neat, well-dressed
book named "Steps to the Crown," [Lib*] from the busy heart and
pen of Brother Arthur Edward Waite a man the very thought of whom is
like a fragrance
brought from afar on friendly winds. This time it is a series of
Aphorisms, a form
of writing to which one is tempted to say his style does not easily
did we not recall those fine and deep sayings scattered like bits of
his book of poems. Terse, pithy, picturesque, they begin with the
of Caiaphas after the fashions of this world, and bring us at last, as
always brings us, to the white steps that lead to the Places of
Sanctity; and they
speak many kinds of wisdom in one spirit of love. Meanwhile, we tread
of many sanctuaries, in the shadow of a Secret Light, if happily we may
consolations of the Greater Law and the Path of Union. At random we
gather a handful
of these aphorisms, after this manner:
Except a man use simple
words, he shall not in the last resource escape from being intelligible.
is not incompatible with the enlightened hatred of a good many current
The world, as a going
concern, is for sale to those who can buy, but no good-will goes with
The fly walks on the
ceiling, and yet it has never affirmed that the world is upside down.
The number of the schools
is infinite, but the truth is one. A single clear intuition is better
than a score
Subtlety and duplicity
can teach us much, but not to escape either death or immortality.
Return tickets are
not issued for any of the great journeys.
From day to day we
pronounce the Lost word with our lips, but it remains lost until we
utter it in
Herein is a Garden of Nuts in which he who
find what he seeks, and no more. Knowledge runs but wisdom lingers, and
is in haste loses what is most worthwhile. Always it is the
who is the teacher of the truest worldly wisdom, for that he sees
through the show
and sham of things to the realities that await our coming. Who opens
volume will find a log-book of past voyages, in cipher which has been
here and there
decoded; and if the cipher spells out fragments of strange legends, it
hint that "the secret of getting on in the world is that of passing
The Master Mason -- [A Poem]
C. F. Whaley
me to do
my work this day – my best;
And lead me in my blindness;
With strength of truthful purpose fill my breast
Sufficient to withstand temptation's test;
And fill my heart with kindness."
Such is the brief and wise prayer in which
will join who opens "The Confessions of a Master Mason," [Lib*] by
C. F. Whaley, who dedicates his pages "to the man who believes in the
of God and the Brotherhood of Man; to the man who believes himself to
be his brother's
keeper; to the man who walks the four-fold path of right thinking,
right acting and right living." Nearly fifty years ago, unsolicited, he
admission into the ancient craft of Masons, and after many days he now
what Masonry has taught him of the meaning of life and how to live it.
is a wise and gracious little book, one to ponder over betimes, giving
us a lecture
in prose and a legend in poetry; brotherly withal, and of bright and
reverent and religious, as witness its evening prayer when the shadows
I know full well my failures of today;
I say it to my sorrow.
Teach me some better, nobler way,
Be Thou my help in every need, I pray;
Bide with me yet tomorrow."
The Religion of America
Years ago, wounded by a great sorrow, George H.
sought the "Comfort Found in Good Old Books," [Lib 1911] whereof he told in
a volume of that title, of which we made note in these pages. Now he
us further, if so that we may find the vital force in the new religion
as revealed in the "Great Spiritual Writers of America" [Lib 1916] – Emerson and Whitman
its prophets, Lowell, Whittier and Markham its poets. Why not Lanier,
"song was only living aloud, his work a singing with the hand?" One
that golden voice in this heavenly choir. And what a choir it is:
Irving, Cooper, Poe, Longfellow, Thoreau, Mark Twain, Whittier,
Harte, Howells, and, by no means least, dear Edwin Markham who is not
only a poet,
but is himself a poem. 'Tis a most useful and inspiring book for a
young man, opening
the door into the best that has been thought and sung and dreamed under
wide and starry sky" of this new world; happy is he who enters and
a "city of the mind built against outward distraction for inward
* * *
Fortunately, as we suggested, the series of
in the Masonic Standard, by Brother Frank G. Higgins, in which he
as a survival of the ancient Cosmic Science, have been gathered into an
little book; and may now be studied by the Craft. [Lib 1916] These papers are designed to
be an elementary course
of instruction in the secret learning of antiquity, which the author
holds is the
real, albeit long-lost, secret of Masonry, if not the reason for its
Such learning was deemed too disturbing to be spread broadcast in olden
he feels that the day has arrived, in view of the interest in the
deeper side of
Masonry, when this hidden lore should be brought to light and put
before the rank
and file of the Order. He frankly admits that this venerable science,
looks like what he calls a "stupendous cut-out puzzle," to piece
which has been his pleasant lifework; but when it is put together it
reveals a consistent
and commanding philosophy which will stand the test of scientific
he tells us, has wrought a great work in the world despite its almost
of what was once its principle reason of being, and the inference is
it recovers its long-buried learning, it will move forward to greater
space permits only a brief notice, we reserve a more detailed review
until a later
issue, albeit not without expressing sincere appreciation of a
and a most lovable and brotherly man.
* * *
We regret to announce that, owing to the war
of the British Empire, it is impossible to secure the books mentioned
Baxter in his "Course of Masonic Reading" in our last issue. It is only
another evidence of how our peaceful labors are to be shadowed by the
* * *
music – set
The pipe to powerful lips –
The cup of life's for him that drinks
And not for him that sips."
– Unpublished Stevenson MSS.
* * *
Books and Pamphlets
Writers of America, [Lib 1916]
by G. H. Fitch. Elder
& Co., San Francisco.
Steps to the
Crown, [Lib*] by A. E. Waite. Rider and
Co., London. $1.00.
The Beginning of
Masonry, [Lib 1916]
by F.C. Higgins.
Pyramid Publishing Co., Masonic Hall, New York. $1.50.
Story of the
Ancient Craft; [Lib*] Its Lessons in Verse,
by O. B. Slane, Wyoming, Ill. $.25.
Medieval Gilds, [Lib*] by Ossian Lang.
Grand Lodge of New York.
The Relation of
the Liberal Churches and the Fraternal
Orders, [Lib*] by E.C. Coil. American Unitarian Association, Boston.
Free on request.
The Cloud upon the
Sanctuary, [Lib*] by Karl von Eckartshausen,
edited by A.E. Waite. Rider and Son, London. $1.00
Poems of Rupert
Brooke [Lib 1920],
G. E. Woodberry. John Lane Co., Boston.
Le Symbolisme, [Lib*] Edited by Oswald
Wirth, 16 rue
Truly a Man
He is truly a man who makes justice his leader
path of inquiry, and who culls from every sect whatever reason approves
The Question Box
A Token of Memory
Suppose each man who entered our Order should
as a token of memory, the Bible on which he took his obligation as a
much it would mean to him in after years! Having on its fly leaf his
name, the date
of his initiation into the different degrees, the names of the officers
the degrees, it would be a sacred thing to him and to his family; a
be handed down from generation to generation. What would it mean to a
son to plight
his Masonic vows on the same Bible on which his father, and perhaps his
had plighted their vows before him? How many memories would cling to
such a book,
making it doubly dear for itself and for its associations! Is not this
worthy of thought?
* * *
From time to time there come letters from
regret, if not dissatisfaction, on account of certain penalties of
While one may not write freely of such matters some things may be said:
points complained of are manifestly of modern origin, and had no place,
so far as
we can learn, in ancient craft Masonry. In olden times the oath of a
Mason, if we
may judge from those which come down to us, was a very simple thing,
of one or two sentences. The language used was very simple, and it is
in some respects
unfortunate that it should have given place to an elaborate form for
is no authority either in history or in reason. (2) A study of the
in ancient English law to the crime of high treason is very
enlightening, if one
has eyes to see, regarding the history of the things objected to. (3)
In some Lodges
– especially in Scotland – the candidate is told that, while the old
form is preserved
as a symbol, the real penalties that affect and influence the human
soul are moral:
the penalties of being branded and forsworn as a dishonored man and
Mason, of receiving
the well merited contempt and score of good men; of suffering the
horrors of an
outraged conscience, and of incurring the retribution of the Deity
* * *
The Old Charges
Two Brethren ask if the Old Constitutions which
Society is issuing is in fact the earliest copy, and as rare and unique
as is claimed.
Certainly not, if by copy is meant manuscripts of the Old Charges; but
it is the
earliest printed copy. Of this edition Brother Hughan says in his
of Freemasons" [Lib*]: – "The earliest printed Constitutions of the
Masons were issued in 1722. The title runs – 'From the old
to the Ancient and honorable Society of the Free and Accepted Masons;
a Ms written about five hundred years hence. London: Printed and sold
by J. Roberts,
in Warwick-lane, 1722.' We have been favored with a perusal of this
work, and can
testify to its exclusively operative character. The Obligation taken by
accords with the Harleian Ms. (1942, British Museum.[Lib 1872]) The ancient charges
were read to the initiate, who then subscribed to them as follows: 'All
and charges which I have now read unto you, you shall well and truly
and keep, to the best of your power and knowledge, so help you God, and
and holy contents of this Book.' " (Hughan, pp. 12,13. Incidentally,
an example of the simplicity of the oath of an operative Mason, while
the Constitutions of 1722, although to be classed with the old
belongs to the period of transition.
* * *
Editor Builder: – Kindly advise, through The
if a Brother Mason can inform the Master that he wishes a certain
and in the absence of the objecting Brother, is the Master duty-bound
to cast a
black-ball against the candidate for the E.A. degree. Is not the
obliged to state his reasons for the objection?
– M. B. Slemmer, Centreville, Md.
An objection to advancement in your
the same effect as a black-ball. As to whether this applies to a
candidate who has
been elected to receive, but has not yet received, the Entered
the Maryland code does not state. Neither does it state whether
be made in open Lodge or privately to the Master, nor if it is
necessary for the
objector to make known his reasons.
* * *
Dear Sir and Bro.: – I have read that in a shop
of a certain Swedish city the notice appears: – ENGLISH SPOKEN,
This would seem to predicate some distinction
linguistic accomplishments of the two great families of the Anglo-Saxon
hardly seems to me, however, to justify either the Anglicisation or
of the quotations from Scottish documents, given in the otherwise
by Brother G. P. Brown in your January issue.
The genealogical reference, to begin with, is
as the poet's father was not even an Ayrshire man, and the baptismal
surely be misquoted, as the family name was not Burns, but Burness.
No Scottish Scribe could be guilty of writing
for Lochlea when entering the abode of the initiate in the minutebook,
and the town
which had the honour of receiving the poet into the Royal Arch degree
was not Leymouth,
Under the sub-title of "The Sweet Singer,"
the omission of the word "air" between "with" and "benign"
in the first line of the second quatrain spoils the whole rythm of the
H. Baxter, England.
* * *
Dear Brother Newton: – Here is my trouble, as
as I can state it. The Grand Lodge of our state has never adopted a
Each Lodge, so long as it does not violate the ancient Landmarks, is
put on the work according to its own particular wording and
naturally, has resulted in there being a wide variance in the work in
parts of the State; and in the remote districts has brought about a sad
affairs. To counteract this, our Grand Lodge created a committee to
standard method of conferring the degrees, which, if adopted, should
make the ritual
uniform throughout the jurisdiction. As a member of that committee, I
hope the report
will be adopted. But we anticipate opposition, and in order to meet it
we want accurate
information as to the number of states in which uniform work is being
also some data as to the methods employed in promulgating it to the
I have, therefore, taken the liberty of writing to you for some
information to assist
us in getting our report adopted, which result, we feel, is very vital
to the future
welfare of Freemasonry in this state.
have an official uniform Blue Lodge Ritual?
taught to the various lodges? In other words, do you use a printed
cipher, do you
promulgate it by specially trained lecturers, or what method do you
your opinion as to the advantage of having the ritualistic work of a
if you know or can possibly find out, in your doubtless extensive
records, how many
Grand Lodges in the United States of America have a uniform ritual, and
their various methods of teaching it to the subordinate lodges.
While I know that you are interested in the
of Masonry rather than the forms and phrases by which the degrees are
I believe you will for that very reason realize that there is very
little hope of
having a man grasp a great truth of any kind when the language by which
it is presented
to him a foreign tongue.
Therefore, we, of the committee on work, feel
we can succeed in having a common language, or a common method of
degrees adopted by the Grand Lodge, in a verb few years; from that one
the standards of Masonis ideals, ambitions and purposes will have
advanced at least
one hundred per cent in our state.
Knowing that you are interested in the welfare
everywhere, I call on you for assistance because in the short time, I
get the information, and I assure you that the time you devote to your
be more than well spent.
– J. A.
Here is a situation as novel as it is important
it raises many interesting questions which are too large to be
discusses in a brief
answer. First, as to information: (1) Yes, the Grand Lodge of Iowa uses
ritual which it recognizes as the "ancient Webb work," not only the
of which, but its preservation and dissemination being enjoined on a
Board of Custodians,
and all innovations or changes in the ritual are strictly forbidden. As
its Constitution, (Art. XI), "In conferring the degrees of Masonry, the
Lodges are enjoined to a strict adherence to the work as authorized and
this jurisdiction." (2) The ritual is taught to the Lodges by a Board
trained district lecturers. Ciphers are forbidden. (Code, 297.) Schools
are held annually at strategic points in the jurisdiction, to which the
the surrounding district are invited; thus uniting good fellowship with
(3) There is no debate as to the essentials of Masonry, its fundamental
on these matters all are agreed. Masonic fellowship, of course, is
deeper than but
the ritual is a medium, a vehicle, through which Masonic truth is
if the medium is chaotic, the teaching will be uncertain and
impressiveness and teachability are all on the side of uniformity of
strictly speaking, there can be no such thing as absolute uniformity –
always be variation of emphasis and interpretation, just as no two
artists can give
exactly the same interpretation of a Shakespeare play. So that
uniformity of ritual
need not mean monotony, unless the ritual is repeated after the manner
of a parrot
or a phonograph – and that is an awful possibility whether the ritual
or not. There is no doubt that, if your Grand Lodge adopts a uniform
effectiveness of Masonry will be many times increased in your
this action be followed by a like emphasis upon the study-side of
the masters and brethren to study the degrees, live with them until
living realities to their minds and heart, and the influence of Masonry
still further increased. (4) As to the Grand Lodges United States which
work, the facts are as follows:
|| Communicated by
|| Cipher Keys
|| District Lecturers
|| Not mentioned in Code
|| Grand Lecturer
|| Not mentioned in Code
|| District Deputy Grand Masters
|| Grand Lecturer
|| Not mentioned in Code
|| Grand Lecturer
|| Furnished to W. M. and Wardens
|| Uniform only in essentials
|| District Deputies
|| Com. on Work
| Dist. of Columbia
|| Grand Lecturer
|| Not mentioned in Code.
|| District Deputy Grand Masters
|| Not uniform
|| Not mentioned in Code
|| Grand Lecturer
|| Furnished to Master
|| District Grand Lecturers
|| Grand Lecturer
|| Official cipher authorized
|| Uniform District Lecturers
|| District Lecturers
|| Furnished certain officers.
|| Inspectors appointed by Grand Master
|| Not mentioned in Code
|| Two Grand Lecturers
|| Temporary Grand Lecturers
|| Not mentioned in Code
|| Grand Lecturer and Com. on Work
|| Not mentioned in Code.
|| Grand Lecturer app. by Grand Master
|| Not mentioned in Code.
|| Grand Lecturer
|| Furnished by Grand Secretary
|| Board of Custodians, five in number
|| Grand Lecturer and Deputies
|| Not mentioned in Code
|| District Lecturers
|| Not mentioned in Code
|| Grand Master, Grand Secretary and Deputy Grand
|| Not mentioned in Code
|| Grand Custodian
|| Uniform except Carson Lodge No. 1
|| Grand Master
|| Not mentioned in Code.
| New Hampshire
|| District Grand Lecturers
| New Jersey
|| Grand Instructors and Dist. Deputies
| New Mexico
|| Grand Lecturer and Deputies
| New York
|| Grand Lecturer and Assistants
| North Carolina
|| Grand Lecturer and Assistants
| North Dakota*
|| *Masonic Code requested, but has not been
|| District Lecturers
|| Furnished Master.
|| District Deputy Grand Masters
| Rhode Island*
|| *Masonic Code requested, but has not been
| South Carolina
|| District Deputy Grand Masters
|| Not mentioned in Code.
| South Dakota
|| Grand Master or his appointee
|| Not mentioned in Code.
|| District Lecturers
|| Grand Lecturers
|| Not mentioned in Code.
|| Grand Lecturers and Deputies
|| Not mentioned in Code.
|| Grand Lecturers and District Deputy Grand
|| Official cipher permitted.
|| Grand Lecturer and Division Lecturers
|| Not mentioned in Code.
|| Grand Lecturer and Deputies
| West Virginia
|| Grand Lecturer and Deputies
|| Grand Lecturer
|| Not mentioned in Code.
1717 – 1917
Dear Brother: – The questions raised in an
letter quoted by the editor in a recent number of The Builder surely
ought to evoke
many answers. The question as to whether Masonry has a world mission
with other outward expressions of organized activities is highly
intrinsic character, forbidding those activities which have a special
or political bias, prevents its engaging in lines of outward
Due observation, however, must be taken in connection with this that
there is no
legitimate barrier to its active participation in social reform, or to
united stand as a revolutionary party should emergency arise. To fail
respond in conscious deliberate activity when a people's rights or
affected would be to violate its teachings, betray its heritage and
disown its traditions.
But would a study of our social status reveal such causes as would
justify any such
stand of the body politic of Masons? An investigation that would afford
opinion of the individual Masons of these United States would not, I
anything that would approximate unanimity as to what ought to be at the
hour its social or world mission. We would find without question
folk who call for Masonry's unhinching opposition to some provincial
issue or other,
but can we sanely and wisely point the common cause or grievance that
in unity our Masonic Statesmanship, and crystallize the Masonic forces
for one specific
aim and purpose? We seriously question it. To ascertain then what is
modern mission of the craft one would have to look other than in fields
or sectarian or probably international. Imperative indeed is the need
the modern mission especially if there be five out of ten instead of
one in ten
as quoted in the letter who have no real or profound interest in
The making of too many Masons is something to
deprecated and protested against for observation and experience
convinces that this
promiscuous Mason-making process is not for the good of the order. In
Mason we have often missed the most important thing, namely, that we
a man who would be forevermore as the noblest among men, clean of heart
a builder of the empire of truth, a lover of fraternity and fellowship.
Here I believe
we have the clue to the modern mission of Masonry – the creation of
and lofty character that will express the potential human goodness,
that will in
its journeyings, business, and pleasure, as a result of Masonic culture
react upon the world for its uplift and betterment. Into the order
those who can
give of the riches of their heart, and who would delight to their good
in the treasures
of the craft, should be welcome; but he who intolerantly and
arbitrarily views those
who differ with him, should never be admitted. Masonry is not a
is a university and ought to perform a like service for the world. To
men of many minds, of many viewpoints who religiously adhere to the
search for truth
and who practice fraternity as dictated by the religious spirit of the
man, is the Mason's privilege and solemn duty. How shall we welcome the
the two-hundredth anniversary? By re-emphasizing the knowledge of
upon the two millions of American Masons. By returning to the rigid
allowing only those qualified according to Masonic requisites to come
into the Order.
By more urgently endeavoring to establish the true fraternity that we
up as exemplary for the emulation of the world. By persistent endeavor
the vast number in the Craft in the ethics and philosophy of the Order.
confessing our forgetfulness in thought and practice of things once
upon us and a rededication of the Craft to the cause of humanity
through the service
of the man who is a Mason.
* * *
William J. Florence
Dear Bro. Newton: – Your incautious statement
Builder" for last May that "Billy" Florence was not a Mason has brought
out protests from my good friends Clegg and Somerville, who both refer
to my "One
Hundred Years of Aurora Grata" [Lib 1908] published in 1908 as
authority for the claim that
Florence was a Mason. So it seems to be my "move."
As to his being a Mason:
J. Henry Williams, P.G.M., Penna., is
for the statement that the records of Pennsylvania show:
Mount Moriah Lodge No. 156,
Philadelphia. William J.
Florence, Comedian, Age 22; Initiated, Crafted, and Raised October 12,
dispensation. Admitted November 22, 1863. Suspended December 22, 1867.
to good standing December 26, 1871. Admitted M. M. January 23, 1872.
George B. Orlady, P.G.M., Penna.,
he sat in lodge with Florence and can vouch for his being a Master
George B. Wells, P.G.H.P. and present
Secretary of the Grand Royal Arch Chapter of Pennsylvania, writes that
records show: Zerubbabel Chapter No. 162.
William J. Florence, Marked
June 10, 1854; Most Excellent June 10 1854; Royal Arch June 12, 1854.
(That is, not affiliated.)
Saram R. Ellison, Recorder of Mecca
A.A.O.N.M.S., New York, tells me that William J. Florence, Comedian,
Age 25, received
the Orders of Masonic Knighthood in Pittsburgh Commandery No. 1, at
Pa., June 13, 1854, being entered as a "sojourner." I have written to
Bro. David M. Kinzer, Recorder of Pittsburgh Commandery, for his
this, but have not had an answer from him. I shall probably see Bro.
Kinzer at the
session of the Supreme Council, 33d, at Pittsburgh next week, and if he
this I shall so advise you.
I copy the following from the minutes
Grata Lodge of Perfection of Brooklyn, of which I am the present T.P.
At a special communication
of Aurora Grata Lodge of Perfection held at their rooms, Halsey's
Building, on Tuesday
evening, April 16, '67, Ill. Bro. C.T. McClenachan 33d proposed Bro. W.
Age 40, Occupation Actor, Residence Metropolitan Hotel. Refers to Ill.
and Ill. Chas. Brown, M. D., which was on motion received and referred
to Ill. Bros.
Willets, Smith and McClenachan for investigation, who immediately
and recommended his election. The T.P.G.M. then ordered a ballot and
was declared duly elected. Bro. F. being about to depart for Europe and
to receive the degrees of the A. & A. Rite, permission was
given Ill. Bro. McClenachan
to confer the degrees upon him as soon as convenient and wherever his
D.G. Smith, G.S.K.S.A.
Acting upon above authority
Bro. McClenachan conferred upon Bro. W.J. Florence the degrees from 4th
inclusive at Metropolitan Hotel on 21st April, '67, in presence of and
by Ill. Bro. Wilson Small 33d, A.T.C. Pierson 33d S.J., Ill. Gabrial
of the S.J., Chas. Brown, M. D., 32d, Thos. J. Leigh 32 and D. G. Smith
of Aurora Grata Lodge of Perfection.
D.G. Smith, G.S. K.S.A.
This minute is probably erroneous as to the
conferred. It is evident to me that all of the degrees from the Fourth
to the Thirty-second
were conferred at this special communication, from the following facts:
the degrees of the Scottish Rite were communicated, as they were in
all of the degrees excepting the Thirty-third were usually communicated
at one session;
(b) It was common in Aurora Grata Lodge of Perfection, Council of
of Rose Croix and Consistory at that time to confer the degrees "from
to the 32d inclusive," notwithstanding the jurisdiction of each of
over but a part of the Scottish Rite series; (c) The Secretary, Bro.
himself received the degrees by communication at the fifth
the one he here records, and had become Secretary on April 9th but
twelve days before
the reception of Florence, and this was the second communication at
which he acted
as Secretary. It is probable, therefore, that Bro. Smith did not know
what did occur; (d) At the rendezvous of Aurora Grata Consistory of
April 23, 1867,
but two days after the reception of Florence, there is entered under
Florence, $55 for degrees." Fifty-five dollars was the fee for the
from the Fourth to the Thirty-second at that time. From these facts I
that Florence received the Thirty-second degree.
It will be observed that according to the
record Florence was not in good standing in his Symbolic Lodge at the
time of his
reception in Aurora Grata. But don't you know that in those crude days,
used to say "Once a Mason, always a Mason," they were often so ignorant
of the fundamental principles and eternal truths of Masonry that even
a lodge would sometimes say "the" where the Standard Work was "a!"
Billy Florence was always in good standing as a man.
As to his name and religion:
Bro. J. Harry Conlin,
a nephew, tells me that "Uncle Billly’s name was not Bernard Conlin,
Jermyn Conlin, but that he used his stage name of William J. Florence,
and was known
among his friends as Florence. Bro. Conlin does not believe that his
name was actually
changed to Florence by legal process. Florence married a Catholic, who
that upon his death bed he became a Catholic. Bro. Edwin D. Washburne,
me that he was in the house when Florence died, but was not actually
his death. Bro. Washburne says that to his knowledge a Catholic priest
with Mrs. Florence when Florence died. The widow took charge of the
and services were held at St. Agnes (Catholic) Church. The Conlin
family made no
energetic objection to this, as they wished to avoid "talk," as Bro. J.
Harry Conlin expresses it. The body was buried in Greenwood
Brooklyn, N. Y., in a plot purchased by Florence himself for the family
Bro. Conlin says, "Uncle Billy was no more a Catholic than you are," –
Now please don't say again that Florence was
not a Mason,
because there is too much against you to sustain that statement!
Very truly and fraternally
Chas. A. Brockaway, 33d, New York.
* * *
The Roll Of Honor
Dear Sir and Brother: – In reply to your
the 12th instant, I beg leave to say that, so far as I have been able
the following list of Presidents of the United States were Brother
John Quincy Adams.
William H. Harrison.
James K. Polk.
James A. Garfield.
William H. Taft.
From the late General Robert H. Hall, U.S.A., I
that General Grant was a fellow craft Mason; initiated and raised in a
lodge, when a second lieutenant; Gen. Hall got his information from a
was present at the initiation. Just before the death of General Hall, I
ask the name of the lodge and date of the initiation, but received no
reply. I took
the matter up with the surviving frontier lodges located where Gen.
Grant had been
on duty when on the Pacific Slope and also with the surviving Army
were with him in his youth, who were Masons, but could not get the
I do not, however, regard this as proof that
Grant was not a Mason, for so many lodges have gone out of existence,
have been badly kept in many lodges; many records lost, and, what is
quite as bad,
searches are difficult and inconvenient.
I once wrote the Secretary of a lodge in the
the Masonic record of an officer in the Army. The Secretary searched
but did not
find his name: later I found name and date in Gould's History, again
wrote the same
Secretary, who then looked and verified.
My record of the Signers of the Declaration of
John Hancock, Grand
Master in Mass.
Josiah Bartlett, Grand Master in Mass.
William Whipple. *
Matthew Thornton. *
Samuel Adams, St. Johns lodge, Mass.
John Adams, St. Johns lodge, Mass.
Robert Treat Paine. *
Elbridge Gerry. *
Stephen Hopkins, St. Johns lodge, Providence, 1729.
Roger Sherman. *
Philip Livingston. *
Oliver Wolcott, * St. Johns lodge, Hartford, Conn.
Francis Lewis. *
John Witherspoon. *
Francis Hopkinson. *
Robert Morris. *
Benjamin Rush. *
Benjamin Franklin, G.M. in Penna.
George Ross. *
Richard Henry Lee. *
Francis Lightfoot Lee.
Those marked * are taken from one Library of
History, Vol. IV. The others I have verified from Lodge Records. I have
searches, without being able to verify all of those marked *; but
without the records
there have been good traditions, if any traditions are good.
A direct descendant of Matthew Thornton is
Matthew Thornton was initiated in an Army lodge, but there exists no
all of that lodge.
A descendant of Josiah Bartlett (signer) feels
that her ancestor was not a Mason, and knows that there were two Josiah
while members of the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts and the Editor of
are certain the Josiah who was Grand Master is the veritable Josiah who
Declaration of Independence. This Bartlett record, however, is the only
has been questioned.
The records in Military Lodges have rarely, if
been carefully kept, and very few of our Military lodge records have
any Grand Lodge.
Of the Signers 13 were Congregationalists; 34
Episcopalians; 2 were Quakers; 5 were Presbyterians; 1 was a Baptist
and 1 a Roman
All were born in the United States, excepting
as follows: Thornton, Smith and Taylor, in Ireland; Lewis, Morris and
in England; Scott, Witherspoon and Wilson, in Scotland. Charles Carrot
was a native
of Maryland, and though recently it is claimed he was a "lifelong
Washington" there is no history nor tradition to prove it. There is no
of their acquaintance until after Washington became President, and was
present the premiums at the Jesuit College in Georgetown, where Bishop
During the War of the Revolution there were
Scotch (Presbyterian) – Irish in the Colonies who were "the Irish in
George W. Baird,
P.G.M. Dist. of Columbia.
* * *
Sylvanus Cobb: Mason
In the March number of The Builder, Brother
for information regarding some of Sylvanus Cobb's stories. It was my
have seen Mr. Cobb many times and to know his famous twin brothers,
Cyrus and Darius.
The following is a short sketch of his busy life, taken from a
by his daughter, and "Dedicated to the Masonic Fraternity."
Sylvanus Cobb, Jr., was the son of Sylvanus
Eunice Hale Waite, born in Waterville, Me., June 5, 1823, and was
to God" by "Father" Hosea Ballou on June 26th.
His parents moved to Maiden, Mass., in 1828,
in the Parsonage House, still standing, and celebrated as the
birthplace of Adoniram
Judson. They moved to Waltham, Mass., in 838; and while Sylvanus was
school, he went to Brooklyn, N. Y., and enlisted in the United States
Navy in Feb.,
1841, easily passing for a man of 21 years. He was honorably discharged
Navy three years later, and on June 29th, 1845, he was married to Mary
in East Boston, Mass.
In 1846, with one of his brothers, he founded
RECHABITE," a great temperance paper, and three years later went over
"WASHINGTONIAN." James Ed. Polk, Daniel Webster and Henry Clay were
the hundreds who were publicly named in these papers as "rum drinkers."
From the Washingtonian, he went to the "WAVERLY MAGAZINE" as associate
editor. As a member of the "Sons of Temperance" he was a public
for several years from 1869.
He began to write continued stories in 1850,
being "The Prophet of the Böhmer Wald" published in the "FLAG OF
OUR NATION." Began to write for the New York Ledger in 1856, and in
years, he wrote 122 Long stories, 862 short stories and 2143 "scraps,"
in all, 89,544 pages. On May 19th, 1887, he wrote in his diary: "Wrote
'Jack's Romance' and will now pull up for a while." The "pull up"
was for the last sweet rest.
From 1852 until his death, July 17, 1887, he
engaged in civic, political, military, temperance, patriotic musical,
masonic and religious work. In July, 1863 he was unanimously elected
the Norway, Me., Light Infantry and became intimately associated with
Hanibal Hamlin of a Bangor, Me., company. At this time, he was also
with Andrew Wilson and Sen. Clark of New Hampshire on a regular tour of
speaking. While living in Norway, Me., he held many town offices,
and was chief engineer of the Fire Department.
After the war, he became a resident of Hyde
and was annually elected moderator. On March 7th, 1870, he while
47 women to vote at a regular Town meeting, and declared himself for
This was the first event of the kind in the country, and caused
and comment. On March 24th, 1870, he was elected first commander of
Hyde Park Post,
Among his many friends were Gen. N. P. Banks,
P. Shillaber, (Mrs. Partington) Hanibal Hamlin, Andrew Wilson, William
and Harry Rust, all prominent in National and public life. Ralph Waldo
criticized his stories as "yellow" literature; but on being persuaded
to read one of Mr. Cobb's stories, apologized and said, "In sentiment
that story was not only unobjectionable, but elevating." In such a
life does it seem possible that Mr. Cobb could find time to do more,
yet look at
his Masonic record:
On Thursday, May 11th,
1854, he wrote this in his diary: "Went down to the Village, and became
as a 'Free Mason' in the Oxford Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons. Am
now an Entered
Apprentice. Like it much." Oxford Lodge No. 18 was at Norway, Me. He
to the degree of Fellow Craft on Thursday, May 18th, and raised to the
of Master Mason, Thursday, June 8th. He was elected senior deacon
August 31st, and
held that office in '54, '55 and '65; was secretary in 1863, Worshipful
1858 '59, '61, '62 and '66. He demitted from Oxford Lodge, Oct. 17
1867, and joined
Hyde Park Lodge, April 15th, 1869. He served as secretary in 1872 and
'73, and represented
his lodge by proxy in the Grand Lodge from Dec. 15th, 1881, until his
Received the degrees
of Mark Master and Most Excellent Master in King Hiram Royal Arch
Chapter of Lewiston,
Me., May 20th, 1859; and was exalted to the Ineffable degree of Royal
on June 10th. He was a charter member of Norfolk Royal Arch Chapter,
Mass., and served as Excellent King for two years. Was elected Most
Priest in Sept., 1873, treasurer in '78 serving for six years and
chaplain for two
years. Elected Grand Scribe in Grand Chapter Dec. 7th, 1884, and at the
was appointed by the Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania as Grand
the Grand Chapter of Massachusetts.
He received the degrees
of Select Master, Royal Master, and Super Excellent Master in Dunlap
80 of Lewiston, Me., April 7th, 1864. He was one of the petitioners for
which was granted to Hyde Park Council, in 1872; and was constituted as
one of its
charter members in 1873. He was Right Illustrious Master in '72 and
Conductor of the Work in '77, '78 and '83; Thrice Illustrious Master in
'80; treasurer in '84 and until his death. Grand Chaplain of the Grand
Mass. in '79 and '80, and was elected Grand Principal Conductor of the
He received the order
of the Red Cross in Boston Commandery, March 29th, 1872, Orders of
Temple and Malta
May 2, 1872. He was one of the petitioners for a dispensation which was
to Cyprus Commandery, Hyde Park, Mass., in 1873. He was a charter
member from Oct.
12, 1873, and served as Prelate from that evening until the day of his
one year, beginning May, 1878, when he served as Eminent Commander.
He received the 32d
of A. & A.S.R. on April 24th, 1874, and at the time of his
death was a life
member of Boston Lodge of Perfection 14d; Giles F. Yates Council of
Mt. Olivet Chapter Rose Croix 18d; and Massachusetts Consistory of S.P.
of the R.S.
32d. In Boston Lodge of Perfection, he held the office of Grand Orator
in '80 and
'81; and Junior Grand Warden in 1883. He was also a member of Mass.
High Priests, and Mass. Union of Templar Commanders.
Could his speeches, made at Masonic banquets
gatherings, have been preserved, they would have been invaluable as
of his love for the order. These and many anecdotes and experiences
given extemporaneously, and live only in the hearts and memories of his
They were sometimes deep and pathetic, often bright and witty, always
pure. His suppression on such occasions of everything bordering on
He wrote the following sketches for the
Free Mason" all based upon facts: "A Reminiscence," "The Templar's
Wife," "Story of a Sleeve-button," "The Sign of the Red Cross"
and "An Effective Token." Besides many sketches of this character, he
wrote not a little on the subject of Masonry, his best and well known
being "Alaric," "The Mystic Tie of the Temple" and "The
Key-stone." The first of these Masonic stories was written in 1858: "A
Sicilian Story of Early Times." "The Mystic Tie of the Temple" is
based upon the early Masonic struggle and is considered by many as his
Louis S. Brigham,
* * *
Dear Brother: – A friend of mine who is a Mason
visiting, this summer, in Colorado, and on one of the sightseeing trips
in the mountains
between Manitou and Colorado Springs on what is known as The High
Drive, came across
an old lady about seventy-five years of age, who runs a small curio
shop, and whom
he understands is located the year round at the same point.
She claims to be the youngest member of a band
women who were given the Masonic work during the Civil War somewhere in
State – she thinks she is the only one of the seventy now living.
My friend, in connection with another Masonic
asked her a great many questions and she could intelligently and
them – he was greatly surprised and likewise the writer. My friend is
her husband, now dead, was a Mason – he was called "Captain Jack," and
this woman goes by the name of "Captain Jack."
Light on this subject through the columns of
Builder” will be very much appreciated.
– Asa D.
* * *
The Baltimore Convention
Dear Brother Newton: – Ament the article, "The
Baltimore Convention," in the Correspondence section of "The Builder"
for September, Brother Anderson in his communication quoting from
memory and hear-say,
there is some excuse for having places names and dates wrong.
Through the courtesy of our Grand Master,
Shryock, I am sending you for the archives of "The Builder," a copy of
the printed proceedings (very scarce) of that important Convention.
By referring to the printed proceedings you
that, in pursuance of a recommendation of the Masonic Convention held
D.C., in March, 1842, the Delegates assembled in Baltimore on the 8th
day of May,
1843, and adjourned sine die on May 17th, having previously adopted a
recommending that the next meeting of the Grand Masonic Convention be
held in the
city of Winchester, Va., on the second Monday in May in the year 1846.
A report was adopted at the Baltimore
"the establishment of a Grand National Convention possessing limited
to meet triennially to decide upon discrepancies in the work, etc.,
thirteen or more Grand Lodges should agree to the proposition, the
be permanently formed.
In pursuance of the recommendation of the
representatives from the Grand Lodges of North Carolina, Iowa,
District of Columbia and Missouri assembled at Winchester, Va., May
Only eight delegates appearing, the Convention adjourned without
business. (From Schultz's History.)
As this convention is frequently mentioned, it
interesting to our members to know who composed and attended the
Members of the convention
Thomas Clapham, Portsmouth, N. H.
Charles W. Moore, Boston, Mass., R.W.G. Secretary. (Editor Free-Mason's
William Field, Pawtucket, R. I.
Ebenezer Wadsworth, West Troy, N.Y., R.W.P. Secretary.
Daniel A. Piper, Baltimore, Md., G. Lecturer.
Nathaniel Seevers, Georgetown, D.C., G. Lecturer.
John Dove, Richmond Va., R.W.G. Secretary.
John H. Wheeler, Raleigh, N.C., M.W.G. Master.
Albert Case, Charleston, S.C., M.R.G. Chaplain.
Lemuel Dwelle, Augusta, Ga., G. Lecturer.
Edward Herndon, Gainesville, Ala., P.G. Master.
Thomas Hayward, Tallahassee, Fla., P.D.G. Master.
John Delafield. Jr., Memphis, Tenn., G. Lecturer.
John Barney, Worthington, Franklin Co., Ohio., G. Lecturer
S.W.B. Carnegy, Palmyra, Missouri, P.G. Master. (Representative expense
credited to his name.)
Joseph Foster, St. Louis, Mo., S. G. Warden.
W. J. Reese, Lancaster, Ohio, M.W.G. Master.
Charies Gilman, Baltimore, Md., M.W.G. Master.
Hiram Chamberlain St. Charles. Missouri, R.R.G. Chaplain.
Joseph K. Stapleton, Baltimore, Md., D.G.G.M. G.G.E.U.S.
R.W.E. Cruben, Louisiana.
R.W.F. Billon, Missouri, P. G. Secretary.
R.W. Edward John Hutchins, P.P.D.G.M., South Wales
R.W. Cornelius Smith, S.G.W., Maryland.
The Officers of the
R.W. John Dove, M. D., of Virginia, President.
R.W. Rev. Albert Case, of South Carolina, Secretary.
Rev. Bro. W. E. Wyatt, of Maryland, Chaplain.
A. Eitel, Baltimore, Md.
Library of Freemasonry Vol 1
GouLF1 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1911. - Vol. 1 : 5 : p. 443. - 32.5 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 2
GouLF2 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 2 : 5 : p. 411. - 29.0 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 3
GouLF3 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1906. - Vol. 3 : 5 : p. 493. - 34.1 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 4 [Book] / auth. Gould Robert F.
- London : John C. Yorston Publishing Company, 1906. - Vol. 4 : 5 : p.
491. - 33.6 MB - Illustrated.
A Library of Freemasonry Vol 5
GouLF5 / auth. Gould Robert F. - London : John C. Yorston Publishing
Company, 1911. - Vol. 5 : 5 : p. 652. - 41.6 MB - Illustrated.
A Survey of London
Sto90 / auth. Stow John / ed. Morley Henry. - London : George Routledge
and Sons, 1890. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 450. - 26.5 MB.
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac14 / auth. Mackey Albert G.. - New York : The Masonic History
Company, 1914. - Vol. 1+2 : 1 : p. 947. - 63.2 MB - Two Volumes in One
An Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry
and its Kindred Sciences
Mac142 / auth. Mackey Albert G.. - Unknown : Unknown, 1914. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 2132. - 7.2 MB - No Graphics - Digital Text only.
Ancient Mysteries Described
Hon23 / auth. Hone William. - London : William Hone, 1823. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 308. - 13.5 MB.
Beginning of Masonry
Hig16 / auth. Higgins Frank C. - New York : [s.n.], 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 125. - 6.1 MB.
Collected Poems of Rupert Brooke
Bro20 / auth. Brooke Rupert. - Toronto : McClelland & Stewart,
1920. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 163. - 3.5 MB.
Comfort Found in Good Old Books
Fit11 / auth. Fitch George H. - [s.l.] : Project Gutenberg, 1911. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 122. - 3.6 MB.
Everyman and other Interludes
Rhy36 / auth. Rhys Ernest. - London : M. Dent & Sons Ltd.,
1936. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 244. - 16.6 MB.
Great Spiritual Writers
Fit16 / auth. Fitch George H. - San Francisco : Paul Elder and Company,
1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 217. - 8.7 MB.
Sco04 / auth. Scott Sir Walter. - New York : American Book Company,
1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 493. - 13.8 MB.
Le Mexique tel quil est
Dom67 / auth. Domenech Emmanuel. - Paris : E. Dentu, Libraire-Editeur,
1867. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 362. - 30.3 MB - French.
Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol 1
Riv80M1 / auth. Riva Palacio D. Vicente. - Mexico : Ballesca y Comp.,
1880. - Vol. 1 : 5 : p. 923. - 91.8 MB - Richly Illustrated - Spanish.
Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol 2
Riv80M2 / auth. Riva Palacio D. Vicente. - Mexico : Ballesca y Comp.,
1880. - Vol. 2 : 5 : p. 917. - 88.2 MB - Richly Illustrated - Spanish.
Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol 3
Riv80M3 / auth. Riva Palacio D. Vicente. - Mexico : Ballesca y Comp.,
1880. - Vol. 3 : 5 : p. 807. - 77.5 MB - Richly Illustrated - Spanish.
Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol 4
Riv80M4 / auth. Riva Palacio D. Vicente. - Mexico : Ballesca y Comp.,
1880. - Vol. 4 : 5 : p. 899. - 88.6 MB - Richly Illustrated - Spanish.
Mexico a Traves de los Siglos Vol 5
Riv80M5 / auth. Riva
Palacio D. Vicente. - Mexico : Ballsca y Comp., 1880. - Vol. 5 : 5 : p.
900. - 88.2 MB - Richly Illustrated - Spanish.
Mexico and the United States;
Their Mutual Relations and Common Interests
Abb69 / auth. Abbot Gorham D. - New York : Putnams & Sons,
1869. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 414. - 13.3 MB.
Mexico in Transition
But93 / auth. Butler William. - New York : Hunt & Eaton, 1893.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 368. - 20.9 MB - Illustrated.
Old Charges of British
Hug72 / auth. Hughan William J. - London : Simpkins, Marshall &
Co., 1872. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 113. - 8.2 MB.
One Hundred Years Aurora Grata
Bro08 / auth. Brockaway Charles A.. - New York : Aurora Grata
Consistory, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 161. - 3.8 MB.
References for Students of
Sto87 / auth. Stoddard Francis. - Berkley : Unknown, 1887. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 68. - 1.8 MB.
The Black Monks of St Benedict
Tau97 / auth. Taunton Ethelred L. - London : John C. Nimmo, 1897. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 325. - 15.4 MB.
The Black Monks of St Benedict
Tau971 / auth. Taunton Ethelred L. - London : John C. Nimmo, 1897. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 384. - 23.0 MB.
The Customs of Old England
Sne62 / auth. Snell Frederick J. - London : Methuen & Co.,
Ltd., 1862. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 144. - 0.8 MB.
The History of Mexico Vol 1
Cla07 / auth. Clavigero
D. Francesco S / trans. Cullen Charles. - London : J. Johnson, 1807. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 546. - 30.8 MB - Illustrated.
The History of Mexico Vol 2
Cla071 / auth. Clavigero
D. Francesco S / trans. Cullen Charles. - London : J. Johnson, 1807. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 471. - 36.1 MB - Illustrated.
The Mexican People
Gut14 / auth. Gutiérrez de Lara Lazaro. - Garden City : Doubleday, Page
Co., 1914. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 405. - 18.6 MB - Illustrated.
The Philosophy of Masonry
Pou15 / auth. Pound Roscoe. - [s.l.] : The Builder Magazine, 1915. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 53. - 0.3 MB.
The Seven Lamps of Architecture
Rus07 / auth. Ruskin John. - London : George Allen & Sons,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 479. - 14.1 MB.