Masonic Research Society
The Story of "Old Glory"
The Oldest Flag
By Bro. Jno. W. Barry, Iowa
suggested to Washington either the Cambridge flag or the stars and
stripes can never
be known because he never referred to the matter in any way. Yet
are advanced, each claimed, to be the one. In No. 18-A, the flag of the
Light Horse Troop is shown. Preble says: – (14)
"This is the first
known instance of the use of stripes to represent the colonies."
was captain of the Philadelphia Light Horse Troop. King Christian VII
of which country Markoe was a citizen, forbade his subjects taking
England under pain of confiscation of all their property. Captain
to resign and in doing so presented this flag, which the troop used
June 23, 1775,
in escorting both Washington and Philip Schuyler as far as New York on
to take command of the army at Cambridge. Whether this flag suggested
to either Washington or Schuyler must be forever unknown. But because
it is thought
to have done so, the flag is carefully preserved between glass plates –
of this famous troop whose organization is still as young and vigorous
as when founded
in 1774. The Light Horse has participated in nearly every presidential
from Washington to Wilson and in other national functions – often under
given them by their first captain.
Another theory assigns Washington's arms (Fig.
Plate) as the real origin of both the stars and stripes. However,
in any connection referred to his arms as even remotely connected with
and did not use it until very late in life, and then for the most part
only as a
book mark. Still another theory is that the flag of Rhode Island was
the real inspiration.
However, this theory is seldom referred to because of other suggestions
of an earlier
Finally there is a theory that John Adams took
of the stars from the constellation Lyra, which in the hands of Orpheus
– hence the wording of the resolution "representing a new
– but John Adams never said so – and other record, there is none.
Preble [Lib 1917; Vol 1, Vol 2] after
citing the Philadelphia Light Horse flag as suggesting the stripes,
says (15) that
the first known suggestion of stars appeared in the Massachusetts Spy
10, 1774, and was written for the anniversary of the Boston Massacre.
"A ray of bright
glory now beams from afar,
The American ensign now sparkles a star
Which shortly shall flame wide through the skies."
But here again theory alone is the only basis
Whether the flag of the English East India Company was known to
Washington is as
much a theory as any of the others, the presumption being in its favor
it was an old and well known flag and almost the exact counterpart of
the one Washington
did raise at Cambridge "to the joy of the British" at Boston. But why
look beyond Washington for eliminating the King's Colors and
substituting the stars
of an independent nation? Washington raised the Cambridge flag – it was
no matter from what source suggested. Later, in Philadelphia with
sight, he knew the flag would have to be changed and had his drawing of
it. He asked
George Ross who could do it, and was taken to the widow of his nephew,
a fellow patriot. The idea was Washington's as much as were the plans
for the battle
of Trenton or Princeton or Yorktown.
It is a striking coincidence that Columbus
America while looking for India and then the flag of the United States
after should find its prototype in the flag of India.
Peace – Peace and There
Was No Peace
Peace was declared in 1783, but there was no
reality until after the war of 1812. Not only were English troops
American soil, but England refused to send a minister to the U.S. and
our minister to England, received unjust snubs at every turn as his
and returned to the U.S. in utter disgust. Following England's lead,
most of the
nations also refused trade arrangements with us. Finally our condition
bad that our surplus products rotted where they grew. Conditions became
than during the war, for owing to the policies pursued toward us by
our manufacturers, small as they were, were utterly destroyed. The
states not only
declined to live up to the Confederation, but were at such enmity with
as to actually resort to the use of arms, and blood-shed was but
A reign of anarchy worse than the French Revolution that followed, was
predicted. Could the states be saved from themselves? Lord Sheffield,
dire anarchy, suggested that "in case of the renewal of hostilities, a
stout frigates cruising on the Coast would be all sufficient – that it
wise to send a consul to EACH state. (16)
Josiah Tucker, Dean of Gloucester, wrote: – "As
to the grandeur of America and its being a rising empire under one
republican or monarchial, that is one of the idlest and most visionary
ever conceived by writers of romance – They are a disunited people to
the end of
time, suspicious and distrustful of each other, they will be divided
into commonwealths and principalities." (17)
That such foreign comment was more than
be judged from a letter Washington wrote from Mt. Vernon to Knox, Dec.
thus: – "I feel my dear General Knox, infinitely more than I can
you, for the disorders that have arisen in these states. "Good God! Who
a Tory could have foreseen or a Briton predicted them?" (18)
Before the so-called peace, every effort was
show how much better the English soldiers fared, and after peace, the
spent over $30,000,000 to reimburse American Tories who had left the
and no opportunity was lost to contrast this munificence with the
Congress was able to do for the Revolutionary soldiers and sailors. Was
they carried to victory world renowned to go down in the strife
as "Rebel Stripes"? Truly the warfare of peace was more deadly than the
cannon shot and shell. But the wiser council prevailed, and finally the
was adopted and the stars and stripes came triumphant even through that
peace. Instead of the prophesied division, two new stars and two new
added to the flag May 1, 1795, to represent Kentucky and Vermont.
From The Circle to the "Oblong
The bill for the flag change originated in the
and on Jan. 7, 1794, the House considered the bill in a long debate,
sharply with the adoption of the original thirty word flag resolution
June 14, 1777.
The most effective argument in favor of the change was the importance
first of notifying
the world at large by the STARS in the flag of the nation, that so far
there were new states ADDED, and second the great importance of not
new states. In Fig. 20, Color Plate, the flag change is shown. – So the
13 stars became the oblong square of 15 stars – a step in advance, to
discrediting of the pessimists.
This is truly a flag of "passing" – a coming
of the nation to the vigor of young manhood – a passing from the small
of strict construction to the broad national policy embodied in the
It is the flag under which real peace and union were achieved through
the war of
1812; the flag that inspired Perry to outdo Caesar's famous message, "I
I saw, I conquered," with his: "We have met the enemy and they are
But while its material achievements are great almost beyond compare,
yet its chief
claim to distinction must ever be regarded as that of converting the
minds of the
people from the idea of a mere loose aggregation of sovereign and
to that of one great united and happy commonwealth.
The Star Spangled Banner
The thought is crystalized in The Star Spangled
by Francis Scott Key. His brother-in-law, Chief Justice Taney, says
that the scene
described is no mere fancy but exactly what Key saw and felt while the
fought and when it was won by his countrymen. Key had gone out to the
under a flag of truce to get his friend Dr. Barnes released, and was
held as prisoner until after the battle.
The picture here shown in No. 21 is from a
of the actual Star Spangled Banner flag in 1774. This was a large flag,
feet hoist and 40 feet fly before relic hunters shortened it to 32. It
has 15 stripes
each two feet wide and 15 stars each two feet from point to point. It
can't be said
the enemy "never touched it," but you ought to have seen the flag of
English Admiral Cochrane.
Strangely enough, the music to which the star
Banner is sung, like the music of "America," is from an Old English
entitled "To Anacreon in Heaven."
Establishing "Old Glory"
In 1794 when the proposed addition of two stars
two stripes was under discussion, a few opposed it and asked what would
when there would be twenty new states. This statement though ridiculed
as the objection
of a dreamer, yet by 1816 it was near fact, so that this time it was
ESTABLISH the United States flag in some form that would represent all
all the time. Congressman Peter Wendover of New York introduced a
December, 1816, with this in view. After pages of discussion the matter
to Captain Samuel C. Reid famous as the commander of the General
the great sea fight in the harbor of Fayal. Such was the man who was
asked to design
a flag to represent ALL the states ALL the time so that Congress might
the flag once and for all. He designed the present flag meeting the
original 13 states, the original flag of 13 stars and 13 stripes.
new states already admitted, one additional star for each.
States, One Star For Each To Be Inserted July 4th Following Its
The sample flag was made by his wife, Mrs.
presented to Congress. T’was ever thus, enduring stars are made by
Ross, the widow of a man killed in the services of his country, made
the first starry
flag and Mrs. Samuel C. Reid, the wife of a man who risked his life in
one of the
most daring battles in naval annals, made the last and they each used
known to run. So mote it ever be. Though the change did not become
July 4, 1818, yet Congress in compliment to Mrs. Reid hoisted the new
the Capitol April 13, 1818.
The flag Mrs. Reid made is shown in Fig. 22,
Plate) exactly as adopted. Though the wording of the new law provided
the stars above 13, yet Congress made no provision then or since for
of the stars. The twenty stars in Mrs. Reid's flag were formed into
star," says Preble, "and such was the arrangement for many years by the
Military Department whereas the Navy Department adhered to arranging
the stars in
parallel lines." Finally the Navy arrangement by agreement with the
Department, has come to be the only one in use, and Old Glory today is
square" of stars six deep and eight wide.
Three Variants of the Flag
In the great seal of the United States and in
seals of many of the individual states a variant of the flag is used.
This is also
true in battle flags knows as "company colors."
The Flag in the Seal of
the United States
The seal or arms of the United States is, on
really a form of the flag and is held equally sacred. It is the emblem
on all documents of state.
"As well might
the Judas of treason endeavor
To write his black name on the disk of the sun
As try the bright star-wreath that binds us to sever,
And blot the fair legend of 'many in one.' "
July 4, 1776, Dr. Franklin, John Adams and
were the first committee appointed to prepare a seal for the United
States and finally
after several other committees had worked on it, it was adopted June
20, 1782. Wm.
Barton and Secretary Charles Thompson gave the designs the final
touches and as
a whole the seal is a composite – the work of many patriots. The all
in the triangle above the pyramid is from Dr. Franklin as also the
words at the
top meaning "God has favored the undertaking" and at the bottom "a
new series of ages." Contrast the six years and the many pages of
to adopt this seal with the thirty word resolution of June 14, 1777,
stars and stripes.
In state seals our own Iowa is the best example
"Old Glory" unchanged.
The Flag in the Seal and
Covenant of Iowa
Old Glory celebrated on the 4th of July, 1847,
a star of the first magnitude, representing Iowa which on Dec. 20,
1846, had become
a state. In token of her sincerity in this solemn engagement, Iowa took
as her seal
and covenant the beautiful design shown in Fig. 23 – an eagle guarding
as her sons then did, do now and promise always to do. In it you see
soldier, his right supporting Old Glory, the liberty cap resting
thereon, his left
grasping his gun, which is to signify
That Old Glory will
wave o'er the land of the free,
Just so long as it is the home of the brave.
Here in the "East" as a background is the
Father of Waters with the good ship Iowa under way.
"Thus, too sail
on O ship of State;
Sail on O Union strong and great,
Humanity with all its fears –
With all the hopes of future years
Is hanging breathless on thy fate."
Before referring to the third variant, it might
to give the origin of the name "Old Glory."
"Old Glory" –
Whence Originated These Words?
Often have you heard the name "Old Glory"
and it is frequently asked "Whence originated these words?" If you
go to Essex Institute, Salem, Mass., you would see there carefully
cared for the
particular flag to which the name "Old Glory" was originally applied.
You would see also the portrait of a sea captain with which is framed a
acknowledging an unusual service. The letter and picture are endorsed
"My Ship, My Country,
and My Flag, Old Glory,"
Signed – "William
Until 1837, Captain Driver followed the sea,
out of Salem, Mass., where he was born. In 1831 while in command of the
Doggett he rendered an unusual service in the Southern Pacific, in
which, he was given the beautiful flag which inspired the name "Old
In 1837 he quit the sea and moved to Nashville, Tenn. On gala days "Old
was always to be seen on his house. When the war begun in 1861, many
made to capture this particular flag. In February, 1862, the Union
Gen. Nelson captured Nashville. Horace N. Fisher aid to General Nelson
story as a participant. (21) He says: –
– an honest-looking, blunt-speaking man, – was evidently a character;
on his arm a calico-covered bedquilt; and, when satisfied that Gen.
Nelson was the
officer in command, he pulled out his jackknife and began to rip open
without another word. We were puzzled to think what his conduct meant.
At last the
bedquilt was safely delivered of a large American flag, which he handed
Nelson, saying, 'This is the flag I hope to see hoisted on that
flagstaff in place
of the d – d Confederate flag set there by that d – d rebel governor,
Isham G. Harris.
I have had hard work to save it; my house has been searched for it more
my wife devised a safe hiding place for it by quilting it into this old
He spoke triumphantly-with tears in his eyes.
"Gen. Nelson accepted
the flag with manly emotion and ordered it run up on the State House
when all heads were uncovered and the troops presented arms; he swore
very flag should stay there, night and day, as long as he was in
command at Nashville."
During 1862 William Driver wrote a series of
which were published in his old home paper, The Salem Register, (22)
often to the United States flag as "Old Glory" that he himself became
known as "Old Glory Driver." (23) The name he gave it fits so well that
our flag is now known everywhere as Old Glory, the greatest symbol
known among nations.
Not Until 1912 Was the Exact
Form Of Old Glory Made Definite
Up to 1912, there was a wide variation in the
States flags. The record demonstrates that both use and uniformity as
to the flag
in the various departments have been of very slow growth. The navy
alone acted promptly
in the use of the early flag. After Congress adopted the stars and
14, 1777, there was a long correspondence between Washington and the
of War." (24) It was thought that our army "should carry a variant from
the marine flag." (24) The correspondence shows that the flag finally
upon as army colors, was ready for distribution in the fall of 1782 but
show just what the "variant" was. But from Washington's letter of Sept.
14, 1779, it probably was a serpent across the stripes of the flag
14, 1777. While the flags were never distributed, yet up to 1916 they
been located. (25) So the flags used during the entire Revolution might
"personal" in that they were not furnished by the government.
or company "colors" have usually combined features of the flag. As
indicated no definite specification had been made for the arrangement
the stars or the stripes. This resulted in such a variety of designs
that in 1837
Holland asked its representative in this country to advise just what
States flag really was. (26) Other countries made similar requests.
Schuyler Hamilton in 1851 was directed to investigate. This resulted in
careful study of our flag and was published in 1852 in the form of a
the flag. Still the desired uniformity did not obtain and all through
War there was a variety of flags and colors. As recent as 1912,
66 different proportions and forms in use by the executive departments
of the government.
(28) Finally, Oct. 29, 1912, President Taft signed an "Executive" order
(27) embodying the recommendations in the report which had been agreed
upon by representatives
of the various departments of the government. This order is very
minutely all details of the flag – but still sanctions the old custom
in the Navy
of using only 13 stars in the "small boat" flags. (29)
Masonry's Part in the Great
Symbol – Old Glory
The natural desire to avoid hemp collars
the "Secret Pact" in Congress and prevented a record of many things now
desirable to know. So it is in Masonic history of that time, the
of Masonry and the loss of most of the scant records made, bar out
things the craft would now like to know. Yet enough remains to show
was the generator and supplied the current for the varied activities
and military during the Revolution which gave the world the great
symbol of that
"new constellation," the United States.
In The Beginning
The most loyal subjects of the king – such were
brothers in all the years immediately preceding 1776. But there was a
them generating those impulses which impel men to yield their lives
their honor, and to make the regularity of their own behavior the best
the conduct of others less informed. At both their meeting and parting
exhorted to meet upon the level and act upon the square. When therefore
began that unwise policy of treating them as below the level of
so far from acting on the square as to actually deny their rights under
Constitution, they petitioned, they remonstrated, and being spurned,
Perhaps their position has never been better stated than by Edmund
Burke right in
the English Parliament. He said: –
will have no interest contrary to the grandeur and glory of England,
when they are
not oppressed by the weight of it…I confess I feel not the least alarm
discontents which are to arise from putting people at their ease; nor
do I apprehend
the destruction of this empire from giving, by an act of free grace and
to two millions of my fellow-citizens, some share of those rights upon
which I have
always been taught to value myself… Let the colonies always keep the
idea of their
civil rights associated with your government, – they will cling and
grapple to you
and no force under heaven will be of power to tear them from their
let it be once understood that your government may be one thing and
another; that these two things may exist without any mutual relation,
is gone, the cohesion is loosened, and everything hastens to decay and
That Ocean Tea Party at
Mistaking the attitude of the Americans, as
that of their king, The English East India Company had offered to
refund the tax
by selling tea at a less price in America than in England. The King
his claimed right to tax without consent. So Burke's resolution of
was voted down in England Parliament by 270 against 78. The issue was
claimed the right to tax without consent; the Americans denied such
said: "Land the tea" – A gathering Dec. 16, 1773, in "The Old
House" said "No." A messenger had been sent to Milton to urge
the King's representative, to order the tea back to England. Long after
refusal was delivered by Rotch the messenger. At once Adams announced:
meeting can do nothing more to save the Country." (30) When the church
opened there were 40 to 50 men disguised as Indians, "and, says Avery,
two or three hours 342 chests of tea valued at about 1800 pounds
sterling were emptied
into the sea." The smoothness of the performance suggests a master
and many rehearsals. When the work had been completed the crowd quietly
and before daybreak Paul Revere was riding fast to Philadelphia with
news that "Boston had at last thrown down the gauntlet for the king to
Whence Came These Indians?
The "Sons of Liberty" met at the Green Dragon
Tavern where St. Andrew's Lodge also met regularly. This was the lodge
of Paul Revere
and Joseph Warren. It was a "North-End Lodge" whose secret meetings
with the "High Sons of Liberty," who controlled ALL the early
movements. The men WERE the SAME in BOTH. (31) The record of that lodge
30, 1772, showed only seven members present and in the record is this
"N. B. Consignees of Tea took up the brethrens' time." On December 16,
the night of the Ocean Tea Party, the secretary after noting that the
until the next night, makes the T entry thus: – "On account of the few
in attendance" (32) and then fills up the page with the letter "T"
made big. Gould says (33) this record is the only one of that now
famous Ocean Tea
Party at Boston.
A Dignified Masonic Event
That Ocean Tea Party was as dignified a Masonic
as the laying of a Corner stone – as indeed in very truth it was. Here
is what that
eminent authority John Fiske says of it:
"For the quiet
sublimity of reasonable but dauntless moral purpose, the heroic annals
and Rome can show no greater scene than that which the Old
South-Meeting House witnessed
on the day (night) when the tea was destroyed." (34)
Avery says: "An authoritative answer to the oft
asked question, 'Who emptied the tea'? has never yet been given. (35)
But Bro. Paul
Revere was well on his way to Philadelphia before morning."
But "Listen my brothers and you shall hear of
ride of Bro. Paul Revere." Grand Master Warren had sent Bro. Paul
notify the Minute-Men at Lexington and Concord and to warn Bros.
Hancock and Samuel
Adams upon whose head the British had set a price. On that memorable
when the signals were displayed in Old North Church, Paul Revere was
out of Lexington but William Daws and Dr. Prescott, a "High Son of
who had joined him, escaped and reached Concord in time to arouse the
and prevent the capture of the military stores there. Thus the members
of St. Andrew's
Lodge otherwise referred to as "High Sons of Liberty" or "North-End
Mechanics," under the leadership of Paul Revere, later Grand Master and
Master Warren had defeated the first effort of the English to enslave
had passed the "south and west gates."
"The East Gate"
Preparations for "Bunker Hill" were at once
begun. Profane history describes Deputy Grand Master Richard Gridley as
engineer and artillerist" and he was chief engineer in planning the
on Bunker Hill and Dorchester Heights. Here, what England proposed, she
to perform. The caviling at the "East Gate" was heard and Grand Master
Warren soon fell a martyr in the cause of human liberty. But his death
was as the
blood of a martyr in stimulating thousands of his brothers to yield
rather than their honor even as he had done. A monument was erected by
Masons in 1794 "to commemorate his labors, his fidelity and his
It was replaced by Bunker Hill monument in 1857, inside of which a
model of Warren's
monument was placed.
If the action of St. Andrew's Lodge were not
typical of the generative force actuating patriots everywhere, then it
but small evidence upon which to base Masonic claims in establishing
But the fact is the leaders were nearly all Masons and so steps were at
to organize army raveling lodges. St. John's Regimental Lodge had
already been organized
in N.Y. but the first one in the Continental Army was American Union
in the "Connecticut Line" but because working in of Massachusetts, its
warrant was issued and signed by Richard Gridley D.G.M. Feb. 15, 1776.
This is the
same Gridley who was chief engineer of the army at the time. Of the ten
military lodges, the only one whose record has been preserved in
entirety is American Union. In 1859, the Grand Lodge of Connecticut
American Union record almost in full from Feb. 15, 1776, to April 23,
– its last meeting as a military lodge. These army lodges were
lodges – if you please, Masters' lodges seeking to find the right. On
page 16, is
a list of the members to Oct. 11, 1779, of American Union Lodge. This
list is an
exception to every other list of names in the record in that the first
title are given. Almost without exception they are all officers. So far
are the members of St. Andrew's Lodge and other Boston Masons assisted
Masons, organizing an army lodge that together they may divide
themselves in parties
and go in quest of the Hessian ruffians. So by the record, Masonry was
in the struggle
for liberty in the beginning.
For More Than Seven Years
The work of Masonry was sustained and dignified
the entire Revolutionary period. The army lodge was to the officers a
club and to the sick and wounded the "Red Cross" though under a
MARK. Scant as are the records of American Union Lodge, yet so many
clues are suggested
that to follow out all of them would far exceed the scope of this
only a few meetings will be noted here.
ST. JOHN'S DAY, JUNE 24, 1779
At Nelson's Point near West Point, N.Y., on
1779, American Union Lodge met to celebrate St. John the Baptist's Day.
opening, the lodge marched to the "Red House," General Patterson's
where says the record, "Lodge opened in ample form." Then followed a
of 99 members and visitors. Continuing, "after the usual ceremonies,
retired to a bower in front of the house, where being joined by his
Washington and family – an address was delivered by Bro. Hull." This
education bound the officers to UNION of effort – the cause for which
risking their lives.
(14) Vide Preble p. 252.
(15) Vide page 251
(16) Vide Spencer and Lossing's Complete History of the United States
(17) Avery VI p. 386.
(18) Avery VI p. 397
(19) Vide Preble p. 721.
(20) Vide Preble p. 339
(21) Vide Essex Institute Historical Collections July 1901. p. 261.
Essex Institute Historical Collections January, 1911.
(24) Vide Gherardi Davis' Colors of U. S. Army 1785-1912.
(25) Vide address R. C. Ballard Thruston National Year Book,
Society of The Sons of The Revolution for 1915, p. 260.
(26) Vide address R. C. Ballard Thruston National Year Book Society
of The Sons of The Revolution for 1915, p. 264
(27) Executive Order Vol. 1637, Oct. 29, 1912, Wm. H. Taft.
(28) Vide No. 1637 Oct. 29, 1912, Wm. H. Taft.
(29) Vide address R. C. Ballard Thruston National Year Book the Sons of
1915, p. 265.
(30) Vide Avery V 5, p. 166.
(31) Vide Centennial Memorial of St. Andrew's Lodge, p. 112.
(32) Vide Same, p. 113.
(33) Vide Gould's American Addenda, p. 347.
(34) The American Revolution, John Fisk.
(35) Vide Avery V 5, p. 167.
(36) Washington the Man and Mason.
(37) Vide Lossing.
(38) Vide Record of Freemasonry Grand Lodge Conn., V. 1.
(39) Vide Vol. 1 Conn. Grand
Lodge, p. 30-1-2.
(To be Continued)
Death the Leveler -- [A Poem]
glories of our
blood and state
Are shadows, not. substantial things;
There is no armor against fate;
Death lays his icy hand on kings:
Sceptre and Crown
Must tumble down,
And in the dust be equal made
With the poor crooked scythe and spade.
Some men with swords may reap the field,
And plant fresh laurels where they kill:
But their strong nerves at last must yield;
They tame but one another still:
Early or late
They stoop to fate
And must give up their murmuring breath
When they, pale captives, creep to death.
The garlands wither on your brow;
Then boast no more your mighty deeds;
Upon Death's purple altar now
See where the victor-victim bleeds:
Your heads must come
To the cold tomb;
Only the actions of the just
Smell sweet, and blossom in their dust.
The reason why we feel one man's presence, and
feel another's, is as simple as gravity. Truth is the summit of being:
the application of it to affairs. All individual natures stand in a
to the purity of this element in them. Men of character are the
conscience of the
society to which they belong.
R. W. Emerson.
The Political Pseudo-Masonry
of Spanish America
F. De P. Rodriguez, Cuba
II. The Black Eagle Conspiracy
Lodge of Lautaro was for South America, the Black Eagle Society purport
to be for
Cuba, but unhappily it failed. Not any General History of Cuba has ever
by a Mason; it is for that reason that no one conversant with the
of our Institution, has purified our local branch from the calumny of
conspiracy thrown on her by pro-Spanish historians. During the colonial
however, that task could not be undertook, reasons: Masonry was
forbidden; the Catholic
priests, supported by the Spanish government, were against us; and,
we Cubans were not at liberty to bring Spain to the pillory. After Cuba
deserved freedom, thanks to the American Eagle, the time arrived to
and wipe out from our faces so unbecoming spot.
Cuba were during the XVIII century, and the first quarter of the XIX,
related, the island of Cuba was not then self-supporting; our political
was Mexico; from that vice-royalty came to us periodically galleons
gold and silver to keep us alive. The Cubans of yore were, therefore,
used to refer
to Mexico for all their needs, rather than apply to the Mother Country
so far situated.
After Mexico got her freedom Cuba longed for her's, and even our
from there, witness that Society denominated the Black Eagle,
to the Masons and which we shall describe presently.
Mexico was ahead from us in many undertakings, she was not so in
Mexicans got their lodges in 1813 from Spain, and in 1825, through the
Minister Poinsset, from the United States. We Cubans began to be
familiar with the
Square and the Compass since 1762, when the English took Havana,
the city an Irish Army Lodge, which lasted as long as the British
us, about nine months. Frenchmen expelled from Haiti, brought their
them to Santiago soon afterward, and ever since 1804, Pennsylvania,
and Louisiana chartered regular lodges in Cuba, which in 1818 started
GRAND LODGE OF THE YORK RITE, doomed to an early death, as she was
under bann by
Captain General Vives in 1824, and totally disappeared in 1829; two
meeting irregularly until 1859 when together with a new one chartered
by South Carolina,
founded the actual Grand Lodge of Cuba.
History of Cuba is undoubtedly that of Pezuela, (1) but even so good a
he comes to describe the political situation of Cuba in the first
quarter of the
XIX century, classifies Masonry as one of the Secret Revolutionary
against the Government, but of course, he could not prove it.
Zavala emits the following opinion: (2) "After the failure of the Soles
(the first of Cuban Revolutionary Clubs) several of its members and
emigrated to Mexico, constituting there another Society named JUNTA
LA LIBERTAD CUBANA. The Society was constituted on July 4th, 1825, and
as stated in the Proceedings, was presented so: "The undersigned, at a
held on the extinguished Convent of Balem …& have started a
Junta under the
name of Protectora de la Libertad Cubana, the object of which will be
from the Government of the Federation (Mexico), which we completely
THE AZETECAN EAGLE WILL HIGHLY AND MAGESTICALLY FLY OVER OLD CUBANACAN
a Cuban contemporaneous writer, says: (3) "CHAVEZ (Jose de) a native of
friar of Belem, in 1810 constituted in Mexico the Lodge of the Black
Dr. Vidal Morales, one of the best of Cuban authors, states in his
(5) "At the end of General Vives period of Government, J. J. Solis,
the Authorities of the revolutionary plans of the GRAN LEGION DEL
the name of a York Rite Lodge, the Chief Officer of which in America
was the President
of Mexico, Gral. Guadalupe Victoria, and in Europe a physician of
London. The members
of the said Society called each other Indian. The name of the lodge
comes from the
Eagle that symbolizes the 32d of the Scottish Rite."
are almost verbatim those used in the Proceedings of the Process to
of the Society, as instructed by a Spanish Military Committee. Whoever
with the manners of conducting the investigations in matters political
in Spain, or in her colonies of yore, has to be reminded how the
obtained: by torment or by the lash, in thorough medieval style. The
"All means are justified provided the end is attained," was closely
to and no wonder how malicious the judges were in connecting Masonry
me to go deeper into the mentioned paragraph of the Proceedings. To any
Student it is plain that lodges are local groups and nobody can be the
or Chief of any Lodge in any country but of a collection of lodges
named Grand Lodge
or a similar name. Next, President Victoria, of Mexico, although a
sympathizer, was never the Grand Master of the Mexican Masonry in
either of her
branches (escoceses or yorkinos) while he ruled the country; during the
1824 to 1828, the Grand Masters of the two Mexican Grand Lodges of the
were Generals Bravo and Guerrero respectively.
physician, named as the Chief in the old world, is another lie. The
late R. F. Gould
in an article upon the "Medical Profession and Freemasonry" (6)
among all English Masons of the medical profession, during the possible
only Robert Thomas Crucefix, who, every Masonic scholar knows, never
any Revolutionary Society. He was a distinguished man, but even in the
of England, to which he belonged, he only attained the Office of Grand
not being blue blooded he could not expect even a wardenship.
As to the
Eagle which symbolized the Society, why choose the 32d? It would have
been the same
the 30d, 31d or 32d, all are represented by Eagles, but two-headed, not
as that used by the revolutionaries. The Eagle adopted by them was that
the one that the Aztec legend mentions as appearing in Tenoxtitlan,
posed upon a
cactus, devouring a serpent, the same that was adopted as the Mexican
Let us now
examine some other statements found the Proceedings of the Process, to
poor people were subjected; (7) – they said:
"J. J. Solis was
a young man 26 years old, a native of New Orleans, Louisiana, carpenter
who was initiated into Masonry by Lucas Arcadio Ugarte, Secretary of
Society of Cuba (the principal Society of its class in the country and
proclivities). According to Solis deposition, several days after his
Ugarte told him that the Society had changed its object, the Aguila
purpose was to gain members to work on behalf of the independence of
This deposition, as can be easily seen, is a
of falsehoods, undoubtedly forged by the Spanish soldier's Committee.
an aristocrat of those times, Secretary to the Board of Aldermen of the
a conspicuous Mason, and it does not seem probable that he would try to
a humble carpenter in any fashion whatever.
More yet about the deposition of Solis: "The
did not offer any obligation, they only signed the By-Laws. Their main
the independence of Cuba." Among the papers added to the Proceedings is
Instruction for the use of the Deputies of the Several states, signed
by one JICOTENCATL,
of the Grand Orient of Mexico, (8) 1825. Searching in Mexican Masonic
easily found out that the Mexican National Rite was the only one that
had a Grand
Orient at that time, but as the Grand Lodge, which had to be previously
was not founded until 1826, how could there be a Grand Orient in 1825?
Added to the Proceedings is also found a soi disant Constitution, snatched from
Miguel Vazquez; see here the purpose of the Society as mentioned in the
"The Order had for her object the affording to good patriots the means
the liberty of America, wherever a member found himself, either in
or London; of this Lodge which could not be confounded with any other,
could be members, provide they were not European; there were no degrees
of any kind, and they had no Temples or Halls to meet in." How can this
to the Cuban Masonry of the epoch that styled herself SPANISH GRAND
LODGE OF THE
YORK RITE? How can be explained the presence among the members of
hundreds of Spaniards
and of Cuban Noblemen, both occupying the principal offices of the
Is it not plain how the judges (sic) mixed up their pleasure falsehoods
I have examined at leisure the Proceedings in
of things Masonic, commencing with the series of pass and sacred words,
to be those of the 33d degrees of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite,
carefully separated and with large characters of hand writing. From
I draw the conclusion that either I have been deceived when I obtained
from a regular lodge, and from legally constituted subordinate bodies
of a most
regular Supreme Council, as are those of Cuba, or the soldierjudges
tried to make
dupes out of the whole population of Cuba, to whom they assured that
the ones found
by them were true Masonic words. There is not a single one among them
ours; more yet, they are in plain Spanish vernacular.
Now as to the principal Pass-Word: Both members
one in front of the other, their right hands resting on the left
shoulder of the
other, the following dialogue issuing:
a beautiful Indian.
Come ye students of Masonry and honestly tell
of our degrees the words belong.
But the most curious of all things is the
Principal Word or Phrase, which I joyfully append:
TO ALL, LET NOT ANY EUROPEAN REMAIN ALIVE, NOR ANY WHITE PERSON
UNFRIENDLY TO US,
LET NATURAL RELIGION BE THE ONLY ONE ACCEPTED, LET US RIDICULIZE THE
THEY DEMORALIZE THE PEOPLE, EXTORTING FROM THEM ONE-TENTH OF THEIR
US DESTROY CATHOLIC HIERARCHY AND THE BUILDINGS BELONGING TO THE
PRIESTS, THAT NO
TRACE OF THEM REMAIN FOR FUTURE REFERENCE. LONG LIVE THE INDIANS."
Let any honest man come forward and say whether
was Masonry. If the Conspiracy was started by white people, how could
they be enemies
of their own race? I once more claim that the above mentioned
Proceedings were a
malicious falsehood developed by dishonorable judges, completely
outside of Masonry.
Being convinced that Masonry had nothing to do
that Conspiracy, I shall now, as a historical research, discuss the
and sentence of that famous Process, followed against several members
of the Black
Eagle, who happened to be also Masons, by a most bigoted Spanish Court.
nevertheless, call the attention of my readers to the fact that the
in their sentence between Masonry and Conspiracy; the succeeding
regarding afterwards so important difference. Remember too that the
meeting of Masonic
lodges was regarded as a crime by the Spanish laws of the time. Be
careful in the
"WHEREAS: We are
ordered to proffer charges as FREEMASONS, against several persons
as members of the Conspiracy denominated LA GRAN LEGION DEL AGUILA
NEGRA, the only
charge resulting against them is to have affixed their signatures to
documents, during the years 1825, 1826 and 1827, for which they were
although other members were also accused, their prosecution was ordered
to be conducted
separately as they are indicted only as conspirators."
One of the principal paragraphs of the Public
in his Report reads like this:
Auditor having examined this Proceeding followed to find out the crime
committed by several persons, states that their presence in lodge
meetings has not
been proved, which fact, if proved, will have brought to them the full
specified in the last Royal Decree, (9) but as they continued in
Masonic practices after the year 1824, as proved by their having signed
as these added to this Proceeding…"
The final paragraph of the sentence says:
"We condemn J. J. Solis,
Miguel Vazquez, J. Gonzalez Avila … (and others) to the penalty of ordinary death
on the infamous garrote, their property to be confiscated for the
benefit of His
Majesty the King, on account of being convicted of performing Masonic
the years 1826 and 1827, and of having been initiated into the
so-called GRAN LEGION
DEL AGUILA NEGRA, the object of this last Association being the freedom
of the American
Colonies." "Lucas Arcadio de Ugarte, convicted of having signed and
procured the affixing of other signatures to a Certificate or Diploma
of the degree
of Rose Croix (18d), extended in the year 1825, and of having kept
under his care
Masonic documents, seals and other Masonic paraphernalia, is sentenced
years at hard labor in the Ceuta Penitentiary (Africa)."
Happily the first of King Ferdinand VII's
queen Isabella II) was born in those days and, as customary on such
general pardon or amnesty was granted for most crimes or offenses, and
fared out better than they expected: none were garroted and Bro. Ugarte
spend his forced vacation at Ceuta.
As the only practical result of so infamous a
two documents remain attached to the Proceedings, which I have
and hope someday they may be donated for the Library and Museum of our
They are: one, the Certificate of M. M. granted to Miguel Vazquez. by
Hermanos Desenganados No. 53, and the Diploma of RoseCroix extended to
J. J. Solis
by Sabiduria Chapter No. 1, on the 3d of December, 1825. It is
on parchment, colored, and, although nearly a full century old, remains
as when issued. That document, as customary then, commenced so: "In the
of the Most Holy and Indivisible Trinity &," which is no longer
of the Rite.
My task is now ended – temporarily only – as my
in old Cuban Masonic lore needs to be continued; but my satisfaction is
so far complete
because I have been able to prove that Cuban Masonry never conspired;
individually, surely did so, but the Fraternity never.
Can American Masons show on their shields, as
the having been imprisoned and sentenced to death for being Masons? We
than once, became acquainted with damp dungeons, only to be more firm
of our convictions; that is an honor and glory that nobody can snatch
from us. More
yet, it is not far the date (1870) when we had a Grand Master shot
only for being the head of the Craft in Cuba!
If so has been our history and our sufferings,
us because we do not speak English? Oh, Lord, have mercy for
(1) Pezuela –
Historia de la Isla de Cuba. [Lib*] Madrid.
(2) Zavala – Ensayo Historico sobre las Revoluciones de Mexico [Lib*].
(3) Calcagno – Diccionario Biografico Cubano [Lib*]. Havana.
(4) The date is wrong.
(5) Dr. Vidal Morales – Iniciadores y Primeros Martires de la
(6) Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, Vol. VII, [Lib 1894] page 145.
(7) I have examined the original Process in the Government Archives in
(8) Note the orthography, it is purely Spanish; no Mexican ever spelt
it so, but
(9) What could this full penalty be if they were already sentenced to
For Eternity -- [A Poem]
Imperial Poem of Meiji Era
is water in a dish,
Be it square or round,
Shaped according to that form,
By that nature bound;
So is man by those with whom
Keeps he company
Shaped and moulded good or ill
The City Invincible
I dream'd in a dream, I saw a city invincible
attacks of the whole of the rest of the earth.
I dreamed that was the new city of Friends;
Nothing was greater there than the quality of robust love – it led the
It was seen every hour in the actions of the men of that city,
And in all their looks and words.
of the Masonic Color, Blue
By Bro. Henry P. Jones,
If we consider the importance that has been
to colors throughout the ages, and the herald-like duty they have ever
we must inevitably reason that Masonry, the greatest and most universal
institutions, must also have been launched upon its lengthening career,
color, or colors, in harmonious keeping with its teaching. To ferret
out this color,
however, and discover its original symbolism, is, we fear, a task made
by the gloom of intervening centuries. And so, leaving the beginning,
it should be, in darkness and mystery, we must even acknowledge the
decree of comparatively
modern ruling and usage as authentic. But here, too, we are left
partially in doubt.
A color has been handed down to us, but the symbolism, if in truth
any, has gone so long unheeded, that it is lost in the impenetrable
folds of the
past. Thus are we forced, as a last resort, to apply the test of our
and imagination to our knowledge of fundamental Masonry, and accept the
a possible solution.
"At the revival of 1717," says our learned
Brother, Dr. Oliver, [Lib 1853] "it
was directed that the symbolical clothing of a Master Mason was
'skull-cap and jacket
yellow, and neither garments blue.' "The symbolism, however, of this
clothing," was probably known to a few only, and was never recorded.
Doctor continues: "In 1730, it was regulated by Grand Lodge that the
Officers should 'wear white leather aprons with blue silk; and that the
and Wardens of particular Lodges may line their white leather aprons
silk, and may hang their jewels at white ribbons about their necks.'
we do not know how long Blue had been recognized as a Masonic color,
but here perhaps,
we have the first definite step toward its establishment as the ONE
for, having been once permanently adopted by Grand Lodge, it would as a
sequence, creep gradually into subordinate lodges, until it came to be
as the legitimate color of the Order. Thus, in brief, may we account
for it. But,
having the color, we cannot so easily determine its proper symbolism.
And yet, methinks
this should not be difficult, if we go about it thoughtfully.
Certainly, it is commonly known that Blue has
ages been deemed an emblem of the abstract qualities, Truth, Secrecy,
and Fidelity; but to us it should mean something more. Let us see.
the various figurative meanings that have been attached to the five
or prismatic colors, in the past, we find that, as a general rule, they
may be reduced
to these: green, the symbol of generative, or self-contained force, or
of life; youth, freshness: yellow, the symbol of the result of
accumulation or long
dulation; ripeness, or the full measure of resources, activity, or
years; age; decay:
blue, the symbol of mild, unresisting virtue; morality: purple, the
symbol of royalty
or sovereignty; the director or governor of physical force; wisdom;
the symbol of physical force or aggressiveness. Taking these symbolisms
of the five
colors collectively, and considering them as a whole, they may be said
to us the five primary essentials, necessary to the existence of a
being, namely: the germ of life, the germ of death, moral initiative,
and physical initiative. The five colors themselves, rightly blended
into one, produce
perfect white for it is a well-known scientific fact, that when pure,
white light is received into a proper body or a prism, the rays are
and applied in such a manner that there emanates from the prism in
these five fundamental colors.
Let us pause a moment now, and collect the
our explanation into one; an easy task if they are all plainly before
us. As pure
light received into the proper body and correctly utilized, results in
or symbols of the five essentials to a perfect man, so the True Light
or Word of
God, received into the heart and properly utilized, results in the
essentials themselves; the germ of life developing in fullness and
and bending gradually and fearlessly to the germ of death; moral
to view unspotted petals, tinted with celestial hue; mental initiative,
up in the midst of finite creation as a part of it, and thus adding to
a form and texture common to no other work of the Supreme Architect;
initiative, developing naturally and unshackled at every point – the
rushing joyfully along, with crystal depths unchoked by dams, unmurked
by hand of
man. Thus should Blue, our own suitable color, and the symbol in our
of moral initiative, represent to us the perfect moral man – the result
of a proper reception of the Great Light in the true heart.
We should not confine ourselves, however, to
realms of pedantic Science, in our search for light.
"Blue: 'Tis the life of heaven,'"
Yea, the silent, spreading canopy that shelters
alike, 'neath mystic folds receding up through endless space; the end
of all man's
hopes and dreams – unmeasured home of unheard strains of wheeling
spheres. A fit
symbol indeed, of the universality of Masonry; of the mystic veil that
off our lives from all past and future Time; and finally, of "that
made with hands, eternal in the heavens," which we all hope at last to
Towers, the gorgeous Palaces, The solemn Temples, the great Globe
itself, And all
which it inherit, shall dissolve."
(If we venture to add a note to so excellent an
it is in the hope of provoking further study of this interesting
subject. The use
and meaning of color in the Bible is a delightful theme, although, so
far as we
now recall, the late Dr. Delitzsch, of Leipzig, seems to have been
almost the only
one who treated colors in the Bible symbolically. In his "Iris," [Lib
now in English dress, he treats the subject at some length. Also in
on Symbolism," [Lib*] by W. F. Shaw, there is a suggestive discussion
Symbolism of Color," (Part IV), from which we read: – "Blue is
the color of the sea, and always the color of the sky by day, when free
As such it is symbolical of Heaven, and of the things of Heaven, Truth,
Faith. Thus the Tabernacle which was made after the pattern of things
and was a figure of the true Tabernacle, the House not made with Hands,
in the heavens, had its hangings of blue and purple, and scarlet, and
of the curtains were blue. (Ex. 26:1, 4)" Blue had an important place
attire of the High Priest of the Tabernacle, on his breastplate and
ephod, the robe
of which was blue, (Ex. 28:30 – 39:22), reminding the wearer that he
was a priest
of the God of Truth (Psa. 31:6) and the God of knowledge (1 Sam. 2:3)
and that it
behooved his lips to keep knowledge (Mal. 2:7). "When Moses and Aaron
elders went up into the Mount, it is said they saw the God of Israel,
was under His feet, as it were, a paved work of sapphire stone (Ex.
the sapphire is a stone of a blue color." To which the author adds the
of Delitzsch [Lib 1889]: "Sapphire-blue
is the color taken by that which is most heavenly, as it comes down on
the color of the covenant between God and man. Blue passes almost
the color of fidelity. Even in Middle High German blau is symbolically
to staete (steadfast), and staetekeit – steadfastness." (Iris, p. 28).
by way of suggestion. Perhaps Swedenborg has something to teach us
here, as in so
many things, if some Brother will dig into that mine and reveal the
ore. – The Editor.)
Jose Rizal as a Mason
By Bro. Austin Craig, Manila,
before Nilad Lodge, Manila, at its annual observance of Rizal Day, Dec.
(INTRODUCTORY NOTE – I count it as one of my
for Masonic service to have been able to introduce to the Scottish Rite
Masonry. Bro. Craig, the author of the following article. Past Master
of a Lodge
in Oregon before coming to the Philippines, he was already interested
in the Craft
when, about the time I was beginning to establish the Rite in Manila, I
him. He was among the first to receive at my hands the degrees above
and his continued interest in the Rite is shown by his activity in
Temporary for the new Lodge of Perfection of which he is now the
a real devotion to Masonry with the historian's love of accuracy, a
capacity for collecting material and an attractive literary style, Bro.
promise of becoming one of the foremost writers of the Craft. He has
handed me a
copy of his article – not for publication but for my own use; but I
feel that it
is too meritorious to be so kept, and that I ought to make it
accessible to as many
as possible of our brethren of the homeland. CHARLES S. LOBINGIER.)
With all brevity and simplicity possible shall
put before you the few particulars which I possess about what
the greatest influence informing the character, so worthy of emulation,
upright man and true Mason who today is being honored throughout
for having so well prepared the way for the new Philippines dedicated
to the principles
of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity.
From childhood Rizal's ambition was to travel
lands, probably because his mother's half-brother, who had been
educated in British
India, was a great traveler, and to the same uncle perhaps he owed his
of Masonry. There is a story that this Jose Alberto Alonso belonged to
lodge whose master was the British Vice-Consul, the more credible that
explain the repeated honors he received under the regency of General
Prim and during
the reign of King Amadeo, – an epoch so Masonic, to accept the
contention of its
critics, that even to a Bishop for Cebu all its appointees were sons of
But whether there was such a family
or the abusive attacks on Masonic principles current during his student
books like "Capitan Juan" had had an effect in his case different from
what their authors intended, or some other cause not yet come to light
certain it is that the late Tomas G. del Rosario, president of the
commission, used to tell how the martyr-hero was his companion in the
Acacia of the Gran Oriente de España at an earlier age than was
customary and at
a time when as yet few Filipinos had been accepted into the Craft.
Rizal's Berlin associates, or perhaps the word
would give their relation better, were men as esteemed in Masonry as
they were eminent
in the scientific world – Virchow, for example. And so imbued was he
the Square men's principles that after his brief visit with Doctor
Leitmeritz, the Austrian professor promptly wrote the Manila Jesuit
that their former
pupil had "fallen into the snares of the abominable Masonic sect."
It was a young man who made no secret of his
in the free, i.e., Masonic, countries of the world who came home to
find a governor
general in the Philippines who, his enemies claimed, was utterly
dominated by the
Masons that surrounded him. Perhaps had it been otherwise the author of
Me Tangere" would not have been given as a bodyguard a Spanish army
Lieutenant Taveil de Andrade, who is said to have shared his views, nor
the timely notice which enabled him to make his escape out of the
country when an
authority greater than the governor's threatened him.
Next he lived in London in daily association
distinguished countryman, eminent in the law, who had been deported
to Guam in 1872 and rescued thence by Hongkong brethren, but Doctor
emphatically assured me that Rizal never visited, much less belonged
to, any London
In 1889 his home was Paris, and there, probably
the influence of Dr. T. H. Pardo de Tavera, who was a member, in
company with a
prominent business man now in Manila, also a physician, he joined a
whose hall was at Rue Cadet 23. Thereafter, and Hon. Mariano Ponce is
he joined the Filipino students' lodge, "La Solidaridad," of the Gran
Oriente Español which after years of rivalry had outlived the Gran
Oriente de España
and, under the Professor of History in the Central University, was
attention to Spain's backward colonies across the seas. Here he was
raised to the
sublime degree of Master Mason, and became an enthusiastic worker. The
in his own handwriting, of an address on "Masonry" before this lodge is
still preserved in Spain, by Eduardo Lete, of Saragosse.
In November of 1891 the Tyler's Register of
to St. John's Lodge, Scotch Constitution, of Hong-Kong, received the
Rizal, Temple d’honneur (lodge) des Amis de L'Honneur Français" as may
be seen, and he visited several times. There were formed the
friendships which permitted
him so promptly to become a practicing physician in the British colony
led, through the Hong-Kong office, to the agricultural colony
concession in British
And when the arbitrary deportation to Dapitan
it was Frazier Smith, Pastmaster of St. John's Lodge and
editor-in-chief of the
daily Hong-Kong Telegraph, who compelled the Spanish Consul to declare
for his government
that the man whom the British Colony had so highly esteemed was not
in exile. Nor should he have been with Captain Ricardo Carnicero,
reputedly a member
of the universal family, as his jailer.
His enemies have always attributed Masonic
to Governor General Blanco who permitted Rizal to start for Cuba as a
surgeon for the Spanish Army's yellow fever camps there, and it was his
through a promotion usually supposed to have been purchased by those
who were not
his friends but wanted a vacancy for a tool of theirs, that made
possible the tragedy
of Bagumbayan Field. Of Rizal's fellow passengers on the Spanish Mail
took him to Barcelona, only Juan Utor y Fernandes, Thirty-Third Degree
Grand Secretary of the defunct Gran Oriente de España, another brother
and a Mason's
son, showed even bare civility to the famous "filibusterer" till his
as a surgeon compelled recognition.
I shall pass over the opportunities to escape,
to have been offered in Barcelona and again on arrival in Manila, but
voyage from Spain as a prisoner saw an effort at Singapore, by Antonio
other brethren of London, Filipino, Spanish and English, to free him
corpus proceedings. These alleged that in the Philippines Freemasons
as outlaws and that the prisoner was being held without any judicial
no prospect of fair trial and for nothing that civilization called a
the mail steamer was loaded with Spanish troops and under the royal
flag had to
be regarded as a government vessel over which the British authorities
In the death cell of Fort Santiago, nineteen
one day ago, occurred a conversation which has been reported by those
to one side; but the memory of the single man who made up the other
side and died
so soon thereafter demands scrutiny for any possible inaccuracies in
version. One mistake certainly was made in attributing to him the
his Masonic membership was in London, an error which would shake
confidence in the
rest of the report without the added doubt created by having two
of his reputed retraction of his errors, whose original has never been
seen by any
disinterested person. However, had Rizal felt impelled to renounce his
free his family from further persecution or to give legal status to the
those incredible times of tyranny would not permit him to marry till he
his political principles, still he would have been but following the
which subordinates its claims to the duties owed to God, one's family,
and one's self. The Mason and friend of Rizal, Pi y Margall, had vainly
himself to ask pardon for the prisoner in his first visit to the
since he had left it as the ex-president of the short-lived Spanish
there only remained for the Gran Oriente Español to place in its hall a
Rizal's memory as tonight the doubly worthy and worshipful Lodge Nilad
rlndel the symbolic name of his great novel in his native tongue he
its honorary Master.
Do I need to recall how, since the dawning of
day, that on the first anniversary of the Great Filipino Mason's
were in the American Army of liberation those who paid the military
tribute of reversed
arms to the memory of the Philippines' addition to the long list of
who in every country where light has come out of darkness have shown
the way by
following the example of the ancient builder and sacrificing life
And it is too recent to need more than merest
that a President of the United States who had studied in the same
publicly declared, "In the Philippine Islands the American government
and is trying, to carry out exactly what the greatest genius and most
ever known in the Philippines, JOSE RIZAL, steadfastly advocated."
Three years ago, when the government of the
Islands had temporarily at its head another of our ancient and
the remains of Brother Dimas Alang were given more decent interment
than his predecessor
in that high office of sixteen years before had accorded them, and the
became the Rizal Mausoleum after the belated public and Masonic funeral
been rendered. There in death rests the Martyr, with his story known
and his memory
honored by Masons wheresoever dispersed, – another link in the great
binds together the world-wide brotherhood.
The Winding Stairway
By Bro. Rogers H. Galt,
(The following lecture on the second section of
Fellow Craft Degree was submitted to the Board of Custodians of the
of Tennessee, and is being considered by them with a view to its
adoption as a part
of the text-book of that Grand Body. By the kindness of Brother Howell
E – Jackson,
33d Hon., and a member of the Board of Custodians, it is offered to us
in The Builder, that it may have the wide hearing which it so richly
is exceedingly well-conceived and well written, and is an admirable
only of one section of one Degree, but a fine treatise on Masonry in
is with great pleasure that we present it to our readers, knowing that
it will have
a responsive hearing. – The Editor.)
The second section of this degree sets forth
and aims of Freemasonry. To become familiar with these is the duty and
of every Fellow Craft; and although no one can grasp them completely in
a few minutes,
or even in many hours, nevertheless every brother may derive from this
lecture a fund of valuable information for future study and
We view Masonry under two denominations:
Speculative. We work in Speculative Masonry; our Ancient Brethren
wrought in both
Operative and Speculative. They worked at the building of King
and many other sacred and Masonic edifices.
By Operative Masonry we allude to a proper
of the useful rules of architecture, whence a structure will derive
and beauty; by Speculative Masonry we allude to a proper application of
and spiritual rules whence our minds and consciences will derive a
By Operative Masonry we learn to control the
and forces of nature, to build by the square, and to maintain a due
just correspondence between all the parts of an edifice; by Speculative
we learn to control the passions, act upon the square, keep a tongue of
observe secrecy, practice charity and maintain patriotism. It is so far
with religion as to lay us under obligation to pay that rational homage
to the Deity
which constitutes at once our duty and our happiness.
Many of the customs and traditions of the
Brethren are followed by Speculative Masons of to-day; and this evening
we may with
profit imitate one of the ancient ceremonies. There were employed in
of King Solomon's temple eighty thousand Fellow Crafts, who were under
of our ancient Grand Master. On the evening of the sixth day, tradition
their work was inspected, and all who were found worthy, by a strict
their duties, were invested with certain mystic signs, grips and words,
them to work their way into the Middle Chamber of the temple. On the
same day, and
at the same hour, King Solomon, accompanied by his most trusted
to the Middle Chamber to receive them. His Secretary he placed near his
the Junior Warden he placed at the Southern outer door, and the Senior
the Western inner door, with strict injunctions to suffer none to enter
as were duly qualified by possessing the mystic signs, grips and words
agreed upon; so that when they did enter, King Solomon knew them to be
workmen, and there remained nothing to do but to pay them their wages
their names, admonishing them of the reverence due the sacred name of
then suffered them to depart in peace, until the time should come for
of another week's work.
We are now about to work our way into a place
the Middle Chamber of King Solomon's temple, and should we succeed, I
have no doubt
that we shall alike be rewarded as were they. At the beginning of our
pass through a long aisle representing the porch of the temple, and
columns representing the two brazen pillars which King Solomon caused
to be set
up at the entrance. The pillar the right was called –
– and denotes –
– ; the one the left was called – – and denotes – – ; taken together, they
allude to the promise
of God to David, "in strength will I establish thine house and kingdom
These pillars were eighteen cubits in height,
surmounted by capitals five cubits in height. The capitals were
wreaths of net-work, leaves of lily-work, and chains of pomegranates.
from the intricate connection of its parts, denotes Unity; the lily,
from its extreme
whiteness and purity, denotes Peace; the pomegranate, from the
exuberance of its
seeds, denotes Plenty. To us, as Speculative Masons, they teach
Plenty, in that though some may possess more than others of this
yet every man who has health and the ability to labor may have his own
that here, on the broad level of Brotherly Love, the high, the low, –
the poor, – meet with one common purpose and one single aim, the
perpetuation of each other's friendship and each other's love; Unity,
together by the indissoluble bond of fellowship in our glorious
Passing between these columns, we arrive at the
of a flight of winding stairs, representing those winding stairs which,
Bible tells us, led from the ground floor to the middle chamber of King
temple. You stand here, my brother, as a man just starting forth on the
of life, with the great task before him of self-improvement. The labor
in the faithful performance of this task is great, but the reward is
The labor is that of gaining self-control, of divesting the mind and
of all the vices and superfluities of life, and of developing the body,
spirit; the reward is the perfect character, as designed by the Great
upon the spiritual, moral and Masonic Trestleboard.
The stairway consists of three divisions. The
explains the great purpose in the labor of life; the second explains
the use of
one's own self in self-development; the third explains the use of the
the Deity has placed around us, in the perfection of our characters.
The first division, consisting of three steps,
to the three great lights in Masonry, which have already been explained
These steps allude also to the three principal officers of a lodge: the
Master in – – , the
Senior Warden in – –
, and the Junior Warden in – –
. They allude, further, to the great luminary
of the solar system, the sun, as seen from its three principal points
It rises in the east with mild and genial influence, all nature
rejoicing at the
approach of its beams; with increasing strength it attains its meridian
in the south,
invigorating all nature with its animating radiance; with declining
sets in the west, leaving mankind to rest from his labors. This, my
but a type of the three principal stages in the life of man – infancy,
old age. The first is characterized by a blush of innocence as pure as
which gild the eastern portals of the day: the heart rejoices in the
integrity of its own unblemished virtue: it fears no deceit, for it
knows no guile.
Manhood succeeds; with increasing strength man attains the meridian of
but when old age comes on, his strength decays; enfeebled by sickness
infirmities he lingers on, until death finally closes his eventful
happy is he if the setting splendors of a well-spent life gild his
with the gentle tints of hope, and close his short career in peace,
So shalt thou live, my brother! And what if
in silence from the living, and no friend take note of thy departure?
All that breathe
will share thy destiny. The gay will laugh when thou are gone; the
of care plod on, and each one, as before, will chase his favorite
phantom; yet all
these shall leave their mirth and their employments, and shall come and
bed with thee. And as the long train of ages glides away, he that goeth
green spring, he that goeth in the full strength of years, and he bowed
age, shall one by one be gathered to thy side, by those who in their
follow them. Ponder this well, my brothel, and "when thy summons comes
the innumerable caravan which moves to the pale realms of shade, where
take his chamber in the silent halls of death, go not like the
quarry-slave at night
scourged to his dungeon; but, sustained and soothed by an unfaltering
thy grave like one who wraps the drapery of his couch around him and
lies down to
You will now take with me these three steps,
at the second division of the stairway, which consists of five steps.
to the five senses of man: hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling, and
proper use of these senses, and of the other human faculties, enables
us to sustain
our lives, ward off dangers, enjoy all the legitimate pleasures, and
to the comfort and happiness of others. Their improper use, consisting
an over-indulgence, but sometimes of too harsh a self-denial, tends in
to an impairment of their proper functioning, and hence to an
enfeeblement of the
entire system. Speculative Masonry warns us, on the one hand, not to
to the level of brutes in seeking only a beastly gratification of the
on the other hand, not to despise or neglect any faculty, but, using
them one and
all as a means of self-development, to attain thereby to the fullness
of true manhood.
Of these senses three are deemed peculiarly
among Masons: hearing, seeing, and feeling; for by the ear we hear the
– by the
eye we see the – and by the hand we feel –
The five steps also allude to the five Orders
a knowledge of which was invaluable to our Ancient Operative Brethren.
the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite. Each order is
from the others by the shape of its column, there being great variety
of ornamentation. To us as Speculative Masons they teach the important
we should so develop our faculties that each one, in his separate
calling, may attain
that skill and proficiency which our Operative Brethren displayed in
the art of
Of these five orders, the Ionic, Doric and
are most esteemed by Masons. These allude to the – .
You will now take with me these five steps,
at the third division of the stairway, which consists of seven steps.
allude to those branches of learning which were anciently called the
Arts and Sciences: Grammar, Rhetoric, Logic, Arithmetic, Geometry,
Music, and Astronomy.
You may be familiar with these, my brother, from the experience of
You may even have studied them in institutions of learning, and have
gained a knowledge
of their inner secrets and a mastery over their intricate processes. It
is not the
function of Masonry to expound them to you. It is, however, one of the
of Masonry to teach you the due and proper attitude toward these and
all other phases
of intellectual activity. Knowledge is of little worth, unless wisdom
with it; and Masonry endeavors to teach man to use his knowledge wisely.
The arts and sciences may be regarded as
of the intellectual wealth of the world. They are filled with a coin
which man must
needs have in order to purchase his daily bread. More and more, as
progresses, does it become impossible for man to perform any labor
without systematic thought; and science, my brother, is nothing but
Hence Masonry enjoins you, for your own advancement, to pursue with
study of the sciences, and of the arts dependent upon them.
Moreover, it is not merely for your own sake
study is recommended. It may happen that any man – perhaps you, my
brother – may
through scientific knowledge make some discovery or invention which
will bring untold
comforts and blessings to your own posterity and to the whole human
race; it may
be that through your command of grammar and rhetoric, some literature,
oratory, may be given to the world, to guide and elevate all mankind.
the good you may do to others, Masonry calls upon you to proceed ever
the improvement of your mind.
Finally, my brother, for the sake of your duty
Deity, Masonry commends to you the highest intellectual efforts. Have
not the sciences
revealed to us many of nature's most intimate secrets, and many of the
conceptions of the Universe? Have not the arts enabled us to control
and to employ
some of the most gigantic forces of nature? Have not these
us with reverence for the Creator far beyond that of the untutored
savage? And by
their very limitations, have not our studies proved to us how
insignificant is our
knowledge and our power compared with that omniscience and omnipotence
designed, and now governs, the universe?
It has been said of old, "The heavens declare
glory of God; the firmament declareth the work of his hands," and
our telescope sweeps the midnight sky, we do but think the thoughts of
So, my brother, should the sciences and the
a three-fold Masonic value to you; to improve yourself, to enable you
to help others,
and to inspire you with a due reverence for the Deity.
You will now take these seven steps, arriving
top of our symbolic stairway. From here, my brother, look back, and
lesson of life which Masonry would teach you. From the first division
of the stairway
you learn the great principle which is to give purpose to your life –
Love. From the second division you learn the second element in Masonic
the Manly Development of your Faculties. From the third division you
learn the third
element: the Illumination of Knowledge with Wisdom.
My brother, is your spirit humble before the
problems of life? Masonry can give help and advancement to the humblest
of the humble.
Is your spirit ambitious, viewing the splendid opportunities of life?
offer to the most ambitious a field for inconceivable success and
indeed is this, the field of Masonic activities. With its vast extent
to the dim horizon of the past; with its comprehensive sweep around us,
part of the modern world; with its grand, alluring avenues to the
of the future: embracing the citadels of labor, of science and of art;
of philosophy, of morality, of religion; the gardens of charity, of
of love; bounded only in breadth by the ever-widening capacities of
man, in length
by the endless duration of time, in richness by the infinite love of
God! The scope
of Masonic activities, my brother, is indeed the whole world, which you
to meet with the true and noble spirit of a Mason.
In King Solomon's temple even an unworthy
ascend the flight of stairs to the inner door; so you, my brother,
though you have
ascended, may not be worthy. Yet bear in mind that as the unworthy
workman in the
temple, not knowing the mystic signs, grips and words, could not pass
the door into
the Middle Chamber, so you can never pass into the inner chamber of
and Masonic temple, eternal in the heavens, until you have secured
signs and tokens which none but a worthy Speculative Mason may obtain.
We are now at a place representing the outer
the Middle Chamber of King Solomon's temple.
Duty, courage, self-discipline these are the
make a man. Either one without the other two is incomplete. A man who
duty, but has not the courage to do it, is a failure. Equally so if he
the discipline of mind and heart and hand to do it effectively.
Discussing the Previous
By Bro. R.I. Clegg, Ohio
"He Was Not A Mason,
But A Roman Catholic."
So says The Builder, on the authority of the
Cyclopedia of Biography, and in reference to William J. Florence,
Bernard Conlin of Albany, N. Y., and the able associate of such actors
and of Jefferson.
He was indeed buried at St. Agnes Church in New
City and the interment may have been conducted with all the rites
customary to the
Roman Catholic Church, but that does not make Florence out to be a
believer in that
form of Christian faith any more than it proves him to be other than a
Why, it seems but the other day that on the
of a member of my lodge I called that evening to express my sympathy
his daughters and widow. Somehow they had the impression that when a
his brethren insisted upon taking charge of the funeral and performing
ceremonial at the interment. I was told how distasteful that would be
to them because
they were Roman Catholics. Of course I assured them that we performed
ceremony wherever it would not have been acceptable. The subject was
and I tendered the assistance of the lodge in straightening out the
as owing to his unexpected death it was only to be anticipated that
would need quick attention and careful adjustment. My offer was
On leaving I was surprised somewhat but much gratified to receive from
a frank acknowledgment that to them Masonry had been given a new
meaning. They had
expected a very unpleasant interview because they feared that I would
a course of action at the funeral that would have been objectionable.
further and asked me if I would not like to have the lodge represented
at the funeral!
To this well meant courtesy I promptly assented and we took part as
in the solemn services desired by that family in their sorrow. But that
interment no more made a Roman Catholic of him who was dead than it so
made of any
one of those who, as his unaproned brethren, bore his body to that
for the final rest of the departed.
In default of other facts I think the passing
was under somewhat similar circumstances if indeed there was any
indication at all
of Roman Catholic connections.
Enough of that angle of the case. Let us go on
one of far greater interest to me. Was "Billy" Florence a Mason?
Well, listen to this: "On Sunday, the 21st of
1867, the Lodge of Perfection held a special meeting at the
Metropolitan Hotel at
two o'clock in the afternoon for the purpose of conferring the
by communication upon Bro. William J. Florence who was 'about to depart
as the minutes say. There were present Ill. Bro. McClenachan and one
of the Supreme Council for the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, two from
and a number of members of Aurora Grata. The degrees of the Council,
Consistory were conferred upon brother Florence before his departure."
citation is from page 47 of Brother Brockaway's "One Hundred Years of
Grata," [Lib 1908] a book
that to my mind has more really instructive historical material about
and Accepted Scottish Rite than volumes of far greater pretensions.
It will be taken for granted that if Florence
a member of the Scottish Rite he was some Mason. I trust this will be
the case because
I have not yet heard from all my inquiries and at the moment therefore
say where Florence received the first three degrees.
However, I can make up for the want of evidence
his Blue Lodge affiliations by adding an item or two concerning his
another body that is exclusively made up of Masons. The trip mentioned
the one that preceded the establishment of the Ancient Arabic Order of
of the Mystic Shrine in the United States. Brother Florence, as I think
I can now
fairly call him, came back from Europe with what my good friend Brother
says "were monitorial, historical and explanatory manuscripts" and he
communicated the secrets of the Order to Dr. Walter M. Fleming of
Aurora Grata Consistory.
It was determined to confer the rite only upon Freemasons, and a number
received the "work," as far as it had then been perfected, on June 16,
1871. An organization was effected and officers elected on September
Passing on to October 21, 1876, we find Brother
as the Illustrious Deputy conferring the secrets of the Mystic Shrine
for the first
time in the city of Cleveland, mine own town. The fortunate two to
honor at the Euclid Avenue Opera House where Brother Florence was to be
that occasion were Samuel Briggs and Brenton D. Babcock. On the
following day Brother
Florence at the Kennard House conferred the attributes of the Order
upon three other
Clevelanders. This led to the speedy formation of Al Koran Temple, the
being according to our records of the local Shrine selected in
deference to the
wish of the Illustrious Deputy who had requested it as an honor to him
I also find that on the records there is
on March 19, 1880, we in Cleveland were again honored by a visit from
William J. Florence and that on this occasion an afternoon observance
was held and
that "the festivities of the occasion will long be remembered by the
But we may learn much of Brother Florence from
winter's "Wallet of Time," a book by the way that happens to be omitted
from the list of references in The Builder. Winter had a lively regard
Florence. He devotes a chapter of eulogy to him. There seems to be no
kindly, histrionic and literary virtue that in goodly measure was not
by Brother Florence according to the estimate of winter. So lavish is
in dealing with his subject that the reader cannot but quickly concede
Florence was an exceptionally loveable personage, exceedingly admirable
as an actor
and magnetically attractive as a man. Let us read together the epitaph
for him by winter and then you will I am sure agree with me. It is
copied from page
rest the Ashes
William James Florence
His Copious and Varied Dramatic Powers,
the Abundant Graces of his Person, combined with Ample Professional
a Temperament of Peculiar Sensibility and Charm, made him one of the
Best and Most
Successful Actors of his Time, alike in Comedy and in Serious Drama. He
from Handy Andy to Bob Brierly, and from Cuttle to Obeureiser. In
of Plays, stories, Music, and Song, he was Inventive, Versatile,
Facile, and Graceful.
In Art Admirable; in Life Gentle; he was widely known, and he was known
was born in Albany,
July 26, 1831
He died in Philadelphia, Penna., Nov. 19, 1891.
By virtue cherished, by Affection mourned,
By Honor hallowed and by Fame adorned,
Here Florence sleeps, and o'er his sacred rest
Each word is tender and each thought is blest.
Long, for his loss, shall pensive Memory show,
Through Humor's mask, the visage of her woe;
Day breathe a darkness that no sun dispels,
And Night be full of whispers and farewells;
While patient Kindness – shadow-like and dim –
Droops in its loneliness, bereft of him,
Feels its sad doom and sure decadence nigh –
For how should Kindness live, when he could die!
The eager heart, that felt for every grief;
The bounteous hand, that loved to give relief;
The honest smile, that blest where'er it lit;
The dew of pathos and the sheen of wit;
The sweet, blue eyes, the voice of melting tone
That made all hearts as gentle as his own;
The actor's charm, supreme in royal thrall,
That ranged through every field and shone in all –
For these must Sorrow make perpetual moan,
Bereaved, benighted. Hopeless and alone?
Ah, no! For Nature does not act amiss,
And Heaven were lonely but for souls like this.
It is to be noted that Mr. Winter gives Brother
middle name as "James," but elsewhere I find it "Jermyn." In
many places I also note that Brother Florence is mentioned as an
third, as for example the very interesting history of Irem Temple
states that he
and Brother Fleming were "Honorary Sovereign Grand Inspector Generals,
of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite." I see Brother Fleming's name so
in Brother Homan's pamphlet but I do not discover the name of Brother
And while we are discussing the Shrine can
us how much of the early rite as exemplified in this country is not the
Brother Florence? How far is it a translation from the Arabic and how
much is it
of Billy Florence? To answer this question does not mean a reference to
ceremony of European origin on the continent, for this is by no means
In fact a well-known degree of such origin may have had a similar far
to what the Shrine is attributed. So much of Brother Florence is to my
Shrine at its best that it seems probable that, ingenious playwright
that he was,
the Order has profited by his ability. To what an extent this has been
is a matter upon which it is very desirable that all possible light
should be shed.
But let us not forget our main objective.
at the time of his death may or may not have been other than what The
Cyclopedian reference claims him religiously to be, but we won't admit,
that he was anything but typical of the Shrine membership at its
perihelion, a hearty
whole-souled Freemason, sunny and serene?
'Till It Be Morning
"Man has walked by the light of conflagrations
and amidst the sound of falling cities, and now there is darkness and
'till it be morning. The voice even of the faithful can but exclaim:
'As yet struggles
the twelfth hour of the Night; birds of darkness are on the wing,
the dead walk, the living dream – Thou, Eternal Providence, wilt cause
the day to
Chartless -- [A Poem]
never saw a moor,
I never saw the sea;
Yet know I how the heather looks,
And what a wave must be.
I never spoke with God,
Nor visited in heaven;
Yet certain am I of the spot
As if the chart were given.
The Capitular Rite
By Bro. Asahel W. Gage,
THE Masonic Truths taught by the Chapter
practical, and applicable to the problems of our everyday lives. The
is not dogmatic, but is so broad that any good Mason can find in it
and encouragement. From time immemorial Biblical Stories have been used
Masonic Truth which cannot be written. No credit is claimed for the
On the contrary it is claimed that their antiquity, the fact that they
the test of time, proves their truth and their value.
Mark Master's Degree
Tradition teaches that the order of Mark
the building of the temple of Solomon, was selected from the great body
There were two classes of Fellow Crafts engaged
work. The larger division was composed of the younger and inexperienced
were not in possession of a mark. They proved their claim to reward by
and after the middle chamber was completed, they were there paid in
corn, wine and
oil, agreeable to the stipulation of King Solomon with Hiram King of
The smaller division was composed of the higher
of workmen who labored in the quarries. They finished the stones, or as
"hewed, squared and numbered them." In order that each might be enabled
to designate his own work, he was in possession of a mark which he
placed upon the
stones prepared by him. Hence, this class of Fellow Crafts were called
and they received their wages from the Senior Grand Warden supposed to
Adoniram; the brother-in-law of Hiram and the first of the Provosts and
These Fellow Crafts received their pay in metal, at the rate of a half
silver per day, equal to about twenty-five cents. They were paid weekly
at the sixth
hour of the sixth day of the week, that is to say on Friday at noon.
The degree of Mark Master is, historically
of the utmost importance since by its influence each operative mason at
of King Solomon's temple was known and distinguished. The disorder and
which might otherwise have attended so immense an undertaking, was
not and not only the craftsmen themselves, but every part of their
distinguished with the utmost nicety and perfect facility. If defects
the overseers by the help of this degree were enabled to ascertain the
and remedy all deficiencies, without injuring the credit or diminishing
of the industrious and faithful.
The Mark Master degree is also important in its
signification. It is particularly directed to the inculcation of order,
and discipline. It teaches that we should discharge all the duties of
stations with precision and punctuality; that the work of our hands,
of our minds and the emotions of our hearts, should be good and true,
such as the
Great Overseer and Judge of Heaven and earth will see fit to approve as
The Fellow Crafts degree is devoted to the
of learning. The Mark Master's degree clearly shows how that learning
can most usefully
and judiciously be employed for our honour and the profit of others. It
to the despondent the encouraging truth that although our motives may
our attainments underrated, and our reputation traduced, there is One
who will make
the worthy stone which the builders reject the head of the corner.
Past Master's Degree
In the Masonic revival of 1717, men of
and ability removed much of the rubbish which had accumulated through
the dark ages.
Their luminous minds and searching labors brought to light old truths
new beauties in Masonic symbolism.
In order that the Three Degrees might be more
understood, higher degrees were gradually developed which explain and
moral lessons taught in the original degrees, but leave ancient
These new or higher degrees were conferred only upon those who had
proved that they
would appreciate and honor them. To be eligible for the Royal Arch
Degrees a brother
must have been installed into the office of Master "and fulfilled the
thereof with the approbation of the brethren of his lodge."
Interest in the Masonic Fraternity grew, and
seeking further light in Masonry had not passed the chairs. This
advancement was not removed but a new degree was established wherein
elected to the Royal Arch Degrees, is symbolically instructed in the
of the Master's Chair.
The Past Master's Degree teaches that he who
whether over a nation, a family, or even himself, must embrace every
for development so that he may be qualified; for he that thoughtlessly
task for which he is not prepared, must necessarily share in the
Most Excellent Master's
The Hebrew Scriptures say little about the
of the Temple of Solomon, although their accounts are very complete of
As an illustration of the growth of man or a character, the completion
and the dedication
may be treated as one ceremony.
The allegorical figure of the completion is
and its application extended to details by substituting the keystone,
locked or "completed" one of the component arches for the copestone
completed the temple.
When the temple was completed and, amid music
the ark safely seated under the wings of the Cherubim; then the Lord
himself as a soft cloud, and in his pleasure descended as a fire out of
consumed the offerings. The assembled multitude were wildly
enthusiastic in their
exultation. Naturally King Solomon was pleased with the Masters who had
completed his work and in his gratitude received and acknowledged them
as Most Excellent
Masters. He empowered them to travel, receive master's wages and
charged them to
dispense light and Masonic knowledge or, if they chose to remain,
offered them continued
The Most Excellent Master's degree develops in
manner this great Masonic lesson: – Our own temple must be erected, a
fit and proper
abode for divine good and truth, then after we have deposited therein
treasures, we will be filled with exaltation and joy and be received
as Most Excellent Masters.
Royal Arch Degree
The wonderful Scriptural story of the Temple
manifestation and worship of God, is of intense interest and
to the builder of individual character.
The children of Israel possessed only a
from the Egyptian captivity until the reign of Solomon. David, the
Second King of
Israel, desired to build a temple as a fixed place of Worship, but
being a man of
war, with hands stained by blood, he and his people were compelled to
the use of the portable tabernacle.
Solomon, David's son, a wise and good King, was
to build an abode for the ark and a fixed place of worship, a
to God's Holy Name. In later years, however, Solomon became conceited
his reliance in his own wisdom and power and neglected the One True
God. He loved
the things and pleasures of the World. This love of pleasure and
comfort, this following
after "strange Gods," this worship of practical things, resulted in
discord and dissension among the Twelve Tribes of the children of
Upon the death of King Solomon, ten tribes
and they were led by idolatry to destruction. The two remaining tribes
and Benjamin, although almost as faithless, still had a succession of
Holy Men and
Prophets, who labored earnestly to bring the people back to the One
Some years later, about 602 B. C. the people
Kings, having persisted in their sins and refusing to humble themselves
were conquered by Nebuchadnezzar. Thousands of the people were carried
Babylon and the country required to pay tribute.
The rulers placed over the Israelites left at
were faithless. The people continued in their sins. They refused to pay
as agreed and renounced the authority of the Chaldeans over them. About
586 B. C.,
Nebuchadnezzar again descended on Jerusalem and after an eighteen
captured, sacked and destroyed the city, tore down its walls, burned
and carried the surviving Princes, Priests and Master Builders captives
There is a tradition which tells how the
as an insult to the Israelites and in derision of their God and the
potency of their
religion, bound the prisoners in triangular chains. History indicates
of suffering all manners of humiliation at the hands of the Chaldeans,
had many opportunities for advancement and enlightenment. A great many
wonderful symbols and fascinating legends are the result of their
contact with the
learning and the culture of Babylon. Many of the captives attained High
great influence in the Chaldean government. They were allowed to own
and hold property
and some acquired considerable wealth. When Cyrus liberated the
seventy years of captivity, many preferred to remain with their
possessions in Babylon.
Large numbers however returned to Jerusalem and
the rebuilding of the Temple. The conditions and prospects were most
Zerubbabel the Prince of Royal Blood, Joshua the High Priest and Haggai
directed and encouraged the people as they labored when occasion
permitted and fought
when necessity required. As the work progressed, many of the
Israelites, who had
been unwilling to make the long trip from Babylon, repented and
struggled into Jerusalem
in small parties. On account of the enemies' efforts to get in and ruin
it was necessary that these journey stained sojourners be most
in order that none but the true descendants of Israel be admitted.
While this work was going on and the rubbish
ruins of the First Temple were being cleared away, many interesting and
discoveries were made.
One not trained to think according to the
of geometry might thoughtlessly pass over the fascinating details of
story. But to those interested in discovering the great principles and
every day experiences, these details are full of meaning and are of
is the man whose
thoughts will bear
The rigid test of the unerring square,
Who through this world unswervingly hath trod,
Steadily advancing towards his Maker and his God.
Seeking by acts of Charity and Love,
To gain admission to that Lodge above;
Knowing that the stone in the rubbish cast
Shall crown our Maker's work at last.
The Interior of the Building
By Bro. G.F. Allen, New
(From the Transactions of the Masters and Past
Lodge, No 130, Christchurch, New Zealand, we venture to select the
from a very timely and suggestive address having to do with a matter of
Meditation, in our day, is almost a lost art we fear, because our life
is so distracted
and so thronged with all manner of things; but we need to be reminded
of it ever
and again, and of the necessity of building great truths and valid
ideas into our
inner life. Character is a growth. In silence the wonder proceeds. Like
of Solomon, no sound of hammer is heard thereupon. As a man thinketh in
so he is, and he who makes the truths of Masonry the themes of his
will be fortified – against many ills. – The Editor.)
The Temple of King Solomon as we have learned
it was a structure of unsurpassed magnificence. Encompassed with
it was surrounded by a wall of great height, exceeding in its lowest
part 450 feet,
and constructed entirely of white marble. It was surrounded by courts,
for the Gentiles, the second for the Children of Israel, both men and
a third for the priests. From this, steps led to the Temple proper,
the porch, the sanctuary, and the Holy of Holies – the first entered
through a gate
of brass, while the sanctuary was approached through a portal furnished
with a magnificent
veil of many colours, and the Holy of Holies by doors of olive, richly
inlaid with gold, and covered with veils of blue, pulple, scarlet and
In this last was kept the ark, with its overshadowing cherubim and its
One only could enter, the High Priest, and that only once a year. Thus
it was dedicated by Solomon with solemn prayer and seven days feasting,
time a peace offering of twenty thousand oxen and six times that number
was made. Thus did our first Grand Master, the Hebrew King, whose
themselves unskilled in architecture, celebrate the completion of the
by Hiram the builder, after the Phoenician models of the time.
Of the exteriors of Freemasonry I need say but
We are all justly proud of our ceremonials, with their attendant
display of symbolism,
in fabrics worthy of the occasion. To the young Freemason they, very
a strong appeal, and give some indication and promise of the depth and
those profound truths underlying the teaching of our system of
morality; while by
the Master Mason of more seasoned judgment, they are looked upon as
of adornment for the grand truths he has found in his quest for Masonic
It is the interior we are considering,
the hidden depths of our own natures, as designed, furnished and
ornamented by the
guiding principles of the Craft. In short, it is the mind of the ideal
we are to deal with, and especially with those factors that influence
the mental attitude of us all to our brethren. While our daily actions
to others what sort of men we are, and at every turn help, in a
to make or unmake those with whom we associate, it is left entirely to
us, as individuals,
providing we are working in a suitable mental atmosphere and with the
working tools, it is left largely to us, I say, to mould and vitalize
power which is the dominating influence in all we do in thought, word,
Some of us fortunately discover this power early in life, others later,
more fortunate, seem almost to inherit it. In your own study of all
that makes for
character you will recall those, in this city, who possessed that power
it with conspicuous success, to the comfort and happiness of those with
came in contact. What was at the back of it? How can we obtain the same
and use it with the same grand results?
What does Freemasonry teach us with regard to
of this control of mind and the formation of this mental attitude? We
that the Temple was built in silence. We are told, "The heart must be
to conceive before the eye can be permitted to discover," and that "in
this perishable frame resides a vital and immortal principle, which
us not only to trample the king of terrors beneath our feet, but also
to lift our
eyes to that bright morning star whose rising brings peace and
tranquility to the
faithful and obedient of the human race." And, finally, "Nothing short
of indefatigable exertion can induce the habit of virtue, enlighten the
purify the soul." Thinkers of to-day are devoting much time to the
of means by which we may secure that mental attitude which will develop
interior illumination as will make our lives really worth the living,
both to our
neighbors and to ourselves. Amongst these, many of the American writers
with conspicuous distinction. R. W. Trine says: – "It is through the
of the mind that we are enabled to connect the real soul life with the
life." "The thought life needs continually to be illumined from
"When one becomes thoroughly individualized he enters into the realm of
knowledge and wisdom, and to be individualized is to recognize no power
of the Infinite Power that is at the back of all. When one recognizes
fact, and opens himself to this Spirit of Infinite Wisdom, he then
enters upon the
road of true education." While Browning says: – "Truth is within
it takes no rise from outward things, whate'er you may believe. There
is an inmost
centre in us all, where truth abides in fullness."
What then are we to do to discover this "inmost
center"? First we must believe in the existence of such a part of our
We must also believe that this is the source of all good, and that it
is, in a more
or less developed degree, part of the being, also, of all our brethren,
and is daily
producing good. Then will come longings in solitude and silence for
attain higher standards of perfection in regard to our treatment of our
particularly in regard to giving their sometimes unaccountable actions
a more charitable
interpretation, for, remember, a dog may growl, and a fool may find
fault, but it
is the master mind that finds "good in everything." After this phase
come the essential determination that these higher states of mind shall
Meditation on such lines may take place without
use of any fixed or formal type of sanctuary. It may be secured in the
the Lodge room during some of our stimulating ceremonies, or in the
depths of our
mountain grandeur. No matter where it takes place one thing is
it must occupy a fixed and regular portion of our every-day life.
of you realize what is meant by athletic training, and know full well
cannot be attained by spasmodic efforts at varying intervals. Have you
that mental effort, whether moral or intellectual, is entitled to an
form of training, if its full strength and beauty are to be developed?
Do you think
that a mental attitude of love and optimism, exercised for a few days
in an intense,
form, and succeeded by uncontrolled impulses of antagonism, impatience,
or any other form of degeneration and enervation, can result in the
of our central control in its fullest splendor? If the interior of the
is to shed an inspiring influence on all who come within reach of its
meditations, our determinations, and our optimism must be exercised as
by the teachings of the twenty-four inch gauge, which unmistakably
exhorts us to
observe that, while part is to be spent in labour and part in charity,
be spent in prayer to Almighty God.
May I venture to state that it is in this
that the majority of Freemasons fail most conspicuously in their duty
Prayer in many parts of the world to-day is being much better defined
and much better
understood. Are there not many types of minds and just as many types of
each that the world could not possibly do without? But in contrast to
to outward authority, is not that growing form of prayer which appeals
to the center
of our being, that germ of spirituality, that vital principle, which
has been planted
in the human breast, also to be considered worthy of regular use?
Further, is not
this form, with its absence of dogma and creed, a far reaching and
form, that is essentially Masonic in character? And, brethren, if our
form of prayer
is but the act of mentally expressing daily a wish that we may always
do to others
as we would that they should do to us, and the sincerity of it is
is that not, in truth, a very real form of prayer? If, however, in the
that our motive is right and true, and with the further securing of
which comes from a full realization of the fact that good and joy only
from our actions, if in this manner we optimistically set about our
of benevolence and charity in its hundred varying forms, have not the
of prayer being practiced and the greatest form of interior decoration
It is in this way that at least a beginning
made in our practice of real charity and benevolence, and it is from
such a course
of action that the true Masonic spirit will spring. These great
principles are at
the command of the whole world. It is our proud boast that our Order
of all nations, thinkers of every race, and adherents to almost every
These are statements that are no less puzzling to the outside world
than they are
true to the duly initiated. Wherein lies the possibility of such
To my mind the solution will be found from our
this evening, truths well known to the founders of our Order, though
hidden at every
turn to the casual observer, in a marvelous wealth of symbolism. The
be found from the fact that all who have truly witnessed the interior
of the Temple,
and felt its comforting, its strengthening, and its immortal influence,
that within the compass of its environment, is a training ground of
whereon sooner or later the human race will discover its hitherto
in the designs of the Great Architect.
Finally, with millions of years in the hidden
us, and an unthinkable eternity ahead, we find that our life is
squeezed into the
briefest shadow of an existence. What room, in this, for fears and
this particular juncture of events, with, let us hope, i the tide of
pain already nearing its ebb, should we not strive, more than ever, to
comparatively infinitesimal existence a period of perfect peace and
are many of us who, unable to represent truth and justice on the
of battle, are left behind, with ever increasing responsibilities so
far as the
future of the Craft is concerned. We shall have to fill the gaps in
the interests of progress at home. The nation is about to rise to a
level of attainment
never before dreamed of, and to us are entrusted all the factors that
securing and safeguarding, for the younger generation, the attributes
of a more
perfect existence. If we are to unite in the grand design of being
happy, it is
to the interior of the building that we must look for the prospects of
And it is our duty, more than ever, to see that the influences that
govern the proper
furnishing and illumination of the great center of our being are so
and so faithfully applied that "the light from the Blazing star" will
truly enlighten the earth and dispense its influence to the whole of
In short, let us "think well" of the great
power emanating from the sanctuary of our own individuality, and in so
benevolence and charity first towards that germ of spirituality in our
then shall we discover, quite scientifically too, the true road to the
of benevolence towards our fellow men, and by that means, so illuminate
of the building that all the world shall know how truly the Freemason
the full significance of the terms "brotherly love, relief and truth."
Judge Not -- [A Poem]
Adelaide Anne Procter
not; the workings
of his brain
And of his heart thou canst not see;
What looks to thy dim eyes a stain,
In God's pure light may only be
A scar brought from some well-won field,
Where thou wouldst only faint and yield.
The look, the air that frets thy sight
May be a token that below
The soul has closed in deadly fight
With some infernal fiery foe,
Whose glance would scorch thy smiling grace
And cast thee shuddering on thy face.
The fall thou darest to despise, –
May be the angel's slackened hand
Has suffered it, that he may rise
And take a firmer, surer stand;
Or trusting less to earthly things
May henceforth learn to use his wings
And judge none lost; but wait and see,
With hopeful pity, not disdain;
The depth of the abyss may be
The measure of the height of pain
And love and glory that may raise
This soul to God in after days!
Mother -- [A Poem]
H. H. Hering, Chicago
Man's best refuge in the strife,
May this day bring joy unbounded;
To your sacred, patient life.
May your every hope be granted,
Even to the end of time;
And reward in Heaven dated,
For your after life, sublime.
Darling Mother, truest friend;
Man's best ally in life's fight,
May this day bring peace unbounded,
And sweet memories at night.
May your every move be guarded,
By God's loving, glorious light,
Shining ever in your pathway,
Making radiant, the dense night.
The Nine Classes of Emblems -- [A Poem]
Odillon B. Slane, Illinois
Incense which glows with fervent heat,
Acceptable sacr ifice to Him,
The type of purity so sweet,
And savior of the race from sin.
Be not a drone in nature's hive,
A useless member to the state;
Be up and doing – be alive,
The virtue, industry-, cleate.
The constitutions guarded
By the Tyler's sword,
Reminds us to be guarded
By action, thought and word.
Justice demonstrated thus,
By sword and naked heart,
Will surely overtake us
If we fail to act our part.
And tho' secrets may be hidden
From the eyes of mortal men,
Yet, that All-seeing Eye unbidden,
Will penetrate the hearts of them.
The sun, moon and stars obey,
And under His watchful care,
Even comets of reel and sway,
And hearts of men go up in prayer.
Ark and anchor of our hope,
Wafting us over troubled seas,
Guided by the star of hope
We're safely moored to realms of peace.
Problem of Euclid! I have found it,
Shout "Eureka!" in Grecian tongue,
Joy of heart in triumph round it,
Secured at price of hecatomb.
How swiftly run the sands of life
In Time's great hour-glass here on earth,
How rapidly the closing strife,
The frosted leaves of hope and mirth.
The all-devouring Scythe of Time,
Which cuts the brittle thread of life,
Nor youth, nor manhood in its prime
Escapes its ravages so rife.
The spade and coffin last of all,
The curtain falls on earthly form,
But Faith lifts up the darkened pall,
Bids hope and joy outride the storm.
The Human Touch
FOR the third and last time, so he threatens, a
Brother sends us a letter, begging us to remember what befell us on a
day when we
thrice denied a certain request. Frankly he declines to be responsible
may happen to us should this letter go into the waste basket with the
In Dante's Inferno, he reminds us, the penalty inflicted on every
sinner is that
he must forever repeat his sin, whatever it may have been. Should we be
as to descend "to those hot depths that shall receive the goats who
so believe," – and he seems to have grave forebodings in the matter –
our worst punishment will be to listen to our own sermons and read our
through all eternity! Merciful heaven, have pity! Therefore as a kind
of what may be in store for us "down yonder," he asks that we let The
Builder audience hear the following passage from a recent, address,
which he is
good enough to say contains more real poetry than some of the poems we
world has undergone immense and bewildering transformation, but in its
conditions human life remains what it has always been. Sunshine is the
starlight, and the course of the seasons, the milk in the breasts of
women and the
blood in the veins of men. The great river channels hardly change with
and those other streams, the life-currents that ebb and flow in human
to the same great needs, the same great loves and terrors. Hunger and
labor go on
as of old, and seed-time and harvest, and marriage and birth and death.
this is one reason why the oldest and simplest occupations of man come
home to us
so closely, and touch us so deeply. Any trade that lies near to nature,
of the hunter, the herdsman, the husbandman, the builder, has power to
pulses with ancestral instincts and memories, and touch us to poetry.
said, these ancient things – the tilling of the soil, the tending of a
building of a house – have upon them the dew of the morning of
humanity. For the
same reason, a road across a desert, a sheltering roof against a storm,
or a hearthfire
glowing in the darkness, can stir the human heart as symbols of human
in common necessity. Just so, our great books are classics, not by
because they tell of these elemental things which are like the sky and
like bread and milk, like the kisses of little children and the tears
we shed beside
the grave. When a poet sings of these old human realities his song
never grows out
of date, because they are a part of the common heritage of mankind."
Our Brother adds that had we written a thousand
we could not have said any more. Perhaps not, unless it had been to
point out that
herein lies one of the great, enduring secrets of Masonry – its
instinct for the
old, the universal, the poetic, its genius for making use of simple
were beautiful in the grey world's early morning; its Human Touch.
Think it down
and up, search your own heart and testify if it be not so that there is
wisdom in this instinct than in all the dry and juiceless knowledge
that men mistake
for wisdom, and the dusty truth that is half untrue. By as much as
its heart warm with the old humanities, by so much will it teach us a
is truer than the knowledge that makes us sad, using the simple
poetries of life
as emblems of the highest realities which are not far off, but very
near, even in
and noble in all lands
Help me; my soul is fed by such.
But ah, the touch of lips and hands –
The human touch!
Warm, vital, close, life's symbols dear,
These I need most, and now, and here."
* * *
The Measure of a Man
Masonry, being an exact science, and coming to
the ages from a time when mathematics had mystical meanings, has much
to say about
numbers and measurement. The numbers Three, Five and Seven, that so
in our ritual, had for the Oriental mind an eloquence which we do not
Hints of this meet us in our New Testament, especially in the strange
visions of the Apocalypse. In that book Three is the signature of
Deity. Four indicates
the world of created things. Seven denotes peace and covenant, while
Ten is the
symbol of completeness. In the ancient days numbers indicated words,
revealed truths. As Ruskin studied the Basilica of St. Mark, finding in
or statue a history and a lesson, so we may study the ancient structure
What did Plato mean when he said that God is
Geometrician, and that by the art of measurement the soul of man is
should Masonry make use of number and measure, if it be not to show us
of a Man, since what we think of God, of life, of the world, comes back
and always to what we think of Man. The old Greek thinkers saw this in
time, and set it forth in their incisive and vivid manner. "Man is the
of all things," said Protagoras. "No, said Plato, "God, the Divine
Mind, is the measure of all things." Then came Aristotle, one of the
thinkers whose genius ever glorified humanity, and with his profounder
the two, when he said: "It is the perfect man, in whom the thought of
clear, who is the measure of all things." Here again it is a matter of
and in that fine art lies the secret of knowledge and of life.
No doubt this was what the Seer on Patmos meant
vivid and detailed description of the Holy City, as though he would
have us know
that it is no phantom city but a reality. So real is it that his guide
reed with which to measure the city, and register how high its towers
rise in the
units of human reckoning, Then he pauses, as if someone had asked him
how our earthly
cubits can form a calculus for that which is outside of Time; and he
adds a parenthesis
to resolve the doubt, "according to the measure of a man, that is, of
Man is a citizen of two worlds, but he has no skill to realize the
save by the aid of the world of sense. As often as he tries to ponder,
what is the nature of the Supreme Architect, he finds himself thinking
of Him by
the help of those moral qualities which he sees, dimly enough, in the
best men he
has known. If he asks, wistfully, about the life to come, the only
answer is one
expressed in the ideas and images, the forms and colors, of the life
that now is.
He cannot help himself; there is no other way
to think. Unless truth, justice, goodness in man be the same as truth,
goodness in God, then we know not anything, nor can we ever learn; and
in honesty to enclose the word God in quotation marks. They are the
same, in quality
at least, however much they may differ in degree; and this is the basis
of all our
higher human life. Our age-long tragedy is that our race has measured
its life by
the animal rather than the angel calculus. Masonry asks us to measure
up to our
highest, that is, to the Angel within us, with which agree all the
sages who, as
Dante says, teach us "how man can make his life eternal." Long ago Ovid
said, "It is the mind that makes the man, and our measure is in our
souls." And Plato laid down the principle of true living when he wrote:
right way is to place the goods of the soul first in the scale, and in
place, the goods of the body, and in the third place, those of money
Any other order is an inversion of values, and ends in tragedy.
Well may the ancient singer pray that we may so
our days, that we may attain to this true wisdom, if so that the beauty
of the eternal
may be upon us, and the work of our hands be established. When shall we
which we are? cried Maeterlinck. Such is the Doctrine of the Measure,
taught by Masonry, and he is wise who has ears to hear and a heart to
"Held our eyes
no sunny sheen,
How could God's own
light be seen? Dwelt no power divine within us, How could God's
divineness win us?"
* * *
Ye editor appreciates very much the articles by
Clegg, of Ohio, Discussing the Previous Question, and they are written
at our request.
Our writers and readers – the editor not less than others – need the
a wholesome, conservative, kindly critic, and no one is better fitted
for that labor
than Brother Clegg; the more so because he adds so much information
errors. It is worth-while work, and anything from his pen will be
widely read and
The book of "Personal Recollections of
[Lib 1916] by Henry B. Rankin,
written at our request, and which we had the honor to edit with an
has now come from the press. Lovers of Lincoln will find it worth
reading, we are
sure, alike for its contents and its style; and if we mistake not it
will have to
be reckoned with by anyone who may write about Lincoln in days to come.
* * *
Elsewhere in this issue we print a letter from
of the Society having to do with the Rite of Memphis. We give it for
what it is
worth, as so much information, not as indorsing the Rite itself, for
of which we can see no reason at all, since philosophy, comparative
the symbolism of Craft Masonry can and ought to be studied in our own
can we see anything to be accomplished by multiplying the degrees of
The Track-Walker -- [A Poem]
Wm. Hawley Smith
head bent down
and shoulders stooped,
And slow, home-keeping eye
Fixed on the rails, a silent shape,
The track-walker goes by.
A five-mile strip of grimy stones
Edged with an iron band
Is all his world. June snows
That drift in daisies o'er the land
He heeds not, nor red autumn leaves
That rustle down the air;
Rail, bolt and bar to keep in place,
That is his only care.
He quits the track ten steps before
The rushing train shoots past;
Then stoops, while still the pebbles whirl
And makes a loose bolt fast.
The ruin hid in sudden flood,
Slow rust, and silent frost
'Tis his to fend; and men ride by
In cushioned ease, at cost
Of his long march, and lonely watch,
Nor give a backward thought
To the bent shape and plodding feet
Whose care their safety bought.
Morn is to him a sentry-beat
To tread mid heat and rain;
His noon, a place to turn and start
Back through the night again.
A ceaseless traveler all his days,
New lands he ne'er may roam;
In yonder orchard is his house,
Here, 'twixt the rails, his home.
Unmourned, unmissed, he dies, to find
The last lone miles all trod,
That, whoso walks a railway track
Aright, has walked with God.
A Bird's-Eye View of Masonry
FROM South Australia comes a very brilliant
entitled "A Bird's-Eye View of Freemasonry," [Lib*] and with it a
letter from the author, Brother Alfred Gifford. The essay is published
patronage of the Grand Lodge of South Australia, and the Masters and
to serve as a kind of brief introduction to the study of Masonry; and
for that purpose
it is admirably written and arranged. From the letter we read that the
just learned of this Society and its work, and he wishes to know more
more so because the Brethren of that Jurisdiction have it in mind to
the study of Masonry. From afar we send them greetings, and bid them
in their undertaking, the while we suggest that they co-operate with
that our members may share with them, and they with us, the fruits of
Everywhere the need of Masonic study is made
– in Australia not less than in America – and it will continue to be
thoughtful men who want to get something done while they live will not
with the mere conferring of degrees. The idea that a Lodge should meet
ritual work, as is now so much the case, is a reflection upon
Freemasonry, as well
as upon the intelligence of its members. In the impressive Charge after
all Masons are urged to make "a daily advancement in Masonic
and men, especially young men, are beginning to think that they ought
to set about
to obey that charge. When they undertake to do so, however, no end of
lie in the way, as Brother Gifford admits – the chief difficulty being
that so much
of the "information" offered is what Ruskin called "deformation."
Hence the deeply felt need for brief, lucid,
surveys of the field of Masonic history and thought – such as led the
of Iowa to ask ye editor to write The Builders – and a like necessity
Gifford to write his very delightful and accurate little booklet, for
of those seeking "Masonic knowledge in tabloid form." His essay is
into six short chapters – the whole brought within thirty pages –
Laying the Foundation
Stone, Where the Architect's Plan Came From, Where the Materials were
The Antiquities it Enshrined, The Relics of Pre-historic Times
Preserved, and the
Basis of the Whole Structure. Seldom have we seen a more tempting
outline, and the
regret is that the author did not fill it out more at length, because
so incisively, with firmness of touch, and in full accord with the best
of Masonic research.
All history, he tells us, begins in myth and
and Masonic history is no exception: but the day has come when we must
from legend. Whatever the origin of Freemasonry, its practical value
same. The Nile blessed Egypt whether the origin of it was the Mountains
of the Moon,
or a Lake in Central Africa; so of the fertilizing stream of Masonry.
None the less,
the author goes far back in search of the source of the stream, picking
carefully amidst many guilds and cults and rites, and finds it in the
– finally tracing it to that age-long search for God, that found
in symbols which are the universal language of mankind. Space does not
to point out what he found along the way, much as we should like to do
so, but we
may mention some matters of interest. For example:
"Masonry is also
a museum. As in a museum we find fragments and relics of pre-historic
we find in Masonry… In the care with which we insist that an initiate
neither money nor metal about him, Masonry goes back to the most
ancient days, when
the presence of any metal substances were supposed to be abhorrent to
of this are found in Africa and India today. It probably dates right
back to the
time when the age of bronze was displacing the Stone Age. Hence we find
used in sacrifices and sacred ceremonies, long after they had been
Both in India and Africa instances are found where the natives, before
are careful to divest themselves of all metal substances. An
interesting trace of
the same thing is found in the building of King Solomon's Temple, where
are traditionally said to have been placed in position with wooden
mauls. It is
only in the light of such researches as those of Dr. Fraser, in "The
Bough," that the reason becomes clear. The idea was not to secure
but to exclude metal from contact with the stones, after they had
become holy by
being placed on the holy ground of the temple. This is only one of the
found in our ritual."
Most heartily we recommend this little booklet,
only its tantalizing brevity, not only for its spirit and contents, but
its fresh and happy style and the tokens which it betrays of wide and
It stimulates inquiry by suggesting much more than it tells, closing
with the beautiful
legend of the two Brothers whose mutual love and thoughtful
unselfishness is said
to have consecrated the spot on which the temple of Solomon was built,
"Once, so the legend runs, there lived in far
hills two affectionate brothers, tilling farms that were separated only
by a strip
of pathway. One had a wife and a houseful of children; the other was a
One night in the harvest time the elder brother said to his wife: "My
is a lonely man. I will go out and carry some of the sheaves from my
side of the
field over on his, so that when he sees them in the morning his heart
may be cheered
by the abundance." And he did so. That same night the other brother
his workmen: "My brother has a houseful, and many mouths to fill. I am
and do not need all this wealth. I will go and move some of my sheaves
over to his
field, so that he shall rejoice in the morning when he sees how great
is his store."
And he did. And they did it that night, and the next, in the sheltering
on the third night the moon came out as they met face to face on the
strip of pathway, each with his arms filled with sheaves. On that spot,
legend, was built the Temple of Jerusalem, for it was esteemed that
came nearest to heaven. To seek God through brotherhood is our ideal.
We have no
desire to keep it secret. Masonic history traced to its source is found
out of the divine in man."
Three Master Masons
Unfortunately we cannot recommend so
little book called "Three Master Masons," [Lib*] by Brother Milton A.
Pottenger, as it seems to us to be far-fetched and fanciful in some of
of things Masonic. It is excellent in spirit, like the man who wrote
it, for whom
we have the highest regard; but it lacks the mark of real Masonic
learning so evident
in the pamphlet noted above. There is wide latitude, as we are aware,
in the interpretation
of Masonic symbols, and this is as it should be, since each man is
read into them such meaning as they seem to have or hold. Nevertheless,
of Masonic symbolism is not a playground of fancy, and just because it
is an arena
in which the mysticism within us may have free play, it ought to be the
guarded from what is too odd, eerie and fantastic. The plan of Brother
book is well suited to his design, purporting to be a meeting of the
his journey through the world, with three Master Masons, two of whom
versed in the esoteric philosophy of the craft. Personally we are
such characters, but the author finds them both inspiring and
instructive, and they
have many interesting things to say, whether we agree with them or not.
We are unable,
for instance, to find the dogma of reincarnation in the symbolism of
and we could wish that the phallic aspect had been emphasized less, or
in better proportion. Howbeit, we have enjoyed reading Brother
and we are sure that no one can read it without getting good out of it.
* * *
Are You A Master Mason?
"The first time a newly raised candidate hears
that question, he probably answers, Yes. But now that you hear it after
as to what it means – Are you a Master Mason? Some years ago, a
scenes of interest around Richmond, Va., asked his colored hack driver
were any of the Poe family about Richmond. "Yes, boss," said the Negro,
whose color rivalled that of Egypt's night, "dat is my name – Poe."
said the visitor, "are you related to Edgar Allan Poe?" "Why, boss,"
answered the black man, "I is Edgar Allan Poe." Those who are most
to claim that they are Masters are not always most entitled to be
Four More Steps
in Masonry, by John L. Travis.
* * *
Articles of Interest
A Welsh Masonic History. London Freemason.
A General Grand Lodge. Masonic Home Journal.
Must Nature Perish, by A. Churchward. London Freemason.
The Working Tools of Entered Apprentice, by F. C. Higgins. Masonic
Short History of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, by J. L. Carson. Virginia
Ireland's Share in the Formation of the A. & A.S.R., by J.L.
The Significance of the Word "Blue," by G. L. Barker. The New Age.
* * *
A Bird's-Eye View of Masonry, by Alfred Gifford.
The Poetry of Meredith, by Alfred Gifford.
The Philosophy of Arnold Bennett, by Alfred Gifford.
The Mystery of Pain, by Alfred Gifford.
Langdale Masonic Ms. by R. H. Baxter.
A Masonic Reading Course, by R. H. Baxter.
A Masonic Poem, by R. H. Baxter
The Third Degree, by R. H. Baxter.
Historic Notes on Freemasonry, by R. H. Baxter.
Notes on the History of the Masonic Ritual, by R. H. Baxter.
* * *
High Tide [Lib 1916],
poems selected by Waldo Richards. Houghton Mifflin
Philosophy of Wang
Yang-Ming [Lib 1916], by F. G. Henke.
Open Court Co., Chicago. $2.50.
Consistory Magazine, bound volume 7, 1915.
International Encyclopedia of Prose and Poetical Quotations [Lib 1908],
by Walsh. J. C.
Winston Co., Philadelphia. $3.50.
Ye editor has it in mind to call to his aid a
of Brethren known to have specialized in different fields of Masonic
to ask the privilege of referring to them questions having to do with
This for two reasons: first, that the Society may have the benefit of
of as many Brethren as possible, in behalf of accuracy point of view,
and, second, because he wishes to have time for other labors – for one
finish his study and interpretation of Albert Pike – which he cannot do
is relieved of some of his present burdens. There are but two
in answering questions in these pages: that they should be as brief as
and lucidity permit, and that authorities should be given when they are
* * *
Brotherhood of the Wise
At last we have gotten in touch with Brother
to whose lecture on The Brotherhood of the Wise reference was made in
some time ago, and he will have many interesting things to tell the
however, until he has made further investigations, as he intends to do
setting out on a new journey into the little known and dangerous fields
of his explorations.
He has arranged that his lecture may be sent to us for publication, in
case he does
not return, as life insurance is classed as a most hazardous risk in
that part of
the world. The Brotherhood of the Wise is not found in Samoa, as we
were led to
believe, but in the region of the Polynesian people in the Pacific,
among the very
savage and altogether cannibal people of the Melanesian race in New
is the next archipelago east of New Guinea. Traces of it are found, at
along the chain of islands for some thousands of miles as far,
probably, as New
Caledonia. Its resemblance to Masonry is purely collateral, of course,
direct; and Brother Churchill thinks it highly probable that at some
remote epoch a more or less esoteric Brotherhood of men of the better
that cherished a wider view of life than was within the scope of the
Cowans of the
period and that it had some system of recognition by visual and tactile
speech. We hope for Brother Churchill a safe return from his journey,
and the Society
will await his findings with eager interest and expectation
* * *
Franklin and War
Brother Editor: Is it true that Franklin taught
doctrine of "peace at any price?" I have heard it so stated of late,
I cannot bring myself to believe it. Perhaps you can clear the air.
Franklin hated war. Who does not? No man in our
hated war with a more utter hatred than the late Lord Roberts, a noble
was, too. Repeatedly Franklin made use of the saying, "There never was
war or a bad peace," which, like other proverbs, may be not only
wicked, under certain circumstances. He did however vehemently
repudiate this proverb
when confronted by the possible application of it to a treaty of peace
Colonies and Great Britain which might impugn their loyalty to their
witness his letter to his English friend David Hartley, under date of
1780. (See Bigelou's Franklin [Lib*], Vol. 2, p. 498). So far as we are
never gave over the use of his proverb, but he reserved the right to
throw it to
the winds betimes, knowing that all aphorisms are liable "to crumble
specific moral tests."
* * *
Four Brethren have asked for suggestions in the
of Masonic signs, their origin, meaning, and so forth. It is a most
subject; for even among primitive peoples from earliest times there
seems to have
existed a kind of universal sign language employed by all peoples.
separated folk the signs were very similar, owing, perhaps, to the fact
were natural gestures of greeting, warning, or of distress. (See The
140, note). Intimation of this is found in the Bible (1 Kings,
20:30-35). The German
explorer Leichhardt has published his meeting with native tribes in
the interchange of signs in which subsisted a Masonic character. Among
Indians a sign-code of like sort was known. (Indian Masonry [Lib 1907], by Wright, Chap.
See also the account of the experience of Haskett Smith among the
in an interesting paper published in the Transactions of Coronati
Lodge. (Vol. 4
[Lib 1891], p. 11).
Kipling has written of the subject in his story of "The Man who Would
[Lib 1899] For further
reading, see the essay by Brother Gould on "The Call of the Sign," in
his "Essays on Freemasonry," [Lib 1913] – a book of great value and
* * *
Looking into the different modes, manners and
of various religious organizations in their observance of Maundy
I notice that in the Greek Catholic Church, in addition to the usual
washing the pilgrim's feet and anointing his head with oil, "The
of the Holy Myron takes place." I should like to ask you to enlighten
to what the Holy Myron is, as well as any other light that you may be
able to throw
upon the original observance of this feast by early religious societies.
Myron means oil, coming from the Greek word
any juicy substance. The holy oil is consecrated, since its efficacy is
to last from one Maundy Thursday to another. See Catholic Encyclopedia
– 16 Volumes, see Bibliography], article on "Holy
Oil," also article on "Maundy Thursday." For further information
as to this feast and its rites in various religious societies, see the
article on "Feasts and Fasts," also the article on "Feetwashing,"
in Hasting's Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics [Lib 1908-1926 – 13 Volumes, see
traces the observance through all ages and sects.
* * *
Was George D. Prentice, the Kentucky poet, a
Also, can you tell me if his poems have ever been published in book
form? I have
some of his verse, and what I have makes me want more.
Answering the last question first, we may say
Poems of George D. Prentice, With a Biographical Sketch by John J.
[Lib 1876] was published
by Robert Clarke & Co., Cincinnati, in 1887, and could no doubt
be secured at
second hand – we got our copy after that manner. There is also an
Prentice to be found in that brilliant book called "The Compromises of
[Lib 1903] by Henry
Watterson. As to the first question, in the sketch by Mr. Piatt we
was a Mason, and his body, removed from his son's home to Louisville,
to lie in state during one day in the Masonic Temple, where thousands
of his fellow-citizens
– men, women, and children – thronged to take their last look at his
He was buried with Masonic honors in Cave Hill Cemetery." (pp. 44-45).
* * *
The Gospel Records
In a lecture which I heard you deliver last
in speaking of the method of oral instruction used by the Jews at the
time of Jesus,
and before, you said that the story of Jesus was preserved somewhat as
is handed down from mouth to ear for some time before it was written
can I find a fuller account of it?
You will find it a very interesting subject, if
look into it. At least a century before the time of Jesus the Halacha
came into existence, by which is meant a voluminous literature carried
in the memories
of the Rabbis, obeying the principle, "Commit nothing to writing." This
was repeated over and over again to disciples until it was engraved
upon their memories
letter-perfect, and hence the term for Rabbinical instruction was
Such was the Jewish method, and it was natural, if not inevitable, that
being Jews, should adopt it in teaching and preserving the story and
words of Jesus;
the more so, because the prejudice against writing anything was carried
the early church. For a detailed account of this method as used by the
finally giving the tradition of Jesus written form, see the chapter on
Evangelic Records" which serves as an introduction to that noble book,
The Days of His Flesh," [Lib 1905] by David Smith. (Doran Co.)
* * *
May I have your help in this: What books would
that will give me a fair idea of the Guilds of the Middle Ages which
their operative knowledge through the centuries to the early records of
England? And what records have we of the Dionysian Architects as being
(1) English Guilds [Lib 1870], by Toulmin Smith,
is an authority on Guilds in general, but we think the book of most
preparing this part of your paper would be "The Hole Craft and
Masonry," [Lib*] by Conder. It is a study of the Mason's Company, of
tracing it, from the records, far back into the cathedral-building
period. But are
you sure that modern Masonry was derived from Guild-Masonry? We doubt
Masons were quite distinct from Freemason, as we read the record, at
the latter began to decline. (See The Builders [Lib 1914], pp. 118-19). Guild
Masons were often employed by Freemasons to do rough work, and if found
and intelligent enough, were sometimes admitted to the order, but the
were distinct. Freemasonry, as we hold, descended, rather from the
of architects and artists who built the cathedrals. (See The Comacines
[Lib 1910], by W. Ravenscroft).
We trust that Brother Hatch will emphasize the distinction between
and Freemasonry. (2) The Dionysian Architects cannot be connected,
Egyptian sources, but only indirectly, since the Mysteries of Bacchus
celebrated were a modified form of the Egyptian Mysteries, having the
and much the same form.
* * *
The Lion of Judah
Will you explain to me the meaning of the
"And an unshaken confidence in the Lion of the Tribe of Judah"? This
has been asked several times in my hearing, and I have never heard it
No doubt most Masons, especially in Christian
identify the Lion of Judah with Christ, as is their right, and they
have the authority
and example of Christian symbolism for so doing. (See Monumental
1876], by Lundy,
pp. 287-94). This interpretation was emphasized by men like Hutchinson
(in his Spirit
of Masonry [Lib 1795]) and others
who gave a decidedly Christian meaning to the Third Degree of Masonry.
But the symbolism
of the Lion is much older than Christianity – like the Cross, and most
employed by Christianity – having in the Egyptian mythology the same
the Bull had in the Mithraic system. It was a symbol of strength,
would seem, of the heat of the sun and its power to bring about the
of nature in spring. (See Lundy, as above cited, also the Sign and
Symbols of Primordial
Man [Lib 1913], by Churchward,
to name no others). In the Egyptian story it was the lion-god, with his
who raised Osiris from the dead. We feel like putting the question, Why
are we admonished
to have an unshaken confidence in the Lion of the tribe of Judah?
* * *
I am interested in Masonic regalia, not in
but in knowing how it came to be what it is, what it means and the
like. If not
too much trouble, I would thank you to cite me to something to read on
The following will tell you about all that is
of the origin and use of regalia, in the Blue Lodge, and from the point
of history. The chapter on "Our Regalia" in that valuable little book,
"Things a Freemason Ought to Know [Lib*]," by F.J.W. Crowe; similar
in "The Perfect Ashlar," [Lib*] by Lawrence, and in "Masonic
and Symbolism," [Lib*] by Lawrence. There are a number of essays on the
in the transactions of the Coronati Lodge, if you have access to its
farther back, you might read the essay of Brother Higgins on "The
which will show what meanings attached to the badge of a Mason in an
* * *
The Mithra Again
Continued interest in the Mysteries of Mithra
As has been said, the Mithra was the religion of the Roman army,
because of its
emphasis upon the military virtues; and as such spread all over the
empire. So powerful
was it indeed, that it was the most serious rival of Christianity at
one time. To
the references already given, we venture to add the following. If our
are interested have access to the works of G.R.S. Mead, especially his
from the Gnosis," [Lib 1907] they will find there some of
the original materials,
so far as they have been preserved; in Vol. 5, "The Mysteries of
[Lib*] and especially in Vol. 6, "A Mithraic Ritual." We of today can
hardly realize the meaning and service of such cults to the ancient
as they did to the mystical, the dramatic, and the patriotic in
were many abuses, of course, as there are in everything; but the
ministry of The
Mysteries was, on the whole, benign. The saying of Gibbon applies here:
religions are equally true to the believer, equally false to the
equally useful to the politician." We quote from memory and may not be
but the last clause is what we had in mind – for the mystery-religions
were used by Roman politicians for their ends.
* * *
The Brother who asks what we think of the
who decided that Bacon wrote the plays of Shakespeare, asks too much.
of this journal, and the proprieties of the profession to which we
happen to belong,
forbid us to say out loud what we really think. The case calls for
Not only did the judge make himself superlatively ridiculous, but he
did not add
to the general confidence in the courts. (See the chapter on this
subject in the
new "Life of Shakespeare," [Lib 1901] by Sir Sidney Lee). We know
what Bacon wrote;
we know what Shakespeare wrote – and we know that he wrote it – and the
so world-far apart and unlike as to make the controversy absurd. We
would have been the decision of the court had a little volume called
of Certaine Psalmes into English Verse" [Lib*] which Bacon wrote and
he accepted responsibility in 1625, been introduced in evidence. To say
that a man
who could be guilty of such a translation wrote Hamlet – well, it is
a kangaroo to turn archangel overnight. In spite of reflections on Mr.
which will not down, we should accept the decision of the Illinois
jurist as adding
to the gayety of nations, in the same spirit in which Shakespeare set
down the bad
law enounced by the delightful Portia – that "wise young judge."
* * *
Brother Editor: – I should like to know
Russian Masonry, if there is such a thing, and wish you would inform me
if it is
not too much bother.
Freemasonry is said to have been introduced
as early as 1731, by the Grand-Lodge of England, and there is reported
to have been
a Lodge in Petrograd in 1732. Howbeit, the first Lodges to be tolerated
the Lodge of Silence in Petrograd, and the "North Star" at Riga, in
Masonry made little progress in Russia, says Thory, until 1763, when
II declared herself a Protectress of the Order. In 1765 the Rite of
in any other land and introduced by a Greek of that name, made its
advent in Russia,
along with the York and Swedish Rites; and in 1783 a Grand Lodge was
rejecting the others, adopted the Swedish system. For a time Masonry
But the Empress, becoming alarmed at the trend of affairs in France,
that Masonry was involved in that disturbance, withdrew her protection
Order. In 1797 Paul I, at the behest of the Jesuits, interdicted the
all secret societies, which edict was renewed by Alexander in 1801. But
M. Boeber succeeded in removing the prejudices of the Emperor against
the Emperor himself joined the Order, and the Grand Orient of Russia
of which Boeber was made Grand Master. Suddenly, however, in 1822,
a decree ordering all Lodges closed – and this is the period dealt with
in his "War and Peace." [Lib 1869] Masonry has had little open
history in Russia
since that time. (See "Freemasonry in Russia and Poland," [Lib*] by Ernest Friedrichs.)
* * *
"The Ethics of the
Dear Brother Newton: Wor. Bro. Middleton's
open up the most irritating of all subjects relating to Lodge
government and discipline.
The ballot should always be discussed in the abstract. Our brother asks
for an abstract
discussion, and presents a concrete case. We presume that his case in
point is a
New Jersey one, but from several years experience as Master of a very
and as an inspector, I must say it sounds familiar.
I am far enough away from New Jersey to attempt
to those six questions:
- The cube
was cast by a Mason, and we must consider the cause of rejection just.
- He probably
did well to keep his reason to himself, especially in view of the
the petitioner, and the special efforts that would likely have been
made to cause
him to change his ballot. It is possible that his reason, if stated,
injured the petitioner more than a quiet rejection.
- He evidently
did not think it his duty to report to the committee. He may have been
of the committee, anyway.
- There is
no evidence that either the Lodge or the petitioner was badly treated.
certainly owes more Masonic consideration to a member than to a
petitioner, no matter
how prosperous, popular and prominent the latter may be.
- If the rejection
of this profane was not made an issue, and is not further discussed by
neither the Lodge nor the petitioner was harmed. We must still presume
rejecting brother knew what he was about. The Lodge did not solicit the
and the applicant had no right to be certain of election.
- A cube is
always to be expected – not feared. The cubes are in the box for a
should have no more to do with a Masonic ballot than should any other
sort of prejudice.
Now to ask Bro. Middleton – and others – some
- Is petitioning
a right or a privilege?
- Is it advisable
to appoint investigating committees?
- Where such
committees are appointed is there not a tendency to depend too much on
- Why is the
Masonic ballot secret?
- Why is
- When the
ballot is declared "not clear" is not the action of the Lodge
as well as when "clear"? What has the number of cubes to do with it?
- Do "post
mortem" discussions pay, either in the Lodge or out of it?
The proper answers to my questions numbers
and six – and every Mason should be able to answer them properly, –
will form a
complete answer to all the questions Bro. Middleton asks.
When I hear Masons discussing the result of a
my advice is always, "Forget it."
Wm. A. Stewart, W. Va.
* * *
The 47th Problem
The question has often arisen in my mind during
delivery of the third section of the Master's lecture, "What value does
candidate get from the figure of the 47th Euclid as shown on the
have never been able to see that he gets any whatever.
The Master calls his attention to it as being
of "our ancient friend and brother, the great Pythagoras," and glibly
recites the story of what a tantrum of delight and enthusiasm the
in when he had at last, presumably after a prolonged search, arrived at
of mathematical demonstration of this now famous theorem.
Whether Pythagoras was in fact the original
and demonstrator of the problem or not, or whether or not he almost
gods and goddesses of Olympus with the odor and smoke of bull-meat in
of his triumph, are questions of no particular interest here, the
is what I wish to discuss in its relation to the mysteries of Masonry.
comprises within its three lines the most interesting train of
harmonies and logical
relations to be found in the mysteries of nature, and their study is
a vast plentitude of both diversion and instruction for the inquiring
why is it passed over so lightly in our work, without any attempt at
of its properties or hint of the suggestions of infinite harmony of
If our old-time mathematician stopped with the
of the problem as we have it represented generally in our modern
and on the Mason's chart, he had no sufficient reason for the "carrying
that he is credited with; if he saw that he had discovered a
mathematical and logical
chain extending infinitely, of which the three, four, five figure is
but the first
link, then he was justified in shouting to his lung capacity. As an
it has no large value, though a true one. I must believe, then, that he
made the comprehensive discovery, and that the real significance of it
to later times.
But let us get down to the problem in its full
First, it demonstrates
that of every right-angled triangle whose altitude (meaning here its
is odd and all its lines integral, the square of the altitude is
to the lineal sum of the roots of the squares of the other two sides;
Second, that the base
of every such triangle is constantly even and the hypotenuse odd;
Third, that the difference
of length of base and hypotenuse is constantly one unit of the standard
Fourth, that the sum
of the lengths of the three sides bears a regularly and constantly
to the square content of the "oblong square" or right parallelogram of
which the base and altitude are the roots;
Fifth, that the base
and hypotenuse of every such triangle through an infinite series
increase in length
constantly and regularly by multiples of the length of the base of the
three, four, five figure.
Now let us examine the first figure, with the
which we are all familiar.
The base and hypotenuse added numerically equal
square of the altitude, and their difference is one.
The sum of the three sides is equal numerically
content of the "oblong square."
The second figure of the series, altitude 5,
its base half of the square-less-one of the altitude, or 12, which is
the length of the base of the first figure, or that base increased by
length. The hypotenuse remains one unit the longer. The sum of the
lengths of the
three lines is reduced to one-half the area of the parallelogram.
The third triangle takes as its base again
of the square-less-one of the altitude 7, or 24. The base is increased
units, or is six times the length of the original, corresponding to the
sum of the
numerals denoting the sequence of the odd numbers in the order of their
from three, the first odd number having the powers of a factor. The sum
of the three
lines is now 56, one-third of the area of the parallelogram.
The fourth figure will have for its sides 9, 40
41; sum of lengths 90; area of "oblong square 360; ratio 1 to four, or
having for its denominator the ordinal of the odd number 9. These laws
throughout the infinite series.
Now let us pass to the higher numbers without
our propositions consecutively:
Every odd number is
one greater than twice the numeral of its order of sequence. What are
of the right-triangle of the tenth order? The altitude of this triangle
is 21. Its
base is found by multiplying the base 4 by the sum of the series of
inclusive. This sum is 55 (found by the simple arithmetical process of
the sum of the extremes by the number of terms and dividing by two.)
is 220, the base; and the sum of the two longer lines is 441, the
square of the
altitude. The sum of the three lines is 462, and the area of the
Ratio 1 to 10, the corresponding ordinal.
Try now first finding the base which, with its
hypotenuse, determines the altitude required to fulfill the conditions
of the Pythagorean
problem. Take, for example, the fifteenth order. The sum of the series
1-15 is 120. This into 4 gives 480, the length of base for that order.
481 is 961, the square of 31, the required altitude.
All the triangles of the lower orders are
by mental methods. If in doubt as to the correctness of those of the
proofs are still not difficult. I am sure that every interested Mason
can find in
this problem an ample source of diversion and instruction to convince
him that it
deserves much more attention in our work than it receives, if we may
say that it
receives any in fact.
Other right-angled triangles follow the
this in a general way, but none with that precision and unvarying
harmony of relations
of the Pythagorean Theorem. Let each Masonic student make his own
the truths it imparts.
D. Frank Peffley, Washington.
* * *
The House of Light
Dear Sirs and Brethren: – In "Sun Dials and
of Yesterday," [Lib 1902] Alice
Morse Earle tells of early sun dials in England which were known as
Whether they were so or not I think the "House
of Light" should have one, and under separate cover I am taking the
of sending you a suggestion for one.
I also wish to congratulate you on "The
It is getting better with each issue. Brother Newton's answers to
book reviews alone are worth the cost of the publication. The May issue
this morning and I spent a very pleasant hour with it. I particularly
article by Bro. Waite and the correspondence by Bro. Rugg. I believe
both are familiar
with James Morgan Pryse's volume, "The New Testament Restored." [Lib 1914]
One thing more. Why can't the Hierophants at
House of Light" arrange to have yearly conventions of the "Sons of
at Anamosa? Elbert Hubbard conducted such conventions for the benefit
of the "Immortals"
and I think we could surpass his in attendance and interest.
We would have no difficulty in regard to
such men as Newton, Buck, Rugg, Graham, Shepherd, Schenck, Lemert,
Clegg and Stewart
– not to mention a host of others. Possibly the TK would meet with us
and we could
at least talk with him individually. Such a yearly convention would be
stimulus to all of us and I'm sure the students of the deeper things of
would eagerly grasp such an opportunity to commune with the Hierophants
Trusting you can see your way clear to plan for
a yearly gathering and with all kind wishes, I am,
Yours sincerely and fraternally,
John G. Keplinger, Illinois.
P. S. – Some time ago you published an article
obelisk which was removed from Alexandria to New York City. This was
but I'd like to see an article on the Masonic aspect of the Great
Prof. Piazza Smyth in "Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid [Lib 1874]," Adams in "The
House of the Hidden Places [Lib 1895],"
McCarty in "The Great Pyramid Jeezeh [Lib 1907]," and Coryn in "The Faith of
[Lib 1913] are very interesting,
but I'd like to see the subject worked out from a Masonic stand point.
know of a good man who could do this for us?
* * *
The Rite of Memphis
Dear Brother: – The Rite of Memphis is a branch
devoted to the study of Philosophy and Comparative Religion and the
of the ritual ceremonies and symbols of ancient Craft Masonry. As
organized in the
United States, it does not confer or work the three symbolic or
but receives into fellowship only Master Masons in good standing. The
has been in existence in the United States since 1857. The late Brother
was its Sovereign Grand Commander in England. The ritual work in this
at one time coordinated with the Scottish Rite of 33 degrees, but was
to its original ninety-five degrees. Perhaps you will admit the
of its spirit and aims by Brother Yarker:
"1st. The Rite
of Memphis is open to all regular Master Masons of any constitutional
is unsectarian in its teaching and exacts no other qualification from
but probity and honor.
"2nd. The fees
which it exacts are of moderate amount, and it is governed by elective
after the manner of the Craft. Thus the Masters of each series by
members of the Mystic Temple, and those of the Supreme Body or
"3rd. The ceremonies,
from the 4th to the 90th, are based upon those of the Craft universal.
its symbols, develop its mystic philosophy, exemplify its morality,
legends, tracing them to their primitive source, and deal fairly and
with the historical features of Symbolic Masonry.
"4th. As a system
it opens up the study of the immense lore of the ancient Jews,
Hindoos, Babylonians, and other ancient races, and may claim kindred
the learned societies of all countries. Many of its degrees and
lectures deal with
these abtruse subjects, and that in an impartial manner, offering
to the advanced student.
"5th. It proposes
to instruct the neophytes by degrees, and at intervals, with all known
and a knowledge of the various Rites which have sprung up in the past
from the learned
speculations of Masonic students. In this relation it transmits and
the knowledge and wisdom of the mysterious fraternities of the middle
the only High Grade Rite which has been chartered by a Grand Lodge of
it is absolutely the most perfect and thorough development of the Craft
the most comprehensive, accurate, and valuable of all Rites, and the
in its ceremonies, through which it seeks to extend Masonic Knowledge,
Charity, Morality, and fraternity, and to enforce all those great
distinguish the Masons of all time."
As a paragraph in a recent issue of The Builder
so inadequate, if not incorrect, in its allusions to this Rite, I doubt
you will publish this brief memorandum from the pen of Brother Yarker.
Ellis B. Guild, New York.
* * *
The Color, Blue, As a Masonic
Brother Editor: – The translucent hue of the
by day holds a special charm for mankind. There is reason to believe
that from ancient
times this color has been held in high esteem, not only for its
but also for some special symbolism.
Sapphire is the oldest jewel name in the Aryan
languages. It is one of the oldest words of any kind coming down to us
distant past unchanged. The word is essentially the same in English,
Hebrew, Persian, and in fact in all languages of the white race. As
applied to a
jewel, it represented, until very recent years, not a special mineral,
but a stone
of a special color. This is evidence that from a remote period blue has
in exceptionally high esteem. When we consider the fondness of
for reds and yellows, this ancient esteem for the color, blue, is the
As such jewels were worn, not only for ornament, but also as "charms,"
bringing good luck to the possessor, it is probable that this color
attribute of great importance.
We are familiar with the employment of colors
emotions. Red is associated with anger and violence, green with envy
white with purity, black with wickedness, and blue with
downheartedness. For some
of these associations we can discover a natural appropriateness. For
relationship is not so apparent. Yellow usually has a distasteful
yet yellow is the color of the standards of royalty. While "to feel
is to be downcast, yet the emblematic anchor of hope is usually colored
It is a peculiarity of language that a word may
more than one meaning. In many cases one word has come to do duty for
two or more
quite different originals. This is true of our word, blue. While it
"livid," it has been made to include the pellucid color of the noonday
sky. In one case it is associated with unhappiness and dissolution, and
in the other
with mystery and beauty. In common speech, the Teutonic word, blue, has
all others; and such words as cerulean, sapphire and azure are left to
Blue as a symbol associated with the heavens
ideals connected therewith that link the present with the past. When
man first began
to wonder about the forces of nature, he personified what he did not
and held in reverence and awe the imaginary beings whose acts he
supposed them to
be. Of all nature the most impressive and constant event is the daily
the rising of the sun, bringing light to mankind. Early man considered
the sun a
Being, kindly disposed toward him. The sun was worshipped, and after
him the moon,
and then the stars, and finally they were all grouped together as the
Through this Star Worship, some knowledge of
and some concept of the Universe was arrived at. And from contemplation
of the order
and harmony of the Universe, the priesthood eventually reached the idea
of a Supreme
Being Creator and Ruler of all things. This is the highest ideal of
life that man
has ever entertained, and it was reached long before the dawn of
This higher knowledge, which concerned both
and science, seems to have been confined to those initiated into the
In the literature of the Egyptians it is hinted at guardedly. Among the
less caution may have been observed; for races that came in contact
with the Chaldeans
carried away some knowledge of the subject.
In such reverence and esteem was this higher
held, that worship and aspiration have been associated ever since with
The empyrean was the abode of the gods, and the statues of the gods
painted blue. Even in our own times and among our own people, holy
have a background of blue. In Astrology and the mystic cults, blue
An important factor of Freemasonry is its
knowledge. It is referred to in each of the degrees, and one degree is
given to its consideration. Knowledge is such an important factor of
that to draw attention to it is much like pointing out that light is of
Freemasonry is concerned with all aspiration. It is a looking upward.
And it is
eminently appropriate that the color of the noonday sky, traditionally
with the knowledge and ideals that tend toward progress, should be the
of Symbolic Masonry.
Joseph Barnett, California.
* * *
The Land Of Lemuria
In the June issue of The Builder, page 189, a
who signs himself "E.P.H." inquires regarding the basis for the
regarding the ancient continent of Lemuria, the prehistoric Aryan
invasion of India,
and the personality of Rama said to have been the leader of the
He says these matters were referred to in a lecture read before his
lodge, and that
he is unable to find any other references. In your reply you assume
that the authority
of the writer of the lecture must have been "Rama and Moses," or "The
Great Initiates," [Lib 1961] by Edouard
Schure, and you express regret "that the lecturer did not give his
and also that he did not indicate in how far his narrative could be
and how far not."
I have no doubt that the lecture referred to by
is one of my own, that entitled "the first Initiations," and issued by
the Masonic Lecture Bureau as the third number of its first series.
nearly 600 lodges, in every part of the world, now have in their
lecture, in addition to more than twice that many which have used it in
it is manifestly impossible for me to reply to the inquirer personally,
and I hence
crave the use of your columns for that purpose.
In the lecture referred to, the entire matter
for what it is worth. The statement is made that "There is no absolute
evidence upon which to base the theory of Lemuria, but there are
this most ancient continent, which are found in the literature of many
I have always been scrupulously careful to avoid misleading my
auditors; and if
E.P.H. has reached a different conclusion as to my attitude, it is to
that he failed to give close attention to the reading of the lecture in
as well as to the preceding one, entitled "the Beginnings of the Human
It is hardly practicable to attempt to give any
number of authorities in lectures intended for reading before lodges,
seven or eight works are cited in the lecture referred to. On referring
to my files,
I discover that I consulted more than eighty books in the preparation
of the two
lectures dealing with Atlantis, Lemuria, the Hyperboreans, the early
Vedic India. Of these the more important are the following, which, it
will be observed,
cover a wide range:
R. J. Lemert, Helena, Montana.
Geographical Distribution of Animals," [Lib 1876; Vol 1,
Vol 2] and "The
Malay Archipelago," [Lib 1869; Vol 1,
Vol 2] by Alfred
and Linguistic Studies," [Lib 1873/4; Vol 1, Vol 2] by W.
- Sundry writings
of N. M. Prejvalski, and of Sven Hedin.
- "Geschichte des Altertums,"
by Ed. Meyer.
Mythologie," [Lib 1891/1902, Vol 1, Vol 2, Vol 3] by Hillebrandt.
- "The Ramayana."
Rig-Veda." [Lib 2002]
Bible in India," [Lib 1875] by Louis
Britannica, 11th ed.: see index, under "Rama," "Lemuria" and
for History of the Dionysian Artificers," [Lib 1820] by H. J. DaCosta.
and Moses," [Lib*] by Edouard Schure.
[Lib 1882] by Ignatius Donnelly.
Lost Lemuria," [Lib 1904] and "The
Story of Atlantis," [Lib 1896] by W.
Story of Vedic India," [Lib 1899] by Z.
- "Les Religions des Peuples
Non-Civilisés," [Lib 1883] by Reville.
- "Récits et Commentaires sur
les Vedas," [Lib*] by Ramatsariar.
- "La Religion Védique,"
[Lib 1878; Vol 1, Vol
(French)] by A. Bergaigne.
- "Histoire Philosophique du
Genre Humain," [Lib 1824; Vol 1, Vol
by Fabre d'Olivet.
of Creation," [Lib 1880; Vol
1, Vol 2] and "The Pedigree
of Man," [Lib 1883] by Ernst
- "L'Inde Antique," [Lib*]
by Alfred Le Dain.
Times," [Lib 1890] by Sir
and His Forerunners," [Lib 1913] by H.
Childhood of Religions," [Lib 1875] by Edward Clodd.
- ·Sundry writings
of F. Max Muller. [Lib – See Bibliography)
- "La Légende des Symboles,"
"Philosophiques, Religieux et Maçonnique," [Lib*] by Marc Saunier.
[Lib 1888] and "Critias,"
[Lib 2007] by Plato.
- The works
of Diodorus Siculus [Lib 1814; Vol 1,
Vol 2], of Strabo [Lib 1893]
and others of the
ancients will be found to contain interesting material germane to the
Dictionary of Symbolical Masonry
Oli53 / auth. Oliver George. - London : Richard Spencer, 1853. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 408. - 12.0 MB.
A Life of Shakespeare
Lee01 / auth. Lee Sydney. - New York : Macmillan and Company, 1901. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 508. - 13.2 MB.
A Sketch of the Dyonisian
DaC20 / auth. DaCosta Hyppolito J. - London : Messrs. Sherwood, Neely,
and Jones, 1820. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 44. - 0.4 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 004 - 1891
Ars91 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1891. - Vol. 4 : p. 305. - 80.7 MB.
AQC Transactions Vol 007 - 1894
Ars94 / auth. Ars Quatuor Coronati / ed. Speth G. W.. - London : AQC,
1894. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 309. - 83.6 MB.
Atlantis Antediluvian World
Don82 / auth. Donnelly Ignatius. - New York : Harper &
Brothers, 1882. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 478. - 28.7 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 01
HerCE01 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 1 : 16 : p. 2163. - 12.6 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 02
HerCE02 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 2 : 16 : p. 2096. - 12.3 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 03
HerCE03 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 3 : 16 : p. 2048. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 04
HerCE04 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 4 : 16 : p. 2115. - 12.6 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 05
Diocese-Fathers of Mercy
HerCE05 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 5 : 16 : p. 2051. - 12.6 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 06
Fathers of the Church-Gregory XI
HerCE06 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 6 : 16 : p. 2046. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 07
HerCE07 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 7 : 16 : p. 2052. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 08
HerCE08 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 8 : 16 : p. 2065. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 09
HerCE09 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 9 : 16 : p. 2067. - 12.3 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 10
HerCE10 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 10 : 16 : p. 2061. - 12.3 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 11
HerCE11 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 11 : 16 : p. 2099. - 12.5 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 12
HerCE12 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 12 : 16 : p. 2060. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 13
HerCE13 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 13 : 16 : p. 2064. - 12.1 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 14
HerCE14 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 14 : 16 : p. 2071. - 12.1 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 15
HerCE15 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 15 : 16 : p. 2020. - 12.2 MB.
Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 16
HerCE16 / auth. Herbermann Charles G. - [s.l.] : Christian Classics
Ethereal Library, 1907. - Vol. 16 : of 16 : p. 235. - 1.7 MB.
Collected Essays &
Papers Related to Freemasonry
Gou131 / auth. Gould Robert F. - Belfast : William Tait, 1913. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 313. - 14.3 MB.
Compromises of Life
Wat03 / auth. Watterson Henry. - New York : Fox, Duffield &
Company, 1903. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 486. - 11.8 MB.
De l'Etat Social de l'Homme Vol 1
dOl22 / auth. d'Olivet Antoine F.. - Paris : J. L. J. Briere, 1822. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 363. - 10.9 MB - French.
De l'Etat Social de l'Homme Vol 2
dOl221 / auth. d'Olivet Antoine F.. - Paris : J. L. J. Briere, 1822. - Vol. 2 : 2 :
p. 457. - French - 14.1 MB.
Echoes From The Gnosis Vol 01 -
The Gnosis of the Mind
MeaEG01 / auth. Mead George R S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1906. - Vol. 1 : 10 : p. 72. - 2.6 MB.
Echoes From The Gnosis Vol 02 -
The Hymns of Hermes
MeaEG02 / auth. Mead George R S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1907. - Vol. 2 : 10 : p. 84. - 2.6 MB.
Echoes From The Gnosis Vol 04 -
The Hymn of Jesus
MeaEG04 / auth. Mead George R S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1907. - Vol. 4 : 10 : p. 84. - 3.0 MB.
Echoes From The Gnosis Vol 06 -
A Mithraic Ritual
MeaEG06 / auth. Mead George R S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1907. - Vol. 6 : 10 : p. 80. - 2.6 MB.
Echoes From The Gnosis Vol 07 -
The Gnostic Crucifixion
MeaEG07 / auth. Mead George R S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1907. - Vol. 7 : 10 : p. 84. - 2.6 MB.
Echoes From The Gnosis Vol 10 -
The Hymn of the Robe of Glory
MeaEG10 / auth. Mead George R S. - London : The Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 10 : p. 100. - 2.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 01
HasER01 - A to Art / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 13 : p. 925. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 02
HasER02 - Arthur to Bunyan / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 2 : 13 : p. 927. - 87.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 03
HasER03 - Burial to Confessions / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 3 : 13 : p. 922. - 86.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 04
HasER04 - Confirmation to Drama / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 4 : 13 : p. 929. - 93.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 05
HasER05 - Dravidians to Fichte / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1912. - Vol. 5 : 13 : p. 925. - 90.8 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 06
HasER06 - Fiction to Hyskos / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1914. - Vol. 6 : 13 : p. 910. - 275.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 07
HasER07 - Hymns to Liberty / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 7 : 13 : p. 935. - 93.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 08
HasER08 - Life and Death to Mulla / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 8 : 13 : p. 934. - 92.6 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 09
HasER09 - Mundas to Phrygians / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1917. - Vol. 9 : 13 : p. 934. - 119.2 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 10
HasER10 - Picts - Sacraments / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 10 : 13 : p. 938. - 86.9 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 11
HasER11 - Sacrifice to Sudra / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 11 : 13 : p. 940. - 94.7 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 12
HasER12 - Suffering to Zwingli / auth. Hastings James. - New York :
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1908. - Vol. 12 : 13 : p. 885. - 90.3 MB.
Encyclopedia of Religion and
Ethics Vol 13
HasER13 - Index / auth. Hastings James. - New York : Charles Scribner's
Sons, 1908. - Vol. 13 : 13 : p. 767. - 64.8 MB.
Smi70 / auth. Smith Toulmin. - London : The Early English Text Society,
1870. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 683. - 41.9 MB.
Ric16 / auth. Richards Mrs. Waldo. - New York : Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 229. - 8.6 MB.
Historical Library Vol 01
Sic14 / auth. Siculus
Diodorus / trans. Booth G.. - London : J. Davis, Military Chronicles
Office, 1814. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 677. - 40.5 MB.
Historical Library Vol 02
Sic141 / auth. Siculus
Diodorus / trans. Booth G.. - London : J. Davis, Military Chronicles
Office, 1814. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 700. - 43.1 MB.
History of the American Flag
Pre17 / auth. Preble George H. - Philadelphia : Nicholas L. Brown,
1917. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 419. - 30.7 MB.
History of the American Flag
Pre171 / auth. Preble George H. - Philadelphia : Nicholas L. Brown,
1917. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 410. - 28.2 MB.
House of the Hidden Places - A
Clue to the Creed of Early Egypt
Ada95 / auth. Adams W. Marsham. - Santa Cruz : sacred-texts.com, 1895.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 90. - 0.8 MB - Illustrated.
Wri07 / auth. Wright Robert C. - Ann Arbour : Tyler Publishing Co.,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 143. - 7.9 MB.
International Encyclopedia of
Wal08 / auth. Walsh William S. - Philadelphia : John C. Winston
Company, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1069. - 38.0 MB.
Del89 / auth. Delitzsch Franz / ed. Cusin A.. - Edinburgh : T &
T Clark, 1889. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 225. - 4.8 MB.
La Religion Vedique Vol 1
Ber78 / auth. Bergaigne A.. - Paris : F. Vieweg, Librairie-Editeur,
1878. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 362. - French - 14.9 MB.
La Religion Vedique Vol 2
Ber781 / auth. Bergaigne A.. - Paris : F. Vieweg, Librairie-Editeur,
1878. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 908. - French - 45.3 MB.
Les Religions des Peuples
Rev83 / auth. Reville A. - Paris : Librairie Fishbacher, 1883. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 279. - French - 7.8 MB.
Man and His Forerunners
But13 / auth. Buttel-Reepen Hugo B / trans. Thacker A. G.. - London :
Longmans, Green, and Co., 1813. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 109. - 6.6 MB.
Lun76 / auth. Lundy John P. - New York : J W Bouton, 1876. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 520. - 24.4 MB.
One Hundred Years Aurora Grata
Bro08 / auth. Brockaway Charles A.. - New York : Aurora Grata
Consistory, 1908. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 161. - 3.8 MB.
Oriental and Linguistic Studies
Whi73 / auth. Whitney William D. - New York : Scribner, Armstrong, and
Co, 1873. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 429. - 22.6 MB.
Oriental and Linguistic Studies
Whi74 / auth. Whitney William D. - New York : Scribner, Armstrong, and
Co., 1874. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 449. - 19.7 MB.
Our Inheritance in the Great
Smy74 / auth. Smyth C. Piazzi. - London : W. Ibister & Co.,
1874. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 550. - 28.1 MB.
Lub90 / auth. Lubbock John. - London : William and Norgate, 1890. - 5th
: Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 672. - 18.5 MB.
Recollections of Abraham Lincoln
Ran16 / auth. Rankin Henry B. - New York : Knickerbocker Press, 1916. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 440. - 14.0 MB.
Selections from Strabo
Toz03 / auth. Tozer H F. - Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1903. - Vol. 1 : 1
: p. 399. - 16.8 MB.
Sundials and Roses
Ear02 / auth. Earle Alice M. - New York : The Macmillan Co., 1902. -
Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 535. - 19.1 MB.
The Bible in India
Jac75 / auth. Jacolliot Louis. - New York : G. W. Dillingham Co., 1875.
- Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 327. - 13.3 MB.
For14 / auth. Newton Joseph F.. - Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press, 1914.
- 5th : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 317. - Original pagination for reference - 0.6
The Childhood of Religion
Clo75 / auth. Clodd Edward. - London : Henry S. King & Co.,
1875. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 297. - 20.0 MB.
The Comacines Their
Predecessors & Their Successors
Rav10 / auth. Ravenscroft W.. - London : Elliot Stock, 1910. - Vol. 1 :
1 : p. 94. - 3.4 MB.
The Complete Works of Plato
Pla07 / auth. Plato / trans. Jowett Benjamin. - Adelaide : Feed Books,
2007. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1578. - 7.4 MB.
The Days of His Flesh
Smi05 / auth. Smith David. - New York : A. C. Armstrong & Son,
1905. - 3rd Ed. : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 603. - 19.6 MB.
The Faith of Ancient Egypt
Cor13 / auth. Coryn Sydney G. P.. - New York : The Theosophical
Publishing Company, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 68. - 1.3 MB - Illustrated.
The Geographical Distribution
of Animals Vol 1
Wal76 / auth. Wallace Alfred R. - London : Macmillan and Co., 1876. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 540. - 27.8 MB.
The Geographical Distribution
of Animals Vol 2
Wal761 / auth. Wallace Alfred R. - London : Macmillan and Co., 1876. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 623. - 29.8 MB.
The Great Initiates
Sch611 / auth. Schure Edouard / trans. Rasberry Gloria. - San Francisco
: Harper & Row, 1961. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 243. - 1.7 MB.
The Great Pyramid Jeezeh
McC07 / auth. McCarty Louis P. - San Francisco : Louis P. McCarty,
1907. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 592. - 28.7 MB.
The History of Creation Vol 1
Hae80 / auth. Haeckel Ernst. - New York : D. Appleton and Company,
1880. - Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 400. - 25.0 MB.
The History of Creation Vol 2
Hae801 / auth. Haeckel Ernst. - New York : D. Appleton and Company,
1880. - Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 434. - 27.3 MB.
The Lost Lemuria
Sco042 / auth. Scott-Elliot William. - London : Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1904. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 52. - 1.5 MB.
The Malay Archipelago Vol 1
Wal69 / auth. Wallace Alfred R. - London : Macmillan and Co., 1869. -
Vol. 1 : 2 : p. 561. - 18.3 MB.
The Malay Archipelago Vol 2
Wal691 / auth. Wallace Alfred R. - London : Macmillan and Co., 1869. -
Vol. 2 : 2 : p. 529. - 17.3 MB.
The Man who would be King
Kip99 / auth. Kipling Rudyard. - New York : Doubleday and McClure
Company, 1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 141. - 1.5 MB.
The New Testament Restored
Pry14 / auth. Pryse James M. - New York : John M. Pryse, 1914. - Vol. 1
: 1 : p. 832. - 19.8 MB.
The Pedigree of Man
Hae83 / auth. Haeckel Ernst / trans. Aveling Edward B.. - London :
Freethought Publishing Company, 1883. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 349. - 9.4 MB.
The Philosophy of Wang Yang-Ming
Hen16 / auth. Henke Frederick G / trans. Tufts James H.. - Chicago :
The Open Court Publishing Co., 1916. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 524. - 23.2 MB.
The Poems of George Prentice
Pre76 / auth. Prentice George D / ed. Piatt John J.. - Cincinnati :
Robert Clarke & Co., 1876. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 220. - 3.3 MB.
Unk07 / auth. Unknown. - 2007. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 205. - 0.8 MB.
The Signs and Symbols of
Chu13 / auth. Churchward Albert. - London : George Allen &
Company, Ltd, 1913. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 546. - 59.2 MB.
The Spirit of Masonry in Moral
and Elucidatory Lectures
Hut95 / auth. Hutchinson William. - Carlisle : F. Jollie, 1795. - Vol.
1 : 1 : p. 370. - 13.8 MB.
The Story of Atlantis
Sco96 / auth. Scott-Elliot William. - London : Theosophical Publishing
Society, 1896. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 88. - 4.2 MB.
The Story of Vedic India
Rag99 / auth. Ragozin Zenaide A. - New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons,
1899. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 475. - 18.5 MB.
The Timaeus of Plato
Pla88 / auth. Plato / ed. Archer-Hind R. D.. - London : Macmillan and
Co., 1888. - Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 369. - 16.7 MB.
Unk02 / auth. Unknown. - [s.l.] : Dharmic Scriptures Team, 2002. - p.
1109. - 14.5 MB.
Vedische Mythologie Vol 1
Hil91 / auth. Hillebrandt Alfred. - Breslau : Wilhelm Koebner, 1891. -
Vol. 1 : 3 : p. 558. - German - 23.1 MB.
Vedische Mythologie Vol 2
Hil911 / auth. Hillebrandt Alfred. - Breslau : Verlag von M & H
Marcus, 1899. - Vol. 2 : 3 : p. 255. - German - 8.2 MB.
Vedische Mythologie Vol 3
Hil02 / auth. Hillebrandt Alfred. - Breslau : Verlag von M & H
Marcus, 1902. - Vol. 3 : 3 : p. 488. - 18.7 MB - German.
War and Peace
Tol69 / auth. Tolstoy
Leo. - Pictou : ronigo, 1869. - Digital : Vol. 1 : 1 : p. 1171. - 3.9